$2.10

FUNDAMENTALS
OF

TRANSISTORS
by

LEONARD M. KRUGMAN B.S., M.S., P.E.,
Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories

JOHN
480 Canal

F.

RIDER
Street •

PUBLISHER,
New York 13,

INC.
N.Y.

FIRST EDITION

Copyright

1954 by

JOHN F. RIDER PUBLISHER, INC.

All rights reserved. This book or parts thereof may not be reproduced in any form or in any language without permission of the publisher.

library 01 Congress Catalog Card No. 54-9064

Printed in the United States of Americ:a

The superiority of the transistor over the electron tube in applications where miniaturization of space and power requirements are primary factors has already been established. and the large amount of duplication in existing material. L. E. and characteristics have been included. As a result. Here is a device which acts like a triode. Sidney Platt for their patience and assistance in editing the manuscript. N. the transistor has now evolved to a point where it is suitable for many applications. . That the transistor caused an immediate and intense interest in the electronic field is not difficult to understand. both as a direct replacement for and as a supplement to electron tubes. However. Bessey of the Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories for his assistance and guidance. is extremely rugged. The RCA Princeton Laboratories built and demonstrated a completely transistorized television set some time ago. advanced physical and mathematical concepts have been purposely avoided. and in addition. Seymour D. all the fundamentals necessary to assure a complete understanding of basic transistor operation. no warm-up time. yet together with its protective housing is smaller than a jelly-bean. However. For this reason. Space limitations. the mathematician. May. promises indefinite life. It is also intended that this book will serve the initial needs of engineering students and engineers who are confronted with transistors for the first time. little has been consolidated in practical form for the technician and the amateur. to Mr. While a massive quantity of literature is available for the physicist. and the research and development engineer. performance. Hunter of the Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories for his assistance in circuit fabrication. L. Uslan and Mr. It requires little power. Transistor hearing aids and car radios that operate directly from a battery supply are typical applications. Y.K. has certain unique characteristics which make it suitable for many novel applications. and in particular to Mr. preclude listings of exact credits. "Fundamentals of Transistors" is intended for this group. There is no doubt that everyone connected with the electronic arts will have to meet this latest addition to the family . the author would be lax indeed if he did not offer his gratitude to Mr. C.PREFACE Ever since the point contact transistor was announced by the Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1948. a considerable effort has been directed toward the improvement of transistor manufacturing and circuit design techniques.the transistor.M. C. 1954 NEW YORK.

7. Page Basic Semi-Conductor Physics Transistors and Their Operation The Grounded Base Transistor Grounded Emitter and Grounded Collector Transistors . 19 44 71 96 5. 8 2. 4. Transistor Amplifiers Transistor Oscillators Transistor High-Frequency and Other Applications Appendix Index 119 135 137 . 6. 3.CONTENTS Chapter 1.

that is. As might be expected. these electrons are easily knocked out of their orbit and are then referred to as free electrons. With respect to the size of these electrons. The negative electrical charge of the electron is exactly equal and opposite to the charge of the proton. which contains the protons and neutrons. If it were possible to magnify the atom by a factor of 1014. The electron is three times larger than the proton. the electrons located in rings close to the nucleus are tightly bound to their orbit and are extremely difficult to dislodge. protons. For example. It is now known that the atom is composed of still smaller entities called electrons. Physically. Gravitational. Insulators. magnetic. Other semiconductors such as selenium and silicon have 1 . protons.0005 that of the proton. In an electrically balanced atom. I-I. but rather are restricted to two separate rings. a conductor. the atom was considered to be the smallest particle of matter. but has only about one thirty-millionth (3 x 10-1<) part of the conductivity of copper. The outer or so-called valence-ring electrons are. Note that the six orbital electrons do not rotate at equal distances from the nucleus. The heart of the transistor is a semiconductor. an insulator. loosely bound to their orbit. and nuclear forces all act within the atom. but its mass is only . or semiconductor. transistor germanium. Condudors. comparatively speaking. tremendous distances exist between the electrons and the nucleus. Semicondudors Conductors are materials that have a large number of loosely bound valence-ring electrons. generally the germanium crystal. Insulators are materials in which the valence-ring electrons are tightly bound to the nucleus. with an orbit spacing of approximately 12 miles. A carbon 'atom contains six each of electrons. Each atom of anyone element contains specific quantities of these electrical entities. one hundred thousand billion times.BASIC SEMICONDUCTOR PHYSICS Strudure of MaHer Chapter 7 For many years. and neutrons. The neutron has no charge. insulator. there is an equal number of electrons and protons. The ease or difficulty with which electrons can be dislodged from the outer orbit determines whether a particular element is a conductor. Figure I-I illustrates the layout of a carbon atom. electric. and neutrons. the electrons rotate around the core or nucleus of the atom. These forces tend to keep the electrons revolving in their orbits around the nucleus at tremendous speeds. In between the limits of these two major categories is a third general class of materials called semiconductors. the electrons would be the size of basketballs. a semiconductor. has approximately one trillion times (1 x 1012) the conductivity of glass. as illustrated in Fig.

Carbon is occasionally found in nature in a stable crystalline form. Insofar as transistor operation is concerned. This effectively reduces the number of available free electrons in the crystal. generally a semiconductor. becomes an insulator in the diamond form. carbon. The general semiconductor principles discussed in this book apply to all elements used as transistor semiconductors. Under these conditions. the previously loosely bound valence-ring electrons now are tightly bound to their nucleus. the carbon atom in the short form contains a nucleus with a +4 charge around which the four valence-ring electrons rotate. the germanium atom has four valence-ring electrons. and cannot easily be dislodged. the diamond. co-ordinates its motion with that of a corresponding valence-ring electron of a neighboring atom.2 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS () Fig. The carbon atom in short form for transistor physics. Thus. only the loosely bound orbital electrons and their associated protons are of importance. but germanium has proved to be the most widely applicable material. as will be seen later. the tightly bound inner orbit electrons and their respective protons are not shown. Like the carbon atom. Thus. been used in transistors. 1-2. Equilibrium between the repulsion and attraction forces of the atoms is reached at this time. the electron pair forms a covalent bond. The Germanium Crystal. Thus a short-form illustration of . and hence reduces its conductivity. Crystal Structure Covalent Bonds. Note that in this figure only the valence-ring electrons and their associated protons are indicated. moving around the nucleus of a carbon atom. For the purposes of future discussion it is therefore convenient to picture the carbon atom in the short form illustrated in Fig. 1-2. In this form. each valence-ring electron. The short form simplifies the graphical representation of semiconductor operation.

. when pure germanium is treated so as to become a semiElECTRON .I .) Note that all covalent bonds are complete and that no atoms or electrons are missing or misplaced. when germanium is in crystalline form. . FREE ElECTRON DONOR ATOM FROM @~@~@~@~@ @~@ I' II ~@\-=-@ I' II --@ " " " " .I . However. -=-@--@ @-=-@-=-@-=-@-=-@ @-=-@-=-@-=-@--@ l'I~Rp~~~~" " ATOM @-=-@-=-@-=-@-=-@ II .BASIC SEMI-CONDUCTOR PHYSICS 3 the germanium atom would be similar to that shown for the carbon atom in Fig. or by adding light energy (photons). (e) N-type germanium. N-typa germanium. (For simplification. the atoms in this figure are shown in a two-dimensional plane rather than in the three dimensions found in nature. However.COVAlEN\ -PAIR BOND". The pure germanium crystal is an insulator and is of no use in transistor work. the electron would move through the crystal as freely as an electron moves through a vacuum tube. and are tightly bound to the nucleus. the four valence electrons of each atom form covalent bonds. In addition. If an excess free electron could be added to a pure germanium crystal without changing the structure of the crystal.I I' I' @-=-@-=-@-=-@--@ " ( Bl . pure germanium can be changed into a semiconductor by adding minute quantities of certain impurities. (6).I @-=-@ -=-G -=-@ --@" " II . or by adding heat energy (phonons). 1-2.I Fig. (A) Pure germanium in crystalline form.I . Any of these actions increases the number of free electrons in germanium. Figure 1·3(A) is a short-form illustration of the structure of the germanium crystal in this perfect state.I I' II I' I' " (AI @ -=-@ -=-@-. 1-3.

Germanium containing acceptor impurities is called P type because conduction is effected by Positive charges. bounces off an imperfection. with arsenic acting as the pentavalent impurity. Connection of a battery across a P-type crystal causes the holes to move toward the negative terminal. contributed by the donor atoms. These trivalent-type impurities are called acceptors because they take electrons from the germanium crystal. Acceptors . each impurity atom replaces a germanium atom. In this manner a continuous stream of electrons flows through the crystal as long as the battery potential remains. Insofar as the flow of current is concerned. an electron enters the crystal through the negative voltage terminal. 1-3(B). When a hole reaches the negative terminal. hole flow from the positive to the negative terminal of the crystal has the same effect as electron £low from the negative to the positive terminal. Four of the impurity atom's valence electrons form covalent bonds with the valence electrons of neighboring germanium atoms. A hole is an incomplete group of covalent electrons which simulates the properties of an electron with a positive charge. an electron is emitted from this battery terminal and cancels the hole. Such transistor crystals are referred to as N type because conduction is carried on by means of the Negatively charged electrons.Type Germanium. Consequently. At the same time. The application of a doc potential across the N-type crystal forces the free electrons toward the positive voltage terminal. When impurities having five electrons in the valence ring are added to germanium. Donors . the impurity atom borrows a fourth electron from anyone of the other germanium groups. an electron from one of the covalent bonds enters the positive terminal.N. This collision is similar to the collision between an electron and a gas molecule in a gas tube. thus forming another hole in the vicinity of the positive terminal. Each such trivalent impurity atom replaces a germanium atom. Thus the battery causes a continuous stream of holes to flow through the crystal. The new hole again moves towards the negative terminal. This destruction of a germanium covalent bond group forms a hole.4 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS conductor. Every time an electron flows from the crystal to the positive terminal.. Holes. Figure 1-3(C) illustrates a second method of forming transistor germanium. any one excess electron moves a short distance. The fifth electron is free and is available as a current carrier. This action is illustrated by Fig.P-Type Germanium. and in order to complete its covalent bond with neighboring germanium atoms. the symmetry of the crystal is destroyed. and then moves on again. . Pentavalent-type impurities are called donors because they donate electrons to the crystal transistor germanium thus formed. In this case an impurity having three valence electrons (indium) is added to the pure germanium crystal.

they introduce imperfections in the structure. This explains why germanium has a negative temperature coefficient of resistance. the conductivity increases 16 times.000 germanium atoms is added. To avoid these possibilities.000. In the case of thermal excitation. Other types of impurities which are neither trivalent nor pentavalent may be present in the crystal. the germanium is purified so that the impurity ratio is considerably less than 1 part in 100. When P. the germanium is called intrinsic. In those cases where the germanium is extremely pure. As the temperature is increased to 800 C. since in either case the holes furnished by the P type will cancel the electrons furnished by the N type. either P. the conductivity increases 160 times. i. Intrinsic conductivity can adversely affect impurity-type conductivity.e.000. If both Nand P types were present in equal amounts. but will not affect the magnitude of the current. The disruption of covalent bonds by the addition of light energy is discussed under P·N junction photocells in Chapter 2. the germanium would act as if no impurities were present. This concentration forms germanium suitable for transistor work. Although they do not affect the conductivity. and cause degradations in the transistor characteristics. the lower the resistance. the higher the temperature. the higher the temperature. If one impurity atom for each 10. If one impurity atom is added for every 100. P-N Junctions Potential Hills. because the mobility of the electrons is approximately twice as great as that of the holes.and N-type germanium are joined as shown . the greater the number of electrons liberated and the higher the germanium conductivity becomes. by the presence of N-type impurities in P-type germanium and by P-type impurities in N-type germanium. Intrinsic Germanium. Conduction can take place if electrons are forced out of their valence bonds by the addition of external energy to the crystal in the form of heat or light. Although the disruption of the covalent bonds by these processes creates equal numbers of electrons and holes. the electrons produced by thermal excitation cause the conductivity of the germanium to become too high for satisfactory transistor operation. Conductivity is affected. These impurities are not desirable..000 before the desired impurity atoms are added. Alone.BASIC SEMI-CONDUCTOR PHYSICS Transistor Germanium Properties 5 Impurity Concentration.000.000 germanium atoms. intrinsic conduction is invariably of the N type. however. or where there are equal numbers of donor and acceptor atoms.or N-type germanium is capable of bi-directional current flow. and is too high for transistor applications. This means that reversing the battery will reverse the direction of the current £low. It is interesting to note the important role that donor and acceptor atoms play in determining the conductivity of germanium.

'·5. illustrated in Fig. To use the P-N junction as a rectifying device requires connection of an external battery to either aid or oppose the equivalent potential hill battery. designated ab. 1-6(A). respectively. while the negative terminal forces the electrons toward the P-area.o DONORS + - o - + HOLES ELECTRONS ACCEPTORS 0 0 -0 0 - . The connection of an external battery. This action creates a new hole which moves toward the N-region. while the acceptor atoms repel the electrons to the right. Instead. P·N junction at equilibrium. For each combination. an electron enters the crystal through the negative battery terminal and moves toward the P-region. This barrier to the flow of holes and electrons is called a potential hill. as compared to the mobility of the electrons and holes. The positive terminal pushes the holes towards the N-area.0 . Reverse and Forward Bias. and it produces the same effect as a small battery (shown dotted in Fig.0 DONORS 0 0-0-0 0 0_0~0 + HOLEs "0+0+0 ++ 0+0. In the illustration the + and . The junction.6 FUNDAMENTALS OF RESISTORS r "0+ 0:0 + + -4L+ .~~:: . a covalent bond near the positive terminal breaks down.. In the region around the ab junction. while the positive terminal concentrates the electrons further to the right. Consider now the connection illustrated in Fig.signs represent holes and electrons. P-N junction with reverse bias. The total current (10) flowing through the crystal is composed of electron flow (IN) in the N-area. This is an example of a forward bias connection. holes and electrons combine. is an example of reverse bias. 1-5. and the liberated electron enters the positive terminal. The negative terminal attracts holes and concentrates them further to the left.. Fig. . an effective rectifying device is formed.0 '. Simultaneously. 1-4) with its negative terminal connected to the P-region and its positive terminal connected to the N-region.lilT Fig. since the effect of this connection is to increase the potential hill barrier. and the + and . eventually destroying the P-N junction..- r1 EQUIVALENT JUNCTION BATTERY Q 0+0 + +0 + +0+0 +0 o o o 0 . 0. '·4.0 -_0N G ~~~~. It might appear that the holes of the P-region would diffuse into the N-region and the electrons of the N-region would diffuse in the P-region. is called a P-N junction. the holes and electrons concentrate away from the junction.0 . This phenomenon is caused by the fixed position of the donor and acceptor atoms in the crystal lattice structure. The donor atoms repel the holes to the left in the diagram.signs with circles around them represent the donor and acceptor atoms. + 0 0 0 0 b 0000 --- - - N 0 0 0_0- . in Fig. 1-4. There is no flow across the junction. respectively.

a large part of the battery potential P0 0· 0. The voltage drop in these regions is proportional to the current flow through them.BASIC SEMI-CONDUCTOR PHYSICS 7 hole flow (Ip) in the P-area.and N-regions before the potential hill is reached. as the current increases due to the reduction of the potential hill. Unfortunately. as illustrated in Fig. The forward bias connection.0 -0 0-0 .0 0 • • .EC1ROttS P I. then.and N-regions also increases.1 I I Ip. reduces the potential hill by a sufficient amount to allow current to flow by a combination of hole and electron carriers. "How much battery voltage is necessary?" Offhand. One may well ask. 1-6 (B) .I. An external battery of approximately one to two volts is required because of these factors. I I I I IIO I I • IN to"' Ip a TOTAL FLOW ~~~: ~~ V \] IO·Ip 10• lo·IN !\ .0 •0 • 0.0. .0 0. since the equivalent battery potential is in the neighborhood of a few tenths of a volt.TAON (8) Fig. the drop across the P. 1-6. and a combination of the two (IN and Ip) in the region near the junction. (A) P-N junction with forward bias. (8) Carrier conduction in P-N junction. an external battery of equal value should normally be considered sufficient. leaving even less of the external voltage available to reduce the junction barrier potential. is dropped across the resistance of the P. IN • ~tg.11b •0•0 0 • 0 ACCEPTORS 0 DONORS 000 0 0 0(A) • - HOLES El.

In the output or collector circuit. The high voltage. and a third electrode (the base) which is soldered to that pellet. and base. The construction. The emitter and collector contacts are metallic wires. the use of the point-contact cat whiskers is a convenient method of obtaining the required high-intensity field. The fundamental concepts of current flow in the point-contact transistor are illustrated in Fig.05 inch in length and .005 inch in diameter and spaced about .TRANSISTORS AND THEIR OPERATION In this chapter. Surface-Bound Electrons. The practice will be followed in this book. the high voltage causes a breakdown.) The entire assembly is encased in a plastic housing to avoid the contaminating effects of the atmosphere. and impedance characteristics of typical transistors are considered. collector. The electrical action of the points in concentrating the battery potential to produce a concentrated electric field is analagous to the increased water pressure which is obtained by decreasing the nozzle area of a garden hose. in the input or emitter circuit. illustrated in Fig. since the battery voltage is limited. Point-Contact Transistors Construction and Electrode Designations." The bend in the cat whiskers. The pellet is usually N-type germanium. c. and b-emitter.02 inch thick. Because of this 8 Chapter 2 .002 inch apart. (It is common practice to designate the electrodes bye. Thus. this potential has adverse effects on the transistor." An answer to this question necessitates an analysis of the point-contact transistor. and certain other modified transistors. produces a high current which burns out the transistor. This transistor consists of two electrodes (emitter and collector) which which make contact with a germanium pellet. "Why use cat whiskers which are obviously difficult to manufacture and which produce a mechanically weak contact? Let us eliminate the cat whiskers (he goes on) and use a low-resistance soldered contact similar to that used on the base electrode. 2-1. the junction. The practical man will certainly ask. gain. These contacts are frequently referred to as "cat whiskers. The elements and basic construction details of the point-contact transistor are shown in Fig. Transistor operation requires an intense electric field. operation.and N-type germanium are applied to an analysis of the point-contact. 2-2. as shown by the considerations. approximately . the basic concepts concerning P. Physicists have found that those electrons which diffuse to the surface of the germanium pellet not only lose their ability to return to the interior of the germanium but also form a skin-like covering over the surface. is required to maintain pressure against the germanium pellet surface. 2-1. If the external battery potential is made high enough to produce the required field intensity. roughly .

Conversely. The proper battery connections for a transistor can be determined as follows: The emitter is always biased in the forward or low resistance direction. 2. holes that reach . since the effect is the same as if holes were injected into the transistor through the emitter. Basic point. the negative battery terminal is connected to the collector in order to increase the potential hill. The Iiberated electrons are immediately attracted to and enter the emitter terminal. 2-3 the surface-bound electrons near the emitter contact are immediately removed by the positive emitter electrode. This is due to the intense emitter field which breaks down covalent bonds of atoms in the vicinity of the emitter electrode. Therefore. tran· phenomenon. Many of the holes may meet with and be cancelled by the free electrons in the Nuype material. they are called surface-bound electrons. Hole Injection. However. 2·2 (right). This creation of holes is called hole injection. Construction of point-<on' tact transistor. Since this is accomplished by reducing the potential hill. a hole is left behind. the positive battery terminal is connected to the emitter. At the collector electrode. the surface-bound electrons combine with the layer of donor atoms just below to form a potential hill. For every electron which leaves the pellet. The need for the extremely close spacing between the emitter and collector is now apparent.TRANSISTORS AND THEIR OPERATION SURFACE-BOUND ELECTRONS 9 EQUIVALENT POTENTIAL HILL BATTERY (£) - DONOR ATOMS ELECTRONS e C EMITTER COLLECTOR b BASE Fig.1 (left). The holes immediately diffuse toward the collector because of the negative potential at that terminal. Therefore. observe that in Fig.contact sistor operation. the flow path between the emitter and collector must be small to keep the hole and electron recombinations to a minimum. Courtesy CBS·Hytron. These electrons are the emitter current carriers. To understand hole and electron flow in the pointcontact transistor. the potential hill produced by the surface-bound electrons limits the current flow. direction. the collector is always biased in the reverse. Fig. or high-resistance. For the N-type transistor illustrated.

and Power Gains. The electrons which flow between the collector and the base are the collector current carriers. = resulting change in collector current. 1 ma At first glance. Resistance.10 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS + • Fig. Holes travel through the transistor from emitter to collector in many indirect paths.5. The holes set up a net positive space charge in the areas of their flow paths. and i. this indicates that one million holes injected by the emitter causes 2. 2-3 (top). thus effectively increasing the electron flow. due to the combined effects of their positive charges.AL the collector area combine with the surface-bound electrons and reduce the potential hill. Current. The remaining million and a half electrons flow to the base. While some of the electrons emitted by the collector neutralize holes. N-type and P-type point-contact transistor connections. Magnified view of hole and electron flow into point-contact transistor. In the average pointcontact transistor.Ie where a = current amplification. The ratio of change in collector current to change in emitter current is called the current gain a (Alpha).5 milliamperes. The resultant positive space charge attracts electrons from the more remote areas of the N-type transistor into the hole flow path between the collector and base.5ma In the typical case described above. 2-4 (bottom). ® --_ OONOR ATOMS ELECTRON flOW ++-HOLE fLOW ~. a=-. an increase in emitter current of one milliampere will cause an increase in collector current of 2. the current gain factor of a transistor is disappointingly low when compared with the amplification factor of a vacuum .5 million electrons to be injected by the collector. = change in emitter current. Thus i. Voltage. One million of the collector electrons neutralize the holes. This permits the collector to inject more electrons into the germanium. i. Fig. 2. In physical terms. a = 2. thus increasing the collector current. the majority flow toward and enter the base terminal.

5. eo = output voltage. and the output power is the product of the output voltage and collector current. the transistor has another gain characteristic.1"1 rl where: e.5 x 67 = 167. and r. 2-6 (right)." = a2 __ r 0_ rl Ie r. Courtesy CBS. while the output resistance between collector and base is relatively high (20. the transistor power ~i 0. 2-4 illustrates the essential difference between the battery connections for the two types of point-contact transistors. = emitter current. the voltage gain equals 2.. gain equals the current gain squared times the resistance gain. a elle EQUIVALENT POTENTIAL HILL BATTERIES \. For the typical point-contact transistor. namely the ratio of output resistance to input resistance. = output resistance.. Construdion of basic N·P-N jundion transistor. Thus. another consideration enters the picture: The input resistance between the emitter and base is relatively low (300 ohms is a typical value). r.Hyfron. ..TRANSISTORS AND THEIR OPERATION 11 tube. Fig.. Power gaIn Since the input voltage is the product of the emitter current and the input resistance. = input resistance. For the typical case under consideration. the resistance gain is 2iggo - 67. = input voltage. . Basic N·P·N transistor. i. The P-type point-contact transistor operates similarly to the N-type unit.000 ohms is typical) . in addition to the current gain. = collector current. P-Type Transistor. Furthermore. the power gain equals (2. the transistor voltage gain equals the current gain times the resistance gain. 2·5 (left). e ir r Voltage gam = __0_= ~= a __ 0_ el 1. since the input power is the product of the input voltage and the emitter current. and the output voltage is the product of the collector current and the output resistance. except that the emitter and collector battery polarities are reversed.--. i. Fig. . However. =~ ei = 0000000 . a = current gain. For the typical transistor.-_+ . o 0_0+0 0 -0 -0 0000 p -- - d"1 f"th @ - e - DONOR ATOIIIS ATOMS ACCEPTOR ELECTRONS HOLES + N Fig.5)2 (67) = 419.

the P section is very narrow as compared to the strips of N-type germanium. The designations of the electrodes are the s me as for the point-contact transistor. However. At the junction. this combination produces a germanium diode. and make low resistance contact. This new device. In the N region. and the common electrode is designated the base. In order to adhere to the general . the electrode on the right is designated the collector. are soldered to their respective sections. is formed by sandwiching a thin layer between two relatively thick P areas. 2-6 t e negative potential at the emitter electrode pushes the free electrons towards the P-N junction. conduction in the transistor is decidedly different from that in the diode or point-contact transistor. A P-N-P junction transistor. a number of electrons pass this barrier and enter the P base region. it was observed that a combination of P. lthough the junction transistor is a physical combination of two germ nium diodes. 2-5. Some of these electrons combine with holes in the P base region. As will be seen later. In effect. make the P-type section common to both. P-N-P Transistor Operation. Observe that in Fig. illustrated by Fig. 2-7. the polarities of the potential hills formed are opposite those formed in the N-P-N junction transistor. the narrow middle section is required for proper transistor operation. As in the case of the N-P-N junction transistor. the electrode on the left is designated the emitter. Since the emitter battery acts to flatten this emitter-base potential hill. the electrons are attracted to the positive collector. The number of electrons crossing the barrier is proportional to the value of emitter battery potential.and N-type germanium form a P-N junction. shown in Fig. as discussed in Chapter 1. The loss of electrons in the P base region remains low (approximately five percent) because: (1) the base section is thin. In actual construction. and (2) the potential hill at the collector-base junction acts to accelerate the electrons into the N collector region. In Chapter 1. namely: the emitter (biased for f rward or high conductivity). but most pass through and enter the N collector region. and the base (which connects to the common Pjunct on area) .circuits for several years to serve as second detectors. the collector (biased for reverse or low onductivity). all junction transistor electrodes. for further simplification. and has been used in other circuits where its excellent rectifying characteristic is useful.12 Jundion Transistors FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS Construction and Operation. is the basic N-P-N junction transistor. While the point-contact transistor required the relatively high-resistance point contacts used for the emitter and collector electrodes. Consider now the effect of combining two germanium diodes into one unit and. The germanium diode has been incorporated in television . a potential hill is set up by the action of the fixed donor and acceptor atoms.

If an emitter current of one milliampere is assumed. The collector current in either type of junction transistor is less than the emitter current because of the recombinations of holes and electrons in the base junction area. + eeeeeee - + C Fig. The new holes immediately move toward the junction area. and the rest move toward the collector. As each hole reaches the collector electrode. . Since this potential hill is reduced by the emitter bias. Thus a continuous flow of holes from the emitter to collector is maintained. 3. This analysis of the junction transistor leads to the following general observations: l. Conduction in the P-N-P junction transistor is similar to that in the N-P-N type. and biasing the collector in the high resistance direction. The major current carriers in the N-P-N junction transistors are electrons. . 2·7. A small number of holes (approximately five percent) is lost by combination with electrons within this area.(I rna. Gain Factors. The holes in the P emitter region are repelled by the positive battery electrode toward the P-N junction. a number of holes enters the base N area.TRANSISTORS AND THEIR OPERATION 13 rules of biasing the emitter in the low resistance direction. 2. In an actual case. the voltage gain of the junction transistor is considerably @ e (2/ DOttOR ATO»S ACCEPTOR ATOMS ELECTRONS HOLES e + e ® e+e e + ++ .05) = 0. the collector current is less than the emitter current by a factor proportional to the number of hole-electron recombinations that take place in the base junction area. thus forming a new hole in the vicinity of the emitter. an electron from one of the covalent bonds near the emitter electrode enters that terminal. It is evident that in both types of junction transistors discussed. Basic P-N·P transistor.95 rna. however. the collector current is I rna. aided by the action of the collector-base potential hill.. it might be expected that its voltage gain will be less than that of the typical point-contact transistor. the collector emits an electron to neutralize the hole. The major current carriers in the P-N-P junction transistors are holes. x . For each hole that is lost by combination within the base or collector areas. Since the current gain(a = !:)Of the junction tran- sistor is always less than one. a typical rate of recombination is five percent.. As an example. the polarities of the external bias batteries are also reversed.

(81 (6) Typical junction . 0 ~ '" 30 "' !:i g so ~ 20 a: 20 0 > . After the critical voltage is attained.000 .-.a 500 ' The high voltage and power gains of the junction transistor as compared to the point-contact transistor are due primarily to the high collector resistance. As discussed previously. . ~ _. attracting electrons from the more remote areas of the pellet. respectively. Figure 2-8 (A) illustrates the Vc-1c characteristic of a typical point-contact transistor.000 1 805 PG . Typical values of emitter input and collector output resistances are 500 ohms and 1 megohm. Thus. The point of electron exhaustion is reached very abruptly.000. since there is no hole space-charge effect in the junction transistor to increase the available supply of electrons. 10 0 <. .. To understand the factors which cause the relatively high collector resistance of the junction transistor as compared to the relatively low collector resistance of the point-contact transistor requires the aid of typical collector current-voltage characteristics. the electrons available for collector current decrease gradually. Since the voltage gain is the product of the current gain and the resistance gain. it must be expected that the resistance gain is large. _. Transistor Comparisons. As the collector voltage is raised above 5 volts. a large increase in collector W -.1900 VG . '\ 500 -. _ 2( ro] _ (95) 2 1..0 (MILLIAMPERES) 0 <J 0 2 4 COLLECTOR CURRENT-Ie 6 (MILLIAMPERES) 0 Fig. = so 40 >40 u C <J . (AI (A) Typical point-contad Vc-Ie characteristic. the current continues to increase. Thus. _. 2·8.000. the voltage gain _ ro _ 95 (1. Vc-Ic characteristic. or 0 _. the holes in the point-contact transistor set up a positive space charge in the vicinity of their flow paths.0 COLLECTOR CURRENT -Ie B 2. Here the Vc-1c characteristic again follows an Ohm's law relationship at small values of collector voltage. although at a diminishing rate due to the lack of available electrons in the transistor.> 10 A 0 1.FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS larger than that of the point-contact type.. Figure 2-8 (B) illustrates the Vc-1c characteristic of a typical junction transistor.a-r-.

called the "alpha cutoff frequency. However. . and from point B to C the col= 1. increases the current by less than 10 microamperes. increasing the light intensity from 3 to 6 millilumens increases the current approximately 100 microamperes. The cell is biased by the battery in the reverse direction. the collector resistance from point A to B is 2 XOi~_3 lector resistance is . The current value is low at this time because of the high resistance of the junction. This is not intended to create an impression that the entire field of semiconductors is limited to these two fundamental types. :~o 3 250 ohms. 2-9 (B). This limit. and the resultant high resistance gain. approximately ten microamperes of current flow. it appears that an unlimited number of variations of the original transistors is possible. Commercially available transistors with collector resistances in the neighborhood of 3 megohms are common. However. However. The photocell is connected in series with a battery and a load resistor. the load current increases at a rate proportional to the light intensity. In this chapter and those that follow. The basic transistors have an upper frequency limit due to the small but finite time it takes the current carriers to move from one electrode to another. a thorough understanding of the prototypes is essential. These characteristics are illustrated by the typical operating curves shown in Fig. silicon-type junction transistors are inherently capable of far greater values.000. Several of the more significant devices will now be considered. The frequency response characteristics of transistors are considered more fully in Chapter 7. when light strikes the P-N junction. Under these conditions. At this time." defines the point at which the gain is 3 db down from its low frequency value. The collector resistance is equal to the change in collector voltage divided by the resulting change in collector current: r. The P·N Jundion Photocell Figure 2-9 (A) illustrates the essential construction and connections for the P-N junction photocell.TRANSISTORS AND THEIR OPERATION 15 voltage causes only a very small increase in collector current. Notice that increasing the voltage from 20 to 100 volts. the germanium point-contact and junction transistors are considered at great length. ~le For the typical junction transistor characteristic illustrated. since their characteristics are basic to other semiconductor devices. the junction transistor is capable of far greater voltage and power gains than the point-contact types. and with no light striking the P-N junction.05 Because of the large collector resistance. while holding the light constant. = ~~e.000 ohms.

the effect of the emitter voltage on the collector current is decreased. When the light is removed. Theoretically. and increasing the number of available current carriers. (A) P-N junction photocell construction. Thus. 0 100 3 MILLILUMENS DARK 0 20 40 60 BATTERY VOLTS eo 100 ( B) Fig. light from any source is composed of tiny particles of energy called photons.. thereby creating free electrons and holes in the germanium. In addition. The ratio of change in emitter voltage to the resulting change in collector current defines the backward transfer or feedback resistance. At the same time. The feedback resistance in a transistor acts similarly to the positive feedback parameter in a vacuum tube circuit. This resistance is reduced to approximately 50 ohms when the contact spacing is increased to .) The feedback resistance of a transistor with a normal . When germanium having lower conductivity (fewer impurity atoms) is used. it has been found that wide-spaced transistors have some novel and useful characteristics. in effect photons are bombarding the surface of the element and their energy is being absorbed by the germanium. due to increased spacing.. operating curves. (8) Typical junction photocell Basically. the frequency response of this transistor decreases rapidly with increased contact spacing. the frequency operating band varies inversely as the cube of the contact spacing. an increase in the normal contact spacing from .002 inch contact spacing is about 200 ohms.015 inch has no effect on the transistor current and power gains.J . 2·9. (The feedback resistance and other related transistor characteristics are considered in greater detail in Chapter 3.ssince the functioning of this transistor requires an intense electric field. In spite of this. OJ :E 12 MILLILUMENS (l300 9 MILLILUMENS PN JUNCTION ELEMENT II (A) 0: 0 i ~ 200 6 MILLILUMENS z OJ 0: 0: ::J 0 0 . The total energy absorbed is sufficient to disrupt some of the covalent bonds in the element.16 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS ~ 400 0: . when light strikes the P-N junction element. Wide-Spaced Transistors It was noted previously that the emitter and collector contacts of the point-contact transistor must be closely spaced for normal transistor action.015 ..002 inch to as much as . the current decreases rapidly because of the recombination of holes and electrons.

the frequency cutoff (the frequency at which the current gain drops sharply) is inversely proportional to both the base resistance and to the square of the thickness of the junction layer. The P·N·P·N construction. aided by the action of po· tential hill number 2. The P-N-P-N Transistor Figure 2-10 illustrates the construction of the P-N-P-N junction transistor. The holes pile up at this barrier. designated as b2. Transistor Tetrode The frequency response of the conventional junction transistor is limited by several factors. 2. Figures 2·11 (A) and 2-11 (B) illustrate the structural and symbolic representations of the junction transistor tetrode. move into the middle N region and enter the base. In addition. The increased contact spacing has little effect upon other transistor characteristics. First. is capable of a current gain. and their cumulative positive space charge reduces the effect of the potential hill. unlike the P-N-P or N-P-N junction transistor. In comparison it must be remembered that the current gain of the prototype junction transistor is inherently limited to values less than one. but are trapped by the third potential hill in the collector area. the holes move in the direction from emitter to collector. This low value insures circuit stability at relatively high values of power gain. . For satisfactory operation. because of the space charge effect of the holes. the frequency cutoff is also inversely proportional to the collector junction capacitance. transistor Basic P·M·P·N construction. Despite this. a fourth electrode. the usable frequency range is reduced to about 1/50 of its normal value. In operation. In this transistor. Some electrons are lost through combinations with holes. both of the central P and N regions must be narrow. considered only at high frequencies. As a result. but the connection is made on the opposite side of the layer. The fourth electrode is connected to the P junction layer in the same manner as the conventional base electrode. but most of them.Ll #2 HILL #3 G88GG8 G88GG8 LOAD Fig. electrons from the collector area encounter a decreased resistance at the junction and are able to flow into the central P region.10.TRANSISTORS AND THEIR OPERATION 17 inch. Germanium with higher than normal resistivity is used to compensate for the narrowing of the usable frequency limits by the wide contact spacing. allows the current gain to reach values in the vicinity of 20. The base resistance is reduced subHILL #1 H. is included. This transistor.

5 to 5 megacycles. The frequency response cutoff is increased from 0.000 to 40 ohms. Tetrode junction . an increased bandwidth is obtained at the expense of lower available gain. b2 _. (BI stantially when a negative bias is applied to the second base electrode.18 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS -. . The current gain is reduced from . Thus. This effectively reduces the base resistance. The bias prevents that part of the emitter junction which is near b2 from emitting electrons into the P layer. (8) symbolic representation.75. and the collector resistance is reduced from 3. In a typical case this bias reduces the base resistance from 1.5 megohms. the frequency response increases.95 to .ransisto r: (A) structural representation. For proper operation.!_ N P N ~ ~ (AI + Fig. The resulting bias current is approximately one milliampere. the second base electrode is biased to about -6 volts with respect to the base. as a result. The collector junction capacitance is reduced by decreasing the collector junction area.0005 inch). The effect of the junction area thickness is decreased by using very thin P layers (roughly . 2-11. the change in emitter resistance is negligible. Thus all of the transistor action takes place near the base.0 to 1.

THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR This chapter deals with basic four-terminal' analysis in general. The sealed network may be. consider the case of relating the acoustical input to a microphone in a multi-link transmission circuit to the acoustical output of a receiver. however. One of the most useful methods of equivalent representations is by means of the four-terminal network. Once accomplished. The basic principles and connections for measuring transistor characteristics are discussed. the important characteristics of the transistor. however. the voltage gain. or twoterminal pair network) is shown in Fig.). Hence. In the four-terminal method of analysis. is located between the input and output terminals. some readers may be dismayed at what appears to be an excessive number of derivations. This system involves transmission lines. These important design equations are noted by an asterisk (. very complex. For electronic devices. in effect. it is frequently convenient to represent a device by an electrical equivalent. problems involving the same system or device are a matter of routine and become simple substitutions of numbers. the current gain. This invariably eases the task of optimizing the design. The advantage of this type of representation is that only one basic analysis of a particular device or system is required. other 19 . electrical. 3-1. since the device is. While the mathematics involved in the analysis of the transistor has been held to a bare minimum. Terminals a and b represent the input to the network and terminals c and d the output. including the open-circuit parameters. acoustical. that a thorough understanding of the transistor requires a general knowledge of the mathematical analysis leading to the major design formulas. and is considered sealed. As an example. and the specific application of four-terminal network analysis to the transistor. and the conditions for image input and output resistance match are derived. the complete intermediate system between the microphone input and the receiver output is represented by the sealed box. Four-Terminal Networks Chapter 3 In all types of engineering circuit design. which represents the equivalent of a device or any combination of devices. reduced to a simpler equivalent form. the power gain. and mechanical power and transducers. It cannot be overemphasized. and a comparison between the transistor and the electron tube is considered. The four-terminal network (also called a coupling network. and often is. electronic circuts. The network itself. so that electrical measurements can be made only at the input and output terminals.

Z22 is the output impedance with the input open. attenuators. therefore. do contain internal sources of energy. The grid and plate voltages of a tube are usually considered the independent variables. General Four-Terminal Network Analysis The general four-terminal active network is fully described by the relationship between the input and output currents and voltages. currents and voltages within the box are a result of the application of energy to the external terminals. and that the equivalent circuit invariably contains a minimum number of parameters which can be directly related to external measurements. Passive networks are those that contain no source of energy within the sealed box. Four-terminal network. the other two values are automatically determined. COl!ven- advantages are that the basic equivalent circuit can be modified to include the effects of high-frequency operation. four-terminal network analysis is applicable because one of the electrodes is common to both the input and output circuits. Z22 = E2/12' when 11 = o. Z21 = E2/ll' when 12 = o.. grid voltage. Z12is the feedback or reverse transfer impedance with the input open. 3·1. = z. 3·1. including the transistor. Active networks. Examples of these. because if any two are specified. This situation is exactly the same as that in the conventional triode electron tube. and plate voltage. and their respective currents then become the dependent variables. and transmission lines. Although the conventional transistor has but three external connections. Zll = EI/I1J when 12 = o. plate current. the general voltage (loop) equations are: z.20 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS Fig. The performance of the transistor can be completely defined by the voltage and current measured at the input and output terminals. Z12 = El/12' when 11 = o. Actually only two of the four values are independent. Z21 is the forward transfer impedance with the output open. 11 + Z1212 and E2 = Z2111+ Z2212 where Zll is the input impedance with the output open. where the four values are the grid current. tiona I desig nation. Four-terminal networks are divided into two general classifications: active and passive. Examples of passive networks include filters. include all types of amplifying devices. Referring to Fig. . on the other hand.

when E1 O. Since the general case may have amplification in both directions. The forward current amplification factor. E1 = ZUll and E2 = Z2111' . definitions are included for forward and reverse directions. and in terms of admittances 11 = _(Y12 r. Yu II/E1. 12 = ~: . Y22 is the output admittance with the input shorted. Y12 = 11/E2. Y 22 = 12/E2. On this basis. when E1 = O. ~12 .. a12. a21 = -ffiWhen E2 =0 and in terms of admittance Then 0 = E2 = Z2111 + Z2212' a21 Solving these equations = -( ~: )= ~:~ -r::v-..J /1-21' \ The forward voltage amplification factor.when = O.THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR The equivalent 21 current (nodal) equations are 11 YUE1 Y12E2 and 12 Y21E1 + Y22E2 where Yu is the input admittance with the output shorted. Y21 12/E1. is equal to the ratio of ft21 the open circuit output voltage to the input voltage. Then 0 = E1 = ZUll a12 + Z1212' = -( ~~) = a12 Solving as before. a21. is equal to the negative ratio of the current at the shorted input terminals to the current at the output terrminals: a12 = -( ~~ when E1 = 0 ). where E2 O.J (Y21 \ a21 = The reverse current amplification factor.v. is equal to the negative ratio of the current at the shorted output terminals to the current at the input terminals. Y 12 is the feedback or reverse transfer admittance with the input shorted. when E2 O. Y21 is the forward transfer admittance with the output shorted. = = + = = = = = Amplification factors are the best general index of an active network.

- = Z1212 and /L12 E2 = Z2212· Thus = E. In this case. 2 (B). Equivalent circuit of a triode: (A) with negative grid bios.=-Z--and the open circuit input voltage to the output 11 = O. The choice of this type of operation is dictated on the basis of reader familiarity with .22 Thus /L21 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS . these are p'eg = iprp + ep eg = igTg + p. two equations are required to describe the network completely.pep This analysis of triode vacuum tubes on a four-pole basis is not limited to the grounded-cathode operation of these tubes. Then E1 = ~~ E1 when Z12 -z.(~~:) Vacuum-Tube Analysis on a Four-Termin'" Basis Figure 3-2 (A) illustrates the familiar case of a conventional grounded-cathode triode operated at low frequencies with its control grid biased sufficiently negative so that no grid current flows. As in the previous case. . 22 The reverse voltage amplification factor /L12 is equal to the ratio of voltage. /L12 /L12 E2 Z21 = -E. the network is completely described by a single equation: /Leg= iprp + ep The four-pole equivalent network for this same circuit when the grid draws current is illustrated by Fig. 1 11 . Since the grid current ig is zero.------1) PLATE GRID _Ig _ip PLATE CATHODE {Al {Bl Fig. (It should be noted at this point that the current arrows in this diagram and those that follow indicate the direction of electron flow. (B) with positive grid bias.- In terms of admittance = . ~21 on an admittance basis /L21 = .y .. the grid signal voltage ep causes a voltage /Leg to appear in series with the plate resistance.. Since there are two voltage loops in the case when the grid is driven positive.) The applied grid signal causes a voltage /Legto appear in series with the plate resistance rp. the grid voltage acts across a series circuit consisting of the voltage /Lpep and the grid resistance rg• The term /Lpequals the reverse voltage amplification factor: /Lp= ~. 3·2.

In vacuum tubes the input grid voltage is plotted against a plate characteristic. The transistor. The analysis that follows is based on small signal inputs which satisfy the requirements of linearity. (C) plate. (8) grid. The main factor contributing to differences between tube and transistor characteristics is that the transistor is primarily a current operated device. and grid resistance is particularly useful in design applications. the resulting parameters are called the small-signal parameters. in which there may be two possible grid voltages for a given set of grid and plate currents. amplification factors. while a vacuum tube is a voltage operated device. Vacuum Tubes Compalred with Transistors Representation of a vacuum-tube circuit by an equivalent circuit which includes its transconductance. A similar type of linear analysis is applicable to the operation of the transistor. only three tube variables exist. the circuit.THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR ~ 1E. however. In the transistor. In addition. As a result. _ i. This reason governs the choice of current as the independent variable in transistor work as opposed to the choise of voltage in the representation of vacuum-tube characteristics. This situation is somewhat similar to that existing in a vacuum tube that draws grid current. In the transistor. transistor parameters correspond closely to tube parameters. four independent parameters are necessary to specify its characteristics completely. The basic four-terminal current-voltage relationships for all three cases are illustrated in Fig_ 3-3. it is possible to have two or more sets of currents for one set of voltages. This treatment greatly simplifies analysis in those applications of the tube's operating characteristics where a linear approximation is valid. As will be seen shortly. plate resistance. both the input and output currents and voltages are significant. 3·3. When the grid of a vacuum tube is held negative with respect to the cathode. because the output voltage is approximately a linear fune- . For this reason.l E2 1. The grounded-grid and grounded-plate connections (which have useful counterparts in transistor circuitry) may be analyzed in similar fashion. I Fig. r 23 _j_ 2 E. there can only be one set of voltages for a specified pair of input and output currents. always has four variables. since the grid current is zero.2 (6) _ 0 (A) (e) Four·terminal network ground connection: (A) cathode. E2 IE.

The grounded-cathode vacuum tube is a voltage amplifying device having a high input impedance and a relatively low output impedance.24 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS tion of the grid voltage. In transistor circuitry. or any other combination meet- (81 Fig. Note again that the transistor input current is selected as the independent variable rather than input voltage. 3-5C) . the parameters are readily measured. a "pi" pad of three equal 300-ohm resistors (Fig. are usually positive. 3-4. Examples (B) and (C) are particularly well suited to transistor application because the resulting parameters are of significance in transistor physics. Its equivalent transistor circuit. 3-5B) . The significance of the impedance parameters is covered later in the chapter. Figure 3-4 represents only three of the many possibilities. the grounded emitter transistor. a similar curve can be formed by plotting the collector voltage as a function of collector current for a fixed value of input current. Type. (el . Then the network may be a shunt resistor equal to 200 ohms (Fig. 3-1 the input and output resistances remain constant with frequency and are each equal to 200 ohms. a "T" pad of three equal 100-ohm resistors (Fig. 3-5A) . For example. and are not extremely dependent on the exact operating point chosen. The derivations of these equivalent circuits are based on the relationship between the input and output currents and voltages. The indicated circuits are equivalent in that they all give the same performance for any given set of input and output characteristics. assume that for the sealed network of Fig. In addition. is a current amplifying device with a low input impedance and a relatively high output impedance. Several types of equivalent circuits can be used to represent the transistor under small signal conditions. of four-terminal equivalent circuih.

the grounded cathode connection. also produces maximum power gain and is adaptable to cascading without impedance-matching devices. and emitter current can be compared with the plate current. Four-Terminal Analysis of Transistors Like the vacuum tube triode. it is reasonable to assume that the transistor collector voltage. Based on this similarity. it is plotted along the abscissa. 3-6 (B) . the grounded emitter connection is most popular because it provides maximum obtainable power gain for a specified transistor and is well suited to cascading without impedance-matching devices. 3. plate voltage. however. Examples of terminal network •. The numerical plate voltage shift caused by a change of one volt in the grid voltage is defined as the amplification factor JL of the tube.. 3-6 (A) and those of the typical triode vacuum tube illustrated in Fig. and grounded collector. Since the collector current is the independent variable. The numerical shift in collector current caused by a . The derivations of active networks are admittedly more complicated than this simple example. the transistor has useful properties in any of the three possible connections: grounded base.5. applying a signal to the transistor emitter shifts the collector current along the load line. collector current. Examining the tube characteristics. four- (e) ing the required input and output characteristics.THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR 25 100 OHMS INPUT RESISTANCE • 200 OHMS 200 OHMS OUTPUT RESISTANCE • 200 OHMS INPUT RESISTANCE • 200 OHMS 100 OHMS 100 OHMS OUTPUT RESISTANCE • 200 OHMS (A) (8) OHMS INPUT RESISTANCE • 200 OHMS 300 OHMS 300 OHMS OUTPUT RESISTANCE • 200 OHMS 300 Fig. but the basic principles are exactly the same. Most of the present literature starts with the grounded base connection because this configuration is the most convenient for describing transistor physics. 3-6 (A). Typical characteristics for a junction transistor in grounded base connection are shown in Fig. In circuit work. it is seen that a signal applied to the grid shifts the plate voltage along the load line. grounded emitter. in apposition to the method used in plotting vacuum tube characteristics. The vacuum tube counterpart of this circuit. In a like manner. Notice the similarity between the junction transistor characteristics in Fig. and grid voltage of a triode vacuum tube.

tube characteristics. (A) Typical junction·transistor characteristics. The input signal Eg is taken from a signal generator that has an internal resistance Rg• The output circuit is between the collector and the common base and consists of a load resistance RL• In the small-signal analysis which follows. while the transistor operates with the emitter biased in the forward or low resistance direction. Equivalent Passive "T" Network. and collector. and the low input and high output impedances in the transistor circuit. 0: .~ 40 ~30 :> o .::-__ --:=. In the analysis of the transistor on a four-terminal basis. 3·6. and the capacitive junction effects may be considered negligible. respectively. the entire device is treated as a sealed box with three external terminals e) b) c) designating the emitter.."0 . while the transistor is a current controlled device. 3-7 (A).__ (AI Fig. Insofar as input characteristics are concerned. in which the input signal is applied between emitter and base. It is also assumed that the operating frequency is low enough so that the transistor parameters may be considered pure resistances. then. This re-emphasizes the basic difference between the vacuum tube and the transistor: the vacuum tube is a voltage controlled device. 10 ~_. In the output circuits.26 FUNDAMENTALS of TRANSISTORS 0" . The current amplificaton factor of a transistor... base. it is assumed that the transistor is biased in the linear region of its operating characteristics. the vacuum tube normally operates with its grid biased in the reverse or high resistance direction. These biasing conditions produce the high input and low output impedances in the vacuum tube circuit._:_--:.. This basic four-terminal network is illustrated in Fig. . corresponds to the voltage amplification factor of a vacuum tube... a similar relationship exists. The plate of a vacuum tube is biased in the forward direction. LOAD --:~LINE (Bl (8) Typical vacuum- change in emitter current of one milliampere is defined as the current amplification factor a of the transistor.J ~ 20 5 . while the transistor collector is biased in the reverse direction. :> .

This is typical of a four-terminal passive network. = 0. rll = r.when i. Under these conditions.THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR 27 The simplest method of approaching the analysis of the equivalent transistor circuit is by an equivalent "T" network with no internal generating sources (passive basis) . rll = -. r22 =-. (B) Transistor equivalent "T" on a passive basis. (A) The basic cIrcuit for transistor four·terminal network analysis. The backward transfer resistance with the input terminals open e. 'c rll = re + rb '21' 'b '22' 'c + 'b r12• rb (B) rll• re + rb r21r12• rm+ rb rb r22crC+rb Fig. it is only necessary to measure r12 or r21. + rb• D. 3-7. + rb• B. the transistor parameters can be completely specified by the following terminal measurements: A. (e) Transistor equivalent "T" on an active basis. (e) . Equivalent Active "T" Network. 3-7 (B) .- eo Ie when i. e. While the passive network serves as an interesting introduction to transistor analysis.Ie when i. it does not describe this device completely. = 0. Input resistance with output terminals open. The forward transfer resistance with the output r21 =-. In the practical case. = 0. r21 = rb• C. because the transistor is known to be an active '. then. The output resistance with the input terminals open. r22 = r. r12 =-. r12 = rb• Notice that the forward transfer resistance is equal to the backward transfer resistance. = 0. This circuit is illustrated in Fig.Ie Ie terminals open eo when i.

The basic difference between the equivalent circuits representing the active network and the passive network is the voltage source e = rmie inserted in the collector arm. the first subscript refers to the voltage. Thus. For example. the collector resistance r. . The only difference is the value of the forward transfer resistance r2V which in the case of the passive network equals rb. the passive network determines three of the characteristics of the active network. In general. and the voltage source rmie. Substi- rm· --lere r. Thus. = aie' e = aiere. and in the active network equals rm + rb. it can be related to the collector resistance by a resistance parameter tuting this latter equality. the equations for an active network under ideal conditions (that is. the most widely used configuration is illustrated in Fig. = rml. the base resistance rb. Measuring Circuits. 3-7 (B) and 3-7 (C). The parameter rm is represented as a resistance since it acts as the proportionality constant between the input emitter current and the resulting voltage source in the collector arm. the output resistance r22' and the backward transfer resistance rl2 are the same for the passive and active networks shown in Figs. 3-7 (C) . + rb The four parameters in this active network are the emitter resistance re. Figure 3-8 illustrates the four basic circuits for measuring four-terminal parameters. and the resistance of the load is infinite) become: rn = r. + rb r12 = rb r21 = rb + rm r22 = r. In addition. r12 is the ratio of the input voltage to the output current. while r21 is the ratio of .. Since i. a = ~ r. . . a positive signal applied to the emitter produces an amplified positive signal of the same phase at the collector. e = alere =: Ie . and the second subscript refers to the current. the input resistance rn. There is no phase inversion in the grounded base connection. Since a is a dimensionless parameter.28 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS network. The double subscript designations on the general resistance parameters of the four-terminal network (those designated rw r12. The mathematical logic of the resistance rm is easily derived as follows: In preceding chapters. a =~ age introduced into the collector circuit is e = iere. r2V and r22) refer to the input terminal I and the output terminal 2. The equivalent circuit of the transistor can be represented in a number of ways. The equivalent volt- rm. when the resistance of the signal source is zero. In the case under consideration. the current gain a was defined as the ratio of the resulting change in collector current to a change in emitter current.

If a low resistance source is used.::rc{lJ rll• !. The third source of error. Errors are also introduced by the capacities between emitter and base. and between collector and base..THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR 29 . These designations also indicate whether a test signal is applied to the input or output terminals. The larger the signal input. since the current will always be measured at the terminals where the test signal is applied. this is true only if the source impedance is very much greater or very much smaller than the transistor input resistance. There are several sources of error inherent in this use of small-signal inputs to evaluate the parameters of a transistor. the error is proportional to the ratio of the internal resistance of the signal source and the input resistance of the transistor.. the amplitude of the input signal is assumed to be independent of the transistor resistance.__il SI~~!~ '" °2 r (B) ). A second error results from the internal resistance of the signal source. In measuring any of the parameters. The magnitude of the error caused by the shunting action of the doc bias supply is proportional to the ratio of the transistor input resistance and the doc supply resistance.. These capacitance effects are comparable . - (D) Fig. °1 =!= (e) - (22 • °2 1. 3-8. If a high resistance source is used. In the practical case. to make this error negligible. results from the shunting action of the input voltmeter and the input doc bias supply on the input signal. the magnitude of the resulting error is proportional to the ratio of the transistor input resistance and the resistance of the signal source. when small signal inputs are assumed. the signal must be held sufficiently small. The first error is due to the non-linearity of the characteristic curves.t. However. the minimum useful signal is limited by the transistor thermal noise.m (A) - r21· it e2 L SIGNAL TEST SIGNAL '12 = 1. the greater the error. the output voltage to the input current.. 'I J C '" . Thus.. The first effect may be made negligible by using a very high resistance voltmeter. Basic circuits for measuring four-terminal parameters.

Then Eg(rb+re+ RL) i1 = (R R Eq. + rb) + i2rb Eq.rb (rb + rro) i2 = Eg(rb + rm) Eq. 3-9. + rb' If these values are substituted in equations 3-3 and 34. + rb + RL) Eq. 3-9 makes it fairly evident that the input resistance r11 as seen by the signal generator depends to some extent on the value of the load resistance RL. (34) (Rg + r. 3-9. Fig. The Grounded Base Connection Equivalent Operating Circuit. r12 = rb. namely. (3-1) Output loop 2: . (rb + rm) Under ideal conditions. A cursory look at Fig. r21 = rb + rm' and r22 = r.r. they may be solved simultaneously for the two unknown currents i1 and i2.rroie= ilrb + i2 (r. In the audio frequency range. and RL is infinite. + ~ i. + rb) (rb + r. The input current is designated iI' and for the common base connection is equal to the emitter current ie. having an internal resistance Rg. + d . i1 and i2 can be evaluated in terms of the ideal or open-circuit parameters. it was previously found that r11 = r. On a basis of Kirchoff's Law. these errors are generally neglected.30 FUNDAMENTAlS OF TRANSISTORS to the plate to grid and cathode to grid capacitances in a vacuum tube. RL) . Fig. The collector output current is designated i2. (3-3) g + re + rb) (rb + r. 3-10. (Rg + r. + rb r+ RL) Since ie = iI. Simplified transistor equivalent circuit for analysis of input resistance rl' .The signal generator Eg. such as illustrated in Fig. the transistor equivalent circuit must be considered using a practical circuit. when Rg equals zero. At this point. the loop equations for the circuit of Fig. (3-2) Since these two loop equations are independent. Equivalent circuit far graunded base connection. + rb. and the output resistance r22as seen by the load resistance is determined to some extent by the value of the generator's internal resistance Rg. A load resistance RL is connected between the collector and the common base. then o = h (rb + rro)+ i2(r. 3-9 are: Input loop I: Eg = i. is connected between the emitter and the base.

It is evident that the maximum current gain is obtained when the load resistance RL = O. (RL + r22) + rll ) (R) + r22 L + rll) Egr21 a r12r21 i2 = (Rg (RL + r22)_ r12r21 = ~. 3-9 can now be computed in terms of the transistor parameters and the transistor four-terminal open-circuit parameters. (3-8 B)· r. A frequently used form for the current gain. 3-10. but does not take into account the effect of mismatch between the signal generator resistance and the input resistance of the transistor.Eg [(Rg + re + rb) (rb + re + RL) g + r.11 Eq.~ + ~ RL . This series circuit is expressed Eg = il (Rg + rl) or 12 ~"g Substituting equation 3-3 for il R .-. (3-8)· a = --=---. = (12 ~'"g z. it may be neglected in equation 3-8A. (3-8A)· ao a =----:-r22 rb + r.ao . = = -- a= l+~ Eq. (3-10) ++ + Eq. (3-9) - rb (rb + rm>JE q. Since rb is very small in comparison with either rm or re. (3-7)· and in terms of the open-circuit parameters. (J-l1) .cc=---RL + r22 The current gain as derived in equations 3-7 and 3-8 indicates the effect of the load resistance RL on a. The current gain. Thus. (3-6) r. r. and a rather accurate estimate of the maximum current gain is a . is Current Gain. which incorporates the maximum current gain ao.THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR 31 Eq. E" + rl =-. the current gain is the ratio of equation 3-6 to equation 3-5 r21 Eq. rb . when the circuit is work11 ing into the load RL• becomes the ratio of equation 34 to equation 3-3 rb + rm a = rb + re + RL Eq. The input resistance of the grounded base transistor shown in Fig. (3-5) Eq. Since the input resistance as seen by the signal generator is r" Fig 3-9 may be simplified as shown in Fig.. the maximum r21 rb + rm Eq.rm Eq. Eg(rb + re+ RL) ru (ru + rm) = Rg r. (3-8C)· r22 Input Resistance.

rll = 550 ohms. = ilrb i2 (r. r. 3-11.15A) E2 = il (rb rm) + i2 (r.. For the typical point-contact transistor. which' illustrates the equivalent circuit for analyzing the output resistance.000 OHMS r22'I2.000 ohms. = ii' then Eq. (3-15) Loop 2: E2 . . t hen r./'" rll' 250 OHMS rl2' 100 OHMS r21' 24. the transistor input resistance varies from 50 to 250 ohms as the load resistance changes from zero to infinity. r12 = lQOohms. 3-11 and 3-12.. rb + RL) + = = = + + + + + + . (3..OOO OHMS °IK 10K LOAD RESISTANCE RL (OHMS) I I I III tran- I MEG Fig. The'. (3·13)· r22 RL The effect of varying the load resistance on the input resistance can be best appreciated by examining Figs.900. equations for the two loops on the basis of Kirchoff's law are: Eq. r21 = 24. Output Resistance} To' The output. ru 250 ohms.. .32 300 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS 250 i· 200 §. + RL Eq. resistance can be found in a similar manner. Notice that in the case of the pointcontact transistor. respectively. (3·14) Loop 1: 0 = il (Rg r.000 ohms.+ ~~+~ + r. For the typical junction transistor.. + rb) i2rb Eq. which illustrate the r. (3-12)· Eq. and r22 12. + rb RL) Since i. Input resistance VI load resistance for typical point_ntact sistor (grounded base).000 ohms. r12 = 500 ohms. r21 = 1. and junction transistors. The junction transistor input resistance varies from 75 to 550 ohms as the load resistance is varied from short-circuit to open-eircuit conditions.~ -lOOK I-" rl' - 250 OHMS WHEN RLIoOO 50 OHMS WHEN Rl "0 .000.. rb . Consider Fig. vs RL characteristics for typical point-contact. 3-13 (A) .000 ohms._'" I-- ~ 50 -rl' ~ ~ /" /' /' .rmi. and r22 2.rb and in terms of the open-circuit parameters = .

3-13 (B). 3-14 and 3-15 (for the same point-contact and junction transistors considered in the preceding section). rll The latter equation indicates that the output resistance depends to some extent on the value of the signal generator input resistance. + r.. In the case of the typical point-contact transistor. Then E2 = (RL +ro) i2 or RL + r. E2(rb r. The variation of r.. + re + rb) (re + rb + RL) .. -. +rb + RL) -rb (rm + rb) Looking back into the transistor. . (. 300 ~ . is illustrated in Figs.rb (rm+ rb) E (3-18) L + r. i2 = (R. ~ 200 100 -rl' 75 OHMS I-' . .. (3-17) + J = r.THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR 33 Solving the two independent equations 3-14 and 3-15A for the unknown load current. (3-16) (R. the transistor Then r 800 II 500 iii :a % 2 z ~.... o rm In terms of the open-circuit parameters r12r21 r.... + Rg) q.~ ilL (OHM$1 I I III 100 MEG Fig.R + Eq... + rb) rb (rm+ Eq.9MEGOHMS r 22' 2 MEGOHMS 10MEG ~OAg IIE$I$TAN(.. (3-19) = r e + r b _ rb + r..... the generator E2 with its internal resistance RL sees the output resistance rooAgain the circuit may be simplified as shown in Fig..1""" I I MEG r" • 550 OHMS r12• soo r 21• OHMS 1.r -: . = ~ 12 Eq.~m Eq. R Substituting equation 3-16 in 3-17... iii ::> II: .1-20). Input resistance ys load resistance for typical junction transistor (grounded base).. 3-12. + rb)E2 Eq..O V .E2 [(R.. .. . + rb + RL - :: ~mr./ / AT RL. . . r- ~ --" AT l r1'550 RL I +-H" OHMS S CI'O 400 .. (3-21)· . = r22. vs R. . + r. +rb) (r.

'" .000 ~ ro . 3-9.. if equation 3-8 is substituted for ~ for rl in equation 3-22 the volt- ~ inequation .. it is seen that the voltage gain VG = ~2. II! in 10. '" 0 .13.000 OHMS '22' 12. . Output resistance vs generator resistance for typical point-contact transisto...000 OHMS o I I III 10K 10 100 GENERATOR RESISTANCE IOHMS) Fig.000 ..000 to 2. '" z :! .400 to 12.000 "'" I IK Rg 'II' r12• 250 OHMS 100 OHMS r21· 24.12.34 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS (B) Fig. (3-22) 3-22 and if equation 3-13 is substituted 12POO ~ = a. Voltage Gain VG.000.. Eq.--+- r=H-i" OHMS ..000 AT Rg'OO 2 epoo V / l- V ~ 6. (grounded base)... 3.. = Rio i) ~ Rg + rl 1 i1 (Rg + rl). 3-14.000 ohms as the signal generator internal resistance increases from zero to infinity. The junction transistor output resistance varies from 270. (8) simplified circuit. AT Rg'O __'V ~ 2. ~G Since~ Since E2 =~ i21~ = i2RL and z. ~ .000 II_ I.J. Analysis of output resistance ro' (A) equivalent circuit... V r0 " 24100 OHMS / 4. output resistance varies from 2. Looking again at Fig.000 ohms as the signal generator internal resistance increases from zero to infinity.

I point-contact transistor. "" .. V rll' 550 OHIIS OHMS '12.000 + 2.000) (200 550) . F or t h e typlca I" junction .. (25.0 1.450.000) .000) (25. . .0 ..900..4 :t. transistor.(1..8 1.000 OHMS AT Rg'O 35 iii i . for typical age gain becomes: r21Rr.000) (1. 270..000) 42.1 p ~V I'0 ' 2 IIEGOHIIIS AT R.2E_ rll ..000 + 12.'IIEGOHIIS P 1.. t h e maximum VG = 24.500 '21' I./ ~ 10 '22' i MEGOHMS o I 100 GENERATOR RESISTANCE Rg IK (OHMSI I I III Junction 10K Fig. and VG (2..8 6f. 3·15. .000) = = 1. + A comparison of the maximum and operating gains of the typical point-contact and junction transistors indicates that the junction is cap- . ! .1 665 -.4 1.900.. o .ao ~ ~ a: I:> :> :> .. Assuming typical values of RL = 25. Z V /1..000.000.1 ..000) VG _.. Output resistance .000 ohms.000. VG 96. Under these conditions the maximum VG =.THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR 2.550 (1. and Rc = 200 ohms _ (24. Assuming typical values RL 1 megohm.000..4 2 rO.6 1.000 =~ 3.r12r21 Notice that the voltage gain is maximum when RL is infinite and Rc is zero.000 550 Rg = 200 ohms . VG=---------=~~~--------~ V +r 11 (RL +r22) [ A'S VG = r12r21~] r22 + RL} Eq. (3·24)· (RL + r22) (Rg + rll) .000) (200 + 250) _ 100 (24.2 2.." generotor transistor (grounded resistance base).. F or t h e typica Eq. (3-25)· t h e maximum .. . (3-23) r21RL Eq.2 1..

36

FUNDAMENTALS

OF TRANSISTORS

able of furnishing much larger voltage gains. This explains why the junction transistor is invariably used in audio amplifier circuits. The power gain (PG) of the transistor can be calculated from the product of the current gain and the voltage gain or found directly from the ratio of output power to input power. PG = a (VG) The theoretical maximum power gain is the maximum current gain and the maximum voltage gain. However, the condition for maximum current gain is RL = 0, and the condition for maximum voltage gain is RL = infinity. Since these conditions are in opposition, the problem of finding the maximum power gain involves matching the input and output resistances of the transistor. The maximum power gain is obtained when the internal resistance of the signal generator is equal to the input resistance of the transistor, and the load resistance is equal to the output resistance of the transistor, that is Rg = r, and RL = rooWhen these conditions are simultaneously satisfied, the transistor is image impedance matched. Input and Output Impedance Matching. Equations 3-13 and 3-21 indicate that the input resistance is affected by the load resistance and, conversely, the output resistance depends on the generator internal resistance. Thus, starting with a given load resistance, if the generator resistance is changed to match the input resistance, the output resistance of the transistor changes, thus requiring a change in load resistance, and so on. In the following analysis, the proper values of generator and load resistance which satisfy both the input and output matching conditions at the same time are determined. Let r1 equal the proper value of input resistance and generator resistance. Let r2 equal the image matched value for the transistor output resistance and the load resistance. Then: r1 = Rg = r, and r2 = RL = roo Substituting for RL and rj in equation 3-13 r12r21 Eq. (3-26) r1 = rj = Rg =,rn + r2 r22 Solving in terms of r12r21 Eq. (3-27) (rl - rn) (r2 + r22)= - r12r21 Substituting for Rg and r, in equation 3-21
Eq. (3-28)

Again solving in terms of r12r21 (r2- r22) (rl + rn) = - r12r21 Eq. (3-29) Equating equations 3-27 and 3-29 (rl - rn) (r2 + r22) = (r2- r22) (rl + rn) Eq. (3-30) Cross multiplying and cancelling equal terms, rlr2 - r2ru + r1r22-rllr22 = r1r2 - r1r22+ r2rll - rllr22 2rlr22 = 2r2rn Eq. (3-31)

THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR

37 Eq. (J-J2)

or

rl rll This latter equation indicates that matching the input and output resistances for maximum power gain requires their values to be in the same ratio as the open-circuit characteristics of the transistor. The absolute value of the generator internal resistance and its matched input resistance in terms of transistor open-circuit parameters can now be determined. Substituting the equality r2 = rlr22 into rll equation J-26, r12r21rU rl rllEq. (J-JJ) r22(rl + rll)

=

(rl - rll) (rl

+ rn) = -

= r12-

r1l2

Eq. (J-J4) Eq. (J-J5) Eq. (J-J6).

In terms of the stability factor, 8 =

, which will be defined later rllr22 in the chapter, the input image resistance r1 = ru2 rUr22 = rll Eq. (J-J7)· rllr22 rUr2~ For the typical point-contact transistor previously considered, when ru = 250 ohms, r12 = 100 ohms, r21 = 24,000 ohms, and r22= 12,000 ohms, the numerical value of r1 is

-1i=8

r1 = 12,000 L250(12,000) - 100 (24,000)
250

r.

]

= 112 ohms

For the typical junction transistor, when ru 550 ohms, r12 ohms, r21 = 1,900,000 ohms, and r22= 2,000,000 ohms, rl = 2,000,000 L550 (2,000,000) - 500 (1,900,000)
550 Ii ]

=

= 500

= 203 ohms

The output image resistance of a transistor can be determined in a similar fashion from the ratio

Eq. (3-38)

38

FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS

Eq. (3-39A)
Eq. (3-39B) Eq.

(340)·

r12r21 = r22~ rllr22 rnr22 For the typical oint-contact transistor 12,000 r.. 1 r2 = 250 t¥50 (12,000) - 100 (24,000)J For the tical 'unction transistor ,05~O00 ~50 (2,000,000) - 550 (1,900,000~

r2 =

Eq. (341)·

= 5,370 ohms

= 740,000 ohms

These values may be checked on the RL os rl and Rg us r, characteristics plotted for these typical transistors in Figs. 3-11, 3-12. 3-14, and 3-15. Negative Resistance and Transistor Stability. Consider the general expression for input resistance
Eq. (3-13)

input resistance rl is positive as long as rll is greater than

This condition is most difficult to attain when the output is shorted, namely when RL = O. For the transistor to be stable under this condition, rllr22 must be greater than r12r21'The stability factor is the ratio of r12r21to rllr22' The stability factor 8 = r12r21 must be less than rllr22 unity for short-circuit stability. Substituting the equivalent transistor parameters for the grounded base connection into the stability equation, the following relationship is obtained: rllr22 > r12r21becomes (rc + rb) (r, rb) > rb (rm rb) Eq. (342) Expanding equation 3-42, rcre + rcrb rbre rb2 > rbrm+ rb2 Dividing through by rb r.rc r, + r, +--> rm Eq. (343) rb This equation emphasizes the importance of the backward transfer resistance rb, since when rb = 0, the transistor must have a positive input resistance. On the other hand, if the value of rb is increased by adding external resistance, it is possible to reach a condition where a normally positive

r22

r12r2

+

it
L

+

+

+

+

is less than rm. EL2 h en P L- (Rg EiRJ. In the case of the junction transistor. rllr22 again must be greater than r12r21. is always greater than rm. Typical circuits incorporating this principle will be considered in Chapter 6. is (3-21) that r22 is greater than n. 3·16. of a network is defined as the ratio of the power dissipated in the load to the power available from the generator. then.The same stability factor and equations then exist for both the input and output resistances. Fig. It is evident. Before determining the power gain included in transistor circuits. For the transistor to be stable under this condition. the output resistance r. that one method of fabricating a transistor oscillator is by adding sufficient resistance to the base arm. + r. + rll This condition for stability is most difficult to meet when the generator resistance is equal to zero. .THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR 39 input resistance becomes negative. Eq. In the general output resistance equation. Figure 3-16 illusstrates a signal generator Eg with an internal resistance Rg feeding into a load RL• The total power delivered by the the power dissipated in the load PL t =~. Notice. however. The conditions for negative output resistance are obtained similarly. Power Gain. some definitions must be considered. Simplified transistor equivalent circuit for analysis of power gain. it is found that the load power is maximum when Rg = RL• Under this condition the power available from the generator P_ a -- EiRg (2Rg) _ 2- 4Rg Ei The operating gain. that increasing the total base resistance eventually causes the input resistance to become negative only if r. and increasing the base resistance cannot produce a negative input resistance. G. r. + Rd 2 By using conventional calculus methods for determining conditions for maximum power.

In order to solve for the maximum power gain in terms of the open-circuit parameters.. and when the load resistance is matched to the transistor output resistance.FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS For the general transistor circuit of Fig. rll) (RL + r22). the available gain r12r21) r212 4Rgr22 ---.12 L . AG. 2 4r1r2r21 E q.(Rg rll) (RL + r22). ~ G =~= + + Eq.a r22)-r12r21] 2 . of a network is defined as the ratio of the power dissipated in the load to the power available from the generator when the generator internal resistance is matched to the input transistor resistance. the image-matched input and output resistances. The power dissipated in the load E22 __ r21 2 £. MAG = 4 (rll ~ (r22 1 . When RL = r. AiLfG.8 rll) (r22 \II .:.(350) MAG = :12 [( r1 + ru ) ( r2 +r22) . then AG = ~ a. Pa g (R. the maximum available gain. ru Pa Substituting in equation 3-46.2=-12_-:__ ~ r12r21] (Rg + ru) 2 [ r22.r12r2~ where rl = rllvr=i Eq.g2RL Eq.r12r2l q. AG = + + . 3-9 E --' R Egr21RL E (3-44) 2 .a) r212 Eq (3-51) [(rtl + OJ 1.rl2r2 The available gain. 01 a network is defined as t e ratio of the power dissipated in the load to the power available from the generator when the load is matched to the output resistance.. Then. (3-45) PL r21 RL (Rg rll) (RL + r22). (3-37) and r2 = r22VI=8 Eq. for r1 and r2.r12r21 2 (Rg + rl1) (r22 rll + n. = r22r12r2l . (3-48) R-":gr. (3-47) r12r21}] + r22 . (3-41) Substituting equations 3-37 and 3-41 ~n equation 3-50.r"1-1 R + The maximum available gain. ( AG = ruRI( Eq. previously determined. are substituted in the operating gain equation 3-46.r12 + + The operating gain 4R R r21 2 Eq. (3-46).

and when assuming Rg 50 ohms and RL = 8.8.000) 1(25J 250 + 50 J + Rg) 2 -= 80 + 50) 2 The maximum available gain MAG MAG = = (24. (3-54) Eq.IS 250 (12.000) ( 1 + 1 (1 ~21y'l ) 2 r11r22 -S = 92 100 (24.000) 11 250 (12.000 ohms.000.000~2 .000 ohms. when assuming Rg = 100 ohms and RL = 1. becomes = 4RgRLr221 G = [(Rg + rll) (RL + r22). Rgr221 The available gain. S = = . when rll = 250 ohms.000 (50) (24. f12 == 500 ohms.000.r12r2~2 G [(50 + 4 (50) (8. r21 = 24. For the typical junction transistor in which ru 550 ohms.THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR 41 MAG from which derives 4r221 (1-8) rllr22 (y'l-S) 2(1 + VI-S) 2 Eq.000 ohms. AG = [r22 -( rl~1~2iJ]<rll AG= [12. (3-55)· For the typical point-contact transistor. which indicates an unstable condition.100 (24.900. r22 = 12.000) 2 100 (24.000). r12 = 100 ohms. and r22 = 2.000 ohms. If the stab~ factor is greater than one. the numerical value of the quantity y'l-S must be negative.000») r12r21 .000) (24. the operating gain G. 100 (24. r21 = 1.000 ohms.000 + 12.000) 2 _ 71 3 250) (8.000) = rUr22 .000) 0. the operating gain Notice that the stability factor.000 ohms.000)'f 250 (12.

000. In transistor application the Zener voltage has the same design importance as the inverse voltage rating of a vacuum tube.900.OOO)1. the Zener voltage field is around 2 x 1011 volts/centimeter.000 From equation (3-55) MAG = 500 (2.p.000 + 2.000)J 1.000) ( 550 (2.OOO. In Chapter 2.r12r2~2 2 + 550) 4 (100) (I. This voltage is called Zener voltage.444 AG= [2.000.000.The value of capacitance is primarily a function of the junction area.[(Rg G = [(100 + ru) 4RgRLr221 (RL + r22) . In the equivalent network. the collector junction capacitance was mentioned in connection with transistor high-frequency characteristics. some additional and important characteristics must be defined.500 (1. Zener Voltage If the reverse voltage applied across a P-N junction is gradually increased.900. In germanium.000) Y I = 2.000) . or by forming the junction so that the transition from N region to P region is a gradual process.000) 100 (1.000)2 1+ 500 (1. a point is reached where the potential is high enough to break down covalent bonds and cause current flow. 100) 2 - (1.900. varies in units of the same type. but for a typical junction transistor is approximately 10 p. A transistor junction with a Zener . The Zener potential for a transistor junction can be increased by widening the space charge layer.000)1(550 550 + 100 J + _ 1 583 .000) 2 500 (1.000.900.000) 2 ( (1.900.400 Junction Capacitance Before the actual transistor circuit is considered. this parameter acts in parallel with the collector resistance.000. The value of collector junction capacitance C. since it defines the maximum reverse voltage which can be applied to a junction without excessivecurrent flow. although it also depends on the width of the junction layer and the resistivity of the base layer.f.42 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS G- .900.

The first is formed by thermally generated carriers which diffuse into the junction region. leo is in the vicinity of 10 microamperes. from local defects in the germanium. the value is considerably higher in defective transistors. This is the collector current that flows when the emitter current is zero. = .THE GROUNDED BASE TRANSISTOR potential of 70 volts would therefore have a space charge layer of 70 35 X 10-11 centimeters. The saturation current is composed of two components. The ohmic component may be separated from the true or thermally caused value by measuring the collector current at different values of collector voltage. or from a combination of these two factors. I co Another important transistor characteristic is the saturation current leo. The second component is an ohmic characteristic which is caused by surface leakage across the space charge region. In properly functioning transistors. 2 x 1011 Saturation Current.

particularly in the case of the junction transistor. rb. the grounded emitter.000 ohms = rm rb. = 1. . then r.500 ohms r22 = 2. = 50 ohms r21 = 1. then r. because transistor input and output circuits are never inherently independent of each other. these same complex characteristics provide for a more flexible device. for all practical purposes r21 rm and r22 re' = = + + + + + + = = Fig. = 150 ohms r21 = 24. one capable of many circuit applications beyond the range of the vacuum tube.000 ohms = rm rb. (A) The grounded emitter connection. In the long run. rb. however. (8) Equivalent active "T" for grounded emitter connection. are so much greater in value than rb. limitations of the transistor. and the grounded collector.500 ohms Notice that since rm and r. This chapter deals with the extension of the four-terminal characteristics developed for the grounded base to encompass the two remaining connections. the same typical pointcontact and junction transistors discussed in Chapter 3 will be used for numerical examples. This makes it difficult for a newcomer to get the "feel" of the transistor.900. then rm = 1.000 ohms = r.899. then r. Introduction In the following analysis of transistor performance in the grounded emitter and grounded collector connections. a comparison of the major features of the three basic connections. then rm = 23.999. For the point-contact transistor in the grounded base connection. rb. rb. 4-1.900 ohms For the junction transistor in the grounded base connection: r12 = 500 ohms = rb ru = 550 ohms = r.900 ohms r22 = 12.000 ohms = r.000. and transistor testing methods.Chapter 4 GROUNDED EMITTER AND GROUNDED COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS The design and servicing of the transistor circuit is more complicated than that of the vacuum tube. = 11. the parameters are: r12 100 ohms rb ru = 250 ohms = r. then r.

= 0. r12' r21. Since this effective reversal of input leads is the only physical difference between the two connections. Eq. r21 = r. the input loop equation on the basis of Kirchoff's law is: . (4-4) D: r22 e2/i2 when i1 = 0. 4·1 (A).2) B: r21 = e2/i1 when i2 =0. to evaluate the open-circuit characteristics rn. However. It is necessary then. 4·1 (B). . since the internal parameters of the transistor have been rearranged. (4·1) A: r11 = el/i1 when-ii. unlike the grounded base. r11 = r. (4. Figure 4·2 is the complete operating circuit of the grounded emitter connection.GROUNDED EMITTER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS Fig. Operating circuit. since the characteristics were determined on the basis of a sealed box. Figure 4·1 (B) illustrates the equivalent active "T" circuit for the grounded emitter connection. . rb Eq. Thus. may be used to determine the fourterminal parameter for the grounded emitter connection: Eq. illustrated in Figs. r. produces a phase inversion of the input signal. The grounded emitter connection is illustrated in Fig.rm C: r12 = el/i2 when i1 = 0. in this case. 3·9. the polarity of the signal in this connection is reversed with respect to the emitter and base terminals shown in the grounded base connection of Fig. The general open-circuit characteristics derived for the grounded base connection apply equally well to the grounded emitter and grounded base connections.. In this case the input connection is made between the base and emitter electrodes (conventionally the emitter is shown schematically as an arrowhead resting on the base). The Grounded EmiHer Connection Operating Circuit. and r22 in terms of the transistor internal parameters re. ground. rb. Circuit Parameters. r. r12 = r. Notice that although the negative side of the signal generator is grounded. The same basic measuring circuits. 4·2.rm These grounded-emitter relationships are derived as follows: Equivalent + = + A. and the output is taken between the collector and the emitter. and rro. ed emitter connection. the emitter is the common electrode. Using Fig. 3·8. (4-3) Eq. r22 = r. the grounded emitter. the values of the general characteristics are different.

r12. = 150 ohms r21 = r..rm = 150 11.500 . _ el _ il (r.rm) r21 --. .rmie = ilre + i2 (r. . when il el = i2re.899.899.500 = -1. + r. 4-1 (B) on the basis of Kirchoff's law is: e2. . + rb = 50 500 = 550 ohms r12 = r. i2 = 0. =0 C.-.e2 il (r. with respect to r.rm) _ r22 --.rm) + + + + + then D. when il = 0.999. then .rm)The emitter resistance.re 12 12 + re-rm The open-circuit characteristics can now be numerically evaluated for the typical point-contact and junction transistors previously considered in Chapter 3.rm = 50 1.rm Using the same equations as in C above. produces degenerative (negative) feedback. el = il (r. The degenerative effect of the output current = = + = + + = . Notice. + rb ru --. r21 in the practical case can be approximated by -rm' and r22 by (rc .rm = 50 . + re .899. = r12 in the grounded base connection. rather than regenerative (positive) feedback. . is the feedback resistance and is equivalent to r.500 = 100.--. 11 11 r.rm = 150 .rm) _ e2 _ i2 (r.900 .-=. 11 11 + rb) r..rm) when i2 = 0. + rb For the same input loop equation.900 = -11. r.850 ohms For the junction transistor in the grounded emitter connection: rn = r. The output loop equation for Fig.rm) i2 (r. however. . e2 = i2 (r.450 ohms r22 = r. For the point-contact transistor in the grounded emitter connection: rn = r. r. that since there is phase inversion in the grounded emitter connection.2~.(il + i2) Substituting for ie' e2 + rm(il i2) = ilre + i2 (r.900 = -23.750 ohms rn = r. + rb = 150 + 100 250 ohms r12 r.23. + r.. .1.. 50 ohms r21 = r. . .46 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS when then B.050 Because of the large values of rm and r. re) e2 = il (re . e2 = il (re -. . re) Also ie = . r.1. + r.

determines whether the current gain is positive or negative. the current gain is a. Current Gain in the Grounded Emitter Connection.750 15. IS a.000 _ 11.rm Eq. (4-6).899.) Notice that the current gain becomes very large for values of Rr• slightly larger than -r22' For example. RL. is: rn -1. is negative. since it is found that the point-contact transistor is unstable when RL is less than -r22.500 _ 11.450 -19. This is normal in the grounded emitter connection.750 -36. a.0 r22 100. if RL is greater than the absolute value of -r22.000 ohms. 12. = = -23. r21 and r22 are both negative.450 -9. emitter connec- re .54 (Equation 3·8A for maximum current gain.5 RL 100. A negative value of current gain indicates simply that the input current is inverted in phase. if -23. 100. Theoretically.850 = = The current gain in the junction transistor is always negative in the grounded emitter connection.6 RL 12. a. since r22 is always positive. does not apply in this connection. is positive. a.500 ohms.850 -7.1. an infinite current gain is attained when RL = -r22' The current gain of a typical pointcontact transistor with a load RL = 15. (4-5) In terms of the transistor parameters in the grounded tion now being considered.050 = = The maximum current gain. The current gain for the typical grounded-emitter junction transistor with a load . a. The value of the load resistor. as in the case of the grounded nection. .050 base con- 110=--= . RL +re + re-rm In the case of the grounded-emitter point-contact transistor.o =~ r22 .000 + 100.000 ohms is a. If RL is less than the absolute value of -r22.GROUNDED EMITIER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS 47 through r.899. is similar to the degenerative action of an unbypassed cathode resistor in a grounded cathode vacuum tube. The current gain in terms of the general Iour-terminal parameters was defined by equation 3-8 as: Eq.

.. I:> r-....2' 50 OHMS r21 = -1..rm) rl re + rb _ r..500 AT RL. The input resistance was defined in equation J-lJ in terms of the general open-circuit parameters as: rl = ru .. .600 =--~ I I I III I '1 '1.. z .750 OHMS '22' -"... 800 400 r-.. + r.:< 2 0 \ IPOO '" z in \ ~ en II: I:> 0. _ rm RL ~ = + 1 parameters in the Eq_ (4-7)· ZPOO I I I I I I _ <II 1..: <..... '1' 250 OHMS AT RL:oo '" ! 1 1'"-:--- I I III OHMS t+ -1. 4-3_ Input resistance vs load resistance for typical point-contad (grounded emitter)_ transistor Input Resistance ri for the Grounded Emitter Connection.l rl~21 \ ~r22+RLl The input resistance in terms of the transistor grounded emitter connection becomes: re (re . ~ en in '" It: 0. ·-50 OHMS AT RL'0 "-r-.450 OHMS '22' 100. '" '550 OHMS '...000 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS iii :II J: 2POO .O OHMS :II J: 2 '" o 1.200 .... Input resistance vs load resistance for typical jundion transistor (grounded emittec')..899.000 '" • 250 OHMS '12' 150 OHMS '21' -23... ....850 -zPOO I IK 10K lOOK I I III I MEG LOAO RESISTANCE RL (OHMSI Fig.050 OHMS <..48 3.. !----0 1---- '.. I- -1-1 r•• 550 OHMS AT RL= 00 ! o 10K lOOK IMEG LOAD RESISTANCE Rt (OHMSI II 10 MEG Fig_ 4-4....

+ rb The output resistance in terms of the internal the grounded emitter connection becomes: ro = re -+. . the point-contact transistor can be used as an oscillator in the region where RL is less than -r22' Circuits of this type are called "collector-controlled oscillators. respectively. (4-8)· The effect of the value of the signal generator resistance is illustrated for the point-contact and junction transistors in Figs. and becomes more negative as the load resistance increases. In the typical transistor considered. The input resistance for the point-contact transistor starts at a value of -40 ohms for RL 0. + RL is equal to or greater than = .rm) ) Rg + r. and this characteristic can be used in transistor oscillator design. and for the typical type considered. to 550 ohms for an infinite load." The input resistance of the junction transistor is always positive. when Rg is infinite.500 ohms at RL = 0. Negative values of input resistance indicate circuit instability. the input resistance becomes positive. becomes negative and gradually approaches the limiting condition. As the load resistance increases beyond this point. r.000 ohms as Rg is increased from zero to infinity. decreasing in value to the limiting condition rl = rn = 250 ohms when the output is open-circuited. When RL = -r22. rl = r22 = -11. and decreases rapidly to zero when Rg is slightly less than 50 ohms.rm -t.49 The effect of the value of the load resistance on the input resistance of typical transistors is illustrated in Figs. 4-5 and 4-6. Output Resistance ro for the Grounded Emitter Connection. Notice that the output resistance of the point-contact type is positive at Rg = 0. As Rg is increased further. Circuits of this type are called "base-controlled oscillators. The range in which both the output and input resistances of the point-contact transistor are positive can be increased by adding external resistance in the emitter arm. Thus. consequently. This increases the effective value of r. the input resistance decreases from a value of 1. (r. The output resistance was defined by equation 3-21 in terms of the general four-terminal parameters as: = r. r.000 ohms to 100. the point-contact transistor can have a negative output resistance over a large range of generator resistance values. the input resistance is infinite." The output resistance of the junction transistor is always positive. 4-3 and 4-4.GROUNDED EMITTER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS .re .~-'-:-"----::"'-- Eq.850 ohms. = r22-~R:l~2~n1 transistor parameters in r. r12' Notice that if enough external resistance is added so that the effective emitter resistance r. gradually decreases from approximately 273.

. a.. -6.750 r22' -11...L--..850 iii II: II- .-..000 r" • 250 r'2 • 150 OHMS OHMS OHMS OHMS r2' ...L O ---L.-l-LL. ::> ::> 0 ....050 OHMS I- 1 MEGOHMS AT Rg..... 4-6.850 Rg e oc OHMS -'2. . i'1'-.. 10K Fig.!_-..0 2.5 - -.OO-::----L_-L___jl_L.. ~ '\ ~ iii 21 r -zpOO 2 .000 ::> e. transistor 3...... generator resistance for typical junction transistor (grounded emitter).LJ GENERATOR RESISTANCE Rg (OHMS) lttffi LI..50 OHMS r21 • -1...... Output resistance v. 2..4S0 OHMS rZ2..OOO.0 r-..!.5 o 10 100 GENERATOR I I I III RESISTANCE Rg (OHMS) I..r--.000 ~ t- ra AT ::I 2. r. AT d~IIIIII rO =-11..oo e• ra - l- 0.. ::> 0 -apoo -'0.loo. ... Output resistance v.....!: en Z -4. 2.899... generator resistance for typical point_ntact (grounded emitter)... ..... o .L. ra' AT .. ..!_--'---'--'--L.._ to r" • 550 OHMS r'2. .5 ...!: en in II: l- 1.. -...---. ..0• Fig.~...L..73 Rg-O MEGOHMS iii 21 :z: 0 _ ! .200 Rg'O OHMS ! 0 'r-.-___jLl_J_..P . . .50 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS 2........L.-'. .. <.000 t----+--+-+-+-+-I-++t---+-+--1t-t-H+++---"' .-23.!' o z ..

000 _ 11. For the junction transistor.. vo tage gam . VG = r -r (RL + r.rm) RL Eq. _ . rn which in this case becomes Max. Voltage Gain VG in the Grounded Emitter Connection.GROUNDED EMITIER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS Sl . Again this merely indicates that the input voltage is inverted in phase. = 100.850) (10 250) _ (150) (_ 23.rm).(50) (. like the current gain.000) (10 + 550) .050) I .23.23.5 + = + IS =- . rb For the point-contact transistor. . + r b) - r. is negative. As in the analysis of the grounded base connection in Chapter 3. an d t he maximum I .1. with RL ohms.899.899. the stability must be less than unity for short-circuit stability.11.r12r21 The voltage gain in terms of the transistor parameters for the grounded emitter connection becomes: VG = (re . This stabilizing effect of adding resistance to the emitter load is frequently used in transistor circuit applications.850) = 1.23.750) 250 (.000 ohms and Rg 10 ohms.750 (30.(30. The numerical value of 8 for the typical point-contact transistor is 150 (..450 550 =- o.750) 86. Impedance Matching in the Grounded Emitter Connection. (re .(r.450) . assuming RL = 30.1. the input and output resistance is positive.1.000 . (4-9).450 (100.2.000 ohms and Rg = 10 + 100. + r. VG=--. IS -918 an d t h e maximum vo tage gam . The voltage gain was defined by equation 3-24 in terms of the general fourterminal parameters as: (RL + r22) (Rg + rn) . This re-emphasizes the fact that the point-eon- . Q 460 Notice that the voltage gain in this connection. the voltage gain is _ VG (100. VG = r21RL The maximum voltage gain defined by equation 3-25 is: r21 Max.rm) e m Eq.000) VG . - rm) (kg + r. (4-9A) r.899.750 250 =- 950 .

This is just an> other way of expressing the requirement that the stability factor. 1S 550 (100. evaluating the operating gain for the typical point-contact transistor when RL = 1.899.J. This does not mean that the grounded emitter connected transistor can oscillate and supply a power gain at the same time. 8 = 4 (10) (1000) (. 50(-1. Without going too deeply into the mathematical concepts involved. r1 is 550v'1 .19 = 250v'. The operating gain is defined in equation 3-46 as \I'T'=8. G= + G= 0 However.050) . equation 3-46 can only be applied when (Rg + ru) (RL r22). The negative sign is merely a mathematical indication of the phase inversion of the ampliifed signal. the condition equation becomes rUT12 r12r21 O. the transistor is unstable and will oscillate. It is certainly possible to obtain an apparently valid power gain in an unstable portion of the transistor characteristic if numerical values are haphazardly substituted.850) . its numerical value must be positive.000 ohms. For the typical junction transistor. The output image resistance defined by equation 3-41 as r2 = r22~ also is imaginary for the point-contact transistor. The input image resistance is defined in equation -'-37 as: rl = rn The input image resistance of ~int-contact transistor is numerically equal to 2500 . but rather that the operating gain equation can only be applied conditionally. For example. The numerical values of the voltage and current gains are always negative in the stable range of operation of the grounded emitter connection.( .1l. transistor is short-circuit stable in the grounded emitter connection.750) 2 4l..23.050" 1 . r2 is 100.000 ohms and Rg = 10 ohms.52 FUNDAMENTALS • OF TRANSISTORS tact transistor in the grounded emitter connection is unstable when the output is short-circuited.000ohms. 4RgRLr221 (Rg rn) (RL + r22).. W IC con irms t e act t at t e juncnon .1. The stability factor for the junction transistor . Since the power gain is a function of the product of the voltage and current gains.1. rl is imaginary and cannot be built into conventional signal sources. Power Gain in the Grounded Emitter Connection.73) = 908 ohms.4 + .r12r211 2 Note that since r21 an the bracketed quantity in the denominator are squared.r12r21 is greater than zero.19.450) _ 179 hi h f· hf h he i .150(23..73) = 165. Fig. the numerical value of this equation is always positive. For the junction transistor. Since the quantity under the square root sign is negative. the worst possible case.l.(. 4-3 indicates that at a load of RL = 1.750)2 ~ (10 + 250) (1000. When Rg and RL equal zero.

G 14POO = E1450 4 (1450) (10.750»0.150 (..850) .000 .GROUNDED EMITTER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS r12 --.21 r 53 con- r11r22 .. In the typical point-contact transistor under discussion. but the selection of operating values close to the conditional characteristic provides the greatest operating gain.000) (. ./ V II / / V -I-R.must b e Iess t h an umty.750~ 2 = 267 195000 ' If.2~. Assume that the load RL is fixed at 10. however.' • 1 emitter). Conditional stability characteristic (grounded . o 1 I' 1 1 1 lOOK 10K GENERATOR RESISTANCE Rg (OHMSl Fig. 4-7.11. Thus for Rg = 100 ohms = G= RIOO + 250) + 250) 4 (100) (10.750) 2 (10. 8 1.850) .000 6.000 . 4-7.J 4. A plot of this conditional characteristic is shown in Fig. iii :z: ct: 10POO s o . Rg = 1.11.000) (. /' ~ / / . A s a resu I t.2~. . The following example illustrates the design of a grounded emitter circuit for maximum power gain when the stability factor is greater than one.000 L g .150 (. Any combination of generator resistance and load resistance in the stable region can be used.11.750) 2 (10.2~. '850 OHMS I '" z ~ '" en '" 0: Q 8.750H = 2 I III Re"O STABLE REGION IZPOO 1--- :I.000 ZPOO / 100 L /_ j V IK / I J UNSTABLE REGION - f. t h e operating gam IS ditional when 8 is greater than unity.2~. .000 ohms for the typical point-contact transistor.2~. Figure 4-7 indicates than any value of Rg less than 1.150 (.450 ohms were selected. the conditional equation is (Rg + 250) (RL .19.850) .5~0 ohms will provide stable operation.

/1.FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS These examples prove that extremely high values of power gain can be attained by selection of RgRL values close to the stability characteristic.rm = 150 + 850 . (4-10) Eq.450) 2 550 (100. The four-terminal parameter equations for the grounded collector connection are: A.900 =. and the output is taken between the emitter and the common collector. r21 = -.900 = -22. the input signal is connected between the base and collector electrodes. + R" = 150 + 850 = 1. the selection of values RL and Rg located near the limiting line provide the greatest power gain. As an example.899. el ru =-. A plot of the modified conditional stability characteristic is shown in Fig.8) 2 can be applied to the grounded emitter connection provided that the stability factor is less than one.OOO) (-22.II.OOO)-(I. The general four-terminal parameters can be measured in terms of the internal transistor parameters using the basic measuring circuits of Fig. + R" + rb = 150 + 850 + 100 = l. 4-7. r21 = r.1. .. + R" + r.000 ohms r21 = r.terminal parameters then become: rn = r. 3-8. r221 MAG rnr12 (I + . The maximum available power gain defined by equation 3-55.. The equivalent active "T" is illustrated in Fig.when i2 = 0.340 Collector Connection Operating Circuit.23. however. The grounded emitter connection can be stabilized by adding resistance in the emitter arm. In the practical case.900 ohms r22 = r. 4-8 (B) . . .rm = 150 + 850 + II. The grounded collector connection is illustrated in Fig. In this connection. (4-11) e2 B.900 . the selected values must be sufficiently removed from the instability limit to avoid the introduction of circuit oscillation by normal parameter variations.IOO) (RL-II. assume that a resistor R" = 850 ohms is added in series with the emitter. + R.73)]2 V 9.23.050) [I + I-=-( . As before. Notice the extent to which the stability area has been increased.OOOohms Substituting these new values.900) and must be greater than zero. The numerical value of the maximum available gain for the typical junction transistor is: MAG The Grounded = (1. The four.lOO ohms r12 = r. the conditional equation becomes (Rg+I. Eq. 4-8 (A).11 11 when i2 = O~rn = rb Equivalent + r.

f12 = -. f22 Eq. e2 == ilfc e2 ilfc f21 == -. The output voltage loop equation is: e2 +fmie == ilfc + i2 (r. . when il =0.-=--=12 12 The numerical values of the four-terminal parameters can now be determined for the typical point-contact transistor. 4-8 (B). Using the same output loop equation..rm == 11. + fc. . (A) The grounded (8) grounded collector connection.GROUNDED EMITIER AND COLLECTORTRANSISTORS 5S (A) Fig. Using the same input loop equation. f12 == r. (4-12) (4-13) e2 D.r ) and f12 =-. .900 == 12.900 = -12. the input loop equation on the basis of Kirchoff's law is: el + fmie == il (fb + fc) + i2fc FOf this connection i2 == i.900 ohms r22 = r.fm 0.-=-~-. el C.-= c.-= -.900 -1l. f22 = -.fm These equalities are derived as follows: Using Fig. el i2 (r .fm) _ e2 _ i2(fe + fc-fm) f22 .- 12 == r. el = i2 (fc . el il (fb + fc) + and fn --.000 ohms r12 == r. (6) Equivalent active "T" for collector connection.-=fc 11 11 D. and el = il (fb + fc) + i2 (fc.fm)... .900 .850 ohms A. fb fc 11 11 B. + r. m = r.fm 150 + 11. el == il (fb + fc) .23.fm 12 12 C. .-= . 4-8. The values are: ru == fb + r. + fc) Since i2 ie' e2 = ilfc + i2 (fe + r.fm) when i2 = 0..fm) when i2 = 0.23. == 100 + 11.-.900 .- 12 when il when il == == 0.000 ohms r21 = r. = = = . Eq. = 11. e2 == i2 (fe + fc. when il = 0.

rn is approximately equal to r21' and r22 is approximately equal to r12. . As in the analysis of the grounded emitter circuit. (4-14) RL + r. .000 ohms. The current gain as defined in equation 3-8 is: = RL + r22 In terms of the internal transistor parameters in the grounded collector connection. Operating circuit.999.000 ohms r21 = r.rm = 1. compared to the quantities r. current gain ao a . and the equation for maximum =~ can only be applied to the junction transistor. Current Gain.999.999. grounded collector connection.500 = 2. the load resistor RL must be larger than the absolute value of r22 for stable operation.500 10 a = ---'-1=00""'.0""5""0and the maximum current gain = 1.899. ~9.999.500 = 100.500 _ 20 ao 100.050 ohms Because of the very low values of rb and r. The numerical values for the junction transistor are: rn = rb + r. r22 Numerical values for the typical junction transistor when RL = 100.000 ohms r12 = r.000. Figure 4-9 illustrates the operating circuit for the grounded collector connection. the performance characteristics for this connection can now be determined by straightforward substitution in the general four-terminal circuit equations.fm 50 + 1. Therefore. = 1.500 = 100.999. = 500 + 1. and (rc . the current gain becomes: rc a= Eq. + r.899.56 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS rb r.rm) .500 . Fig. of the Grounded Collector Connection. + re-rm The value of r22 is always negative in the case of the point-contact transistor.0=0=0-+~1 0"'0""'.050 For the point-contact transistor when RL = 15.500 . a.500 ohms r22 = r.000 ohms are 1.1.1.999.

Notice that when RL -r22.850 In operating circuits. the output resistance becomes: r. - = + r. however. Input Resistance.850 ohms. For example. 4-12 and 4-13.re + r. 4·10 and 4-11. The input resistance for the point-contact transistor is negative from RL = 0 to RL = -r22 = 11. When the generator resistance is increased beyond 50 ohms. + Rg) - (rc . ro. is il- E 4 6) .000 ohms when the output is open circuited. the output resistance is positive over the range of Rg from o to approximately 50 ohms.RL7 The variation of input resistance with load is illustrated for the pointcontact and junction transistors in Figs.850 + r22 the input resistance In terms of grounded collector transistor parameters. ri. = rb + r. (-1 resistance R. extremely high current gains are attainable. the grounded collector current gain is limited to the same order of magnitude as in the grounded emitter connection. respectively.000. with respect to the generator lustrated for both transistors in Figs.900 57 3. (4-15) (re + rc-rm) +.850 ohms) for large values of RI• The output resistance of the junction transistor starts at a value of approximate- q. The general input resistance is defined by equation 3-13: r. The input resistance of the junction transistor increases from a value of approximately 500 ohms to the limiting value rl = ru = 2. for the Grounded Collector Connection.900 119 11. 11. In the point-contact characteristic.11. = ruR L a = 15. becomes (rc .000 _ 11. As RL is increased further. in the Grounded Collector Circuit. ru7 In terms of the internal transistor parameters.rm .rm) rc The varianon of r. .GROUNDED EMITTER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS 11. This limitation is caused by the rapid increase in input resistance with an increase in current gain.84 It would appear that as the load approaches the absolute value of r22. ro becomes negative. and gradually approaches a limiting value equal to r22 (-11. and gradually decreases to a limiting value of 12. for the point-contact transistor when RL = 11.(rb + r.000 ohms. .950 . The output resistance is defined by equation 3·21: r =r r12r21 \ o 22 R.950 ohms. the input resistance becomes positive.rm) rc \ Eq. the input resistance is infinite or open circuited. Output Resistance.

::' o 2OPOO '2.050 ohms) for large values of generator resistance. .000 ~ en iii OJ 0: 0 I.0 V f-'1'500 AT RL• OHMS 0 V 'II .. ".5 o IK -I . ::J 1.. load re.5 I 2.. the grounded collector circuit using the point-contact transistor cannot be matched on an image 2. Input resbtance v. Input re.000 OHMS AT RL" 00 10.900 OHMS OHMS -12Poo IK lOOK I I I III IMEG Fig...istance v. translstar Iy 75 ohms at Rg = 0 and gradually approaches a value equal to r22 (100.58 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS 40. ... As in the case of the grounded emitter.. .AT RL' OHMS 0 .. 4-10. '1 " 30POO iii g OJ Z ..000 \ \\ "-../ ..OOO '" 1\ \ 10K OUTPUT RESISTANCE RL (OHMS) '11 "12.500 OHMS I-'" 10K OUTPUT RESISTANCE lOOK RL (OHMS) '22' rocoeo OHMS I I I III IMEG Fig. 1/ • 2 MEGOHMS '12' 0..!. -.'1 '-50 I._ _" V .000 '221'-11.850 OHMS OHMS '21' 11...5 ~ en iii OJ o '" . -B.000 '12'-12.lstance for typical jundion translstar (grounded coIlador)..999.. load resistance for typical point_tad (grounded collador). r .!. ::J ~ -4POO e.0 I AT RL" I 00 iii I II Il :I r '1 • 2 MEGOHMS ~ ~ <:' OJ Z 1.1 MEGOHMS '21 • 1. 4-11.

.istor.f-.! '" in OJ 0: 40.000 OHMS '21. I" I' I" . the grounded collector does hibit a unique characteristic when external resistance is added in collector arm. GENERATOR RESISTANCE generator re.000 '12. 'II it... 7 'II V 1/ :12 MEGOHMS r'2 • 0..000 '0 AT this exthe the = 100.ooo ~ s OJ :IE V 60. is added to 100.GROUNDED EMITTER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS 59 2.O o --+- I lOOK GENERATOR -- V V .850 OHMS "~r. since the stability factor of circuit is greater than one.000 OHMS ~" <.1 MEGOHMS '2'.tance vs generator re.900 OHMS '22-11.10K roo 75 OHMS AT Rg. rO AT '-11.g -4\000 OJ c :I: ~ 0: '" -6..850 Rg' 00 OHMS -'0..050 OHMS I IIIIEG RESISTANCE Rg (OHMS) I I III IOIllEG Fig. -12. basis without external modification..050 Rg .1..l.000 ~ => "=> lI- " -. 'r--. assume that a resistor R.. o -aooo 12.. Output resi.tance for typical junction tran. Output resistance v.000 o Z . eo. 4-13.<>0 OHMS . I- => 0 20... . 10K lOOK IK I I III Rg (OHMS) Fig.000 o f-2.. However..999.500 OHMS rua 100. :IE 2 ..11...istance for typical point-contact transistar (grounded collector). 4-12.- rO '50 OHMS AT Rg '0 -.000 l=> e..000 f-. For example.000 f-.

000 ohms r2 = .500) 100. = rm.050 (2. + R.200 ohms 100. + R. = 100 11. = 150 ohms. rn = rb + r.000 ohms.050 (2. A practical method to use in selecting values to be substituted in these equations indicates that r1 should be chosen to equal 2 percent of rn.02rll .02 (100. r.000) If the approximate values are used r1 .000 (1.670 ohms 100.02 (2. the stability factor 8 = r12r21 o rnr22 Thus.000. the modified circuit is stable. Since r12 0.000. The exact determination of the image matched resistances in the grounded collector circuit is not important.000 JI 100.999. r.000) = 40.000.500) 1. + R. -rm = 0 r21 r e + R. and r22 = r. For this modification. r2 = r22 = r. The image matched input and output equations can be applied to the junction transistor since its stability factor is always slightly less than one. The input image matched resistance (equation 3-37) is then r1 = rn ~ rn rb + r.000 (1. Thus. r12 = r.02r22 = . adding a suitable external resistor in the collector arm causes the circuit to act as a perfect buffer stage in which both the input and output resistances are independent of RL and Rg• Numerical values for the typical point-contact transistor modified to act as a buffer stage are: rl = r1 = rn = rb + r. + r. and r2 equal to 2 percent of r22. The voltage gain.000) 33. numerical values for image matched resistances are = + = = = = -v'f=8 = + + r1 = rll~ = 2.050) = 2. = r2 = r22. + R.60 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS collector arm so that R.900 12. In the junction transistor. because the power gain is constant over a wide range of load resistances when the signal generator is matched to the input resistance.001 ohms Voltage Gain in the Grounded Collector Connection. and the output image matched resistance (equation 3-41) becomes r2 r22 = r22 Notice also that rl = r1 = rn and r.999. .000 = 24. + R.rm = r. as defined in equation 3-24 by the general four-terminal parameters is: = = .000.

000) -100.000 .000 (1.999.500) . -rm) (Rg r. the voltage gain equation becomes VG = (Rc rc) RL (RL + re) (R. RL = 15.500 (100.850 . .(-12.rm) Under the conditions for infinite input resistance and infinite current gain (RL = -r22) .GROUNDED EMITIER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS 61 In terms of the internal transistor parameters for the grounded collector connection.000 ohms and Rg = 10 ohms. = rm (R.000. Thus.rm O. .000 ohms) r12 - VG = ~- = VG = = (12.000 ohms. RL VG r21RL (RL ril2) (Rg + rn) -r12r21 = = 100.983 .000) (15.000. 11.000) .900) 15. + Rc) The maximum voltage gain as defined by equation 3-25 is VG = rn r21 this becomes rc .rm (-r22 + r22) (Rg + rn) .900) .999 rn 2.000 11.r.000 _ (15. The maximum (100.000 + 100.RLr221 . + r.987 -1~.999.000 Under the conditions R.998 (10 + 2.000 = 4R. r21 1 999500 voltage gam VG =--= " .900 + 12. For the typical point-contact transistor.r12r21 VG = + = + + 11. VG = r21RL (RL + r22) (Rg + rn) .11. Rg = 10 ohms + = .000) . + Rc) + For the typical junction transistor. (rc .rm For a perfect buffer stage R.000) .000) Under the conditions RL -r22 = 11. the voltage gain is slightly less than unity. 12.. + rb) .000 + 150) (10 + 100 + 11.000 =.r12r21 r12 rc.850) (10 12. the voltage gain becomes: VG = r21(-r22) = ~= rc + re . Power Gain in the Grounded Collector Connection. (Rc + rc) RL (RL + re) (Rg +rb + r.050) Notice that in all of the above cases. + r. The operating power gain as defined by equation 3-46 is: G 1.850 ohms = = + (11.900 (15. the voltage gain becomes: rcRL Eq.900 990 Th e maximum vo1tage gam VG =~r~. (4-17)· (RL + r. when rb r.985 -1 . + r. + rb + r.I1 12. This is typical of the grounded collector connection.

= 100 11. v ~ / L V L / Rc • 3....100 ...100) (RL .000 _.. STABLE REGION .750) 8.23.... I---"" - I-" RC ·0 '" ~ .. ""4.900 ohms r21 = r.100 = 15. The conditional equation is: (Rg rn) (RL + r22) ...000 l/V' 2.11.000 ohms r22 == r.000 (11. Conditional ltablllty characteristic (grounded collector). + R./ ~ . = 11.000) > O. As in the case of the grounded emitter connection. in the collector arm.. + Re.8) 2 r221 ...8. The open-circuit parameters now become: ru = rb r.900 3..rm = 11...00O ~ 1/ . V' UNSTABLE REGION ~V :to I c 0..900 3.900 = -8.900(15.1 MEG I III 1 o ~ GENERATOR RESISTANCE RO (OHMS) I I J 111 IME G fig. V IK v 10K . assume that a resistor R.23./ -: .000 . 4-14. + R.000 I0. = 3. defined by equation 3-55: + + + + + + + + + + + + MAG = rllr22 (1 + vi .. The grounded collector circuit can be stabilized by adding an external resistance R. this gain equation is conditional for the point-contact transistor when the stability factor 8 is greater than one.900 3... The maximum available gain.900 3. 0 iii 8.100 OHMS ~ 4.000 ~ iii a: Q <II 6.750 ohms The conditional equation now becomes: (Rg 15.100 = 15. This stabilized conditional stability line is also plotted on Fig..850) + 12.... 4-14. a: ...900) > 0 The conditional stability characteristic is plotted in Fig.V ..100 .r12r21 > 0 Substituting the numerical values of the typical point-contact transistor into this equation: (Rg 12.000) (RL .62 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS 12.900 =-8.......100 ohms r12 = r.100 ohms is placed in series with re. For example.. + r. Re-rm = 150 11.

and the values of rb and r. . 6 ! " 8 .10 0: 0 0 '" " g :I \ 4 \ . 4-16.. Equivalent "T" for rever. 20 \ 10 ·0 .. The resulting four-terminal parameters for this connection can be evaluated in terms of the internal MAG = ~O ...rm) transistor 2 Eq.1. since the stability factor is not greater than one. the maximum available gain is: MAG = + 2 MAG For the typical junction = rc rc(rc . 4-15 (obove). In the grounded collector connection. The grounded collector connection also has the unique ability to furnish power gain in the reverse direction... Transistor collector Ie-Eo cha raderistlc.899. (4-19) (rb rc) (re + r. (4-20) rc 1. operotlon of grounded collector connection. ... fl.500 Reverse Power Gain in the Grounded Collector Circuit.. are negligible compared to the large values of r. This characteristic might be anticipated on the basis of the equivalent circuit.. Illustrating maximum limitotion. 4-15. 14 I I CURRENT-MILLIAMPERES -16 18 1'"A 00 2 COLLECTOR .. : \ .rm) and since r. and r. this equation can be simplified as: Eq.. \ rmie 40 30 - ~~. ~ ~ t-- .999....GROUNDED EMITIER AND COLLECTORTRANSISTORS 63 can be applied to junction transistors. and (r. <It N ..rm). . are approximately equal. 10 IO!' '" :I 12 I I :I .. .999. . (4-18)· rl1r2~(1 1) 2 rUr22 Notice that this result is nothing more than the product of the maxi- MAG = + VI - r21 2 = r21 2 mum voltage gain~ rll and the maximum current gain~ r22 . !!' MAX IMUM COL LECTOR CUR RENT . MAXIMUM COLLECTOR DISSIPATION 100 MILLIWATTS VOLTAGE 30 ccu. since the internal generator rmie is common to both the input and output circuits.. (right).500.ecrcs VOLTS :'c \ \ ~ CD 0 - :I !:! -e :I Fig. since 8 is always very near unity. Fig. The parameters maximum available gain in terms of the transistor internal is: rc Eq..rm 1. The equivalent circuit for the reverse connection is illustrated in Fig.500 20 r.

and r22 for rn. better reproducibility. when i1 = 0. re. and unless specified. Using the same output loop equation.r12 for r21' r21 for r12. . Thus. which is equal to r21 in the forward direction. The input loop equation is: e1 + rmie= i1 (r. the point-contact transistor is unstable. when i1 = 0.. the maximum available power gain in the forward direc- = = tion.rm . Therefore. 12 C.-e2 = r.FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS transistor parameters as before: A. then r12 = ~1 = re. the junction type is generally cheaper to produce. e2 = 11(r. . D. a comparison be- . It is safe to predict the gradual displacement of the point-contact transistor by the junction transistor in all but a few specialized applications. + r. rb. typical junction characteristics will be assumed.rm)+ i2(rb + re) . In practice. At this point in the book all the basic design formulas have been derived for the three transistor connections. due to the difference in comparative values of the internal transistor parameters. it can be seen that any of the equations derived for operation in the forward direction can be revised for use in the reverse direction by substituting ru for r22. when i2 = 0. However. which is equal to rn in the forward direction. ) h. which is equal to r22 in the forward direction.e2 = i2(rb + re). the remainder of the book will deal primarily with the junction transistor. = iI. Using the same input loop equation. wh'1C 1S 11 equal to r12 in the forward direction. has better reliability. r. e1 = i2re. In view of this. and rm. and a lower noise figure than the point-contact type. The output loop equation is e2 + rmie= i1re+ i2(rb + re) . higher available gain. . particularly since the frequency range of the junction type is steadily being increased by new manufacturing techniques. B. . -rm) + i2re when i2=0. the performance of the two basic transistor types is considerably different. r22rll r2 Comparison of Transistor Connections The analyses of the three basic connections and their operating characteristics apply equally to both point-contact and junction transistors. becomes MAG r12r22 r2 12 in the reverse direction. then r22 e2/il rb + re. e1 = i1 (r. e1=it(re+re-rm). t hen r21= -. On the other hand. Since ie = iI' e2 = it (r. 21 .rm. MAG =. and has negative input and output resistances. + re) + i2re Substituting i. For example. then rll=re+re-rm.

and the maximum collector current. tween the general characteristics of the three fundamental connections The grounded base connection is similar to the grounded grid circuit in electron tubes.) Figure 4-16 illustrates the three maximum limitations of a typical transistor having the following specified ratings: maximum collector dissipation . Relatively low ambient temperatures are also desirable because germanium is temperature sensitive. The grounded emitter circuit is the transistor equivalent of the grounded cathode connection in the vacuum tube circuit. high output resistance.n. and maximum collector current .30 volts.tion.GROUNDED EMITTER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS 65 is now in order. maximum collector voltage . Its matched input resistance is somewhat higher than that of the grounded base connection.100 milliwatts. the transistor has limited power-handling capabilities. it is necessary to be aware of its limitations. its matched output resistance is considerably lower. it provides respectable voltage and power gains.) Because the dissipation rating is relatively low. This transistor connection is the most flexible and most efficient of the three basic connections. Tr. and behaves erratically at higher temperatures. previously discussed).istor Limit. The grounded collector circuit is used primarily as a matching or buffer stage. but is capable of supplying reverse power gain. First. It is well suited for doccoupling arrangements and for preamplifiers that require a low input and high output impedance match. Its current gain is in the same order as that of the grounded emitter. The grounded emitter usually provides maximum voltage and power gain for a given transistor type. The third connection. (The maximum power dissipation rating of a transistor is always specified in the manufacturer's rating sheet. It has a relatively low output resistance. To use the transistor in practical circuits. Although its current gain is less than one. and no phase inversion. and does not produce phase reversal. It is characterized by a voltage gain that is always slightly less than unity. The grounded emitter connection reverses the phase of the input signal. is the transistor equivalent of the grounded-plate vacuum tube. the grounded collector. (The values of these latter factors are also specified in the manufacturer's rating sheets. the operating range is limited by the maximum allowable collector voltage (a function of the Zener voltage. a high input resistance. It offers low power gain. The useful region o£ the collector current-voltage characteristics is necessarily limited to the area contained within these boundaries. none . This connection is characterized by low input resistance.15 milliamperes. Maximum Limits. In addition. the operating temperature of the transistor is usually kept in the general temperature range of 50°C to 60°C. In circuit application.

Another method is specification of noise in db above one milliwatt (dbm). The minimum limits of the transistor are generally not critical in practical cases.000 cps. However. The noise factor on this thermal basis is the ratio of the noise power delivered to a load compared to the power delivered if the only source of noise were the thermal noise of the signal generator. collector voltage E. This method is least useful since it neither specifies amplifier gain nor bandwidth. which is well within the maximum power limits. Thus. Minimum Limits. ~t is inherently capable of operating at lower noise levels than its vacuum tube brother. when specified "with reference to thermal noise. The noise level. exceeding any of the limits may damage the transistor. load resistance RL = 10. the collector voltage is now 10 volts greater than the allowable limit of 30 volts. The collector current never exceeds the maximum limit of 15 milliamperes. which is considerably less than 100 microamperes in most junction types. the output signal varies along the load line between the collector current limits of 2 to 6 milliamperes." tells the most about the transistor. which is not reached until the collector voltage is reduced to a few tenths of a volt. because the signal is not at a constant level. values as low as 5 db have = . At present. the junction transistor is equal to the vacuum tube. by selection. Transistor Noise. The transistor. 4-16 is operated as follows: collector current I. therefore. There is some confusion in the field as to what is meant by the manufacturers' specifications on noise limits. The noise level of the point-contact types is between 15 and 30 db higher. 0 is generally negligible. = 0 and I. The noise figure of the junction transistor is about 10 db above thermal noise at 1. The error introduced by assuming the minimum limits to be E. assume that the transistor illustrated in Fig. insofar as its noise characteristics are concerned. The minimum collector voltage is set by the non-linear portion of the characteristic curve.000 ohms. A second method of noise specification is the "signal-to-noise ratio. This confusion is caused by the various manners in which the noise level is specified. because the reference value is reasonably fixed.2 milliamperes. Assume also that the a-c input signal causes a collector current variation of -+. would not be suitable for the assumed operation. = 4 milliamperes. The minimum collector current must be greater than the saturation current leo.66 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS of the limiting factors can be ignored. Since the transistor does not require cathode heating (one of the major noise sources in the vacuum tubes). The minimum signal that can be applied to a transistor is limited by the internal noise generated by the transistor." The noise figure on this basis does not tell as much about the transistor as the first method. = 20 volts. For example. and at peak signal the collector dissipation is 40 volts times 2 milliamperes (80 milliwatts).

permits a low signal input without requiring a low oscillator gain control setting. Although the manufacturer's data sheets for transistors are very useful in preliminary paper studies of circuits. as might be expected.) The following general rules aid the experimenter in obtaining reasonably accurate results for all measurements. Shunting errors are particularly noticeable in the collector circuit which may have resistance of several megohms. r21. or use a calibrated resistor decade box for the resistors. it is often necessary to make direct transistor measurements. 2. and includes the equivalent voltages E. 4. In general.000 cps) through a step-down transformer that has an impedance ratio in the order of 500: 1. 5. 3-8 illustrates the basic circuits for measuring the a-c open-circuit parameters rIl> rl2. and E2 introduced by transistor noise. The block diagram of Fig. This is required since the transistor operates on comparatively small values of current and voltage. Measure all calibrating resistors with an accurate bridge. 3. Connect the test signal (usually 1. Check the waveform with an oscilloscope. 1. These noise levels are comparable with those of the best vacuum tubes available. The waveform quickly indicates reversed bias connections and overloads. Use an accurate meter calibrated for the appropriate operating range. This keeps the measurements independent of Rg and. transistors with large collector resistance have a low noise level. and r22' (Methods for measuring a and leo are indicated later in this section. Figure 4·17 illustrates the equivalent circuit of the grounded base connection. to avoid meter-shunting effects. The noise factor is affected by the operating point and the signal generator resistance. It appears to be lowest both at low values of collector voltage and when the generator resistance Rg is equal to the input resistance rt• In general. at the same time.GROUNDED EMITTER AND COLLECTOR TRANSISTORS 67 been found. Measure the d-e bias voltages with a very high resistance voltmeter. Testing Transistors Basic Circuits. the noise energy in the transistor is concentrated in the lower frequencies and. the noise factor decreases as the operating frequency is increased. .

--_j (e) 'J < 0 PARALLEL CONNECTION Equal Voltage Method. it brings the circuit into its positive input region (stable operation). When a resistor R.-~OO:I . Again resistor R is adjusted until V = V v for which R-Rl = r1• For example... and r. a calibrated resistor R. 4-18 (A) . The procedure is the same as before except that when V = VI.. Resistor R is adjusted until its voltage drop V is equal to the input voltage VI' Since the arrangement is a simple series circuit. = R Rl+rl which in terms of the input resistance becomes: RRl = R1r. . 4-18 (B) is set up. ____.. 4-18 (C) can be used. 4-18. = 2. Equivalent voltage method of mealuring IYltem input or output rellstance. the input resistance r1 is then equal to R.68 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS TRANSISTOR SYSTEM 'I >0 (A) rj < 0 SERIES CDNNECTION (8) SIGNAL rNERATOR RATIO Fig. In this case.000 = -775 ohms. When the connection of Fig. suppose a point-contact transistor is operating in its negative resistance region. = R-Rl = 1.NC:EE----. 'I TRANSISTOR SYSTEM IMPEDA. Notice that this latter arrangement requires that R be greater than the absolute value of rl' If the only calibrated resistors available are low in value.. Resistor R is a calibrated decade box or a helipot in series with the effective input resistance of the system under test. The equal voltage method is a quick way of determining the input or output resistance of a system when the equipment is limited._-t.2252.000 ohms is placed in series with the input. Figure 4-18 (B) illustrates the equal voltage method for measuring a negative resistance. R is equal to R. This connection is illustrated in Fig. in parallel.225 causes V to equal VI' Then r. R 1. the parallel method illustrated in Fig. having a larger absolute value than that of the negative resistance is connected in series with r.

Tran. A check of two or three of the performance characteristics will determine quickly whether a transistor needs to be replaced. The operation procedure and general functional description of the circuits follows: 1. With switch SW2 in the calibrate (CAL) position and switch SWI in the current gain (a) position. at which time V = Vi. since they incorporate means for completely evaluating the characteristics of all types of point-contact and junction transistors.1408 Cz AUDIO OSCILLATOR 600 OHMS IMPEDANCE TAP RI R2 R4 R5 L • 600 OHMS OHMS • 0. In checking transistors during maintenance and repair.1 MEGOHMS • 10 MEGOHMS • 100 OHMS 4~f.i. and do not require external test equipment and meters. (1408) (500) = 500. 4-19. if Ri = 500 ohms.uring a. R is ad- justed to 1. Figure 4-19 illustrates a transistor check circuit which will measure the current gain and saturation current with reasonable accuracy. 25 VOLTS • 10 HENRYS R3 • 60.000 +6 VOLT::J_ BATTERY -=- CI.408 ohms. Then rl= Transistor Test Sets. The home experimenter and the lab technician. and leo- . SW2 .tor teater formea. adjust the signal gain of the -775 ohms.DOUBLE -POLE DOUBLE-THROW SWITCHES Fig. These testers are useful for large-scale experimental work.GROUNDED EMITTERAND COLLECTORTRANSISTORS For the same transistor 69 measured above. however. can get satisfactory results on breadboards. Several elaborate transistor test sets are available commercially. based on the techniques described on the previous pages.CZ' SWI. it is not necessary to check all the transistor parameters.

001 = 22. and rb in comparison with rm. because of the high impedance of choke coil L (over 60.1 volt.022 volt on the a-c output voltmeter connected across R~.000 cps). and the doc blocking electrolytic capacitors. 3.9 The saturation current is read directly on the milliammeter M if switch SWI is now placed in the leo position. and (r. (4-21) Eq. 2.96. removing the bias.70 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS audio oscillator for one volt across resistor R1. The doc base current bias is controlled by resistors Ra and R4• which permit a variation of from about I to 100 microamperes.022 IIGE= . the measured reading closely approximates the maximum current gain a = rI2/r21' This value of current gain for the grounded emitter connection can be converted into approximately equivalent values for the grounded base and grounded collector circuits by means of the following conversion formulas: 11GB and where 11GB _ aoE aoc--11GB I +IIGE Eq.00Ia. Practically all of the a-c output appears across the 100 ohm resistor R~. assume that a transistor is tested in the circuit of Fig. Now throw SW2 to the current gain (a) position. . this voltage equals . but can be modified easily for the P-N-P type by incorporating a switch to reverse the battery. and also shorts out the inductor L so that the six-volt battery is across the emitter and collector electrodes. 11GB . range from . and These relationships are derived by neglecting r. The output voltage across R5 is a ibR~. R5 = 100 ohms.000 ohms. 22 22 . The value of a may vary from 10 to 100. The a-c voltage may. the base and emitter resistances of the transistor are negligible. a-c base current ib• 10 microamperes.rm). Since resistor R2 is 100. The signal is now connected to the base of the transistor through resistor R2 and the doc blocking capacitor C1. and since ib = 10 microamperes. the current amplification can be taken directly on a low scale of a good voltmeter. and the high output resistance of the transistor (usually more than a megohm) . IIGC= -:96= 22.000 ohms at 1.01 to . is one milliampere. For example. The current gain = 1+22 . r. R4 is adjusted until the collector d-e bias current. Thus. The circuit as shown is only suitable for N-P-N junction transistors. Due to the comparatively low value of R~. This switch opens the base lead. therefore. measured by meter M. Error in this approximation is negligible. current gain for the grounded base connection. = maximum aGE = maximum current gain for grounded emitter connection. the meter connections. (4-22) IIGC= maximum current gain for the grounded collector connection. 4-19 and produces a reading of .

matching. and cascading class A and B single-ended and push-pull transistor amplifiers. Grounding the Transistor System Some confusion exists about which electrode should be connected to ground in a transistor system. Some of the unique properties of transistors that are attained by the symmetrical operation of the N-P-N and P-N-P types in the same circuit are also considered. Supply Voltage and Load. d-e COLLECTOR CURRENT-MILLIAMPERES 18 20 Ie 71 . 0: . Actually. the system ground can be made at any convenient point in the circuit. Selecting the operating point.J ~ . In general. and common collector. 2S " O-~~---I N-P-N RL 1. These latter designations are used by many authorities. As in the case of the vacuum tube.. 5-2 (above). these designations do not refer to the circuit ground. .. the emphasis in this section is on fundamental illustrations.10 o o "" PEAK-TO-PEAK ~ IS ~ o ~ . 10 o o ! e .. Fig..670 OUTPUT ~ o R.. the problem of designing a transistor amplifier is somewhat o "" Chapter 5 30 . INPUT "" o o s . stabilizing methods. and grounded collector.. grounded emitter. such as choosing the transistor doc operating point.o~ ~ 20 8001. but only specify which of the three electrodes is common to both the input and output circuits. Since it is impracticable to cover every useful type of connection. 5-1 (left). S U MAX DISSIPATION ·100 MW Fig.. Fixed-bioI operation. The basic reason for the difficulty lies in the terminology: grounded base. . common emitter.. A better way to specify the three basic connections would be: common base. without consideration to the type of connection. The D-C Operating Point Limitations.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS This chapter deals with the design and operation of the transistor as a low-frequency amplifying device based on the transistor characteristics and limitations discussed in the preceding chapters. direct coupling..

a transistor. limited however by the collector maximums of voltage. the necessary supply voltage is 20 volts. The usual problem is one in which both the load and supply voltages are fixed. E. that the maximum limits of the transistor are I. = = = = For any selected operating point there are many combinations of load resistance and supply voltage that will permit the load line to pass through the doc operating point.670 ohms. The first step in the design could logically be the selection of the doc operating point. then. is to be used with its operating point set at E.6 X 10-3 3. 5-1. the load line. the doc operating point may be placed anywhere along the load line.E. also. for example. . 30 . = 6ma.10 RL I . and Ebb = 20 volts. As an illustration. If. The final selection of the operating point is based primarily on the magnitude of the signals to be handled.) The doc operating point may be placed anywhere in the transistor characteristics. = 10 volts. The resulting load resistance Ebb. Assume.72 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS simplified if the a-c signal is treated independently of the doc operating point. In Fig. then the load resistance is determined by the line joining both the supply voltage (E. The choice of Ib 400 microamperes sets the operating point for maximum signal capacity at I. = 0) and the operating point. conversely. In general. 5-2. the selection of any two automatically limits the determination of the third. the total series re- e = = sistance is ~:b 400 !010_6 = 50. and collector dissipation 100 milliwatts. Suppose. however. then. 30 volts.000 ohms. Fixed Bias. The problem then resolves itself into a choice of the operating point. assume the supply voltage is to be Ebb fixed at 30 volts. as shown enclosed by the dotted lines. 10 volts. and power dissipation. In this case.670 ohms. 5-1. and the supply voltage. the base bias current fixes the collector bias for a given load and supply voltage. I. and E. current. The supply voltage required is the value at the intersection of the load line and the collector voltage axis.= 1. for the conditions RL. (Actually. = 6 rna. fix the doc bias current Ib of the input base electrode. The desired base bias current can be obtained by connecting a resistor between the base and the collector terminal of the supply voltage as shown in Fig. It is usually desirable to design the amplifier for maximum signal handling capacity. 18 rna. The collector bias conditions. the operating point. at I. for a fixed load of 1. For Ebb = 20 volts. the doc operating point should be midway 'between the extreme limits of the base current. the supply voltage is fixed. and Ib = 400 microamperes.330 ohms. Thus. whose characteristics are illustrated in Fig. three separate conditions must be fixed. namely 0 and 800 microamperes.

in the high Icounit (Fig. the only circuit change would be a reversal of the supply battery potentials.this. similar to that produced by an unbypassed cathode bias resistor in a vacuum-tube circuit... The transistor bias indicated in this figure is called fixed + Self-Bias.. 5-3.. 1£ the same characteristics were applied to a P-N-P type. In the low leo unit (Fig.J " . 0~0~2~~4~6~8~~10~12~1~4-7. 5-3B) the collector voltage is too high. 5-3C) the collector voltage is too low. o OJ . . Thus.. the base current is increased.... with the calculated values. ' II) 0 0 8 . Notice the effect of this shift on the relative positions of the doc operating point. but since r.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS u OJ I 73 30 0 g o g .. These factors may cause a displacement of the constant base current lines along the collector current axis. The resultiug circuit. 5-4. A simple method for establishing automatic control of the base bias requires the base bias resistor to be tied directly to the collector.16~1~8~20 COLLECTOR CURRENT -Xe "'... .. To overcome. Variation of polnt_ op. known as self bias. this method of degeneration is a form of automatic control of the base bias.J . 5-3B) . In transistor circuitry. if the collector voltage is high (Fig. transiseors are temperature sensitive devices. I- g 20 e 10 o IE . is illustrated in Fig.ratlng This value includes the emitter to base resistance. the circuit needs degeneration... 5-2 for a N-P-N transistor. moving the doc operating point downward bias. Unfortunately...~.. the abnormal cases are purposely exaggerated. they can be neglected. in addition some variation usually exists in the characteristics of transistors of a given type. as in Fig. rb is generally only a few hundred ohms. 0 ~ LOW leo (B) Fig. Figure 5-3 illustrates the effect of this variation.

Hunter-Goodrich Bias Method. conversely.One of the effects of a temperature rise is to increase the saturation" current leo' which. The base bias resistor performs the double duty of determining the value of Ib and preventing those excessive shifts in the collector doc operating point due to temperature change and transistor interchange. In addition. if the collector voltage is low (Fig. . operation. This involves the addition of a fixed base bias operating in the reverse direction of the normal self bias.the collector circuit. Despite its limitations. self bias also introduces a-c negative feedback which reduces the effective gain of the amplifier. Fig. Then RB = ~: = 400~~O-6 = 25. poor temperature stability almost certainly will cause transistor burnouts. thus providing greater transistor stability. and so on. increases the collector dissipation.3K INPUT 800 po PEAK-TO-PEAK OHMS 1670 RL OUTPUT OUTPUT Fig.000 ohms. however. 5-4 (above). 5-5 is the HunterGoodrich method. the self bias resistor RB must be decreased to maintain the same base bias current. The principal limitation of self bias is that it still allows some variation of the doc operating point. which increases leo. A method of establishing tighter control on the base bias current illustrated in Fig. The increased collector dissipation increases the temperature. which in this case is 10 volts. The importance of temperature stability with respect to the doc operating point cannot be taken lightly. the resistor is tied to the collector voltage. The reduced value of RB increases the available negative doc feedback from. 5-3C) • the base bias current is decreased. The fixed bias is introduced by resistor RF and separate voltage supply EF• To overcome this reversed fixed bias. . The value of the selected base bias resistor is different in the self-bias case from that computed in the fixed-bias connection. 5-5 (right). particularly if the transistor is operated near its maximum dissipation limit. since the base bias resistor is fixed by the required operating point. moving the doc operating point upward along the load line. For self bias. and the stabilization produced by it is only a secondary effect. self bias is very useful and works well in many applications. Hunter-Goodrich bias method_ along the load line.74 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS Re' 14. in turn. Self-bia. Thus.

. INPUT INPUT (Al fig • . = 10 volts is available. 5-6 (A). Ibl 10 700 x 10 6 = 14. For example. this interchange does not affect the d-e operation of the circuit.. The values of RF and EF depend upon the value of fixed bias desired.. ::= + ~: - 300 ~~0-6 = 33. RB = 25. However.300 ohms. RS' 14. Its particular disadvantage is that it requires two separate battery supplies.. The fundamental differences between this circuit and the preceding fixed plus self bias method are the interchange of RL and Ebb' and the connection of the reverse bias resistor R. practically all of the stabilizing current flows into the base-emitter circuit. In comparison. produces essentially the same result as the Hunter-Goodrich arrangement. into the collector circuit. Self Bias Plus Fixed Bias. except that the reverse bias is no longer fixed.000 ohms in the simple self bias case.300 ohms. Interchanging the supply battery and the load resistor provides two points at which variations in collector voltage will appear.5-6. If the previous circuit constants are desired: R .TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 75 As in the preceding cases. (A) Stabilization of d-e operating point with one battery. the basic features of which are often used in transistor power stages.. (B) Typical power . rb) can be neglected in the calculations.3K = 10 300 x 10 6 33. the effect of the base and emitter circuit resistances (r. output stage. Since the input resistance of the transistor is small compared to R. then RB = -- E. as illustrated. Connecting R .. and a battery E. assume that a fixed bias value Ib2 of 300 p'a will provide the additional stability needed. The current through the self bias resistor RB is Ibl = Ib + Ib2 = 400 + 300 = 700 p'a.300 ohms... One method of obtaining additional stabilization with only one battery is shown in Fig. = ~ Ib2 All the other values remain the same.. Then R . The Hunter-Goodrich bias method is extremely useful when a high degree of circuit stability is needed..

It provides less stability than the Hunter-Goodrich method. the load usually consists of a transformer plus an. The practical aspect can be shown as follows: Assume that a six-volt battery with negligible internal resistance is connected to a variable load resistance. Now assume that a one megohm resistor is connected in series with the battery and the load resistor.. but requires only one battery supply. due to the shunting effect of resistor Rv. the battery terminal voltage remains constant as long as the battery remains fully charged. Current Sources. A disadvantage of this bias method is that the doc degeneration feedback is reduced. Notice that all the bias requirements are supplied by conventional batteries. 5-7.1 megohm. the term "current source" is more than just a mathematical concept. At this point the conscientious reader may wonder if this does not conflict with the statements in earlier chapters that transistors are current-operated devices. form of this arrangement for use as a transistor power amplifier stage. Thus. which act as constant voltage sources. thus reducing the stabilization. Equivalent valtag_urrent source•• CURRENT . The range depends upon the value of the series resistor. the addition of a series resistor has converted the constant voltage supply into a constant current source over a fairly wide range of load resistance values. Figure 5-7 illustrates the basic equivalent interchanges of supply sources. all that is involved is ([[ E • IR E· IXc VOLTAGE Fig. Actually.76 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS In power ampiirier circuits. this method provides for greater stability than does the simple self-bias method. Mathematically.additional stabilizing resistor. On the other hand. Except for very low values of load. In this case the current remains reasonably constant while the load resistance is varied from zero to about 0. Figure 5-6(B) illustrates one possible.

TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 77 Fig. 5-9. 40 0 0 . 0 0 50 . Then the load current equals E 6 3 microamperes. The equivalent circuit on a R RL = (I I) x 1()6 E 6 current basis is a current generator 16 = + + microamperes.. which is shunted by both a resistor R = I megohm. and --r= IX]06 " s ::< C. That these circuits are equivalent can be shown by a simple example.. (S) Effect of input distortion on output wave.. 5-8. 0 0 . Clan A amplifier. OUTPUT CURRENT SIGNAL (AI . the movement of the impedance proportionality constant from one side of the equation' to the other. (A) Distortion due to crowding of collector characteristic. Take the case of a six-volt battery in series with a resistor R = I megohm and a load RL I megohm. 0 0 CD 30 Ec 10 0 30 Ie Fig..

A value of 50 pi works out well for the bypass capacitor in most audio frequency applications. Usually a maximum drop of 3 db in gain is permitted. Class A Amplifiers Basic Circuitry . the amplifier gain is decreased. In the circuit shown in Fig. for example. If the stabilizing resistor in the emitter lead is unbypassed. This is similar to the action of an unbypassed cathode resistor in a vacuum-tube amplifier. The same procedure can be used to convert an a-c voltage source into an a-c current source. a resistance of 100 ohms between the emitter and ground would be sufficient. In most circuits. Since Rand RL are in parallel. Now the load current equals the source current less the amount shunted by resistor R. The value of the coupling capacitor C. This condition provides maximum protection against variations in lco' since the power available from the battery is effectively limited to the maximum collector dissipation. the voltage drop across each resistor must be the same.78 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS a load RL = I megohm. The maximum efficiency of a class A transistor is 50%. must be large enough to pass the lowest frequency to be amplified. 5-8 prevents transistor damage due to excessive collector variations. At this value. the reproducibility of transistor characteristics has improved rapidly during the past few years. There is no reason why this trend should not continue. Actually. the reactance of the coupling capacitor is equal to the input resistance of the stage. 5-8. and eventually permit the attainment of amplifier efficiency values very close to the theoretical maximum. While the arrangement shown in Fig. Figure 5-8 represents a typical Class A transistor amplifier using doc operating biases as described in the preceding paragraphs. In cascaded stages. The self bias resistances from collector to base may also be suitably bypassed to avoid a-c degeneration. In general. and the load current equals IR 6x 10-6(1 x 106) 3 microamperes. Bypass and Coupling Capacitors. the load is unusually low. R+ RL (I + l)x 106 This checks with the previous result.Efficiency Stabilization. and the a-c collector voltage is also low. using a stabilizing resistor whose value is equal to the load resistor reduces the efficiency to a maximum of 25%. this amount of stability control is needed only in mass production applications if transistors having a wide tolerance range are to be used. half of the doc power is dissipated across the stabilizing resistor. In this case. the bypass capacitor can be omitted with only a slight loss in the stage gain. The stabilizing resistor in the emitter circuit is made equal to the load impedance in this case. Since the input . between 5 and 10% of the collector doc power (Eclc) is satisfactory for normal stabilization.

5-9 (B) would probably indicate a defect in one of the preceding stages. The source resistance in vacuum-tube amplifiers does notaffeet the determination of the harmonic distortion. distortion can be calculated under given operating conditions from the collector characteristics. However. The effect of the source may be taken . Distortion. due to variations in the input circuit. = 27TfXc = 27T (100) (500) 3. It is caused mainly by the decreased spacing between the collector currentcollector voltage curves for equal changes in base current. a condition seldom realized in low input resistance transistor circuits. 5-9 (B) . it will be possible to counteract one with the other by adjusting the value of the signal generator impedance. In the region of low collector current. This is caused by the assumption that the signal generator resistance is negligible. 1 1 X. if a frequency response down to 100 cps is required? At 100 cps. since the grid current is zero. = 27Tfcc r. and C.2 p. the equivalent parameter in transistor amplifiers. If the input resistance of the amplifier is high compared to the source impedance.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 79 resistance is low for the grounded emitter and grounded base connections. another type of distortion. the distortion can be measured directly. using the same methods as in vacuum-tube amplifiers. These methods are described in detail in most radio engineering handbooks. necessary for coupling into a stage whose input resistance rl = 500 ohms. an output waveform similar to that indicated in Fig. If the circuit is wired. thus increasing the amplitude of the input signal. is not zero. = 500 ohms. thus reducing the amplitude of the input signal. the computed value is generally in the order of I% less than the measured value. the required value of the coupling capacitor varies from 1 to 10 p. In addition. The total harmonic distortion is about 5% in the typical transistor amplifier. the input resistance decreases.f. Figure 5-9 (A) is an exaggerated illustration of this type of distortion in transistor circuits. In the high region of the collector a-c current cycle. For example: What is the minimum value of C. Since the two major types of distortion described above have opposite effects. relatively high capacity coupling condensers are required. This crowding effect occurs at the higher values of collector current. is introduced. When computing the harmonic distortion of a transistor amplified by conventional vacuum-tube graphical methods. In troubleshooting multi-stage transistor amplifiers. This type of non-linear distortion is illustrated in Fig. Another characteristic of a transistor amplifier that should be mentioned is the harmonic distortion.£. In typical circuits. the input resistance increases. the base-emitter voltage. using a suitable wave analyzer or distortion meter.

6 2D (AI re tSl Fag. 5·10. the load line chosen is the one that is tangent to the limiting curve and that passes through the specified supply voltage (E" at I. 5. Since.80 A: FUNDAMENTALS OPTIMUM LOAD fOR LOW SIGNAL OF TRANSISTORS 400 ~ 1:Ji EcMAX RL-IIOOOHMS 1\/LlhlITING CHARACTERISTICS B: OPTIMUM LOAD fOR \ Eo 20 2 ~ g MAX COLLECTOR JOO •• EO . in most applications.10 (B). The final choice depends primarily on the signal requirements of the circuit. the supply voltage is usually specified. . Since the power handling capacity of the transistor is small compared to that of the vacuum tube. 5-1. 0) . it is properly termed a power amplifier. are as follows: Assume a battery = . as in Fig. and voltage. To obtain maximum power. current. line B is the optimum load for a large signal input. LARGE SIGNAL o o • " Ie 10 OL-~+-~~ o 4 8 __ ~ __ ~~-+L-_ 12 . the load line is selected to include the maximum possible area concurrent with the fixed limitations of maximum collector dissipation. INPUT (el into account by considering it as part of the base resistance. assuming a transistor with the characteristics illustrated in Fig. The calculations for determining the conditions for maximum output in a power amplifier stage. 510 (C). In the practical case. The ideal load for maximum power would be one which followed exactly the transistor limit boundaries illustrated in Fig. When a transistor amplifier is designed for maximum power. Figure 5-10 (A) shows the two extreme cases: line A is the optimum load for a small signal input. however. However. although the actual power involved may only amount to a hundred milliwatts. (A) load lines for maxJmum po_r_ (8) Determiaation of aptimum load_ (e) P_er amplifier circuit. Maximum Output Conditions. there are several possible choices of load. it is usually necessary to settle for a load line that is tangent to the limiting characteristic line. '" DtsSIPATIONli. it is more than satisfactory to simply add I % to the calculated value of percentage distortion. Since this curve is non-linear. it is usually necessary to drive the transistor to its maximum limits.

= O. P ac = EppIpp 8 the efficiency becomes : ". Push-pull operation has several desirable features. including the elimination of the even-order 2~K Fig.2 x 10-3) 45. transistor power amplifiers should be operated as push-pull stages.6 70 0 h ms. ib = 600 p-a peak-to-peak. This is the optimum load line for the given conditions. Using the standard equation derived for vacuum-tube circuits.Ie (at Ec = 0) . = 0) _ 20 _ 00 h RL . RB = Ebb =--y. This determines a point on the load line for I. 5-11. Now hold one end of a straight edge on this point and swing the edge until it just touches a point on the maximum collector dissipation _line.1 0 ms. (The stabilizing resistors have been omitted to simplify the Illustration.0182 . Draw a line through the two points.= 20 300x 10 6 = 66.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 81 supply Ebb 20 volts..9 5 x 100 = 46%. In this case. and the distortion can all be computed directly from the figure by means of the methods discussed in the preceding paragraphs: _ E. the doc bias resistors. The maximum input signal. the transistor a-c output Pac is one-eighth of the product of the peak-to-peak collector voltage and collector current: = 20 (18.1.5 milliwatts.) Push-Pull Operation. Class A push-pull amplifier. The maximum a-c signal current can be taken directly from the characteristic curve.. . 8 Since the maximum doc power is· EcIc = II x 9 x 10-3 = 99 milliwatts. (at I. x 100 cc = 4. Whenever possible.

Figure 5-12 (A) shows a typical Class B transistor amplifier with a constant voltage source. For standby operation. however. In tum. Notice that the load is twice the value computed for the single-ended stage. . each transistor delivers more power to the load than when it is connected for single-ended operation. insofar as transistor applications are concerned. the only function of which was to convert the voltage source into a current source. It was noted previously that operation at high values of collector current introduces a distortion due to crowding of the collector current-voltage lines. would require an extremely high resistance in series with the battery. regions. Class B operation is preferred.N INPUT ~OUT~UT IN~ II 20 VOLTS (Al Fig. = Ebb on the I. The first factor is particularly fortunate. The operating point. push-pull operation will allow the transistors to be driven into the higher I. = 0 axis. based on the same transistor characteristics used previously. load. While the efficiency of a Class A amplifier is good under operating conditions. and biasing resistors for the Class A push-pull stage are determined for each transistor exactly as if it were a single-ended type. The separate biasing arrangement indicated in this illustration permits a more exact match of the transistor characteristics.82 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS N-P. a constant voltage battery is used. for a given value of allowable distortion. Class B Transistor Amplifiers Basic Operation . A typical push-pull transistor amplifier is illustrated in Fig. 5-1I. This bias condition. (A) Class 8 circuit (constant voltage). and the operating point of a Class B transistor amplifier should be on the E. Thus. using the same transistor as in previous calcula tions. As an alternate method. the collector dissipation is approximately the same whether or not a signal is applied. 5-12. harmonics and the doc component in the load.Quiescent Point. This sets the doc operating point at the collector voltage E. Thus most of the available supply power would be lost in the series resistor. = 0 line. Its efficiency for intermittent or standby operation is poor. (8) Class 8 push-pull operation. as in the case of the vacuum tube.

If the experimental method is used. Another arrangement for a transistor push-pull Class B stage is illustrated in Fig. However. R. the distortion can be reduced within limits by introducing base bias into the circuit. The proper bias setting may be determined experimentally by direct measurement with an oscilloscope or a distortion meter. is usually required in stages. 5-12 (A). Figure 5-12 (B) illustrates one possible form of this latter arrangement.>r resistance is low. 5-13 (A) . (A) Class 8 push-pull operation without (8) Output waveforms.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 83 Push-Pull Circuitry. Two Class B amplifiers connected as a pushpull stage. The distortion is particularly evident when the signal generatc. subject to large changes in temperature to prevent excessive variation in the collector doc operating point. . Fig. 5-13. care must be taken to avoid setting the base bias too high. . may be a thermistor or some other temperature sensitive device. ELEMENTS CONNECTED AND CORRECTLY CHOSEN (A) (8) input transformer. One transistor will always be biased in the reverse direction by the input signal. The value of the base bias resistor RF for minimum cross-over distortion can be determined by the conventional graphic methods of vacuum-tube Class B push-pull amplifiers when using the composite transistor characteristics. Resistor R. and the circuit would perform in a manner similar to that of a Class AB amplifier in vacuum-tube circuits. This circuit is characterized by a distorted output wave. using two of the circuits illustrated in Fig. This circuit permits the elimination of the input transformers. thereby causing its input resistance to become very high. This would cause a relatively high quiescent doc collector current to flow. The diodes Dl and D2 prevent each transistor from 81 AS RESISTORS OF INCORRECT VALUE AU. will not operate. This condition can be eliminated by using a center-tapped input transformer and connecting the center tap to the common emitter electrodes.

Transistor push-pull amplifiers. = . like their vacuum-tube counterparts. The collector dissipation P. Transistor inverter. or four times the maximum collector dissipation of each transistor. Then Ipc = 8 Pc E bb Eb~Ipc where Ipc is the peak collector = 8 (100) 10 = 80 milliamperes. The detailed operating characteristics of a Class B transistor pushpull amplifier are determined by the same methods used in similar vacuum tube circuits. The point at which this bypass action occurs is determined by the bias due to resistors RF and Rc. Figure 5-13 (B) illustrates the effect of diodes and bias resistors on distortion of the output signal.Ip~ = 4 (10) .08 10 ~O) = 500 ohms. since the diodes effectively short out the signalinduced bias. These resistors also furnish base bias to the transistors to minimize cross-over distortion. require the use of a phase inverter to supply the required balanced signal input. rather than a balanced voltage. The required load for maximum power output is: RL = 4Ebb Ipc and the power output is approximately Eb. and assume that a battery Ebb = IO volts is specified. input signal. phase 25K .84 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS cutting off when it is biased in the negative (reverse bias) direction by the input signal. However. the principles of operation are essentially the same.400 miIli- watts. in each transistor is approximately current. Phase Inverters Function. The approximate values of the major characteristics can be calculated as illustrated in the following example: Assume that the transistors to be used in the Class B push-pull circuit have a maximum collector dissipation rating of 100 milliwatts. Transistor inverters are more complicated than conventional vacuum-tube types in that they must provide a balanced current. 25K BALANCED OUTPUT TD PUSH PULL STAGE Fig_ 5-14.

are selected to provide the operating biases. and the emitter-to-collector current gains should be well matched. is much greater than RB. RL and RB . Figure 5-14 illustrates the basic circuit of a transistor phase inverter. consisting of the lower transistor emitter-base path and resistor RE• The emitter-base path has a low resistance.The value of RE is particularly important. less than 50 ohms. Transistor Gain Controls Despite the trol is frequently relatively low gain of transistor amplifiers. and Ib = 400 /La. It is not necessary for the current gains to be exactly matched. = 10 volts. Typical Circuit. so that practically all of the a-c emitter current of the top transistor flows through this path. if it is not. It must be large compared to the emitter-to-base resistance path of the lower transistor. For proper operation. a gain connecessary to compensate for changes in the input sig- . = 4 rna. Gain control•. In general. Values which fall in the range of . the collector currents are also equal if the current gains from emitter to collector are equal. Thus RB should be about ten times RL.97 are usually satisfactory. which in this case are E. 5·15. the output resistance is equal to RB. the load resistances should be small compared to the output resistances of the transistors. the output resistance of each transistor is the collector resistance shunted by RB• Since r. an appreciable portion of the a-c signal will be shunted through RE and the currents in the emitters will not be equal. For the circuit illustrated. Since the emitter current value for each transistor is the same. which provides a reasonably well-balanced output.92 to . I.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 85 SATISFACTORY OUTPUT GAIN CONTROL (A) UNSATISFACTORY OUTPUT GAIN CONTROL (B) SATISFACTORY INPUT GAIN CONTROL (e) UNSATISFACTORY INPUT GAIN CONTROL (D) Fig. a value of RE that is ten times the emitter-to-base circuit resistance is satisfactory. The basic operation is as follows: the upper transistor operates as a conventional grounded emitter amplifier except that the emitter is grounded through the parallel circuit.

The design of volume controls for transistor circuits is not a difficult problem if the fact that transistors are current operated devices is kept in mind. Figure 5-15 (A) illustrates one possible form of output gain control in a R-C coupled stage. Calculated three-stage cascade. 5-15 (B). since. however.000 Fig. The coupling capacitor blocks doc current from flowing into the load. it complicates the problem of selecting the best combination of the three general forms of transistor connections with respect to the input and output resistances. If the output load is a transformer. This arrangement helps to prevent the system from overloading on large signals. several cascade arrangements are possible. the ambient noise level. Cascade Operation Design Considerations . and other variations. The resistance of the potentiometer should be at least ten times the value of the secondary-winding impedance to make its loading effect negligible. This flexibility is a desirable design feature. It IS evident from inspection that the overall current gain of the system is . and to the required gain of the system Every design is fixed to some extent by the function of the circuit. the load impedance varies with the potentiometer setting. In multistage operation. The arrangement illustrated in Fig. Figure 5-15 (C) illustrates a satisfactory form of input volume control in a transformer coupled stage. circuit operation is poorer because the volume control setting changes the doc operating point. 5-17.86 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS R ·''''OHMS SYSTEM OPERATING POWER GAIN· 4. however. In any given problem requiring more than one stage of amplification. because the base bias varies with changes in the volume control setting. as illustrated in Fig. 5-15 (D) . the gain control may be located in the input or output circuit of any stage. nal. It is usually desirable to place the control in the first stage if the signal amplitude is likely to vary appreciably. the output potentiometer sets both the collector doc operating point and the level of the output signal.Overall Power Gain. but the requirement for maximum gain is invariably included. Figure 5-16 is the block schematic of a three stage circuit. is not satisfactory. In this circuit. If the coupling capacitor is omitted. 5-16. this same form of gain control is not satisfactory. Block schematic operation of cascade Fig.650. The value of this capacitor must be large enough to pass the lowest frequency to be amplified.

use the grounded emitter connection. use the grounded emitter or the grounded collector connection.500 ohms).. In the intermediate stage a22 is made as large as possible. When Rg has a high value (over 1. 3. 2. thus ing gain as defined in equation 3-45 is a 87 = ala2aa. a cascade system has maximum gain when each of the stages is separately designed for a maximum value of its associated gain factors. Selection of Stage Connection. 5-16. which then becomes G = 4RgRLa2 (Rg rj) 3-8 is: by equation RL 22 3-13 is rl = ru gain a = -=--'==-- r21 +r in the operating + 2 Eq. When Rg has a low value (0 to 500 ohms).. The first stage requires that its gain factor ---:=-_._~~ Rga21 (Rg +r l) 2 be as large as possible.. these values may be substituted equation. illustrated in Fig. The operat- which can be modified to Since the current gain as defined in equation and the input resistance as defined . the overall power gain based on equation 5-1 can now be written as G . use either the grounded base or the grounded emitter connection. For the cascade stages.4[ Rga12 ) 2 [(Rg r1 1st Stage + 1 J a 2 2 2nd Stage La 3 3rd Stage R 2 On this basis. When Rg has an intermediate value (500 to 1. The following general rules for this stage are based on an analysis of the gain factor vs Rg characteris tic: 1.500 ohms). This requirement generally can be met by either the transistor grounded emit- .. (5-1)· This is a useful form of the equation.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS the product of the individual stage gains.

r. .500 500 = 2. (An analysis of this buffer effect was covered in the discussion of input and output resistance of the grounded collector stage in Chapter 4.999.899. Assume that other design factors limit the choice to the latter case.000 ohms. The following general rules for this stage are based on the analysis of the gain factor vs RL characteristic for the three basic transistor connections.999.000 ohms). 1.500 50 . 5-14. 3.) It must be noted that the intermediate stage represented by the current gain 112in this discussion may actually consist of several intermediate stages having a total current gain equal to 112'This analysis of the three-stage circuit of Fig. is applicable to any number of cascaded stages. .88 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS ter or grounded collector connection. Then for the last stage: rll = r.rm) .050 ohms. As an illustration of these principles. feedback. biases. r12 = r. If r. Cascade Design.500 = 100.899.000 ohms). The intermediate stage equivalent load should be less than (r. However.rm = 1. = 50 ohms. r.500 ohms. specific design problems often dictate the use of grounded base and grounded collector circuits when the coupling network. When RL has a high value (over 500.rm = 1. the general values can be extended on a relative basis to cover all types.999. use a grounded emitter connection.000 to 500. RL 150 ohms requires the use of the grounded emitter or grounded collector connections.1. r21 = r.000 ohms).1. 2. 1.999. and rm = 1. the gain factor RLIlS2is made as large as possible.500 ohms. is nearly equal to rm' the grounded collector should not be used. When RL has an intermediate value (10.500 = 100. use a grounded emitter or grounded base connection. rb 500 ohms. = 1. The input resistance of the last stage (equation 3-13) is expressed as: = = + = + + + . it might appear that the choice of the grounded emitter connection is the best under all conditions. Assume that Rg is adjustable but limited to low values. r22 = r. .500 ohms. therefore.) Based on the foregoing rules. r.899. consider the design of a three-stage cascade system using the typical junction transistor with r. and other factors are taken into consideration.999. This equality would cause the input and output resistances of the stage to become independent of the values of the connecting circuits. In the final stage. = 1.500 . use a grounded collector or a grounded emitter connection.000. (The numerical values listed above apply to those junction transistors with characteristics similar to the Western Electric Type 1752 transistor.000 ohms. When RL has a small value (0 to 10. however.

050 ohms. + 1 \= 2 X 106 _ 0.050 1.::.1. and the current gain (equation 3-8) is: as r21 RL + r22 = 1..500 = 100.050 + Since rm is close to the value of r.899.899.780 The operating gain (equation 5-1) is + + = (- = G = 4R. coupling networks and feedback quirements may be computed by the methods in preceding paragraphs.75) (. rt) + 2 = 4 (1487) (150) (6780) (1487 1487) 2 + 2 4.18.ru r12r21 r22 RL + L r 550 - 50 (-1.500 . _ rl .__ -1. The values of the elements necessary for introducing these re- .050 -18.1) (19.000 ohms. loops.500 = -1.500 -19. the best choice for the first stage is the grounded emitter connection. The overall current gain of the cascaded system a= ala2as 18.899.:.455 . r12 r.999. RL = 5. Since the input resistance of the last stage is the output resistance of the intermediate stage. the intermediate stage is restricted to the grounded emitter connection.1.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS rt = rur12r21 \ r22 RL 89 t. The load of the first stage equals the input resistance of the intermediate stage and is a low value.450 + r22 = -=-==----=--=-=--=-=-=5.rm = 50 1. 5-17.Rr. . its value will be made equal to the input resistance.899. r21 = re-rm = 50 . rb 50 500 = 550 ohms.650.000 + 100.450) _ 100.899.455 -.050 1. For this stage: ru = r.1 6 10 (1.899.487 ohms.450 ohms.a2 (R.. = 50 ohms.999. The resulting cascade circuit is shown in Fig. -1. This circuit does not include biasing arrangements.99 150 100.450 1875 Th e current gam IS: al = r22 r21RL = 100.1 Since a low value of Rg is specified.999. the first stage must use either the grounded emitter or the grounded base connection.000 ohms.500) 100.1.99) 6. r. and r22 = r. + .050 150 X + = 5.000. Therefore. Since Rg was specified as being adjustable. The input resistance of the intermediate stage is = += + + + a2 = r21 RL -=___.

It is evident that even after the basic stage connections are fixed.--.899.899.790. The analysis and conditions for matching the three basic transistor connections are covered in Chapters 3 and 4. a simple change reduces the overall system gain by a factor of one-half. (above).500 = 100. a considerable variation in the cascade performance and resistance terminal characteristics can be attained by changes in the effective value of the transistor parameters. Thus.1) (19..1.72 The overall current gain and the operating gain = a1a2as = . The effective resistance of the emitter is now r. Xc less than ri at lowest frequency to be amplified. r22 = r. Typical decoupling network. The stage + 2 ~-.72 (18. . PRECEDING STAGE TO COMMON Bt . Coupling and Decoupling Circuits.472 ohms 100. r12 = r. r21 = r.18. R at least 10 times rl. image resistance matching between stages is required. consider the effect of adding a stabilizing resistor RE = 50 ohms in series with the emitter arm of the input stage. RE = 50 + 50 = 100 ohms.400 RLI00.90 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS The cascade system may be changed considerably by the addition of external resistance arms to the circuits.899.rm + 50 50 . The input resistance + + + + + + + + + + + 600 _ 100 (-1. 5-19 (right). RE .400) = 2.899.99) = 6. ·5·18.500 = 1.400.1.100 1.500 .100 ohms. and the general four-terminal parameters are now: rll = r.100 + 1. These have the effect of increasing the effective values of the transistor parameters. R-C interstage coupling. RE r.455 .. To obtain the absolute maximum gain from a cascaded system..455 + + -18.. an d t h e current gam a1 r22 a r21 -_ -1. For example.770 G 4 (2472) (150) (6770) (2472 2472) 2 = 2.999.000.rm = 50 + 50 1.899. RE = 50 50 = 100 ohms.If-NEXT STAGE Cc Fig. RE rb = 50 + 50 500 = 600 ohms. Fig.

Then Rj.. In audio circuits.25 10-6 RICI 500 ohms. consideration must be given to the addition of a decoupling circuit. Figure 5-18 represents a typical R-C coupled stage.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 91 can be matched by interstage transformers. then+= and CI = f~l = 100 (~OO) =20 pi. for the same cut-off frequency. The maximum value of RI equals the allowable voltage drop divided by the base current. Its value can be computed as indicated in the preceding paragraphs dealing with single stage amplifiers. The product of RI and CI (time constant) should be equal to or greater than the inverse of the lowest frequency to be amplified by the stage. 5-19. as indicated by the combination RICI. equals fC = 100 x 10 X 10-6 l 1 1 = 1000 ohms. and the . Resistor R must be large compared to the input resistance r. Decoupling is required to prevent positive feedback through the battery resistance which is common to all the stages. because the transformers are also required for selectivity. RI 500 X . as shown in Fig. 5-19. (In this equation.. In this example. In general. there are any number of combinations of CI and RI which can be used.are connected to produce an overall gain of 60 db or more. High-gain transistor cascades almost always require a decoupling network. The capacitance must be large enough to pass the lowest frequency to be amplified. If a larger drop is allowable the value of CI will decrease proportionately. The following example illustrates the calculation of the decoupling network: Suppose that for the circuit illustrated in Fig. therefore. In i-f strips. While this specified frequency sets the time constant. and CI in farads. resistance-capacitance coupling is the most practical and economical choice. When cascaded stages. assume that only a 10 pi capacitor is available. If 100 cps is the lowest frequency to be passed. and at the same time is not made so low that a very high value of CI is required. however. The interstage loss in gain is less than one db if R is chosen to be ten times as great as r. RI is made small enough so that it does not affect the supply voltage greatly. RI in ohms. the doc base bias Ib = 500 p'a. f is expressed in cycles per second. the increased gain due to the transformer is seldom worth its expense.) The value of CI depends on the allowable voltage drop through RI. since even low values of battery resistance are significant when compared to the low input resistance of transistor stages. and that the maximum drop through RI can be increased. In audio cascades. and a drop of one-quarter of a volt in the battery supply through RI can be tolerated. transformer coupling is convenient and invariably used.

000 ohms. Thus R as compared . equals R1Ib = 1000 (500 x 10-6) =0. RB = Ebb _ 12 Ib . which is the composite curve of N-P-N and P-N-P units having identical characteristics except for polarity. For other applications. The base bias resistor now must be adjusted to compensate for the reduced value of the effective supply voltage. since no one has yet invented a vacuum tube that emits positive particles from its cathode. In general then.Symmetry Circuits Basic Theory. 5-20.BK 1.5 volt.5 23. The circuits discussed to this point can be used with either N-P-N or P-N-P transistors. The overall gain of the system is 46 db.R1Ib 12 . Some of the characteristics of this unique property of transistors can be illustrated with the help of Fig.000 ohms. two-stage leo OHMS 600 OHMS . BIb 500x 10-6 to the value (without decoupling). when the value of the decoupling resistor is significant in comparison to the value of the bias resistor. It is necessary only that the battery supply is connected with the proper polarity. The output terminates in a 600 ohm line.) For 33K 6. Complementary. (Practical circuits are never designed for an exact match.0.2 K Fig. it is possible and often very profitable to combine the two types of junction transistors into one circuit. RB must be decreased by an amount equal to that of R.Ebb. because of the expense of selection. In the form of an equation. this condition can be specified as: Ebb --= Ib R B+ R 1 Figure 5-20 illustrates an experimental two-stage amplifier using grounded emitter circuits designed specifically to amplify the output of a 50 ohm dynamic microphone.92 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS voltage drop through R. This technique permits the design of many novel configurations that have no direct equivalent in vacuum tube circuits. 5-21 (A).500 X 10-6 24. Experi':eotal amplifier. to maintain the specified d-e base current.

The complete waveforms for this operation are shown in Fig. there is an equivalent operating point (-E1) (-11) for the P·N·P unit. A direct-coupled metrical cascade.21. sym- . 5. it appears that the N·P·N and P·N·P types will operate. These symmetrical properties offer innumerable possibilities in circuit applications. the same variation causes the collector current of the P·N-P unit to decrease. (A) Composite choracteristics for N·P·N and P·N·P transistors.But at the same instant the operating point of the P·N·P unit is at E2 = -22 volts. the operating point of the N·P·N transistor has shifted to E2 = 8 volts. composite characteristics. (8) Waveforms of each operating point E1I1 in the N·P-N unit. and 12 = -5 mao An increase in the base current of the N·P·N unit causes the collector current to increase. 5-21 (B). Fig. 12 = 15 ma at the instant that the input signal reaches a value of + 10 fLa. Since the output of the transistors are 1800 out of phase. For example. A symmetrical push·pull stage. When the signal is reversed.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS g_ 93 +EC VOLTS !2 30 20 10 10 I~ 20 +IcMG 20 (A) o (8) r 30 Fig. the opposite effect occurs. with their input circuits in OUTPUT INPUT Fig. 5·23 (above). if a peak signal current of 20 fLais applied to the base of each transistor simultaneously. 5·22 (left).

Furthermore. the reduced number of components and the simplicity of the design often outweighs this disadvantage. and also allows . A circuit which incorporates the major features of both push-pull and cascaded symmetrical configurations is shown in Fig. The base of the last stage is connected directly to the collector output circuit of the input stage. However. parallel. The circuit is easily adaptable for direct connection to the voice coil of a speaker. The gain per stage is low compared to the maximum available gain because of the mismatch existing between the stages. Symmetrical Push-Pull Operation. and no doc component flows in the load. 1£ the transistors are exactly symmetrical. the phase of the input signal is reversed in going from base to collector. Since the signal also undergoes phase reversal in the first stage. The voltage gain of the circuit shown in Fig. This tandem circuit represents the simplest possible cascade. the doc collector currents supplied by each transistor cancel each other. the output of the transistors on each side of the load are in phase. Cascade Operation. the circuit does not require an input transformer or a phase inverter. This arrangement can serve as a single-ended power amplifier to feed a low impedance speaker from a relatively high resistance source. due to the complementary action of the N-P-N and P-N-P types.94 FUNDAMENTALS OF TRANSISTORS Fig. as a push-pull stage. since the only components of the system are the transistors and the battery supply. Two-stage symmetrical push-pull amplifier. The stability of this circuit is very high because it incorporates 100 percent degenerative feedback. 5·24. The circuit is capable of supplying a high voltage gain when operating into a high impedance load. 5-22 is in the order of 250 (4Sdb) . One type of symmetrical circuit that proves very practical is the cascaded arrangement illustrated in Fig. Figure 5-22 illustrates the basic symmetrical push-pull circuit with numerical values based on the same typical transistor characteristics used in previous examples. The large amount of feedback keeps the distortion very low. 5-24. 5-23. The two transistors in the output circuit are operated in the grounded emitter connection. Therefore. The operation of this circuit is the same as that of the transistor push-pull Class A amplifier that uses only one type of transistor. Notice also that the same circuit can be modified by proper adjustment of the base bias for Class B push-pull operation.

. thus eliminating the expensive and often troublesome output transformer. Their use in the field of high quality. The amplifier is capable of delivering a constant a-c output of about 400 milliwatts using transistors rated at 100 milliwatts. the standby collector dissipation is negligible. It is apparent that complementary-symmetry circuits offer considerable promise for further investigation.TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIERS 95 the load to be very small. low-cost portable audio systems is particularly attractive because the output can be fed directly into a voice coil. In intermittent short term operation. the same amplifier can deliver about a watt without damage to the transistors. Since the circuit is in effect a two-stage Class B push-pull amplifier.