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PeReview.net

updated: 10/24/10

**The PE Review Cheat Sheet
**

This document is a collection of the most used formulae. Take it with you into the PE Exam –(but check first with your State Licensing Board for their rules on admissible materials)

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updated: 10/24/10

Table of Contents

NCEES Design Standards: Construction................................................................................................................3 NCEES Design Standards: Structural Design ........................................................................................................4 NCEES Design Standards: Transportation.............................................................................................................5 Part I Transportation................................................................................................................................................6 Capacity and LOS Analysis – Freeway, Highway, Intersection .................................................................6 Traffic Control Devices, Signal Timing......................................................................................................9 Volumes & Peak Hour Factors..................................................................................................................11 Fundamental Diagrams of Traffic Flow ....................................................................................................11 Traffic Flow Theory ..................................................................................................................................13 Accidents ...................................................................................................................................................14 Photogrammetry ........................................................................................................................................15 Geometric Design......................................................................................................................................15 Vertical and Horizontal Curves, Stationing...............................................................................................16 Headlight Sight Distance on Sag Vertical Curves (S>L) ..........................................................................20 Layout of a Simple Horizontal Curve .......................................................................................................22 Layout of a Crest Vertical Curve for Design.............................................................................................23 Layout of a Compound Curve ...................................................................................................................24 Geometry of a Reverse Curve with Parallel Tangents ..............................................................................25 Transportation Planning ............................................................................................................................26 Earthworks & the Mass-haul diagram.......................................................................................................26 Parking.......................................................................................................................................................26 Part II Geotechnics ................................................................................................................................................28 The AASHTO Soil Classification System ................................................................................................29 Unified soil classification system (ASTM D-2487)……………………………………………………...30 Coulomb’s & Boussinesq’s Equations ......................................................................................................33 Consolidation Theory & Lateral Earth Pressures ......................................................................................35 Part III Water Engineering ....................................................................................................................................36 Part IV Environmental Engineering ......................................................................................................................39 Part V Structural Engineering ...............................................................................................................................42 Part VI Construction..............................................................................................................................................43 Part VII Miscellaneous ..........................................................................................................................................46 2

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updated: 10/24/10

NCEES: Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination

**CONSTRUCTION Design Standards
**

Effective Beginning with the October 2008 Examinations

**ABBREVIATION DESIGN STANDARD TITLE
**

ASCE 37-02 Design Loads on Structures During Construction, 2002, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, www.asce.org. NDS National Design Specification for Wood Construction, 2005, American Forest & Paper Association/American Wood Council, Washington, DC, www.awc.org. CMWB Standard Practice for Bracing Masonry Walls During Construction, 2001, Council for Masonry Wall Bracing, Mason Contractors Association of America, Lombard, IL, www.masoncontractors.org. AISC Steel Construction Manual, 13th ed., American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL, www.aisc.org. ACI 318-05 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, 2005, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, www.concrete.org. ACI 347-04 Guide to Formwork for Concrete, 2004, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, www.concrete.org (in ACI SP4, 7th edition appendix). ACI SP-4 Formwork for Concrete, 7th ed., 2005, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, www.concrete.org. OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Standards for the Construction Industry, 29 CFR Part 1926 (US federal version), US Department of Labor, Washington, DC. MUTCD-Pt 6 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices – Part 6 Temporary Traffic Control, 2003, US Federal Highway Administration, www.fhwa.dot.gov. Reference categories for Construction depth module

• Construction surveying • Construction estimating • Construction planning and scheduling • Construction equipment and methods • Construction materials • Construction design standards (see above)

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NCEES Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination STRUCTURAL Design Standards1

Effective Beginning with the April 2010 Examinations

updated: 10/24/10

ABBREVIATION DESIGN STANDARD TITLE AASHTO2 AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 4th edition, 2007, with 2008 Interim Revisions, American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials, Washington, DC. IBC International Building Code, 2006 edition (without supplements), International Code Council, Falls Church, VA. ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, 2005, American Society of Civil Engineers, New York, NY. ACI 318 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, 2005, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. ACI 530/530.1-053 Building Code Requirements and Specifications for Masonry Structures (and related commentaries), 2005; American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI; Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA; and The Masonry Society, Boulder, CO. AISC4 Steel Construction Manual, 13th edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL. AISC5 Seismic Design Manual, American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc., Chicago, IL. NDS National Design Specification for Wood Construction ASD/LRFD, 2005 edition & National Design Specification Supplement, Design Values for Wood Construction, 2005 edition, American Forest & Paper Association (formerly National Forest Products Association), Washington, DC. PCI PCI Design Handbook: Precast and Prestressed Concrete, 6th edition, 2004, Precast/Prestressed Concrete Institute, Chicago, IL. Notes 1. Solutions to exam questions that reference a standard of practice are scored based on this list. Solutions based on other editions or standards will not receive credit. All questions are in English units. 2. This publication is available through AASHTO with an item code of LRFD-PE. 3. Examinees will use only the Allowable Stress Design (ASD) method, except strength design Section 3.3.5 may be used for walls with out-of-plane loads. 4. Examinees may choose between the AISC/ASD and AISC/LRFD design following the 13th edition only. 5. This manual was released to the public in spring 2007. It includes 341-05 and the 2006 supplement.

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and Revision 2. IL. PCA Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures. 2002 (rev. 2004 edition (5th edition). DC. AASHTO Roadside Design Guide. 2. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. 2009.net NCEES Principles and Practice of Engineering Examination TRANSPORTATION Design Standards Effective Beginning with the April 2010 Examinations updated: 10/24/10 ABBREVIATION DESIGN STANDARD TITLE AASHTO A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Including all changes adopted through November 14. Washington. Department of Transportation—Federal Highway Administration. 2007. DC. AI The Asphalt Handbook (MS-4). 2000 edition. Including Revision 1. and 1998 supplement. 2008). 2003.Online Technical Training PeReview. Washington. DC. Skokie. 14th edition. Washington. 5 . Lexington. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. 6th edition. American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. 7th edition. Institute of Transportation Engineers. KY. dated November 2004. 2007.S. ITE Traffic Engineering Handbook. Transportation Research Board—National Research Council. Washington. MUTCD2 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Asphalt Institute. HCM1 Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2000). Notes 1. DC. Portland Cement Association. Washington. Washington. AASHTO AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures (GDPS-4-M) 1993. DC. U. DC. 3rd edition with 2006 Chapter 6 Update. dated December 2007.

Page 23-2. page 23-6) = adjustment for right shoulder clearance (Exhibit 23-5 page 23-6) = adjustment for number of lanes (Exhibit 23-6 on page 23-6) = adjustment for interchange density (Exhibit 23-7 on page 23-7) Determining Freeway Level of Service procedure (Exhibit 23-1. 2000) V = vp * PHF * N * fHV * fp (Eq 23-2 on Page 23-7 HCM.85 to 1. 70-75 mph = adjustment for lane width (Exhibit 23-4. Highway.2000) vp = 15-minute passenger car equivalent flow rate per lane (pcphpl) V = hourly volume (vph) PHF = peak hour factor N = number of lanes in each direction fHV = heavy – vehicle adjustment factor (use eq.2000 factors from Exhibit 23-9 and 23-10 or 23-11 depending on given grade information) fp = driver population factor (0. 2000) = estimated free-flow speed = ideal free-flow speed. HCM.2000) 6 .Online Technical Training PeReview.23-3 on page 23-8 of HCM. Intersections Freeway (summary worksheet on page 23-16 of HCM.0) FFS = FFSi – fLW – fLC – fN – fID FFS FFSi fLW fLC fN fID (Eq 23-1 on Page 23-4 HCM.net updated: 10/24/10 Part I Transportation Capacity and LOS Analysis – Freeway.

p.20-3.2000) = estimated free-flow speed = ideal free-flow speed = adjustment for median type (Exhibit 21-6 on page 21-6. 2000) updated: 10/24/10 vp = 15-minute passenger car equivalent flow rate per lane (pcphpl) V = hourly volume (vph) PHF = peak hour factor N = number of lanes in each direction fHV = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor (use eq.21-10 or 21-11depending on given grade information) FFS = FFSI – fM – fLW – fLC . HCM. 2000 factors from Exhibit 21-8.2000) Two-Lane Highways (page 12-11 through 12-19 of HCM 2000) The methodology to compute LOS for a two-lane highway is given in Exhibit 20-1. 20-5 .21-9. HCM 2000 = adjustment for lane width (Exhibit 21-4 on page 21-5) = adjustment for lateral clearance (Exhibit 21-5 on page 21-6) = adjustment for access points (Exhibit 21-7 on page 21-7) Determining Multilane Highways Level of Service procedure (Exhibit 21-1.Online Technical Training Multilane Highways (page 12-1 through 12-10 of HCM.fA FFS FFS fM fLW fLC fA (Eq 21-1 on Page 21-5 HCM.20-2 of HCM 2000 FFS = BFFS – fLS –fA FFS BFFS fLS fA vp = vp (eq. 21-4 on page 21-7 of HCM. HCM 2000) V PHF * fG * fHV = 15-minute passenger car equivalent flow rate per lane (pcphpl) 7 .20-6) = adjustment for access points (Exhibit 20-6) (eq. p.net (Eq 21-3 on Page 21-7 HCM. 2000) V = vp * PHF * N * fHV PeReview. p. 20-6. HCM 2000) = estimated free flow speed = base free flow speed or ideal free flow speed = adjustment for lane width and shoulder width (Exhibit 20-5.20-2.

00776vp –fnp ATS FFS vp fnp = average travel speed for both directions of travel combined (mi/h) = free flow speed = passenger-car equivalent flow rate for peak 15-min period (pc/h) = adjustment for percentage of no passing zones (Exhibit 20-11) PTSF = BPTSF +fd/np PTSF = percent time spent following BPTSF = base percent time spent following for both directions of travel combined fd/np = adjustment for the combined effect of the directional distribution of traffic and of the percentage of no passing zones on the percent time spent following.000879*v p ) BPTSF = 100(1 − e 8 . page 20-8 and Exhibits 20-9.Online Technical Training V PHF fG fHV PeReview. Exhibit 20-12.20-4. p. 20-15. 20-16. 20-10. 20-17.net updated: 10/24/10 = demand hourly volume (vph) = peak hour factor = grade adjustment factor (exhibit 20-7 or 20-8 depending on the flow characteristic being computed) = heavy-vehicle adjustment factor (use equ. or 20-18 depending on the grade and its purpose) ATS = FFS. 20-11. HCM 2000 −0.0.

3 ft/s2) = the width of the intersection (feet) = the length of the design vehicle (feet) 9 .Online Technical Training PeReview.27g) = grade of the road (decimal form) = speed limit (ft/sec) = acceleration due to gravity (32.5L + 5 1 − ∑ Yi Co L Yi φ Vi Si Yi L 1i R = optimal cycle length.5 sec per phase ≈1 sec Amber Time (W + L) u0 τmin = δ + + u0 2(a + Gg) τmin δ a G u0 g W L = minimum amber or yellow interval to eliminate a dilemma zone = perception reaction time (seconds).net updated: 10/24/10 Traffic Control Devices. (Vi/si) = number of phases = flow during phase i = saturation flow = Vi/Si = Σ1i+R ≈3. Signal Timing Signal Timing (see also Appendix B Chapter 16. usually 1 second in this case = braking acceleration rate (usually about 0. HCM 2000) Cycle length Co = 1. seconds = total lost time per cycle. seconds = maximum value of ratios of approach flows to saturation flows for all traffic streams using phase i.

2000 HCM) fHV = Heavy vehicle factor (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11. 16-14. HCM 2000) fg = grade factor (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11. p. = actual or projected demand flow rate for lane group i. vphg = effective green time for lane group i. HCM 2000) fa = area factor (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11. HCM 2000) fRpb = pedestrian adjustment factor for right turn movements (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11. HCM 2000) Degree of Saturation Xi= (v/c)ì = vi/(sigi/C) = viC/(sigi) Xi vi gi C Capacity ci = si *(gi/C) ci si gi C gi/C (eq. seconds = cycle length in seconds . 16-7. HCM 2000) fLU = Lane utilization factor (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11. usually 1900 pcphpl N = number of lanes in analysis group fw = adjustment factor for lane width (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11. p.16-14.16-6. HCM 2000) fRT = right turn factor (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11. vphg = effective green time for lane group i. HCM 2000) fbb = bus blockage factor (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11.Online Technical Training Saturation PeReview. HCM 2000) fLpb = pedestrian adjustment factor for left turn movements (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11.net updated: 10/24/10 s = so N fW fHV fg fP fbb fa fLU fRT fLTfLpbfRpb s = saturation flow for the lane group. HCM 2000) fLT = left turn factor (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11. vph = saturation flow rate for lane group i. vphg s0 = base saturation rate per lane. HCM 2000) = (v/c)ì = ration for lane group i. HCM 2000) fp = parking factor (Exhibit 16-7 on page 16-11. HCM 2000) = capacity of lane group i. seconds = cycle length in seconds = effective green ratio for group i 10 (eq.

multiply by 1.tL PeReview.Online Technical Training gi = Gi + Yi .25 to 1.0) Volume during peak hour PHF = 4*volume during the peak 15-minute within the peak hour DHV = Design Hour Volume represents the worst 15-minutes flows during the peak hour converted into hourly volume VHV = Volume during peak hour PHF 11 .net updated: 10/24/10 Volumes & Peak Hour Factors Convert speed from mph to feet.47 PHF = Peak Hour Factor represents a measure of the worst 15-minutes during the peak (Theoretical range from 0.

and kc. (a) Flow versus density Space Mean Speed O Space Mean Speed uf uf Density kj O q max (b) Space mean speed versus density (c) Space mean speed versus volume 12 .net updated: 10/24/10 Fundamental Diagrams of Traffic Flow A Slope of this line gives mean free speed E B K K Kc Jam Density Kb Slopes of these line give space mean speeds for kb. ke.Online Technical Training PeReview.

net updated: 10/24/10 Traffic Flow Theory – Speed-flow-density.Online Technical Training PeReview. shock wave. gap acceptance. queuing Speed Flow-Density Macroscopic Approach (Greenshield’s model) qmax = k1u f 4 = u0k0 q = uf k − us = u f − q qmax k ko kj = = = = = uf k2 kj uf k kj 2 ht = 1 / q = headway ko = kj uo = uf 2 hd = 1 / k = gap us2 = u f us − ufq kj u uo uf hd ht = = = = = speed (miles per hour) optimum speed (miles per hour) free speed (miles per hour) gap (feet) headway (seconds) flow (vehicles per hour) flow (vehicles per hour) density (vehicles per mile) optimum density (vehicles per mile) jam density (vehicles per mile) Shock Waves uw = q2 − q1 k2 − k1 uw q2 q1 k2 k1 = speed of the shock wave = flow downstream of the bottleneck = flow upstream of the bottleneck = density downstream of the bottleneck = density upstream of the bottleneck 13 .

RA = the related accidents AR = AR1+(1-AR1)AR2+(1-AR1)(1-AR2)AR3+(1-AR1)(1-AR2)(1-AR3)AR4 Reduced Accidents = RA (AR) 14 .Online Technical Training PeReview.000.000 VMT RMVM = Rate per 100 million vehicle miles. = accidents (total or by type) occurring in 1 year at that location = Average daily traffic (ADT * 365 days) RMEV A V Roadway Sections Accident rates RMVM = A*100.net updated: 10/24/10 Accidents Intersection Accident rates RMEV = A*1.000 V = Rate per million of entering vehicles.000. A = accidents (total or by type) occurring at that location during a given period VMT = total vehicle miles traveled during that given period (ADT* day in study * length of road) Expected Accident Values The reduced accidents are equal to the related accidents (RA) multiplied by the accident reduction factor (AR) AR = the accident reduction factor.

2 ft/sec2 (refer p.47)(ui) + (u12 – u22) 30(f ± G) (u12 – u22) 30(a/g ± G) = PIEV + Braking => t(1.47)(ui) + AASHTO represents f as a g ui = initial speed in mph uf = final speed in mph t = reaction time in seconds (usually 2.02) a = recommended deceleration rate = 11.net updated: 10/24/10 Photogrammetry The relationship governing aerial photogrammetry that is required is given by: S= f H −h f = camera focal length (feet) = 5.5 seconds assumed) G = grade of road in decimal form (2% is .111-114.Online Technical Training PeReview.2 ft/sec2 g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.000 Geometric Design Horizontal Curve Radii and Super-Elevation Stopping Sight Distance – Reaction and Braking SSD = PIEV + Braking => t(1.450 where S = photographic scale = 1/24. AASHTO 2004) 15 .5/12 H = aircraft height (feet) h = average elevation of terrain (feet) = 2.

Stationing Vertical Curves 16 .12) fmax = side friction based on speed and super elevation (Equation 3-10. page 146.net updated: 10/24/10 = minimum safe radius in feet = speed in mph emax = super elevation (ranges from 0 to 0.Online Technical Training Rmin = Rmin V V2 15(0. Vertical and Horizontal Curves. AASHTO 2004) PCE = Passenger Car Equivalents .01emax + f max ) PeReview.a measure that converts trucks and busses into a representative passenger car value.

The max and min points are given by differentiating wrt x. and equating to zero: dy ⎛ G2 − G1 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ x + G1 = 0 dx ⎝ L ⎠ x= LG1 G1 − G2 and y= LG12 2(G1 − G2 ) (S>L) Lmin = 2S − 2158 A Lmin = Sag AS 2 2158 (S<L) OR Lmin = KA Lmin = 2S − (400 + 3. y.5S) (S<L) 17 . measured downward from the tangent.net updated: 10/24/10 For the simple parabolic curve.Online Technical Training PeReview. the vertical offset 'y' at any point 'x' along the curve is given by: ⎛ G − G1 ⎞ 2 y = −⎜ 2 x ⎝ 2L ⎟ ⎠ where Y = the elevation of the curve at a point x along the curve. gives the vertical offset at any point x along the curve.5S) A (S>L) Lmin = AS 2 (400 + 3.

15u 3 = RC C = rate of increase of centripetal acceleration. Sight Distance of Crest Vertical Curve (S<L) P H1 G1 C PVC L S L S H1 = length of vertical curve (ft) = sight distance (ft) = height of eye above roadway surface (ft) X1 X3 = L/2 X2 N PVT H2 D G2 H2 = height of object above roadway surface (ft) 18 .5 3. ft/sec2 (Ranges from 1 to 3) K= a factor for vertical curves used as an alternative to the equation.net updated: 10/24/10 Appearance Comfort Spiral Curve Lmin R S A Lmin = 100 A Lmin Lmin Au 2 = 46.Online Technical Training PeReview. = minimum length of spiral curve = radius in feet = Stopping sight distance in feet = Arithmetic grade difference between approach and departure tangents u = speed in mph K factors are found in AASHTO2004 . Exhibit 3-75. page 277.

net = point of vertical curve = point of vertical tangent updated: 10/24/10 Sight Distance of Crest Vertical Curve (S>L) P H1 G1 PVC C S1 S L L S H1 H2 G1 G2 PVC PVT = length of vertical curve (ft) = sight distance (ft) = height of eye above roadway surface (ft) = height of object above roadway surface (ft) = slope of first tangent = slope of second tangent = point of vertical curve = point of vertical tangent N S2 H2 PVT G2 19 .Online Technical Training G1 G2 = slope of first tangent = slope of second tangent PVC PVT PeReview.

Online Technical Training PeReview.6/D D R T C M L = Degree of Curve (angle per 100 feet) = radius in feet = R tan (Δ/2) = 2Rsin (Δ/2) = R (1 – cos(Δ/2)) = Y= Xhigh = A x 2 200L LG12 (G1 − G2 ) Yhigh LG12 = 200(G1 − G2 ) RDπ 180 20 .net updated: 10/24/10 Headlight Sight Distance on Sag Vertical Curves (S>L) Headlight Beam L β H D S Vertical Curve Stationing BVC = PVI – ½ L EVC = PVI + ½ L Horizontal Curve R = 5729.

65S ⎤ M = R ⎢1 − Cos ⎥ R ⎦ ⎣ where S D M R = Stopping Sight Distance (ft) = Degree of Curve = Middle Ordinate (ft) = Radius (ft) 21 .Online Technical Training Horizontal Stationing PeReview.net ) ce ( S stan t Di updated: 10/24/10 11 = Rπδ1 180 Sigh L1 L L2 = = d1 D d2 w ay High L an e side In Line of D M Sight C1 CD C2 = 2Rsin (δ1/2) = 2Rsin (D/2) = 2Rsin (δ2/2) R Sight Obstruction 5730 (1 − C os SD) D 200 5730 SD R= and θ = D 200 M = R(1 − cosθ ) M= ⎡ 28.

net updated: 10/24/10 Layout of a Simple Horizontal Curve PI V T PC A Δ/2 E Δ T PT B M Δ/2 Δ R = radius of circular curve T = tangent length Δ = deflection angle M = middle ordinate PC = point of curve PT = point of tangent PI = point of intersection E = external distance 22 .Online Technical Training PeReview.

G1 – G2 23 .Online Technical Training PeReview. G2 L A = point of vertical intersection = beginning of vertical curve (same point as PVT) = external distance = grades of tangents (%) = length of curve = algebraic difference of grades.net updated: 10/24/10 Layout of a Crest Vertical Curve for Design L PVI L Y E BVC Y1 EVC G1 T1 L T2 G2 PVI BVC E G1 .

Online Technical Training PeReview. R2 Δ1. Δ2 Δ t1. t2 T1. T2 PCC PI PC PT = radii of simple curves forming compound curve = deflection angles of simple curves = deflection angle of compound curve = tangent lengths of simple curves = tangent lengths of compound curve = point of compound curve = point of intersection = point of curve = point of tangent 24 .net updated: 10/24/10 Layout of a Compound Curve T1 Δ T2 t1 G Δ1 PCC Δ2 H t2 PC Δ2 R1 Δ1 R2 PT R1.

net updated: 10/24/10 Geometry of a Reverse Curve with Parallel Tangents R d Ä1 2 Z Ä1 R O R Ä2 X Ä2 2 D Y 2 2 R Δ1.Online Technical Training PeReview. Δ2 d D = radius of simple curves = deflection angle of simple curves = distance between parallel tangents = distance between tangent points 25 .

DDHV = Directional Design-Hour Volume AADT = Average Annual Daily Traffic K = proportion of AADT during peak hour.Online Technical Training PeReview.net updated: 10/24/10 Transportation Planning Planning Directional Traffic DDHV = AADT*K*D.08 to 0. (range from 0.12 in urban areas) D = directional percentage in peak hour for the peak direction Earthworks & the Mass-haul diagram V= L( A1 + A2 ) End Area Method 54 Most common method and likely to be on the PE Pyramidal Method V= L(area of base * length) 6 For more accuracy than the end area method V = Volume (ft2) A1 and A2 = end areas (ft2) Am = middle area determined by averaging linear dimensions of end sections (ft2) Parking Space Hours of Demand D = Σniti D = space hours demand for a specific time period 26 .

net updated: 10/24/10 27 .Online Technical Training ti = midparking duration of the ith class ni = number of vehicles parked for the ith duration range Space Hours of Supply S = fΣti S = space hours supply for a specfic time period ti = legal parking duration in hours for the space f = efficiency factor PeReview.

Online Technical Training PeReview.net updated: 10/24/10 Part II: Geotechnics Soil Properties Property moisture content bulk density submerged density dry density unit weight of water saturated density specific gravity soil volume volume of voids volume of air volume of water volume of solids soil weight weight of water weight of solids symbol w γ γ1 γd γw γsat Gs V Vv Va Vw Vs W Ww Ws W w γw (Gs* γw) e n y γd γd γsat units % pounds per cubic foot pound per cubic foot pounds per cubic foot pounds per cubic foot pounds per cubic foot dimensionless cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet cubic feet pounds pounds pounds = Ww + Ws = (Ww/Ws) * 100 = Ww/Vw = Ws/Vs = Vv/Vs = Vv/V = Vv/(Vv + Vs) = W/V = Ws/V = y/(1+w) = Yd + n yw 28 .

r1 = distance to first observation well h1 = piezometric height above impermeable layer.2 + 0. 29 .net updated: 10/24/10 Vertical Stress Δpav = 1/6(ΔpA + 4pB + ΔpC) Permeability Darcy’s law – Aquifer Flow q = kiA q = the flow (gal/min) k = coefficient of permeability (ft/day) i = hydraulic gradient A = cross–sectional area (ft2) Darcy’s Law states that the permeability of a soil is given by: k = 1/Ai The permeability of a soil stratum overlying an impermeable layer is given by: k= qx log e (r2 / r1 ) π (h12 − h21 ) q = steady state well discharge. at observation hole (1) h2 = piezometric height above impermeable layer. at observation hole (2) where The AASHTO Soil Classification System Group Index empirical formula: GI = (F – 35)[0. LL & PI are the Liquid Limit and Plasticity Indices expressed as integers.005(LL – 40)] + 0. F = % soil passing the #200 (0.075mm) sieve.01 (F – 15)(PI – 10) where GI = Group Index.Online Technical Training PeReview.

sand-silt mixtures Clayey sands.net Unified soil classification system (ASTM D-2487) updated: 10/24/10 Major Divisions Group Symbols Typical Names Well-graded gravels. SC 5 to 12 percent Borderline cases requiring dual symbolsb Clean gravels (Little or no fines) GW D60 D10 greater than 4. (D30 )2 Cu = D10 xD60 between 1 and 3 Coarse-grained soils (More than half of material is larger than No. coarse-grained soils are classified as follows Less than 5 percent GW. little or no fines Poorly graded gravels. SC 30 . SM. gravelly sands. little or no fines Silty gravels. Well-graded sands. GC. little or no fines Poorly graded sand. sandclay mixtures Laboratory Classification Criteria Gravels (More than half of coarse fraction is larger than No. 4 sieve size) GC Above “A” line with PI between 4 and 7 are borderline cases requiring use of dueal symbols Clean sands (Little or no fines) SW Not meeting all gradation requirements for SW Cu = SP D60 D10 greater than 6 Cu = (D30 ) D10 xD60 between 1 and 3 Sands with fines (Appreciable amount of fines) SMa d u Not meeting all gradation requirements for SW Atterberg limits above “A” line or PI less than 4 Atterberg limits above “A”line with PI greater than 7 Limits plotting in hatched zone with PI between 4 and 7 are borderline cases requiring use of dual symbols. gravel-sand mixtures Clayey gravels. little or no fines Silty sands. 200 sieve size) GP Not meeting all gradiation requirements for GW Gravels with fines (appreciable amount of fines GM2 d u Atterberg limits below “A” line or PI less than 4 Atterberg limits below “A” line with PI greater than 7 Sands (More than half of coarse fraction is smaller than No.Online Technical Training PeReview.G{. gravel-sand mixtures. gravel-sand mixtures. gravelly sands. 4 sieve size) Cu = Determine percentages of sand and gravel from grain-size curve. Depending on percentage of fines (fraction smaller than No 200 sieve size). gravel-sandclay mixtures.SW. SP More than 12 percent GM.

silty clays. organic silts Peat and other highly organic soils PeReview. sandy clays. micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils. rock flour. 200 sieve) CL PLASTICITY CHART 60 50 PLASTICITY INDEX CH OL 40 30 “ CL L A” IN E OH and MH MH 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 CL-ML ML and OL 40 50 60 Silts and clays (Liquid limit greater than 50) CH 70 80 90 100 LIQUID LIMIT OH Hightly organic soils Pt 31 . gravelly clays. lean clays Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity Inorganic silts. elastic silts Inorganic clays of medium to high plasticity. organic silts Organic clays of medium to high plasticity.net updated: 10/24/10 ML Silts and clays (Li1uid limit less than 50) Fine-grained soils (More than half material is smaller than No.Online Technical Training Inorganic silts and very fine sands. silty or clayey fine sands. or clayey silts with slight plasticity Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity.

net updated: 10/24/10 a Division of GM and SM groups into subdivisions of d and u are for roads and airfields only. are designated by combinations of group symbols. used for soils possessing characteristics of two groups. b Borderline classification.Online Technical Training PeReview.sand mixture with clay binder 32 . Subdivision is bases on Atterberg limits. suffix d used when LL is 28 or less and the PI is 6 or less. the suffix u used when LL is greater than 28. For example GW-GC. well graded gravel.

in lb/in2 c = cohesion. Boussinesq’s Equation The equation determines the increase in vertical stress (∆p) at a point A in a soil mass due to a point load (Q) on the surface which can be expressed as 3Q z3 Δp = where r = x 2 + y 2 2 2 5 /2 2π (r + z ) 33 . 2 Effective stress parameters: Sus = c′ + σ ′ tan φ ′ . The effective soil pressure is given by σ ′ = σ − µ .Online Technical Training PeReview. in lb/in2 φ = friction angle.net updated: 10/24/10 Coulomb’s Equation τ = c + σ tanφ where τ = shear stress. in degrees σθ = 1 1 (σ A + σ R ) + (σ A − σ R ) cos 2θ 2 2 τθ = + 1 (σ A − σ R ) sin 2θ 2 1 The plane of failure is inclined at the angle θ = 45 + φ obtained from Coulomb’s equation. where c′ and φ ′ are the effective stress parameters. in lb/in2 Triaxial Stress Tests The normal and shear stress on a plane of any angle can be found as: σ = normal stress.

34 . below the center of a foundation.Online Technical Training PeReview. due to the distributed load q.net updated: 10/24/10 An approximation to Boussinesq’s equation is represented in the graph below that relates the increase in stress. Δp.

PA is provided by: PA = ½ kA γH where 35 . Kp is provided by: 1 − sin φ KA = 1 + sin φ Tv = cv t h2 Tv cv t h = time factor = coefficient of consolidation = time = thickness of sample clay layer where KA = coefficient of active pressure PA = total active thrust H = height of soil retained φ = angle of friction Active pressures are given by: PA = KA γz .Online Technical Training PeReview. in inches Cc = compression index (slope of e-log p plot) H = thickness of compressible layer p0 = mean overburden pressure Δp = increase in pressure (usually due to fill) For undisturbed clays (Skempton): Lateral Earth Pressure The coefficient of active pressure. Ka is provided by: The coefficient of passive pressure.009(LL – 10) The time of consolidation relationship is provided by the following: where S = settlement.2c√KA Passive pressure are given by: Pp = Kp γz + 2c√Kp Kp = 1 + sin φ 1 − sin φ 2 And the total active thrust.net updated: 10/24/10 Consolidation Theory Consolidation settlement is provided by the following: S= p + Δp CcH log 0 1 + e0 p0 Cc = 0.

and V = velocity (ft/s or m/s).318 for USCS units. Manning’s Equation Q= 1. = hf /L (ft/ft or m/m).54 .849 for SI units. R = hydraulic radius (ft or m). Cw = ∑C A ∑A i i Time of concentration. new 120 Wood stave (regardless of age) 120 Vitrified clay 110 Riveted steel. and k1 = 1.63S 0.008cfs = 1. S = slope of energy gradeline. A = Area (acres) 1. I = intensity of rainfall (in/hr). Tc = L/V = distance traveled /velocity Time of concentration is the duration of design storm length and is used to find the intensity (in/hr) from I-T-T curves for a given area.49 2 / 3 1/2 rH S A n n = manning roughness coefficient A = Area of cross – section (ft2) rH = hydraulic radius (A/P) (1ft) S = slope (ft/ft) Q= flow (cfs) v = velocity of the flow (ft/sec) Values of Hazen-Williams Coefficient C Pipe Material C Concrete(regardless of age) 130 Cast iron: New 130 5 yr old 120 20 yr old 100 Welded steel. where C = roughness coefficient k1 = 0.net updated: 10/24/10 Part III Water Engineering Rational Method Q = CIA Q = cubic feet per second (cfs).00 acre-in/hr Cw = weighted coefficient Hazen-Williams Equation V = k1CR0. new 110 Brick Sewers 100 Asbestos-cement 140 Plastic 150 36 . C = coefficient of imperviousness.Online Technical Training PeReview.

in feet n is the roughness coefficient Q is the flow in cfs S is the slope NFR is a dimensionless number d is the flow height in feet v is the flow velocity in ft/sec g is the gravitational constant 32.Online Technical Training Friction loss in open channel flow hf = SL hf = Ln2 v 2 2.2 ft/sec2 Hydraulic Jumps v12 = gd2 (d1 + d2 ) 2d1 2 2 ⎡ 2v2 d2 d2 ⎤ ⎡ 2v12 d1 d12 ⎤ 1 1 + ⎥ d1 = − d2 + ⎢ + ⎥ .73 (n*Q*S-1/2)3/8 For full pipe flow: D = d = 1.33 (n*Q*S-1/2)3/8 where: D is the diameter of the pipe. d2 = − d1 + ⎢ 2 4⎦ 2 4⎦ ⎣ g ⎣ g ⎡ v2⎤ ⎡ v 2⎤ ΔE = ⎢ d1 + 1 ⎥ − ⎢ d2 + 2 ⎥ 2g ⎥ ⎢ 2g ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ where v1 is the velocity prior to the jump in ft/sec d1 is the depth of the flow prior to the jump in ft v2 is the velocity following the jump in ft/sec d2 is the depth of the flow following the jump in ft ΔE is the change in energy in feet 37 .net Froude Number updated: 10/24/10 N FR = where: v (gd)1/ 2 hf =friction loss in feet L =length of pipe in feet n = manning’s roughness factor v = the flow velocity in ft/sec rH = the hydraulic radius S =slope Circular Pipe Flow For a half-full circular pipe Diameter. D is twice the depth of the water: D = 2d = 1. in feet d is the flow height in the pipe.21(rH )4/ 3 PeReview.

2 ft/sec2 dc is the critical flow vc is the critical velocity. ft/sec Ec is the specific energy in feet Q is the flow in cfs 38 .net w is the width in feet Non-Uniform Sections updated: 10/24/10 dc 3 = Q2 gw2 dc = 2 / 3 E c vc = (gdc )1/ 2 Q 2 A3 = g b where b is the surface water width in feet A is the cross-sectional area of the flow in ft2 Q is the flow in cfs g is the gravitational constant.Online Technical Training Rectangular Sections PeReview. 32.

MS ⎞ ⎛ 106 mL • mg ⎞ The nonvolatile (fixed) solids = ⎜ ⎟ L•g ⎝ VF ⎟ ⎜ ⎠⎝ ⎠ where MSI = mass of ignited crucible. filter paper. & solids (g) MS = mass of dried crucible and filter paper (g) VF = sample volume filtered (mL) Weir Loading Weir Loading = Q/L Where Q = flow (MGD) L = π D( ft) and L = perimeter length D = weir diameter (ft) Q Surface Loading = v* = A Where Q = flow (MGD) A = surface area = A = π 2 2 D ( ft ) 4 39 .net updated: 10/24/10 Part IV Environmental Engineering Wastewater Sample Analysis ⎛ MSI.Online Technical Training PeReview.

net updated: 10/24/10 m = f1ρ V 1 = f 2 ρ V 2 where Initial Volume initial solids fraction reduced solids fraction solid dry mass wet sludge density reduced volume and V1 f1 f2 m ρ V2 where V r = V 1 -V 2 Volume Flow Reduction Vr Biological Oxygen Demand BOD5 = DOi − DO f Vsample Vsample + Vdilution where Volume of sample: Volume of dilution added: Initial dissolved oxygen: Vsample (mL) Vdilution (mL) DOi (mg/L) 40 .Online Technical Training D = weir diameter (ft) Sludge Reduction PeReview.

net updated: 10/24/10 BOD5 = Biological Oxygen Demand @ day 5 Stream degradation Steady-state mass balance in the river/effluent mixture after discharge: BOD5 = where QeBOD5e + QrBOD5r Qe + Qr BOD5 = Biological Oxygen Demand @ day 5 from point of discharge BOD5e = BOD5 in effluent (mg/L) BOD5r= BOD5 in river upstream from discharge (mg/L) Qe = wastewater entry flow (ft3/sec) Qr = receiving stream flow (ft3/sec) BODu = where BOD5 [1− exp(−k1t)] BODu = Ultimate Biological Oxygen Demand k1 = BOD reaction rate constant (day-1 base e at 20°C) 41 .Online Technical Training Final dissolved oxygen: The deoxygenation rate constant: DOf (mg/L Kd (day-1) PeReview.

7 12.0 magnesium alloy 14.6 28.7 lead 15.2 0.5 11.6 26.8 6.2 invar 0.net updated: 10/24/10 Part V Structural Engineering Coefficients of Linear Thermal Expansion Average Coefficients of Linear Thermal Expansion (multiply all values by 10-6) substance 1.0 copper 8.9 glass (PyrexTM) 1.oF 1/oC aluminum alloy 12.8 tungsten 2.4 4.6 10.1 marble 6.8 3.9 26.4 zinc 14.39 0.0 glass(plate) 4.8 concrete 6.8 23.1 chromium 3.Online Technical Training PeReview.4 steel 6.7 tin 14.9 titanium alloy 4. fused 0.5 11.9 8.0 quartz.9 16.3 42 .9 8.0 cast iron 5.7 platinum 5.0 brass 10.5 26.0 18.0 9.

i%. n) (F/G. i%. i%. i%. n) (P/A. n) (F/A.net updated: 10/24/10 Part VI Construction ENGINEERING ECONOMICS Factor Name Single Payment Compound Amount Single Payment Present Worth Uniform Series Sinking Fund Capital Recovery Uniform Series Compound Amount Uniform Series Present Worth Uniform Gradient Present Worth Uniform Gradient Future Worth Uniform Gradient Uniform Series NOMENCLATURE AND DEFINITIONS A = Uniform amount per interest period B = Benefit Converts to F given P to P given F to A given F to A given P to F given A to P given A to P given G to F given G to A given G BV C Symbol (F/P. n) = Book Value = Cost 43 Formula (1+i)n 1 (1+ i) n i −1 (1 + i) n i(1 + i) n (1 + i) n − 1 (1+ i) n − 1 i (1+ i) n i(1+ i) n − 1 (1 + i) n − 1 n − 2 n i (1 + i) i(1 + i) n (1+ i) n − 1 n − i i2 1 n − i (1+ i) n − 1 . i%. n) (P/G . i%. n) (A/P. i%.i%. n) (P/F. i%. n) (A/F.Online Technical Training PeReview.n) (A/G.

n) = rn e −1 ern − 1 (F / A.04 gallons per rated horsepower per hour A + 4B + C Unit Cost Forecast = UC = 6 44 .net updated: 10/24/10 Discount Factors for Continuous Compounding (n is the number of years) (F/P. value. value. or the expected life of an asset P = Present worth. n) = 1 − e− rn 1 − e− rn (P / A.r%.r%.n)= er n (P/F. n) = r e −1 BOOK VALUE BV=initial cost -ΣDj ⎛ r⎞ ie = ⎜ 1 + ⎟ − 1 m⎠ ⎝ Construction Equipment A = minimum unit cost for given projects B = mean unit cost for given projects C = maximum unit cost for given projects m Diesel consumption = 0.n)= e-r n er − 1 ( A / F.r%.Online Technical Training d = Combined interest rate per interest period Dj = Depreciation in year j F = Future worth. or amount r = Nominal annual interest rate Sn = Expected salvage value in year n Subscripts j = at time j n = at time n ** = P/G=(F/G)/(F/P) = (P/A)x(A/G) = F/G=(F/A – n)/i=(F/A)x(A/G) † = A/G=[1 – n(A/F]/i NON-Annual Compounding PeReview.r%. or amount ƒ = General inflation rate per interest period G = Uniform gradient amount per interest period ι = Interest rate per interest period ie = Annual effective interest rate m = Number of compounding periods per year n = Number of compounding periods. n) = r e −1 er − 1 ( A / P.r%.r%.

ESAL total is the sum of each category of truck ESAL = Design lane factor * % category * days per year * axles * truck factor ESAL total = ESAL1 + ESAL2 Specific gravity of fines * 45 .Online Technical Training PeReview.000 lbs. It is used in road design to estimate equivalent loads applied to the surface.net SG * SGwater updated: 10/24/10 Part VII Miscellaneous Concrete / Asphalt Absolute volume of aggregates cement weight specific gravity of water Volume (%) = Weight (lb) = aggregate ratio * ESAL is equivalent single axle load which is defined as 18.

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