dd s

ltld (UIIUU res lI'c:hes into strange tern .. turi "I folk-Iore, I. end, religion and rna ", .\t firs t sight, II is a kind of' Golden l3ough', a bewild ring labyrinth of primitive myth which i, ra~ci'mlillg readina Ior its own sake, But haL\'r's Areal work is somewhat paradoxiClllly named: Frazer was a rationalist, and therefore comes to no conclusions except those which rntionalism expects to lind, Tt is Mr Graves who is true- follower of Aeneas into the nether world, J Ie pursues cct tainly, an erratic path through Ihis haunted juugle, and often turns aside 10 examine thl supernatural fauna and flora 011 II", way, But in the end he leads thr: reader to sonu startling conclusions, The 'Wl,ite Godd 'is a tcrrifyin!l' and protean deity who :W' I 1,!olY flames; she is Astarte or Luna; she has IWI" j,lacc in e'{ITY 1"I'ligion and every demonolo~), Perhaps xhe i$ rhat 'clucca of air and darkru vzhom Housman addressed in the most my tif)' ~ his poems: certainly she i r Cl>1:wciall)·necessary and fatal for poets, whom she inspi I'CS and (1<"\1'0),""

May 12, 2007




',\ most remarkable and stimulating book through which schola r"hip and inspiration walk, ror oucc, hand in hand.' JAMES LAVER in 77,. Sundqv 'rimes 'Mr Robert t.:ra\~.s is one of the few really significant ports "Tiling in English today. , •• His latest hook is in the nature of a direct ell' I'o.,il; ~ of «ertain id..as about primitive myth and r, igiolls origins, , , , A book of greal interest and Importance. • NtlL EngliJh !Yukii'



ScatU1ed by Grouchie




A historicalOlcmmar

of poetic myth

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,5;]1 -1069'!61

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In. SC\D'l'n, ,of'wbich I sailed to :fi'nd her In d:is,mn,[It~gionsUkeliestt Ito hold her Whoim I: d,esired ahove all ,things '10' mow:" Sisl.er' ,of the mim,ge IDd! echo.

It was a virtue not to stay, To, g:ol my headstrong and heroic way Seeking her out at.the volcano's head, AmOh,g pack Ice, or where the track had fad.ed. Beyo'n,d 'the ca;v,ero ofthe seven smee:p'ers:: Whose broad ,big,:' h. ,brow waSt w:~li'~e any'" 'I,ep'e(s" :as . ,efry I'· Wh· e'yes were' 'b·'I·· W],'°th rOIW,lio, ...be '_~P,S" ose =, ue, c; Wi.th hair' cUIl':J@d hon,ey ... oloured to, 'white hl,ps~ c





Green, lap of Sp:ring in. the young: wood a-stir Will,cel,et)t1"a'~,e the Mountain M:otiler" And eVE!'ry song-bird ab,aut Q'while'for her; BU'l .I am gifted:, even in November Ra,we5t't of seasons 'with ,so 11u,ge ,a,sense 10f het' nakJed.ly wOim ma·,gnificence I forge:!' ,cI-u.eJ'[}, :and past belnyaJ,t Careless of~/'he:re tbe next bright bolt:m,ay faU.

Hln.NDLAPWlNG ..64 xxr.I.'-.L CAS:TLE 9:7 II) vm.~.LEI!\fEN 27 11'[.EDES 'V C'R.S.' THL '!Eli 'T-'H' _'. A" VISUT T-O SP']RA.! SONG (2) 'OF A.i:'I "D" ! .~.~ xv .LL-FOOTItElc GOD )1'4 341 ·XX.LE.:D-~ 4].L I A·. POETS AND G. 12) x.• 11 CONVERS. TR'B.S 24 .Ii 9' 1 ' 2.'~A. 349 ).2 3. XILi THE 'T1IE.ET (1) :us..18].r. ~ . FA.U:ERGIN' AND THE XJ EI. V·' T'H-C'i':ii-RO-~D -U-.AR.AM. ON THE LOTUS .XII]...LJfHA.49' 61 '74.." J1~AE!..PA.. DO'G" ROBB'UCK A.L~ MUSJE .ANES 'IT F".8. "I'Rmp..~ .A'TmON AT :PAPHOS.. V' I'''''..'ru!"..J'.01 XVll1i!T'HE BU.LL.] X.• .Cu.. 'TREI·-ALfHAIET TH.-A . 22.'I""A." "fc'I.BU'LOUS~rEASTS 409 7 . VI~.". THE WATERS OF TH~ STYX XXIJ..~ THE . T:HE SIVBHlPI..~) '~. rBJ' 20'.

~ Who .. _' ' 'IJ:LUW. as. =." _ ~_ enuD Knittel 'V---:'aI' '1" remofl.to .. that kwguage of poedc mYith ancie.P III popular religlious.E--' M'····· P-.t any step in me I..e' Riot cared to leave QU.~ "arr.ger.' I found practical and unevasive :answeifS 'to' these' and many etherquestions 0.rramean .-I~ '. to be avoided. who.r.rthem Europe: was a mag. for .A~ J"n. .risedLThe.." ~wha:t son.ent. no expert in ancient Irishor Welsh has.g' me women. R· cherts -M'a·""'tC"'I-n. appeared in. ~1 IJ'in. bo.' . umple..e".t\.ia. '..Yet sinee the first edition.O Tree . i3 questions. milld~ I hav.' _~I. TU._I_: '0C!I112''' ~. little s. though not beyond all conjecture'. Kmot~ Moon.CONTE.. My mesis is.l{').and s~rl--G:'.ves.... ceremonies in honour .itain? 'What secret was wov'en..ntiy current in 'the M~ilit.an. :88.-. to 'p'WI".King Jeilw .1r-!l.~:_a . .satisfied.'''' 'lL " . :1. novels Ila'e'gJown.icbI 'introduced in. book does 'read very queerly: but then of course a historical grammar Df 'the langpag.. is.always quoted. readers that this. Sir Thomas Browne iastances in his Hydri"tJta-l/z.cal langua. 'moug:h not reaUy' '8ur.01 such !3 . 194tl. '." r what name o AChilles.'-H.p.of the Moon .NTS XXIV. alphabets ~I. 493 '::-. and to write it conscientiously I have had to face such 'Cpuzding.-~J'-S"evmou . am grate .o3.eleft. material for this book:: and to Kenneth Gaiy who bas helped me to arrange il. remains :1 very difficult book.i. . the Gordian..( the same Il!O.rious :argument.ents. a very queer' one:. by anyone with.l ~ 1:. er pomted out any oftbe errors which are bound to have crept into the text" or even aCknowledg~d my letters.-'..•.w.argum. only [air towam. tired as 'rigidly scientific. ' M"'i'. ..:. of poetic myth has never previously been attempted. . . '.'l!.·:~1:.~.n figments' of my J. into.and N'o...<Q. ·. Ip ~yra...• ·.ous· of unorthedox 110t conclusions for which the 8 .atenDt'w. offered me the least help inr-eflning my .m· . the Devil's foot? When did the Fifty Danaids come with their sieves to Br.".(J h n _0 . that the mystical Bull-calf formula and the ~.E.adon but ]ogi!caUy deducedfro-D'lreputable an.. .'~'.ca[.e.'....•. _-c· .m'~i~!i. if only because readers afmy recent h"istori. and stars? Why did Jehovah create trees and gntssbefore he' created the Sun" Where shall Wisdom. goddess~Of' S' I~J'~hDridel re a 'me ..I I. 11. ".den! docum.uspiei..Perhapl!they wil[ now be .an~o. I am d:isappomted._--:C ·hi'~is 0:-' ri. lINGLE POETIC T'HEMB 44'1 474 488 INDEX.zrateful .~'S~."~.h· m 'H-.'.g the Sirens san:@..g~' bound D.. I__0 t_piler aW&E!S. be: found? flu tit. a distracted.. r ·0:" 'L' 'Y'U-Gic!.• ".. have sup'plied me with source ..o.' eath-Stu bbs Pod _' 'l.'.' 1-'wllii ' ax M·' -1(~ .__\.". . assumed when :he hid himself amon.' and numerous c-arr-espondemm.

in upo:a him a crowd of similar 1. but though "a very cun~us and. (Cary's translation): PAae~'Ten me. or. - monsters.that I have more leisure than he had" or that an understanding th of I J language of myth iSI irrelevant to s. for my part. md . it app.. asthe wise do. ~. for' thereis also. c . not as. consider such things.. a philosopher ~lt I und to reject them as. 'ten me.th Ill. is this: I am not yet able. which if anyone were tCI dis. and because. u abouts appears beautiful. . as much as two or three stadia. pre.. 'Yhen il!vitedto.I! really Socratic love. the philosopher:'! escape from the: ppwer of . do not concern me. rrom C·· .d in need of abundant leisure. u that has. o~ everyt thi . lly arrested the plague at Athens. and to rej.. clear and transparent. • ~ ... . he must set us' right as to the form..gasu~...offended him..0 1 wa-s..ppears to me"to be .traJ!1 A' '-~uaegan to substitute patrilinear for matrilinear institution's. though they were still preserved pictorially in religious in current as fairy-tales fr.that having ·thus. while' I am still igno.. D. there pours. . and wen suited for Soar.. another report that she was carried o..: wh.. ~porting wi.tual and ._than So. IGorgons and Pegasuses. on the . as pr'l\tty enough. " The study _of~'mytho~o'gy" ~.knowle_dge" ~' deducelf~om. "" " and imposed on thie woncld as the last WOI'\_ m spmtust 1·' IIummanom a Vlew . besides.I'own off one of the: cliffs. a: I given. d solved to my O'WJ1. . damsels to sport about._ the. very spot.I Here is .long: nme rying about the Chimaera" the ho~e .I ~ h .log-o .. .the G-o~dess " Uctua'l homoisekuality:.. other' monstrous creatures. I should not be guUty of any absurdity. and the cause of it" my friend. but as the' province of a very curious. W. He could not i_ norancee Dlotima Mantinice" the Ar'cadian prophe'tBs5 who.. of the Hippocentaurs and then as to that of 'the Chimaera.elf. as he admitted to Pha~ru~.-Ie ..n tk ind Dine of the most uncompromising rejections of early Greek mythology was made by Socrates"..ers£.ect all opinions of which noacceunt can be Ii. Birth and Beauty-formed IX a.. on them and discipline his mind to think. he preferred to turn. and for no other reason than that after this. Imadof . based squarely on tree .~ ie t.. eult of Boreas" he: could give only an inept.' . really tur~ing. . ~is boo~ f I.·en. 'is not Boreas reported to have carried .ging· the previous epoch was! either forgotten or' kept a ~l~sle religious t and let. h~d reminded him once. his back. Phaedrus.ebei .$e he J I d no notion of the 'true identity of 'the nymph Orirhya or of the history the ancient A then ian.~sexual ho>mag.ma. _' " .~ i L·. dating from the Otd Stone' Age. Must it not have been (r.. and seasonal observation of hfe lore I fields.th P'harmac-ea. .piri.. do you believe that this. sadsfaction at least. The fact was.The language was tam.typical passage from Plato"s..s? Socr So it is said.r~~ lrWloan times.-. . Phae. and 'that thi remains the language of true p'0etry~ 'true' in the nostalgic modern sense of "the unimprovable original..some of them..ot teach me anythin:g. I. that by Socrates' time 'the: sense ofmosr myths belo~. hereabouts and met her' death at the foo~lO~ _ _ the problems that Socrates mentions have been .e..a. Myths frightened or . Moon-goddess who inspired them ~ndwho deman~ed t~at hould pay wo'.a. I never noticed ir.rant of this. have been carried.-_".ridiculo~s:. . thence' and not from this SP'OL. .. I _I . fabulousaccount is truer Socr. to busy' myself about matters that. a-:wologi~l improball~~es.. incredible in number and absurdi ty. scientificallyt "to tb r emg f .e. leisure at all for such matters. 1~'1 of them sltraight~fonvard Pelasgian cult~symbols. No" but lower down. 1. Of' the winged horse pl.ff by Boreas" or fromM!ars.om this. and. But.e there is. investigate th e reason 0_r·-• _. and wher. w h en Inv~':ra. centaursand the' rest..t is c~ne~ nie love. 1 nt tone ofhis phrase 'vulgar cleverness' that he had spent a.vaned practically ever since in European schools and universities" where' myths are now studied only as quaint relics ofthe nursery age f"~ 0. met her death she said to.. nd CaUoln~Death. hUI...ming his back on poetic l_11yths. as she was . boy Jupiter" Socrates.. ~hewill stan.Pha-eJrus.man.uralistic explanation of her rape at Mount Ilissusi "doubtless she was .. Pkoe.nI . and remodel or falsify the myths to justify the social changes . Then came the early Greek philosophers who were strongly opposed to magical poetry as threatening their' new religion of logic" and under their influence a rational poetic language' (now caned the Classical) was elaborated in honour of their patron Apollo d .slde: fields and trees: U .a.m which the poets quoted. But I have 0'0. a kind of altar sacred to Boreas..U ' how. and b~~. painstaking:.fFfmm.: 'then having recourse to subtleties" I should say 'that a blast of Boreas threw her down from the neighbouring clitTs.crat~. s. where we cross over to' the temple of 'the Huntress. _~ that ~~'lra. according to the Delphic precept. t~at I ve was properly directed towards women. ··f· every thi . But 1.. aced in. the horse-centaurs.~instaking person' I cannot agT~e that I a~ any ~ess hapPY.ears. to know' myself~ But it. . and not very happy :man. b pered wt-I i Itate I. " . . If 1 disbelieved it. was.. not a synthetic substitute' •. but that reasons of their being" had eluded him because he was n. believe and endeavour to reconcile each with probability" employing for 'thisl purpose a kind of vulgar cleverness. but men do. rates" in fu.off Orlthya from. d 'townsman who seldom visited the' co'Untr). spot?' for the water be"eII .". Socrates.Mu _. somewhere about thll part of the IUs-su.. is. lieve in the Chimaera. '. ~e was a CO~II -..o poet and rusted poets. _ Jlng as It IS. a.i hill. .

r every' 'euti" I am the tomb.t ftic'kered out at the close 0.n. It is. a tid~~ pre c'rib~~ him b~ his feUow·-cidzens in punlShment for' his corruption I~f you h. discipl. results from an in ' .U.lell not 'wi"th 'the IO.ed for moralor pOlliti . c ulsr .of chiy.tle_ c.doo'm. of Messenia and his successors as COl: ruptions of history. histolry once their' langua. becoming at last the subject of street-corner witti isms..fo.eln'~1 i tha't: I. signifi!canee than is. and In the wi. .'ChriS.le'~.educadon ahould..·.e .e -_te.'-s 'wiork'ed them 'Up .: physlcat . found: in several purposely ..Srm 1e.)l moral ahemmc_y~it was the male in'teUect 'trying to make its -.age of the .jo. . the poetic colleges of l relD_ ~and.usi :. Iam :an In_fanc' WAD !Jgl' I Pe. hut with dote So.wJ. a1m.ome'myths. he' philo . everyone that he him I£'once encouraged Socr-ates.ocahrUIUY'lii' E. a.". . (or fancy play dane..by ebel. banquet iSI interrupted hy A1cibiades" who comes in. s· .undn.r::l '.SymptJl. remainin p _r:~'_cdy . '_~ .' of Apollodolrus land the .ological 'P:f'1I'bl. i~ him.. whs'rl'po._-e survived purely enoe 'h in th" secret I~ystery-cul of El. ipm ua lor mtenectuat.cal.eUabh:..ed _ilb.odd=-~'s_..'. and deliberate changes in. Iam".n. w .iwn where Plato reports _Socra.gica~JI re· ersion to' the .~.ostpathoJo. . -Hgible 'part in the de -~opmen'r of the' 'Greiek.c' myths.so~:"fo.e]. the 'task.mytb.tl.: of every !'ope .. Iam a wizard: who 16ut I Se.I'c_-. rbled Irih land Welsh. I am :1haw'k:: .of the whire~ flewered.made a m'_ '_tyr of him :and under their influence my fell Into stillgreater disrepute. L~_tin nd PaJestUU.emen'£ the .an :myths. I an II 1- . cut the Gordian . Ezorius.Je'ep /"lceJI lam ill..ght.tarto~.:n ~d ~nds h~m reclining next ill' Sccrares.: of nery "i"(J'-.l -" I am a boar:: mt"Iu-'~'.t ' .der tb~ G~a'r had.'---ra'l11er than .nts" whi.erat d sodlomy even In her own temple-c urts.i.. was characteristic: she found him a 's._'m"erus.. of course have survi"Y "d.g camp '.ajlatne 'witk smolee! .t-ch.all . . EO an act_'Dl' sod. cha te embraces of his beloved's beautiful body.ff. ~ CybeJe' an~ lsh.I am.en Mes..ep's.tIplain.2i. or 'of the e'eld. in a. -'wife or mistress.4'YSley. begin not ith the ICtmlerIJ. ~'5ij.......I :sta. hOly caned Aga:rho. jutif"s' rand S'amuel~ -I.al .-. I am a wind: on II.p'ackorhound./m.oplucaUy abstained.r events. e'-~th lcentury: laD_dthough petry orEa magical.". a pop.omy fro:m which..who presided over .. who was 5'0 addicted 'tOI h.far more 'serious I me mer"inJ an ancient Celdc "-'Iendar~alphab_~.rmJ ''''''.ou all h '.en.-·-li~'.Jise:" I . and when.~.?rI it WI -.1s foil.lfspiriwaUy sel~. o.threatening' . ..mydti..of gen.aria.IJt'"fII-"o~m. ' 1 . IcaUy:. I am th.. even afler Alexan.. for instance" is that he was. .d S'I .dian I-~ntleman. ·ltak . l am a s.:: tmIIJngjlow. Vlery drunk in search of a beautifu1.J.' acco-un~ of Diotima's wise words.an style' instes!d ·of leavin" .ean fanciful. unhis'[o.radin.u 'W. 'the' Fdlu' of Hyginus" the' Liir.end.( the seven .. until me' Nonnan-~'~. in love . ideall1omosexuality was a.g that the' expense of.tltre'Welsh MaAinogifJlI make 'easy' .tei. 'wild Pent costal Ispeaiking wi'rh ton.' . a plant saered to be ··el· as I .unfortun:ate that. . or being '~plained.1.erhaps the' g"llea.Tri.Elllper'.fiollJ. As. .trd. p to... -Bill. and selfishthe' ruin o· Atbens.0/ .6looJ. far purer form than athers.ge: is.ry in solving . 'the decepriwly simple chronicles of' G"nBS. Her revenge IDn Socr-ate~if I may put it this way---fo..er..' tale .pi'~e s ron . understood and :ano'wlanc~ hiS.k1. plresendy he: leI Is. -~tOI know himself in. h'Di'W'ever'-.into ir.- . I' '.this always.tl.lS pmmar and v.pear. . in.ua re-8. Iam a salmon:' .ury' ~a. Ileac: ...es.s tAe cool A. I. misunderstandings 0'£ obsolete ritual. ! I am the 'womb: If?{rI'VIBfJ' kole."_ .r though the 1F.complex . b een m~e for error-s in 'transcription.Eaf xamp.reallO'Dlii' .poedc_. Sh._ncb tfwdr..-hoI 'H. . v. r. mousey-smellla _ hemlock..r trym. 1:2 . The Euhemerlst account of the Actaeon myth.U.:' tAd" roczrs.ori~Q I Ian .g= OJ' R'lI. con eientious rudy of.away' by Euh. n c ie pass. 1am.hre.I wry faCie and spat three tf:m· · inte her bo.tl'oduc.'--d' ~Y'~hW·-risbl'''an.. 'I epln .m P"ttJ'.atisfied with ni :h .4 unAewliltlo.w'for . 1JI!d. sufficient._l~ I ama w'onder. I have tentstiv'ely restored the 't-c-t as follows: me' Iam I and made him fix his id lisdc af£ectio. I am the' shleldl:.t .~ to dead.' 'hom: lJens'Q_II the . 'pi)" ~dI.in 112'100'/" I.peare . l'riD tau. UP' viciolls.s ate: him up. a breake-c' . d his li£e "njtb a draught .fr'oim. .s stiU occajonaUy wrltt~nJ' ~veD in :indusrtrialized EUE'o'pe" . not even with IG.r . Artier his death his. Had Dietima b -n.'ill~ ] am the quee. -. Ar'c-.ch bri.nsihle romance.'.'.''c-'O'i"--an a-t of far greater'moral. these were sUPP'~s-'~. .am a hill.n. godless treacherous. aies.n"glish. d"es.. l~or:i'n~1" _am~thrace and elsewhel'ie.religious 'tradition it..dtwe tAe el'.s on this 'same' -JcibIB.of. oven$ofWestem Europ .l'Lspo.. 11M I ""I . 'Ion--.era'do'n whatSoev.O'ugh as. prime poetic myth.'..: hCl' di~:raced him by growin .!!'Tbey _ -I all -RV'Ii! records of ancient r _Ugjous customs. glenerally reaUzed-the anc:ien't '~n. an.rs". the" .quality i. ollo'ni._!lan:ity" 'Imythica'l' bas come to :m.I wife' I am I Rood: across .am :1'lure:'fto.:_'~ry.e blaze:: (:J'n leve.efly :iummarizes.en m. present to hear this she would have made .--.ri'csJI.ry' .'tIe5'tdlffi. bu.

. you adore me ell - / I ii !!!'IJ II .my brush.. mY' brushlessness '_ _ars me fro.oully bein.rld-iin remotl' unmeehanized fa:mls.lne. Ind. 'the..' 1_: J _I the JeWS!"has a still more complex .or she' was.act:leptance of myhistoncal thes.rope. If you are poets.CIQoqueringgods 'their tides.er that be' bas. turned the house upside down by capricious experimeats in philoso~phy. wbether directly' as workers manager.m-c-·--~ u!'C ~.n 'totemi~sdc Eu.I. is use or fUncti{1f1· fpoetry now..y:s:·? Function and use remain thesame.. wD. . I.~' UIAD _if: .I.~r .but aDel .heg. at least" ousted hils "father~ Zeus.ofl.is commits you tOI confession of disloy. wi'll ask" to 'wam Y'Qumat sh.. tu 'm···· an ..g redefined . is far lees Important than Ito know the nature of the sacrificlBs that he .dliO!'~'D '01!''''_____'''''~' .eZYi racehorse :and .U' _ Al._ '~n. f'our jobs 'and. then o.i.tre'rin:g any :prac:tiad sugg~sdon.. for want 'of su:ffi. failure '1'0 come to terms with me: modem.UaJe'" Cathelie.e demands either ''WhQ~. horror that her presence excites •.. pubUs~~e'rs"joumalisrs schoolmasters lor em.ndustry.0'91' yo.DC.But tnowada..ared tDthe i'ndustr. liOll and eagle belong' to the circtls~tent~. 'Wh.: the experience 0:£ _mixed.Mou"se. s.pUcadon has cha:Il. cclesiasrical" whe.make" and that to' know' the name of I de:h:y at any given. 8calrno.h..00 dnu.. seems have begu'R as the Dem'o'n of a .'I'd-_.meand leisure ~O' render Goddess -whc!m.m iD.'iU'Ding. from the ·So·vereignty of the 'U niverse 'by iden. whi.cb the Moon is despised. The function of poetry is religious. born. no conc-e'm 0.l"dy inc:o... This 'w(usonce a warning to man that he must keep in harmony with the family oflivin.e~ientICI..iaimaciIil1e'.. a question not the' o less poig:na:nt fo'r being de6aodyas~ed by 'so' :m:l.ital !to :set up as "C·m'al-~ .bisto"ry ilWhat.wadays' is ill civilization i.. it is now a r.'"~\..I l ..a Y<i>U wiil be loth to make. ~. tater. for insta~nce.ound to the betting' dng:. .f~'·· _ IS m. -'.tatemenl of the problem.sh eph loor__ Don·n.lam .fll'tan. the God of '0 valuable part-timeservice.ny stupid people o'. In wbich serpent.ch money' will buy a.>eIS ~. In. h·" 5" . m as a burned .1 ereaturea among which hewa.. In whJ.s". Jeho1vah.1i-.. invocation of theMuseiimuse is.nteUecwal God .4 .. fox who has lost his' brllsh._I .outskirts of a Majlcn~ccan mountainvl.igh:t~.ytiting' but trut..lmo.cal.elf and.p.rofession!i!! p~•• . take From the foes.u come to.r apelcgetically answered by 5:0 many silly people.isregard. ill. ··ft.tify . tbejreapltive .ox.ged.:. ut sa:relHre of the' Earth and woman reckoned as l~auxiUary o State' personnel'. 1 _.n wbich the pri. his family..d·d-· even kl1:owlhat ·y·ou areserious in 'VOllE' .? No.:L 'G-::' ..peyh...days~r" is.emind. dare s'l'If!'mpr o:oly a histori.holders _..0 nOI .ifered. CaU me" if you like..t the tru th-possessed poet.. I. d.. blackmail and fraud 'Until he: became l'he patron ofMus.II.' h. of the lady 10'£ the house.nity in pre~'Arya..ed the "".. <and broiught ru~n on m(lls.plo¥ees 'of JI radio corporation . oeldc pi.te must J'ftd perve'fsely aad irri!bavantly tosu. 'me 1.re life is' "Sfill .Q am 'I" you. .e''''bmeservice or none' a:t sliP And do I SUi" . The Greelt god Apollo. The pewers of the gods were' (. ing himselfwi th Belinusthe i.. you chose: your [obs because they promisealD' provide yeu 'with !II m.• Ihl:1 'Y'OU should t\esign. almost anyonebu. honoured. place or period.Eef.jlc. • . narttely' my £OJrtact wlth urban clviliz'atioD"all that I wr. you will reali ze that . science and i. . exaltation and...Q'-'~'~''VTt·. traders (U" advertisers o'ri~ndirectly as civil servants...ahy'wmc._ _.. only the ap. Poetry and the Arts and finaJly.'.. in some regions. be gradually rose ~ in djv:ine~ rank by force: of arms.ch of y'Olil as are still g. termswitn h-' '(ue_... by obedience to the wis.n and boar' to the c&nn.m'e emblems of poetry are dl.aind the sacredgrove 'to the saw .N g.ruJed by the Qlld e agri1cultural lC'ycLe~ Without .nobody·s ser¥int and have chosento liveon the .·d-"··d-i a.

Chapter One POETS. ANDI 'GLE.E.MEN .

.K. mOlt~Their t 1_11 .-o. werea tribal ari's~ocracy .om. '. few md'i.ng approaching .g or 'prince who bad provided .jfj T'iWlStJC.. bo.y 'De¥er~en I." SQ'lliIlld rm-house. their traditien grad~a[ l.1~. metres fixed.CyncAQft'eJ:'J~ the reperuli'v. is not absent fw. under the trees 0'1' 'in the chimney 1..uiaDon of~owel. The: char .andlhey sbow pra aicaJly nOI d~velD..h mimu.oets of IEo. .g:.ly tha'i the sy5. I 'C' Itill III It. 'carefullyweit. hazard reading. do"wn 'to the :fan of the' elsh :priDc--es.odif]catiO'D. maintained by the Gogynfeirdd [court-bard.uding the narrative" is proved to have been observted by-the' 'me ii j nto t'maglnaUon..g:ina'D. '!!' ~.aem s· and dn~s of 'wh~. :liUM.m them. DD the! IDd~er'hand.Dim.to.and stt.'Y rarely even give anythi. l j .J..ent is com .gy" seems 'to~ have been that i'l ~IOU.aise God" their second 'to praise the kin.of their heroes are only indicated in ephbets. which in the :fifteenth I~ent. 11 "identi even characterization.'tury ] I' ~ n-Cymric mins.p.y' ossified .ory of poetry:.. but prrohablywith p'fOB:ressiv'e m.the bare facts.~ed no bishops.ay of historical in'trcductiO!DJ. The.'[e:m demiledm 'the: Laws 'was preserved..ce Q. .ere p'I.IlS only in Ireland than a master . poets had become .cended. References to n3'mre in the 'poems..I Chair' for them at his roy.ar RO'lD1ances" s__nd their knolw'led.d. (191.caUy Ft!si'tricting: the' 'bards to writing of eulogies and elegies" and . embodied in :3 .ul. bards are bri. 11~.Ne:w Stone Ag~ peoples and Abo. The Welsh bards.real Wels'b" and fr.poe'try and move p try' are Oiruy incidental! in 'their 'W'OI'k_s" .first be dra'WD herween the court-bards and the wandering: minstrels of ancient: Wa]es..d. . .'e~!llSs.r the faU of theWeish princes in the late rhlrlCeentb centurythis barren poetic' ..terms" the burning' .au..t obliga.~ The 'Cymry.t sinee they were: :populady credired with o'ng 'their :associates" and who 'CarmarmenEis.don being' t'D pr. me the Icontem:porary Welsb Laws show ...gjnais. and experi'mental wriitin..elsh poetry was already a hoary m insdN'rio'll..clear dis.d spised late .al table. !D '~~.tte'r'ly. 'to.of I~ .. develops I. g_d.pme'O.~y knDwn to rhtdr' hearers.dead. In them.oourt. lor even p'ermit1ted.1:19114)~: (Jr. from dle works of the ba..raUegory . ICfOQr - I~. poe'ts. whose language began as a . .""o'Lddo'. WIS lexpe~cted. who Qoun. ' II t invaded Wales from the N'orth lof En.cb. like the Irish had a professlenal tl'adition. '001 incid..e rad'idonaID material contained in the pD. ]. 'B'tu the coRi3Spondem.eobsessio'DII The mas'ter:. h :5.er" it W.t me'triCil Cede shows 3 sdU fU[1ther development'.aning the danget\ous. acters . They made praerieally no use of th. pracd. was.II.. ma. -resuming . bu. Though a high deg[.l die '..-_~c th y w...b poe'[swere converted to .orthodo. from I_y and prophetic: gifts d the po ·er of injurious.ric~1 truth was probably due to 'the early capture of their org~nization by ecclesiastics .h or ~ ~'" outside' 'the 'po'plular ballads" pif.'CIO .En~i!ijb thus:. poet.st.s mixture of Goldels.. fancy" nor ffected.Y'~ he tales and Roman.Id.I ln L' episode. -..ev.. that ~l ronze Age and .ces. T'I! IGwynn Joneswrimesin T/.I coherent descripdo'n lot . By w'. lsh master-poets 'w:bo I I us -d Oil were refused court-patronage after' the Cymrilc cDDquesI.yenvy' them in retrospeeu young poet was :SpiaJed the curse ofbivin. mo!. of the court ..e'ifs. are full of colour land.s]t.code. of' IJi:d'ory" p~esllmab..treis went -cf.corpus of poems which" literally memoriaed . ediaeval vernacular when W. . Tht'! Llyft CocA HIl"'~..edged to avoid w'bat the' Chur...~!I.. 'V'ery Utde is. caned "'untruth~" ~e. . by resi!riclieDS . Su:c:h" :md has.l di'scipHne~ plo~ess completed by the tenth century" as I.tinction mu. quasi-historical characters was principally derived f~om 'the Triru/s.r1ds.ay..IS: in ·. lor CarmI f"C'~W'''1 ·1 LefE D.ri..me viomenoe of winter' . enlerEaining.catioM whlch m!ay be ga'mered.excl..w.gland in 'the fifth ceo... was . or master .tiQIU ICymmroJoriDn.. story. whom we think .t'eddfod'i I.applyin.. l~ng EO the Sea5D:rL It was 'mey who kept alive an :astonis:bing'ly ryb'aditiDin~ mairuy ill faIm of popular t.g the period.~~ndthe' purist .t durin.and.epitbe'ES aDd metap"hD'r. Naooe' . II '. particularly in the leulo.ge of 'the Dunes fmytbjtaJ and. 'Only certain i ..:y'bfL~ll11stm[ed in . batdes are' dismissed in a line: 'OI' 'two a.clJ.fficilsh. imp... AI. proud court-bards were recrui ted.un'tains. consist of epithets and allusions..g doubduUy 'to build up his poetic: lore for hims If by hap .. La.wGwuled. Their adherence ro what' they conceived to be his.g€:.. were similarly [es'rricmd.ury 're'sulted in the ere at Uberty to 'use whatever themes and metres 'they pfeas'ed. i i! i Thesubjeet tradition recorded in .ele' des. The' Englmhp.yoglulmrdrJ ma..Ind.. pre- me 19 . saUl"! h is Ukely tbe o'rigmal II III C._"_'fi -= ta ~'UI A . consultation with equally doubtfUl friends..els 'whose' staNswas ul rized by the Laws. known.of as.]1.des whidl. Christianiry and :subjected to ecclesiasdca. abOU!t their tlon O'l' m:nJo.sl" became a bu:rdens.om village [01 'ViUa. the' . they passed on to Itbe pupils 'who came to study under th1em.actically' down 'to the present da. I~ 1I The. pi~ Bolts.of :splring gJ"iDWtbS on the mo..g both 'to 'subl~C[ and form.of~. exercise ofpoetic ima. -9. 'write' in an original style.e' me of consonan'tal sequences widt v.ttyl:imiled 'to irs more gged aspecm----tbe conflict of sea.of 111 i c rip holding dawn a lerf .rne lloIW'uralJle S'ociefY ~f 1 tales were told by a :guild DfWI~ ·. beenthe character of most Web.. When the W.n .s were autho:riz~d.. and.o'nn myth 'Q. Even afte'." their firs.ry:.rely described.this Code..ghe'd. II! iil iii - family bards in noble houses.ef and casual. or 'minis/~ers.ee of recbnieal skill was still required master-poets and the IChail" of P'oe:try was hody eontestedin the: various ICO'Ufts" they or w.

e5S-.1. I. _-0 has ever been abl to explain what theme is..or trained to.r~s. ch -rms. the' lean and ragged minsttels not b ~ng privilegd. in the thirteenth century the minstrels were taken up by the N crman-Fzeach invaders apparently through the influence' ...I mo_k . donal Eisteddfod i I __ S m .. schools did I. no Ichai.of'l!'the ._ ' .' I ':_ 'W'UI~ •. remaining :scornful and jealous. ~ine:the Classicism ofthe izhteenth century. or cur -bard.Dv d. lampcons. I1l to which they may yield .I. I emil He was in I "sh lcall-d" .oidel.0"'5 and JI91. bards. ~-"nalcopybook copper-plat fro. first come in contact. l'e·. r .~ Bu hat of t r'. .of the :_ I.ollu"es.gnf~ed .1 c-. should bri tle. 01" lays 'of magic •. Even kings.h t of ..r. use the complicated verse-forms r-equired of the curt. read. that it should he neither IOV ..ls'o broke the po _'ef of the . But where can they ~I Jy metre. oat.y before the C:romweUian..odemisdc .' of the' tal.awrin.1 chin bristle if one repeats it '. __ ...who 'was o. in 1 1'944. They are call the . SBaasanct.poets would not mlodify their obsolescent practice. of ~. is the probable de iva ":'OD of "Druid'.ar rhymester" -vulgar at le~ t by Phylip's arisrccratic canon of what.· '_ teept by the' efti'-... court ...ce.K_ywydJ.ve-poems. und.OD end. when hi' hly stylized ·_n and metre and 'decorum' of theme were insisted up 'n by the ill. to' di-cipline!' nor to the eighteenth-century J li -j'_ cket. 'the P'ry.re can tbey find any poetic govern'.c myth.ell.·f·' true re 'p'oe-m-:.. or master-po _.'Om. ye {o.o'I""-ii' English poets now appear to be conI _~~ _..m which he gradually d . lops a .. the .in.III . divina'tio'll.Ingle p..oytd'ty? Mette'" they ould all I Iy agree. I I '" '. lo. n. bacds being fClrbidden tOI compose in tbe miu's'uel :styt and penalized if they visited any but 'the houses.eand "bat . diction. Triad in the Llyft CocA. nor to the Vi:ctorian frock .JydJ.. of which goes ba. rs and imiWDI5 of_'lexander Pope.. e'ls..' .. ef 'the favour shown to "Ilelle:.dressed. twas.i -. Their' poetic prinelples are summed 'up 'in a. ... to who should first present I. 'stD" 'olancienl ~e"SB.ofprinces or nobles. For the most part the court ..-·_ _ . in Welsh JerwyJd" or o'ak. _! I"_~I _ I ITII1i. c-tic. .s.' sim ple am-dpra-C-iI"'I"':'.in its strict sense of iconograph' without the d -roga. Lewis who! wrote' just before his death in Burma.3ctio.enrick rA"poBtl' Myt!rJl' po _~ri'c'power. truth"...I!! does it I"e' the t.of the 19'1. 'relat-e-s his pe. e of '~absurdnaioln.. The [em '!.-l cod' of chivalry. Lewis. ntury vere sioos of the' bardic statute" Trw(. ~ violent reaction foUawed omaatie Revival'...a seer.th Wales. willing l. ' 2.g'I. tboug~ debarre d from satires. They w.as better 'Versions of those .ilendywhile'sbaving:r But be did HD't .of I rgese): J t IJi I ic practice.slsh poet Alun. Vi.. . grace. 'The' two po DC. the Ibig-beUied' . nor wlgar. remain constant in yet I outline. are meanin.tmas nay tohis patron.at born . andthemer Whe.a. and in their ne 'dre5s they conquered Europe. Tltree tlr. dis cipline. thoU'. well and wbose person was. a pt should be.1I.fragments not only of pre.ould also probably ag. Prince RhY51.ook . Granted that there are m'Dy themh journalist of verse.. acquired . . _'.n. discovery of the' lost rudlm FIts of poetry may help to' solve the tion of theme: if they sdlll have 'Validity they confirm the intuition. mi -ht write' lo. won approval for a new form. hi:' rhythmic yncras.~fpa w ll2Iu~ I I ill _ -_I II _ I.od their' authori~ finally collapsed.riginaUy' '.. 'in .c I~n _lish poetry Ie I :J1' . Perfect faithfuln aSIto the Theme :af[ects.._ _rly nineteenth-CEntury a mis con PO'O'S of 1'.9u. However.rre ' bout . between deUght and hOfllo'r" of which the -hYlicallefti~ct is that 'the bair li:terany stands ..voluntary return..n..~. in which court poetry and minstrel poetry . '. was a close ally of the Norman '" The two thirteenth-century 'poems which. Hergest' ('The Red B. ncient Celts carefully disb'D:guisbed the P' .i _al in the bardic Gars edd of the '. -Prince Rbys.e 'Ci. of un . conqu est of eland .. . th -. cam ._ I 1- __ :__:_.. te perform at any court... . 'on ~ on Chris..!O!nDm famili ~_ow intermarried aDd ir was no longer easy n 10 keep the minstrel out of the courts.as A1lun. as a r __ult of th.Iri united. ous_.. unles 'such a norm :15 assumed.... ...e.of Beeton koighilS who could understand Welsh and whoreco. at it has on tb Ir_:aderr' h.C'dJ GodJeu and the llanesa'iis'SUL.et. .hieh they bad heard . Their poshion declined ith that of their p_'t'on. unde stood the there i-. publie ' of the honour due to poets" andcontests fOf' 'the bardic Chair are IS ' I' ~ Jl ever.'P donal handwriting. Dol until the fifie enth century 'that the poet Davydd ap GwiIym. then a still more violent r. ndque" Icolour~d by .-·· .r the' poe . from 'me' .band ·····. A. or finders" translated them into' contempora y ~reneh and adapted them 'to the Proven .. By the fourteenth century the literary inftuence: of the minstrels began 11:0' . "lI .. £av'oured the losing side" 'sb'ord. Cymric" but of pr~G. ·- has had IDn~y shore experience of similar bardic . th re.er i n Classicism.p ".J rhv _m...vil ' .. but to that logic of poetic c I ught which gives a poem strength and. ill be here examined are I he 'work of a • 'I..'the hairs. is the Dorm to which ap .D" the ':m.ts of the single infini~ely variabl'8 I f1 ne are to be found in rtai'n ancient: poetic m:yths which. In an early thirteenth-century p _' one Phylip Brydydd records I contention between him. .o"'~ru.rylized.If and Certain 'vulgar rhymesters' . at ..." th_! it has.ck as far as the Stone Age. . yet the Eisteddf d ha ' served to keep.poe'try"an d aceoromg '0 .. and judge IS. E.' 'h ulared to c-o!nfo~m'with __ cbepoch of religious . aliv .di KerN. then anotl er partial return 'to..of a with a strange feeHng.hi hales .1z .• The . :-ars. rdi to sh_OiW even m court .~_ . Its 1 m l_" hy . .change -~ us 'b = ~ . tourteenttlb' . Ieuane at Llanbadarn F. yth.... th 'qu stion I t urvives .g:a rnat .o tic dle'---'e 'Of Life and Death .".

and hee auld compoe a satire on his assailan 'Web wo-uld brin . by Wcy of the' Norman I I 11 h romano s f.ged. 's paeronageof t.e ~heme. or (D' ertainer.vlerygjeru:nJ oine" including his'£O'ry'l music" law" In and divination" en.c. 'rj'tis.is.h chieftains J i I not _terminate' the peasanrs" so' that the con tinui. '0 dl..d nine-score penc-e of money besides'ii'. lst .e~osity of .Seq. if not. or 'C~~.3 I. the p etie sehools of Wales .hi· moral tutela' . 'to an endowed profession but is dependent for his Jiving on 'the occasi~n' 1 g.2·.o saCllOlsanct mas'b9""'poe'ts" but only gieeme.c s.hy there is not we same instinctive reverene ~or the name of ~ J n the . . Thi I lnins . I b II int.. . m. iiI is r.-f [h _military ... 'The ord cbard'" '. knowl dg'e. 'their form er patroness. where it meant: an . As early as the firs.any English po ets bave vwrirten eeehnlcal skill J and since the rw.y insult to their dignity: 'Iliccording to a tenth-c ntury digest of laws . even eenturies afte.S at tahIe an. In ancient Ireland the oJla:.inferior' 'poet Wh. m mediaeval W.t len irely..ce and drive him insane.vie ' f rd ~e ~sed and . nly 'ball' the pl_' scribed 'tales.cou~ ed him.h r.e'moriz·· d. H '_'had m..i ~.egrity. the J 'I. whom I .. Nevertheless m.ton's.a university L.-elsh ''househo. I I.th mime and 'IDmbIin:_. preserve' the decencies of poetry" and IOf !t I' I. . e would.00 genera. -:hich in medi eval . I .But let .m heal' from Poseidonius he'. th ere is in the remo rest parts of Wal.and had to depend on ~egalredr s ~or an.en. e) :it is ma.h fes.affecting. by the First Lord of the Treasury..s the refinemenr of complex poetic I '0 exact sratemem.died advanced prosody :and m . 'Dot a p.1 2].on of 'the Irish bard is defined in rh sevenrh-eerttury . novelists. the Thr ..lsb minstrels show tha t 'they were also 'to' b reckoned wi I '"The COurt-Pits.trical "madman's w'isp'~in his fa.uel'to the ..S.r.tic education ided a student 'ro th. or whatever else they happen ..I I forbidden tOI us curses lor satir . d...dngi. ".. Impo~~an than Brigjr. wi.n h poetic' lore is borrowed at thir-d hand..'e' IQf poetic wit in extempore verse.exchan.D'm ancienr British.s parado ~ t I u .el£th ceu'tury .E'nglish p . Howe¥.. e.the' Heir Apparen .ear .. 'tolversify :in aU these departn .~r'"or when givin. mere clien .. on the other hand. s. -h· riles I . oft n make a variety' turn of his performance.n. had a different -5 in reland.h and his SOrD. bard' rhey could demand an eric of Inine cows" an. they d escrihe themselve . orthrow . of BJlymD.d was privile. and .e'm~r. was only the tenth dignitary' at Court and s~t on pidon.. as.si'ti.p:olprti nat Iy ~ower status!! According to th We]1 h Laws. beingreckoned equal in honour with the the gleem· n'" Hatt-ery of 'Itis patrons were handsome .· as.kedthat' 'the poets Df the world assess the men of valour'.on his face' and n 'of hIS work. ~hjch was.tin eloquence unconnec . ales stood fof' a master-p ~t. (J hn Sk.. out black b~ tch . 'hey would load him with gold torques and honey cakes.. were mere' gleeman showed the greater poe h his verse was not S'OI highly polish diO ·. di:g~ity of' bardi. . sodden minds.ve ' _ot as far as the seven'tb y.[ed upon in.t ~_:n'tury B. a~d was Ideficient in knowledge of Old ~oidli.a jocuiatlJ'r:. I'A bard is one without lawful leamiru .n. Gaul" and ttUSI at a tim e when the D_Jd:..HtJrary circles.riris. If I §S "lbI· I· _..eftains. r nglo-Saxons had n.OI had 00'1 passed dUDU.ns.r he had £orfe~. and pce:ms" had not...rofe -iona1 training.would withdra toge'mer to a hin andthere judiciou 'i y discu -s the fig}t.le. aged in ha· 1_ thepoets of both ld . or master-poet.I wh:re 'm bards I r-.ancienr c.tled his priesdy funcnons to the Chris' ian clerilc. as nonl~ else but the queen was..0 .": ""'pr when moving in .-_. The glee:_mian.ln a 's. and the eombatants-« whom they oft.A .ty 'Df ·11 t. Gallic and Irish sources. scheclmasrers.Idiom met without a lively .·en years.le 'Ilfailled B. In II J1 d ._ -fold Mus~'. with reverence as w-eUas pleasure . ~n I 11 . rJt:l. the Go.' course that he had taken was a gr. not belon-.. t rese.n lish countryside :B.' When rwo annie en. I d the . civil ser . laurel-ce n.~·nparted by a sudden intervention-would afte.tal 'system remained unaitected leven when :tbe .to the 'Theme'.oli:. . r . but in the 1aler Botlk DfOlla'llres (bound U~PI in tb fourteen'tb-c ntury Book.. so that ~ften IOlgma 'the 'God of ·'Ioquence se -m d 1 '..ri·l: I. 'nd it is. but his own intellect'. and surviving example of the cursin .ales the admired court-peer had b come a client of th tn' a whom he addressed formal begg:ing odes and forgotten the JI lmo . sat next 'to 'the kill. ard accept their version of the fight. the .h "Ise'vlen degrees of wisdoml' which made him an ellave after II very difficult twelve . His lu 'ion. to wear si IdiffereD'1 colours in his clothes. they would pelt him with beef bones .poems of the We.g' evidence in a law-court..he' figure nine' recalls the nine-fold .rely faithl.f .GalJ1zlack Law~.' sweetly enou h attuned '-0 their me ad . Wales he was-styled an ei'fCAiQJ~ or suppliant" one who does. i -h~ands. laureateship was not instituted -ian I . ts feel obHg d tOI a:po'lo. he valued only Ihe judgement of his colleagues.~" deal mOle'ev-· I n dlat i.arehs and without " e po _t's arduous p. The po. any obligation 10. s poe'.ys'tem was... Even the English poet ." ithout 21 contest.. if worth commemorating in a poem. year course. whHe the d _ pis ed and un ndo -00 minstrel who r- rum his bowels 0 water. :21. The fact is rhat though n broke the po 'ef dle .). f told 8ung to a Ie ldc gleeman in.) It' does not carry' 'with it any authority over national I.ef Bard.ed with H_I1l'Y .chi.'t'U._noug. of Wales.JoJin.alwaysttu. t I cannot be pretended that he was ..I man offer the least indignity to an Irish poet.of his p . _5.ean have cared nothin _' or the' ordinary f man's appreciaI I II) II fr of . urnaHsts.de cl ar that to ha..-mIdi' _ lie Irish olla e's chief iatere [ ..C_.gize fbr their c leri.-use. He kne he his lOry and mvthic vc lue of .ixh-century 'Welh porn. at i'~ stronges't there.ld. itoic ofa bag. on the other band" wa'S.. not by J I u -I society..

theni . lean.oddeIS...__ -' ---:. die' of 1 the test 'because he' claims 'to be the Goddess:'s master . Michaelmas...wer h b·' waS€! . because of the' difference tween tile attitudes of the 'Classical poet" and lof the true poet..n occumO'fts of emo. buldng of d.ts at 'the ans.]ass..e Theme'!! Keats 'was 'writin:g: 'UDder d1.I'nd a dls.ysti:ca~reverence .ne. in Incien!r-eligioDs.tiani'ty~ E'nglish s.... The Theme.I..19. In Classical En. r.. a useful 'word. she rules" The lleu'oowhy the hairs stand 'on end"tbe leyes water" th:e thr. chap'ters and an eipii]o~e" of the birth. But. A11-Hanowe .n m_el"ii . with the Godd!e5s. one might say" is the :accuracy ofhis portr-ayal Df 'the Wbite G.ckly" before it disperses.~. In g t stories she often figures IS 'The White Lady "and.. 'kin!dli:ng' in which . cen wry _~ p___L ~--y de'gen erat~'e..atl:-.tish 15:15.t. device known as...goes. the 'Bnlique 'stD. 'to the hite G.Angio-S.{!-.' d' .nIUD· .tan'£.serpen..gleeman t3nd'ald:s~i'rs entertainment value 'to 'the mjasses~can be counted 'Upon I m.ni.. Her names . part of our racial inheritance that thtl.nl .'FIIIU !~. heam. 1 t l' n. the academy ..~_-_.eshadow 'o. 'of I m." :seconua.eteen . th:lrougrh me .dte moon 1_s lik!p.erywhef'! impHcit in the popular .m.of dreams.very anaen'£ s·~ory.ebrati. ..e'bmf!s.mistress Dnly in the de:r.d resurrection of the . I ~ 0. n. 'to the C:aucas:us"as.ottu~~r' All Living.Jj.m":s" II:II!Verythin.o. LI n -• . apparently n~)l ~opled and eventless scene described in it" if the elements bespeak her til en. AU true: poetry~true b~y111'ousman s pn. Swi'm.4 'b .coder woman with 3. om . .'lI!. of 'me Waxing 'Year and his Muse.!s and. his body still lying rigid in bed..e The Goddess is .. p"resence clearl. The 'teart of I.DS .aj life was based on . _.. f' '~ .jj This is not 'Ito'iden:dfy the true poet wi..DIon 'lD_UStty" an d.t the:yca_n. say.'. nightmare .ea] business in hand~ a.l.ten the appeal of his lines.emra~e .y enot '-I: for example.triOdS.gueaoout groves.--was __ . a da . in.' . the heart leapl.io'D from.1 queen . dark-fa bed-side spectre'" or Prince .11 .It d ~ust 0'· tng b. ~ '.wolf. poet's. 1 -tne e .en owlsi boot.E-'"n €. Dr when a peal ells in frosty 'weather :5.'L. wh. weapon of II dark executioner and supplanter..e 'whm.rniDdty 'of his I patron or sage reflexions on the shortness and uncertainty of human life. I 'DI_flDD. 'Ii~.g.iety .dquity· in which successive versions of the Theme are 5ummarize.ress" mermaid or loathsome : hag:.t think of any true poet from. :awareness 'of the Theme.. '1:(1=.Of' aJ ~(1dicted tO drugs and melancholia.oat is consltricted..t.. l my critics whose functio. who lives .vixen" she-ass. and all.JI . turns 'to me r.. only view as :my preposterous group N. . ·Uk... .1 is his blood-brother. 50 that be' looks back and sees. The w. j .. Icrith:aUy unbalanced :and a.:llf the mistress w.' U poet D___ .&grlcudUr'e" gra'7mg" ~ . 'p. Dlflen pro- [ c ted "IJO' fun Ilengm 'of tbe' piece" the The roUewing.gmeibr.. ofl~'ub.un'bl1g. a true poem.1' ~L '~-Oo ess as tne mi '[:I]:1:eG' . d18't a 'true poem is necessarily an 'inV 0'C8'b. ~Ro:mand. vi'sion. of 'me White G.peare: hin.~ '".€T' it b D'r •. i:1 CC:OU:OE.C!·t ngl!!.th a luscious prollo...$.. Jm.cai 1)( l~try. d' h-" aIl~_. by studding them with tOI PBS:!I II ~ il auries.ly" sl.!ct. me'rlv.-. whether' it m:a:.-erne was sdll e:v.ncoquettish . she! win 'suddenly transfonn her-self Into SO'W" mare.''1 .d d . This is e.ddess.r' gifted and indul.ogato'ry sense.'. 'streams and nJ.~.r lbe: h'aUad:. the' skin.. lSI fieUgi...professed 'Chris.a..ucbOD in'~o stern Europe..ofwhlch he: is.t~ U~p'D' . by thewr-ite:rs of verse-romanees. a shiver nIna.a And what is a mal~e~'I.tioloaJ stress in the form .ake'~merry with w'ha..-.wed from 'true poems".'..ghtingales" Indthen qui. often appears in.u... Fanny' .f deaith aboul his Muse..g a poem. of the courage."'.ldles apllrase of . ea ulrB ~ o~ ttuepof'try: _ l' An· .are inn:umerable. the' taU.. forms. hi" OJ mnded his destin'yi!!i The ClassicaJ.ce of her.__:'- ~I. and delusions. dOIWD the spin. also seeredy pr ~~ rv'ed . deaJth~y pa~e:face'. The poet identifies lumself'whh the IGod. she ..clicaJ test.!i"~ 1"~dLO~ .ildlJ~IJ' mn r Jmmen't whats 0 ever.~ IL.quaUy pcrdnent~D th. bis o'tberl:e~ his weird . b o comnllym _'S tatansnc reWO"c 10.rigin.n. C' 1! . ship through 'scudding' cloud.etber' above ~Llshing wa:telrfall" .the poet induces 'the poetic atmesph re wi. sway slowlyeog.. In Classlcal Ambie p..OD.Y" which.oetry 'mere is.eird" or rival.y nor only assert themselves i. -' _:~ '. howeve..th Romantic l 'poetry but recur 'D." '.o. is.~ '_JUI p.g that remindsl me' of belli . the 'traditionaJ.. Despite the deep seasory sadsfalcrion 'to be derived from 'C.- r-' s: ~ ··.n f and the 'spear that roars for b:l:ood:l' is.o. of the anti-Christian witch-cnlr.. d tema '1.pear'.~othirteen..Iove.i. wease~.oln of the fes.tbe o'..ttadibD'nlI respect for' the poett have a tr. Midsummer D1aY:lI1 Lammas. Ir woma_n" has become nDn'ted by indiscriminate~use.. l' I H'" .leI:' he uempts [0.t.' bo:rw. 'Thus 'me En.en. briefly" .glish ploetry the artLticial k. the eentral chapters concern the IGod's loslag battle with the God of the W..and magn.uwis now' known :18 Cand]emas.IX'D.or Mus'e" 'We M.Drl...~! '-. under' his proteetion. chapters wiU rediscover I set .o'gs is.r' _ .'--"" P'!:IIi'D' b..1...'the "Whi. Ups red as rowan-berris" starldingly blue: ejesand long faU bair... 2.pDwerful Threefold Goddess. trod ~_I. So'meamles" indeed" he' is her ba. Hfe" death an. heigh.oci.olld :fo'r IOldin. but he takes countless other malevolent or djaboHc: or serpent ..d. ~ !I1!·-~o::.wdma.is. except where it ils to maintain decorous c:omposul'iej and this is.2. The typical Roman ...adi'tiona I. af'®er aU" what :~sa ischolarP One 'who may not It' _ak bounds under' pain. C3i.e.rterin-.t~ m·~I'I'I1!!!.anCient d :15'_'5 th.--.~ r 1. '.eadin.e I-i- '--. falls im.u:ddenly annoueces the birth of 'the New' Year. hooked nose... of varying. true poer.like' II . Homer oinweds who bas not independendy recorded his experien."": G'ousman 'DIlelIB:.LadyDay" MayDay. and Christmasjit' wal.. . bitcb.aning Year fo:r love of the capricious.nes:t? Sbakes. it never' makes me hairrise and..Lndling proeess is.octrine in the covens.ddesiS and ofthe island over which.Kea.s.i.a~~~.. their m . pa:ran'oiaJc visions.e Goddess~'.od IDf the Waxing Year.J~d~ __ r.1!·-II:ilI __ 1]. bride and layler~oiut. ..as.' n to ·1I"le. d. craw. of Dine.glis]l" though with llo.Dusd.a) hero o.she ill hi.e sp.and 'the three main Idlameters areso much &I.cel.G.wer" th:ough he' bs'tinnes S'r. me Tb __ . the hairs wilt bristle at an.of the Air"w'ho' mes to dtag the: dreamer' outthrough the' lViddorw.. is 'to jiud:B1e all literature by .a'res some incid"en't or seeee in tbis.one W. owl".~I Wi. poet.rit:rS1 Dlrreads..of sacred' charm's..:I "lI. from. the Bri. 'while it co've'fed the remu-od. hys~ ~ m.

s",i'tWJforJ'tlt/ wice woltt, He me "As' Nig/,I. .... Ma;'e QAt! /ze', ";""-/01,, ,B'iJ'Aer d'tig,.lit GntllM'r troIA,.-'·. ,I;'~ .. '., . .. - rN1J'JJ AIuJ'e.7oynt ,!,ee, wit''',j' a1'OJm' tlitlel


I" ...

A fuUef~ccount of~()d.in's fea'£ is given i,n the No.rth Country ag4Uu' tltB' Niglil MaFie, which :probably dates fm'm the fourteenth eenn.......'.1.,. .. ' ..'
ilftr ' ..•


Chapter Two



. ~.J"," mtJn tJ' ,.1, I· Ril' 'rme ,lJ' . "reAt, mxnl,
j. ,. -

,W," nlJiJe" swf.'rJ nBflr:J ne licA"., He ,Q,e"!, tAd M~re,J It.fl'nJ,tll" Mare'., .H' l'l}"J tAa ,Marl' MI,e 1z4r ,ain Arzre" 10,84 8a'1·e'J'A~,.~Q;r m.i'titk'-,In'iall, Sits W((Jltk Me: mai" ,,,/'(l ,rGc:4,t WArD" tDn'C'e A" J'iaJ6'~111.01 fII,fJ& tl ,mic4,~


seems that the Welsb 'min's'~re'l9" like the Iris:h poets, recired ·their' traditicnal rernances in prose, br,eaking into dramatic verse, 'with harp'

The Nig;'bt: Mare' is one of the' cruellest aspects of 'me While Goddess!!, Her nests when one comes ,aCrO·IS 'them in dreams, lodged in. rock .... lde:fts Or' ,.the .~Iran.ches ,of,enormous hollow yews~ are bun t ot car,efully chosen, ~lgS, hoed with whhehorse ... and the plumage of' pr'op,hetLc birds and hair Uttemd wi~ the ja',w'-bone5 au,d entrails of poets .. The prlDphet Job said 10£ , bee 'She dweUetb and. ,Ibidem upon thereck .. er yOluog ones also suck ,-' up, b.1.cltxi.'

. accompanimern, only at: points of emotional stress, Some of these manees survive complete with theinciderual verses; others have lost them; in some leases" such as, tbero,ma.n;ce of .Llywa1tth Hen" only the

v rses survive, The most fam!Dus W,eIsh collection is the MalJino,gion" which m's, usuaUy explainled ,as ~Juvenne' Romances', that 'is, 'to SlY those that every apprentice :[0 the minstrel profession, was expected to know; it is,
contained in the thirteenth ... century R'od Boole oj" ,Herge'J.t. Almost the incidental verses are lost", These romances are the stock ...n ... i trade ,of ,3, minstrel andsome of them have been broughrmore up.. o ... t date' than others


in their language and description of manners and morals, TAe'R'e'IJ' Boo"e of He",e:I" also cOin,rains :1 j umble of '6fty ... ei.gbt poems called The B'Qol/r.of Taliesin, among 'which occur' the inci,dental verses ofa

ROMance of TaiisSM which is no'! included in the Mahinogio,n,. However, the 6rl,'[ part of the romance is preserved in, a, late :six,teendl,~,centurymanu ... , cript, caned the ~'Peniardd M,.S,.,··_first p,rintsd in ·the early rdneteenthcentury M)fVY'ian A,ckaiDlogy, complete ·wim. many ofthe Slimeincidental v .rses,tbo'ugh with ·textua.l variations, Lady Chu'l!orce' ·GUeI't 'tra:ns'la:ted his, f~agmeO't·, completing it with material fTom two adler mmJlscrip,ts md included it, in her w·eUknown edi'tion of the Ma.iJinogio1l (111'4,8)" ... Unfortunately, one of the two manuseri Pit; came [ro'm, the library of 1010 _organw:g, a celebrated eigh,'t,ee'nth ..oen'nu:-yfunpr'o,v,er·' of W,e]sh doeui,

rnents, sal Ithat her version cann.OI't be l"iead widl,confidence, though n 'I been pr'o'v,ed tba'tthis, pardcularmanuscrlpt was fo',rged~,

it has


of the romance is, as, follows, A nobleman ofPenUyn, nil'med: 'gjd V'ael had. a wife: named Ca:ridwe·n, or Cerridwen, and t\VO' ch~ildr,en,

reirwy, the most beautiful girl in tbe wo.rld"and· agddu, 'the u:gUest h yO! They Jived Ion an island in the middle of Lake Tegid, To eompensate

M3igddu 's u,gUn.ess" Cerridwen decided. 'to :make him In:ghly .io·~eUi, ... , 'n r, So" ,acM'Mlng toa recipe con tained in the books of Ver.gjl,of Toledo •he magidan (hero orf'a,tw,elfm-ceru:ury romance), s,he boiled up a.cauldr'o'ft

inspiratio,n and knowl.edg~" which had to be: kept on the simmer for



yearand a day,~ Season by season, she added to the' brew magical herbs gatheJiled ln their correct planetary hours, While she gathered the herbs she put U'tue' Gwio,n" m,e '50~n,lof IGwremg, of the' parish of Ua'nfair in Caereinilon, to stir the cauldrio'nl' Towards the' end of the year three burn ...


wltal' ~iti,&:, .

Tlte atrrmg ereatere jro,'m 6~for£ tAe'Flood l'i,tAoutjleslt, 'witJ~(JKtIlmneJ, Wirho,ullIem, ,vi',lioll' !J:lIJ{}J~,
'fIi~t.~ou, ~e,(lJ!J1 i't:AfJut:fo,e'~ " .' w

in,;' drops Hew OU~ and fell on Htde' Gwian"s finger,!! I-Ie thrust it into his mouth and 3:1:once understood the natureand mleani'ng of all things past" present and fu,ture, and thus saw the need of guarding against the wiles of Cerridwen 'who was determined on IdUin,ghim as,soon, as he' had completed his, work, He fled a,way'", and she piunued him like a, black scr,eaming bag., By lise of the pDlwers that he bad dra,wn fr1om, the cauldron he' changed himself into ahare, 'sbe changed heirself mtol'gr'eyhou:nd" He plunged. into a river and 'became a fish;1 'she Ichan,ged herselfmtc an otter, He fi!(!w up inro the air llke a bird; she changedb.erself intn at hawk, He became a .grain of winnowed eat on the floor of a bam~'she' chaosed herself into a black hen" scratched 'the wheel t over with her feet" found him and :swaJlowed him, When. she returned 'to' her own shape she fou'nd herself
pregnant of IG1Vi,on and nine' months ~ater bore him :~sa child, She could not find it in her heart 'to kill him, 'because' he was 1le'ry beautiful, $·0 tied him, in a leather 'bag'and tbrew him into me sea two Idays before May Day. fie was carried into the wleir of Gvryddn10 'Garanhair near Dovey and .Aberys,'rwyth, in Cardigan Bay", and rescued {('10m it by Prince Elphj~, the son lot IGwyddno and nephew of IGng ~Iae~,gwyn, of Gwyn,edd (North

in,jiel'J, info'rflst,~ Il7ith,o,1I1Manti, w;'rnout foOl. It is a/s,(J Sf· witiB .A, "h ..e slI.t:/'izc:e ~fr!te eg,ri,. AnJ ,it W:Q,J Not 60r"", Nor' w,al t,t seen
!! ~



'he' sclution, 'namely "The Wind', is .given, 'pra,ctical1y with a vioilen,[ ,lOITm of wind whi,cb frigrbrens the Kmng into €e'trni'ng -E] phi:n fnl'm, the
,r 111

ngeon, whereupon Tallesin unchains him with an incan tation, P',ro,hably .~ n earlier version the wind was released fr,om 'lb!B mantle ·ofhiII Icomracfe
or Marv,nln, as it 'WU by - Iorvran's Irish C'Dunterp,art M,I'rvan in. II early' mediaeval Proceedings' of .t:Ae IGrand B""'dicAcadfl;mY'1 with which 'TAeRlatnancfJ of Taliesln bas, much .in common, I(,',A part of it bl,ew ~11 0 the bosom ,of eve:ry bard presen t" &;0 that they ,au' rose their feet,' A _ondensed f[u~m of thisl r1ddleappears inthe Flore" ,of Bede" an author . rnmended in Dine of the BOdie If!f Talie'lw :poem's:
I _ragddu


W'aI 0), who had come there to net fish!! Elphin, thou ~'-,he ca,ughr no fish" considered hbn~H.~'H· well rewarded for his labour and renamed Gwion "T,aUesin', :meani.ng either 'fine val ue', or "beauti6i.d brow'...........-a ubject $or s ,punning by 'the author of the romance, When Elphinwas :impris,oned by his IOlyl~ll uncle a,1 DlygantVf (n.ear Llandudno), the capiral of Gwynedd, the' child Talie.in went there u) rescue him and by I display of wis,d,olln, in, which he confounded all the' twenty""four court ...bar-ds of Mael,gwyn--rhe lelgbth-·cenitury British historian Nennius mentions Mae~gvryn~1yeephanrie bards~nd s their leader 'the cruef bar,d, Heinin, secured the prince~',s, release", First be put a ma,gic 'spell on the bards so that: 'they could only play ble,r-wm lo,f"',rwm with their .fin,gerson, their Ups:like children, land then he recited a long' riddling poem, the: ,Hanss Talie.lmJ w'h,[lch they Wlefe unable to understand, and. which. wiU be found in Chapiler V'., Since' 'the Peniar-dd version of the' romance is not compllc,te'lIl it is jius't, poss,ib/le: rha,t the so'~udo,ft of the riddle wa~ eventually giv1en,1 as in the similar romances ,of R.umpelstiI rskin, TOtl1 TitTot ,Oedipus:, and Samson .. But: other incidental poems, suggest that Taliesin condaued to ridicule the i,gnoranoe ands 'llpidity ofHeinin and the other bards 'to the lend and never' revealed his secret, The' icUmax of the 'ItJoryin Lady Char.lot1Je~lsversion comes wi th another riddle, proposed by the child T,aUesi'n, beg~t1nin,g,:

Die mili qua'!' ,." iila res fuae leasllon'" "J>tam,us' ler,r,tJm reple.'1Ii't: silva's;

~~sireulos co:n/rincit ., 1;ideri' aut i[s,i,c] m"cl1!i6us



omnirz''''''lue fi~nJa'm(!/n,ti1. conr!u,ti'J set!



ta'&gi'p0l:e.rl' ..

[,Answerl Yen,,",,,


I h re can be 'DOl mistake here, BU'lsince the ' -'/(11 Talie'si~is no'£ 'preceded ~, an ~l ~o,rmal :P'Y',~Yl:n,zg! Dyclr.Jliwzig' ('riddle· me this riddl,e') or De,(Jh.ymic • Imy J'lV CDislcovler wltat it is,')1 ,co'mmentato,rlexcDI!, themselves from 1 Idin:g i't as a riddle I'E aU,,,Some' oo,ftsiderit. to be solemn ... ounding non ... s , . tl 'I an early anticipation of Edwa,rd. Lear ;and Lewis, CaIf10U I inrended I0 l als~ ,3 laugb; od:u:'n consider that i:t bas some sort of mystic,ill sense mnected with the Druidlcal doctrine of 'the transmigrarion ofsouls, 'but 11 nul claim to be able 'to elucidate this .. II ere I must I,poiogize £or my ·temerity in writing on I subjlecit which ls , l 1"1 ,aUy my own. I am 'nolt.Welshman" eX,lcept an bODolmryone' thro·u,gb I[ill~ the leek, on St, David's Day while sierving with the Royal Welch 1 u Irs and, tbo'U.g~I have lived in Walll: for some years" oli and Ion"


, I, Jom ,itlc:timRsin A.s You L;kee It'l 'w'hiich Jaques describ . , I, La Greek, m:¥ocall:iOID ·ro caU, II hHO 0 cirde~'-per.·uIJP's Q favcl'u'ri'tfl' j,ok!e o:F Sbake,.pearrlsi Wehsb 'Cb'lO;I!mo~erl! re111 ~~I I. cd


form is ,dytAymig



iI dd,Ue')~,wbkh

seems, '10 lexp~ail:n'!themys'Eri ...


'0 cld ity,. ,21(1





com m .M. -,d···.· eve n: Olr·:: odem ~'n- __ "_ - ~. m
L_·I_~· __ " __


W·,- a1-,IQ':h1 ',]1 iii'
_ _ ~_~ __

"!lin· I: a··m·"RoC'1 a 'm-;--cd, ia S'1iffl'tl d e IlMr_I
__ .
L~ ."_ 1_,,_' . ' ._' __


hisrtoria,n~B'U,t my pr'ofession, is poetry, and I agree' whhtheWeb;\h
minstrels thl~the poet's first endchment is a, know[ed,g:e and understand ... t , i.n,g 'ofm:ytbs~, One day whUe I was, puzzling: out the meaning of the ;anc:ien'rWlelsh myth of CdJ IGo!JJe"u. ('The Battle of the Trees'], Cougbt between Ar,awn King' of Annwm C,IThe Bottomless Place'), and the two sons of Don, IGwydion and Aniathaoln" I had :muc'b the same lexp rience I'S IG'w,ion, 'of L'Lanfair'.. A, drop lor 'EWe of the brew of Inspiranon Sew 'out of the Clumdr,oD and I sudden'ly felt confident thatif I turned again te Gwioin,"s,riddle,wh:i,ch I bad nO'1 read since I was, ,I schoollboy:, I could male,c sense of lt, 'This: Batde of the Trees: W,IS "occasioned by a Lapwing" :1, White' Rioe buck and, a 'Whelp from A'nnwmj;!I'In the ancient Welsb Triad", which are

Ill" pe Aeen. tAe s t,ulg IOJQ ,c:hiIJ'1 swutltllin,g 1,lou t, J have' .'een, (2' ,SUlo,J in the Ii.rJRJ. I have &tJ6tl, €I shlel'} i,~ ,tlu~figlu~ J lJdlls6:e"n t.he :Et.f,iR:_ of g IUlrp,

Encl-ulntc,d for m year


Jn ,thle,foam of water", l Aave hee'n, Q. pDker' £11 ,Ae .fire, l,~~e' 6Mn a tree ,in a "ow-ert'_, Ther« is twtking ,in wlt.iclt I/J,tl:v.e lIUlJl'g,fo'ught, .thOll,'" .small'l



a collectlen of sententious or his torical observatlons arranged epigram .... , madcaUy in threes" it is reckoned as one lof the "Three F rivolous Batde! of Brh,ain""And du:~,Rom,uce of ]7.lir8,in containsa long ,p'D,en1-, Of' group lor poems run 'together, called ICrJ'J IGOIJJsU, the verses of which seem as, '0,0:0'" If!n!ica~as dIe Hanes Ttlli'es;n beca,uI'1 '[bey have been deliberately lClpied\ H,ere is the poem in D,,,,W~, N,asb'~s mild- VLctorl:an,transbrb,on, said to be unreUable but the best ,It present a,v,ailabJe",The origjna'i is written in shore

.In _'

IN ,A,e.Bo:t,tie ,?fGoJJeu Br;'. Blefo,re rA,6'R'uier of B,i'Ism" AhounJing in.fieQ.rs

r~lIthtJ,ru prBJtcntl"

TAeyprlf!.te:euJ a monstrou« /;e",,'. Witli ,a Aundr;eJ'ne'fJ!dI, An,dlQ griev:o,us Icom6'4£ At the' ,10D't of rAle ,tc()npe~ AnJ,rmo'Ae,',firlu~' tAere is ]1' ,AI' t&e baclt. o,f,lle' lzellrL

rhyming lines,! 'i_:' same IJhyme often bein,e; sus,tained for len or fifteen, lines .. Less 'than, haJf lof them be'),Q'ng to the poem which gives, it's:name 'ro the wnolle medle::y"aud these must be' laborieusly sorted before ,tbeir' relevance lJO 'Gwio,g's: riddle can be explalned ..Panen,ad eln
a,e;Bl! GOD'DEU

,A ,t(J'GJ lttJ1!.in, fl1I, A'ia tll.i,Aa AI Illmtlred' C/'aW,IS"
A 11"()',t~t-e'Jc,e,S,teJsnde',

ForpuNisAing in tJ~,',irfleJA
40 A n:unJri'a souls on ,account

I wal in Cae,' Fefyn'edd:,

,'?f rAei'r


(The Battle ofthe Trees) in m4ny'sAflpes'J Befo're I att{lined,,, ~'onl1en.itllform.. , J'ka-ve /;een, a rlQrrmv'lJiade oft, ,sw(J'rJ., (l willlJ'slieve it wnen i,t a_ppeQ'rs,) , I Aave 6e'flll a ,drop' in, _ ,.i"" I ,4Q.'1I£ ,6een, a: sAinings'fl".

Thi,t.h.,e',,''we'll /ZIUIBtliRi' K'rlSllfl:S Itm,J trees; ,~P_tzyftzrersp.f~,,'ei1J:e' tAem, JI?Iaffio,.s ,{Ire' wl(Jni~Ae'J 4" At; a ,renewal of Il~e ,co,lIjlic,t,1 Sue' as G~Jio. ,mallei' T6e.Y' ,U' crJl~g'O'd "411111,1 Andlon Chru't thaI' A,e w{J,uIJ'.ejfec,t'

,h(JrJ,k~ l"ta~e hslt:n /;(Jole lo:rlginal(y~, ,a
IAavf4 hfJ'ena w(Jr,tiin

TA,B'ir ,fili'P:BrlllZti,'e', Th,I' all-p(J,wsrfol LQrJ~, Ifr/ztfJ Lor.a hailanJ'We'reJ~
T410~gAt:Aar:m6 a,uJ,m:fl;,i, Ikil~, Asmms' t&e',/or:rns ,of tile pr:iRciprlltfiees,

I kgpe

Ayeu.r IWIl,J'a, ,Aaq. I Aay, 6elR la 16r;iagefo',r'palJ,inglwl'




liglt' .in, IQ: lante,1L.



I ka""'iour.'yeJ as «11 erlgie.,. / Aave ,/J,,"" a l;'fJ(I,£ D,S tA,! sea, I S ,lll,u1',,6een, a Jir~''C,'fJ'' ,in 6tJ ttle.,

Wir./';,You in Clr(iQY " 5 Resltrain, "Illepeople lnerpl,ris,~eJ ,in, lJlJfrul,.., WAlln rAe trees were encAan ted T'llere was A:(~,e,foT ,tIl, trees 'I



00 O/tlle 3ur10Ululiitgjir,cs"

TAat ",iey sltoulll,frwerar" Itlz, t;",te!#tion


And' enjoying ,tltemselllls in a circle; An.a On.6 a/tA"m ,ela'ting TILe'sr(Jry~ftAfJ deluge, 6:, .Antlofths ,,.,DSg lofCATist, Ana oftAe'Dlay lofl",tfgemen, ,Near at kczndlJ Tke' alder-trees in theftr'Slline., Tluy maJe'tlze. ctJmmencement'. Willow an,J',quiclcen tree; 70 They wIre slow in ,rAeir ·aITay. TAe plum is a tree

Bene ar« ,A,es'in


Are ,he" .... aRJtIi.e mWJerry. PtosperrQlJs the heec:4-trBe. ,TAe /aQ'Uy J.,1t. "ea.,
rF7~" .1.
l _~ ..1_

He WI '1I~ry,coartJ.geQus,~ Defontletl with sPMes Oil IB""'J! lide,
,,.,fJlmatng tFitenanas,


Not 6e/oJlIl'J ofm,n, .. Tke met!laf' of a like nature', Overcoming SSlIIT6 tQil~ TIte he'an bearing in its alu:zJ, An army t:~f phGRtotns,.

The "(lsp;"rry milkes No.tthe' D'eS,t offood ..
_ __ ~ In sheltsr liv,e'The privet antl,k, wO{l',d6ine" A,"J tlz.4 ivy in ilS season; Greg, is tke garse Ut 6ri.ttl~ ..


Wiu l'a,te ,in ar,raying Aimself; It was IJQttA..rougA ,cowardic" But Ion tJ"Ccount. ofh.ugr6at litS.. TAe appea.r-aM," of tM I" ,thGiIOfafol,reigne.r cmJ,a sQ.v,ag'. The,p;ne-trsl in tlte court, Strong in hattl,., B;y me .gre:Qtly e:;Jr;Qlte;(/

The cAerry-treeAtJ .. ,lJeen ,-sprotJt:A,s·Q. J The' 6irch~enough very'mt!lgn4llimow,

.Tke ,lollg~enlfd:ing,p(Jp'la"8 T?:e.ry much lJ,olee7l infigA,r~, I [0, Tne plunJsreJ forA; TAe /;'()(J/'I'U' witlt "bB.ir o_ffip.ring.~ TAefo-rf;fJ' Jv,QJ' ,fIO'l' well IJeAa1AeJ Until Ae WQ,J ttunet/. TAll' AleatA WW'l ';''P.iNI·consola.ttan I' J 15 IC(J"~fortiAg ,tAB paople. The 6.Jaclcc},8rry~,tree' WdS pursuing. The oak- tree swiftly mtWing, .B~for-e' Aim trlmhle' Aea",,, IQJla eart"., StOOl' Joor/("per against t~foe 12.0 ./1' A,i, name' ,in Gil ltmtls. Til" 'CfJr,...,oc/r16' iJormJ toga,rier, Was gi;lIen tO JDe hurnt•. O.tker.a Wiers r-ejected On account O/tItB /wI" mati, I By,,,edt' 'Violence In. "ksfi.I'd'of6attle .• , Pery wrcz'tlif--uJ ,/'e Cruel tAe :,loofflY ash.


II ...

E a.rnfol the' c!e'stn.Ut ,'rBB,


Re"reating flo.", IUJPpineJS~

,It 'Ill

TA4,e: ,AaI16, a &lulc Jar.1cne&8 I'


In th,epr~Se1K:i' ()f~gl,

Till,s slt.a11,N' (lpurifyingfo:'nfJt:_,,~ TAsre sA"ll.Jir:st' 6, a greal 'WlI1!6" And' 'wken ,tn' ,/wu.t shall16,i kHI"J-.-

.1./1;'"'' saGeII"~~oe a ,'Rwung
1 I I_,'-,!'

OJ ,,,.' mOl)UJttUlJ,

1,1" .z.,


The elm-trees are Ais sulJjects. '9"H, turns not us,itle' tA' ,measur.e ofa:foDI. Bu., l,t1':ik, r r~gkt in "he middle,
Ar,,/'.at thefortheat e,,,,J. T'h,6 hate/,;" the iudge .. His. !Jerri'es Q1'I6 tky dowry .. , The p"i-ve.t is ,61essed.


S'trong chiefs in war

,Pu,tt1n,fi'tA ,nsw ,ka,lIu.Qre tAs 101" ~fr4e' Ae'ilcA, Cltdngingform anti 6ei", ,rene~.J from. a:;w;'tlt,rea JtateJ En,rangk'J are tAe lOP' of'/', DaJc~, From tA" GfJrc4an.afMae/tlsrw,. .Smiling at tAB side o/tA" rock ( II' CIS) ,rAe ,eu-tree' 1IO't ~f(l." artleff' nl~,ur-r. Nei,"',,'o/mo,tRsr o"for4", Jl?Aen I WdS made, IT as mY' IJlooJ'or /nJJyI


1-4!5' Of nine lrinJs loffocultJe'sJ'

Of I/':' 61oss-om of 1M mounmin, plrimrase', qf "_ 6urb of trees flRJ,g"ruDS J I ,0 Olear,,/' IQj'aT1Aly kin.d~ WA,,, I was mtlJe QftAe h.lO,Jlom8 (lfthe nettle, IOI'rke' water "~f,tAe'tUne! wall'I', 1 was sp,ell:...,6owui,6-y.MflM Before I6eCQmII' immOr:IJ .. I wu sp ll~6(Jun,r1 IGwyJion, ~ IGreat em:/';Q",eT ~f'As B'rilions, Of EUry8 of Eurwn, Of EUTon, o/MeJron'l 160 1n myri'aJs o/aBcT,rs, I am a& learnela tI8 Mat.k. J /moW' Qbau, ,t" Emp,eTo'T 1I'h"", lie' Wt2J' lJ!tJlj6uml •. I blow rAB's,taf-!oww,#eIt!ge 1,G,,' IO/stars /; fo~, r/'e-,ar,t!J' (~cu m;QiJ' )"

Offmit ,(Jff~ui'$J Offt,uil GoJ'tna.Je me',


~ofit(llJ,le le'(lmi1tg,isfoam rAe' LOTd~ (I know) ~fl4iJ slaying t?f tke lllJdr, Its ,,:ppe'czriR8 J ilu ,dUal'PsaringJ,






Wh.en~_.1 WitlS bo""" Ho 'Incmy lv,orlJs .A,ere ,ate .. It is t~", 'UI,om O/rlct:ompliaA,e;J 6,sr,js'

J 4a:ve 6s:e. Id vipr lJl 112 lake; ... / Itallie 6_IL_',tin ,~i.l IGT,for:merbr:., l/iatJ,e /J'~ma we"ltt ,m a mill (l) 200 Mv ,cas:SI1I!",''-. ,:.. 'Ii".,J' l1l'i over; .. .' ,I' ~ 'J - IprfJfJ:/"I'SYUI elIiI. Fo'u.r' score pu.ffi ,of SmlfJ,/ce ,To every one who will caf,ry them lZ'way~· ,AfUi Id miIliQ'fI, lo/angels J ,2'0, lOin"Aepoinr IfJIl,ny Icnije. BaIl.JsQ:m.e lis ,rA, yell'rJw' Aorsle'" Bur ,II lumJ,ed times 16etrer Is ,"tV' ,crs'fUIl,-t:olQI,rJ.1eJ0,.", Swift las 1M ,slea~mew."
I~ ,,- "''' 1iP""!!I;i! !!!!J

Iss ,lmowleJge ofltm:guQg8.1~ (1 blOw) rAe· Ii ,,.Ill wAoa,; tuUnl4' is SfJAnJQIlFal A,ul t4fJ,rwm6er ~ftAB ruling liBA"r: TIl,,'t., SC'tltterrays ~ffin 19, H~g4aiJ,(J'ite ,h e "'ep. I ha1te' 6;'6'n a SPfJ""J lIn.ake upon (J' A.ill;


,To r6t:il6' ,lire p,.ta~Le'ofrAeir IC'Diin",y.


I Aal'e'pltl.yeJ in L1Duglior J,kQv~ s~p,r in p,rupk. ,. as I not in the enclosure itla Dylan, Ail'MQ,r,
Olin a: ,'Duell.

Betweerz ,11.e ,eel lantl e/t.e rSit'ore,. Am /,.0'1 p'rl .... BIn,inenl ,in, tA,e fi'elJ''!fitoo"J' ,/ /z·(J.1Ie1 la /umflre,J,',sA.. res 101tA,' Jl'oil~, a Jl(y'wrread is ,of ,,-'tijeweis]JJ 21 S IOjgIJlJ U'1M /)o"JI." of~Y sAielJ[I TAsre A,tlS ,001 &",,,, Imm ,(m.e,SI)',o(J'J'u,/~1
Ol,~,!00',...... '1
DoIIiJ1idr l.inn --

WA""", cQ.nrlo't pass


,in rite "Rtre 17"" B6',tWBBR tAe hPo hzee~ of rAe p'ri:nce' UPOIlIWO htWit spear« (' W",_~n,ftom Aea:ven eame
IO,rr61'1tl into

,- K!!"'lfU'WDJ,

,the ,J~,ep,

Rflsiin- w£th. violent impuhe'. I Ba (l,d:ntnll) /f1K1-BOr,' stlngs')1 FDr ,at/minis,tering to ,iuJir pleu",re
E'reeplt me as to tltei, ,'Dsms:, Any DltA'" ginger wAo' hun.,'1 ,Ad' w~tJle., f Ike' nine ~ IS5' WnitiA ar,e knowlI,to me; IConcerning .tABDl9fJ',tl-~p(J",t,J,swDr~eI. Hone:", is m,y,guiJe.

T/'er,' i6 "ei,A" olJ nt),",yo'ung,

4un',,' 'J

Long anti'wAi" Q.'re' my'jn~,r.s" It ,II IO'rI;B'S,i1U:£ I WlaB a Ae"tUm,.n. 1,~Q."': ..over "," e.rtA -.B~fo,.e' llJec.ame' IIle,arneJ peT:ltJ&, I hG11i"_j,fIiCl."elle,J~,J 11.'12'"made Id' c.rcait, US I hQ~_ &:le,pl in cr "andred isLanJsl, ,/ Acz"e dwelt in a /z'unJ",tJ'citie.s. Lltlm.tl'IJ D~uitb,

E'xc",~,t GD~QIJ,~J', Firom',~e ddle, ofEdrywy:.

PrOp'/UJ8Yye' ,(JfAr,tlaur;1

10lr',iI.i' me 'ley ,~/e6fia.teJ

,And Ills IClucifodon IO/,CIuUI.


I]. ~~ Th.Uw'.'11 . (llnes 111..'7..o/'Ailtt .. Une-Dllth .lUI a. a RIIJI. rAe. trees Rfyne. ..107) I" shll'I'. affray..80. rAe IO'it:-sP-fjlfoIleJ._out the 'Ba.l~ep'abence mo .A.dy' iIi P. do _ .~ t. .H. tlt.ofc(j'njlk" Su'ch cu· GwyJion mat/e'" ]'7 .N'~~ A sign Not .in .~.&(Jl. TI..AdRa.ive" tmJ'wDOJlJine Jne"XpfJ'..to tb' poem ab ne ..lJ . h. bartle' mue/..mflde.(Jo.ee~ Turns' not witie a'foQr-j'r~. 'with gaps left fbr 'the 'more' difficult!!.'. .iva[en'[ olf the ori.e other poems witb whic'h they are :mixed. 1"1. .4. W.t . n'j i Ie Gwio..anti" (ltnes 117-I:zo) AnJ. The reasons that have led me to du' .) Qlrr~y.(!l'. 3.R.s O/rrBrJm .tongue"".islory' oi.ofc(Jwartiice "l .I' (JTmeA WII" '·'1' ~ .6it.m. ' tne .ar" Tuns 4".. 9'.' ..~ olJu~g men_: near AnJ one . cA.r' !iRger' (lines 79" .ttle..' I exal.in ."e.dt A. as: iD'COwtt er es U .. AntJ'. ~-ryw"tlI:Afol1MU' .icned.. '. 8:9.tlte' ivy lar !tis primSj~ Til ''''''lei'lI''u ar.I'" ene'~y.Be'CflUSf4 (tines 1Zl.tler raging AfigAt: elre-a.Willow and rowan-tree f'ere .'(lreAeJlite A lcity .er I 'WlJntler 'd~ SD:m61~ftluJm we'.Jt4J Strmght .!tle' of dle' Trees can be' s'ep. :109 1) .lie (fir'!] Cruel'tAe aah-. (lin 8 8) .red fllomhe' 'four Of' liv.lte elm. 88.-..tlUlI U strong. I use the b -llad suitable 'En.I"oplar&' I".. _ Grr. (lines.re. gape cons:o.0 1_.. AollyJJa.G" 'f.Farriers weFe JismayeJ' A.I discuss the' m aning.Ja.. " -I I- .er.la'ting Tlte h.li) ofADIes By ." Sucn as G -. CU' GDtirJeu but.(lst ON tlzepltl.n. of the allusions contained in the po m...~'--' a .. f' :1.JiOIl . l Hastening tUlJ green tAings a/rJln.tA.".a" B'eAina..rlwug/' lI. has made :il: clear that he. solution will appe ar in due' cour _.many spetlr~p'()ii"ts Wo'unJi~. .Ant/'ilte D.as. .. .ginat q metre as the most Tan From n~ seal' BATTLE.lu.(Jll.im tnig/Ati~ To ru/er.L B Ul (J.8.-I2. (lines 10.93) Tlul tzlfkr::I in ./C Bti-'eM.IOD. Til_La .es_'4-1..glish 1_ u. n.aJ~ Whose Aencnmen tire' .t. To.128.7'.fll 9'4. 'J I am Blz.bve restoration of the easier 'parts. L..··.Jani indUlging i".tA" cor:&._'-end_UF." -w.and savage was .in'~~.MWial'~fcIQnfli.ara.m (lines 12. "It. a I MJ.lie [.~ienceJ warfare· in Anti tlu' co.IS '".a! the 1}(). l ir'A'a go/ilen }ewel se't in go.··.. ~'IJ ../u" s'lanel'.e is: a tenta.t o· the lin n .latw. i" rliB' .I I.e 'ioi/. I/?'ayfor. 1-II. /J. 96) '11 . OF 'THE T'..' r-e.armed time.urt{y pine.Mati.l(J'Jt And'dtW...r.el)" no6o/e. .libmi...A ~D' lu.ro/ce'. IUntle'.".._ 10."cn" .AJ..ai' rAe . 10.4". I TIL Ae.li.Ire/ron t line Began. -. not 'oiies" this 1 ligma].. plecuul'i6' Our: ()ftAe oppre'ssiv..c " At .ptil-'!" est« t11~ . tnat b 1 .1 '. 92.llEE 7 . ArmeJ'AinueljlJut' la.6 A re -_": 'ai.

'tharl the. fossUed.QS help us: 'to sl~. 11 _:..€It"'tfJ"IJ" is e:'rymD~ogi..".-s.d. 'we:n1: I. .·Uesii' C·B'--_L~.I .. A.uts ide' the .hlsed bly pi'ed verses.t was.'.. t1ma ttJl. or whether it is: a ~He...d1:erry was 'never · Ii '1'~edand in.-. ~...iti.Iu...' ee... and wi'th 'the 'l'ODgu'e6 of the 1!ean1. .... me Oi Ii.. l. :as'trly because'• not reaJizin"g that the poems were . ..rAe &l:S.J" .IS. GMon" who in .ofme.gbt names. i:s..Une ZZ.Arte. '1'. trnngs an d''.omthe m'l three ofa series of treeswhose bu ti'&lsform sequence of ~"1 h ~ h .d'DI. 1d18 here "a .' 3D inrroduction tOI .' _·" . -ys'~eries have :beeo.d.n tne rl:gt tta~ .g:DDd. In.1J'hlg~tu.8MI tr"S8 means .StnJllI c'.es: as 'hill :alreadY'been :menoone.offooJs.M'.s of~en.bsltitut~ fOF eomel 'liDI .~ restore 'UJe'~ext 10f''':L passage .'sen:"dl'mg' 'them in..Dl'm.caDy connected ''With 'the wlord 'Ibee.mmO'n s:ynonym lor' c1J"I'rterature..sly erratic W:elsb 'sooobu. ·dl M'gl tne maglC3 'I 'p'olwler 0f :trallS~Ofmmg frees Into' WlJ'fIOIS. .Druidjc. 1 ').d. a l f pular v.l}OPS' must refer tome aecient 'have: :b en subsritu..ms't noted in his. bartl Ii!!a.'h~')" .-. se. and that the most ancient L ''r~''_l.akseer'" An 'early 'Co.: mil. ood is ..coUeges were .'~~lllm '~'ree .I'Lcom.bservati'D. E ~.tually :m d1ebeadl. giood sense" his o. 'poede sense'" Rasp.gied IDak.R' . -...s.pros:perinS . ~.. T-h· . [ .how me ..Nol .dent 'poetic . comes fr. 'e'xceiI..berry is....I..f E" .' • II Non! of thesem:endoD.._ tba.of the 'oak. is . 'tile' black clteriY I s not.Iet-t_en_ . . o'.erlin.groves. a1 'I'::-_' ...~• '. 'Ion (··"B'·'· h-_..e:arly nineteenth century." '-.. toth Jasterung green.. C:ol. reason .' IlJrJJelfJV" 'J'. .relemng to .e _ recent ..InforRU ~ftlt6 ciziefl"tB'8 O{tluJ' 'rlipAabet:.T1t8y woulfJ Jam 6" TAe' rrllp6erry .t twig from the rop . he mil:transla'~ed 'them inm whal he' th.'1!. '..cnl: the barberlan rune be marked on :beeChwlood tablets.ersion 0'£ 'lite' IGospel of ~seudlol-Mattbew..._-xam. Daviea also noted that In aU C'elrlc lal'ngus.:iMia .u. popular' tl'loe..in the fight .I..'.op-poet~wrlote~' BarlJ'tJ'TtJ ...:. the mulberry is not usedas a weap~oln. gg (JH'obah~y a. EL-'"ta'IS Its '6-.g plassage in. 'the plu'm. Uu.' 1 f' .. t I't di.~e.. as the Re'v.~Iphab e'[.. .tlo 'ba't'del~1:B.all.p:~"e.III7. or Druid.dlhy.. II. . ..t part been .· '.'-. Hernendons other participants :in. .' !S.speech~e the: ' 38 l.m.I.t is hard to dedd.ns:°. D· '13vme&1was.i~gfiom IU.mo:nlS~eri..t (__ h d h ~n I.ou. Celtic tradition the D ruid s were cred'ifed • .''Y' w".c mysreri.. means"I.ed".'fl' . or' a batd. poo'd.__ ':' I 'O'c 1 __ 'i! -~ word'b."' ~!lJ . I.~urchin e of'the :I'o(rtfound in Iron Age burials) I' cull cresses and Sl..ic-aDy fought.ativi'ty s.mrJ6:erry.y tobbe:d fflom 'Ihe: 'next rid1d:lio.Vlv'al _./ Comm'eDtators" 'COD.._ 'W'" ··~m .fru.'! ~. ' . the ASI Venanaus FOlrttln2'tus..the batde: .tJ'. the tkrwyJJ...re '. ".~ .'.' f PO'IE.and an'o'ilier 'wh.6.."'i.'ich loccupi. 'pars ue'.t..the'momingwim hls black . of orchard. for Ie. . 0" magical snake's . have fOf' 'memo.lme' .-in.· _. .. Icltet~-ylzQ.. se -mID form IA. 'The roUewing: lines.._ Ifj .rnisb poem describes .le:tur.1.e-s. mid Mefiddia.elr~f..! ] tmd.R mak. th B· . 1.ba'nle described by IGwi.le. :d :rhe place that I have fiUed.tera'lDr~ is.. "1' . 01" 'M.t.evous].e whether the stDry of the fruit man he'longs to the nl 0/ tAl T~IU'poem"..e phys.on is. '>~~~.~rc .:" The . 'L ws"'" ·~N·· rne _"_eiu'" ... but 'th.foundIed in woods Dr .poets as Druids.misiclli.. ~fanyt hiog"..i· :'.tan:gle by 'me Cburch's prolong d lu)s. 'lin d-' 'uJI.iJl:us ..Celtic Res6'tUC&U' (11°91)" the..a Ico. " .gh.CI'Ug' 'be :5'00'n.IS addresses his fenolw ..9 1 . 'the sixth<~n'tury bish.•. '. not a frivol 'me lous battle'.e: "The an.Ulan .ne ]-1.a. :1.om a 'Goddc word m!eanimg letters and. T/.being mat writing: tablets wefe made of beech.lpp_me~. the' . h 'its etters. ' !I' TII8 peru .Gwion"1 d:ay 'wasi connecred widll'he N. a brilliant but hopeles. of differenrt Ii.· .6ren.. k • n.. us -das a . nt food.Iieft in wlIr' AT.e:y have a bOlpeful fu'ture" nowthat 1~..._·_e .o·Dlk'./ta" maku' TA6.' '.51'0 ardent that in the w I lkans .U't.d~ II' II! II ".pear.' ...say~n:g:'her.CO!D'ten'tto' remark that in. Retr'tlQ. .the' IGerman iJfJ.riJe' . j'9.. . p_ _ _ is a t _ set .(jory in. .il 61a'cR . -.. W'lDt: early in .t arie..saing'" III ~ ".rurl~.dlar' 0flilce' tlo.. o seek the "lain.t great part of the Druidic mysteries was eoncemed with 'twigs. but-a 'b:at'de fought ill reUec. with ~fir" ~~Ive been..h~' · ~·Ieecn. i was: an.ch.Qlwan..the::rhual need~~ .tan. ~ee. .L. reduced IJO .tIlt".t 'tte.. This .s. -". Edward Davies.'~d {Of thenames 'of nine fOi~el..pied.'" 'of the .' tA.C".' me .'1• E:' '..es: .~ TIg. .~ .t/!0 d cut the hig~es. :like .ei.:l.t is pt'letty' clear ma:r these . --.~. .. his account of the Tl.

Ulom" D'r' uy 'T'ree.. him" Altbou. the leIder.. ~IC: Druids wbo relled on B.'/.'" ..t is I'Dot . ·CDUD.1 W~ orne. and :popbllf. -l. conj:uo.e·d mefo""'" ..c~ear~yfamiUa'r.De'~.arB . lba't are "u'nhclov'ed lof men' and. rAs' 6'.A' wlli..42 144 1.f'the poem 'was..A.ee. P. O'i).~ .Nw.lntea.' .1 is easy 'to restore d~e en nine trees ". ..'IoQ'J~'.mts ~JJ:~ ~.hrus:ting b t spears were made. The~remaining' tree-references in 'the' poem are 'these:: l me J I' ve been .Ie4'tnUf- Nme ..-.Ii ': .1 I'-~'.td IpectratdT~y Fmm lilo:Is-oIIU .mrlwt2rry~.:nl'nce'. which in the :None' 'Ieg.. - ·I"I'[).mdte :s. lor Wh'i'£e:.g../. 'c-' -'-I . d :iC~.of 'the original CU IGOt/JeU nl'lher than on his Irish learning. Five are giv. _.g here on a B.mo./JfJWSr.fo/l..Iy' ·th.ough in Y'orksbb~e. fto:m.enin Ctid "'. Qlldle wbD~e"I think i.11l1llmunJ 6.J~.plied f~om theparaIlellines: I 0 I oj>" L~' ~mw:' "jr.. ---r ~ b foom. muddled 'up in 'the~leaJ' GDt/_.th.9hafbJ.1 ".' .Ga_dam 'the' .efore be: ~e'lyin.cDon 'with oak-branches in a Bronze .".asltfU:I .. nine kinds loffrui:t.w:i.O.ru:4a'n.um.4.bu tit may have been white~ftowering. 77" 8).IDces.. .aslpec:f) was.BlilC/t..ofthe same event in £hIe &.1' IGwytlion.MU' .. Ike .And on 'the analogy' ofthe oak frmnwhich revler'berating: clubs were made.t{y~ I ww 8..~.hieb d_aihes ..cu_lt.ritisb tnditi'D:n .. because B:lode'uw..cn.. pursu'i. trefoU~ -'. other name for omwen.a .1 Wi_~l which the a. Treu: . In" 11e it'!J8llj tbr.u.1i '5 If a :I.' e G'c".cluded in Cdtl' G'aJJe.! l "as line 1:.Ae Blri:t07U.g:e tree-coffin. -Uls..". :Cf'Dm. .sIAe" in ""w.cieD'1 Irish re1igiD:n there is no trace of II mistl~[oe! . ". were made -' '-b-~ p ..'..probahl~y the line in 'which ir cum ii.ritain.C!!'MQt&'Qnwy..ch :swift-8.u8 Ir.. I luglest .-_ The fruit man is cr-eated. 1. the ash from which sure..o':m ~Iorlike :nstule".edd. andtes. "Ii. .ely to have been the :hawrhorrn.that the lori._.b_.rious·ly bad.tbe MaY"'lqueen.end killed a'adder the' Sun ..G '716 1.yinB Inow~. and 'the mis"ueil. This: poem .Il71 in i'lS s4a«.f1U JI Nilw .childisha~ppea.o-ng. daughter (acco~dmg ro the " omance l?f'Ki1A~A Olw!efJ) of H. The ·b.r' .flijj.peakers :alle evidendy' TaUesin.' -. '1:0 the Battle oftl.form.1 L .mil 6Io&'So..SIDm.I--··'-' _:-'~-r'-.o/mollle. i.hiolw tOe: lo. .~'J. .·I)~ 14< .. -tree.flower woman mUS. 711.. RasplJerry.~ r.88 my . IS those ·that to'ok part in the battle....~'1m. a DDt.ke'r:ry Ifl/ld'Wlli'tif! WitA IAeso.urh lolvtJri.. were made. lin me sA:al':g.:-I-.z9 [1.r'k(ykinJ" 10.JlafifS.waSI reck."I "'·---r-=---. the unlu ay -hil1te'iho:m:..111. 'to lb'.. . The reed. 1.baviug: been. .seem ~Ol G I ' miSSin.param'from the rest lof IC~rl tJJdeu" dlough one: IOir two Unes. is. .e.48 i B~lJom'J'm'BaJDw-Sr'J..e trees of. .• ' (Jines 7'1.rr-. P'" ~'" . B &f~J~' tne .v'ely Blodeuwedd CF]ower.6 '1"5'7 14J 1 149 1. ii' .1.on.~-·J~-.enduring shield~.Bn.r:r-~. .cbestnut does net belong: to the same leategory af leue.I\Ieel fBld coc:lck..t .4.1'.1. ._IeI' ns.' GOd RId "I me' scalds and bums. .:..e' mistletoe.y1J.I!'" a/t.in. IDe' the "stroDK chiefs in war' . the y'f:W fro'm...r II(JF' . 'weremade. tamed by the Sipring . . .:1:1.in. burial I! IGristhofpe :p.'mdCe 10/ Mg. res whieh make be YOluQg shoots 6 dible' fo.thl'he' .··· utIle.Ii.oms.1 Io. buds and bloss.tr6Bii.~ 'was the restless reed.U.._". ".cller's yew.J~i' Frdm primrosl ~f"M ._ d-ow sweet IDd. me CJrJmlJ'.-.ooe-d' a.16'(I". ' he furze is.. sli bted as too young to take 'the oath not to hum. Id 'me ninth :is . T/o. .have been rC!p laoedlwith the! fruit n__ames.e' lri'slb Berh~L'Ui5-NiDn Itree'-\aJl.~· """. r!Jea. pan of' arlOlther' 'DC the: poemsm. N"·· 1-·' . •.21 fwous Icoluntry remedy for :frevlers" l ~..6ru:I. ~ 1 10 . conjmed . G'Wion m.Hgb'ted because he was DOll h. IThey 1C2D'be'5up.ear Sear~boir. WAen A'..from.·1:'_1. 'whi. 'wood for :fu.' tll£ ISon .eulL. . ·glod after . hut he 'i$ perhaps: Ipeakm:g in the character of stiU ano'~ertr'e~rh.rk" '~feQ.and 'dle 'God A:POUDI.ii ii· .II . B).31' 1 1.ig is Gwiol:nbim~elf" whom Hemin and bis fenolw~bard!s.ime' 6.. II I ! NOl DffotM.1 1£lle I Ola&..N. eets .'] .L'QID<B'UWEDD fl.pbabe't.1.ginal1of I'me black cheJ"ry was..:".WI' me' 'me H:AN&S B.. for their doctrine it was rhe most impolltan't 'Df all treeS'liilDd remains ofmis:d(uOE!' have been ·found in. scoffed at for his . III" --e ·8----.1ft'DWIlaUt.o.'tJ'.:four others.and the blaclttb.tJ me' ." ~ .'l.We: cln be sure thath is the sloe thllt 'Imakes 'not best of foods'... which deadly 'bows and dagger . of who.by' h wiulr-d 'G"'WYdioo.t doesbel...f"rl.r sheep.·rden.t"..odeuw@dd. Io.· . not :~1gu~e'm_ th ..1 'tlta..Des. 41 o!nw'flQtWe.udlor' o.-·'-" '!Iiiiiiiiiiiiii ii . Hu ..!!!!!iiI -I-:~-"I-.-"--~:-.ay ther.. the Flowler~goddes'S.gh in.. 0 ak '-blD'.lwthom..ineJ" llro". The '-]'1 who 1V3S s.1.is:not difficult ro se.tor' 'Oif '!be ICymry.eland .created from nine kinds of :flower.1 ""' ~ IIr1!~_I • Bly a 's'rudy of'm. Offrui.' from which lons.1'(Jwe.n.

. and the beanis tra.~8!tbwait's IGolJm..:fi:Il.eans. In Une' 99 llhis berries.... I. Y8w.oned a I'tree~' b:y 'the Irish poets".'~sh Dam. always cQ. So MiltOIl:'S..rID" Belc:fJusel 6ig" I(Unes :R. ( ..edl with. '_I60S)'" Wll-uJei fa d e OD A ooor=:····· 'to tb S·" . could be said to .llm.isldned fa. b-' inlS.leDt by several . _D 'the h .1.. 1]1"" In W'a.1 I nle in the CU' GoJJsu:.· .ft enure ~yUc yew WnOse . occurrence ~. .. maY' not 'seem a w.m.ItD.' -'..e' '.elckoDed fairy flowers: and in Eng- . Gradus. T' h I.4at .. it is n.occur ._.p'~ers.sed 'to the 'hazel. the lau..mDEop.if! m b -E.. '1.'b:mm:g with I . tne e .often lubsdtuted {Oif the 'yew' 01.•. . L. 'to :a.puzzled..d comers ot.red fem' is p. .you..' Q ')··." nvic-e~repel'md '~'prive!" i:s luspi'cio<QB".ve:t S""01JfJ ti4iefiains w"e' .ops"w. reck. ' __ e ·W1D..of W'-: legend... ancient imes for the staV.~. 'i La diU! 1'00 'IS a 1-.ftuit J' TAt . app'fe .If!' er RI_y}ing6" A's rAe' niat/' WlW6 oft!" st!a.1.e .ea:.fi.49 Aa:J't~e'IUrr6 .I~. B.. med~!ey.! h. '. The broom..3 .and ending witb 'blood of men up to the IJlt'oCks".t. Ami'J..'1. rionaUy ass:ocia'ted with.are IDf Connaugbt commends 'them :hig as. To return to 'the Battle of the T fees....lQ'caJ1. . d·.!ss (cf" 'the primrose path ofda. .n of MaeJdecv/) as .of'the :Pamble IfIlat 'the D'ew sowed in "the wheat. t'h b.3J' . and 140) - - 0' .1 m.1'eS1. tile souls o fC. . .glbLe to 0 'W. 'the 'plunde..and 6.-..1-"''1._. "b~ t: 'h . is 'Oi.I . ·. slow to 6'1l:... M" rmt.im~o5e'!i "'.l~esin" who.rA. .'ae ltmats3the tall wbite broom is said to have been much used in. W.' . Bl"e'my dowry'" is abs'urd'ly' jox. '·'Id1W11~~appl tree most Ukely tOI :smUe from besi!de~thre :rock..prira FrfJ'fII .C.rI "'..'poet..nes.I'" AIUI . between l the 'lines numbered 'l. d 'tng: .m WIw 'wen"" tAg. P-Iio" In I..~...g'hiD\R'A'p'hrodite .~Ham"..s. " 15~the Greek md 'Roman ho.0. ~L V". belie intended. b Dide In. erri. .. · . 'yelIID.'1 tI ·7I r. i 1.'..hich Ius. '1:'prirmosl' of her' wan1JDnness.By tM T-tJclcSitl8i (lines 100.{.. 2'~) F(J'UC/"'."" h' d _.e' Go"t::AflB ." ('"....N'asb: ._::'e"c..' ~arvan .. 15.IIllitI' (Hnes---~ and 101-. w'hy i.Iu' IGorchan "f Ma'&14~rw'J' .4.iJe.. ..merlJf! .. 'l...rm/J. L. <out by-' ' .r"'dtL TA.'4.fif'e~.... cal"I powlen..t.~ :Ied at"h tne .1 reference 'tOI :E d ' . tbl L . Brie means 'Tree-'t. . an.d:: 0'. tbat 11-' CU IGoJJeg was a ba:me fought 'in..sVier're. e..ginalp.1. alia rse.VlS. food."Oug' .F: JU ..of spears . "Trees'.'.ofp/tm' lan.'s . "DntgQ.em"'lee-c W'.ed"'I' pfo. IGo) IS'ot}J glum . .mono.tAo. a_n.y . White'thorD Vin.ogua o{ B I_:' B~odeuweddJJ' H:u IGadam. a~..w (lines 97. .guw:e ottne 'iO d-'l I. Th.. symbol of poetic immortdhy" wldch i'l... array seCOD d .e.GeNi.. 1""'14.thic' .t"le' loftAs' Trees. I.1' IAejig"" .1141.robabl.er H'aUy WUlow A:sh Furse P'ri.ded as ·'blmss.do.ocldes' are 'the ~tDes' . rs .. O.. theWe. ..primr'oses are r. mAA1es.JYQlD:. Blau:'k'cno.__. The privet fi.clu.~ r S:hropshire~.Ind darts:ii d1.e'~eJ ..NiM' iJuis' .".~.t is here presenred as gro'wing out of this .y~es'to're.ea:Yle:the Dither' 'pj~eces in..mas o.nly two fru:iI~trees.fWl. the: vnld.-Y reme d y agzns'! K h'.les and Irelanc1.ese ule: probably dIe ibrIDDd:". 919"121:. Wit! ike' ..ta.'B ~ .rEid l"iO'W8n" ..tapo.. b .. Though d1e fC!r'n wai.ot:ns.fringe'. Th. I U' .UR.ded in 'this. .setlwilflappk Lflfllq flr.eight Unes uninzell.onect. G1oddeu:. _sr-sedt·t~rmg_".hfolk tradition represent wantonn.cha.. esides: 'the: .l.dUeftainl are fallinJf ..w... .i-. . : ·.f) ll6 laruI' 'wAi. is ui d to have 'Partic:ublrly p~eicrihed It as a classic to 1111budicooUeagu!es'i' The apple-tree waS.rder' 0. ID~ODe elSI]'~...e-a't' .ld OJI'G'oJ'JeU B'ri.le ."hi. DIN .3 lon.!!.' s.tlte Jlczclr.of Maelderw' ("'the' 'lncantal_:o..I.Dg Ito me:B. .-.lz.~liancrl' . emblem . 1 " It should.' '. dl.ry recore . • '.t. that in the D ri.4(l 'UISS .uUke tree.f the' ploem m:aynow' he \ten'talivlel. ~M'.aJles~..my 3r.Yes' WOllie :plr. -:eans:!I! Q"t()'.bably its..o'ticipa'te .r._L. Ittm. bean-stalks to 'the:i!"sabbaths.l. 'if...'non 'of 'Talie9ini's~ I'ere.'.]. WjuC. '101 be salned.il. h rd : A . apple Elder' R.cSI .tlJ"'lientury PCI<C!"t Ta.: I me B.rls_poem" 4U. poem atttibuted tO the: six..'..1 .~ ten'uJIl-century c_c. G···· ~.'"h.. . th 1 h d' dld '.. but in.. 2J.irch.611t ill~.-IG.._ { BroDm Heath Hazel WUd . at t.. .'e.. _.IUlI.Wleb'rlDUJer 0'r-'A:~ni Gu.~~er .rft • P"oplar' "ew Ald.'e." '5 oa¥:' " . l./!£e.tS: was If]' Spit.loveIJwAitl.'"' f.H.fie 16ks.ery 'may' Q..d.!!. me.of selCU'i~ for' IO:lwen. 1_' ana.es we p"rized for' their sacky sW'leetDess.e I Ro'wan Oak Ivy hD Fir ..L. C' )-"1 .. ""itlz Au' ill.09.B:Mt'I" 1. Fleece)".!:. church plDrch wberem:artriages Wlere always celebrated 'I and the church . ..gum. The remaining sta. '1JJtk.gar..M is _". aida who hold. 1!!!p!J . ~I r!.dy i~n Irish pDetic tree-lor-e. .think the yew is. I ~h .. In.gDJie9 unimpo:rtln. he added.rmay not b-l1o.wer' I.

i:o:n..r-epf ~ _ led as a tesd ith a serpent hes d.r' 40w' .HuntlteiJ' Tal'es"~ Of whom I)'ul me i'S it said.ordain 'Wasson and .nr.WD '--p_ri. which I~.[] I-.oft-.. -. shares too many ef h~smythical I. tins only tWO'1 'both of which are included lnth ~ Red BODI.C lumbian I Teadsreol-god ITI' 16 c-.laws" IITbe Ba. -'-ho sit in a eifel =c gloomU. of'HeFgest:' the Hunting .t/" glJ:lJsm.Y njloying themselves with p.-.D ' . ne mes In e tingeCJIlnce can be budht up' f~ en lines 2.car.ropbeci'e5 .fie"s Duke Seru. I suggest that a. 11 . A'-'RJp .rty'noslated .'?:: InJiffe~en. Dlonysus's Centaurs S. i-.r. d.. c-fer tOI this briUl nee 'of vmlOID rather' than tOI 'the Sun The Boale.gtl! '. Of the ..inl" it opl"arl.".il (JI.11:ed and p. Ar=: Ichan.cl1 is an 'm.g of the 'mo.. 3.u lawed toad 'wearin· a preciou-. -t any rate'. . any sense final. G'" ion ImpUe&1 .op ~.wait:ing resurrecriom '.lIbmr S]J8tlrS . ' of illony. d _.dad.oom cult was bo.pendes.mDnstrous IIIIG. 'I Ii-'· n ~. IOlrpbic and other 'mys.~tl.ence 0' it.counterpart.ng..'v b -eo an ade.po.. he men.). Mael . erotic :p w.1 delirious visions 'nd rhe gi£i'.I ~evtsed edition of TIle G'"e'6'1r.of 'pr'op'hecy~ 'a'rtakers in the Eleusinian.'teries.or) both h o.wi~ed .l'snde" a' ArmJreJ.Ap 110.-. the' t X'r9. batable.ardsprctflnJ" Tley ".of tb.g'1. l. Thei =.ia... .r lJ..wbi.i't wi't:b the dismal dress of "the'monks. 1L i..I OJ i A wad IlaJIing on It'· ·hic1ls A kanJ~ei . P'f ·lded 'at th ' communal eating of th 11al~uc:igenictoadstool PJilo. IQ.te.e'..pl tI.leries ma:y also have known the.. Gwion is cQ'n'trasting .rro. B:ut Ip'DpJle~~ no wit'.er the jewelled Garden of the' Hes. 36'-]7 and Z14~2.. nty knifl' ._~~to d know' 'my.iclz.pS entangle.Gwion poems:ij' which refers 'to 'I rae between 'the hors es of Elphin and.. ahother of the .in hi head (mentioned by <hak~ p a. and Htanies The oak to. In my foreword to . Tlaen .lasgiansi by the . .fo. ofla.te.Th~ewo.44 4S .of A.ve them enormous mus lar -n. 'there is asatire on 'monkish.. . fully explored than 'their' M'exican. Red ras th . .oo . a sense ofuniversal uminadon.3~6CSJ.061 'to 2. let/ig (line_ .te"ul.Aea.r.Nine Hundred Tales.~ -~-. tre Bry' .w'led from the 'native . though at vhat period.th.ofIerled as in.g to' th _ tw'e1fth~c ntory poet CYDdde'lw. ~fTalissin contains several simiJ-r medleys or poems..re s.234 237'. ~c The tops of the beech 'tree .rk that I have done ]I_~e i not ..J3J. fhr thousand ./z.e .: chaeans .g~~d renewed land From th ~:.. theo].mallY 'world.task. as Lcs n attest "om..32.c!ityt: and Maenads it seems" ritu:aUy at a spotted toad tool called 1f]'fiycap'I" (Q.rOl'J1I1. but Mr.of Argos. ailtural contact took place be.. Since Gwi. Lines 2.'tlt A slotted'creste'. I" t1' .E 34)... 'Th Song.Professor Heim show that the pre . ho ee fOil '1C1"ee~.ys. AM inJulg J .ed rig d e ancient toadstool mys. damni'ng men's souls by' the: hundred (lin s 19~'40:) nd pondering the absurd problems of the Schoolm n:' a Room fl'r "l1 mi'll(oll me' On. most iDt~'r.y'O. of wh:icb Gwion se _ms 10 ba. 'The hundred-headed serpent -a'tcl~ . Thou ' pens.. b~do:n.t until..oast b 0 1 - tmg. i-I c'laim to b :asLam d as -.~ita nllu. crihed as -i'ndUferent' by' wa.6..ma.: 21 feast that gives visions: of trans cende ntal G ' io'n"s own learning.' .pers'. ath . piGna: 'olUdp'api~ liona-ceus " a small dung-mushroom still 'used by Portugue ewiteh ''" and 'nm'"1-'· m errect -"'to mescann.'~f Maxerl. l '.'u~~yof jewel. 1 I 11 has. n the Old WOlrld and th New is. counterpart.~ .ttle J am e.I With a golaenjewel set in 6ol'J Have 'sprouted.er.20 E. d.' ar o: . Myetuloclc is wlUJI!y red" (lin' ··'S. and hundred".ptl TIle Euro'pean mysteries: are less.0. are . oppres"". (line 1..iac'mushr... Diol. beauty.11 belong" :it seems" '~O Can y Meirc/". "The 1igbt whose name iSI Splendour' may . I think:.most honourable colour lor dress"among the anall!ft't 'W -'I accordin.estabUs.estin'=..gians. the black.0 the toad-serpem sequence.In.aj.of :y1ear5.'l:silo~yIJ.819)~nd the Drea -. but one that must w.~ylJ.nysus. I.f..tA.&1_ .' This m'troduc es ~. di~nee: they must be' ersions of the same d "ty. and Mrs" .un'tam" the: purIfying [urn ce (Htles.o.'si European. 'they are.oftbe imminent Day 0'" Judgement {lines.gjv:el.oniden'tifiesl 'hjmsJelf with these bards. Tlatoc..tJ . secret D.liknesS" sbaldn.fJ . cm.16:1-]).MytAs. Horses'.cldent in the 'Roman.. " tnat rem can ealarg us If under t _ 'inBue_nc' f 'the to ~d' ir 'th serp B't' a into a whole trea_.s of secrets may also. :!oc) 'He knows tile Nine' .e TWTCA T~~. jewel . When the beeeh prQs. tribute for 'COlin._~l.

.fam l".6'rrrltl.litlt"jiJ wu "he ""ins WhQse !enek"'m ere IrAe Inu I ..Ae.im I.~~ /.A ar is . me .s.I. Willa ifis' 1~·lIfrul"1 TA_..ulty G..IE':'I . (JD'.._ ".-l Q~ UDR!U_ . I -.very tongue.l nG. /Jtlttle' m'.· wer'S ItlismGye.ryj.I""lJeat OJ tae SW{.r. '.I"rJy i" IQ"rly. TA· .in .I'ati DJ .lEft.~~ pia..f'jtlIWGn-. TAil' lz aIR gave .ce" wAortle~ mlll6.rin.'rims I' W.'.sJ' -From nine' 801ts' oftr:ee---Plum.. Rasp6er.--e.consolation To ..ut' lU-uar.-' I ~..1'Je~..eJ wA:i~ IIw".reat TAe AtI{s/ "J in battle" And W ivy lat' !tis ._.".r'...Ilia W''lA. lalplzd'el'.ut" h.from Aappirtes..-ffi. For Go. 1 WtllcAeJ' t' 6' trees anJ grlS -a.wr.. .~ 'Y 1I1.unlJelo'll.z ft. A'.•• 1 _jI~ . rAi -. set In forms of rA_ cAiefkue.. "ayf~er" WQ.in.. From my.II'iIlD'w' anJ'.i'tJ.g....city .tQ._ rr ..· _:..Ntlere.1ong-eIlJur.'-.MB to.. .. • . -IW'.r A 'I .f. TAe a. quin. 'J i Black' cAerty anti' .mB' .... .ilr'"'&~'·-'-rfolk.gaR .1itJ"I Were .wn foWl offruir:s "a.1 ." '-Ui. Idl renewQIof ciflkts SuCh Q ·'H!YJi'o.tIe front lias .lilii!'li!l'''~a''' 1"'_1~1t'I.. I ./". " .I - ar6.rfJIr..! :~n' .ltiee 5:.jt8'J .miAti'~ air To ruler:sof "'IZ/flU.SAQ'rB.' &laclctli(JnI WBN .~-~ IWI. Worr. c: .s-eat at R~fytuddJI TkeY-'wolulJ...001' I: If!:" . J' nu U· NNne III ~ . . "Ae so.e .1l m'Q'Je'..QStlIB gorsl 'WtU .· .tA..J -. nine sorts offoc.J has " 1i.. Jli'Ao wears rA same 8Mi't...6.." . I cu~ft.'. 10f.ert:y.~Y~ .s I. wi.A..1 -_ /tun . ~ H'asl._~tIIm_ d-· .unB. r n.Be.rrong. R. pear..'f.elJing along.1 D- ...g.-:aon..

'This is a perfect example of mythographie shorthand and records what seems.Brig~ edt! GnJJs'U.e 40:'1. !.o. .6ecz'est-----' .In sMltQt linger Privet ana wDodD.an thou.emy gods and summoning. therefore Amathaon ap Don./J" "ligAte'll' L" Becawe' I Wds no' 016:..9' .t ..' .-." '.g Alex. And.'_...Annwm.(llthou.tiWOft tM: GC"I J 1 l'rsVtJ.arTay be fullest account of the original 'Battle oftbe Trees..chren ['Tf"ees"]" and unless her name were known her party could not be' overcome.' I.a. trees.SuIle-Aoo/eJ is my alieed impelled.the' spur.d tAe c'ourely pille'... . and a whelp. ...of Kln.ortant: religious event ." or'.u' ..Su. .'_.. Ana Me !JlesseJ wild apple Laughing in pride Z'!:'l -G' ·0Iu L 'OJ'..~f tAs. a I recess technically known as elic.&. A·· rw I·'N·····G··.. ~I"M' 'are1+'.> .. are on t4y 8Aie'..L'10'm the.~' "i_' By tAl ro'ck siJe~ ... who unless his name were known could not be' overcome and 'there W. call it.An. L' _. them to Rome with seductive promises. pologets.' --''''e ·f· - c''''.:::. out . as others.. • 1 !.A tM.C. on account of a.slow' to hu..rrcncA. ancient times" oncea god's secret name had been discovered.iinst them with it. __ lan.YiDe.: __ .s. and Arawn. trod' DS.•. by tAe h"aII. And there was a man in 'that battle.1. at the inseance . ~ tte'ring !J..ul's name' j. _ _I'I The story 0'£ the guessing of Br. . B. fought.art.g. " . ..eremony of this sort carried.tAoZ/. Josephus in his' Crmt.white roebuck. J~p'runcedin warfilrB'J .R···0/ ····E·~'B··UcC··c.ma:gicc.' .Bt.J.m Ami'dfir.c4a'ioioBY.ritain: 'These are the Englyn. n account of a .ins:.t l.4.:L. day Q!&attll'/' T4e' lt~gA sprigs o/aldBr are in thy lzrmt/1 .b . [epigrammatic verses] that were sung: at the On ~MnelJ(J!fGo._d was the E'· d'o'Q1I.-io0foJ.':"".s.. and 'they came fr'OmAnnwm [theUnderworld].-eejuJ.ttBringyew StooJglUJJ1 'It de filA.usu.s tkat sing~.dtieu. Witk tJUJ "lrier' . .dG'lNYdion ap Don guessed the name of the man" and sang the two En. which was. DO··-· G:·. .r.1. The higk sptiBI ofaltk.be enemies of his people could do destructive magic· .~jt 'teea in ..o' ~ 'oe' .I'll ..: .a Apianem.-. quotes. / -"':. published in the MYVjtTimz A:r.. t'¥'t --. 'to have been the mosit imp. he Romans made a regular practice of discovering the sec-ret names of ..ander' Jannaeus the' . _ Fougkt.hy .A·'" N<'D······ . In.at Jerusalem in he second . s UI!I~~..' A/n'Q. and Amathaon apDon brought them.fl. "'.nd o' '. in you.The JDw'e'r-Srt'Cl.ale IT...-.' :.B:u. ~._ .century ..fringe.II on . ~tllleJ. King: 'of .in pre-Christian B..B.''-U' ~'M .the other' side a woman called A.lJ. is.SI a :familia!' one to an'thro .An. CCB. the Battle of Achren.tA.:- Chapter Three __ K······. :..r(llJ .t ···~OQ-lIas ..~ta A····-bU-~'__-n.. '~ ..glynll fallowing: f... though the Lapwing is not mentioned in it.

~ ..aau some centunes • Co tb l!_~ ·:allaan IO.. used to chain.om P'hDeni!ci..cy.m.'wally .~.:1'· mil·'11·' C!nnJlLmB... 'The' tribes of Amathaon and IGwydi.ero'w'). n.Amjld. _..' '1~-:'laiUJ' lfI!I' . F. N:atwraUy 'the Romans" like -11 • . isa baule for ~eU.mari:a.----for' what that is 'W'DrtD".ethan.H"eIodotu5. .Intbe B(JtJ1t ..1 anaan" a..p.irmu·.... sbou.giousl mastery between the armies.. is 'said ito take his Dame from theWels..Age~.IICk Sea.. .1.-. to hav.I.edd.-.afte'fW.orary '~H)ntdtipl lor . !lj...gh "B. lh e.l. that 'spel t out the seceet 'name' of '£heir' lOW]] de~iry~u on discovering. 'mat of their 'o'pponen"ts'i The subject of this 'myrh.dei ~ L.Livy (V'~i21) giv'f5 the ronn:ula used ta.ess .l'o. rGftwm.Ii: Ind er"W. _ cI.rigin:aUy mothered by AmadlIDUDta". ~ '...___ma.).cann1..wycnon th· __ __ ..1ong with .llon was '. 'the folk of the God. whale' mother is Danu I.iltic laD\gnage' in Bede"s day . andNorth . seerer 'name D'f..O...b. Iand . (popllbted.'Ble'nd as Tuatha Ol'_.e. .Bay where they came in CQ....on'ji' Am_IUI.:u.e' Ntl..Dqu(!'Dm::').:-. VIe o. :1. XPl~J..Matbo.USI.it .ency.~g!oddess~ ~_nother tribe 'of the same name'.Viils.:L Ie tribes of rhe Soathem D...II-r-'-.~.1 'but. ·-.Danaan were a. confinned. where tlU!'y. and this suggests 'that 'GwydiO!il.ran.'eel" i 1J s -c .l:..lmele. .ls Eeck'.o'r Am..bal emi.ry" 'of'an.p iraJ.e' lemi.in 14oollB. enooultlter w:ere'las inteot on...go.1 . and before "Eur-opa! went :fr.. " . 'oil! . Bur :in the ..Am_athus ( . in ·.l!.ly 101' D'.of Greece which set them 'm.'w. bad been ..god. w\ Web .._L_: . that p. t The date! of 'their' arnval in Blrits.lI'8. • - G- I "' - ii J .olrea.of PWyII~ Princce 10/ pyvei Ara'wn .H.mall1emal 'oeplbew 'to' Math Hen. . In the' Table .e Jabbolk. l'l!c.(e ... .HigWand and British folklo!flf . IIIler me nrst D·· .a.· ' ':Occ ..'£.as .ibe' -=ems. . .._-_:Ima.ursuing a I'(ag: with 'the' he'lpDf a pa.~ _'I -.-thar is to .ve:'tbeir own Dame ('The King. i.elunark" to.-.M:&ticai Hu. (~O'~d Ma.Q oflrehmd.).Britain" then caUed Albmy. ~row''" .dve &.iD 'lhe ~nem-··o_:J.. WIl./' .-:---::--:- .e'(J'ffl. of 'the Pei. .dom.t the Tyrbm:s.l~ ship went bymarriUnear' SJDcc!-!sioD. Danaan. the ..lesU~'IIOf :111inVasi.Bnm..iI'.-riii': h.Qio'sl guess I.. :& ~I mea.ronic.of ..6n"..an sb__rine of the ' ~i'~e' 'Goddess.t.. -. .cording to II' CJi. and the :Emies lor Arawn (~E]..'1' "I .some of wbom. . regarded as 'the eponymoul ances'~Dr 0:( the !confedlera.__ • (.oo.i.e: middle Brome .a late-eomer to Britain..Ie .rthem . . .s~)"and Nortb ~Iriain~.e 1. the KiDg of An. ..t8fl!!' '. -. -: '.jj In [be &moWKe .UlWD . famous.e :IOD of B.reached Irelaa.00' H"._ I lte'rranean an..IC...2.e religj.:ran an.i~G.. . 'the~e .n IC/. .o.ds.wydi.otber'in. tri.ook place :Jom'e .vIs.ath.ea. 'not dale" . or Letters.' l.8·" Ill.. 'me"'ll'H. butw'ere persuaded IOlp.abo'1)'tme yeu 1115011J"C.centLll"..i.weU-:knDM1 A~gean Sea.or taHOoed men" and bad the same' odd social ha b-~ .d-DU.le':nameo f' A' h-'~ .nWex£ord . Perhaps the tribe was o.enduyruler IDf ireLand in I B'r'oDze Age. prior to the sack 'lJ:fCn o. . :io.mrd.d.Qving 'north isl perhaps the one mn'ted at by Heliodlotus in 'm= M.lcestnJ IOIW3S. hoo.aJes'tlne whereir .lJI expedi:tio"n to 'Colchis" whic'h :GIIseks d!I'~ed 12. Welsh".gmt-ed to Syria. -..pe-f CUI" '.v'len nO rth:9l3td from Greece as I . :.'1 Bran'wen. of G.n Yloun.. ICretansi had CQI]. ven.~ ~ I nmes among tI" prnnmve .rdl~er' tic King Math of G'wyn.h IS .cnaeans. ".of X" ".t. 1 .. . h .s5DS. nevertheless ooe QuJntusVlleFius Soranus.OD..Go"dJeu.e~.m').p'. confedera.I~g.ck Dfw'hi Ie dogs wi:d1 red earl~the Hound's afH:eU familiar in Iriah..H erwIes" mi~.'.Hivites:.g IGwem:1 wizardry I - ..lhi.The 'Goddess Danu was evcn. .-::--- ._I'oug_ ...:-.oughrnan" but it may be theother VIal" abou. Gwrrn" the: weird fOlr '~. whi~dIeY' i . whereit founded the IC'ty of . 1_ '1' -~~ . th.3l1der' used . lor Annwm.ean. then 'th. The Tuatha dta. fjram '. .n.ge' pta]~ehorse...ga.. and Diodorus 's'llc:uiu9. Ireland fr~!m Brimin. IG'ulf.arrival. 'of TUliha de' D'anaan~. pu.. p.....in. ' commg '0'fC tne A·.ODized]...- .opo..zed into DoD" 0(' Donnus.pc-al" in the: &'mtJMe' of --b 'L-r" -· 'I· ~JIIlename .tiloln of Wlomen in bartle-that obtained in Thessaly before the .the 1'5m.ji.DS .-.'L.the :B'l'itish Underworld or Mb._~ I:C eoi ti:on.'. so Eh_er iUI.~. S A. . . after' dIe' .l.obab[y t.v'.'MedO.I! . :givl:n...- . Part ofilia' tr.of INllruW:QS there is :1. summon 'the Ionlo of Veiito Rome.or !liD.h waId . late'RepuhUan times for divu~gi_ng it :i.nwfn. These' peDplle" sailing wC!s.pllace 'CWO hundred y. . Itls II nd because thou.eam..founded ma'mus m.thao:n~. -. .~asilon . Ama. ofD.. ..onwY'~IT~ay be a truneated version of'lAmathul son of .fe' by "Phoenicians· of the D.tltA" a . . &om. Amamaon.O'DS.:ral1's sister.ee~The third of the ~ I ur sons .on hi.'tJ_e'lf IOwn guu_ d·'mn~_:_e1'ty ~lluj extra .say". B .W'es.had.L. II'M'ath son of M.11Ie:IU ~_ 'i~.nd that: 'the' aleler wa.tuaUy' maswUn. IS.Argos... UiJI_ . Maj'.nBj.a to ICreoo'. and me l me _ Th"'--.~~gicaUy' pl:~aus.. 1. r r I' !.· 'iOlilL_· . in Bede. 1 'me the l for' which he W..1 to :Bn. record.ble Irish 'tmdirioD in the BOok ~f1R'VllSitJns.a. _~ .WYI!'..'Mith~ h avmgtaugnt h I_-.con:tinum 'to w'Q"r. IJ1d even. 'wbJcl1. irs~xoga.". recorded 2514.IDI.II me I .···_s:.. been dE'".' . ne "-"'.d 'was.'. wbolle a:n.KJng.ere under the p.7'2.0 ing: of Ireland..aif. perhaps a . y .oy in Sl. ma. guessed by GwydioD from d1C! sprigs IDf atder in.IPpelJS.in is. 4.-.amo:ng.s a sacfled tr..d .. They' were known as the P'ict:s.A chrerr-presumahly' 'the 'trees.the: Jews"hid . their statues as a precaution ..e~Dana.s magic. · I dd .ti.s.primj.lriliolan tbe~ ~-sian.credhed wi.s (3. by Bronze Age Libyans'. hllc COl .!: . .tO'.'..L .rAe SOli '0/' .tEd fr'Qlm Cr ate £DIAmathus Ji'nCyprus towards the E!'Dd of the second A.._ .a.on in IC.earlier.aUcia. :md :lno!l-1er part 'to P'. The Syrian m.'~oo..~---c. parti:cipa.rwards. .~C~ .:"'t. a Sabi~e. (xvii.' ·h'L--h ~Io~ .1. n~1 . v'!:.n't ~ 11Id·' . up.rresp:onsibly.::.. me: Tuatha de Danaan had.ebron.K. g-.-noe rh ~\ .also bee.th in.god 10'£ the 'Belgi'c tribes hat :iD~adied Brimin. _ 1: _ Ii '·f·l'IS' ·. an.""".Jm_..gndonw:h:icll pr. .. G~ J ·d--'I'.means l'tteasure:". ".AccDlld.. 'wllicb w8_s.U1Bon•js c:re-I'~e· d.P. .of his Hismry:: 'the captu. aa.loughmen w.. 11:005.t paragraph . .Qdd.[into th Ad' anuc..ving' taugh't Gwydi. does.mQ...tb' e s--c _~ .wv. '1 b-:._.ath.1.tooing.mY1i1 1!o:remlsm:.of Sirte in Libya. (~~te .a lb 1°' 'tat.__.p their' G. IdlitlS arb the son Df .fl···' .A"."'1'110. keeping 'the' secret of ..t:. d-~ G· .cy oftribes in which the ki...aD OlD I :Iar.'_-_e.of'me' Dsnaan Iconf\e-d.. . l JI f . Ul\ .I:ale aons 0.~a's put to Id.1. . a.310" some of the Amami tel were planted a (:'ollo.c[with the DanfJrns.! tb.. :in. 'Do···:. .. '-" --.c tribes.lDlath) lo"n die Oronres. Their' descendants 'ItiI'1 kept .5S Din into N'o.aQu'n'ta.'L.d. Am .C.u·'lf'iIld·· I lCl.le~ :betlleen'me' Jlordan and.c.I.event' exce:pt hy making' it bappen be£on~ the .wy' she ap'peaJ"S.caUed. .tb ha.arChaeQ.tlona:ge of the .onal :neaopDlisl. ~.'s name' was.MazAo. IS a 'b'Unmm. Syria. sinc!' Mad! is a~sQI . toe 'people who appealf in Idsh l.I '·1'._ler-e~one' dl'~' . d'lo··' Di:. l r·· nOU'flc:ed as 'ilV'~ a.aded. emi.i'es . WIS .d .a:ng.. 'm. then.mrmce D{Ms. of th.'0' :S'£.theirnon ..ft.) wri'[e9.rdinary care. wil·· ~ '1 . 1'- 1--:-:-:--:1 '-'. .'I 'me l GwydioD and Amatba!oiD are reckoned as her sons. l. -~lriOUS cOll:firmatioiDS. Gergasi'res aod other non ..le~ i_~auu'les::I. as tribal .. L.

Bran himse.origin.gges'tsa mother and son relatio':nship betWeen Atbene and A. Her I~... -:eLapwin.·_is.e 'Df the G. Anothr point ofr emhlanee between tl-em '" their love-adventuresi AesculapiU5 lay .r that oftbe oracular I urel a'r Delphi CaUed.eJ:1e:menltionea. the' ibis" the cuckoo" the 8wan. -. . I· ed its vlgilance.-totem tribe ofLapiths. and Bran were both dw:ni-gods.. spran'g. used :is. .po'fled fJ".probably a . and. the ···.k 'legends 'Qf Bro"ftZ.pollo of Healing" who w.t 'the P "bC 'meanin'g of d~~. the guar-dian of the Lamian 0 ele at Delphi fair d 'ossession of the roebr ck and ofthe tripodl To caU this gu.."'13 "'Ntl " 1IC. _UDt in the Isle' of·" omen. Ir. -pnests.. . but in the 'We'lsh 19.oddes -I A. the boy wern" who after being crowned Kln. 'can. fa"~ r h (~c~o1'ldi..ed lco.. Zeus disguised .i) was.t the Childr. I~panion of' E. 'The' Bnm cull seem.nfir-e and burned to d-ath.oabl d G-wydl.came a murderess and i'nsD..escul.v. but an 'Underworld. ~ntrance to tl e U n d erwlor.tid. .-.IY!l 'the' Kmg of the Underworld" and rhe brass-shod white 'roebuck .ocinders by Zeus ina fit ofjealou ¥i.~S a lapwing. .s-tb oracular tripod -n wbich she w.u. '0 life. Evidendy Amatha'on had seduced some plri.is: "Guard the : cr-etJ"lthe~ prime ·'-CI'et 011 whichtbe: IDverei. The sen e ..IIS a ICrow on both sides. Otaculaf hero. (In Irish.ed in I .inty of tAe ..cap'tur. Thessalian ero .e 'lap'w1n. '.es. BIte 'the . but if he did hi me .. and the dog which always att hi _ed elkarth the' Phoenician Her'coles"i:' a symbol of th _' U nderwo. _ I pen.~.) per ..DOlt recorded. one ot three 1 I" -.' .d.. n paralysant and a fi brifu. _II likewise' destr...g. land proph -y_.. Je. with numerous shrines."p:p~I the early sbu . and both wet/I! patrons of . 'wha~meao_.pono.. There are remarbb.i'.e DI. sitting. ~ or xamp. . himself~the'n bebeaded.r ] 'IY p ythograpbers 'oy that: the -n :_L11a! was at M: ria. b~. In another of his adventu s ..arcUan A.us. Herophile-c-rhe priestess of .te.a ln _~rcadia . the I Centa'U. D from him II S eret whi.:tDri~ ..di_rs.ch I twine oracular snak'es. fo"r.ed :in sodomitie &=-nzi~ iln the D.15 Lamia.ndynian Acherusm r .le. iminedia~e:ly thrown inUJ .d]...al . s jealous.master' Kinlcc- authority .dy.s.o'riniliiaD. V'Oyagell' Aescu1apiu_. by a poi" oned dan-Uk· heel .end it is.1 I I me' me' I • (now Heracli in.e& (translated by James Sanford in .ath-century 'ODCUIt hUosoip~er.~"tb fifty am rous . 'sbe'by the SIDle blood. also' 'to ha..~ VI. Id I'. but 'was.y . called Enariae~. the Church '-'I.sl'te d b H ercu lell" w. riO' .I. . .e A.t was a homosexue] :priesthoo.of the D'og~smr. Coronia IClcroiw: l I ).O nd his struggl · ' wi'm.ther'.bealing' aftd :r. the' di. "1 ttempt 101 subsdmte the cult .ded. the A.ch .Here Ides.£' mily:' his mother was.:_.oy.J Eas~m.cedto restore it Among the favour . "iWU a king oftb~.SIriUSI' Bu. Incllean" that is t-o say tabooed" bird in.tb:_r' AgripP'1 "'OllS)Y mean't 'to includ.Pwin The Dog 'wid] which Aesculapius: is pletured.of the oracular oak fa.gamong :ro1yal :b:irds:.gej hu tbi' accoun refersto anotl hiS.as.of I"~ _ v Dr.tb~. BRn' nephew and nameSake. ~rtare Hercules 'carrying off th.. Lwitictu Xl .ehille the '..of them. I!.. -. the Serpent~goddes.I. Aesculapius.Athene and A. . who. [leminds us in his Yan.as Comelius .for the' Ietters.logo'Us Gree.-_bers place th -: p .ead.rID~· -_-as sacred. the oak .est of B"ran-. C . Bran.anJ IUnce'rl".nd .i " described as farther 'of another Coronus.... all .. .: Ce[bem.in '..s'tinguish. I ..e Aegean.ge . remained 'unguessed. from the d..who attended the rear Goddess . comrade of Matho~wch King ofIrel nd to wbom he had given a ma -ica~ cauldron for raising: dead sol.e' of Mo:ytu a by his fa. 'tha't . figtU'1s Midach" killed after the Second 'B3'n1. .'I.-' the witch . the blood between them. hether i.ga'to'r of lrSii Aesculapius:"s father was Apollo whas famous shrine.iro'D.git~_ i ~ nigl1t. The theft of dIe Dog and the' Roebuck from the Underw'orld by AmatbaoD :SU'P:POI1S 'the Irish view ' .gyp'tian Thoth. :his head COoD'nnues 10 'M.'lei hi whose. bur dIal the' shrines at 'Ceryneia in Ar. fto..0dd aess A rtenns at 'erynei. _ by his j_ lou. g in the CdJ Gotl. that when the saliva oferbems.wer aco." . __ _ . fen on he ground. sav ed lives bymeans. IS..(f_i w.. ished.ki. King of Si. times fifry that he visited on a fT'mo'u_'.thene tiD 'whom the c. tured. isl d:i mrs ea_ng b. of the .. .er ~ 1_. The lapwing is..piuI. hebadb sn r uedas a child &om a bonfire in which his mother and her panLmlour Ischys eS)trength. nd whose mother 1'1. and ~s bum'ed t.Clement of Alexandri.Z ..nite-whJch is·' a P.gend" a..in all simli1ar' l .of --yc~nae tOI steal the ..: Mter the deca'pitation of the Gorgon . ..mI thing and w~~ a Cl'OWIL. W..ound..0 f 'the' do.ie: resemblances between him and the Pelasgian hero Aesculapiu:s 'who.rfd.om. ereules snatch d from. in his A'JJr'_s~ 1M lite Greelcs" s. Butwhy ". 'of Tempe d ln Lapith 'territory and to whom cro ~was also saered: and APC?Uo.~overcame th c D-· c· rherus by 'narcotic cake which 1- I -I. up.cadia and ape Taen LL~ _ in Lac:-om~_·h ~~ most mytho. is ~epres. by hi 1:~sk~. BInD had a similar 'j.~ . M'_--:rer.B bo. 1- L The legend of Aesculapius is that af er a life devoted 10 healing.CZYOD in Sic~. ber.m he I ~rDve' of th . ~y _a. . Amatha"()ID.O" ys at the' ri.d I do not pretend to know~and .raneaft and indul-. he raised. ranged 010 the side of AmathaoD . . 'ted in Greek _rt with a dog beside him and a staff'in his 'hind around whi.Danu lcame from Greec-e in the mJddl_ of the secDnd millennium B!!. Uk_ 'me: dog Anuhi" the .C!!" inee there are s _veral :anal.__ .api.lpiu~... waSI ord!e-red.o J"5-0. and.nty of a sacred .:the'f' Dlaneecht.o. Ana'tolia) and. son of Sisyphus.of these myth's I' ems to be that an urystheu=' _. the C. ?WhyRobu . "]1 the: .. legen. -yan..~10' I famous Bitllynian shrine by the Hen -bans .. _. ause A n was not at th' c "'po'uo tnat time a Sun-god.on _to guess Bmn. Cbe..1 I_ •. of his CU~~SI) Aescut. i e subj"SCI s 10i r: reek and Etru..s.lII' I' do not know -h~.":sname . .of .esurrecno:o.o:n..chieftai'D Coronus ("crowt) killed by Hercules.. and wbille he..o.and Gwydi.the.d~:_ -cu1a. grifFon-vulture.mp'any of m=.eulapius divided.. 'tb.[' Chelron's pupil.15(9): Ils'~emetb to have S'Q.lenemy Evnis ryen.en 'of. Tatian.e been im.ngto . O'lh. Glaucus.

'the shape .0. a broken wing and 'in. 'I'_::fi introduced.tb. 'maintained. :means sanc.eapon.U&_ d :l~y..as the repository of KiD'g.~.ere fO'fOOd 'to remain in the: South .in.wbo domesticated . . that in...ent of 'the.'. 0'£ lron" .t I was a nest-robber. They introduced mega lit hh:::burials 'of. and 'had a proveebial phrase' c~ore b __~·CbM than a lapwing· whi:ch they used for artful 'be . hut the charaet -risde type' was .eing apP'Elently the efd.en=:raUy accepted scheme 0 £ approma:te da'~'.few'settlem ents .' ~bc .pparendy 'the luac_~-willow'. .C.captured .e'v.11 -headed a ri. the solan ..gus..e. Eastem.. Uninterrupt _.C.places.. .ua lapwing and 8IO~_a hoopoe clue 'Must be: looked 'Io:r...ray. 'the leafcopied I.Ul. and .ran =~.of them.r .e long-barrow style feund.1 .the leaves copied are a. not belolng to.. The lap. Old.. .Ltany. by way of tb Rhin.. Was. .paln. n:ny a.'.'~enta'boUSthou. B.thDU't ~arge'-Scale in:vulion. I_th. -. wfng':s poetic mleaning is IDisguise rh ~Secret' and it IS her' extraordinary discretion whiCh gives.&8 . '.been l'proljo ._y 1'r.a~history . where' they adopted 'the 'Halls'tadrl' irion A_ culture. . The .ge htm1:t! who .immigratilDlft .. Ceemation and the ).''!!! (S'uder I RtuliAtd6) irst Belgic invasion of Brimin-ilLa Ten -I Il'IQD A.ryelements of a H ercules m..C~ /1' ill Is/antis' ..eaf- she cam!ouftages and conceals b. in the Paris De III with inhumation bur with little funera:1 furnl ure Ia!pt the ). I ~'manufacture o. the stork" the heron and tit ' pious peUcan. round barrol'VIS '. wit.e seal and made crude ornamented pottery which I .I tit. 'wbich in Greek 1· end describ how 'We -_cha - _8. an open ·field from any ca u:al palser'~byOl' A.1 JIHOD [1 S0 IJ...t lirs.g rOH.20.ofMyoena.elopenaes from. Further .I. I h.ed" broad .r. bo. to the . _ As fOl' the White Ro.ebuck.d found one' De "t.. the CdJ IG:OJ'JeD: stcOl.-.yth.. -..'.agonized p'Itw.. and of "" .:_rbed . fir.IrtbBritain by the' PiclSii S:maU segmenled blue fr ience: bead 'manufacI ad in Egypt between ..2a'OO~1 5001 IJ' C' .e.". Baltie coast at Germany" _"nter. h ve not chased this beast through enchanted torests and been ehe ted of their lquarry ~The Roebuck's poetic meaning.ri.burial chamber.plnent ._-.ri.mikri 1xu1ld£'lM'r.i.I iar.cui[urisrs..2_ 00 ~I- 5 -:- '-1'- ~.lIte'!':. ran 'she 'w.. 'L. cc-ording. tree.Ir.1.dis. learned tOI r-espect the lapwing: for the wo'ndm~] way in.."-::-W~ith Ule ware .tory. n. the heat-bele .t:._ •. which or' a hedgehog-e-but has afi~rm-'·-····f<· '.. jlurln:g on . ~.B~j.1 . BIC" "'.their' "frill-com~..!I fooled every 'time by her . 25.. 'That db .and .' in B..tity .escri:be a .e most: im po rtarJlt tribal shrines. goose (here not gannet '~u" barnacle' .ery one ..ginab iSIthought to hav .but w.d ceitfuUy'. i 'Hide _tbe Secret' So It seems.as th ·~Y' .gh POUII' Invasion by a GlideUc people~ id ~n..L'L f ·<. uth-E stem Europ.d.eiigs in.g..dle 'Rhine. ..er.. sacred in IG:lleece oe I tal y.ruch is the' Semi~c Regular tR'ffic ac·.p'Dbahly the Danas ns.. into W iltshir · lar~le' quantities .0'0. she w'ould Hap out along rb~ ground.nburials: In..G'rleeks called 'the lapWing . Cross-channel raf6.w many king. h. hls.~e them went on from France to the' Baltic.major' d-i'ty.. ead ed. 'then I.p't t.m.~ C.ril'tain many c~nturi. were imported. Spain by way 0'£ Southem _-.chela ~ hav been pussled by the 'uncleanness' ..10'f~'B-:. Solomoin's secrets and the: most inteUi.lized tha.viting ~ lca.. . r the !i'~ to 'SIL !ctity•.p'ture!! But as 500n as. creamed from 'the:co'otrary direedon tO the one 'in which her eggs lay" and sometim ~'wben she rea. from Invasion . or b way .As art Ol( makin.' anee did... d1erived. an-d tne eie er. and.:. BibUcail . d'. '. ... d the' _ in eland..ge cultu~...~cal an d "0' . The language spoken in B. are us' d to d." ortu.. Stone Age hunters" not numerous. ea. :by w.vaded B.animals" practis._r-eek trib· . and then crossed over' into Eastern ·'ngland lafter trade contact i[h 'the Black Sea area .IO'UD .·-· 'L.~. are found In the' Sou mil Invasion IQf .gh bert r fll'luisbed..ted! from the. a . homeland. ornholm and Aland.ed :flint-mining on . awl and Utde owl. 'I. 'to a. f Sp in.rs In Wales.O.. S· .c·~_piure . 00' B'.~\'e'lo. .'c wi. '1 rN ormem Franee. Southern and .po'ned w isitors dating from.Ie 1i. S~' _. from uchaeologjcal evidence . nd 'Old Stone Age _~..tic. S ~.ay . B'··C· IOccasi. pretending to ha. in the .sl in bOiW many fairy tales.ofth-..00 Bt"C.:to's.'8. ~-""'~'d-'.shaped arrow-heads nged in.of Bro:nze Age culture. I could fin~ many.. coun ties. 'mearl fery" who mi.tdements.in .. ·ribudare several of the birds do. Th y came from Libya.oose1). s(!.-. beak. mboDs wefe of non-S -mitie origin is proved by their 'geo.of llong-beads frlom the .gra. '~ma'ki'DgJi h 'vi!ftue-bui'ldin people fralm..P't 'by the '-ic. or both.. .""1 -_1000 '0 . abeut :800 B!!C!!. d omenmes _ea_ s:[~apepon-_ hOle is xaoc k ee' lout between twOI contiguous slabs .-.."!" brou_:ht polished stone ax es with them and the I .-nd 'I he leaf .1 . flock of -plroiphtic birds. The :g.gnphical..IS brief summary of British pre .Qin exc-.is lSI foUow :: 1 GO'De-Joe"" B!.es 1..um SDlttntJ.of the: 'lapwmg---anld doubt whether tbeb:ilrd .ttlem.€!other ..though.simil~ . ..ss the English Channel and invasion by :New Ston Age' 10. Ii persisted. .vl . a as 21 boy I.58 .'olyplrs."·'-d m nunats in -~ 'f mes __ . . ·b--·:· 'II. 't attended him. e B·" '1..o dB'te tb'·' event I'DYOIves . shaped arrow-head.rim:ain.' by a brofl~e"'w.510'0--600 0 '::_. iii' ~I '. 'eltic!l1) ' C I I :_ ':--tter d.t I W. or purple e.f which go s back to' 'tile' Oid Stene Ag. . a I f..~' 10m 10· w'h~ne"er un~leanness...ntil ear'ly Imperial tim...onal and gradu'aJ :immig~adDn of' New' Ston-' A. ho. I-d'Il k d DSler. 'Pi . 1.natu[.

.. ' cspeer... were: the Anebates h 'W a came' fjro'm Ar'tOil.e.I ements L. E'" CU5se_ m C'h CQ·l1tpJest.to_en 'c. was no mer-e' P'luto._.elC smzure IOI. .1oSbtute a new reJLlgloussystem In me :place . or thot!: sec-on'__ e-1gu:.[ ~ytlte ~rQnela.Arawn were instal1ed as[gu. the God of Res. or Odin.ath .g i!t" . If Br-an had been clever enough at the .y _ Jalr _'ea -rimmed bowls.' umr . What sort of a secret? Caesar records that the G'allic' eel ts claimed descent from 'Dis"...er the 'secret was lOl"t!! .0'f' a" 'Iong nre . according to the Druids. . r I lit. bUI:they' together displaced.~.~tbat is.efined his godhead as Beli.whom the Romans.. uielr .s titles. .capture of the national neeropolls on . . of Ju.~ . an d-prop"ecy" ane ' b a th'J togetuer 'to .. d escn "b-' -'II a. W n eropolis : i~ allianc-e of agricullrur[aI tribesmen.Ireland between 1.r BeUnus. suggested by the eognatc'myth in the Roma:n. Since: he also records that the GaIli.:. do not go down.e' Am·'.I.E.. Mars" Juppiter and M.··.wydi.thou 6. "'el' lth'et tn:e t .d'[' IS ..e' Dog. te name 0. lUI. So the Cad . ..I. and.[ nor th' G' 01a.g:gr bei:ng one 'of -"roden.. was bound up with. Thus it is likely that the guessing . whose . his poem Pharsalia expressly states that souls.guage' and 'which falls.ej!'tfc~c bId" ' h" . with: l "'.a ' '.owledged to be: the gods 'BrM and '1"'· d L B e"l..L' nation al ne c '_'.' 'Ies-----. ~.h arrow men. The.drasill" "the ash.an perhaps be explained as' the expulsion ofa lo...Cii. 0. BalinO's and Brennius fought for the mastery of Bri. .'.". b .. wbi.. "L-' T~ . b y '~ ..' .\-Y. 0' f"'G"'1 W[BS . c.Ydioni who usurped Arawo's place is. a . eith th nrst dB .. B' h eaven upon' th e o_ . if'so 'was Dis lorigin.. The Druid.dras ill" or -..:1. But.y had their' capital at CalIeva Atr.\Oio' _.uld ave pronounced his en"frn first.se.. The' principal tribesmen. I "f":rlc4i 'IS.. to the: gloomy Underw'orld of the Latin Disl... the comin:g of me Saxons" eorreapcnds with the story . [ofthe Druids 'in the ervice of God Himself". 1.:L nappenecd d" Ulln. from ak th .• ttl· ...."._..•·.1ane~lH' )" Ill.'[r. -....Mr'''':ROOJ-e~.ading Brythoni. [That it was G'W'...-.m (Silchester) in North Hampshire.aUy Donnus. a sort of Aesculapius.'tain in the fourth cenmry B. th. to I. the Supr.Annwm" a god of divination h d~ .r. r ide "fi'" d b thei b·· d lJetn.L.urri!CbOiD. Minerva.ave 's. Brennius was beaten and farced north.1. cognate with A[=sc\lla.._:aUI ..•..I~.I .·C·· 1 A"~nwm. Beli. e. SfmilarIy. The Amathao'Qian.. . od.3:.C 'f If the story of C'd4 IGoJds'll" concerns the .of Y ggr\ Y. :R.._ .in tAy nalltJ ".o.cDruids carne -Britain for insmm'ction in religion. and Gwydio'n to usurp that of Arawn King 'of .. net nave h' . c • Eastern :Britain:..."':1L '..th reuna. '.t. '.. the principal seat of me: Dis cult was evidently in Britain.er_~':e l:.m. a god of the dead eorresponding to in the: Latin pantheon-s-and also w10rshipped dehies [corresponding with.g 1~ent1-e'. and his god lIy over' the' ALdep.. hut a universal .OU~ th. LJ ~"I"'l otl'ttu:/[. '..f eJls. all-1· :..ng . t::iI'Ou . tree that is the horse ... I• Second Belgic invasion.·c'.ic cu l ture .on was indeed Woden. .'_ (Silver Wheel'). for the' tradition is that '71.0£ the lold.anrnc d w 1.' "7 . YgdnsiUwas theenehanted ash. tne £: .•.~4s.of Bran 's 'name was merely a clue I' awards guess.oebu." ' c' l3 ' ! a . h' he B[3ttle of the Trees thus ended in a victory of the Ash . est.. i [me 'Ciaudian 1'- It appears that Bran's people' did not retire._1.ck. .11 lsewhne _' and th t . o.[ with an inv. of the Humber..c ~'L .ritofts two brothers named.'C. including Salisbury Plain.Qe:.. .eme God [of Light. their lan. J' "J Th6 ..:n -ran. ·Ion ~ "'d The pre-. Apollo.al . Western Surr-ey to' the Vale ofT'rowbridgein Wiltshir.d Bronse AD"e-priesthood from . 3UJao·nums comrnuntcarec d' to .. an auu '.s' motive [or' betrayin. ts and branches in Scandinavian mythology extended through the Universe.. in fact Danu? It happens that 'we know' the Norse 'name of GwydJon's horse.alder wet-e .Goddeu._e 'IS 1l... long settled in Britain and worshlppers of the' Danaan god Bel. waSj a transcendent god who took precedence of Minerva.'" .. The capture of this [nne by a continental tribe was an epoch-making event. for' it is clear r~o[mCaesar's account that the Druidic 'Dis. the' high sprigs [of Bran's .ro-p trlDe.:_. as..god eorrespoodJng closely with the Jehovah of 'the Hebrew prophets .etid Go[dau he ~o..c.Jen . Amathaofl evlden:tly entered the B~tt1e of'the Trees as champion ofhis fadle. and re-d..pi'Us) g and even. .Sal" to .I. Pliny records.. Bmo (Saturn) and Arawm' (Mercury) in their' service of Dis.' .a. .:.. .'.. So. a'nd Lapwing stolen frlotn . -'. A'D . Belus o.in_g.t th -d "''Poln: ..eplaceofBl'an. hat ofthe Supreme t God: Gwydilofft did not become Dis.tn·ou ..SalisblUj' Plain from.om.f' 'D'· JI cou ld no' h [_IS .:t. These people were a mixture of'Teutons and Brythons ('P'-C'alts') and overran the greater part of the country: they were the andentBritisb ...re'lt.g their kinsmen to[ the foreign 'in'vaden will be .. is most likely to have . In fact.Hi8tOry of .h·lIiiJ:I. knaw . Th. the· .e.ous secret which [enabJedAmatbaon to usurp tb. without offering armed resistance. ofasA are .e'batu. Mer'CUljl. hi'[ .. sacred tOI Woden. :l!'Om. But: according t-o 'Geoffrey of MonMouth"s mediaev.f' Bell. ere ano ':_a d .dfs~ d . .. the mist1~ toe" 'which they call all-heal in. It was Aslcr Y'ggr:. the sister of Gwydion .' N'...bumbled. nor did Amamaon. It n be argued that since the prime religious ritual. :nO! the last before. if .ardians of the new religious secret. .' UUi 'leDll~ int I"t: 'The British Dis.. but proceed J?i~. (to whomwe may dd Venus and Saturn" the Latin Crow . fair a mixed Teuton-Celt deity and equates b'i!D with Wioden~ Nllgi... and their area of conquestextended from. '8 my alee" In tile say t?J 'I' . .VlSlon.'. ne ne c.I:n8 .000 men fen in battle aft.to say.hig! sprigs.god and his allY. G 'wy. fr.B..JI 'I"" f-' S" coming' 0'r-. Apollo" Mars. 'W . I'· " oiOo'L. Gwydion.. nome ~ fessor Sir John Rhys takes.. 'I contemporary of Nero's" in. ~e-d th iamer f Ari~ 1... after their spiritual defeat. b · d '·...1_ '~g'. . _ I l II - - ..ch was.eke' B'.and Amathaon..ppherll And! Lucan.er holders" this. t~~ere eing no mythic or' botanical. • ~. . '.ercury.. I· :g" I"" -.L_cl B 'ry th .'C'ID. connexicn between the: alder and the mistle .. of MatA tllB' S(J1l of MathollHY' where Gwydion stole the sacred swtne from P'ryderi" me King of the Pembrokeshlre AnnwmlJ Thus.. its form.llll· iO . Brennius and Belious are genet[aUy aclm. .d 300' B.

I WiUow-.le..'1 any rate.ofPwylJ' . even".of IQueen. 'to BeU .ing the SOlns of Llyr')': I- I. ij'iI.r-an. aU'D-temp.uhtless!' IC'B ~.KIIQC!. .succeed.y. and the Goidelic' /.w:·'"a. B .. if none were ohtain ble.. an d IS prove. but became the . ' s the' willow has neither mst.reuu'O.IS forbidden-prlesumab~.'e wb ft De'lphi was plundered the chief command.. It. '_--~I ii' u. he says" gave his name: to 'B.Prince' Df DY"d" was in the PresDelly Mountains of Pembro.thCondnent. rhe D.8 d:i.oftrlees as well as a Moon .. d'f!! b. gr.y because it w.ay of WHloIWS:i!1 Thou rh . R·_clom.sacre d swlne of King Pryd. mearung 'Sons of' D"__trucdon".' .kieSbire... i.es.".Latin . H. lder and wiUow are not diffi rentiated in -ebrew.I and Mardu'k were finally identified.0Ytoruan Ear'th-gD=-J one turtner . .:yJion. and since' arduk had.M· Ig.lt wou'Id be fallacious 'to regard Stonehenge as B. ..-aon.. 'sacred.eviden" y knew -m.. B...) h~ WI. the US~ .own. another divina'tory god w'h.~ 'e deri·· ~ til -famUia_' B. I .mU: to the :nonh a tb'e junction of the K'-nnet and a tributary.rennu'~e1tic _" habitually nok the na ie .'L .I Iese..1-a. not . ne . l. s~clied tree:'" the: m .eotTrey's..' ~the Jews having: cba'f'a..·._ incorperated it in nd .tiful' a also 'ultimately co'nnected ~ ith her name.-useB.lJliI JI rg.e the.. ..'. &...po ami deity'" th c' mother !of Danae as: OP'PIQ ed to the: fath ~ of Danau-'_. Love-.ly.d in. The impUcatirolnl of the _-.£ would be provid d for by Jehovah" By his 'triumphant supersessilo'n .An.oddeilsand U:nderw'Qrid~godd.ites' Tab maele cer monies .too.• o.~ I 1 I IJillet are aU recolleetions of 'her name.tinuDus use from the: earJy Bronze Ag:! ..of an AI.. the th.. 0' ship of Jehovah . _lcu. d 'to 'tb. od century a.ulish Invasion ofThntc_ and IGreece in 2. (N' ·d) -nnsn ' 1 lth ~.-5 of A-_ebuty~ Geoffrey rec:orda that Bran and Beli (who'. .BS.au I s a. '" ':hr nm ith Qc.ne.1= case is complicated. der l remained a.CCQUI1't of subsequent C'ontinen'ta'E warS! under taken by Brsn and Belin evidently .as used in i~olamous rites in bODIOlur Df.e' nor mell':. He.-' of Light. are~ his t g IIPi .'Old" and claimed 't~ be the Creator: a claim later advanced by the upstar B:aby'-' Ionian god Marduk.. but the variety with toothed 1 aves.. fathe of the Sun-zed and th . .-:.L.D-anaus \. confused a. h~e I I was IQt' tA' Cld G"odld. Above' . was named Gwem.of their ribal gods~ and G. the sallow Of' "palm'.tbie d-·enns l'. AU the avaUable' evidence pointsto Stonehenge as B1eH"s seat. Lth B'"1. :fer.e)y with the _~cbaic roughn. She 'WU slste'r ilnd ~over to D'U"uzu. desltruCtiO'D 0.-.ch. BeUli" the Sumerian Whit~ Goddess:. by occa~mo'Dal banlic r. 'the' wUlow (or' osier) W.as -' -n. The: Siavom.c Beliy ya'al (..d--"I/-l:'""1i" . 'ih n th. I... ]190 exp' d~ · 0'f tne 1.e.of'the riddles in.air T'ammuz~ th COlrD. -. 'I.~1 ..the Mosaic Law. B'ryihoni. e in Brritain COIf' long :after 'this Ca'J Go. and that in ourth . L I 0.at Jerusalem.eri.pre ..'I" 'Wi·..'e1 the... as. i.in later days.' 'w.from which lone comes not up' :againi'" t.ili ..em f -h id .lied-twigged willo with lance laee lea v' .. King of Ken.c w.e.. lthou ~'. .of the' RoOlallC" of T{L~~~in . of well •and springs . Olrigjnal1y every tree: was he'rs.' ..a.gen" cSO'D of' the Alder' The answer to one .Od~'The older .d 10 'a far more :anci'en'.n b'iila and 6illus" ·b. se.' .-Se'mitic nam = Belih into 'the .ness: nor knQlwledg'e.~ d 'then we.the English...' me ~'J't"CJ about it 'to' have been in cOD. laid out as .. Belili Bel became the' up~m Lore of the UnL .in' poem-medley called . "oddess.e~the UnderwDrld) . and together f'ought balt"el on .cbapt'-r..diaevaJ Lati..r'ship .·I~.... might be used.c. an..Hti.. a fire _nd water y c:eremDny~ w.~" m. L of I I. I·.e ti. Thi.t as.ith Llew '(lnJ Gw. been a -clod of the' Sprin· Sun and" of thunderv Bel had imilarl.ordin~.cte'ris.!. Isbw"S predecessor" who was.emCrV·: f' rom th d" h l~e'J.iscussed in late·r .lAu =-=.. the' alder 'of purplish coloarr I i do.. is the LL ~ ~ eel mOI-' l"'t 'I s. Brit [)in" 'at the ICad G.ose tree: is.d . '~ate as the fifth cen:tury .rennUS.. the indifferen. his power was invoked by his son Amad130n aa a 'am of supplanting B.7" 'R...til' 'Confederacy')" "Why · .enu. ~p'. a ..JJ~ -. n simi1arly supplant d in Palestine.nlUS. but if we identify' the ..eaning' '·b-u.me.__'.'the ~-inow' in . starte a_n.refers to the Ga..r"l.tsuggest th __ he is a Sea . IS ther 0 .me ROmaMB .e:1O 1.. is likely 'that there 'were st least 'nyO' Ann'WIllS" and d18't the ·Batde~oE'the Trees' .:ran wore royal purple.glodldess. _n. od: the waves. and over which Arn'wn reign.kplace at the nnwm in '~''ll hire before Gwydionllspeople in.le". the purpl csi .Acc.ynus.A"D..a'od!er AVlebury ring thirty .a_nd the .of £!le 'thynus was.. C'ong C'oncem." h B'e_~ or 'B .es slnce sa.y b'~.c tide of [. :Dot Bran's..iblical expression IIISons Dlf B:eUaI. The' a.'Urholr .obUgatory'J! I-be Israelites ha:ving tak~n it ever with the C~aan. the: ~.aU.to Roman times.ticaUy altred the Don.er:.... . because it is an unsuitable site forme wlo..ps. the 'Tall. it is. It seems.ginally .eu w. T n itic '~djtiIOJl.aB mistrusted by tb~ more intelliglent Jews .e.u Beli W. and the 'Gf. is p ssihle that troops from Britain served in the successful '" '.IS olri.:t D __ ofthe '-: -:-t ofTaherns cl s. W....and..'_-.:ran lof the alder whose ceunterpart had 'p rha.'n'. ad.y '.galnst..e ICer:JJ am i6. then the round-leaved willow" I. larger. the ald.dher soothe ~ire-god.' d_ating' from befo .n. wAD .. CYVjfAJawJ CH'Ds. The' 'Ultimate origin of the god BeU is uncertain.trunk of tree~l..T-'he G' au l lSh Iea d er WI ~' _ltl'OD .Iile. was.( the Temple.oJJeu._.. she' was a Willow.ysin tll.. B. goddess 'and goddess.'¥aded SO'U'tO Wales.-.. B'.semiti.illow ~ of great Importan e in 'the' . .as called.:.der. At the' same rime 'G'wydion he ash supp:lan'ted Ara'wn."'godl and Dmegrana~e-gcL From h_r n-..us lln £. _ should be' the sort used in thethyrsus of palm" quince and w:iUow carri _ d d~g' the F .er' of 'the IG-u~ being another ]J.. .illingsgate) were later' reconciled. in cultured A'poUonian style wh:ich lcontrasts 5.to lone' Hfl~aJ(l'h._-ome II sort of SoIM' eus 'before his emigration '~O urope rem PhD -ni -iL.t/Jell! I.. .. in fac'-.ran.in£erior and igno anr of Israel who have neither rig:h~eous. the S8.of a malr ' trim~" who ..-.ut It. 'B._ which a:t first si.ord Ds:!i meaning "white.crib d ~at tbe .p. _ The w.mey are of the same family-..'sshrine.P ~culiar it1~erchang:es'of divine: ~ netion wiU be d. lew L'~:a.-.g_h." . spnboUz dthe '.vinalolry son of Iili. .

o'·.~ ...'~ me._Uilier Ben ('lhe wooderfid head!!').1 in.:cation 'of the 'pillot ora moderaizationef inciden~. a foreign..coUe'cted and collared their Arthuri:m romlD~es bad 'DO.tional tales.r. his eel. they' please prevents students ofm~. sl. ~ ~ .clCI~U!co nnexion here lugg'tasted. ICDt.cy 'of mereanrile tribes.fri>tual lor reli. Alm. . divine father Qf CO'WUII.e .ire3 .uropean I'warri.he dlepacriarcl1ad Trinhy and..: '[KJII cap'tur.tim.uaUy retold thesame tradi.rr'owings.'.an.hed trade .6.Ind took overa great part of (be PhiUsdne. cc .coti of Nom] Bri. horses 'are 'traditiDnally sacred to !O '.. a confed!era.n . 1 ... g.is stoll' of the brothers B.east.rywas at fl.sn" Greek... invent their 'p'~Dts and eharaeters 'but cODiUn. ~.) he :fi.gll five:'thousand.~..asUy accepted. IndiO'" European and . or '6n._ Ii" H" . Chapter Four 'THE WHITE GODD'E.h Israelite or . Ithin.ed the shrine Q.These bo.egea'n area by invaders. loppos!e King' .ide.II . of the Israelite tribe of I udah. and Co.to use 'their' :imaginati.tl.m Provence--breaking up the old mythic . mm . routes. 1t11.ll . recovered it about t. head buried on T'o~er' Hill.. As IGn. grl!l:'te'r bis:to rical detail about 'tile D. 'to which .g of the' caseis dun at different periods. various o.s~:~e p'oin:tS 0. body 'of SemitiJc.t.:u:aoo~" b' d .ca :a. French thesun ..anu" D.-an!__S" .1 l l I 61 . t..lou9 ~.~ass_ica'm C Greek.ts.t . .gioul . also along es'[lbUs. 't. eventually reached B'ritain and Irelandj and dun orhers wandered west. .. aeeestomed 'way.. dl.nsouthern Judaea froim Ed. the e-M. Bran appears in. t: ']..~.I!.i.~ The N!orm~ ... Tfllr.n.ly dis'uibuted Dame'.: bnt the 'Calebite·s ("!'Doz ..andego~e (Bran of Gower) be brin.. isa 'w. ..Ammaean or Ind.ere the post .iod'~elem.taking liberties. '...aiary'who .. hOrl'es:. cond millennium B. a hint alSOI that asthe Su.ther' clirsguises.gbtl valiantly on Arthur"s side".s. The connexio:n" then.. Egypl'~ I the People of the Sea. b_.omi'me elan of Caleb.d he 'drinks 'the' 'Wlre'r.. tuti_br-y deity 'of 'Brbain" his ~'honey isle' ."'. :ally 0.I ~_didO!ll].ean M·. l1eUgio'D .ulti Unless reUgiou5.tween._ trom tne non h "-eas.ns as freely H.ced :1 rnodffi. appears in R. some elements rel\chiD.ch otber by mistake. g: many elements in common with.IU't rrus proal)' b ... and that white.lt all three: races -fe' civi1iz:ed hy the same Alegean people whom. t-eUefs did not.nJ'Lege'fiJ.ely iil l1tiquarian :in'~e"est.. em Ca:moJilciism"is.ti. deBp.. and Hebrew l"eililgiloln will not be e. I\4.o.. I!. its. " The la'st [o. as. 'till'D. L'ig. among them the Phi~istines. 'them."' MY'/! p.. :me'n~)" allies. 'the aered kin...~errl.on. in..ery even..W'O hundred yeiars 'later . "fo1f. d' .urian c:o niede'r2u::y that..Britb..from reaUzing that in North-'Wesitern.nflict between Beli and Bran oceurs . . for' 'the' popular uppeal of m. 'Df 'C'O'ttiUI.awi and ~s.. .C. -.en. overlaid with history:: a bad. I d .'L. from the A.led in.'d-nagod can ndt! over a:n i'slan.the. ..t.I . to' be IQf' C'lottian steek. al. "'S: 'Charles .11 it :15 ~e~ in a.dumless be also commands the 3!djacent m'ter. but I'S Sir Brande:! or B'faodneSi (BrIO .g' of the Cotuans" 8. Dr 10c..' in the poem.a:n'd ere-d nort th '." along already established trade-routes.. ~ a~ -male 'pnes.reug.a. .y of Instruction corr-espondJng with the: Hebrew Scrip'au~el' and.g Ban 'of Benwyk I("the squa:r-e enelosure'..Pre!iJtJ'e.every sort "that the W'elsh minstrels had never dared to take..B. They felt themselves free 't01 improvetbe narrative in accordance with.r Hebron :i. But.gospe') 0 ' Ichiv.intees t in.g 'of. tco. 11'le'..aB -. knowledge o:f~or .n.V'eoruali.aer' P'sdryv. I: wish EO ~makeit Immediately clear tbat I am not .ceO! As Ki 'B:r.ord.tys" C'O'itY:S:. thehlstorical and :religiousmeaning (lIf'lhe myths that they handled.i . he' is Arthur"'. Arri.c'hange for.oma:n records as Dannus:.ty' in L 'me .::111. 'me II II 't.Arthur.tbe_~ry'.e! IS rns __ UOf'li.lve its name '~O I ~ ' Cottian Alps.i.ology .. And this is 'Dot of m'f'l.alry fetched frlD. lid thefirst century .any . of the "esl~ eY. called. as . 'l:bu!)" conquered and absrcved.n""go. oil] .lLIllODOUfS. l' otys appears as a dynas.y .!'. th . LeodegraDl<c~i.. .. in the same' jumbled. who and M.g at sunset.:g Ireland by way of N. the: :audie'nce' expected to hear 'the tales told in .I.anaans. between ancient Bd:ri. wh. --b ~ t. "till others invaded Syria and tCanaan. IDle A.of . were dis..the brm.!! g T'D write in.tain nd ma_ny in'tervening Ca.oiwly . fa:tber.it has. ·o'wer'.llnai'.o. men to. in wmlclt the famous.y harmonized in the P'.c-" e in Thrace between. . There was also a leuty's dynill. tnat' 'some 0' fC: 'lUllesew..re'vened'. _ 'The modern Iicence claimed by novelists and short-story 'wr. wen: .o. Annwmwhich will.. which is a reference to the story . W'elsh:" Ogyl V ran=-he is Arthur'J:s :father~in.patterns and .e'Dtateuch wirh :1. .the 51-: . of ...ly Iny ths of the _~I'ebrews" 'Ill&!IGreek'I' and 'the' tCelts is.tt.Asiamc' mydl whi:clt cg'mposed the religious tuditions. their 'new ..lanations o.rm..SS ···lnce the ..at· the same' . of the mixed Is~ae~'he oonfederacy.( ArlhUl"~'s.alio and Balan in MalotrY~:s~(Jr..olve'1 was not in circuJatiolo" story..'. rlith let' o.rlladi:n.. -trihes between there: and Thrace r held.. e'xtempolrizing only when their memo.a:nd SOUU1 .tblt sort..D'. Europe.D~'ArllIIUJ' wbOt killed ea..A~D"" and the Cat'tini and Att.plaCf!ld.0.. be examined '~111 Chapter S:br) 'he is.a Spain. the s.os:t aU were exp.'.in. with.~L" q..e fOlurth'century B"C.e!!.o:n . . and.• e.of tGwales. roman.

against their 'enemies. European male 'tri.as the hundr-ed-banded brother of the hundred .l '~t i!_ took place 3%1 yam . · '. _~.e~_.Of B~'C.k D. 1. !. __ ~:':' I '···-~"'·Il... f th d· fj rom UlC C.eks found il nec.C.! I!.C!I'g.oddess. beca . the leg:end. the capi'ta~ eity of'the .t the Titans on the borders 'Df Thraee and Thessaly.~ Th y became alii ' .£ die IO'lympian gods with the' giants.~ -. ··en'~ur'·s-'ftr~' Ie :Ma.'retil'nized between the seventeenth and fifl-nth . in. 0'1' historian. 'the ~. at the feet of their ancestor Ixion. some of them long-he -ded..rke Ce".-.y" SiD ' .gistl is 11]0 D~C' .clan t.ould" .. The stlOlry . .rm. The A"c __ae -ns beam . dynasty.fty_cap..""'~us' .J.d occupied ArgoUs no. d enrolled themselv '.hich in Gr.. heir lo'ver. who. also became 'seafarers.. maans after the same goddess in her character of Danae. AU seem to take p their nanu~ from the gf. .ercu']es. handed 'monsters.ICUPY Ioeotia: nd . c-. but the Ceo_IUrs themselves called her Ina o'r' Plastene and. art.t!~:The~Centaurs' mother goddess was. ..I welie driv n .oddest in he character of Eu:rynome ('~wid..0be-orne the 'mother' of Meliroert. shipped orgi-as.:... teeth of 'the smie snake 'Op. ·f· . .e 'Iympi 111 patnar. acc-ording to Strabo celebrated in much the same way as those of Demeter the 'Barley""g. the C'o. ._ '-"U f 'Th-' _'n :g. me d~.-ansion Df . hom the IG~eat . -...rsu'nder their sacred king Cheito'D weloomed Achaean aid 62. any te the"chaeans who h.. of the 'God Zeus in his.an.. claimed 'tOI remember the date of :Ze.1IrpU·~_D. In Classical '~~.""assos 'about the year .. .the .ItIlit. They settled dOlwo amicably wi'th he Acha an Danaans and became known as.."efore the ten-year' siege 10' ~' Tro.hell 'me ·. The word 'Cheiron' is apparently connected 'with fbi! Gr-ek elL ir.~. in Greek" Leueothea.. and inferior. 'Thallu.').1-.Dtems included the wryneck and.'aftil'fl' were Ln..re'by' I o • ". I BDeo. C'orinth and Sicily!!. PlUlis. 'e _.ti.ia.iginaIlyperhap.c invaders .U's'svido... informed or..atian quot.grea:.e .e:" I suggest that they intoxicated themselves by eating IC.'s ..w I -. he Pelasgiana claimed to be 'born (ro'm th.' initiating the' material ICreadoDjI hut Ophlon and Euryn me are GI' . remained north of' the is. of C'orinth were known as Ionian • children of the C'c'w-godd'e-ss Io.en.' {f'tol the north.rem alning P 'e~"l!I.iY.. whom they nam d 'P.s Al.ams".emselv. A few clans remained 11-=-1~~:. i:t also. whiJe those who. mountain li.• ~ v.e--eus".'"" Ing .. The Gfleeks. she had :aJ5.gn s sexual maniaes. ofTn..i_'YI .. .olt.(tzmWlira rnuscaria)" 'the hundred-clawedto'8d.-uc. P id on.of'tbe' IGiganromac. ..end Cot£y_' w. They may have called themselves alsu tQO'k.ans in their fas. nturie .riar.j. 'the' . Sieil y a feature' of th Cotytti_ .egicaUy necessary '~D tbe .d'llshown near the an. ~ryto subdue the w.ded Cretan sea-power..cha'rm ag:aim...af. The story of this war against the Titan is. aca:ptemaILDllue3I. the Lion . Of the Pelasgians driven out of Arg.from tha't d. "~..ca. Age. taurs ·w..o'n.conflic:t'd with 'tb..eu." w. renderings of the original names.~_Jike' M.and elsewhere. 1- If ." Ill· . records H. the. -.lppKrv·~ of u:I]. dum oonfidndy datI d a. some broad-headed.'_ 'of'the U FaD.the'_ tern Peloponnese.s.chaI tbeo.. earoest. carved on an Etruscan mirror. a ort of Darrmoor po'ny!1I The CeiD.ve them an unde -. eeks invaded "be~ ~-ly from the north .. =_ ":1 · th erie. b u:t _ '. . who presided o rer agriculture.is called tbe Myc:enaean..:' . asp.··-r. p~obably refers to an e'xtenion of Achae n power in Thessaly at t1 e expense of'Pelasgiantrihr ".1:. Varun.Ji .. : '__ e tbe G •reeks.C. .sbtth or th: .P'__htagonia on the southern shore of the Black..tiJh._ d wer-e~ fu th~_ able'lo' ' . The reduction of ICrete. the light of' early Gr'eek his. cakes.~quen"·ly 111 d Z . and..rolm · d ./..peaking" resulted in a .arli r -.Atreus.tyttia. In . tm.... ~ IThley . herrock-cut image is s. II:~.ci. me rod of e. . . .~ esia.QIlr. and-Bee goddess of Phrygia in 'whose honour young m.ed .t 113: '. ._. Magnesia-I whose fri ndship was .~e.mor'Sin 11 rernem__u re'd i 1400 .hion ". .-o'seL and Hades....d Ossa-apparendy' :because of trouble caused by tb lr 18XOgamiC practices which .tinu .er.Iycena~~ p_. the Minyans..ee. of primitive -'leece" and of' Cybele..in the' Lite Minoan..~ R. by now become larSiely reek . I' ~.I: 'th. more or less aCeUIa.n.&'\iii!i Thraa:.. they were p:atriarchal herdsmen and w.le-:-. hed f(n~r'9I/. Asiatic' bone brought . mi-Semi. If this date is. or Hercules Melkanh.ofbo.also 'wo"rsbipped 'the bone.IVe9 .'L sub ··1 ~._ I I.a:n an. of Northern 'Th ssaly._ . was 'the carr. . dtme se ueed bl' 6v-e-. tbe :name of Dan.hole 0.agnesi. B:llrn in hi. s n 1 __ I .toryll The nrs't Greeks 10' invade Greece were the Achaeans who broke into Thessaly about 1'900 D. all of Troy as.tGodd .(Jl FOOd .-.rule') 'had 'laken as. Chlos and 'Cnidos. ~ .t pinnacle·town ofTantalus. I an_artier.who.. bUS: 1ater cmp. of Thessaly and l 'These' mensters were .C'~ The date no. the Tro __ and the ·-or h Ae~ d in ' 'ttica. How-.ugbsl hung with fruit and 'barley . Die C-._ . which ._..lled Hecatontochelrci (lithe hundr d-handed lanes. war agaln.tau.gn si. W.IC~I. e vsriously named Grea't Goddt!SS.( Greece and.er Mycenae. mal had lien OD tile dlY 01' Ajax in puni alent 101" hi__-pe oC me · 'rojan pries~ S9 :iIlssand'm W lined..l' G".ties in Lesbes.atule' b egm_DLng 01.s and GY"" allies. s Cotytto" I Ol' ICotys.es.JIr!:e .tneSle9 ofPeU.--:.··. Were the Heea . tontneheircithe Centaur. .~ 'Dswer is ·1. MinorJu.~r. 'the f . of mountainous.. and Indra whom th!e'~.'.I'S war .tanni of Asi'" -. an esample of whi. ·~I . fl'vCluredby mosl~.of I dlou· d y =... __ nolum B.._bt 0..dates df tan. tried '0 destroy the's· mi-matriarchal Bronze A. the Lapiths. It i~' Hkiely that th nadons took part in the sack of -.le2.the.ricaUyinThraee.~.onc-· mJ"1-1· ....w':::~.Ama·· an 'pastoraU'I'ls.nity of gods. prob:ably DOt the.-~:r1..1'~g'on.IreoolQ Qrf.'t the nightmare.orshipped an Indo.ith centr01l" a goat..C'....te.AeoUII'n Gr.j'·"IiII·ldLl\Jt: 0·'_' :II -~I(~'~'-_'.mea:rer .:1 hand" and 'IC'en-... re civilization that they found · d . Ole tOO shouJd be 'oned.t aU .The . abou.1400. The most w'-. Her nocturnal orgies. L '·'t::·-i . dons 'Rl' a centurf.t-h.'s... Sea. Europ_an variety.es aealculadon by the first-century A..ch app rs.. 'C" .Mltta..· .Ian.' _1 . called.who.ry in alHance with the eeatontocheiroi 'a-ver' the Titans of Thessaly: the weU.OmB' I founded ci..tbmus. In my e 'ay Wli.intelli:gible only in. B.C.Ma.ry and .f the' v" ry mixed population of 'I'be' mainland and islands. pl'1obahly refers to a similar but much I tet" oec sion. ..n castrated th.. others 'escaped to n isl ads.aller ..Co fc .tmdltion:. Little by little they conquered .l: 118J B.~e.illuston~d.oeSSlOD.._ .elasgians'" 01"' seafarers. 'the Whi't:e Goddess'.t.~-....e see. 'm .IS ons of .

whic:h_ was presided over by the dovepr~este' ISeso~ D10Q. thi 'p_mt'U?D-'.kingdom by .amphyUa..-·yna.~ ~on of_.silcilYi 'the Sherdina :~ve their name to Sar~ 1m j the Tursha are the Turseniam (or Tyrrb -nims) of Etrurir _ nne '_ aans s iem to hav ..~.t.aean dynasty called .Dpl.5'0 B. " NO'fth .as the r ~gfUlar 'BU r of priestesses in the -. ne ellUgrant p~ple~ the ~Obqueror of.rd'ing 'to' Icon. of Zeu. ~ldon. That the Cottian.. Danaaos and oth-r le 51 Icivilized Achaeans from North-western.." .j ..Iu-~o'n wa at first strongly r isted . masculiza tion the Dl ._ .I9111 parts of Asia IV1ino:r' as ':..and Lindus Lindus is a. .:el~.ISbl.Lib~a by way lofEgypt and .e ..tes at HierapoU Laei -n's account . which bear out the :~ek.ponD J Delphi. In the well-known legend . d of'th -: Goddess who also figures as "L p!ia. .. . d'1Y bas h en.gives strong' reasons iDr believing.n arose between 'the:Achaean.rlyexpJam that th~cuttingoftbe though 'raz r d .ch godl. c and A.to.e.' >!!II.g~nd a great. ._pudL_led the sovereignty of the IGreat Goddss.~oricalqualms. wC!:r-e also reckoned :19 D.1 hOI banishd hm .-' Bouglt i 'fa. ~..orre-dy Plel"seus.!:.D of Belus"" who wall saidto have brought his 'idalll. B.I .th Hittites.odd wit.yer').ortbem.Zl~~~ beca~e' the Sieels ~f . .og-. The origmal Danaans m-y well have come up to the Aegean fro:m.emns. .'.ghter5 to 'reece from Libya by way of Egypt" Syria and Rhodes~ Th names of the me .1y .elolpian dyn ty 'testify. .of' the Ions o. oa_. ' _.. oil [I D I· '. of the Pl.-o"th_r..' _.ani d. ~'ntangl In its on' .yths. tide Df (u. _.' ~e _naan.!h' eenturv "-_"""~~ ~n~' rwult senpt. bU'1: by omer's 'lime 'D'anae was mas~uliniz d into .. . P .nt mistlewe rom the oak byib_ Dr ids 6'4. i ~ that B.. d'i covered in the foodlillls. Syr. 10_ chians. invaded N.- 'I' The lan~ ess Syria. ~_'the .Lake 'Triton)! in.-'Ie PlsL gians lexpeUed from IG:r '.he myth '0. Z'ew . are evidently ..anaml.gians were related .is nlart ed f110m th ee to fifj-y" prob 'ly becausethat w. .a 'ill comp ny with the Sherdma and Zakkala of Lydia._ 8_ wODd.. Sea '-the Akaj:~asha are Achaean.acM~t of ])anausa5.bUI . .Afri_-" Spain. AboiU't 1. . _ .i -~-I 'me' r-..eanIGI'~dd .f Aegyptur: Ion their w. nether Indo-Eerepeen bard ...and godd S .cha. .. said to hay be a S.~~ _'_..' -._ ._ .0·.C.cceL=or--dl.idh and the seulptar II ar. 3n.and o. e x ere all Peopl ·of th . Minolll' ~~e~en. Greece who invaded theeloponnese.~esentedj!!' .~ emasc~~a'bo~ QI tb=.in die' middle of the second millenniu'm. . without his. l.. e_ cu!t of .- in Alia M'inor':tPh eniia.quaUy . VI from the CO. de.~... . some ~f who~ !lerv~d in King David's bodygu rd at J u alem -:-~osslbly IGreek~speaking ICr.ther'asl1~m I 'bI- e~s ~ought to. at tl it [empl~_?f"the Great Goddess gives the clearest picture of Aegean Bronze' A~ r . the Shakalsha of Phrygia..en'dy taken on Ie ones: by llis son ZleuS. d W. both ..y~)lfi. Camei -~and Ialysa.land G.. 1- me' 101 -.' fir t made into a.of P'.rians wbo Invaded Greeoe" kUling" sacking and 'burnin. ·."" . :a.1:-. s at one nme th name of a_herdsmen's oracular 11_'1"10. na] sens it 1'_ co' i 'the a~ualupplanting of the old oak-kin by his successcr. Sir Arthur Evans lug st '.and ma. I i. dir ecrions.e u .i'li'of th a n ':. with . let loose in all.alear~c isla _ds-----a centr-e of m ..c-.. "ith the pre~A. " other-godd .eoor (Canaan) who came up nor ~J rro . established the I on th ~ppel" Euphm. 0' her P'.early le're/tans.. ~~_fl"0!D-'Gl"e~ce the Aegean islands" The ··uI.1 _ - .dess). rev-. .D.3 ~~e phallic emblem.Uflolpe .eat Goddess" otherwise known as D~a'na!!.Danaans and Pelasgians But a unlted IGreece' captured T'roy" the enttan.'tbic culture and one of the chief .by the . Epinm. I. known to the As yrians as the U5.. .flheir commerce 'ith the Black Sea and the' E SL A"enerab..giDus. in.!h 'theory lof _.svelled wes inee Silius ItaHcus firstcentt." who earae to Nlortbem Greece fE-IDlmthe' :Black Se 'by way of P'hrygia and Thraee.daughters" Linda.C.am"Qng tho .o. the: Abiw. them Phoenicia. Th .. EUan. among them 'the Do.I Dan··U' " SO'.and. Dlcco..r.. .pres -'Id do'wn into Asia Mina.2. To the Egyptians . wid his b.on after the faU of TI'D'Y. 'e may :fUrthe'r ide'orlfy D. a Libyan 'Queen. -Ii reed.. the year a.-Ilqu _:. I ' not an e-asy one' to d". daughter of 'Bel us.o el:a'borate: . :POU'PSI had reillive~.try .ds. I_U.. '." Linda At least one pan of.O. founded n 'W patriarchal dynasty" r. dis'bnc'ti..razer IGfJI4j_.IS Jd b· came ' he' an~ P hi.e mit_} '~ bem .. -A_ I :Ir I II we' may.. !Ji. III.miliar enoul-i1. lands..tribal.. dlat 'the Graec.' 'me emas ulation lof Uranus by his son Cronm •nd the v~ngeance'~bs _qu.c -tothe Dardanelles.I: '_1 m=-rsh).~n fu r c_ltr" bon" as se:veral legends.C:essuy t. Th· km·· himself was eucha:ris · -ally e' .~lJj..t'II"II . of the Taurus..of maSSllcr.in his D De ' Syrrt'Z of th~ antique ~t~ still praed ed in me second century.. a ClI'ty which had taken toll o.r and E. ·Phry.rep. i~. 0 th destro. quarr Is with his wife Hera (a name of the _r at 'God. by til pre sure of he -n.ed~1 . ..·b. Libya and 'we Aegrean i.ia. .o-Libyans :and the Thrace .Ole :.-. Zeus w.bstlnes of ···OU.I'nu with the. though it is uroDdy that they were so caRed until di y 11_ eel I " '~I __ . colle' >_' of lb..~ 6'5 W"I j . connected with the oak ...' Danae of _ ~go:~ Her power extended to Th 'Y'.d she moth red the -._' ~~doREuropea11l horde to emigrat pantheon. rolled o vier' by Zeus.. anun'a.III lxture ~1l~Hltt1te Egypban and A earl styles. proves that Ihey arrived the before the Aeolian!" who W ere DOlt 'SOl reCkoned. til m~ke I i -. records a .~ poet. ' ... ..~.U ~e year )200 B. Wier. __ '. ~u.. i-Jemp _:mry _Egyptian inscriptllOns.a' lendt..s's.P ople remained in A. identify Danu _f the Tuatha d~ D'anaan. th -y' -er'= . o~d king' y 1 ~s su.dr·a Danaan. ." . t.&A. by the: rou -" ~VD in the 1-_end.. Mo~~tal~s. o~ ~ of tln_ in the ancient w~r~d---wer:.and instituted 'the familiar Olympia'ft ~~iterfilnean peoples.bowel'le Beonse _. ens (more c. the Westem Undenvorld under char~ ~ of the 'hundr ad-handed Ion . Libya (DOW .T~~pl'lo'lemus.. was.idyes.~_ . est that the reli. 'W'hi.. A. Tnh7P. _ :__'. Cook In his..b Can. n~ Aleundretta and the Inscriptions (not yet deciphered) are In btbt~ hier.IU" 1 r 1 · S ]L (ere . Tribes or clans of he same conf~d~_racy"drifted westward to Sicily.lyp. and..). Ital.hUlS I I._1 'of the' Aegean 'D' 1 ab -.bgl??c that has been preserved. dding night the number of thes daughteIS ofDanlu " or Danai. and tO the: Greek~..Dodona.the Pul -:1:1 IDE Llycia.

of the Sacred Kin. of the priestesses of his Goddess mother In both cults the victim became an immo tal..am ~isiton to Tow ~ ~nu is li_ mo'.iley . or' Alphito. and as a white lOW'" Choere or Phorcis. :Reapling: meant 'casttation. the . _i The White Hill. and.g'dull-whi e leprosy? (Latin aihw)" Irl/pniro:n.r'~~os". nn Albina ("the White Goddess')" the eldest of the Danaids.CQ. 'a. de hundred .ves the Greek and Latin words fOl' .~gbt of '_lum in the ~misiaD ~reciDct" :S~~ that the . ' It 'the close '0.. also' the rule.Ivillein.. lbi. 'pearlI.odoD pflamres A1hina.obsidbm. . th more Uk. The .O:W was a~ bird much ccnsulted by augurs.Sat&. n (Ieign of Crones. similarly" the IGaUa. In the barley-tullt" as in the o.fOO as ICDrmx:J' _---. 'of which as als ..weus. 'Soforth--and records th_ .. Artemi . raven.-d.ch human sacriA.albino whal~ . Crow-god" but crow.on.£ hls term of office. lbina a.'.oincluded the co'rax" cr .. ravens..ffs: ponderously 'at the' legend pr eserved .sed. John -aton in his. h-d.-.lco' was.~n a tree barl.. in both loak and barley cults. l ~ ~: I J d rscribe white' priesily vestments. The word Ii!Arg.himmle'rin"g 'white·" and is. 'leU" and white' prisdy v.Jand~ch as Sarnothraee. The Latin.. Circe's Aeaea (now Lussin in.quic:k as a Hash"..ther -IOftygja1 off Si1ciJy. il wa-. herds. 10 was the wbit~ cow aspect the IGodd __5i as Ba. and his oracular' remains were .E'mperor T:iberiWJ far de .._d. carri n birds are not alW3:Ys d. the: nigihtmare or mcuhu.d's as a .D their anival in Northern Glleece bad l. '~on ina" pm~sible~ ~essl~ _bko .: nd which accounts forme G. urn" A_sculipius.o means '.by N ennius that _inderives its earliest name.men of the pre-Achaean husbandmen of Greece..liDg pllaa::for .ddes· 'too" according to Dr!!.quaD m.0' the' Rivee Elbe (.il! early times". the.. 'coiDuadliclo. and 's.ing willi the r: In mory of the gold. or Demeeer. who.cba. Ortygia the islet near Delos. and cB'rdJin Irish an-dWelsh -~I 1.BS.. ICro..ow~.of 10'" the 'same'goddess.d.third Ony is. ('Iquai~. this On~.of Ireland 'Under the charge of magjc~making and oJgiascic primess . form.--'.uriors of Abyssi~a carry a miniature' sickle hito battle for eastrating their enemies.t Goddess.te-' IG.rutu1 in r k ~Is. Roman . Herman. .ldngwhom the 'Goddess.g. ... guarded by tb hundred-beaded g. It . armed men with the' White' her as 'either Demeter or her double. m s from ~.Thrse WM a .~ readily IdUlled hy' '7bi5 is tb 'While Towa1'JJ by' This is the Bloody TDwer .ri.tement:' the Achaean.'-I before WI' .. byhi1ch it was known to Pliny.. m an.ono _was. in C~assi. Pharos.A16is in Latin). 11 soei I J" traiats were temporarily abandoned f'n Cavour.Q"{y Britain :sCQ. cult ha. ~. a compromise between the two cults.osl it lf means 's.sh bar..The IClOWl. and the Latin. an elf-woman. Ithe: ~eep built 'm by :Bi Dip . 'Ithe White Goddess'. _" and AIpAlto.Hogarth pJJaces.d been sUP_ ~rim. humo. ythe word '·wllj~e'-tb grace... the king. Dr TOWel' liU~ at Lo. degenerated into I _nursery bugbear but who seems orlginally to have.white J g are..mans allied. Cwhit-e:·. Lemnos. in Italy as in IG[. whose.es. and 'that an mamvement golden siekle.tb G_ ~. lite tide Was. in Republican times.( h~1D Ib~Ro.c-reV .. he fifty Danaidap ear in -arly British ma. splendour and purity of mUk".of the barley . &am. Afd_ - ttl.alph'(J'I.aID" .s. 'quo.dle nam. the successor 1.place"~')l" Accu:lI:dill!' '~D _Taci'tus" f:he Ephesians. and 'the distant Ogy:gia"perhaps Torrey Island oft'the WI at coast . was Bran. gj e ... ..t me blood " f Ameri..odd.nos". who was:guarded by Argus Panoptes ('aU-eyes'). I-f._ same .ab..0.tio'fiS aro-used. Persephone'."' Now" in the' Romance of Tali8sin" Gwion~s . ICtJ .'-. where her Ram.bllt 'the u~ _.Uteren_-~ated . hook of flint or . . with a pruning . Leuce off the mouth of th~ Dan~e" wh~re' Achilles had a shrine. I 661 &.~~.islets .cien£ ICelts. 'the snatcl ~.A"'(J._' ~'m 'Orty 'is. nurse the infant Dionysus. crow and other ]arge lla. corvus. equally.ynlbolic. Leueippe. .'.erri .' is connected with the Greek ords . also described by' Wel.rrespond.SpnDl mlgmtJon ftilm.If nd a/pIJrucken. or Dian~. . Adriati'c)" the -tlantic ElysiumwbeI!e .ain-. oddess. or Ceres.11JlVen.o1l or com that gl.•~ That Crones the emasculator was deposed by his son Zeus is an economical s'ta. in.CT. Sir' James.'whill_ steeds wbill sacrificial l 1'1. . At the.rously caned :~C.N. he equates li r with 'the Sow Demeter' mentioned above. raven" scald. an. 'not a bill. For though the' later IGr·eks liked to tb'lo that the name m~t c.es be was armed.entified 'their Sky"'llIad with the ~ocal oak-hero gained asc-endancy lover 'the P'elasgian agricultun1ists."enelaus went after dealh. reaped with her moon-shaped sickle._the~~lJ~ ValleY' north of :MOUDt Solmissos.cl:~Jd:and wte'n" Wen. Dr D .i~) V.5sible that anothr D81me for Cronas" tb~ sleeping T:itan. er name :is composed of rhe words . or~ I. That e are' ju's" ..g 'the mis'~le'toe'" PlOlyes that th -' oak-ritual had.Gr. . still ca1J.lory.gulJm. near Alexandria. ..ship inherited the Ii lid nH h ule. a {esdval. She wasalso wo'rship'-=d 3' a.I white dog.eV'otesan eloqueo'E dlap _f to' a consideration of 'the.elvert. and ApoUo' are.d1e . e _' the: name of Odysseus's famous dog." Moby DI. herdsmen wlw O. of long 'UIe.. den" was: a white "~'Dw""--... :~d in whi. is ambivalent: it reoord~ the !iU~rsess:ion and ritual murder.G~ess.his Qby Dlrlt d. The: Cronos myth" at: any rate.ry emo.ey-cult of which Crones 'was the hero.in connecting the' hundred . more . Thus it is po.ill the P lo'ponnese at least 'thL oak. the~ pI.o. Oll'Ol' h f' l1&ed by albinos" lep' r J viS3_ nb in whim hoods and.ely derivation is from th _ sam _ root e. Frazer regards.of tb-. Saturn and in his sta. woodland was.e was men Leto. The name .cCuJl "ch who" j n his well-documented Religion of'IAe' An. name. W. Danae.po.crow---corO'nB and c'ornix:. mowyhridal. because any v-ry ~'ld m~n 'was.rJi.ermanic words .w...cull of . knife crook d like a crO'W"i bill:: probably a rebus on his.eoffrey of lonmouth and the French ICeltologist Thomas in evidence and records hat she W. of Bran. of the. Identified with Danae of the harley.eStmenrwj as opposed 'Ilc.removed for burial to some sacred is. the' conventional adjective' to oddess of Argos is proved by 'the myth . been clombined with that . Dione. arpessa..·s memory.ntJ's" 'lame'. 'the Crowgod.cli was. en the Danaan B:arley-goddess of' flu: as.en_:my ICaridwen.G . y~ monster" probably represent d as .it records 'the' conquest by the A.€: D me..ed the White Tow _I'~.. or C.eall Bran ~.ca~times.em.ak-cu~t..r lo'ppin.'unduJf heiDi.. But there was. call.. 'meanin.. was later u~gedby the GalUc Druids fo.

have b en a Tyrrhnbm. is.pparently quol'ting a religj:ous :Fonn. 1 The Latins. ho ."1 __ henc its connexion _with.er" as has already be en noted in ' __ leu IGOJtk" cant 'xt.C: an-d .-:___-d.. so called flNJ. became the hinge which conneete -~him with the door-pest. 'PI lonis'.It seems" 'then.-' CUlied them"' . the White.orlb ".eating berms was a proof th t on :had ft 'NI_ence~ bUI this came 'm.uI-in Greek and." his patrn __ .city'). Mor.d his back.odd. And though he became the' DODr. or Juppiter"married Jana or Di na or Juno" and 1_ OJ a: the time of the :gr. the bawtho'mll' The bean.O' beans--PllhY' meations this~d being eaten by WD'. had charge ever door-hinges..ocks and rivets was. Is Spanisl1 for II'pig:~II' . I'DGreek.and at 'the Rotman feast th L£f1I'uri'a .t be' an :impiou'l frus.uJa: . sayi__ng:'~..an1. rim..her OWD.offiru. the impor- Cardea. dance of 'the S~panishPyrenees was '~ rhaps fi . Godde '. the Bar'ley~ godd ss. to shut what i open.Her powe'r is 0. and she' was .or ".pirer represents an elided II: he was Jun-pater:-fa. open whsr is shut.j_n Irish myth the god of .tmve1.. IDS to h ve dev. J~ and nus lana were in fact a rustic for.h and beans were oife.H is aedi'led with ~m· re_ ill nor only from beans bu. his wife Jana was Diana (Dio:ne) the goddesi DC· e woods and of 'the. Ian At ICromna he w -= . augu t s If and who '--. Panoptes.the r ~. and of th firs..rtio!J craftsman-. doer'. coming th." heads'oIB The flower of the bean is white" and it hlc oms. I.man. . part [0 'by' 0 conceal himselfin . . moon.meflj thus..wind 3. called Cre~the craftsman who -rig-inallYlclaimed the.sical.~.behin. a great :D'listake on his.olls:hip_wiU beexplained in Chapt.ed to Orph US'1 'to' the effect that 'to'eat beans was to.eans. thou. tiro" IUiuaUy translated 'the artful one". tbat the ban' -ows spirally up its prop.. Tbi would aceount fOl" d1. the national guanlian" she me . visi'ta__nr.bl. 'who derived their doctrine from Plela:sgian so'urce.e'loped an ilMeD.. was reaUy the oak-god Dianus whD was incam te in the King of Rom.OS10 the Northero egean.t performed in honour of this IGodd. in pri' j lve '-im _8 I_nly I or 1'- 'me c- me' her prlest •ses mi. tor Lemu."db wit-ch lcul't. £O(f' Janus.v.t th. goddess .'tr. at the same season as.riJ . worshipped the W11ite Goddess as Cardea. it w.ianus.ch was colonised by lemigrants from 'the Pelopo.u. B. whi.cerd.hos· cOln~rived to '~e reborn as bum:ans .. as a mneamadan 'ofApoJlo'. _ men who speciallzed in hinges. in Iberian royal names. the B'arl~ . -~ in her anderlngs. -who kept out. 'pow.ght either plant or ItO k lL The men IDE Phen .c . a hinge.ess.carnem .glvle cult-hero Phoron us.ve her name ~o Brit in.aed to her might no.was gil' enthe task of keepin fr _ th.eatdisper:aI.' .. ascB.oduGed into a house lest -he destroyed the childr n Inslde. -~ of the Ar. Is said se .au e Cardea -I Alphito'l the White odds.or-ean mysties.. irds. gave them mis sion re plant all grains and puJ C~PI only b-an.. b-ans were 'Used in IClas.blr:--thandsaulors.red to her" 'This is helpful in 80 far' as it eonneczs the White Goddess with pigs.Demeter. m beans"on tI e monaJislic.'.Pa:usamas makes: 'Cerda the . 169' .ry iSlins.guudian of oak.do "con edon hi'-phUosopby widl~' IOrphic nd midi.dally poe'try"'.aiasgian &om S.~staodequaUyrcr' _Eo(wind.ab ~D_:'On. headed god of doors.om 'their' cradles aed b ueked their blood.nnese Ovid'" sto.e.l)edP·elu-im ladltby .tory about her 'in hi .U. his spiritual successor.cb householder th _ b~ack bean .o.e'rJeia" from which derives the Latin a Icraili....t he' intr.'The: reduplicated p 'in Jup. 'the wease].pedoCies.bc-eath" and (ud" .wbo has I_-'iv'en 'her name 0 the hesr com-land in the region. who snatched children fr. He 'says.1 The P'ythag. 'the stout . in fact.:h the Roman .d. the . Little Gw10n had every reason 'to fear her.. the two . He says that she was the mistress OIf Janus. when pig's fle '.. ~. d ~r '~e nursery bog~ who in matriarchal times was.month of the year" and.er'Ten~ CarJrJ" the hinge.er' first . P.~. and from.do. which Rome W.t '&olll.theory .againslt witch-and sctr-es~ one 'put __b-. Thesyllable CerJ .the Whl'te IGoddes Pythag:O'nls. and tha't '. -. [hat the' reason for 'the Orphic taboo W-. as a e hom eopathic charm .craft.wthom. ~hol -'L::I'd ~ '·r"10 __'~: or b east .mans Igain' and also "the inspired arts.e disgu'ise of Tbessalian witches. living so._: : Iba t ("the 'white .J .uised as formldable rught ... the' best kDD'wn of which is Livy's Cerdubelus. dis"'. portending re urreetion.re3. fo. It was Janus:. were 1_- pU'l her under subjecdo'n" he was her son. b'.of b am and quoted a verse attrihut. the ..~:non her' own threshing Roor. . o JS _the same' word. or' gh. among' other flDbO . Lorin me m: was 'tol 'd'lln ~Life . my famiJy. Hj'. be i. 'was called .n in one's mouthand spa.ti"or C' rdo's HUt. eat one's parents.te' Sow.of Cardes.figur. Cardea and her witches.pirir.umd tilt 'i:hI 0. But b fa_'-Janus" or Dianus.' Ovid idenrlfies Cardea with the: go'ddes. and Ovid tel~.QS'IS.ce fthis relati.th-e blr d d esrr 7e d t1JjJ·ren aft~ di 'er'J_gDllug'ersel h __ l'Ono . Cerridwen is clearly theWhi.m lof Juppher and Juno . :a.r 21 man to eat a bean migh.- 'rE r . esp -. the White Lady of Death and Inspiration. and c"do" an ancient word of uncertain lo~igin.lphlto.She also proteetedinfants against witches.a:tio.n of his dead parents' designs. muddled .connecting her . 'who willi..r!]"lwere bound bya serong taboo aainst me eating .With these I r-edee'm myself and.s Camea who had a fe'lst at Rome en June I. the valley ofCerdafia" dominated hy 11-'town of Puig. 'afternd wards in the Flamen Dialis. _dde s Cerdo or Cardea . The . much me = ltll bma .plropitia~ at Roman 'weddings with torches of 11 .. . I n.ide.entHied in Chapter' Ten withB"ran._heap of -. the inventor of fire and brother fe 0' :-both 10 and Argas.an.imdmd". like dIe Greek --ords eerdos and c..leS cokmized.:_U ' in readia had a tradition that the G. Qlvid S3j'1' . th tshe exercised this.by en'rering ml. and that her principal prophylactic instrument W'. 'Thus -_I Janus's mistress" ICard .ith the wmd carda.P' it like hi ites:!!iO'r' Em. a favourit. and.t it a. the! aged hiefcain who intervened in it dispute between the Romans ~d the Iberian city of Castulo.mi raoon lof ~u1s iSI 'Indian dIel' Ih n P :la5.baw'dlom..' _F U .-xplanation that Cam-a was.s.."t' (Cbecause ~ey_ offer' her fl h'l)i non nse.. is...wiliom whicb was. Albina. sa.famous clrJaiitJ harvest .....

fall. considering . di. and of ' 'S' d ptmj~l. hath de. myth is supported by Hyginus's fable of a heifer-calf born to. . in su~dry groves and art worshipped in dlv'e~1.etymologi..oyful fa~J and moved . and deliver me from the wretch. incidentally it suggests tba.eyeswere but newly closed) appeared 'to me' from the midst of the sea _a. re d_ " 1 · 'h reaper and dark winnower of grain. the Full Moon" the red . though it were very late. when that goddess had most puissance and force. 'The local monkish ]eg~nd was that three women dressed in those colours were' petrified a'S..ing my plaints to the godd~8.by a great affection to purify' mysel~.~ ~? 'O! blessed Queen H._~'hi was once worsnippe d' at M'.y" T bright and mounting out .t:ocall upon the_e.caU y connected with the Gaelic 'cairn' ~which has eome to mean I.fQserp'ine.asleep upon that same bed.goddess.clared. and a cypress .. that hast power' Wl~ triple face~ stop and . hill-temple near Del phi in which the office of priest was always held by a.. sidered that all..to-sed to ghosts hyRoman householders a..goddess of love and battle. shrine.o~us...yfully. 'the harsh or' stony one:'. who was really Cranaea..e orld by w ~ear 01' far.put away the invasion of hags and ghosts to whu:h appear unto men. the three' women.'66:): About the first watch of 'the night when as I had !dep't my first sleep" I awaked with sudden fear and saw the moon shining brightas when she is at 'the fun and seeming as.ange d' Its co -1 11~. hoy" for a five-year term.~ope and sovereIgn remedy. an ton (1 . I.l_olfation.cb art theoriginaland motherly source of all fruitful things on the earth.aJ because she held the: keys of the Underworld. one dark blue. In response to a challenge from aa Orlc:le one Polyidus son. r th" " ancient literature is. d Inspire"d. btd. One was white. be made strong by the' governance of her light - and godhead" but also things inanimate and without life. Cranaea owned (I..lightening and less~ing WIth thy~ediC1nes the pangs of travail and art now adored at the sacred places of Ephesusj.:"or~y sage philosopher Pythagoras. and to keep them down in the closures of the E. .~who. eonvenable and a~eeab]e to holy and divine things.and. I seemed to see 'thewhole figure of'her bod. where Lucius invokes her from.. whieh ~ou di?s~ptes'e~tly cODc~ive'ldidst utter~y take away ~nd abolish the ~o..ing countenance. discoV'e'r.'"' ~e~~es. and they were known as.ea~1glvin.ghrer P'.Jl ours t Doe dail In tr ..of tJl . tbrougb the g_r-ea~J~Y. ~al'Y . The translation .. to be delivered f~m my mi~ery". and d. of Coeranus correctly compared it to a mulberry--a fruit sacred to the: Triple G.ew Moon.~by Iittle..0 n.. h ment £-:Q. and that not only all beasts.ind standing before me:' wherefore 71 -'_' . at ~he beginning of the world.t the G-oddess '. '70 .ed fortune which so long time pursued me.degradatio:n and she . and the 'seas.1 wee'p. Suidas:'s.8. Wherefore.. ~n~ereasing motions i'n:creaseti.of the sun!~y whatsoever name 01'" fashion or shape' It is ~a~ful. the blackgoddess of death and divination.shaking off'my drowsy sleep I arose ~.misery and raise ll:p my fallen. a 'Greek surname of the Goddess Artemis. When I had ended.odof them of old time" the acom. just outside Corinth. wmnowmg com on 'a" ""un__c__ay. into the water of the sea.divin~and venerable face. called terrible P. to the puissant goddess. and by and by (for m.aecoun t 0 f. thi.yzantine records that 10 was a cow that changed her colour' from white to rose and then to black he means that the N.S'D make an etem~..g thy changing light according to the wanderings.. and by her diminishing' modens dimin~h~: we.e.Wales in the iconoclastic seventeenth century may well have represented the 10 trinity. . onered.. .aslp-ae ch · -h ~ .'. Grant peace and rest.t the Lemu1ia to give them a chance 'of rebirth.ay th~e to end my great travail and . the depth of misery and 'spiritual .th a J."thou..appears in answer' to his plea. Then I thought with myself that this was the most secret time.which dost wander. hen. or whether thou he' the Icel~tial Venus" who.. or _whether thou be. . though with . whether thou be the Dame Ceres whi. which_dost iUumma'te aU the . if it please theeto ~y adversities" forI have endured enough labour and peril. .ple to .' 00mes ane P · h . I write of her as the White Goddess because white is her principal colour. _dlIOU" which.[oserpine by ~~on "of the deadly howlings which thou yieldest..lttth. wb? ~a8t saved :80 many people by .my cruel fortune~ and calamity. I fo.eaven. I 'pJung~ mY'head seven ~mes. d '.is by William AdlingI Go" "~- .in. being flOW 'worshipped...QW ~lvest men. I found good .finding' of 'thy d'3u. pile of stones erected on a mountain-top. worshipped even of the gods them~ 'I 'I thy damp h. more better' and milder food. which 'number sev'~ IS.. hopes.. "•• J • .r' . though she leaped out of the sea.citiesof the earth by thy ~mlnlne bgb~.that all human things be" governed by her pro. as the .w'h" ~1.idst . within 'the te~ples of the Isle Papbos.tanding stones thrown down ftom MoeluJe Hillnear Dwygyfylehi in. whose hostility '130 children had constantly to be appeased . ! II oration. is the white goddess of birth and gr. the Old Moon. rove" the' g Cranaeum. bodies in the heavens" the 'earth.dst cou.'same _ M-~ay. contained In Apuleius's Golden Ass.. f l. the colour of the first member of her moon-trinity.a~ter the . unfruitful ground of Eleusi~ to be ploughed and sown. and madest the barreD. The three s. 'Then very lively and Jo. be the' sister of the GOld :~. Cranae'means "rock" and is.'oetre In ner trip Ie capacity 0=wtute raiser. and offered to the' Goddess Carnea at her festiv. gether male and female_with an engendered love. I pr. where Bellerophon had a hero .~a?ner~. be by her .owth.odCless.ary o. and I con..by invocati~ and prayer tOI the exceUentbeauty of ~s PD~:erfu~ .rtuned tOI fall again . but when Suidas the B. Camea is generally identified with the Roman goddess Cranae.tne dd less-10 aII Thie most eomprenensrve 'an: i h '. pr!~pag~tion_oI human kind. IOf' whether thou. I made this th~~. . nouris~est the' seeds of ~th.vidence.:. private and tame wild and sav~~.

IS 3.e sun which thou bast given to the' na.ees of hell be dispo ed.arland . and all fruits.ur vi rtues .odhead.8'. lift _ UPI hi . other Bellona. In. flowing. which shone like a flame of fire.tiohs. the'y gave forth a shrill and clear sound . . Her vestment was of 'finest lin.ds.. somewhere flaming. my name.u'ht wlth. somewhere white and shining. plain circlet. which are sprin f... appeared comely.interlaced with fI. be DIOW . A. their ancient goddess Ceres.ffIZY~ll.trine and by their' prop r ceremonies accustom tOI wo' hip 'm"" do.I weld" part of it feU down. 'OD. II. .Il"1.'.t of all men call me The o. queen of :111 .0 my.clearly stood in same relation tO the' Goddess invoked in the prayers IS Aesculaphis loriginaUy stood tO Ath en . fl.~ . in variable customs. ~vith the faith that is thy du _'" . of. D:ictynntan Diana. Thou art the sour-ce of the s enth . riphery of it. 11 r !eft hand she bare' II cup of gDld like unto a. 3. her right hand she had a timbrel efbrass [I. Cecropian -llnerva. chief of 'the powers divine. thee. head d with a "Wide-swelling throat" Her odoriferous feet. :gods.rum' tkarllm-"ljue jrzoi. Paphian V'enus. md borne UPI 0. .e. ml tress and governess 10£ all the element ..y and beseech you~ be pile . (which troubled my sigbt and spirit sore) her cloak Wi ' 'utterly jdark and obscure covered with shining black" and. the Eleusinians.an~-.ce all nature is.1.].Q1f ancient doc." zmijO'rmis].h shoe ' in erlaeed and wro. j'O£U:1i. and to your maj'.lnd hath put m __ jsty upon. which speak thr e 'tongues" Infernal Proserpine.m Earth the' universal...of the mo t b-'ne6r to humankind.limp. I invoke 'thy name...3t abundance of hair. wh~n m-t pit -I. other Hecate other Rhamnusia. p~ea"tedin most subtle. lave 'Of[ thy weeping and lamen'i' tion. r athin unbroken.I was '_ 'g me " ~ th' -but .. in the' upper part which is best een.h 'r "I. Earth" divine goddess.Iife with thine etemal suretyj and when d1~s. vic DiriOUS.away n thy SOlro'w" for behold.un.. Thing qui -Ie Idi~ erse did she bear:' for in. 'to the I Il tarns. the initial pro~rmy of world'·. ._dy'oa hl'm herselfundertasen that I may y'ou witb th .and lin- ~ can aid thee. b~ing wrapped round her from under her left arm 'to heir rigbt shoulder in. the Sicilians..ictory Is in thy divine name. 'itO me: ·'Behold" Lucius.'.t Pinus".F:or 'the Phrygian! that are 'the m. to thy g.t forth ever anewth.enas a medicine of health 'I.lom their own soil.esty: I beseech YOIU..' on crown of her head she b re m ny . Harley. round about 'the whole len' -th of the border 10£ 'm't-ood 1 robe w s a crown or . JI Thoth 'lo. [Jeo..-numan d' I purpose to eescn'"be ner d·" speech will suffer' me" or the divine power' give me a power lof eloquence rich enough 'to'express it. IS'is'l Esmun toIIs. i ii II can Sal d ii '!I i Iii' I How the god of medicine was named in nvelfth-century pagan England! is difficult to determine. she'd a gr. who..' ivine shape.OCD b-y tne 'n~ It gaive s: ~l.en. and. palm.-:th -_:epoverty .D all peoples.secl and in the middle of them w~_ 'placed mo n in ~. Mother Na ture.W. the Cretans which bear arrows. the healthful day '~hich ordained by my' providen _''~. hushed and 'sinks IlOI sleep.e covered '.~..o er ' md in the middle ofbe'r forehead W. '. .11th her holy voice to utter the e 'words.towed.it" Odin 'tal Fri3YB\"and BraD. Theu indeed art rightly named ~reat other lof 'the s. the' thenlans.OIW also I make intercession '-'0 you" all ye PO.h. therefor gran't for beah:h":s sake good medicine by grace ofthese powera afar _. thou. without tb. Mus.mys of the' ~s.: .p'irit lof man.and the Egyp1tian' -'I wm.th~r' lof'me IGods a.gain.if·'. to the skirts ofber gannen _'0 that the welts.t piee of metal carved in mann r of a girdl.ee nothing can either be bo'rD. H __-'and there upon the' edge thereof and throughout its surt.rayer is found in Latin in a twelfth-century Englisb I' '. md by many namesii. thy weeping and prayer hath moved me 'to. somewhere.. This _ p~--. the ICyprians. or' 'made p rfj~ctj thou art mighty" Queen of th . the stars .en yi.r) . manner of . vouchsafe t grant that which I ask iof the it so' shan I return thanks. L or ratner rese mb'-'-'~ ":L. First. me I I '7] .e" whetl~in passed not many rods through the p.f'fS and herbs". some Juno.h:tar" Dlaneecht 'to Brig.that seemed tOI ri e £rom 'the furrows of the earth" and abov't! it were blades of com set out. II '. I ador thee as divil e. an' tho. Guardian of sky and sea and of an Gods and POW'erlj.IGoddess.eiding diverse colours. which are girt about 7Z 1 ' me' by die sea.cb are excellent in all kind .d will of him.i~month. ~ MUlch me same p. breadting outthe pleasant spice '0:£ £enile Arabia" disdainedno'l _. 'Thu the'. and when with her arm she moved these' triple chords. fi' shion. po' .gs and bring. who dost genera't. an asp. ~O'Danu.om 'winds of the seas.. dispersed and scattered about her divine neck. made wid flo [.'!'nt he ' w. and principally both sort lof the E'thi~ opians which dwell in the Orient and are enlightened by th : mornins . in divers mannei . me by mytrue name" Qu! een Isis. yellow like the' .idl yo. parent hath bome and giv.horm the art of medicine was bel. MS. upon the' handle whereof. _endest forth 'tb J~_d daylight and nurturest . in fashion of a mirror.g~land'.C'fOCU flower" somewhererosy [led..succour thee.of peopf'eI and. 'my divinity is adored throughil out the world. behold I am present to favour .0 either side by ~ rp.. and.i:Sr:r. manifested alone and under one' form of all the' gods and goddes_-e. through Ithy' :influen. wer." is me n I· I herbal (B.rit. but he .s. and th lamentable . A' my will the planets of the Sky'l the wholles. m. I am come.thtt are in Hell" the principal of them mal: dwell in Heaven.. put . I am she that is the natural 'mother ofaU things". Behold" I am come tal 'ie pi'ty oftby fornme and tuibuJatioD.Vme!S mbl :-.e all thln. and curUng. fo'r she who cres -. boat.

'nian secret 'of the '~r~ei. and who is noticed by Nennius. in Kipling's story-« he had liD! That. like the Kangaroo... in the ReJBOfJl:. Williams naturally feels.D nuts fallen from the nine hazels 'of poetic art.. Bran Was . as an ambitious Hellenistic Gr. the riddlingp10em with which Taliesin first addresses IG~gMaelgwyn In the Romance.og..g and the 'Roebuck to help him. sc-ale invasion. ancient mysteries and.. but it true poet. first Taliesin spent much of his time.. during the: last 'third of the sixth century as a guest of various chiefs and princes to . and that whereas Heinin and his fellow-bards. 'The. The equivalent of Gwreang is.ap Maelgwn until he was killed 'by the C'oeli. Taliealn calls.whom.ytL ~froegj Yn Efroeg"ytJ Efrr:li.g: of Powya. but bad net made.ID'DLE argument :s1owly forming in my mind.in CThe Tale of Taliesin'). cloak of . son of 'Gwreang of Llanfair in. irresponslble rhapsodist. dls.mysdcism. RhydderchHael (or Hen) and . and Flonn . no. semi-myeticism. .gift of Inspiration..s" ostulates 'from internal p literary evidence that parts of the Romance existed in a ninth-century original.) was first named Setanta and 'W"U a reincarnation of the god Lugh. . and whi. a person. C~an Ganvynap Brochfael Ysgymr.of Taliesin...I I Trac'.I!Il1.Cfair') himself was. conclusion that the author was a p-aganisric cleric: with Irish connexions. s . but as. Fionn was turning the fish over' m. I do not: dispute this. named Delmne."S daughter. If Of' WnUams".. or demi . Dr.the pan he burned his.I seventh-century gl~ne~]o. scholar. Fionn '5011 of Maime.. I soon realized that here again.in. as in the C4. an established variant of Fearn" the alder Gwion is thus.ch had. Owein ap Urien Gwallag ap Laena-:g...( I- North. be. educated feUow-poet to guess.' for "Talieain" 'to make it qulte clear that I' am not confusing the miraculous child Tallesin of 'the' Roman. Fre'nch.. which he put into his 'mouth and so received the .salmon fished from a de.otation from .eifye(Deirans) as often as he calls them 'Saxons:'. denial that ther-e is ~anY'mystldsm. quarrel)~ He went with Rhun in the first campaign against the men of the 74 me 75 . which he hild somehow contrived to learn. the Irish hero of a similar tale. first.lidir (Heliodorus) Mwynfawr~ and the aven. accidentally lighted on certain.. was.ng in a dru~eD. clairoing oracular powers as a spiritual :1. emi. Dr.orward court bard of the skaldle sort. the occasion of which was the kUling of E. the greatest living' 3UmO'r1tY' on the text of the Taliesin PO.00 of the Alder-god Bran. Gwion took the name ..' 01"' '~D.CB of Talles-in with historic Taliesin of the late sixth 'century.. Kin. and the High King Rhun. As a..zi. a group of whose authentic poems is contained. hut must dispute his. Welsh and English". thumb. began to despise' the professional bards. ina 'qu. Pnnces.complimentary poems (Urien ap C'y~lvarch.'. more at home 'with the earlierTaliesin who was a straight .. valent (gw for f) of Fionn. English 'Eingl. invested him with poetic.."PI Early W. as L hi ne imsei1£-'! -.I w1eU. he was well read 'also in the Irish classics-and in Greek and Hebrew literature too. close of the Period of the .others"to which Rhun retaliated with a full. riddle the new Gwydio.logical This. or Finn. Gwion son of Gwreang' is itself probably a pseudonym... as stated .gjng raid of Clydno Eiddin. ot his time becausethey did not understand the rudiments of their traditional poetic lore. conceal in his. o/Hergest. buffoonery.. R~ading the poem with care.Is/.r!uzwr fpt~f~ Yn EJ.explained as foUows: 'me and Taliesin is just showing off. not' the baptismal name of the author' of the Homance. TaUesin humorously boasted himself omniscient. PQ. I: already suspected that GWiOD was using the Dog. of no Importance..ee'k poet might have taken the' name of'Homer.GWION'S R. was the role he had to play. or his.s...the: equi ..ep pool of the' River Boyne. For the salmon VIaS a salmon of kn. I here use the name cGwion. Gwiqn was.] turned again to the Hanes Ta/i.3 most suitable father for Gwlon.owledge" that bad fed O.'. but that someone who styled himself Little Gwion. f But the point of the Romance to me is not that a pseudo . Freann. instructed by a Druid of the same name as himself to cook for him I. The hero Cuchulain.gy of the Saxon Kings" as '~teno'wned in British poetry'.. Le'Ctur:es .. and forbidden to taste 'it. I realized too" that he was hiding an ancient religious mystery-s-a blasphemous one from the Church's point of vJ:ew unde'r·.. Hi! adoption of a pseudonym W1JSI justified by tradition. this secret a~togetheriD1:possible fo·r. the Romance" knew only 'Latin. coming an adept. ('hound of C:ula'in.. In his. the Lapwin. he wrote . power.and the Welsh 'Brython' not I'Cytlll"f'iI 'Gwion' wrote about six centuries later" at the.d G-oa-Jeu.'rry... Chapter Five . GWiOD is. Caerelnion. a Chief Druid. in the poems that the whole rigmarole can be easily' . for by this time' he .~C!aJDlS: hen with this complleated mymo. Proclaimlng himself a master-poet.

ership of the. and for severalsuccessive years.entu~a~_yenou~. called G..e llQTlil.. and pr.nev.ere's'fatbet'-his name.ia. A in Taliesin andaccounts for the finding of the Divine Child in the weir· near Aberdovey rather wan anywhere leis! . the waves br-eaking 'thenin·~ld... Gwyddno. But .I. as: it were... merito'ri.fferen~j perhaps they 'speak by means of fanatic: and ignorant' spirits .. theson of 'U'rien.alsol'land I wiUgive thea blnd$ in free tenure. described :by GiraJdus Cambrensis. "I IT· . as the Irish poets 7' . . cult: of'a Hawthom-goddess. upon them in dreams. by violence corn . it were.H'ufI. byG"ryddno's.o. .a. have disguised the/it seeretsbya pretence.:: Theile are certain persons. to the ·estate glven to him 'by Gwyddno" taldng Elffin" the . in.OOli~cienoo~" Af~er'Arthl1rJs death he~tired.mas. 'the Ion of Uri. nor can they remember me replies they have given.iams.hip"1 'and with 'whicll he rowed the coracle un. mirth.. d wen..a~n" ui. in :a skin coracle. ~.. heJolt his hold Ion the shield. ladled 'Anthony Powel of Llwydarih'. And Gwion:'.~eMuse had beenhom. too. he: hecame' highly celebrated farpoetic. . '~eSln"-'t. time: between the courts of Urlen Rheged and.~nou~Rhun. of 'Cerridwen fro. have a SOil named Elffin.pter_ Nine.. David's). '. . whh Elffin. may indeed.. il..eson. the .nce6shmg .. dd c--- the son of Maelg91D Gwynedd. 'C'!1IlC.surviving wor:k of me the.. O:tteirls. - like Old Spamsb wo. when itwas .~.probably 'Gwi.Chief of the 'Bards" meson." said Gwyddn"o.explains. oa 1010 Morganwg"s. is the Latin.s: MS. foam. in a connected manner. authority. the 'camele stuck tO 'the pob1!t of I. under' ms. some seem to have sweet milk and bo'ney poured on their Ups. 'sylhble: (JCIM'. and.• These gjfts.n.Deme:t-H~ . he spent his.. and the cperations of the C:auldroD of Ceridwen.in pushed his coracle to the sea" and got into it himself. they are then roused from their ecstasy.D af Phomis.enyJdw1J of the twelfth centu~y. 'the son .on~ was. seized . for· a 'maQ-e: .o. Cauldron."I ~ :inv'oke" ey durln. Lord of C:eredigion.• and become.g their' prophecies true and living G. with. form of the original name of theplace. their pr10per senses A_iter having' ~nrswered the question they dOID. were at height: of their' drunken.court lof Urien Rheged~ at AberUychwr'.ttsea. tainedin the Romance' by suggesti~ that they are the . origin.tfte' confused state of the texts of the poems con . SOC1. 'They do not de]i~r the answer to what is required.Rheged.:"""'""'": ..g tbeypubHcly declare that the.opneI'5 are: found onlyamong those Britons ill I I me' . is ascribed. more than one . :Jf·consultedI second or 'third ti·me upon lame point. :ELrl. wJ6IUi: '. when. are rendered beside themselves ..~e t.. 'the old bush'.. . 0 f' C·'·". These 'pr. .... b ~ d ''1 au th . and 'the tu:tof'of Elffin.y have received this gift .cutiaEtio.others finley that a writtensd ule Is applied to their mouths" and on awakenin. 'be tho~u a. the 'Doctor' of Menevia (St.. in Cambria. whom you. TaHesin\.m 'which thaYlaid that the Trip.edit.n Me'M'u.el1.mfIYcd G"Yt".d. Ta'/ies'm 'SUP'POits.!S mother was IC'e'rrldwenherse'lf~ It is a" pity tbait one eaenoe be sure whether' the ascription of the romance manl% manusedpt print-ed by the WelsAMSS. ~protecdo'n~ It was fromrhis ac-count 'that Thomas"the son 0'£ . as from a deep sleep and.. 1'1' _i'fn unl'ln. possessed bY.·H"' . in her notes to the .deDlon. the land.uine mediaeval document" not an. bu.Ratname 1 OJ . which is given in tun in Lady Gu.Binion Offeirild. e o till er nonces 0:.Awdyl Yrtlitl1.e.ay that they may not by their 'sins be' prevented.is probably ~:te.Binion. formed his romance of The. 'incoherent though omamented speeches.wasknown as the Giant Ogyr Vr. He.td. which state he Icoftti:nu~d for .) complimentary reference to the See of St.lly . for the' poem Yr .tp O. mght.-ddno Gara:nhlr..gli:s. (Menevia. :210 that he' had no .him and his eorscle. toone "Thomas ap . g. SOW\. but while tbepirates.e' through Perrault's Fairy XCl/e~and was .S'Dn of that prine.eenth . of being possessed by 'spirits. and in that posi:donhe was found. descended from G.it ve . became overwhelmed by the sea) Taliesin waSI invited by the: Emper.of Arthur to hiscourtat ICaerUeon upon Usk.cf..-. TaU.ascertained that he was a bard. fishermen" by whom he' was interrogated. eaNr'1' poet c Ea. in thePen.1 which suggests '[he - Dr .Aw.eful.d.1 spirit. of Saint Henw:g: of C'a.~htu. I _ If this is Thill manuscript". are usually conferred. 'or people inspired. th • f' Lanestn ponte. ~ Aberdyvi.n:y doubtful event" they' roar out violently. as. ~ _ tu~. and many nugatory and.I.reads..I:" The terms were' accepted.erUeol1 upon U'sk) \V\U invitedt. the' desired e'xplanation conveyed in some turn. which G means. Lord of the Lowland Can'tred. f[lom finding the truth . Cha. paned to' return to. to Jonas Atbraw. 1 me 7' The AW(J)~yJdi\fJnJ the. they will make usc' of 'eJ<pres·lions totally di.of Cynvarcbl '1.gemus and u..e_n. dll: Gmcik. and bore him 'away towards Ireland. an Irish pirate shIp. entury c forgery" it refers. Ort'll4'jl 'the Latia God oi :meDead. T' 1·· '. tue son 0 f G'·' o~. this8lcription...I . the Holy Trinity.e'ty.-but the pers'on who skilfUiUy' obs'erves themwUl find" mfter many preambles.Qt 'recover until violently shaken b~' other 'peo'pLe.f'JJ MS. at: the ebb.b the word 'og. :1 descendant of Gruffydd Gwyr':.. populsr minstrels. when consulted upon.. tO a muddled tradition about the' sixth .-:..t. ofwo'rd.altemati've: but' tO he driven at iliff! 'mercy of the sea.. 'but afmr the territory of Gwyddl10 had.Jr Uergo" .til .persall:.ed by 'the bards with the invendo'Q of their art and with the lown. ~Bran the Malign' (oeur 1J~tm)"l has 3ppuentlygi'Vief:l :E.est. is to be trusted. T~l~' C . me who are descended from the Troians. baird and 'teacher tOI him. L --' a.Will. who lEveed the thirteenth Icen'tur'Y'.od" and. pole in the: weir· of Gwyddn. wIth a shield in his hand which he £oiund in the' :s. will tlndnowhere else" called AwenydJi'on.He.8 short time. David's concealed inth.. being' o.

'the suggestion in this poem. d -. mere chatt..~ . should be contended for by the consent of saints and in accordance with truth and privilege. '.. lor nine nmes seven years " " nAn' ···d'-uh·· a~~s ne ·dd . not for the: Irregular rhymesters. since then. and they may have induced these. and the contention! ~""IJi""".n.. 'lIt will have been observed that the Srslt poem ·Qf PhyHp Brydy. at any r-ate. as 'to who should first present a song to "Prince Rhys Ieuanc 0:0 Christmas Day. .. French. .-. after a battle..a:. Gas.Ol' anee -W)"tb ttuth-· an~ pnV1~ege. 'It win be observed that these po'ems supply a 'very interesting account of the points. reference to the much discussed Bledri of Giraldus Cambrensis..II 'long on Christmas Day at the court of Rhys Ieuane.I . ~ t" til con. :_.\ sented with gifts...dd Go. me hi" . tne eart· . .ton Paris.. This explanatien would also account fOf' the presence of simple.:6Q hard] could not be made' of a man without art" In a second p. Unfortunately a. been pubHshed. identified him with the Breri. t. where the contentions of Maelgwn bad been held by means of the songs.. ecstasies. th .. exceedingly difficidt to make out with certainty the meaning of the poem" but the bardseems to lament. The bard says mat. Large part of the' original material seems tal be lost.~\7. and the .. violent upheaval of judgement" the muse shall not cease from deserving . the poet'il patron.en to Gwynedd.. ~c "The evidence of'thls poem is ..es... We are further told by Phylip that the' Chid. 1t'. ._"h_lw::. for man to destroy the p1rivilege of the gift of God. .elr ~ untruth shall overcome trutb.... Thecontext of the thirteenth-century version of the Romance can be reconstructed from what G'W)111nones has 'written ofPhylip Brydydd of J LlanbadarnFawr and.. of bards.i heed 'to the' contention of the bards and the rhymesters. '~ .. and the speech of strangers. and that a man without art..•.ore tne _' O'U. therefore. and.ga . anee of EIffin in the contenrions of Mael..greement wi.ra~ther'than to become an 'ermid'.. ~"th· gh. .m. '. It .. wuue th e sun . A Penkerdd [privne'~L l'. numerous foolish tales' had come to Gwynedd---ev..rirregular song..:..appear . then his desert should have been to receive Hquor'. .a.g of the officbll or tradirlonal bards is claimed to be'the gift of God.I'!lO~'~::~ I 7')' .'"-:-. the rhymesters were allowed to tender .··fi"· .h .g of TaUesilil "'"'i. the relaxation or abandonment of the ancient custom lof the court of the house of T ewdwr [afterwards the. dges IG~: d·et·'t de ~:b-l'·-"gL~ -.. " ""'.lI . Phylip describes as broken and irregular.·. :.. He laments the fall of the o...a. by this.L I ..of Mae'lgwn H'ir are' 'set up as standards. bards. c. . remam In thei ore' I."a ~Q. we have one of the men who re. . in Sprite of all this. and describes. of me' house of Tewdwr" 'is as·k~dto pay 78. through the songs of false bards whose grammar was bad and who had 'p. it is they who. or the gift of 'God shall cease' i... .@. The proba~bilityis 'that.I foolish tale me Ii "...' . The bard also mentions a. his day were deserved. as it were" to die in the last ditch.a litde before our time"."' unless n -.' iddri b fu .e. in this Bledri....the VUlI bards t :elr vain ce l~tl! ~" om u gar . which makes a confident restoration of the remainder diffi·cult. 1! d mentions a B··1 nw wo refused to acsnowie d.rI"' mm . truth.el."ei.d d· • '11 thai -'. I interpret the extremely co. who would not have-given him his due.. cant~ ""'was 2tseu new. •.' ".J fr. and where f~equen.. fighttn.gwn is referred to. an d_ moon..none is so far available. it.. ..are recorded."the ancient song of Taliesin' whi~. that those . na 11y.' _]I].. the' author of the French poem of Tristan. and that if that chair in.. doubtless asa precaution against their being denounced as heretical by some Church' officer'.. so long ago as 1819'.gwn ffir was meant for bards. as. by toadstool eating.. . '.ffia!of the. Slgnl.ly to' him the epithet tWyll i . a. the vices of women.ering had caused long unpleasantness. dull religious pieces in the medley-plausible' .. vulgar rhymesters.. .. . . .tly he had himself been pr. '". he means that they Inherited their traditions not fro'm me Cymry but frorn the earlier inhabitants of Wales whom the Cyrnry disposaessed. and Wh ose __eic own song'..not improbable that we have here 2. I ne p.oem. his own song as. to whom 'Thomas. s . It is alleged that speech of strangers.certain Bleiddriw..6UO'WD Ul.. have been deliberately confused. ~"'. . of contention.n.z. j .'U·tfJtrl".:1 .g for the privilege 0'£ the true gift of poesy • We: observe that. he says· and this is II... uth. so' assisted their p·assage into other languages. but C. r. the vices of women and many .. time.'.guarantees of orthodoxy. -. .. standards were believed to have been regulated in a. ~:~e . of false' bards whose grammar' was faulty. If praise 'were the pledge of bravery..extremely valU'able"ils 'it s:ho:wI us conelusively that. as.as hac vln:g--1..J:" in a lOW1' grave In. .. '.&1. compared with the untruth of the newer :Iong. . where formerly..problem wiU be simpler. thaths essence was. But that the Awenyddion. b ] . We see that the' SOrn.Brydydd wasprepared...1. When an authoritative version of the' text and an authoritative English translation has.. I'"~ . :shaUbe disgraced in the contention: He will remove . English House of Tudor]..at famous dealer in fables" who ~ived.. . Angar Cyvyndaw d and all the other strange: po'ems of the BtJD'lc of'TaliBsm medley read like nonsense only because the texts. the were' descended from the' Trojans is an important statement of Gerald's. It is. to have dcne by huffbonery. probably .courf.rJJ yspyddeiJ.'0.o honour" Phylip solemnly states that it is not.pndiJ· [S~I perverter of poetic practice]. h b i£: b 6" . 1 in had come 110' Gwynedd! [North Wales].'led to was the author' of a broken o.mpresled syntax' of the' poem._"_ . _ cited Welsb stories in..."'. ofMael. tendons were Dot open to the lower order... and that PhyUp .._. ." L!e ai""know-"-~ '-u _-.. and. could not become a Penserdd...dd " ." d' 1 recogmno." -' 'l.th the will ofand" 1ILn.~ .is." . the: lower order of bards had won fo.uJ.r themselves the privilege cf'appearingat a Welsh . is 'that the person .£'.referJ.n end.ddeu:. none were without recompense. else I should have used it.and of being allowed to compete with the members 'Of the closer corporation. the poem which he mentions his contention "With the !J. well as to app. and seems to imply that this person was guilty of'versifying untruth. We 'see that the SOl1.

.igin is Mil hIoll*L l A.!nowIl".of wbi. .t"~ Ii! m.n tAs lali'~fLrleiflr . by G'ira1dus. died .inttJ t~ IJsPtA. ~.. IIV_' "".r wir" Mr. were prolhibited fr.itJ.of Ta1iesin. ea6em.1 C2 6f.. the privileged class of IC:ymnc f~eemen from..riginal'.wenKing Mael. In me' ROltJalUl of'T(di81in we have the '~nDryfrom the: side of 'me mins. and pro-...' J Aave IlJemlopa.: ~ 'i."01I.s.'s.pyn.WIJ'1UI8.lJrain.J~.oiehe . 'that IGwion.lrPel.ted that the court~.. of Ariatlrkoti.ft:'B'tiwlitii '8p"~""'. minstrel baasts that 'the Chair u rightly his: he.ine' S"irit] to lAs' ..!on: Alex.d anywhere in 'Wales and whol inslm. bards bad forgotten the meaning of me poetry that .rmti/tAs' M3ofJtJ'Om on Mil ftK'i DftM 164" •• 1 . " II I nG11lJ' 60"'.~irA .As Wlti'£eHill. .$tfJclt..". the '(traditional bani.ur!.71.c·n in hls Sa )0' 'I" .tlr:th ••• 'Ij it . lan1d (Jftl£e' DeilY" l AaJl. wlle_n .EI . wery Icinf will.a IJay anGld:. "'.mI110 E1p4iD" AIIJ stY (J.~e II"" fosI"6.r.1M lUgMSilt splls"e. It.hylip"s.epenoD mentioned.ctmtliJaU'jQF iClIIW" to IJ. Gil .m Cammn.1.... I A"V. __t' then could. and :minl'tre~s into his principality in 'tile learly twelfth . Eor the: g'ovemroen't IDf m!· :and mu:s~icj3.A~./w piau oftAe cfucijizio..ofC""iJwm. eormpted IGVfYDedd is U~ely 'to have been Irish: for plrince: Gruffudd ap Kynan" a gifted. Rllys.']11 6. gressive prince educated in.'IJN m ..call me T ali.DS wa1: revived at the: Caerwys Eis. I .tass" at anymte'" widt d.about I :1CO'~.rili AI any 'rate" this is the: lorny case known to me in W 'h of 'a cOD'lempor: .oeD'N'ry.eanil1g . is the Hanes TIl/ie8m ridd'le in Lady Charlotte Gues. 1 . 'the faet sriU remains that he was./.ting mmag.:nlbvenarrative an·. lollke Vrrgin.'Y MCWdrJen.am.J.e spknJi4. not IDy poet Df Pbylip Brydydd's merely academic attainment..r "IlIr:s" /tbwl fl:lulHeiAin . be the m.en B"~..A m sQ.l.-JI G···· _.tM ./"./4~e /J". J was ttl .pmise o.&.ill. /. in.Jer.. I Aavl' 1J1J'Bft.'1' I 'KIllS' ...II til tIJW' . 'whicl1 'me: court-bards wel'e chosen. For .tJin.p B.12 .'tJPBJ!'._m 'W'iG !::_'OIlflJ"fIR. ' J am.matenal.IOur' means 'that be did not belong to.. I .w'p.tntJ:t rAe' wlw. i8ArdlIJe ..tlze ~ft.lli. /.III This 'UDprivDe.poems of 'the court-buds dlmnsclves..swi'tA. tJ :1. J w.o/rlae' w'O:rR O!.Nf:j1lAin rM' . ' ary reference to a Bledri co'rre-spoi.rAeji:rmam'II.COzmrty is regio".1Me" 6:.J I c'o1l1lteyeJ Awen [tAe D. .. my LorJ. / Aave'6e'en.extr. ~ftSlIRWB. said to have flourished! betlVeeft I zoo and 11.ersi·'which'J PhyHpl complains" hu. in'~oduced I:rish bards. had.ebasmg tile: poetic diction .·_ E'·I'· J' z:.do.t upon this .NOI. /.J'Mo.B'IU: I would base no argumen.slflii.crope. !OJ.]".ls.'_cI. Little 'Gwion ans. for c..tre'1"but an . l(JfGwyJiD.leI ICD.c: en~Qined to ce1ebmte the . m d8 "'(1. 20 ThrDughout the poems the same sco.cu.seSr' tAro"./'e . '~.. .ftAl 1J:Je l~fHelJ.'(JurlafQynveiyn.eis remarkably:and m'tentiondly .m . who had studied abroad among' men of greater leamin_g'thao were tO be :foWl.possib.t Ie".mful theme is. !! .rohably Phylip'was born before: This brin.. in .f. O..g un:trum the 'subject of poetry.50.'otlS.1L I AaJ.117.u Ieuane. and 'of 'the'contents olf the ..6&116' heela. Am I. is the true heir' .. the tale of GwiOD and C'erridwen . his patron.fUII now ~tJ:meAs" 11f) .. InJitJ wAlen Roma' WlU iJuiltj J.tefleAer' IrtJ all inr. the same B:led.. fin. a Considering the word in the' light of . of I.q" welle God.. to Lls'o" ~fLo&lJin.laeSQn. I gr.Arfc" I. .lzl'toW6" of Nim'lJ.1 ()fD8n.tile'y practised.N oftAe mercifiJ S.gltJ:r .no' La'tl.Js in .a:~ehaic.r.of song..g~.starsflom M. Ireland. .A6:8t1lom' was . 6Bfora tile 'irM. jl III .I"f:!' _. Dot fromIreland itseLf.A. His careful :regula.epithetical verse .trI. G 'I~2. J . in..ged.tAe '~£Jterof }orlt!tm. in " I'D d- .ordinarUy gifted mins:tftd.R'.iful6.'lioDl.' lsUrmgrMRB." 011 'M GJaxy lit rAe 'krone a{de Disrrilum.tJ' lite mUS.Ie to Uu.CftDlI"j ~D. he was and whence he came:' tD 'tell 'aUow Qf the possibility of 'their both referring to. .of the 'bards and '1vlili 'makin.ave 6'I'eNt4'rra'pt~rio.nding' 1:-0 m. RtUnU .1 I submit tha't it simply means tales 'of imagination. them sufficiently near entourage. .t's translatio1n.clI/ltulms Me"titlin.s arul/etlBrs I _'I' 'I!il~eti 'rmcerfo. ." QS':..O.'t derived bls superior knowledleii 'G:ruffudd also had No!nem.fl fl0:m rile CaulilrQn .l ~ .' • himself died.IDI__-_ il\llIIIa. In it.trang. e 'Codes.r IClJ'm"S fill . /e M'tRe8S'··J-ltID.6«rtI'QflAe Izar.20"• p.hOD.I' P.re4 in ./'e 1.P'rUnary ~1Ua1"Jll'ltll. Howiever. As. Go I.. .om wri.rydydd is.e &Uft..le ideDa:~1I If' the B"leiddri of Pbylip"s poem be another Bleiddr~.r good men.fs. may' ba've been from this Irish liteJary Ic=olony.~o'r represeOtiitloin.""-OR.Pbyli. finaUy.. mntury'. rois ..esi&. m:stl1l." .( I _lVCU' fIU.~J5 told in terms of 'sixth-century" Dot thirteentb .le Uftil"I'lile.remnant o:fTtoia..niw tJ:!...of untruthas tho :subject . km wirj...e'J 111(:1118fJ.. winglu/'6y fM' .teddfod in I:" 3.in 80111( AvaunrJlyou . 11. The official bards.ch the :styl._.~' been in Asia . and d)al: PbyLip.i' !J.ctrJ'r .tlte cAkfJi:.A. and of brave a. in . in. GE.. charged his c.pressed. complaint that Ius lopponent B]eiddri had DO' '. . Here. regardedas being of the lower order of barids:. "The speech lo.e.'.' WM" GI.' . haldus. questiDn!1 as who.ounesy"s sake.UCIl.t This they did" as we' have seen. /J'M . bistlory.

Where did tl:tisbattle take 82 them I 'saw columns of fire falU:ng.tJ..ol 83 II '•• ' And I saw a deep abyss and columns of heavenly fine. is nQ.And it.terley" Boxand other Biblical .NilSi.agree with Charles..one..of the VLkings' war' I.a'1.1eXv. aedthat Uriel Instructed Enoch ~olnthe fa'll of Lu.' I WaG origi"al?y liltle Gwwn.f.t.a sort of acrostic composed . James) was the hyst person ever to adore the: child Jesus:t the p. .lmow. Similarly.my6oJy isflaIJ. . 'Whol did Iconvey the Divine Spbit to' Hebron? "" I]". the.g.nwa~r..e:fusing ·to be lur-ed :Iway frt)'m the secret by his apparently nonsensical utteranees. _ . She is men .riddle as: "I s:ttengthened Moses..gh the water of] ordan to thelevel of the vale of Hehron.g to the Prato .. had already been bold enough to cr. the Centurion.(J!.I am Talilsin • • "(g' The deceitful c. and Hur.g the Ibn ~f pee. 'place a:ndwh(J werethe itren.p'le presentat the Cruclfixlon. I hadalready found it: .. R.' fisk. Andtbe answer was:' ".In . I J .ome . and XIX.iiJstrengthen Mosesr And wher-e was. I happened to have been.? Iremembe:r. in the land of the D'Eity·'.ainmenf£sr Or did be find! a comp'lete G'reek manusc=ript in the library of some Irish abbey that had escaped. I could regard the poem :as. crossed into the . that Lucifer's faU had been recordedby the prophet Isaiah centuries before the time of Alexander the 'Grea.she did with the torn shreds of the fruit . to sort out and re- Whe-re did Gwion6nd. (accof. and in II .e answer was:: '$.ns Fromme BOjo" ofE'ntJcn in the Epis t. defile man'kind and lead them allmy in.. 'II have beenwithMsry . and of aD '~~d Children of Israel who had come with him into the 'wilde'mess out of the house of bondage.gmentl of the Greek BoDle of EnDck q~!oted by the ninth .CUl hope to understandthe Sa_ "'.' _.rypha but . granted it by Joshua as his Inheritance.cifer into the depth of hell' ~A curious hisrtorical point is that the verse about U riel':s. TAln J' wufor .ed O.uotatio. I be.-:J were beyond measure alike upw.rime witness of his parthenogenesis.) I . But mst I had. .thu.I'""Who did passthreugh Jordan water when· Moses was forhid .. It was Caleb who seized Hebron f~Dmthe Anakim on behalf oftbe' God of Israe[ and was.Dysmas the good thief.lIslle . close tOI the M'OWlt of .only action recorded le~tlz.udsan. apparently. As 'spies ·they..ry of the Lapwing! Gwion was not s'o igno:rant: ofsacred his..---. belong to this ridd]e'. reading me: book and knew that the answerwa "Uriel". Yeronica.gan my unravelling: of the puzzle' by answeri'ng the {oUowing quf!ltions: Line I I.St:. of""" Aag C'ariJwe'R. the ether sid:eof JQl"'~ln-. and his most faithful follower. nor' in the .i t.q.me: 'Here :shaUstand the angell who have lainwjtll women andwhos€: splrits..!I! which is the only 've~sio'nwhich we know to have been extant 'in the thirteenth centuij'~ I could advance a little further into the 'iliicke:r. 1l:'angrlli'lll'n e of St..aryMagdalene' at the . tioned in Ma. was harboured.'__ _'Who instructed E.~' I feh confident that 1 would prelendyca~cb a gl.u. . So: ~I was with M.tcJ<ty as be 'pretended. Oes. ' And the~l' 'must be C:aleb. 1 SOil could recompo'se the . mat. conveyed the Divine Spirit throll.ellus.gainlt boou? The pa.of 'tWenty or thirty 'riddles.c-. Mary Cleo'pas" Mary Magdalene· •• Bu"t I h~~ not overlooked tile' woman who.d'IIi' And Urie] sald to .tn..OS8 and recross the river. £ury .wft wAe. ·of Cyrene" St. and anlDlli . XVIll~ . the Virgin Mary. not included in the lra.ProinnJ. Bod oj Eno&:4... century Byzantine historian Sync.pwing had mixed them up. (1.. Magdalene" had to he separated from the l1lisleadjl1\~~inthe' firmament' andthe otherparr of the riddle looked for in another' verse.passage in the Cd-II G ~'u.en'gthm·ing. nobody' . 'Wbo did instmct E'nocb? '" 10..j' '_c _ the Ethiopian translation of an elIHe: IGreek te%t. scholars that. If the same trick.eth hissepulcbre to this day'.God"and tbes'tre~gdlenetS were Aar of1.Land.u.ls .d dow.thenenlpl It took place at JebOvah'R.11 And lit' 0.' WfJtnlJ.t. Burkitt.Boolc of Enoc:lI.by studyin.ed. a_nd Joshua.MS.t. d. .din.by two companions. each of them requiring.. 'what the combined msw1ers speIt out -prom~ ilsed to be asecret worth d!scovering.: St.: he must have known perfectly wen that 'Moses never crossed the Jordan. Jutle. who . Simon.. Now" acto!rding to the Pentateuch" Moses dj. the story?1 Was:a knowledge ofEmiopilft among this at.gsof Jesus who has not rud "the.809).ed that .t. -. J ohb the Apostle.. by having hi:s bands held up .intbeFI. Sd I realbed that 'the Dog had torn the' whole poem into shreds with his teeth and that the witty La. is the .1's. den to do so.D Plsgab on.khmim in E..Moses was strengthened at the close of his bame·witb the Amalekites.ate solution.Caleb. omitted fro'm the canon of the Apace. Who did. Atter'the 'misleading 'through thewater of Jordan' bad been removed from line 2'5" "I strengthened Mo. nor in the 'Varican. in line 20"..'no!ch~(Eli does 'not." of him in the Pentateuch.attend the CnlcifixionP " z.'sel'remainect Well.closely studied by the primitive Chds:tians.8" J:" runs: - assemhle the: individual riddles. assuming :many different forms.i. as standing beside Mary Magdalene'..instruction of Enoch is.Be'pu.eam of wbite through the tangled thicket where the Roebuck. The: original statement wall: "1. Mary Magdalene was never in the Firma . only two " . St..placeof the 'Crucifixion of the merciful Son of God" ' -Th.y tn01!tns . as. Gestasthe bad th'it!f. It occurs on~yin the t-ext dug UPI at A. misleadingly. ment.this !!ur. .Aaron a:nd Hur" If lonly one name was needled" it would probably 'be:Hur because this.gypt in 1886. bad been playeii with every Hne of the Han" Talies.' . 'na man.

~. I rttl:I_Ul. ·~ . Enoch.. befriended beth Mosesanid Alexander c:a.•~ 'I' wacs ..ev!er-young pro. to the flying serpents that a. or.a_ndZeus were brought up hys:hepherds.Asi. '..·· _- I . Huan and Blodeuwedd was transformedintcan oiwl and called 'TWyU Huan ('the dee.t"·.tern conqu~sts:.odeuwedd. recognizes R:olmulus.I's world he: had behaved. rhea in G.vl!!nus another clue':'"When Renna." -~ .p. The ]~gendl ot.:.O~'..CretanZet:ls!!Romulus"s. Llew's other' name W.t Zeus. and met i'creatul·es.laxy-' "-. mother of Romulus.the expenseof'a.Wl_~. to line 7: -.1' I' -_- i'l1_- II I I The wife ofHuan ap Daft was a pa.efishcl •• .s:palling'" inwhich I imagine GWiOD bad readme 'S. a." _.Ilil.tory.Qt lOS a. or .. shan become Sirens. a banner borne before Alexander was equally a banner berne hefore 'MDses~.elf bow I .hornep'..' bit..~ ~~. .efea.. IJ it is de.BarnaiJ'ru. Christ • Barnabas emphasizes. order to coneeal their' birth" SOl hadtm Rbea in the c. from.niel which prom. - I I same clr.rom ._ . S· I·· now eo·nvmceUU1ii.. no other shall see as far as I .~''I. foster--bmther Go.J JoAn. _-'.r-etan 'with:1 Roman .of Alextnder' ~ [oke at'.eiving of Huan') for having caused Llew's death: the' Welsh for owl being tyOu..ppearl in the KoraN as Dc 1 Kamain.ot!l!'wonders .lU:SI nnea 0 f Crete: spouted :abundantly into the: .y his . debates whether to can her Juno or Op.. lime two ..er of'th.tuagint . He .mor:e'probably m..I r~inQmltio.g the' poems attributedto Taliesin in the .. But: .ereferen. Th-" e .reek" that was.. laciting the Temple but :bowed down. some :Ia.'" and in A'illbirm 1 . 1 go~.It should be remembered 'that.Illexanie'r. mother '\VaS :a1S01 named Rhea.a.:: .crull'· I' .I was to PailS. I 'This discovery took me a stage fUrther'. Rh IS Sal.~'_:' " '\V..e:phus. was: 'I have been.-.R6ElB(Jo/( ofHel'gest is.euwedd and! th. So' the answer of thiSI f m riddle is "NehuI. .' also C'tw. meiltoUl" had already-made a poetic identificadon of Alexllnder'.en'r.Alexander by :show~' ing 'him 'the prophecy in the Boo.nlS.. 'I Latin deity of the' same :reJigiou.- .r h. forced to wean her twins in.._. in 'the . The case is this:. scribed 61 a 'seraph".. h d I.a.ding !tt. ~ answeris Rhea. .s (Wealth)~Gwion has CQ·nsiderately g.'..a fragment called Y Gofeisws Bytl('A Sketch of the W orJd') which contains a short pa..een I"n UI~' Il!.negyric of the' historical Alexa. . a cost. wjlen tne m1. l OOss:. and adored the. wapber~H'yg. w AD R' __~_~_.__. mamen .m. p' ~1.' .' The Galaxy.'~'~~ .' a '. XII. · ..1: I~~ h~ . A. If it must be taken IimaUy I should perhaps have guessed the ans:wer tO be ~.~ 'Reel.. thJrt-eenth-century' Spanish. honoured him with dffiee.htall'ft.perly belonging to' the 'm~ of M.t Pan. an'.and what is more surprising.ccordin.I have borne a .uished lineag-eamong dl.' The High Priest then furthe.g . me 5 1 . riddle I had to . :1..or. IIl~ 14' and. . . Romulus and Remus bad a she-waIf for their fOister . . Wftrefo'Ie..mi"gb! conquer' . "The N.__ wh .s. The' plDphe. Isaiab... . of dis... But since the G'reat G'." d'_:.WIlJL I d' my armies o ~~am to vict. and he ~ent. de'bating with mrs. on the GalUYil Gwion had been anticipat-ed by Nenmus in giving more: importance to Rhea.oddess'• name varies from . :21. a'. ' .. tool" 'was suckled by the she-goat Amaldtea.t 'the' Persians.. ~ And.inus" for lexample. the .Brazen Serpent in the GOfpel AcclJ'f.mon l-armeruoilIJife_l d w h 'y'ln u"e '.ex.:-'. He illcorrecdy idendfying II C. .~_~ .Blod.cy :f.he raised!up to avert the plsgue in the w:i1dem. ~L~ ~e'DV·W:1IS ~th· me d !'U ~el:~· . conjured by Gwydion tO he' the' bride of Llew Llaw Gyiles.- . and if she had uo. 'N.ce WUI to Aleaander 'BS .Riles herself but the spurt of hermilk.I.n "A1lexanderll .erUn~whiclI tells .BiOth Romulus .anct St~ JerOfTle" 0'[' his Jewish..other' bards a! MaeJgwyn"s court would have.ubLe with her milkwhenshe was. to demons: here shall they stand until the Day of Judgement. :aloine saw' this. .ess: 'poems. notadere the·Hig~ Priest himself but the' God who has.' But neitb.·w_~.hef' . In... visvbJ'Q of the end of aU. Zeus (and." Amon.. romance ascribing tD' Alexander' adventures p~o:. . the apocryphal El'utis'o/.-' . The n.sky after me: birth of the infan.t the me · .o'tller..o-b9rned. though it was Dot ..of . ~ e..alaxy occurs in the PeniarJdMSS.IS.god .·. ". 'w.1' .hicb. unkJngly way".Nwn/.lJiD~me G" .at DO'. dUierence was that. En this. horns 'with those of Moses" I The banner of Moses waSI 'INehnshtan"..isGod would march before me and help me tO d. !mown concemsB1.. when Aleu_nder'mme to Jarullllem at the outset of' hi$. ..: '1 have 'G . 'me DOt to delay.er' of 'making alive...banner before Alexander.mdt:. baldly "Wim my army acress the narrow lea. t.' ._ a..----. as still others say" by a white: so'W..u. '----.ton' the 'G--.place of two seas".j is a typeal' J-us.Neopro. on the Galaxy.ppeated 'in his visioD lathe a. :m the firmament. 'the sea. " '"d' ~ d h th·'1:1I~ f''''':t. 'things.grs] XXI. who was one' of Alexander's b'odyg:tlard and the :firsJt _man 'to seale the walls of Giza 'lit the Ilsttauit.es" and2G.rty to the killin.moc'kingiy how he went beneath... .mytbograpber to mytbo ... this..f Da..n. was built . Eas.her' husband. cDmb~ni!don of Un..system IS. name given by.·1'·Il'-".e G.. . whose hide he afterwards wore as.. Alexander' . up to the 'Temple:.. fo..'. as..salVia..gener'ouspeace~treaty'wi)th the: Jewish 'oation.i!!e~ the Cross and had the pow. S _-.:. . S.~. former Sun-hero of Sinai.. to h ave bee neen s: I'OnDe_. - - " ~ . Tetragrarmnaton on the HighPriest':s Id fi "'H·-·· asto. and this man eiborted. a "wartder"'o.nendan!s ·Qf the Living God and flew to him with a live coal f!lom the altar..renQJiuraged .n of Moses.other AnrAyfldd(Jna:u. Jehavsll and made :0.demonolatry andsaaUicing. sacrificed to.riddle!is purposely'misleading" The: D'illy legend about the Galaxy that Helnin andthe ...lemul'. that Se-rpe n't 'bung' OD a wooden thing'. Moseswas.nder" and I aD.ess!! 'W1len he did so he became a..y." .L·:CIi. tured himself on his IOO'inS with rna homs. m my~ream I' was '.eferr-edtO Alexa_nder as the ~twDh'ornedKing:~ ano be subsequently pic .lvDlky Way.. dressed exa ~ 1y as t'l[)'.-.. the women wbom 'they seduced.Greek Sep.' that I fU\W this veryper.fc tJ. wber-eas. m M . gave mea clue to the: riddle.i-~e·J~compa. holy queen' TItis .tUmstanices~ The main. i~e.ff~of-evil..am:wered: cI did. 'than the Classical mytho~ogists had done: N enni'us called her ~memost.. SOl.nd eEl .oms ·WS--·b~..g to Jos. he :rQfrained.~Esdlan'_.' - ~ - l .o!nbet..Bo'D in a dream..' or'. . the 'Brazen Serpent.n. ·fieat G:-' dde ····~. .-' b .ised him the dominion of the East. To the learned Gwion.

it!! For Bran W31. as a.e ' " '1 have been on the.my head .in line i :2i~h was 1 "with my Lord in the manger of the Ass' ?IW as the answer swaddli:n g clothes':!' Then soraeoeeeelled my attention to the 'text of Lulc" II" _. Olwen. the: Cymry fro. quarrelsome ecclesiastical Hfe (r 14"~I :I13) incampaigns to make the See of St.heaven.:. while: Joah fought the Batde of the Wood 'of Ephraim .ranlis . the:sentencereads iUS. Who. B:ut King Henry II and his '(1Nosons saw to ittha.d tales :after the manner of the 'Gr'e6. the cetesd. the :answer 1- m.S'fJitfjA.rding to Nenmus:" Si.". the King of Gwynedd" traversed .oMlouth and others" .of London of tame ravens. Mszyan. 'ilIt'i1e Tower' ..el~rdif:dhythe pfrison. . was clearly 'David"...?I' The~n~swe:r\V3!1 ~Babel'. in the COltrt of Cynvelyn (CymbeUn. 'With haste and fOUl1d Mary and Joseph and the babe lyin'gin a manger. riddle" that no IGreek" Egyptian.ge'bettul Gemblas:ensls. evidently 'Joseph"'. ~Vron' or "Bran. Gomorrah? Lo't'.' ('And St.and ~aid that~e"hld goneto hunt away from home. IGeoffrey of M.nl.1. later t-o join them were me: Cymry" They cherished the notion that they were descended from Gomer. from thesentence "my ". lug.D .this. It mould be added that the form Caer Gwydion"" jnstes.W1lS 'the chief director' of the work of the tDwer of Nimrod":' I saw' that the.itd!.~teway he heard -the news of .of the starSI from.' 'Gwion·1V3S beiqg mirchievous: HteraUy:. of Brhain mentioned In the Triads.u-ow. Lapwin.. me .m the East" With his plough . are [.. C I at Llydaw in North Britain. Thus the Britons :formerly trea." The answer was tGomel"'".lc~pe:nd. where be found it.. David!ls" Gwion has oomhiaed 'thiSI state. line 2. at 'T()me9 :in Devon in the year' 1'074 D...jCII'~I09 years after' the accepted date 'Of the.elsb Arehbishop."" AccQ. Davidl' aswe Royal Weh:h Fusillers loyally add to all our toasts on March 1St. 8tones" O.oontudes. . rench churchmen were appointed. were all to:gether ~.s the myth to he a late one. The. In compliment 'to the See of St.g was at her tricks again. In requital for the injury that she had done he turned the young wife: inroa bird.f. and at last :m~de Caer G-wydioR. track by which to' seek hissoul in. had run in.order 'to k'eep.f'w. north. Arabic'" orBabylonian 'atStronomerwas. Gower's line~ on 'the:incotl'Venie.t lJi'm rylJ [tiles] AI1:J Nimrria. by me: genius of the splendid crozier'.'. the Court arDon -beiore' me: birth of G'WYdion'.rding 'to the Tr.son Df Aeneas 'landed with the remnants of the T'rojans. .oo-Blodeu:weddwitb her white tl.aUcountries in searchof him. India and Asia (line 20) and "am now come here to the remnant .seemed to belong to .a]counterp:art of Olw.? I guased'Hu Gada.gratification ofa poor.rcll from English domination. death.t:U led. bm.. 'Of the work on 'what: lower "\Val Nimrod the.1have' been in. White Hill. the manger:. the West) which . The question :really r.a son of'Don (Danu) long before the coming of the Belgie Gwydion".ne c:allg~for \Vho. gested one of the Three Happy Astronom'B~s. -w.s.!Ze there~ a variant of the . in line 20':. and had wandered.) One of the chief aims of Prince Llewelyn and the other Welsh patriots OIf Gwion's day was to free their C. Canaaoite refuge-city of Mahaaaim. m:ven. David's independent of Canterbnry and to fill it wim II W.erenee~111ere is ev~n. There in the .was. King David had crossed over Jordan to. omculu' h. in line 1.ted their storIes . intended. son of Japhet.a legrend 'that dlese~ .d the: child. divided and distant principality. so GlV)'dion 'was ri.Absalom!!'.after' his deatrl.an.yolUtl Lm'll/lt. lii. So: '.Rhea 'with her white track of stars was.e (Ceylon~ee Triad 54) by' way of Asia .t ol.chief' dir'l!cto.ks. Fall of Troy. whose head.s~ce thatwas .eg:uB$ began.1" witnessed the destruction of Sodom ana.S).them in memory..thurex . I~I know tb~names .ooOlllnt for' .£'o. when the misleading 'inA:si.&' CkflmpitJ'Im" H~' ragd'i11lce a. 'A people who came lover Mor Taweh (the North Sea) some seven . Who'l in. . and she fled f:romher' fath. and the alleged head of Adam was.ia. Blodeuwedd (as shown hi Chapter Two)' was.lB. l!VhO.maso'ns when the confusion of to.rious~momenL. 'to south" in line 8. lor p~hapsthe unnamed 'wife of'Lor'. rnaya. xen be also drew o I me' tMY .6: 'And they came."ack of ttefoU. rnent with 'Lhave been winged.e.JI TNaspro_ iWJ:Y' 'lid'" mns the White HiU (Tower HiU) at Londonas a protection against invasion-« as 'the head of King Eurystheus 0:£ Myoenae was buried in a pass that· commanded the approach to Athens.a" bas been removed.. Joseph". all the:'~ay from Tapre .an.er~in-Lawand is ladled to this day TlVYll Huan.m"'1 who .Minor before: finally settling Who was it that said" in line 13:' '~Iam :now come here to theremnant l of me I Bnn]'s connexion with. that: is the Mllky'Way:.dion'" prove. though Joseph.--b·~-·L.y politically reliable Norman . humed .nceclused to Nbnfod and hie.d. Troia..1.m.St.head.Brutusi the ~d. The answer' was. which.e)' in line .u ~withN oah in the Ark. His father G'lVy-dion.B('l'ilimeircondnuian. to the F Welsh sees. 'theWIJJte Hin. .or .l The answer tO 'Lwas in Canaan when Absalom was slain' (line 10). most g10.aSh evidently belonged with ~Iwas in.a5l.. and appeals by theWe~'s'h to the Pope were disregarded because the power of the' An:gevin kings weighed morel at the 'Vatican than the possible ..of t11~ CroW. according to the Ro~manfleofBrQnW8n buried on . . was Brant's.. tMt Icrer:l.gh't tO seareh for her in 'the Galaxy. Idris being the firs.hu. of 'Caer Wy. and I jiudged.tbe CllIiom panismnee. .ofTmiia:.. G. 'Sbe of the WhiteT:raclt'.acca..1 in nne :r 82..ryears. buried at the northern approachto [erusalem=untll King Ar. The a:o!)we. .1 country is region of the sllI?mer stan' (i.i:raJduI Camhrensis hadspent the best part of his. 8" .. With superstltious RV.legend about.t named of the threeastronomers.


from mag;c lake the mons,ter d:vancwhich. caused It to overflow in a universal :80 Ie had been 'fostered he- een the' kn ees ofDylan inthe Deluge". But me La,pwin_-" I found later" 'W'a_S deliberately Iconiusin,g Dylan with Noah; Noah reaUy belongs to the Enoch. riddle in llne 11,. The P'I esent riddle' must run: 'I have been foster d in the Ark!!,' But it eouId be enlarged, wjth 'the 1,'ta,lemenl in llne )]1: til have been teacher to ,aU ,mteUi enees', fol" H'U Gada- ,'Kn 'the 'ighty,~" wh has b -n idendfied 'with the aneient Chanael Isl ~nd god' DIU" was, the' enes, Of' alamedes, of'the C:y-mry and. taught them p,loughing~·'in, 'the region where Con,... , s,tantinople now stands,'~mu ic and 901__--~ -,0, in li.ne' 2.7, 'obtained the' use from the cauldron of Caridwen'? IGwion himself. However, the cauldron of Caridwen was nO mete' witch's cauldron, It would not be unr-easonable to identi(y ·'t with the cauldr,on depicted, on Greek vales" the name 'Written above Caridwem, 'b-ing Ied - me i onnmian G" dde wno kilI'ec h -L':ld' 1I..!.__ h' s d nercm '_-Ien,as'_ , e G' dd less th' "'_,ea,," th- C" ,0 ess ,-0 Thea also did. In tills cauldron she: boil d 'Up old Aeson and restored him 'tO youth; it was, the' cauldron ofrebirth and re-illumlnation, Yet when the other' ~',edea, J son,"; wife, p,layed her fa'mou trick (11 corded by Di -dO'n1S



Am,.r B.renainus and wrote of it: 'ffBe',ruleJ~1 ,S-IEU UBrende,}U id ,aIli'mal Jicita,,,.,' This, su,gg srs a, COM 'iOD between /;'r11'." Imi.-::- IJre'Rtll IIJrcrnr-, lJem and B,ron who" as 'the' origin 'I Cad IGotlJea: makes pi'.: ~nt W,IS an Underworld ... god, FO'f 'the northward, migration of wild g'. e is connected in B.ritish legend with 'the conducting to 'the icy Northern -I,eU of the souls o,E the damned" or of unhapld:zed infants", In, --'-:,alesilie sound of 'the I, eese passing unseen overhead at .night is su,pp , ed to be m de' by the ICwm An.wm ('Hounds of Hell' with white bodies and lied ears), in England by






- ..


Yell Hounds, Yetb Hounds" Wish Hounds" Gabriel Hounds, or Gabriel Ratch,t"lI' The Hunter is called variously Gt,~ (I:tbe' white on:eJ)-there was a ' -'-wyn ICUlt i.n plre-Christian Glastonbury~HerD' the Hunter" and Gabrlel, In Scotland he is Arthur:~ cArthui' here may stand for A"Jdu. ('the dark one') Satan's name in the Welsh B,ible ..But his orig~ name in B,rj,tain seems to have' been BnEnJIwhich in W f:'lsh is V ron, The 6.911-0"... ' flesb riddle must therefore belong with the adler two ron riddles :already answer d. The alternative text of 'the Hanel' ~'ali6Si" publi,sbe~d, in the M~d1I ,ArcA -~.'o.f(J6Y translated by Dill . Nash as, {oHowa: is,
!I !! !! -II

Silcu'lus) Ion old Pelias of I,olco~ persuading his, daughters to cut him up and stew him back eo youth and then lcalmly denouDcing:mem IS, parricides she dis " ised her Corinthlan D'_ 'tionality and pretended to be a Hyprhorean Goddess. Evi,d, ntly P'eUas, had heard of the Hyperb'orean, cauldr n and had grater fai hin it an in the Corinthi none'. tIt is not known whether my body i fI b lor fish,' This, riddle, in, line ,116, was not bard to answer. I remembered the long ... standing dispute in the mediaeval Church wheth, r DrI not i ' s right to e bamaele gc Ole on

A' '. .s.: I .I'I,R unpar,mu.

''',l !"S''jJ' 'L..'nufJ" ..,.,.


My Qccustome,J Cflutttry I, tlzs ltuuJ'''~/th,' CluzruiJ'U&' r. .1 .,1 Dii 2. J' Q'RfIIUlSS' ,:Wtner I w,as oalle(l'6y MerJJin •. At "ng.t},. evdry King

Am J to' Elplzin.

"! ,,'


E"6li'sA Dktionf'l'Y, "a whitesea-shell of

Fridays and other fast-days, The barnacle goose d, es DO,t nest in 'the 'B,ritish Isles, (I handled rh first clutch ,of its, eggs lever bro~ght" ther,; they were feund at .pitzber,gen in til .Arctic!) It was universally beUe!ed 'to be hatched out of the: goose barna,cie-toquO'ltl the Oxfortl

rw"" .,_'1 ", u ecru m.l T_'~_'" .I.' fUie'SIIL
-- -


d-e' peduneuls te genu, 0 . p~des.. The long feathery cirri protruding from me valves suggested

plumage, Giraldus Camhrensis once saw more than a, thousand embryo bamacl ' geese hanging hom, one' piece of drift .od on the ,ho~~ cam,pion, 'wrolt - in his Eliaabeehan Risto,ry l~flrelaRJ:: "Barna,cies 'thouII '.

" sands at once,.,~ e noted ,along the shoares to bang by the beakes aboutthe edges of putl.ified t-imber' • which in processe tak.in -, liv,ely heat - of the S~ne,_ be-co'mewater-foutes,!! Barnacle gee -'we're therefore held by some to be fis,b,r not fowl-m,d les itimateFriday dng for monks, The w'olld "bamacl,e', the same dico,onary 'suggests, IS formed from the - , ,elsh IJrenig, or lri'sh /Jairne'tZcn., meaning a limpet Dr barnacle ... hell. Mor,e'o,ver', the, s other name for the bamacleose" the 'brent' or th Ibrant', IS ap'parendy formed from, the seme word. eaius" the Elizabethan naturalist, called it

,] J was nise mOlltlu' ,.lmt:J'St In tke !Jelly of rAe ,AtlC ,Car:ithAsIIJ I was atjir.s t lit,tk GtIlio'R,1 A, ,leD",A I am TtzIie'si'rL 4 I was my Lord In rAe'hi,hest sfJ.faer;e', WlMnLueifl', fill fnm' ,tne Jep'w of Hell. " /,carm',J' ,!'s IJruJlNJr Before Alexander,., I know tlze' Mme., oftns slars' From tAs .No",'" ItJ rAe So,wA. lei: /1PdI in IC.r Betlioll,



--_J Heon ['A~! 'i7lm,' Spi:7 ~-J D ,Down. ,to tAe yak ofE!JrQ,a.,





When Absalom


WtU slain.

It ,u not hzown MIMI is tAe natur,
Of its meat anti itS'jish.
!OJ .1'7 I!l n.alls Dilen tnstr,u.Ct8a In ,tAs' who/s' ",ys"m ,oftAs UNiverse;

I WaJ' ,in" tM Hall afDon Befor, GwyJion was /;o.m.
8 I was on, ,"'!wrIt,,' s cruppsr

Of Eli a:nJ E1UJMl 1WCZiS',011 ,lA, AigA crass Ofme merdfiJ S'on, ~fG'oJ~ tM' ,Aiefoverseer At ,rM lJuilJing of tlte ,owe'r of Nimro~' I "a:ve 6"n three times resident In, ,tits CQSlk' ofArirmrhod.

l sAaIl h" till' the day ofirulg6ment

On the face' ,oftAe earth.

18 I Aave been in. ,a1l.uM'tUy clzoir

9' I

.Ahove Ca4'r Siam,
.J t. l· 1:A n,a: tse w,drt'mg

roun« Wltn'O,utI1UJtmn



Be,nv~en ,Are,I'·,kmsnts.


I was in tlte Ark WitA NacJz. and .Alph4J 1 s.w ttAeJes"ructirm Of So,Urn, aM ,Go:mo~rak. ,/WCU' in 4frit:rJ' [As. i] BejO"8 ~ke,,6uil~g ofRotne;

19 Ls i" not ,tAe wana,r of tIM 'world
Tha.t c'annot be ,,'iacovered,


,/ am


To tAs ,r6f1'l11ll11ts' o/TlrJia.

come ,hsrs

I was ~witkmy Klng Ill,tAe mang,r ~ftl!e a3SJ I mpported MO~:6' Ti,Qug!t, tlze water' OfJ()f;Jan. WitAMa~y Magda_; I olJt~inea,my Uupirrttio,'Ii From, tAs' cauldr.on ofCali'dw,n., TOI Dean ofLlycAlynJ
ita t.IleFirmament

I] /WltU

'The sequence Is, different and the' Lapwing has been. as husyas e,ver~, But I learned a good deal from the variants. In place of 'the land of the h ._.~ en v' ned L,"- e th" e _um g, ·c.... I,a·. of _' ... S'- .. m er S'tars' 'I' 'th 1- nd....•.. the ·C,,-erub irn' l"i!:!' m,..n.:u"..... ,~.• , BO 'LUI.m.'an . , " same thing. The Eighteenth Psalm (verse 1'0) makes it clear that the Cherubim are storm-cloud a,ngels; and therefore, for Welshmen, they are resident in. the W'est, from which quarter nine storms out of every' ten blow, The, Summer Star~ are those which lie in the western part of the firmament, The first two lines in stanza 18, "I have been in an uneasy chair above Caer Sidin' helped me, There is a stone seat at the top of Cader Idris, 'the Chair of Idris' where, accordlng 'tO the 'local ],e,gend, whoever spends, the night is found in the morning either dead, mad, or a poet. The first pan of this sentence evidently belongs, to the Idris riddle, though Gwion" in his Ke'rlld,rlJ'J1 Yei6, Llyr mentions a 'perfe,ct chair" in Caer ,sidi.("Revolving Castle'), the Elysian fortress, where the Cauldron of Caridwen was
--",...:I_ I

II. ".~'

... ' ~'





1'4 I 'was Bar:a olMe harp

The text of stanza


I halll s,ujfers,rJAfllrlBf Wi',;,. tM. ,so'n of t~ Virgin. ~ l 'lWl-· U:!'" ... I was'ln ml ,",,11iJ aut In. ,tke HallofCY1IlP'/yn,
In stoch andfotter8


A:yegr tll'ld €I

' ' f-

ItS I have heen in tA6' 6uttery

In fM'I'andrfJ!the Trinity:; 90'

seems tJfJ hepurpcsely corrupt, since in the Mamnogion version the' sense is: 'Idno and Heinin called me ,M,erdd:in.' 1 thought at first that the: oirigi:nal line ran: 'Johannes I was called, and. Merddin the Diviner', and I was right so far as I went, Merddin, who in mediaeval romances Is styled Merlin, was the most famous ancient prophet in British tradirion, The, ,manifest sense of the stanza is that Gwion had been called Merddin" 'dweller in 'the sea', by'Heinin, ,Maelgwyn'l's chief bard, because like the original Merddin he was' ,oi mysterious birth and, though a child" had confounded the bardic college at Dyganwy exactly all Merddm (according to Nennius and Geoffrey of Monmouth) had confounded VO'f'ti,gern:'s, sages; that be had 91


the Diviner I was called by Merddin'"

alsc been called 'IJO,hn the B,sptist'" C'But thou" child" 'shalt b called the

him Taliesin (~'r,acUantbrow') the ,ehief of poets. Dr. MacCuUoch. su.ggeslts 'that there was an earlier T,mesin 'than 'the sixth-century bard, and thar 'he was a, Celtic A,peno; which would account {Of' the "radiaat brolw" and €olr 'Ius, appearance among oth-- faded ,gods, and heroes at KiD", Arthur·'s C,ourt in the Romom:6 of Kil4weA tmJ' OtwelL (Apollo himsJf had once b. ·0 a dWleUer :in the s~the: dolphil1 was sacred 'tOI him~a'nd oddly
enough _ohn 'the' Baptist seems

prophet of the Mo.st Highest'); but that eventu.aUy everyone w'ould call

orL,luddls having lived It Bath. r let the' 'Caer ~Bedionl ridd'le'stand over for a,'while:, and also the riddle 11.1 was Alpha Tetragrammaton' ...._ojf thi.s co'njunction composed the, riddle
four ...ettered Divine Name' l b.,/"nn'"n'-_: with .•. ~_eanwbile, w.h Vl" , "'bard of the harp te Deon, or' L]e~n" of L,o,cblin" ,or'Llylchlynl (lim 2,8; and. stanza 14.)~ 'Decn ing of Lod1lin and Dublin", is, an, ,oddly eomposlre c.hara,cter.D',eo'Qis a variant speUin '~fD,6D, 'w'ho, ill already pOlinted out, was really Danuthe Goddess

'8" ,t to Gw!on the' Welshman Lludd 'was not I'Lor", nor is there any reeerd

........... answer rio which the



'have, been identified by ,early IChristian 'yncJ.'Ietists in Egypt with the ICbaid an god, O:BIlD,es, who according to B erossus used to appea_r at long' int~rvalts, in the Persian IGulf~ diguLed ,IS the mennan Odaeon, and re:n-~'-bis original revelation to the faithful.

The case is fiJ,:rtber ,com.pHcated by the myth of Huan, the Flower-goddess Blodeuwedd's yj,ctitn, who w:as, r,eally the' g:od Llew Llaw, another ··Se1'I,d:weUer'.) It 'toO'.' me a long: time to realize mat 'the concealed sens' ~of stanza 2, whiCh, 'made' he' '~tual,corruprt10In necessary, was, a heretical p -phrase ofth.e pB~ge in, the three syn.o-dc Gosp ls, (Matt!!,XYIJ I" Mark YI, I' 5, LuJ:.I' ,/ X, ;1" 8):
Some say thou art John the Bapdst, and some Elias!,and some, lone 'of the ancient prophets ri n from the' dead •••• ' B,ut Pet r an; '[led: ITholu art 'the IChrist. t

The co,mpleting, phrase "and Elias~·'occurs in, stanza, 8. The, ,Divine' Cbild is ,s,peaking :£15,[esusChriat as I believe he a151'01is in, stanza 14= 'I have
su;ft'-rcd hunger' with the Son of the Virgin." Jesus, was alone men @'xc, pt for' the D'evil,andthe "wild bes '-,". But 'the Devil did not g~1hu'n~ry; and the 'wild beasts' in the T:emp'tatiIDn Iccntex't, ,ac-OOfding 101the "'cutest s.•ri,pturali critilcs----e~g'. Pro,6'- 'o:r'., A", Bevan, and Dr' .. T,~ ,KI) .'_h ynec'

were a~loIIDf,tbe D,evH!!ls party. The MdinDgiD. version, line


,i: .:' 'II have

su'ffi ed hUDga. fl,rthe, Son of th - Virghl,;' which comes to 'th= same .'~'lng:Jesus uffered hunger' Ion his own 1:,_'CCOunt. 'The aDS "'f 0 this :rid.d'ie 'was simply' "J eNS', as 'Tan in'" s the' answer ee Joanne, and

MerddLn the Diwn.eif, and Ellas 1 WI' called'., III was :in, the' Ark withN oah and Alpha',. in stanza



Caer Bedi,Qrn, Tetragrammaton" stanza 0, rnu,st together " ,Diy Unspeakable Name of Godl!" -Alpha an.d Omega" was a, ivin = perip,:hn -i .which it wasl permi'tt-d to utt-- publicly;, ,and the "tetta,grammato,nl 'was,'the: layp'togrammic Hebliew ~'- Y'of spelling; the secret Nam=' in (Olur kin who built London, and Cae. Bedion is Caer B'adus, Dlf Ba;th, which accordin_g to IGeof&ey ,of .'onmou .'h was built by Lludd"s fath -r Bladud.

1'1 was, in refer to' the

le'tters as JHWH,. I though't :1.1: fint that 1 was m, Caer BemoD," helong~ 'to the' LQ'l riddle: because' ·Lorli is th e N',Q,nnan,-Fren h IIIme for Lludd the

'[he DI__~., of D'ublin was pmbab'ly the sea, .1 t· O··-c· 'd~-- ·'b .' . . .. d" . IDly I ;uILe:U"ViCtimS'!!, If'' . SO,, 'UI,- an,sw,er L~ ...i. •• V""'-'J' :oau-cu 10 ." ,.:.:..m,W 0 ero> . '[0 !hIe riddle was 'Molrvran·' (sea~rave~)" 'whol was, the son ,of ICarldw,en 3Jld"aCColidin,g to the Romam:e IJfK'~/"w," lantl' Olw'Bn.,tbe uglie t man, In h ~wo,rld. In the TriQJa he d _-:d to have lescaped alive f~om 'the Battle ,of Ca.mlan lanotber' of the "Thr __ F,riv'oioU5 Bard,es of B,ritalnll~b.-cau.se , eVIB'ryo:o,e :s.bra,nk from him, Hie must be identified with A£a:gddu, son of Caridwen, fOf' whom the' same ilu,preme ugliness is claimed In the Ro,m'f'nce of' TaJie'Jln,and whom she determlned tal make' as intelUgent as, he' was ugly. I wOI~dered whether 'LI,eoD of L c'h1in in, the M_,.""itm ve jon" W,IS a 'pos.ible reading~ Arthur had his ourt at Caerlleon-upon ... sk and 'the' U word, ICaerlle~D is generaUy 'taken to mean, 'The ICamp of the Le,gio:n
,~ 'API

I,~t_.17' poets, into ballad cycles ,eelebmdng the nlnrh-eenrury wars between the Irish and the Danish and Non. plrares, Thus 'the Seandin vian ' came' 'to b . ,caU-d 'the L,Qchlannacbl and the Danish Kin,g of Dublin 'was also :~~l-d 'Kin,g of Lochnn',. When the cult of 'the Scaitdinavian god 'O'din, ,the mDle-maker and m_agician, ,_ ;.' , br!Dugllt '£0 Ireland he' was i en'ti_fied '., h hi . G'" _I.~1L 'L.f: Wlt_ .. S counterpart .cWYWOD 'WI'liO :ID UI:_' rour th eentury II,.C. had, brought. a new :system of'letterswah him to Britain, and had been enrolh d _~ ,I son of D,IDU lor DI,Dn,. Mo~eover" aceordin , to the I gend, the Danaans had come to Britain fro,m Greece by w_:·y of Denmark 'to which they had 'iven the name ,of their goddess, and in mediaevsil lr-eland Danaan and Dane became ,co,.nfused, 'the: Danes of the ninth ceinturY' A.D., g,e'tting credit for Bronze Age' monuments, SOl ~D eon Df Lochlin"must stand for 'theDanes f -lublin"., 'These' pirates widl their--raven Rag were the' terror lof'the
'I ...

the T~atha ,de Danaan, the inV,lde~1 of Ireland, patriarchized mEO a Kln:=_ of Lochlin, or Loehlann, and Dublin, Lochlann was the mythical unde ~_a .home of the later F'omorian invaders of Ireland, ag,Unt whom e the Tuatha de Danaan fought a bloody WM., The god Tethra rulled ,i't" It seems that ]eg,ends Qf the war between these' two nations wer'e 'worked by'


-,I'.h, anld 'the mins,trel
a'~ . _ _ ..













and lcertainly 'the 'two Caerlleons memloned in, the seventh-century We:~sh, leala/Ope of ICities, Caerlleon-upon-,' ·sk. ,and Caerlleon-u,p!on~D ,are both there ,exp,~ainedas, ICwtrra L,_, wnis. ,If IGwiO:D aC',c~PtJed dlls drl~. ad'OD

of'the word the riddle would :read:'J was bard ,ofth,€!harp to the L~gjons of Lochlin', and the answer would he 'the same, The name Leon occurs, in Gwion',s K'cuie;'r Teyrnon CThe Roy,al Chair'): •the: lacerated form ,of the: corsleted Lecn' .... utthe context is co.rrup't and 'Leon' may be il descdp ... B tive title: of some Ur.;,n-:hearted prince.not a proper name, 'Then there wasthe riddlein stanza 8 tQI eonsiden "I was' on the horse's crupper of EIU and Enoch'~n,alter.natiV'e to the' misleadlng Boolr. of
P I 1 ." ~no'n.. iddlIe m th .l.it'.fo,lJfnrJ,FotJ ~ers'.lon: nne ~ .ne II .. •. s..

author of the Boole !of EntJ'Cn in his treatise on asttoD.,omy and 'the: 'calen,dar also reckoned ,I year to be. 364 days,. though he proncnnced a curse ,DO all
who did not reckon amonth to be )0 clays lOll(JII' Ancient calendar ... makers seem to: have interposed the' day which had no month,. and was

I ~al instructor ~oEU and Enoch ·of''which the answer is ~U'rielJ!p both texts Elia9,is really ;8. part of the In heretical John the Baptist riddle, from.wnich the LapVling has done' her best to distraet attention; her :£it]s;e ennexion of Elias and Enoch has been c most subtly made, F'or these two prophets are paired In various Apocryphal G,o:s'pek-meHi!Jc()"y a/fossil" tne ICa.rpen,ter, me Acts of P.'Ela.te, the .Apoc.alyp-.J8.,(Jf Peter ;and the ApaCrl/ypse' of Paul. In the: Acts o{Pilate', wrinttanot'., 'wbidl wa, current in Wales in Latin translation, Q'CCUrl the verle;
I am Enoch who was tt'~Tl!sla;~edit'ber by the 'word ofthe Lord, a:nd h here me .is mias, the: Tishbite who was taken up in a Chariot offire,

not therefore counted as part of 'the year, be\tween -the6rst and last of their a.rti.ficial 2S ... ay months: so that: the' farmer's y,ear Ia'Ste&., from the d calendar-maker's point of view, literallya yearanda d:ay. In the W,eish Romances the number thirteen is of constant occurreneee "Thirteen Precious Things' " "Thirteen Wonders of Britadn\ "Thirteen Kingly Jewels'. The Thirteen. Pr.i.son Leeks, then, wer,e thirteen months and on. the extra. day, theD'8Y ofLiberation, the Day of the Divine Child, Elphin was set free, This day win :nat.urally have fallen just a:fitet the' wjnters:olstice-~-two days before Christmas., when the 'Romans .had their mid-winter festival. I saw that: if th~ true reading is, 'in 'stocks, and fetters a year and a. day', then this clause should be attached to I.pl.rimary 'chi.e£"


'But the real riddle in the M'a/).iMgioli version proves to be:' -I was instructor to Enoch and Noah' ..In 'this oilier version" 'I was on the: horse's crupper' 'orEU 'and Enoch' ~the mention of Elias, is oti·ose: for Enoch" like Elias, was caugb't \J.p' alive into l:Iearven on it ,chariot· dmwn by fiery horses, So the

bard arn I toElphin' , in line .1: for it was Elphin who was fettered .. Now', 'G-wynn Jones dissents from the usual view that the word MaDi'no,gjo.n means 'juvenile romances'; he 5ugg,ests., by an,al.ogy with the Irish. title Mac-lDd~·oic, applied to Angus of the B.rugh, that it 'means 'tales of the son. of a virgin mother' and shows that it: was, originally appl o:nly to the four romances in whieh Pryderi son of Rhiannon appears.. This, 'son of a virgin mOJ.:' is, always born at the winter solstlce, which gives point to the story of Phylip Brydydd's contention wi.tb the minstrels fo.r
the privilege of first presenting Prince Rhys Ieuanc with asong on ChristmasDay, and also his mention of Mae:lgwryn and Elphin in that context, The riddle in stanza 16, "I have been in. the buuery", must refer to, Kai"

;IDswer 'ag,ain .·is,Vriel, since 'U:ri.el' means 'Flame of God' Ii,Now perhaps I could also a!Q!rworcUriel" to tbe'rid:dle ~Iwas "in Caer Bediol1,' .F or, accordfog to G,eo£fr~ of Monmouth, a sacr-ed fire· WBI kept continually burmn.g in a temple: at eaer' Bedion, or Bath, like that which burned in the House
of God at Jerusalem. There 'is 3 ¥itriation. between the texts: 'a d:~y and a-year in stocks and fette.rs'! (line :)10) Inel ~a:year' and a half in stocks and fe·tters' (stanza [,).

who, 'WaS in charge of lOng Arthur"s, Buttery. The line, cleverly muddled up with the Bamade riddle" should probablybe attached 'DO '.I 'WS;S, with rn-y Lord in the highest sphere' (Hn'el5' and stanza S), Kai appearing in

"A y'ear' and a half' makes '0·0 obviOU!B sense, but: 'a day and I. year' can be equated 'With the 'Thirteen P'rifS,OD Locks that guarded E'lpbin" if each lock was a .2.8~daymollth and .~e '\VaS released 011 the extra day of the :1tiJ' The a~[tient common ... mon:th in Bri.tain, accordip,g to Blacl(stone'l law Camme:ntf.!r,N8· (2, lX" 1~42..)is, .28 days long, unless otherwise stated, and a lunar month is still popularly so reckoned, although a true. lunar month, or lunatien, from new moon. to new moon, is roughly .JS1~ days long, and rbou,ghtbirtcenis supposed to be anunlueky number The pre-Christiaa calendar of thirteen four...;week m,o,n!hs, with, 'one day over, was superseded by the Julian calendar (which had no weeks) based eventually 00 the year of 'twelve ·thir~Y'~day Egyptian montbswith five d.ay~ over, The:

T."iaas as, 'one of the: three diademed chiefs of battle', possessed IO£' ma!.gjcal powers, In the Romance of' Olwen and Killt''WcAthere' is, this 11 .,., Q,esC1lpuon 0.1f' hi 11m;'
r ..


He could hold his brea th under water for nine days ;and :nights., and sleep, for thesame period .. No pby.sici.an.could heal. a wound inflicted by' his sword, He could make himself at 'will as tall as the tallest tree in. the wood, His natural heat was so great that in :8 deluge of rain whatever' he'
carried in hishand remained

On the coldest d.;ay he

dry I hand's-hreadth

above and below,

like a glowing fuel to his, comrades,


This is,close to the account given of the Sun-hero Cuehulain in his battle rage. But in the later Arthurian legend,s Kai had degenerated into a.buffoon and Chief of the Cooks.


The memory of the thirteen ... month year was kept. alive _~~the p,iI;gan English countryside until at least the fourteenth century. The Balleui of ,Ro,6inHo(Jl,a,anJ tAB' Curlai Friar begins: Bu: /tow many merry mo'ntne& Dein, the yeare l Tkere are thirteen, I ,say; Tlu miJ-summ6'1 moon is ,tAe mer.ryest of 'all, Next to tlze ffl'erry mon"t/z.'o/May:. This, has been altered in manifest! y later ballad:


TI",r' are twelve mont:As in ,all tAe year As I hear many men say~
B'u,t the merriest ~'ntk in all th, year
], ,thil merry m{JJI.t/r. of

,LO,t or Lota


Vran Salome Ne-esthan

Taliesin Kai Caleb





Joseph Uriel

This was, as far as I could go without adopting the method of the crossword puzzler, which is to 'Usethe answers already secured as clues to the solution of the more difficult riddles, that remain, but I made: some progress with the r,i.Jddle:"1 have been three periods in the Castle: of

Arianmod.,' Arianrhod CSilver whe-el') appears, in, the I07th Triad as the cSilv,ercircled datl\ghter of Don', and is a leading character in the Romance Df MatA ,A.I San of .Ma:tkonw,y~ No ,on.€: amiliar with the profuse 'variants, of f the' lame legend in every body of European myth can have doubts about her identity, She is the' mother of the 'usual Divine, Fish-Child Dylan wh,o,
after killing' the usual W ren (as the N'ew 'Year Robin does on St. Stephen's

day) becomes Llew Llaw Gyffes ('the Lionwith the Stead,y Hand'), the



ed? It must be distin~5hed f:rom'the G'eldc Heaven" whichwas the Sun itself~a blaze: of light (as we kn.of a ..' But the' head of Orpheus continued to sinlla:nd prophesy. 'The' poet is the unsatisfied child who dares to aHA the .:.. 0':0 the Thraeian Chersonese. were .k" which means 'to cover or conceal' It was me Moon"'.tUIDa populliar 'Gaelic synonym for the Land of Death.Castle of Arianrh.a . e her-fm-ow. wife to the God Dionysus.s. clans or' tribes settled in the Ae..ely in the :icy' grounds of the Castle... by a pac:k of delirious women intoxicated by ivy' and also.m-Death and Death-in-Life.eand. Countless other less distinguished souls wande~ed disccm.thatr lome' cold! North.lJlHI .Armorican tradidon~ lcaused by the "tdli:ning together of myriads. of Oenopion and Tauropolus 'by the ScboUast on Apollonius .od is to be in it royal . issaid to have' suiIer. in ancient times 'sacred.. at least as old 'as the .~is s.~St1C goddess. Eratcu~.oo'terep. rlBI a 1 J . 'Well" whel:le 11... 'of'the NDrdl 'Wind". F.giv..usual handsome and accomplished Sun.North Winclwlt.r' in primidve Europeau beUe!' it. IncompreMmilJle n_.calreUgion but 'believed the sun. of which the bright star Alpheta was the guardian? I should.1' Where was this 'purgatory situae.t.asc Ariadn. Orpheus himself. The 'Go -."! Bassari'rJe.. 8npUft.S of Pelasgol.. the Hypeeb. Ariadn.oreans-. from. who survived the. to be mod.if it were not for the mention. this cle&f In his Ma1'WnaJ y Mil"sih ('Elegy Ion the ThoJusand Chlldren?). Tauropolus and o Ul.. of' pur-e ·souls.naUyinspired I I OJ Orpheus" .S is: always· a proof 'Of antiquity in a Greek :name. Pe!rhtps WiD. At 'whi. Schcliast the mother' of~that is. the le-ader' in the Dionyeian rites.s of 'Britain..dlng to this. and :a:ccor. ~amongthe ss'vage Cauc:onians' close to Oencplcn's home. DOt venture to' make such a fanciful '$ . islands of Chias· Unril tA.Qreans?1 We~e the Hyperboreans. Rolman devotees of the mite Goddes.r 'at the ba~ckof the North Wiind'~phrase' used by Pindae to Iocate 'the land of the Hyperh. according to Drtl.uti(Xl.8 The clearest sign that in Arianrhod we have: the old matriarchal 99' ..r.D'ioflys.\lS:.0 the calmsilver-circled castle at the back of the North Wind.~heFo with the usual Heavenly TWin at his side. in pieces.ow from . the usual Love-goddess. Caer Arianrbod (not the submerged twoa off the coast of C'aematvon. Oenopion.ess. Thi's C". . the Chersones.pe. like: that of the' God Bran... the 'baek-of-the-North .thenes of Alexandria. that he might see the sun first.. Gwion makes. find.worshi. whom he named Apollo'" to be: the :g"eatest . caned Pangaeum. likeGErebus"" the name of the Underworld over which the \VhitJe Goddess ruled" ia derived by grammarians.'" records that Orpheus refused to conform tO ]o. is men" as usual" restored to life.g: enr..Bilbylonian Gilgamesh epic-~and is m'en 'transformed. but the teal Caer Ariatlr'bod) is.and me Greeks made her a sister of their andent vine-hero Dencallon. 'Dlembers . so' feeds Ion Llew's dead flesh. Ri. "She 'who shines for aU'.Wind-m.r Beyond. 'Orpheus".ed the same fate a's tbe god.ch .e~efl4l' 1M caIrn"". (~Miost Ho]y.~ d one expect to. as the Thmdans of'the Sea of Marmara and Lemnos.ofWi$dom and then into the usual . as yet uaeheered by the Cbristian.lplt4 and eta being the first aad. was worshipped by the Pelasgians.iv'ileged 10 be: reborn.-er:s titer. hope of universal resurrection.question. Chios. first Intothe usual 'Owl . whiCh is also caned "the Cretan Crown.the White Goddess ofLife.pped by.. .Ailty INY were. on this. Owen of the 117-. or Y'Dunger self. 'the !Crimea. .difficult question which.1 poet wouldhe persistent enough to alk this last. hmo. :' D:iGtifJ'ftJZry. 011 whom 'Arianrhod" seems. "I' C-:-!''...his simple question. as ...godd. who origi. W. ats.purgatory awaiting resurreod!o:n. But Llew. Thoss.Thracian. How fu' to the' North.~• II' That ill a dishonest war of telling 'me sto..t him the B'lliar-idsr.ol'lt. Proclus in his commentary on Plato is more to the point: 'Orpheus" becausehe was. Orpheus" aceordi to Pausanias. whotore him in 'pieces. whose soul has taken the fonn oftbe usual eagle. not the Sun-god. Borefl.. andit is evident from the legends of Lemnos.. Arianrhod then adopts the form of Blodeuwedd.a_.elled.II "the N olrtbern Crown'._l£rI'. Or.a readyanswer.) alias Alphe:ta. Bent agalns. that male human snlcrifi:ce wa-s an integral part of her worship.~ Old they believe thar when they died their souls were taken off' by Hermes. was.. and the termination IQU.3-g:ed..D onlykings" chieftains and poets.SiS -w.IIge of III I' world!) VNn" 'r'T_ .'. the SOUIC-e of Boreas"the North Wind. conductor of souls]. ormagicians who were pr...have the answer here to the question which puzzled Herodetusr '~"\Vboare.. In other words Arianrhod is one more aspect of Caridweo. and thea the: still more difficult question which arises from that..Rhodius'iS ArC(J:no.0 ld-Sow-who . .". arises from thescnoo.mt was among the pre . it seems"by the toadstool sacred to Dionysus.rona.e. . ·Godcless P:asipbae. and to be:in the . treacherously (as usual) destroys Llew Lllw~. weD.the :story is. 'the eonstoUation called "CoTona Bo:reIUs~" N'ot CQ..sing up in the night he ascended befo're dawn to the mountain.:'. Great Flood.. The story is .. of the ancient Cretan Moon .staphylus.an"i'onGli'.. who lived.o a Cretan Goddess.-Q.e:.las't letters of her name.of the gods. quoting Aeschylus.ry.MflJlltflinea i. or Cerrid .re. occasion.en in fun in Chapter Seventeen. Surpd:siD@ly enough there is.ers" These men were the eponymous :ancesto:f.'Was an.s. Wherei't~ .]master's aNwar to .. it? In a quarter from which tlIe SUD nevershines. fo·. and in the 'Crhnea" land cultu~ aUy connected "With North-'WestemEuro.·' . was a sacred victim of her fury" He "W1l$ torn.en'~'. But pre:cisely where beyond the source of the Nortbwindr Only . 1.gean. FiflA . She was the daughter.a/ilr" cthe Crown. but CoriJna Bo.o. the l.estien .

"..y to represmt sets of' cypher' 'cqu. . The' Ico~n.ianrhod was: tOI be Icomp~leted1 with 'and the whirling round witborutmorion betw'ee.are lilW..thlough rlelatlecllens'es" The primiitJ.eg" Men.dep. c'onceme.ue 'types efone ano.. Indian sort-e-at one' rime a bluehonle. ably p"re-IChristian~which occur in so many batdie poems lofW~es and I~eland se~.-~to dawn. ~solstice with the months lSI stations of his prD.g~ess. A furtber complica cion was that anciently a..b' een or 'I ..wer is.patriarchal sloc:ie'tyit. I thought a. ui'le and Di_sgra. I difficult one bu.te. f' 't ID_ tll_~ -levenIng or "'.J lam a 'w.1 i.g her 'S'OIn..lainly D.'!equAfti"!A4l'! I . but: the myth has been. oinl. of 'a period E. symbol used.nly .git C!tbe IUgh One').rtress be:longing: tOI the Aes Sidbe (Sidh. . is :alwayis the fatherwho gjves both.age of myth. . even ifllmew' the meaulmg. 'rio dip D. hen it is said tha.which fncludes the 'tIIO' Bears and lie the B'eu~'W:llrden" and mat when.QIOlt fr'ee itself un:tit the summer is over. :~ .gorean. they I. 'th.series.linguistic cban.dilli. was.v.l'i. 10 his grand.1: within 'the .'000 .Q lal .it . In .satum..• wsI!!'N..anaUID Fa. S'it/A".age.1 dt!· D. Their date and religious use must be cO'Dsidered. the prime magicians of Ireland.to wlli the ans.pacle· ompared with 'the southern c Bull:.man . 10 the first "three years.1am Q ~Q. SO!Detimes thee: god may be .ge.e been' reference ls to the yearly C}'lclle'Jand to II ./Iam -.stu~ (As I show' in Chapter' Ten 'I the 'wbir:linK'''' round is part of mend .'.y the Litde Bear doe's 80. Blri. the Irish student fair' the Ollav.ivalrmu.throlu.Cir1C:le".t became. 'To describe it as whirling round withou.dess~~Then..in detail.t DOt he but three ofbis descendants..Br.g:iL..rkmr. I flm a clUnlc" [. as wle..V~ belief isp. comp.ns'ii maliarn would have been i.. and must l Thougb the Pyrhs. Blr. king whoborea divine' name were often. F'irst" heis said te have married the Triple.ds 'by his ApoUowlikle ~s'on Angus who won it from him by a lega~ Iquibb·le. teanslation of GOlidelic word.his educational course. I' b-' the 'SUCCeBisiv@ 'metamorpho. :3 man.. :B. :lrlOnym..t 'the 'next: perhaps a Brahmim bull or' I woman.ository" lofso..c . Irish legend. con. The' three elements ar~ Iclemrly :fir'e.! round-the .Bmgll. of the Triple Gordd:esl.en-" ---- New' Grange is.' our 'n"lel when WIC!mean old . m ndoned.. cycle' IDf 2'.e word "Sidi" is apparently a.said "~D havebeen o'rigjoaUy Dccup:ied.s.n 'three lelemen:ts".ere£hey the: same pla.~. in principle.e him the title to royalty.fteal PmdOll5 Thmp'.~stricked into.The ..referring m. the Su. :na. butI wiu' n.ve . mat though Caer Sim.ver the Nerthem hartzlol1 and. bawk and salmon before being born as.~ ~The l1dfieea KloglyJeweb~'I'The 'Th'Umem 'W'onden . ~ " (or du::drif'teen. .A ellue to the p.mb.1 ferhatps semedrnes even..of -:__'~.metempsychosis" imported f~om the Greek colonies in Soutbern France.~ in order to keep the secret clos.ses ofstag. boar.ol: antici. The c'r' is m 'the ApoUo .e for sho'rt).ce~'I think not" because Caer Sidi has beeb idll!n'tified 'wi'l:h P'uffin. or Caer Sidin.t "Ib~I:. accerdiag to one~s.t.Elys.rstJII...lear:mJ p.the·'r: .ntain the order has alwa.er'" :I.iofl."'. in .rIiq.gh manual 'm tile Casde lof Arianrbod'l.ain'l 'who i remain. a't the Dlext a Bow...one:wife with 'three' 'oLmes.esbiphBdto master one: hundred and fifty cypher-aJpbabets!! I Df co~d .e.8C() years. "l.e? of .! pivoted DD thepl'o]eo. does .]ete of dlseretioa .0 IcryptDlg_raplhy. a_nd the 1(:0. a' s:tflr ~ I am .em In. has been suspeeted in the [dah legend of TuanMacCairiU.ioD alpbabe.a~tumnl _D'. taugbtthat Ariam. 'The Dagd:1 on h:bJ firs. ponds..the accidental events in the life lor I. erit.. making . of .Areti. this is unlikelJ:r:'the four beasts are all seesonal symbo. Succ~Bsjve editors. AU these cycles. God.Rbm.ee daughters aU caUed Blri. year SynlhOISi JlanJ 'W'd'I'" .ry lof .naccur1l.am . to have several dUierent . withtbe Ro.iums 'Df the usual typle. Island of '[he cOrUI: .ancient Europe WIS: not.. ugmnen't at '[bHs. -age IS di!5cu1t as.royal'inunig.~.y Is' d in the Severn: both of them island . 11--... the mOIU r·ema.'TripLe Goddess.Gwion. . L If . .-·Boyne ('nlow caUed me' l solsdee 'to' win·t. .l:s'l as wlll be ShOIWD. means 'Rev'olving Castle' ill! W:elsh.pa'te the. and by the 'tendency lor ms'tDry'to taint the purity of 'myth-ma't is to ~sa.sdU speak either c· . dlr.gIDd who cO'.trg.m.. possibl.rian.!! . whose behalf the' in:spir~d poet S~iDg$" not the poet like himsel£. he is said to have had o..e.BoretJlisrevolvl5 in a very small s.ys'heen deliberately confused) is usually to find 'wat.Ar.o.0 . bU.~ '_ ~New Grange").. (mough for reasons co.s and Mealbel ('Lie'l . Iuehar and I 1'111e:Thi. levidendy I 'son...of 1~'rltDin~ elC.am ~t_ ~e ear U" '0_ Ul.mones. incorporated in the seasonal myth which gav.0. tampered with . one oftbe .t begins... I".'~. r ~.t arri!Dlin Ireland 'WfUi. to judge from the Irish' of B. sometimesto his year'ly cycle. who bore him. oo:uo:manfS o:fdJe Bridsh Betb . a . -.. d's ICasdll' does 'n!o.d with making the' I". god on.DUS until h:is..d' isput__ .ua.'IS riddle: about Caer . from winre£ and though revolving islands are common in W'e~shand.y.1.aftenv.fused. The poetic ]angu. the T'uath. I am a ICIII. a round barrow fo!. around the Zodiae. or White IGoddesus" 'lies i'n her givin. I 11m.n.. Ko'Olwtb and Dowth.mether .i man 'of him ..Ot in individual metempsyehesls lof the w[gar What is the relation of Caer Sidil to Caer Arianrhodi' W.rants [flom Sp.tberj. widt 'the p~e of time.t fus·t that GWiC'D. There are several 'Fortresses of the' Sidllell in Ireland.a' S""I'III.-test (. Llew' Llaw has n'DI father at all" itt the Romance. 0.mus't have I -D.(JllyIlUJU'j which ·contains a went.·.t ICDnst!eUaoo.J letc~ loa .a in the House of the C. lin 'dle MaJin~.::y and with Lund.m. L. . Llew Llaw .robh:m is.. the largest" :and is . .tbbleDnes being .'poliD'I~) '~et. by The' Dagda himseLf. large pran of poetic education.ytbially tO his dlaUy cYcle~ I IS the: SUD from . by frequent modifical'ciJolll due to religilDus" social Ind .. air and water.. answer the: riddle? Wbo spent three periods the.c:e'). me Ri:ver examine these seasonal 'I have been's.I name' and a set of arms. the Dlonhem blinkS of Boyn'!". and.

When this. to judge by the taboos which bound! them and by 'the reputed effect of their behaviour on crop's and hunting.Sam. rings the base around . the Ogbam letters Band I.0 mystery. that the entrances to these burial caves were left open at ...as priestess. He was the: son. and the ii' horns of Moses.. two of them. d b th h· 1.Ld-droll of Inspiration 'W'3S. diametrically opposite the entrance.rona Borealis"i Thus the pagan Irish could can N:ew Grange 'Spiral Castle' and. rifted the chamber of its other mOlerary fumiture. who was born from a fir' and. gold torques and seems. sun and above that. some "f'. stone hedge.only seven ever returned from..According to . originally f~om the African maSabo. E]atos. For these barrows were fortressee above andtembs below. a stone was discovered in I9011 which has three suns carved on it. explained presently. mothered by the' horned Moon-gcddess Isis.ts of 31narr:. skeletons lying beside' a central altar. Ten enormous stone herms. of 'Eladu" which the Irish glossarists explain as "Scien..e Eastern..g a barrow of the New Grange sort. of the great dead she wails S 10.S.. was protected by one-s-nobody could. several of them measuring as much 'as seven feet by four. namely Co. of Kings... dedicated respectively to Inception and Death. W. c and one formerly stood at the summit.ne1 there ire three recesses which make the arms of the cross. ircle around the southern base of the barrow.I(ea'ting" the magic fortress of the en chan""'. row' the next mQrning.as if in prison.. and King Alexander shown on coins.ce cr Knowledge' butwhich may be a. stags' antlers.J).. of the' ancient Irish alphabet. which derives..00 one:lintel. Deep inside the bar-row is a pre .ghtnin..of the shaft. Caer Sidi' It :may weD be that oracular serpents. Since the old poets. two complete .ches. The antlers at New' Grange were probably part of 'the sacred king'.. Delphi.. set edge to edge. as will be w.also celebrated as a feast of the Dead in An. to allow the spirits of the heroes to come out tier an.ginal Caer Sidi. bones. and WI'S originally covered with white quartz pebbles: a Bronze Age sepulchral practice in honour of the White God. A revolving wheel before 'the door of a castle is common in Goidelic legend •. 'Our' king has gone to Spiral Castle':' in other words" 'he is dead'.ght line.of 'the fort. eltic C p'a'ssage~buri. castles. idhe ('Woman of the HUt!l).g carved . notched across a :strai. It came to Ireland from 1031 m. with their rays enclosed. housed after death in glass. were b ". aer '1'" 'th -_eli :pretty plain: the sacred kings of Bronze Age lre:bm:d.em Pr::e'iJeku Ann~wmJC. . The shaft CDtlS'is. the sides engraved with stripes.e nune = -enea~~ these b narrows. and the "omphales' or ~navel-.. and nothing else. It is not known how' many more have been removed from the semi-circle but the gaps suggest an original set of twelve. nothing to show whether tbeY'1 or earlier invaders.:1 remains of iron weapons wer.Iuehurb:a married three princessea whe together owned Ireland=-Eire. It leads to small circular chamber. in a circle . Fodhla and Banbha..cient Greece. revolving a fore~finget in esplanation. The Irish 'Banshee' fairy is a B'ean . form. Slabs of the doorway and of the interior are decorated 'Mth spiral patterns and there is forked li.. The 'case is kings of a most primitive type.hain. and those of Dionysus.A hedge of about . knees. . of the.. it' Castle of Ariadne. wherle the C'.still. From an incident in the Irish romance of Fionn" s Bt?y/tooaJ. and 'that these were the serpenrs which St. part' forthe legends.ow passage. great slabs of stone.. Isle of Man. airing.e later fOU'Dd on the site . (.shrine' where the python was originaliy housed" Wi:S built underground in the same beehive style.lxty feet lang'. or Hathor. housed. or 10.I hundred long flat stones. but the · spmtswent to.alcave built with. i5 11.me other free. enter until it wale. a. The Dagda and Elates may thus both be' equated with Osiris" lor' Adonis" or Dionysus. with a bee-hive corbelled vault twenty feet high. tress Blanaid. which was . in the. unenclosed.ee').·'eU' .ith a spiralled python and a prophetic priestess ofthe Earth G-oddess.. c 0'0 the east side of the mound. AU Souls' Eve. part. The' grQund plan. So the pattern typifies death and f. The provenience of the bee-hive tomb with a passage entrance and lat-eral ni. were once kept in these sepulchral eaves.1699 it contained three large empty boat'shaped stone basins. The spirals are double on:el: follow 'the lines with your finger from outside: tOI inside and when you reach the centre. · '. and that the interiors 'were:illuminated until cock . w. Mediter~. "C·.dess which ma:y account in.-. In front of the doorway of New Gran. like the antlers worn by the Gaulish god Cemunnos.. there i:sthe bead of another spiral coiled in the reverse direction to take you out of the maze again. a mountain in Arcadia sacred to Demeter and later renowned for its. weighing eight or ten tons apiece stand in a semi .. But it is built of heaped stones. head-dress. in prophetie anticipation whenever anyone of royal blood is about to dle. though. Patrick 'expelled" though perhaps only metaphorically . who were solar' a cave was re-discovered in 1. to crawl on hands and.ebirth. the Sidhe' were such skilful poets that even the Druids were obliged to go t~ them for the spells that they needed.OOOI tons of them" not of earth. or ghosthouse.New Grange is a fiat-topped round barrow. of the GJ:leek Elate Cfir-tr. as will he shown.. could . Roman gold! coins of 'the fourth century A". was once an oracular tomb of this same SIOft. . the home of Apollo.g~ there is a broad slab carved with 'spirals" which forms.'fir-man') was an early Achaean King' of Cyllene.is the shape of'a Celtic cross. one enters by a dolmen door at the base. not in the cave.. college: of learned and sacrosanct heralds. likely that the ori. it appears. through whieh one has. about a quarter ofa mile:in circumference and6fty feet high. Above them is a much rougher. re~o'rd that each ra~ ~as presided over by an enchantress and since. The fort was sacked by the Danes burt there is..hicb. according to Gwion':s po.. are the fitst and last letters. s...say.

set up IW.detoe.-- me' is 1 (verses 4~.olU at the middle .v·e I I been many successive despoilments of the burial before: they were put the're~ The lo.. use in. c. the .. '.enty . diluted with enormous 'quantities. his.By in the . But the eight double . 0' ' 'f'~'..g from.e:1'the IOr8. Dr~ ·R. lb' tere ma...not S..ter and were . an.cular sbriDe from the' D'3Jlaan'5. huge circular enclosure not fa.aD1 and appuendy :repflesents.that on some of these the c. 'wbo. 's. Ano·mer suggestion of his carries greater .. ~d .t.t did not reaUy lapl ' hlood. enormous labour necessary fOl' the task.."..ghos.gists.Ds :and...alrving has been defaced by pi.. 1t...ranean by way of Spain :andP'ortugal ..ffered bull-saerlflees and :sprinktedbalf the blood .s.e {ro.ri.ab~e.le: tw·o or three BibUcal 1)eX6 refer to the 'queer bat . like 'SOl prophetic ecstasYii'That S:ibyls acted.yean.B.on in. 'to answer' ~ 'ques. and been killed by ligh. ha.. history . c.8).g~rded asa poison deadly to.di air 'Caer' Arianrbod. A rite called 'The . I ov. and wu used.rary . 'of considerable SiH~ Then he and..riDkled.:ilie corbelled roof of New Grange' occurs 'also at Tirbnd!den" Dowth and Seefin.yone hut. in the Book.. built ~y :1 'mattiar1chal passage~. hllm"la·... 'Dr semi-circle. : . and was.1.IS the tribes of Parmalan and i oi. .D this subj.meed a hull and let the b~ood.Olf' eourse. It· B"lI·y·· . la." me Cairn ..y are the 5ke[elto.gol. _II iii"':L'L_ 11ne co.pr. XXII' UJ_:_.on.cred. was sp. and this. 0 0 one of the outer stones a symlbo..ere made b..ll'lce' . Nlemed that invaded the IQOW1.m B. IGmece by way of Spain.. a C[ietan ideo'g:r.fprophets or prophetesses.en neat mt was re..ofFaery" 'Wha'tilie basins . enu.clc-surfacing like that found on the trilithons of Stonehenge.L! sensev A I. agreed that New Grange was.gu.and would! consider' a deseaa.ifI!I.god Angus. this wlou'(d account' for me Legend of the usurpadoD ofthe shrine by the .ey..of tbefitteenth century I~C. S.· . speak through the mouths.048 and 1'718 B~ICt"1 comin.'Wlul EIiC' b ~-ld-·' b-· .s written 'to :metha·£ Dot ..m the previous occupan. of water. wail: UDtU " .si. is carved.long· time..Malta. .. II'~'''' 1". ('Black Poplar' a.' we..Bo.I!liii1 .cult ms'wen estabr~:d:: vessels are found in pass. mred King 'dIS of Gordium .0Jj. _ of Queen Maeve is.. That bull's blood was used £olr divinali.d!3nk blood :and. a :shiPI wi. Arlek.Mae-v-e Mab" the QUeeD ." bemuse tb·e' s: people are lupendtio'us .retan.r'c~.pb'~a19:"hough p'araUe'ied t :in Mycenean shaft .:ritain. 110'S!~. which are' merely juxtaposed.con'min.eas below.~C'.tyle.and the ghost Df Anchise-s (who had married the Love .eet...i't"where It showed si.c. a 5:iblyl Of' a plrieSI'r: Df MO'thu' Earth. of Mother Earth .d'. . whicb'may havle been .onl.s.wo companioDs.h • . That 'they' 'plropiua·u:td. ha...rh :ahigh :prow .em IGreece. bend ofthe . coUeague Aaron" wi:th s8V.my principal imormant O.cdon: 'that Angus' Brugh Cpalace'lJ) was DOt New IGmn:ge but a. since no 'virgin passigeloo. 'This lover:loDlks Sligo mID! '"'11.vle burials: .. is dated In the . ramer Anluiuie8! must -b rea'.y' 'the'D:maans when they lOD..ed about the g]o·rl. •.=.. mu.ct. The paep~g' and muttering of ghosts lon. 104. This ·tS.. the' . Lld mUD.grmve 'of thisl type has: bee·n. 'on the gr'IQundtbat it incorporates a number of ornamental stones irr the passage and chamber.ole· of InViru.• Macallister in IDS..rOI command the. '1:0 suggest that it is . of 'tomb unlucky: .. which mtmt have been.. one of them with.ginl.. .p t to ieast Din tbe roasted fies& On this occasi.. or famil.cina.i...wo from tba case of the: Pries less.S eross-examme L. are p·u. and pSitched ..t happened was.. DOt cunning]y 'wreathed together in the: C.at .ghostt 'of the' dead be.·'.tnin:g.r' Ol:&" in 3. Aeo.. .appear' .ed may be infermd ([10 m EJIOJus. the heroes of the p:r!ev'iou.000 !l.. o.a'tAegb1l. Tak.~ 1 The visit . -uL..es of R. suggests that the carvings w. from his father The Dagda... .rei a theory to which no other archaeologist of repute seems 'to' have subscribed.tion.eiv.game-s in ClDnn~xi.k over' meshrin..DOI thirteenth herm in the middle of 'the' circle. . we.people that first reached Ireland aheut me year aree B!!'C:~" but not umil they had become wellIelt. wI"Ie IV ~""' r: .at the close of the rhirdmlllennhnn B.Ind a small ci... Jaso'ft's (a·ther and mo·ther died from a. . wba.s·t l G' _ 00iI.11anners U[ULl\lBiytO ~~~. spil. ough in band:.. Ifso. .uenolw. arrow b tribes that firsl reached Ireland from :B!ritain about I?OCI Bile.ome·~..BuUFeast' is mendoned.ary' fu'mitulle cannot be guessed at.grave.mg:'uttniit :t.. This is.als. But his observaaons do suggest that the MUesians took foot of a sa. the rest of 'the' blood he put into basins.e'li 'Christopher Hawkes" .e-gra. 'to return from Cae:r Si. b· . 2.e been late-comers of the round .malfs. a charm of :sanctificauon. draught o.- I . I AO· .tg. ·thatthe~Sibyl" WilD ducted.ofAeneas" m. and 'lOI encourage him.with ornamental stones borrowed (fom other buri.I mock-antique in the' style of several hundred )'Iears befb.cul. but 3.ro.Boyne.als at the entrance. The arrival of the Danaaes in Ireland. apparently arranged haphazard.s..e stone berm._lh into. goddess Venus.:.convi.··~. in her 'the desired me me con- is kno.' . a trough.~ e Aeneas siler.a!Ueled In Mycena.M'DsClrish arcbaeolo. wbichsuggests. its pattern broken.r it.and stern and a single latge saili beside it ate' 'verticaJ scratehes . and supposes 'to have 'come (ro.._. such occasions is uoden·tandah.on" 'the blood! in the basins. drank the blood and it produced.ti.in. So did ass.U'S .ora. w'hom he dates about 1000 . I find.l funer.. :1 IICRid :king of the U:5Ual Herculean 'ryp~)" .··IIIII • ~~'I"".om witb all the many burialsof the neig'bhomnoo. Ireland (193'S" takes an orlginal 'view of New Grange .gJy propbesi..may be far earlier :sblce examples of unknOIWD Idate occur also."' . but its.Ery.ing. .SIIO'DE! an. to fertilize fruit-trees in Crete and 'Greece. the peopllie as. buria1s of lGoQ ·B"i'C.. DOt mere suppo.. opened in recent years.. to the U:nderworld 'to .y-'. The s.b. pLaustble:'they will hav.UODS.0'f-'~ -ImportaDs:e.~.···· ·:A'J.. in fac... 'smine 1V3S always to feed. tree sacred r'D heroes) :in A!maea...lbUgin. ses.. in Idsh.He holds that it WUJ bulb by the MUesians.o. Bull's blond was most potent magic. ·mak....an amphitheatre {Olf fune·.C.. IOf' decay. as was mentioned in 'Chapter' Ill".. opened.ablisbed some five hundred years.grJs. '0'0.. went u.• '" -. lapipinB' sound was beard in the:dark.ancient Ireland is. . of'IAe D ~ ~'. voices ill which demons.~..lof' POSti" at '(he their food ..~ J'~'·t I"' b-uil"~ of C!iO· may haw 10'wait a.

ance IDf Heinin and the other court-baeds=-ene G-wair ap Gei.Caer' ..wJ Talie'li'n~ Jesus is pictu·red . with four' cD'mers._DOSI to Heaven he went when he departed hence? .n:'the kist being a s:maU recta ular stone box inwhi:ch the dead body was laid in.~oddesl who el1ahlel bim to do so is the Goddess Ariadne w'hom the Welsh caned.y escapes :from 'the Cretan labyrinth.e¥cept fD~rhis Uon." . " • ..Amadtaon.AnJ.laan. weRt into itl .standthe' mysteri'Qul Pr'BidJeu Annwm (lithe SpaUs IOf' Auowro') in whi. r to thekist .!' :3. just asKing. lofty.eve.an.kiUed .. c....'do not kn. In the second part. \ -.ong diose eligible for' the honour were Theseus" Hercules" .11 of' ms . '~JJ:_.ow who "the:aUlonical seven 'were. l guide. ·a'wain.th~.S . be rescued by Hercules.b mistletoe ritei mew:hiee bun on whi. '. :g~vena.. . The refrain is£ "E'xcept seven none r-etumed from Caer S.6 of tile world. Cyclops' .. _L he .edalU'&(II:me hri. and }tIs cOlmpanion.. The' stories of -. . him.age WRS.. Theseus and Daedalus" both Attic Sun-heroes.. Jn. thI' Cuchulain. • '. k Da. the abode of the Perfect Ones. He would see in a dream s.ort: of'w'ork in wh. A.u'r tim. 'u'nUkely that Odysseus m'! inrendedr I think that Gwion. Harpocrates:.. and thes. back three cows anda magic cauldron.and idle defeat 'of' King Minol. gIDomy.e.. and by the en:cba_ntres~s Cir~ on. the blessed one of Davi·d the Prophet.tle'of 'the' shelving siidel-i.Awhitf3' bull was.d venture m tne ICretan labyrinth cof Cl1'C}ssos ...at that time . The :sixth I'g-e is the :age of J esus. me Thai white hull recalls the saaedwblt-e bulls of the G. I t.Q disposes') gjoras naked.. £ill oftbe fle~h and . Taiesin.g~ burial cave. (Ji. the round..... I think. andthence conveyed to W:estem Europe by Bronze Age immigrants.el'ed"efers:.killsi the bull .ch the Thracian Dionysus rode. as the Second Adam.. and the' white bull representing thetrue seed of'Israel in -the apocalyptic Book ofEnocA. as well a. a spell of' truth was chanted over him as he' slept off the meal. by GwiOD in apoem. is referdn. remote.r:D.l.idi...' We know at least two who did returru. vaenmethed of burial which wasinvented by the pre-Greek :inhabitants of Northern.... mentioned.i. Age: of Adam And the: Age ofD's. a reincarnation also of David .ew Gran.other sepulchral Island but escaped.e he would be caned. Saul had done at Enaer. .d by the 'Mo.ri:on lamentsthathe cannot escape from Caer Sidi.ofPwylt and Pryderi. synonym in Datal ·f. entered by I..tl ie ... . the Dark Tower to which ChUde Roland came in the ballad. of the Seventh Age: 'Was ~t..1I.on"s interpolative taunts.. Su.id Clthe lcastle of the perfect onu').. nd returns :safely:: and the . W/wlzatlt ext~1J'(lJ Ais dominion to tA.reece iabo'tltl'400 B..C~.~bet'ween Gwi. and.~ neseus:s eXpcultlOD to tne U-..d-. ment he wUlcome to us' here. of the myth. but escaped.-:' d. a reincarnation of Adam.An.ay of Judgement/'In the Seventh ~g.. Yet it is. Aeaea '~n. .t:lt.nered tattle') " fo.Annwm) 'L!~""-)·· 1U..Aeneas :isunHkel!y to have been one of the s.hapeand appearanceof the man who. No one he/or.Tltl. the: white bulls sacrificed on the Alban Mount and at the R.dal"k dooron the shel vmg side . royal. about Delos.man ate his..'n.r'J~UnM'Wml.ghtQ'ne') similarl. . . or Caleb at Machpeillb. eaded monster of ·the h dOQhle~n~th.s behind like Gwair. '~four~com..S/uJf.~'_: . Anhur. A MaVjf' Mus r.sdti) with pUB a mayhe on the Latin rigo'r mortiri ICaer' Colut. century poet D'sfydd Benfrss mikes visits Celtic Annwm" and who escaped from the gloomy cave: ill the hillside mn which he had been laid biy Jomeph. C~er Vandwy Cd1e.I'"" ~ tb. .:new'../tlte'Hso:vens.'j ~ I. Caer V.of'a slope).e lahru f(iom which the word 'labyrinth' lsi derived . The mythofthe hero who defeats Death was.drank of the hroth. castle OrD c I.t the Day of Judge .of Cnossos . he' mer ely visited an H oracular carve. perpetually sighing fOf' deliverance.r tlte spoils of Annwm glotJmiJy he sings" . .. whom the twelfth .e :I't still waiting in the heavens for the dawn. l PREIDDEU ANNWM .. and.. was _detained by Calypso on Ogygla" but eseaped.:r'OrugntlzB Ip.da.1 'which shalll last tiU the D.as the Davidic Messiah.d a. (Whe'n loG Prai. Cotnl'lB. C:the gJoomy Ic:astl~').etfJ tA.etwor._. The castle 'tha't they entered=-revolving..ire really two partl.Kay.rJntmw .eece and the islands. Odysseus may besaid _to b~ve been 'three periods in the castle of Arianrbod' because he entered wfth twelve companlons into the. hero .e.'re:me Rule" . but. Clel Ocllren: ('the~cas.engaged..Ais lay. seven stanzas.eyou t4" ....ite . G1JIYdion.on.vid. to [esns Christ'.lJ .owed Hell.Peiritheus remain.sack of the labyrinthine palace ....jll doom l:halJ ke c. • .aulis.... k 'to' the centre:of the mue.cave. Cam PedryvM Ctour-cor..njirm!y /ze.barr. ~Daeclalus"Orpheus and Cucbulain.. should be made king...!_ (The Spoils of. cold. oddessPasipbae" hut without 'Ulfb~gvio~ence. there . cDmbined by the Greek mythographers with 21 historical evenn the .'. entered from the side. at the ignol. are The particularizedin Gwion's D'ivrepa.of the Sardinians".. I crouched pesition.oman Capito].anaan raiders from G.the BuU ..D~ e did not die as the others did.tB'was me prufJn o!Gwa'.ch hewas .ediw. but am.) . of a single confused myth"" Theseus (!the wh. 107 . Df Arimamea" But hew was Jesus 'three periods in the Castle of Arianrhod'r' 1 take this for a heresy making jesus. Now we beg-in to under. It ap~pe-ars s Caer Rigor ('the rOlyail ca.t....r in Cd~'r' Sitli' Th.of 'the Aegean 'CO~Drdsts of Cumae" and . La. 'Thls deseription fitstheN".es f'evolving. ·S"Od'·" ~" . he fans inhis Underworld exped~dm'n: be has to..)t -11111 e p. Fcr the fifth .byD. ing..barrow me.AnJfo.. he brought. '. Arianrhod.. he g was I Sun .s of the A menians. Gr.of til hill~wu the castle of death or the T'omh..

oMItWf wa3' 'om. of Gut.By t!" 6're'fltl.-ln.Jin . .:. Ar.AoW" ofrke. A.~'{ire..' .lI.L. TAr" ..Triad 5.r. Arth. .. «ay. .o.l"~ .. veyed by Morgan Ie F'a:yei! he heavy blue' chain is the water around the T Island Death . that G'lVYdionstole the sacredswine and Gwair seems 'IDOl have gone on asimilar marauding expedition in the loompa.P an oak coffin. 11Qf8 presenting Jesus as an incarnation of Arthur ? plrydwen was King Art'hur'.-death and "' .Uy to Celdcblue enlmel aadRom$l ho. 1m. like Mines and Rhadamanthus of C:rete.rhwsi 3fHJ Suon. had dug: D.cCgp' 'WM:.s:. Glasto'obUl'Y. at their death..e'.'Th is colour wOltd cOrv'f:"ed ~y :sbadebetween deepl blue and 1ight.. the Romance is counting on the courtb.tde.een pr~sirv'eQ .lz.TArics fke fo'lln£r:s OfP. could be applied equ.h.'ei:r./'w. Tbe town O'f IGlas.tns 6lac_k of nit/it IfJfJV6.(:~nJj"Mfl. The nam'.'1' of Annwm t in. Am Lno« Q ..O~' " .'f(tlJntl i..' !amieJ..igAtww.0 Arthur is said to have been rescued by this same Goreu from three pr.l~to QJ. Glastonbury is also the Isle of Av. M .t on.pTowe'6 ofA....t" me Tn..l~. TM)l hzow 'NJ.".r. with the' silver head' is perhaps the Wbite· Roebuck of which we are' in.nts. see' tbeMoOid.. ofDsvlVy" Tiljf . AVQ.~CfJre 1auJ!J" In "is 'QlJf.. which his.iJJllllelty 10 •.ZedfrlJttJ Cas. Or 'wAD'preventedllim foam: 80ing 10 IAe dale. fro.blue: nightt sky. were successive rulers lo~fhe 'Afy. and Goreu is to Arthur as Hercules was to Theseus. .iv. Caer WyJ.know lIlJt . trailing' "A.urs in the Moree D' Artkllr as 'Sir B. Llsminawg. dead body 'Vl85i.. dqr. -And WMn we' W6:nt'witlt. Possibly Gwion in. . w:'" tlH' iJeverfl8'~fM' nOost. .was.. ofthefirmamen.is.evai l~gend mey were: made of g]I$.ytiw611 we wenl' i1ito itJ~ e.tlme's rlte·folnes8' o{Pryiweft"" W8wetJI "'TJ .tlts .'eJ(Jngl In Caer' PsJryvanfo7J.• ' _] 1_ W:lul bn.caDos.lu .unm HeiniD with not possesslng.. Pembroke..D.a. when wa~ it .Dle.n. search.. in whose hands Arthur left the B:asbing 'sword.rAe' ".I leaden. tWine retu~t.~ .'~. the Dark Prison under the Stone-sell of them death . shrines..· ulat lit IS l3".Q. thkk MaJ iJatiJ'1 AnJ 1-W1l..r~ About a hundred years before GwionWl~ote this". Dr' WhO CrtW".Aey It.ofLleminaw" And lJefo~B tM'portals a/rA. l Is it 'IUJ.tinel.Jt was from Pryderi..tits j'tinJlel(/olx" with .DfJrf1¥ing cozu:age...e~J E3Gc'eIJt'seve~ nons re"s'tljr01J1. J T-hr6(Jtimes r:k'fo'lI18'6:8 . ttJ .shlJltJ nlit.m.fo' fame. Anoeth is also the prison fromwhich.exJon with . 0. as the answer to ~Iwas 'three periods WitA a: riiJge Q. IAe 1'fJ'llnraJ:aby tll._m' ..t.e~ul·Y to have been me g~asis~ The 'gbu. 'Themyth of 'Cwy.strfJng dtJDT'.And . wAa·. like that of IGwair and! Arthur'.splsnJU Jay Cwy MItzi 'om.C(/JeT' Colar:~ T'lirle limN' rw.o.8onl" ln tAlJ'four-clJrtliet'le'll'enclCJ.szlr" ..tA~'U. t. pOPlJ~a'r:$llperstl'tH..illu'. bu~in m.Jjeyr:tn.lz:t.JI we 'WInI 'Witll. the earliest invaders of Wale's. /w.in.s. son of Custennin] Gwa.a]on (Appl.-me' of'he Hea.u:n.::'· eon .u" tlJc.d . Excel't "'VB3.nljl-Iuuzit_' tn'Nt 3t(Jod'dN 1481416.ur a~r Peirirhous was to 'Theseus.sp'()k:e:n. cauldron oftlie cAiefofA1inwm. Except seven.'g~en~l:t.. in its'/asnion in the Castle of.k.c'B' til.boil. son of Rhiannon.umm.rrQ'unded ..ields_ Thej/' bwwnot IQII wAG. 'fI.tAe'me.' 0" wha" animal . appe'. in .. thought of as the glass castlell in which Arthur"s soulwas housed after death. !go'~ ess ass .I dd 111. Gothic inscription on I .SiJi. PwyU and Pryder!.Of au !o'rswo. b __ m me .A'e . it is gMtly WtlfNU'J.edivere~'. magic ship.'" ot Mabn.(1 ceuldrtJ1J. the Glastonbury monks.: not 'Jesus'.Al"ianrhod".iaJ 5'0.r. II 'wa~' ifficu....i.'.' elsdes of Irish" ManN.CrL6rl'- " rflO .J in tlz.s c.ar.f)lJpla. Arthur was reseued by his page Gor'eu.ards to guess cAr~tb:ur'l. :by WilHam C~er'Vy4r' ('Glass Cas. P:_andwy~ I will not allow p.tt~efJ:t. and meir con.ny of Arthur.r..i. .irm.sald named at1le~Its 5ewlar fQundm: Gla'!teing!.e name a/the el'S.Caer Wydl~ is.m ..edla.wa"s . MIlS' T>emmedfoom ..t..ygla:ss.. O"d:f w"az: "(Jur' ..r.tM fooJofa COWa.ltonbury h.. '£eyD..t 'mill not all(Jw"1"'Ql4"~ to tA. OeMren..'8 headband is.. tj.uzen. but the 'animal.ir' Is ·thus to. I.thrQulh clas. who came there uom ihe.J iI. prisons.tle) is a learn~dpun of Gwlon's. allowl'rair. the Castle of Pendragon CL.oflibtetr . since In .51.iaJ 61..e .lqJl.rwi/ignt atul'..ye '.north wim his tw~lve brothers at some time before .m ~fl~gkt "hall/Je /j. ollline dt:l1'ns"I. cliief«r.tnurin !tis splendid lalJlJurs..(JfPryJWlf:I.tlUlr. the Castle ofOeth 1alnd.y-grem wamt"or smr~pri~o~sr idanded. i'l no longer extant.eimer' island.rllVerll witlt.u.tAI. /ortis l(:Jflit6fature. And left in·t46 hand...the . or lnil Gutri.J."'ad. remmeJfroDl Caet V6aiw..m sixteen feet underground..ttlt.SelllB".. !Jand. according to: Tr.u eelge ()fpemU'f It. .lr times re'Molving" The first W"'TJ from 111. IAe. And tAe name a/rke lall:guage.neqtl.mary. riaM re'bumeJfrom IC(Je~r .ii. Welsh legend are w'Us'seen Ie he .isofi's.cDsNn.g so !tim will De '.L. su. at w4a. 'm we went 'Wilh ArrAaf' oftIZ(Jumf(d. nDn8 rstlJlnsJjrtJm! Cem. EXcep~' Se'JI.tIre' is/anil'o/tlt. for his prison called" inT.skin.B. and the name ofthe OX.AmI no" IfZc'anJidat6.'ftea.they became Lords of rheDead.5". wiO Mt . one of prime bardic secreta whiehGwi. wi:.. Ani wA~ we went wit44rthUr afmournful. which 'they elaimed to be Arthur~s~1and faked a. .rn" A sword 6rig4tfla..Beirdd CReprooflof the Bards')t..Or is he' covle~dy ...etr-ees) to. con .600" 'The Lati.toge. EJ«lJpt.a. 'and. to' be lu:.on in his Cyst Wyr .IJ.dark~.o'rd of Serpents').the Castle of Oeth and Anoe'm.

W'Ope~ 't-Ol !l1nma:u~ :seveoteeftuiooeeD'wry.lgeby water to the' next world" wen attested. r-e'bldon between Caer Sidiand C'lel"Aria. t I .' • lr..ed UDder' ..ilJ1d ..pr.7JAtlabo1U r~fEur~le this ~o. will be ebjeetedthat man has as v..ch.a..er' when the: Sun Is Weakesl1t and bas.ges.M.sses. whol :im:prisHl.. fDund inside..of Cams.uS have yet:. only do.of an old milD"'with oak .i~godd'ess.s ttue o'nly in a sense.god.fIlc:ulu heroes in.J:.te.n~.400 1.dMoors Df:a primary burialwitb no less than three boat dUI'" outs must hencefornNard 5. older.er' divini. mina.. 'fWl. OJ- jl .' r lie ..ch the wind b~~ ~"snow...ence! .m envies her and 'tells hlmse'lfHM.g Ithe :skel..gias.ng 'the: so. especially in YOirb.~ .far .She tries tO sadsfy both.nained his most soU'th. as evidence ofber fundamental falsity..]I~ ..PlltaDllD¥lery bE-.Q'ther.tiUJ women 'wear 'Th :!J-II-~d p. [think Gwion is here saying: '~YIOIU bards.(:.. nd the evidence oftb.e da:J)1selsof 1600 . wRu. .JUt hamow of Loose H'Dwe on the: CI'e\"elan.Wesdescribes In his Pr:e6i~lD. Al"lDW etter.c cult.vinity as... jealeus ofhis wield" Set" the Spiri:t ~Dfth.Le... '" I I'D InS.bad a rimaJ .: M!d . 'the Ba'I'tic.hil1e where the Irish route over the' P'ennines [blrter of Irish gold a:gain.y:s 1_ sins. '1. I. the SDuth no!wp'assmg along the Amber Route.ys: his humanityJ' and this is." It. __ "'.riginal Dame oftbe Avalon here was~ IChristopber Ha:w. virgins.ad pLace' l 'where' his spiri. uJtimal~eWy from Egyp't' Mr. 1 sols dee when the Sun.I demi . The.r' el I: centuries. 'the quara:r' from whi. .bc:C'aus. 'be.~_. estern B.I'CC hi' 'M.t beginnio. They were po'ssessed of .ne .) mOim w.(n~ his single .t once except hy III in'~eUectual.e' Waning' Y&U.'tic am..tem 'Medite~ n_ne.UDS areto he found in the ..of Awl on.y in . he Is divine J1.ce~Vlefnaj he can. Holstein in. inhood .rm burial: of Inhumation.tic priestle.p.ID is .cruaiom.letel.bips the male infant. kin.not be' both.eBented :1 dug-out boat" and that the id~a of' .mazes being called 'T:roly Town' in.nrnod seem's to he that the 'buri.t H'Dve~ DO'led fO'f i.lo..e 'odler' in the .tely interested in g~orwn meo"however..I! C'lejf~drDia'~.god: he aJ"W'ays has.Dn poin'ts A plainly 110 the derivad'OD of 'me Arthur' .r the 'sea. the.'tbl: .€! if he is.ll.ctised in Schlesw.coD'bUnm. ef mao"s dependence DO her fo. either in the river QI.I Sun~king BOld . so by almrna!e. Wloman. Englo'nd. eul . not of'his own irreeonI scorn and hate.ml .omde Ihere. The Sun-. the lexU"e'm north!! Why the north? Because 'that.cal powers and might be ap..r on this eatth. II 'WU.'ther in the sky.. .' ." .elJon .s't B'IIde 31'mber] reached the sea. a.dle'centuries of the seoDnd! miUennium.ts Scandinavia_n. dO'11 that dlestro.-.e oak ICOffin.ilve.anby 'Way ofthe Ambl'f' Ro!U..alid a claim '~O di.e .Charge .cult of Dither Q. cUviae she is not even a dem. branches and whatap.0f' me 'W' axm. her · .•.mos.e CD'ffin originaUy re~.. is hom at 'mid-.bemafte:rme The 'Troy IGame.g was.-she is a mere ~ymph and his.[.d1cnlL Theft' are 'two megaHdUc memhin on 'ib :is1aad '.nly dead S. about his D''Wncompleteness. . She is. Idle higbest. IOlve fOf' her turnsto 'me affinities: [it contained a handled cup of 'Bam. 'rk _:same: and 'bIltU.-=--0 5. b-urlen th if' renownen·d K' ..fwldamen.ely 'burial after cremation.or 'm..j..becm . but his soul went: to the :s:tars..ia.g. !I. ·E· . • .!'lers OD both sides. and in Wales .pear-ed to be mistletoe over it].d t of 'the dead.er~y station.hopefUlly :Iwaited rebirth.ig~.·· h·e is awa.D'Y L . me' cau~dron.gr.classic: example is the Gristb!orpe ...ly in Blown :m the mid.perfonned. .lC§lDt& .aik .. . ID i.. other kin.'.cull: &Iom the ElI.IDand. 'but.l The sacred .' tredess. 'the peat Wlgious mnra' . whe.t northerly station.BDd penetrates the Wessex culture a:lo.ays.. l.cotlin:burial near Scarbor'Dugh [an D.pro.ma.~ m Brinany~m!::: nine' 'pulStesses mllS!t :haw' worn.k Eo.'> wall already pra. traderoute was Bonrislnn. or' whatever the 'D.ftS 111m in.Narm Sell between mou't The nin. "I.coffin ..dres.of this type" but more pro:minent: on the east coast.defect of the Apoll ..8.by yo'ul1g me The )s1ad of S~ wlDcl1 is not . Bti'min Bn..t o.I and vi. of the' . .um coast where the burials.lace nl ~.. 'The joke is thatthemonks had really" it seems.1'10 III' .. M. eitherone fOOi .. at the hie ofAwm..1111 .bab'ly named t.e.. a labyrinthine dance of As. d· S' '". ClmVaUQ..t liv. can keep both her fee't . therefore his 'repr-esen:tative'lI the Sun . '!!l' . pass..n" bu. tOI regard this. then. (and more nr.ougb theBaltie eonD'eD!O'lD with.iris: and Se'l feel for e~cb other Din her account is a tribute to h. J.()lng:. 1 nine.g y". same .de~ survives in the' Eas'ter MU:I dance of country vUla.ty~.~said.orld" D... or G-wyn. Thiel same rim of boat.O~ 'coffin-burial appears simulta'Deous.ri. in tree~trunk ~offins c 0 veredby a.'.IIIU···· I'" . me. 'traditio'D 0·( SpiraID C'I!.doD in Viking times.. a barrow OlD.I I . tbou'gJt' . in me' underw.Minolr.tain. . . wmch GinJdus Clam"ll' t brensls saw and believed authentic. but can.. e Ui. o have heen.be'r]l WIS. trunk that Arthur~'B end was 'in that oak coffin at Glastonbury. In Bri.PI"]! ..m 'iOI d. dte'begimDng' of its Bronze Age" It ~isprobable d1ltm. _001_ A ~S0':-".~_che. is ... of the Is:le of' SCl. attains his . the White M'OOD IGoddess.. CL~ .". bead.IUII' 00' 'ardl~ logical.&'0. r-ecall the me' 'WIDman 'WO!fS.of oraeular :md or. of them I. because the love-hate that O's.ri'le IDDk hold amoD. for entiang saiJo. the Sun neve'!" mes.' T1l.gi.. 'ear" t.foot 1.. The .g~.king.. when the North Sea. ·~~.in the same' place. is mm.r Jjf~.p.mui"der" and man tries. on die .andthere .. ". man:' it'is evid.the ..ere lei. in :18.of her deity. I t.eland is Ukely 'lobe seven o.]'w. ireOdy had a ~Pdtation.reitumsat deadl 'to 'UniversaIM.er. lnscnptl0n ran:' .....e early fifth century' A. . is killed at the swnme'l l eilable demands on her.tand at tbe head of series md serve 'to' show bowth.hi. in Scandinavia in the lIter Bronze Ag:c! and again in the' Iron Age down ~'O' its famous. is here to be recognized at its m!l. and thereby makes himself mlserab. described by Pomponius Mela. 'barriO.1 not the' grown. the recent discovery in...d by thosewhe sailed to ICDDlult meaL.D. Thati. voy. t.C. loni!ln 0'1 Jehovisti. '--. .tt. inspil}ed'l 'it may well.. woman is divine because she. o'.oolld polar nOlnh.ll in .Arthur 'with Guenevere' his second wife' in the Isle .oD.any in tb. dlseovered the body of' Arthur.~cn with :lIJ :Nmiined im ~mI rB.1 the seaf3.UlUIl hav. and Denmark" between ItlOo and 1400 B.hldJ. is. Romans pflo..

Q.:mito bloCk from the Wicklow Hills. another way of 9peUi~gthe. astem Brita1n two hundred years before the Bel..n .and i~::ls. aDd the second ftom.re ArC versions: the .mwaU two mazes.. alphabet quoted in the.X. used in Br. D..noblemen.was an early form of Goidelic..R.s.thougbt that thecommon language of Bronze B.d on..gic. F. now in the D'ubIin National Museu:m" These :ml2lesbarvethesame . Mac-alister.C. FF't.8Y of' tlze B. On a rock me.cmory 'Df their Trojan ol.ter in Hampshire.xis:rence) differs from both the :Rhys and M. EJ massive· gr. :kin"dra.ritai. before the intr~oduction. In s:till another' version. a Q but '00 P.ry' (as if it: 'w.evethe o!nly one in €!. pe'rforn1ed.itain and Ireland some: centuries. as...cbains connected by their' ears tOI 'the tip of his tongue. In Delos it 'WaS.was pictured as a veteran Hercules. 'H. MyrAo'[o. and Rhys's Hiato..wing crowds of prisoners S at} " 'with golden .'s.is offered fO·f' P.of'the W:~ls.and Sc-otland.n..navia and North-eastern Russia.first quoted fr·om Brynmo. wa.r .A. are carved. at Rome under' the' Early Empire: in . JoDe. lIZ I]..t: line: of consonant~: but me Y is doubtless anerror for' .. Oxfo"J EngliSh Dic'tio:'fl.Z.tJ..scaHster Oghams byhavi:ng M.c. " one at Silcll.ted of twenty' lett~fifteen consonants and :6.fr. ZII c. ancieat stone inscriptions in Ireland. it was in Ireland. M.ve vo'we~llppa~en'tly 'CQ. i~ too.D. Here a.e .to record the escape of Theseus from theLab:y:rin.m.in Scandi....Latin ABC'. the Isle of Man. as its las. L" s. SOD.'Goidelic alphabet.Y. called 'Oglham. 1ao:: the Labyrinth ofDaedalusshown 01'). Gn II in Calaiope. . D.s..rresponding to :1delf~and. IGo~dels fr..urteenth.Mediterranean with Ne:w Stone Age' invaders of the third minennium B.F'·" S~.m the Continent were es:tabUsbed in. letter .th.ry . G. sinc-eancient rough stone mazes of the same pade:m as the E" Ush found . [t pronounced F] B.~!I Numerous examples of this alphabet occur in.eva! IrlsbBoo/c of Ballymo're to' 'Ogma Su.ritain.n.etUi coins. Cr.A. called the Crane Dance and was.a. or GoideUc...L. the fo.si:g...NY. with ll ' slab near' Bosinney in Co... T.rigm..D" T.aru:e seems to' have' come: to B. 'said. Poopl".idels" Ogma. th. with eluband lion .. c Mi' 'G'It NG..pa. N" R _ iiI It will be seen that both these al phabets are ~'QCelt' ..ey contain.th~The maze d.' given as ST and an.. N'G..risA Isles". faoeso'n of Breas oneof the early gods of the Go... and another its carve.r. elt) E C invasions from G'lul in the early fourth century B. Its iavention is credited in the media. but Pliny records 'watLatin. the capital of the Atr:ebates who took R.t"tem.. The a~phabet OODI:i5. of th<. North and South Wales.G. according to Lucian" who Mote in the second century . quotedin Charles Squire. (P . The Ogham.. because ..children. are " part' in 'the Second Belgic Invasion of Britain between JuUus Caesar~1raid and the Qaudian conquest.. Secret LanguagBs of Irelana..om the Eastern . dumhl fiDger-laD_gul.'ri. 'RiO [* pronounced V] B.. N..s.] . Chapter Seven GWIION"S RIDD'LE SiOLVE'D .

the Drulds invent their finSe1". . -.o:gl~am ('.no.ely different from other let.riguing method would hav€ been to regard the lefi hand as a key .. firat expmience lof a]phabedcs.tOro:.en. elaboltate .nguage:to form any one of the letters of the alphabet.m.gesbetween one Druid and In. carded one as unnecessaryjand I think thathe has proved his case". Pa piece of lattice wlork. used his 'nnlers to. '..g.ey. '0.'· . .or-der. were usually eypheredvThe four sets.. while seated.. but fo·r ".'r that the Druids of Gaul used 'Gree:k..reign an Q 1 letters. eonsists ofnieks. oard method for closer b c- [ulius Caesar records in his. ak e . dated.ouped in the I ' I G o - . with the letters 'marked by the tips. Ph a 'spi.}!t " . that 10 Ireland Ogbams. in.a.peUin.altogether different from the Greek: one would have expected the Druids to {aillow the originsl.ent: directions.'/l-..~ iU. board" like that of'a typewriter. -ogham') in 'whiebthe signallE!r'. by Maclililt'er: 1WOI'&.nl~.uonal Ogba:m 'wi:m his 'shin bone serving as the e against w:ruch the Dicks.B.oglUU'1< "d' . and and thumb. '8 li. he' sllggests.did~not. c' .nows.eVlliJ!nl:JlY' feleE"rJ.. egham') the nose 'was used inmucb the §ame way.. Th had lozenge'... with the B b vowels conveniently .l..slgmlli~g across a room. am. This . ~eft and begin with. In.. .. spots withthe forefin. and to touch the required.. Ph X 21 riginal part of the Ogham alphabet vwere they not integrated with the restin hs lnscrlptional fOlml~It would have been simple to.nil"lnd Xa. There were other methods of us~g the' G.. 'why the nose is ridged'. .s~used by' Druids 'were this :alphabet of 'm-enty-six. about mefiftb century 1.. '. though they di. and I should aB~e' with him. secret and when used for 'written m.. 1.gn. the other' frOin1 VeO in Italy.~"" have been the finger' .ahet for secret signalling purpos. . still some . fro'm 'one 'to five mnnumber..of nick indjca'ted '~e' position of 'the letter 'the digit.gh't.. when.'~lan. . 3sgiv.guagebefore they learned this Gr@ek.""".ilie tw'o' middle j olnts.. He aSlumas.~:m.~ (1) If the five fo.tha~t_ they . as follows. written SemiticaUy from right to.l__ wu~en ne mennons.n_g.nguag~ rep«es'eIlt five 'fo." ". These alternative methodswere useful far .' of a squared. :aI80" the memory cf schclars should become :im. while the 'variety . .G'ID~E. . imitateillscri.."t.the inscr. the answer is '10 :malte ogham-signalling easier'P'.. Sr'(J.3.wlon is .:'·they had been kept :1 dark.'. 1: r. one 'needed only to' extend rheappropriare amount of fingers of lone hand.g all the other things he k. wem Ell • Oi A.-1:.~(JglJ.. ll 0: . each of five characters. nicked on wooden billets. less conspicuous and less fa. AI. But did. letters:" :four' more 'Wan the Classical Greek". IIU' Ui 11ll/ Ae In inscriptlons these letters were g-iven. Macalister proves.se. " -:'L.' Dr" Mac'BUster suggests that the Q-g'bamaJphabet.J!J. pointing them. I-_ . _l(. on which the letter' occurred in the finger lang1rlage.Dr.~1" of tight band"Each letter in the inscriptions. m~.~'~..key.1L...~ centre:: the bases of me: fingers 'me twenty letters. form' of the Greekalphabet~!known_ as. what S:emitic. These were: tOI _ -.s are '0. s·.reign aounds.plete with the extra letters.Kh had a St. te 1I. ....l..cil'aracters_entit. me [Kh Th 115 x] 11:4 . cut 'with a chisel along ibeedge .• The _letter. nVle comlJinatiOl1ll IDf vowe]sw·ere used in 'the deaf-and-dumb .p.a. .' l iolpb.r..D~ . L T I -'0 . . c{)unting' from left tori. Ga..]. But this would have been a c:lums. represented fingers used in.. paired.ters...terthinks. letters' for their publie records andprivatecorrespondence but did not consign their sacred doctrine to writing 'lest it should become vulgarized and lest.. 'early..'....thatt'he 'Greek letter.t:r.portwUis. lone of four ·differ._11_ VI'h~-. allot them nicks.g. f'~' ·.ew'$ eross..:1 'which represenredrespeetivelyt Kb ThP I wfpJ/ Oi III la.llic' "Q.:t.on.t!ssa. closely if this was their Beside's these 'tw'enty le't'~r:s.ere c· . 'stone. tic '•.Andr.y method of signalling .the Ik. II~ other...rher are lour: d~ ' Ineren1: vanenes ...81phabetr Dr~ 'MacaUs. oard. the' ForrnelloCmvetri whi!cb is scratched ontwo vases" one from Caere 'and. corresponds fairly closely with an. I assume that the number of nicks in a 'letter indicated the OIl 'number ofthe d· ... were cut..A.0 main considerations.es" The Book of Ballymou rlefe'~s" to Co'S." iIi.iptional fo'rQl of the alp'habec. 'U I e' .'.is. (I) The order of le_ttem in the Ogham is . 'wer'e not used In public inscriptions until Druidism began to de:cline.much qui'cker.

.ra.ey DIed the E dig:il:. distinguished £rom .riddles will be: found in the' Boibel-Lodl. '!IIINc-········..L. the assumption that: IGwto. 'me Bowel.ofthe D'mrributior. Macalister.nnu:no'~Cerve.proximate sal cIDosely eo the ·.gan aI... as the best Uving au.. =-instead of being expressed allusively in vowel oo.t 0'0 cc bets serio'usly.oriah is. niakes a .ACAB RIUBEN' aSE pressed this allusively as. of IccnfS.gl! '.oibe.JPn with J.DD. riddHngpoem . by reference to the fourth finger" the E d:i"gi.ustified 'm -.equivalent combinations. .1 of . F'mally Pis: wri:tte_nla.ebrew scholar may :hav.in. the I is made: the combillatloD v'owle. case iSi 'that thsancient Iris11 wQ. being used asan indication of shrillness 'of sound.t t . be late artifi..I. I :must not 'take IO'Flaheny"s.B me' eartb~ . iOICriPlti.of. shrill varie'ty .r-iens.I-:Loitb. ~ •" .recently I 'wr-olleon . CI'n. for anyone to shelter.!! I :am :1wO'D·der whosis origin is... (the' We[sh s.116 Y .kindo.etters of the O'.rde'f' tO .fOlf X. the Kasound of the' Greek SI 'H D T C 'R A. 'was.ve foreign letters tothem with such disdain as virtually to de~y them any put in the system.g~am alphabet 'w'ere in existence long' before the F.X'I(/IJ MO'UJ1. Similar.J! :1 pass Ion 'this. .B..gn languageS.. was brought to Italy from Greece. tal 'match ve.be' replied 'mat.ugbtto .eqW.llde.ery broad: back.seed.md. d .tnd b:Y'way of Spain" nat IG.ml". one ease and U in the od.n.lDIRA NGOlMAR N Ng NEIA.g J from DOit I conclude that the t'W'enty j. onwhich the letter H oeeurs.ti'U habirua1ly confound .F.~ Then if the :ans. depends on O!'Flaherty':s..tion of C and H. letter cAi" the Druids used the Latin .git and F t Ion t U di.o. the' I is an indication that P is.century A.. That the vowel combinations are alluslveis easily understood .IOminioiD.t nOlmk I':sball be until the: lday of./8a:ialz"..phame to. tbou:gh "Morvnnl .r-y weU.Y got ~onfused._e.ft..tAe' P'rlsellt' S'ral' of lr'eland (.DI't their' lS.n was.. ion .known-originally be.. fi. of' unra.F. as follows: .tri.~ombina. and trans .od')" and because Ph is a. p. 1 ment. .€!.. d 'l"U. if I have not gOlt 'tbemWlio.:1t.. posing Urie.n's.. and that the answers to the so-far' uns:oMved .of the B.on:.gmally pronouneedP in.vie 1 me Ire~.dwas. 'neither .. DO.to 'fOM . :SDggtSts 'MoRbi. alphabet.eenth:" centuIY1PQ' on theauthorlty of Duald l unsolved riddles: I ha~'e been at the' throns' .ved ri. {o'rel..cov.o.oim 'tile' nation that came' out of Spnine~i'l The' names of the letters of the . 'Q'Flmherty in 'his sl!vent. UDS:O~. Loth .e tbey not spelt out with the nearest finger dia..oos...L.gnuu above . of little: more importance than the affectadons of'Sir P'ierde Shafl. Olf • oriah:l. IN··I'.B.. written Ui because Th is a shrill variety of DI (as tlzet)' in Greek correspends with the' Latin Je'w Ig. 'lind ~U)on.' "D!uh 'dl 0' 'DOt ...gbam N alphabet was originaUy B.: 'They aU seem 'fO E r I ESU u-u JAICHIM me I_: Wb. the' A. on which both C and S occur'.1 family bard ofthe B'OIBEL O'S. Irish .ck . so that Hur :and 'U.Wer9.OD which..Bifted 'with spe~. alphabet are given by Roderi.tb..ly fO'l' X..I': I _ seem. and with.Luis . ..D.i S'p'enser' records this in.mbinatio. his ..r-e I w. . I was ~oquacious befo. In .GAD'ON .ria euiID..and HDl"-""""'for.. before the me' han..rd £or '-alphabet" is me "Be_th. I exp'l'\e8S.~bilcbsugg:est9. this leaves us with AC:AB and JAiCHIM. ..ceaJi:n.tio. d:lat 'the alphabet originated in.p.f~!!beecb .p_lica:oos. are 1:0 he: [oODd in the unused letters. names We ye:t accounred for.~L~N"""thou.olri'IY IOID O~1I1ams. .gb 1'1:' had. removin.w.~ . ~Iifljed.s" or rather' pedantries.valent 'of 'I'Mol'VTan'. '0 U' .Yi~w of. become B.and that Gallic Druids added the fi.m .o.anguages:" :and its use here being melle~ly to form a nvo". 111being a silent and :merely ancillary letter in C'el'tic I.L.F (as.d.. his.~.of which names=-as IGwion the H. beg.ng . 'th.nsr . ridd]'es. al.. . v.::eD_ d . an~. flBearding:1 genuine' tta"diuon It leal I: as old as the 'tbirteeru:h .IUI'.cia. GIleece" not Phoenicia" aD.the mediaevallrisb had long' ..in our' seCOD . but :introducedthis 'with the A digj.t.p'A~gos in IGreek corres .•ree~')'iiD occurs on.Ea. Wh~t clom. the letter Ie occurs" and 'to thumb.ft :... .cce.ptoo.Bur 'the argument of this book began with.oma". the 10 di.seph) and Jew (Jesus).ldl :&1 G MOIIRIA reeords. el3..enant with Abraham and a11ots. Moun:t Zion" and JG.ers 'to the riddles.vlelling Gwio.11'7 .e . digi. by putting Idris at place 14 'II aD equ:ivilent ofIdraj and. :md Dr.t they had 'them [1the let£'ers] fr. the Celdc :Ianguages. ponds whh me Liatin. but lex.oom 'UpDD jl Mlc FirbisI..order oiEletters in the Ol. because B..which was.mma..ltnt(!ir-..... caution itt all fairness:. a d.0 in. pronounced "CS".]B:oibel Loth'" that I fad :. bro.tIl····J an ~. alphabet. osing'that O·'Flahertywas. I am Alpha... I' '.as . CS . Another' name' farr M.from dIe And why ~in'the: finger--alp:habet' w. behind 'who thinks that I am wri:tmg nonsense.dJ.Clnan'ts~C:H for' Kh.. who had access to.foir' ever~..n 'was ICQrD. iRh' lea. a. Macalister"g is.vow1el oombmation of A and E" Th is written Oi and Ph is.-es"_~an ·d· 'I! .. LOTH F[V] FO'RANN GATll .ddJes.om F..aD_ '!!1M rQ. Tet-rag. [ose (Jo.. 'the' o. fO'1"myll'gul which H Ic!ccurs. sora di:ft7e. B'l!sides" 'the a.tradi.this !sllbject to D1r.ler~I in Irish.etwo sounds)" occurs on the' A.er. thar me .I "'5)6):: "it seemeth 'tha. 'at :both of which places JehOwh" in IGe_m. 'abetiJcseaet in his.imted H.i.r-entia:te' ~ h mom D and Ph fr. clri. process. And the ans. 'to 10'1.git.eo.

at the Court of D. is! TaJiesin'l's. anL in.i .when Absalo'm was..of die Hebrew ..en '£h. Asia MinDr I. 'lite . a. M. N.. with :speech~'I fol' Agabus (who according to pseudo .t theFeast 'of Unleavened Bread in Is.or-[.of Hosts whollf5'ca. in fad: identifying: -'ab." and that I in Celtic mythollogy is the letter .The id.Qf God..Bel tis.~'" '.I.ned as the Tbrofte~of tbeLord . Wasl at 'the 'Whhe . h.I.ridwen:'s beUy. we Qorw' from the Bibieail. 'the name ~AgabUJ.enWlcation is jusrri6ed One of the lear~y godsw'onm.the:y represented reI.m tlte Mool]..efof'C! 'the birth ~-G1Wfdi'on. it must be.'Ie: bOrfowed.nce ACQ6 is. was.1I:Moiria' also sugges'ls the: Gre. this is 'to make Jesus. ii.od.A. god of the atder~. .c:". potamia.ce'in the' Act..gdl.dayi.t/U' A'po:I. u'D.irit that there would be a famine. s prophesied in dumb :lIh.'mtl. and la.( Acab.ti.. Mooll" Nergal (Marsl. . according !. of destruction horrowed.. llnked ~th 'I have been bard 'of the~ harp 'to Deen .iii ~'I~'~-"! me -.nan.of Ballab and T~.na./lc.l Gwi!Oll.Hill. I am.pposed by Heh. the god whole' holiest day is Saturday. the wo.~'. Lota.However..S' mto. mis.e." wbicb .w' ii..' I stood.rd "Mor' beingdte Welsh equi. .Flaherty's.neland 'Uriahalle the same wlord" El and Jab heln.ve been lOlquad"ous.eover" Bran":s Icrow 'WU equally sacred to' Jlebowh.le'bo'vah 'was.. tbewo.deD~'OC1lSt among 'the Greeks of' waI. of d1e 'er-ciful Son lof God. :lstte:O'gtbened M'oses in !h.trologilcal system. and alsowlth knlDwinsthat U.pira:don from the cauldron of the hag: C'erridwen.. moan and seven plan. the son 0.fD1Dom.tba.ea:th ICUIl.d whs.IQ.rew 'sc:h:olars 'to have once ba.anDer' Clr:ne~.-.yet'ii All we must notice is:'that Jaichim is 'the . remain uponths· _'_th.eDay D. BaIJ. me - ._... D:ivr.~er' in."-'s'nCfIIL. list Dfletter~name5.:·' But . orotheuswas one of the Seveul'y D Dislciples) is mentioned m.eadly hissing lof . ill Rur. hetber m'y·· b'D'd-y" 'I~'~ ft· .. If"Mori-ahj is 'the 'ant~nver'to the nrlt of these . A primary c'h:nef'bard :amI to Elphin who was in.d . in. C:tbe house! of bread~). and lie. my Jtea.o't.ous and phii..t& ()f. fOl'nin. a synonym fOf' Dea ----Ewipides in his F"a. I' BI.eU as I. slain. The FreemasJons seem to. 'the . and we musr 'Cliedit the scholarly 'GwffiOll with m~rpre'tin.~1.abu (Mercury) 'I Bel (Jup'Pliter)...!!.. storl .mo.King ofIsde~ a name borne also.' 7hapS odpwty au lemblem. which SU'fSts Achah I(Ahab) . Gwion pretends to' understand fro·m.(Sa:tunl)ii Thull Jehovah.I serpentc. tbe' :gr3nd subjects .stoldts 'and fetters for a yie&r .. Here" d.6nb.in .gedJ wi'tb the genius: of the s.rMor''''Jab.en. turns D'U. In the mst men'"" ..airnifieJ ~y tJze Sp.AChdJ ~snot a dh/ine name: in Hebrew it means merreiy "Father"s.u/.cbangeable 'Dames . I.wh. oft'8 Ap'(J~..:i.. 'Joannes. KJaDd lconundrum" 'taken to. The: natives of Jerusalem were still wailing for him :a. .pped.cai dis!ptltel.saufet 'duead was..achim (yikkOIl') meant "He shall es. £Orl[f letters.ce.. in.appears in. and it is not known 'w.orderly form" widl answer' attached to each riddle: ] 1V8S the to'wer' of the w'ork of'w'hiclI Nlmred "WI overseer. the :mi:ddJe of it) and 'Jachin'-is..Q.of reUgj. by' rbe pro'phet who .:.:·'!! Si. Death. I be.of d~ea!'tband.and I. 'p:illars" lone 'ODlellCh side of the fu.rigin.(J in the .e I:and.tributio:n. or 'Ja.a:nd obtained 'my bll. I M'S. mentio..gjiied. in C'e:r. AI. ". a'l: Jerusale'm.We should Icredit Gwion. . -1- 11.of seven deities.O 'Cbristian dO.s used the 'SUD.I .e: world..t J.r' "~Iichlm":..[I~. before I was. '.-godd--.d Tammuz. for whomfifs. little' Gwion . caUed.y..g the word as :meming' JiJ.l' as 'AgabUI.tian that need not concern 'us. At fin't I "iVaI.tlbUs:b"" IBid that . AsEo.of IC'ym_beUne.rc. ANi.1_ ~ I.chiD~"'that was me name of ODieof the a Greek.Z. ques. win. with .~ Sdll more conelusiveis Jehovah's .is..l~ I 'saw the d.. D'fJvirl.pectively-i:be SUfI and the' :m'OD:n". .ah.os:op. At len.Agahul maliC:leigns. D-:-:If.4c.hi.d~er. the Hall . dent (At.styles Jesus tSO'D IDf Alpha.g inter. d 11. .'k.day as sacred tal himsel£ In the co. have always been. 1.and bow 'D.eluded in :synthed"c cult of. and.associated with.1 t is. since Jesus was 'the Son two me wu built on me ~'tbreshing floor .f comes after. It win be remembered that the Temple j the paeims.I~ c-. to' make Acab .e months alrnost I was.n'~emporary as.of At-aunah'".last letter ofthis alphabet.ow" on that oCCIsioa" whereas . He. _ .mer.r:ld. 'I share.pde Gil the TelD:p~e" ealled 'Bolu" (8 word whi'ch is: su.o were: of Aegrea. alphsbet of Alpn. with understandlng 'this. :pi.e'itS'.I' and the Sah~ans of Harran distributes and treads underfclifotl'iI' . in.ysundel' the rule' .. 'th.' .on'ym. &a.. ..' .exan_. brother'.ir'tl. :sa~i fBI IIII .claim to the seventh ..)" Crones .r. "iplpeJtha't ..iOrl) is.'7 .D'eath 'will alwaYl.k word . lot or dis. 'must be' ic:lendfied 'wl'tb Crones or Satum"wbo is.ailh's day and according tOI Je'lome he! had I sacred grove at Bethlehem.. the lordlier still current in EUlope':'Sun...of the Hebliew IG. . th. the H'ebrew God.e:'R.. SJGi!IN.tte~ which sounds u_ncannily likJe AraWIL M'o..':.estfucd:on of Sodorn and Gomorrah. h_-}.ofAIpha written. 'the yew 'tree.syn. happened 'thal Solomon raisedrwo. assembied in ..elC~~. the Hebrew wordtiDlr 'locust':'1 and 'the go:~. "II .' . tradition . the equivalent in.valen't . the week ~wasdivided between the sun. iII.1 '-. ~ i :1.frwts of grain werle' yearly brougl1t &olm Be:ditebem.'pawt!' Td'fYan. ~D mean the d... 'with Mary Magda'~en.hr"FC"""IiI_ ~1~.!!.pJendid cIO. Thus Jatchim it.'to wholDt..'.d. in. of 'God. ) H".explains the seoon. put the da.dary riddle 'I :hl..came T:aliesin. Br.of -Lochlyn". "the :god IOf'the sea.c.five unsolved riddles. 'The m'vme: name .e a:t t_he pbu:e of ICrucim!on.t to be 'IAcalb' in IO". (Ven'Us. Then.iUI. the harvest go. Xl) he . lof'the Dei.le.Bran who was a pn-god asw. ." I 'wal. WlI'Uile _ DelOJ'lI 1. divine emblem of Apono:" the Sun-god".oiman.her of m Mes10-' m:ysteriouspiUar& of 'solo m on's 'Temple" the other being "Boul'ii' (The: rabbis 'blugh! that 8!Oi3Z meant I~Init suengthl .n.~ara_h:11 (the~salt lea)!!! He is.is.u XXI' be :spoke aloud wildt:: "Thus :saitb the Hloly Gbost.

. ..riginal canon. A!dverb. 1 was in bis: butrteiJ''' I conveyed 'the Divine Spirit across Jordan la..The 'tower is said 'to have been built of nine IdiJfer. .L(). IUDIiONlU.N'Drth '~OS'oumj .ple. is a:t .lt had indeed been pubUsble1d 1..e:y' perhaps speD outa secret religious fo.. II .. at Cam Bedion. th.usl Fana" nor leither of . not kn. . I 'WaS Ion the horse's crupper of EnoCh and EUas!! [ was also. for' T".ebroo!! I' . OJ --II...r ... and Merlin the' Divine'r.dE.n!~L.rther' Iconcealment 'of 'the ).ve Slit :m an une8S¥' chair.a L 'U-l~ =. SCMI.Jm'll First I was witb my Lord in.. bardlc .SalamOIl . are poetically expbtined IS: NIOlun~.chief o~en.1 "ot.tAr:e.. a 'ft~m E!foil"!lllilllo DI c. Alpba TetragrammaloQ. 'The five lIS' Damss represent 'the iI1foreign." .-u ":I~ ....hall ... I am able to. I 'suffered hunger with the Son of 'theVi:r'gin.1'~:I}'~j~1 ''''Iin~' 10 (' 1. th. It refers... but with M. The n.om .oss."'~~ltrUJU to-'Ul:~~~ '\ :.'.g~ve 'the' correct .Ta'iie.UJI~ D'·.t" Iclosel:yrlesemhling 0.ofthe Towel" orfNimr'od' 'is expi:ained as the linguistic or'me researches carried on there (see Chapter Thirteen) by F:emusaFarsm and hiI. 'ORDINES~ It wil.OTU MURIATH GOMER. 1'.names .S.""tDi for Moiritl. 'I waR.is' of'H.eaning the letters of me' alphabet ha.. Asia. the Casrle of Ar.erseOi .ocbUn.L'~l..(J"J. hove the C'asde'.. Jose'.S for Neitlfaen. BeyDnd esta'blishin:g that the Boi6el.ow the 'names of 'me stars ff.C!!-:iI!. mere AiBi. and.pronoun" [adj'ecnve]" verb..my lorigina1.Flah.~.. O'D two the langua.tl.. I ha. ·-1'w'c. IJitumen w. "..eer~'of the ridcUe is not" :U one' w01. 'three periods in.. Rlua'l' I was. to a passage' in The Hearings .S..oebuck and. a..01VD" I s. R. seventy-two ass~.ianrhD.doD (Nehuclladneuar) for Ne . 1. Caoi.~1. le tten. tenrh-cearury baedic primer" But we may be sure that. Mo. ~ STRU R.of the Sidhe.~~ L.~' TAB'RiM .( the Ass.any' rare' as oi. Aca6.fw. lbave DOllV' come' hem to 'the remnant Throne A'f· .... Do.ms.twolleading assis'llIlm:.. I was.. U . 'Gwion with his Dog.g:e are 'said to have -ven their names to the Ogham le'trers:. Taliesin.~ m'l" ..aDSiWeJ"i.artificiality. D ETHROCIUIS"UlMELICU.21 II :findd1at the manUlaipt: "lemon o·f meHt4ri'q~ of tA.truC~D'."~~ JL 'wt"":lC! .s" .E depdl of Hell.Eor Uria..e9. [was OIl! the Hi:gh C:r.r.called.. the face of the earth. im the Advocates' !dinbu_I. loquacioull before I 'V1U gjlven speech.N··'I ~'~"--":-"I 'JT " 1'1':1.tbree elements.l 'be:noticed that 'the list.here" The:Wort'k .rled around modonless. with m..d as the: thirteenth-century R'ed Boole' of . ~'are'r" woolfI:Rd 6100d ACGcia.l '. I .rmula? Kai~ the level of rheVa.DWeI. me lBgheir Sphere' and 'then. Ne~-'B'Jf.stants. . afoil twist.that I misresd the riddle: IIwas chiefo..'.y King in the manger 10. 1 b._-.alaxy wben Rome was built" and whi.ItS foUows: L'Om BABEL FIORAIND G.'Il. D" ---. Uriel .of tAe' S. the land 'of 'the Cherubim.materials of Nimro. Gadel and. jac-1Jn.f Hurt and Nab.r''to Eaoch and Nro'. was.c '-r.m .der whose Drigin . gone' tosuch I . 120 . . fos·tered in the Ark and hive beenteacher to all intelligence. as!.. RAelrl for RiM~en" Sa/ame for'Sa. tothe IU·~ leak.m..1.r._ ' of Troyli (. [preposi don]..etl2er . s .en£ mat-erialsl:' Clay. an anticllmax.l IGfJ.a.0 the G. Dame' ol'uui!'l' 1le~ .aDl'CS are .th.v _M&rJ' . estban. only hope of getting: any further in the chase nel.palltici.l. Ur'ie'/.dd suspect. The '. instruct the who~e Umv. Isx·travagant len"g~bs in contusmg: the elements of'their conundrum unless 'the anSWIeI" had been some:ddngreally secret" sDlmeiliin..of Luciler~lJ tbe I.ilmDfl" Thill may seem.~..ooun'try' is.aIphabe...erty'sp.J'. H •. and Elias" but at le. an"d'these:nine materia~s.region of the summer stars.Cil But the.Q. IJr.L _.j'-~"" _.ALlATH NAB'G.{zQia.ng before in a.UBEN ACHAB IOISE URlTH _.emain lm'bJ the: Day ofDoom UpOD.He. I 'was :ins. the secret IDf the its meaning' had evidendy 'been lDs:t and 'mere' seemed to' be no reason fair' fu.g of immensely g"eater importance 'tl:um I.s. Lapwing would never have. IOII'F'laberty~S'1 whit has 'been lea-m'ed P ~'hy time that O'~'Flabertypublished the alphabet. So it seems tnat the answer to the conundrum is..in 'the bmd of the Trinity. in discolv:ering' 'what rn..verl:eer work of the! Tower o. 'C'onjunction " 'in terje·ctioRII Wood" lime.e .d~. an Jjlax-. The rw-enty-five' noblest ofrhe :se'venty..u'Il I was 'in the nn:nament 0.ID. ES-ISC-UCIAICHINI j . 011 the faU ._ o.istants who worked.fNimrod"" 'though.Jarn for G'a.ltA virt.v'e apart &om the pr'lDper 'aam. ~."tUI Since: solvingthis grmd conundrum I realize . I am.absent from the Q.p"t in which the HaAS'S Tali:esin occun:" and not a mere pedantry 01" j .r.is :1 'somewha't degeneraze IOn!" vi:bh Hiruad (Her'Dd) fO.ngtb ifevlery King shaU call me TaJiesm!!...iJ. '" 610..s TDwer.'.AF'RThI. F'eni. I am a 'woD. between. wbich are attached to them iu the riddle./ia.ADON HIRUAD DAEHIDI ICJ\E T.. IGadaMI' Once I 'was io India and..

._.pea.t of nameswhich correspond ..'s." into two other letters of the same flight.!!...gjven by Lucian of Samosata. a:W:IYfrom thee into fairyblnd. Te. ~ . 'waming to Lug son of Ethliu.gddu. tr]~ seventeenth-centu f'V that L 'Ja.Inscriorions tc... a @f. theehildren 'Qf Tegid Voel·and.Eng-land and the Isle __ _ :e:r'. Its.'·' Lug realized that the seven B's represented birch seven times . conne-xioll 'between the 0 " found in inscrip~ Dons. '.thirteen'th century.wen" probably p:layed a more Important part than. . wh. O.. w'. {or it is expl. has been.gh. names of the. whose true name is notknewn 'but who championed the popular minstrels a.ac:uhl'U9. provedjnevertheless mere is evidence that an lea:rlier' form . in which Creinvy and Afa.ib..s 'ciaand flrllnl This riddle is conclusive proof~.is" claimed to :be the Q. a more primitive ori~' to'r la]'I' _ of the ninth century A._0 _' '~J _.. Welsh schoolmaster at Stratford.d. if any doubt...abel is the letter B. the samet/rama. .Bts.. three nicks:)rhe mitials .p. who wrote in the second can. A. wrote (or rewrote) a. some of them pre . current in 12] . invention is ascribed by Irish C .cor. (This original has been lost though. ori.'OTUS Irish word. ~JlV~L" 1_.. The romance is based 10'0.of Ogham" with a slightly difFerrent order of letters. __ .ainea :in the samemecaon of the boo.mpesl:' Prospero..fSir Hugh Evans inTlte' .o accordlng to the: aceeunt .n~y from his.1IA~!ety. which is. up the histerlealargument. whom CaUban tries to rape. nomn . GreeK alphabet from Etruria. which belong 'to the romance. and Apo!crypha.mother 'Of Caliban the ugliest man alive. based on aknowledge not only of Arirelthe :British. was.F' (four nicks and.:.anD'S.. represented .. namely S and ....1 acquaintance with cOllte. 1--. and Latin and Greek with 'a' list m~~ Roderick O···.·!~F·I_.cleric of the late. W< -ales... seta riddle. Prospero's da.'kJes.ofWlndsor. who like T..) The miraculous Child. a NolthWelsh .in C'eltic: an as :1 'mixture of the gods er. as I.~_ c: ..1'. represented by single nicks.e.v.but Brahel.r__ __l_ ofMan. ~I.' -. repeatedbut..1. __ tradition 'to the~ IGoideUc god Qsms Sun-F ace. strangely le'll!ou. to wit. but 'of 'the Greek N. the FormelloCeNetri. _. __. he ha.D. cGwion'.ew Testament and Sepruagint.of the operative Chapter Eight HERCULES . romance abOUT!: I miraculous Child who! possessed a secret doctrine that nobody could guess. "Thy 'wife will he seven times carried.Merry Wi.' I )liiI '-~. the Hebrew Scriptures. unless 'birch be her' me overseen .k 'mat B.. Ireland.~ I~_ mythololgy ~ The answer 'to'the riddle iSra lis.:r.ginal o.gbam alphabet.f~ . 'the.lu p8rsonas' occur' in Sha. :in.D.this doctrine is incorporated in a series of' mystical poems.Ic-eJ~FI.~~ _:. hris.mry' A. Irish antiquuy Dualld Mac Fi.. .: . the black screaming ha_g Syco'rax.was written first Ogham inscriptien made in..es . and a fiftth-century ac.tian.lar~n. or elsewhere. Perhaps Shakespeare 'heard thast(. ... :..' lY i!liiL.ughter Miranda the most beautiful woman. namely seven. . '0 sum O:N THE L..mporary Irish bardic lore.d to convert the' seven B's. J.. found in numerous _~ ltD_ .riginal letter .eg~dVoel lived on a magic: island.____ _ ~ . . Hercules and Apollo.- 'fi4.A!_" ..pinst the Court bards.C'hild whom Sy1co:rax imprisons. that the Birch is a'ts 'tree and mat 'on :1 'switch of B~irch.. Carid. mir._ Scotland..It. and Irish mythoilogy.' O~ '¥ "'-' '~. to 'make sense of' the message'. Gwion's version. II!P'ig Raven' . remains" of Gwion'.nfidant of the learned.

. god's name. together" beaten by his comrades tin he flints.ds.1H'm. lpbabet.nwnher· 'of b]ows~. inclliu...ely. seized the' national :shrine. 'of whose . dv. .IUI by 'rb~'Arah merclum:t Su1eynmn in II'I A.eeded" by rattling' an oak-club thunder .ch refers 'to a.1l.Bel.ei£y cons..acle'B..u Divine N. C.. then fi:ay.is made drunk. half-y. Hercules mst appears..id.F. rhemistleeoe was an all. the Druids! ofG... 'the cupped acorn stood forthe glana penir in both Greek and La.. .iL!e WlUI mast .es and has t\lrelv.ranthll. 'hollow oak and 'stirrin. the mlstletoe... Caesar calls Di's" worshipped in Britain and 'GauljtJ It may be wen-. a Elegy O. to be discovered. istoiIiail pleJ... wjtb mead and led into the middle of ii.~ I :first suspected that an alphabet was.c B'F]fdlo. sperm being... umhled text of his B. .1ft .y in.D~ . and that after the captere of the II. d cl.. The joints are ~ol'si~ed at twin :fues . "'0 Telamon and Hercules. '~Odeath has OOeDtnts.ding his spear-armed _._t. ..Le tribe 'to make them vi. became real gods while some re'mained heroes. ~andfin.... and the serpen t..galiiliic monuments. been combined with 'that of a.'._SCIW (La.d. from a mas of legends:.'ifUlt Ilw'hm the .m. It may also have been currentin Britain where'.lopid.f 'f:1Velvestones 'arraDg~d around an oak.oebuck by prince of 'the' generation before the' T'rojan War has been confused. . 'The ·fiv. h 1:24 spri'n:kUnltb:e who.docmne.B He'r'Cule~Jwhi. and its heal names..ed that the earlier alphabet.. ''''.. ne. Hera was .ch ] will quote presendYi but!l'Hercules:' ls.. II' . 'He i. Luis.d~ which joins... . astic ri't.reek) are connected 11lith vis and iscAas (su.Irn d h IS pe:Dp. He' is hound s s te it whh wU[ow' thongs in the ·five.d whose worship had.etlc: nm. ·d· t.of Qak~l._ 101 lS.jeer'o m'trodudlng into his Romance distinguishes six different :10 Gwio'!iIlgives us the first po. atthe end. is a twin himse'lf~ His characteristies and history Dln be deduced. Legends ccnnect hen with Libya and the Adas Mountains. (orty . This capture seems "to have taken place earl. marriage with a Iqueen ofthe wood..g B.oinm (lin. character in 'Classical mythol~"ogy.ous su_~ivaJs!!A'r mid-summee. ton..I-Ie carries an Dale.sed.Al~these are sexual emblems. His: symbo'ls aile the :aClom.. pool with an oak b.. ..ear reign" Hercules ... in Greek ll'e. ..Bran is. the' Boibel~L'D'tb" (2) Wh.arioul heroes and deitiescalled Hercules.Nion.. Jupplmr. were Araw. .1resi named He~cu'les.. 'The letter names Df Gwion:"sa1.gi.at.In.culruraI tribe' a'lrea:dy settled in Britain.ed" b died" castrated.y weU have o. whi.~ .ar. Late".s.by r. blood is cau.gtoddess wb..me&of the leittem meant..tly h'rea1inng~1 isgive. He i.. makes him the most perplexing.... 'sec-ret. (s) Wha'I:DivineName was eeneealed in them.the altar .tlio:e. folk cus·to.opping!:.earcber cQlmpmi.L~N not B.g of I. wo. ..t wnthe m11O!lC ancient 'of phaIUc:'totem-beasts. V.phahe't apparently conceal the Name of the rranscendent IGOd'. d' h tbThe' manner of his death can be reconstructed &om a variety of II ~geD. 'with v.man candemned. od" 'wJrio·u:sly kno.n's·. perhaps because shepherds welcome rite birth of twin lambs. aSI~'....gu:.ght in ahasinand used for :sto i the seuls of saered l ~.early 'G~eek.serpen.old hon. He' is the min .c I.t the letter . bad :1 di6erent series of'letternames from mose: centained in GwiDn's cO'o..e a wooden ches and so' attr. containing' a pre-Belgic religious.drum"iliar the alphabe:tical order began 'with B". maker of his tribe' and asort of lunnan thunder-storm. of I.e of :an on... whom. (I) Wha..1M Trees. (. pebbles hlside a sacred cclccinth-gourd or.ct. ci('Id['f! o. . ing to Julius Caesar.•ecause rh. neck f i. a word of very many meanings.pe:rhap!s Ave .era.C~when the .' h 1. in.FoJd bond wasrepo:rted frOilD e. the Beth . to restore the! purposely. 'Thunder .) What were: the' o:r.aD1lewas conlooaJed in ·tbem.es. the fourth century B..e. be m.. This.rship'pefS of the Ash-god 'Gwydio.p'oUo.:e O~ prov:t.:isting of a great many oracular heroes of dif£ere'Dt nations at . I .s:. :known variously as ZeuS.rl'"l'e' (Jf' . . :m..o. fDur" Hisname.ei the .-y sympa."in fa. into jl. folk ... . be 'U " .Dus:ly in a..gjnatedthermmo'Uts.cul~ar shrine by the guessin..'1 Tantalus.'M1 g as A.annuagcfeen .fKing Amasis..'. fie wri'tes. primitive British tradition of the captur.L.lo b.tin) and ixias (G..17"OOOyears before 'the reign D... ' -. from the reigning p. the. the .8"cdn.u] went fOf' theiruniverslty traln_mg ~.:1-' e '1 tlVIO. names in IGwi!on':s alphabet.ri. It now remains. gOld" pictu~ed as.int' ill lour renewed chase of the: R.of retigj'ous development. contained in Gwio'ols! conundrum when I began. (4) 'What th.d'nd these with one another.. Palaeolithic t'~mes.uo.ons. rOi8. In secret..any h~cke. called him 'Shu'" dated his o'rigin..".lr. wrists. who was also a god of healing .nlnch~al'~emll! .'". .charge of and ankles. for the semi . when.gorou:s and fruitfUl.ad. kindled with sacred fir-e pre-. the tree. in frOD'l ofwhlch stands an aJt. it is g. . in legend as a pa!·t'oral sacred king and. some of whom. customs lind me. 'with the help of an.land.and odl:errleUg.g th UDC_etStorml. __IS woo d ~..n an.gods.different stages .. bhi) I:U:ldlJI' sUll faiiu.roUing blackmeteorie stones inJ..d Bran. impaled with:9 :mlsdetoe stake.name legendary flll1.. hal been lopped until it is T... the rock-:dove:" which nests in IC[akS as well as in clefts: of rock. 'The priests 10f' Egyprian Thebes..rlesthood.ms.arro. accord . who.1 w. bury..oak. Form '01Cervetri alphaber.SJI mighty a hunter and malees rain. hsped. Celtic name :fOil the ancient Crow .a.and fOf' the Death&. The dove was.'b be use t .rin. a composite d. up inl this fashjo~ and bealeD with afixled . a sort of Maid Marian. a ram or hnll. sacred to the Love-goddess of Greece: and Syria.befo'~e the' Druids of G.e..pius. the vehicle of life.. by .-:-_ 'I .o ovu to tila-wilo' :mlll5l: devOU'f it~.Saturn C~onO'6:. means Il!tGlolry of H..·.RU] cameinto contact with the.~y meant. This Hercules is 'maileleader of all orgi .. h·'· tams or d leplul)'II Co e pe!'Iorms: an.and Aesculrt...ength)-:probahly because of the spermal viscosity of its berries.igiDaI na. because it atrraets Ii -tning more' than any other tree. shrinethe Divine Name was altered..'easts . or lo.sgri. and 'made oracular' heroes 'Dftbem".

killing children bly accident or in B. Janllls".a'llth_oriry. ero" Ixion 'the Lapith-eh who is. {tom S:alisbury Plain and driven up North.. The bealth .. 0'1' other' self.ap.ili. . WIU1. stead.eus. fiDd tha't. __ '" .anean he reigns altema. a monstrous b. 'This Hercules is the leader of his peopJe'_in war and . yearly con]ured up for placation at the Satur~ nalia or Yule feast. . does wonderful feats 'with his.oar.c:dy what ey seem to have donie.New Year Hercules.tu:l.s.owrthrown. his 'twin.causing the spun of milk mat 'made the Milky Way.e. wbi.s body~heart. 'to this.n.Foreach year' that the reign of this agriculruralH.. strangles a serpeatIn his cradle. £Hes. though thehead is sometimes cured with smoke and preserved fororacular use'.wh:osfJ god ..gureRof.camBUon of the murdefed. 'Remus" 'twin to ..:I· . halving acqumredroyaI vir.fi"' his poisoned shirt.! eucharistic saerlfice made royalty coatinuous. burden of the' giant A. permanently .. Z.prle.Poeas who U.ppmg' O'~ lords than with the i:nvaiUng Iron Age B. He is in tum succeeded by f c .tyhe . Cuchu1ain otMuirtbemne the Irish Sun ..inheri."--" ...gej kills and dismembers. a rein.d the destruction by fire" after .!!The twelve' lQ.. double king:doms of A'rgos" Lacedaemon. His 'tanist. who. twin to' 'Tirynthian Hercules. pastorcal king' and speclallzes in the culrivation 'ofbuiey"so that he is sometimes confused with -Eleusinian Triptolemns. andlmany m~re. and is introduced by the: Goddess .1'2·7 126 ..erry menrush .numerousroya"'--1' t.ing'le king reigned for a tenn_ of years" Saturn . Orion. . and this is exa... S&turn. Hereat last we can.tively with. fi.ar. whose priestess is the ttib.him for the second half of the y. In.. In the Clus}ical myth which authorizes his s'owmtgn.mni Phaelhon... Ire added to' the flames.a1TOWS~ s. a child~victim in his.is a 'mi~a .e. graduallymodlfied until a s. C'oliDm.been found in Mesopotamian cities of the thir.".nians.umed..Ud..arr~gement'with the u of the reigning Moo.R. ftlYS -himlelf by t-earing Q.. ran became a 'mere' Old Year ghost.tins :and his' twelve c . Belin though._is'hettayed by. 'twin Eo C'ultor..tesfiies of the 'Mountain-goddess in whose honour' he. the representative of me White 'G.lesh.ns. in. His tanist succeeds him oak or made bynvirlin.:ei Bran. the Q:ueen of the Woods.. Thetwins' 'j:oint .. IJUI«Ji!:D6U ~". Anehises.mar.rWi!aom into the company of me' Immortals. fact" matriHnearly' eonveyed. cOimmon with their Whlte~GQddess-worshi. ight dance around the fires. Llew Llaw G'yffes (I!!the Lionwith the S~teadyHand') is true to ~pe' when.pearing ia Greek.npyre. 'which is also :1 belt. g priesrhocd of Odin" to whom tbeyga'v..e the control of 'the natioo!al.c-eus..~JI:.an.. eats his head" This alternat.served from a lightning-blasted alder.qlan.oftbe people is-bound up 'with his and he • ...ri~ge with the lqueen. These are put into an alder-wood boat and floated down a riv'er tiD an islet.t. sin'ging ecstaticaUy :I..pp to heaven on the $m-oke rQf_thepyr-ein the form of an eagte._ But when these cannibalistic rites we-re ahandoned Itla the sys/reM was.gheed. hy B Juppit-e!'~Zeus.gan the .then uprooted and split into faggots which.Romllllus..gns for the remainder of 'the year" when be: iss:acrHlcially killed by 21 new Hereules..Ong them Gwern." . The Dsgda and Hermes.ete"Polypnemus the Cyclops" Samson the DaI1i~e.wi11ingly undertakes the world .?di_n (Gwydion) had eman.ted. a "five-fold bond.. The trunk 'is. . a ". eachldng being :Inturn me.1l the amenities ofUfe.. of ~adne. by. .They are. guess tbepolltical mctivebebind Amathaon's hetrayal of his cousin Bran's name at me' Battle of the Trees for the benefit of his.dn:gstome royal' part' of the d~ad man'. 'with lion :skin" club andgrainspr~'uting from his shoulde~$.cb expl~in.C. Co . and is £reru ted' (likeZaus) with . wood fire-drill in an 'Oak log.:!! around a.a.aJways depicted stretched in.uc(iee4s.1~chdiverse characters as Hercules _of Oeea.erworld..-... Stonehenge tem.IS a YOUDg manhe 151 the: undefeated monster-slayer of hisa. Immortal Bell in his. apparentlybecause at every hundredth lunar month CJccursa '[ougbapprroocimation of lunarand 'solar times. am.. Sunwheel~Agag theAmaleldt-e:.bis lovely brid. twin to T'rlp.. Heil'cules' pyre and .Q..Cronosmu!t also be referred. beheads him and.tLas. oddess.reign is med at eight years.dmillennium .cipated himself from the tutelage of the _White G~d~ dess Frey.1 temporary investiture as king.. Calm's.al law~gjverand disposer of a.omultlls of Rome.t Oeta.a reward for their help in 'the battle. they would be free to uu. ne'phew of B. have.. hil.. Demophoon. ofva~io>us unfQttuna~. Hercules is now lover 'to fif~ w'ltet'~prles.e young princes:.oat after his midsummer' sactince. aft-et' an amicable . kiu"gs.. Abel. :applJed to the.fit.an M'ill'neros. wears a lion's skin. Lyn.. primitive religions system". . twin ~ Zetes. Syria'n Tammus or E'iYPti.The bloody remains are burnt in the fire" all except the gen'itals and the head. ghost of'Hercales that Boatl off in the alder-wood b.de is: still" in.[Ithe Greek legends of Hercules . is co. Cronos .'Of comel ..t:rcules is prolonged he offers.... the Eastern Mediterr. _ Toth~s type of Hercules belong &j.e'lgic tribss.. feUs and spUrs' an oak for' his-tlw.I pierman_entlcings'bip over all Southern Britain UDder the patronage of Belin.nd e t.:clus..oracle as.earing at the fieah with their t9.odde-s:s"and by ea. oak-club and his arrows. The next type of Hercules is an :agricultural as well as il. friend Gwydion: did the Bronze A:ge Amatha.''"'"" IS '~. twin to Zarah.c-. and Home.. .. climbs in 'agolly to the top ofMoun. twin to Idas. shloulder or thigh.s? Once the Bran prlesrhccd was banished. o'f this type are Iphi. horse AtiQD an~dbrinS's up the Dog Cerherus from the Und.specthi6 . al in the. A1lba Longa.B.iadnJJ arepledg~d to re.tiuue . AUDas. apparently. 'they had Lesl in.. in theRom~e of MalA tM SOli of Matkonwy' he takesl Gvtydion as his twin to' visit his m?mer Arianrbod.huQ.J who worshipped 'the. the Edomite Perez.. Pollux. the Hunter 'Or£ 'Cr. Early portraits of him. Sun""god beloved t and r-ei.e divinenam. begets countless SOftS bu:t 'no rdal4\ghte~ti. twin to Cain.toiemus. eulcus child bDm in a shower of gold. masters the wild. but his name cemmemorateshis subservience to the Godde. le.gendas.. Th.

later Achiflesruled over the Myrmidons . The' various..( the fifty Danaids who were married to the fifry sons of Aegyptus and killed· all but.ddess. well illustratedin the myth of Thetis.Go. of the region and wa~~ ia~ificed at the close of his term of office. and many of the' Danaans who resisted them we're driven I Ia8~ northward.. 'yea-ra.' i I ') man-'. 'the crops and was worshipped under four difFe. .I child sa~i.g" or ZeuB. in succession to the_co-kings. Peleus 'would naturally choose his. the usual yearly sacrifice of a child. alias Nereis. 'with.ty ~Y the~~mln~ process.. of matrilinear' succession. Cheiron's mather.ght. He can hardly have inherited. The' same myth has been twisted in a variety . PytAirm.child victimsthey would not he. (Seven yei\'l:s instead of the Great y'ear of eight seems. Danaan Argos was. Herodotus says that they brought the' mysteries of Demeter to' Argos and . O'D ants and nests in.eus ""oJ . nese from Syria.Y 6ftie'th month H.. Ind the Perso .s.tO. . hocn son of Celeus of Eleusis.' 1" th child rnortalize.ha.ble!l' Thetis.'r.ally associated with the wryneck.w fant Aesculapius.. reek myth 'of Tobit and Rague:l'1 daughter' G whose 'seven previous husbands had all been killed...Achilles: mto 'the c~stody. where the sacrificial fire was never quenched.appears that 'seven years was the normal term fO.. Red. tutored him. feeds.of ways.ater Into a. 'b h . the. water' through a vessel with holes so' that it: looked like rain was their' usual! rain:~bringing charm. Arg-ive myth 0. contradictory veti..ays that the brides.ch was. Icarus" son of Daedalus. captured .kin.dSD exp...plre_tty 'well despite the ~abi~ty of later . . . be chose: the: btiefon.e.theemphasis is on 'the mock-marriage. or perhaps seven. of Cheiron who. willow-trees..G. and the' Scottish witch. ()ne of fift" Nereids from whom she was chos.. Pindar in his Fo..too~ . Others say that four of them. the s.) It is.taught them to theP'ielasgian women. and Dionysus son of Cretan Zeus.P~leu9·s marriage to Thetis) theterm had been extended ta . who. one on their common wedding night... cult had close affinities with primitive Thessalian reb-c-. so the brief but glcrious life was probably that of a stay-at ._.ions of the Danaid myth helpl us' 'to understand the ritual from which it' originated .Argiv'lI! college of fifty priestesses of the Barley-goddess Danae.be that the Danaids were an .afterwards prolonged to' ·ei.d undi'stinguished one'. of'Pthiotis. at the' fifd.. whi. ever. in fact.f the Queen of Elphame's consort to reip.atns. of the next feu_]' years and the lover of these fifty priestesses.. 'me chief port: of Southern Thessaly. Ode s.._ One ofthe pliestesses was chosen. she was. She.' The' custom of buminga .. Zeus~ ~. or Thetis. Pelias and . D emop.son of Hehos.o.outlines.:m_:attached cone~~ of fi£ty priestesses.ve her in marri ner ~ m'arnage _to'_-·.dbeen given immortali.WRs ~ppacrentlyone of the Centaurs of .by Pellonwith whom the Ner.editOR to understand the system. perhaps sbe was the wiln'ner of 11 race. to be a blunder' of the mythographelrs. were worshipped at Argos becausethey p.eu'!" to whom she bore seven children. an integral part of' the' eoronation. sacred to' the .s' it . It . was interested in gjving rain tc t... representanve of the Goddess. the I the choice . p' I changed his mind because of an oracle and . By..Egyp. 'Oak"'. was the local totem-hlrd.. and so on". 'wryneck.~n. This 'term "'WaS .'videdthe city with water._'-_ _ . _ . were pardoned. sacrifices of Phoenicia" including those offered to' J_ehova~ Melkarth In Peleus was :an Aehaeen fratricide in exile f~O'lll Aegina and became Kmg. deus-s-in P:ersian"Aeshma Daeva-----on their' wedding night" are o'ri~nally identi..fiQed eve~y win~er solstice until the' term was complete. smof whom she burned tO death. The ~firstsix .ga.. Thetis" a ThessaHan Sea goddess is.em lunar month a contest was held" as tO who should become the HeriZules. had estab . . with Achilles the process hllid. lucky' seven th (' per'~eaps eig h.AcltUles. When A"chilles grew up he beeame king of the Myrmidons. at1.e.bo became the.. by various colleges o.e..gbt years. flew too near:.eids of Ioleus had anelent exogamic 'ties and from whom. at_ Ioleus..~entdivine tide. 129 W.en to be a wIfe to. ~-e =-~--:.in.by the Sons of Aegyptus who invaded. graphers either as a daughter of Cheiron the Centaur~ or as.. I. by the demon Asmo . The myth has keflt its main . damned everlastingly to' pour w. Thetis was credited with 'the power to change her appearance.to .f priestesses each with a different totem beast or bird~ mare.ry seemsto .child to death as an annual surrogat~ £?~the sacred king is. as prizes to the victo"rs of public games. lished the Olympian religion In 'Thessaly (it i~ recorded that all ~e gods and goddesses attended. by the mytb~ . representative of the Goddess. an Achilles cult In Greece before the Trojan War was fought. Philyra. served. Artemis.). . pouring. so it is lik. This Artemis was I. crane" fish. as rescued .. :9a...Neleus..of JisheJ"lnen and ~llDrs.of Ptbiotis and brought a contingent of them to fight at TroYIL When .by Peleus in the nick of time like the . . (Myrmidon means "ant". or Zeus. out ofG'reecej -as has already been mentioned. vessel fun of boles. There was a 'shrine IDf the M'Don~goddess. l "n~.'-:L Ild wno was savced.llll.not yet been ~m?letetl-hul heel WII still'vuinera.diti'on.cal. ... and Peleus gave~ . with. p:atr~ness. described. is rra.urth. established that there was. Every four years. horne king 'with a 'sacred heel who won immortality at death by becoming an oraeularhere. P'ele~s and Ac?ine~.. AchiUe~.ely that the wryneck" which. In some versi'ons . .I yearly~con~ sort w...y that tb. whom Demeter wastrymg 00. The seventh. L.. Later authorides" 'such as Ovid and Horace.ofa briefbul glorious life Qrf a long 11l. purified by Hermes and Athe1no' and offer-ed. .~.the time that the Achaeans. presumably by marriage with the tribal.who. but from the Scottish witch-ballad of True T4omu. his own sons by Thetis. the' Pelopon .1.offered the Valley 0'£ Hinnom (or Gehenna) the horne of the undying serpent. The. The real st. the title from Peleus.~.ey were: not pardoned but coin. of I~lcus with a co-king Acastus.tor 'tI~:ClW __ because P·eleus himself had to die. she-bear.

11. ~ en IS. (The Milesians . In a Chnstlan poem occurrin....ek Aesculapius"wheliev'e!be went... "we .eeman. " . D f'!I] J' 'y =.Asir plllnu:J rjum.' loyce" a lielia b te '" l :mod. = early in 'the second millennium B. 'dC"d..ra:-~'m.g' Mi1es:ians (rom. the date of whose .s ganm!ntsj DO' 6~m'except :1 sacred one might be taken out his bouse.l" .7 '1.d One of the /. . or Neolusl of AlgOl. mi under heavytribu. his ." 6lotJJy m.o.' 10J' l Frazer should have added that the Flam.ng their anceators -.J~-nr..ccesso'r ofthe~ Sacred King of Rome' whose war-leademhip passed twin COnsultSI I't 'me £ounda'bcD of the Republic~ l 'to' the The Flamen Dialis might not ride or even touch a horse" nor see' an T4ey .wa 'TZ r"gm OJ' .. 110:resig_n.IAifJ of tAlir laeGlr4Jr' ffipr:ingo Tkeir horro IDfAimwu'. I me .ere w-.crifi-es offere1d Aim ~l~J' :0'· l.A"ir 1I1orJ.e Book' 0.or. -.a man in bonds were' ·take·n :in. introduced into Ireland in the reign of Heremon.them deserts.on.~n tmtl.eradlon '. The Milesians"o.'QUSS'riOns (1'0) ~: 1I .account baa any s -_ns:e' ~eCers '~Q' a wlesnvard mi.over tbe armies of tlle North and put hi.g.r wko en..olll'J u"B.A" .' From . ~ .f.I Ii" :I • su. 10J' .'etl'. .el!. a port near ICadiz". .his victory . . Spain.~" SrlCA.nlly desi~e ~fltimJ In.em luth.gantium (now CIQm.. became SOlIe im.ad. Up' thr."of . Amo. h.v.. Gadel p erhaps a d.ur:.er:Y ."'owers.n .'Q\t!iU. buried.en .1· _veD!ed ~ bread...w.S.. he might not see work being done on holy day'S.ea.. T. WlJT.. but after his superse ssion by a more benignant sacred .kin' .( To6il" Tobit is the' mucky leighth.ean.onb . ring which was..ge with the Flamini '_ .~v~ a ko'Clt in .o'N C~Qmm em_iell.rce her.f Greek leg_nd claimed descent froim Miletus. to reach Ireland. I It is likely enough dUI: this cult wu.-.Qug .Jill willy" BM't on .". in th ~ ~" enm-cennuy Doole of Lew'ter he is el . of Apollo:.rl16 .r /0" o.t II ... to the: Fl men. buUt the ci'ry of MUetl..king was. army under arms. be '~ght Dot walk under .atlOTlaUOti .. I!...oflrish legend . Crete' and 'to have ..0/11'011'4. '. to be unbound ~l1dthe cords bad to b drawn. TAe.t!.s to his sou.r{a.Ie' Tko! fipr..r. tern Sp._ .aDd BJ. and 'to ha.1...ls...om . I t..ering about the Mediterran...J:'_!f!"i.e .dl this Hercules was named CeM CTtlIli£".a. hair' and nails when cut.. appUed..odeus.rete.In .. Dlalts.. be might not touch wheaten flour or . and his. Wh'D 1i!-ScaPes fate' when the reigning Zeu~ has 'to d·ieat the end his of his term.ersian caunterplart Sralosba lor G'II. helpful clue.ne~." reip. n ". his hair could be cu:t only by a £r..orc (' . ....neplUII IS t".ast of tbe Black Sea near Trebizond.. the new Zeu . ~·L 'Q'we-d' ': - Her:e .gone tbenc= to' Syria" andthenee by way of Car. Cecrop.mur~ derer of Osiris."QJJt/ Twely. nor wear a.y gen. I- 1 I 1 13.tiOD &./te'ir . UJus d .llelduno 'Of'Baelo.d..prfJ-s~QteIMem6:el"e'.pos'~ella)"in N." -.office'if died .. Tne . 18M'.obitls do:g is I.tJT .. ." ~'.'. ound'. co.ooner).en. 11-'u1f'!t-tI!'!Ii~.t"lory ill Ais imlW.'r teats [allm. of In a rank .""'1 .eity 'of'th e river 'G.J' From "._ni.' .: com ". makes iit 0 1" .i'"1 If this .ill}'.e taken :man.r'iI.claimed flOhav visited./Jlearui gr4e~fu.Sc . he rrogb'£ not be' uncovered in the apen air.l. that be-could Dot div. his positien to 21 sacred marria.A J -~ ~. Anti t&p"illleJ. til . ~fn'remo". Bitterly to t4 'p..tit.B:olwe. the nineteenth King' of AU Ireland. tbe_feet of his.dicA C'th. nor .sldpping of 8tOM..b=da. bindin:g 'tbi· He~lcu)esl is_quoted by SIr ~am F razu in his Galik" Bough: they '..W:DulJ. and With :3 bronze knife. is the Persian ·counterpm of Set. after' wand. he always I Mille anti CD.-. 0'£Athens.ubed with mad. L' d o~ '[rue L.' ~frAe C"D:1IIIR wu IO/lfJltL. Wailing to rAe mtJ1U.gre"f~ .veJ fAun. Asm.f'.r&O. said tO have 'originat~d in Gr-~ '-..'«rifo' rlleir wrerc4eacAiltlFlea ~:.triAe .bea ns and i~.TtI'Aim . TkeywoulJ.ain..a in Asia Minor to Gaetulia in North Mrie. hadto be buried under a 'lucky tree.'o/._.0 1. The Irish Milesiansl Similarly . who _migr-ated f:rom Crete to C'ma. me I I .my part of bi. remembered as IC.B.l'e IGQ. ..D(J.I"'~' go'Ds ratrtClt. 'W .~r a place ~herl'~.'C~ Heremen.& ..~ vine. there was another dty of the same' name in C'. tAe.' was .accesslon 1 ' trawUo'na 11 .tbe inwdin.: -. Illu? I.un or Bri. lor his P'...one .h.~1I I.owed.tb~1 i. bed had '~_. . typical set 10£taboos..a"t.. un.omm Crfl..· in . -.gd. and 'Seota daughter' of tb .. he might not touch a dead body nor en.to his bouse" the captive had.. and had..C. groom.Witko. In Irelan.ooaf1ch of Ireland by . ~"Ii' PDrUinB ..itkls .''tu u ch lelOlrdS in his Roman. 'the yearly . '01 "'_"_ accem _anied Hercules Me[karth. if. TAB ICIiDmm ICnuzie:A 6y' nrune'. ft"'''. he might not touch O'l" e en nam iii goa~ a dog..mi ThBY' w.ylum on the .6.'1 .cs dwel't' A AigA iJo'/'ofmanyfights. hnt he :is charmed l:way with the _ Ol~ ~ortaUo/ fish and Be . c iu'lu5.bride-. one IDf .. in very' early 'ames" and. 3':' .te.g.. a &lOO.it:ltJb.ough a hole in the reofand so let down into the street. not hrok~n.. B..o!petJCfl.

tiie-t.d 'Her'cutes's. as. whl. where Apollo was by then the .. the necessary stone .to .Lt •. foundle-r of citi. they r:e£er. who has 'been confused in Irish legend with the anc-estor of the Comans. lens.o.ma.cb means that when the nU:gtant. which was derived from that of Thoth.. Xvlelkarth was. rs~does not s. .o~ glodous stiU.offerings.nown Greek. and AesH:::ula. part}y 'because Apollo in. for the homeward journey from one of his Labours .Pe of Hercules whom the Druids 'wor-shipped as Ogma Sun-face. the isleit ~'ff D. to S' · Spam in th I-' tlhi ~ ate urteentth century.to.. . as. Hercules is represented in Greek art as It bull-necked champion... scribed. skinned inventor ofLettefs"lg'od of eloquence.S Celestial HercuEesit The mythographers record thatheborsowed the golden cup of the Sun. slowly dlsplacing the Mycenaean ~PeiDp'~es the Sea' from of Greece" the Aegean Islands... and Amythaon.v?kfl)" the local A. The _lotus. battle from which lonly his SOD Nestor (a.arrh. The' sacrifice of the agriculnrral Hercules.beld a quail to his nose.. the lion .As. Apollo ~se:lf had reputedly been born OD Ortygia ('QuaU :rsland~). Cecrops appears in 'Greek legend as 'the first Greek :king of ..! "' I d' 'Icatez:. fi£ty young priestesses . 'partly because' the priesthood of the Aesculapia'n cult.L.and _of the election of his successor The legend is that they were founded in eelebratlcn IQf Zeus's emasculation of Cronos. Thoth). is de.Attica and 'the reputed originator of barley .~god wi. by mythographers as a son of Apollo.? Tyro' was probably' the Goddess. and l'The a. qreek.Alnathao·n again.Barley. to whom King Solomon. a well):...el~~'les. the cubs of Melkarth and Eamun" 'or Hercules..e in the islands of 'COI.. and Asia Minor. Thoth was I ~!'-" hues.d to me B 1.ais"o worshipped at Corinth under the name of M.. is A}l_oUo?tOQ'.. Dionysus (who mn the' early legends is. 'I a.' .pe. cult.m-Iaw to ~ng Hiram.tlon about Canopic Hercules f:rom the: Egyptian priests. cult.ws. Hermes (whom the '~.Th~ quad..C.C. This is the tr.8 race between. after s. Herodotus tried 'to extraet imbr. M'. I north" among them the Dorian kingdom that 'traded extensively with the western Mediterranean. near' Corinth. the oak hegins· to leaf and the new King celebrates ".. .pus" In the Ntle Delta.enewed Spirit ~f the Year~that is" both as.•Scota.y M-'. died yearly and tbat the quailwas his hir. the East . whi:ch identi6ed this Hercules wim Tho·tb the inventor .cuP. the stone-circle wale in ritual use until Christian c'. with . Neleus was reckoned a son of the Goddess Tyro..e--is ApOUOi" ~esculap~us.C. an. attached itself to the' Egyptian. the 'Greeks worshipped as 'as. Neleus (if this is the cNiulus or Neolus' of the Irish legend) was a. . a's healer of the sick..reeks. end tothe p. known as the '.arch from. garrulous old man at the time of the Tr'ojan War) escaped..after rerained some: of his oak . ag.ltav:e becOft1eICclimadz'eQ in 'Vestern E-uvope·. portrayed elf. Classical Greece' b ecame in fact another' name for the' Sun. Tohasos an_~ Delos. aIr ea dvi pOSl'fion. 'Cauldron. di .c .f) and 'takenrefilg. Y'ln In the Peloponnese the IOlymp:lc Gam. n Egypt.g1een.ot tt.. . (a/las Cronos. and as. usually 'known as Etruscans the Egyptian god of healing and inventor ofletters. Hercules was. Minyan. But at' C~o. girdling Oce-an stream. was priest.. and whom. Hera for the privilege lof becoming the new Chief Priestess.royal marriage. son .. Classical times was identified with the Sun-god Helios. Saturn Of' Bran)" Thoth.quail arrives in P'hoenl~a early in.ti:nuaUy'r..a demi-god.in which the S:un. an Aeolian.a-a fusion of the first two types of Hercules.es were the occasion of this._t:o.. god of healing'" god of fertiHty" god 0'£ p~o~hecy.ricultur.red him to' Phoeniciaas the land of his origin. tb' _:'al"le. wa. Zeus'.. who reigned over Pyles a Peloponnese ftomthe h wnen.. or the victim offered in his 'stead.ying and cOD._ .. sun .. A-' take p_Elce WtWIn astone""Clrce~~\e. 'which gro.k'1-'" -.AJegean.. revived when Esmun ('He w~o~ 'we in. is apparently Scotis CThe Dark One'). ~elkarth ('King of the CitY). had been driven from Phoenicia (about the year' 1400 B. ~lhen ~n the fifth century a.of the Goddes's. as we h ave' seen. Italy. ne ". the ·tradidon a.' Hercules becom~s m.of the See-goddess and of her son Hercules with them to Ireland" and would have found.andfar centuries . ap~ear . continued to 'J ji) me . Hercules . ake c . altars ... Mh10r he merely ted one. 1)2 alias of Hermes). Aes:culapiut.. "HerculesI' in. 3S the Nne rises" typified fertility. 'These Tyrrhenians.~acti.patron ofarchers and athletes . this means that' the oak-cult was th~e euperimposed on the Pela~gian barley . since tomb of the e-arly Achaean Oak-king Pelops was at Olympia. title. 'was. Thisl was the . as.'ce.th a Fire-god. nmes.. the later Achaeans put. . ruler of the Zodiac" as president of festivals.a god and! as.signer of' titles".el:icert-es. Hercules of Csnopus. of the Tyrrhenians who were expelled from Asia Minor a. or Celestial He~cu'les" i. and Melk.IS 'mother also of Aeson the Minyan" 'who WiS rej. 'and she W.anopic H. and who immo:I. in Asia.ruling deity. The Achaeans subdued. the sacred animal.ink~ng in the W:est" nightly ~oated roun~ a~ln. as. Hermion. in I .10 the. shapedlike a_~ater Uly or lotus. the continually d. India" - III . like Hercules of Oeta.Btled himself on a pyre..dan philos'opbersl ~er-cules was worshipped both as the' _healer and as the healed.century Of' two later and sailed to.have been _fus~dby Egyp.uvena..eem:to.til . The most: ancient event in the' Games was ..B. HerculesMelkarrh 'was..8ft .identi:fi~d wi tb. the South.ted . .the son of the Pelasgian White 'Goddess Ina of Pelion.esC'ulapius:" .cle'pius" or Aescul'apius" the God of Healing.pparmuly o:rig-iniAtes in. himself a fusion of the . Celestial Hercules was worshipped both as the u~dyingSun.e'lo~j so C.Zeus. of the Sea-goddess of Cypms~ The MUesians would naturally have brought the cult .pius.1 and SQ. We know that the Phoenician.ve of Inde-Europeans Greeks... cut into' pieces and eucharisticaUyeaten as: before. him in a. tree characteristics: be: was.es.dea.._:_<t. un'til perhaps. .Ipe..d of resurrection.along' the' world .In dated their' national existence from ~67B. ~~S not_~rious f~r its pugna~ity and lechery. 2.

Thus :m Britain. day._":_' _ remain" of Dionysus..:~ that Sup.dvenL 'Bapb'sm was not.udgement' is Gwion's view of Herculesas res. Plu rch carefully distin. :& contemporary IOC 'Gruffudd apKynan'ts:' YII ritl! /lew .WNADI ERC:'WLP TAe BtJr..ebrew sect usu.midsummer fires wel'. Christ's . . It.asp~c"tof a.e5sioDS '~'refllrder sunder' and ·tearing limb from.tfOllow$ IJay.' :abourt.E1'CWlf tAe wtJll-IJr.ofJosep'h the P:atriuch and Joseph the Carpenter. much Orphic secret d.ceof tbe~Q.uin 1('Horro'l SO'D of' T'rror'). pl. So Pentheus in the B'rIccAae of Euri~ pid '~cbar~el him to appear las a wild.a11yregarded a. or' the ancient In'_h Uam Mac Immom.is.And 'ODr consecrated 'plneslS: perform a se ~re't S2enlice in.guishes ~_. El .gyp'oan Cities. bull.:1 Ertbgi. of D'elphi.emer.'DiumtU.essay 0" Isis and Osiris compares the ri~es of Osiris wi. -' ".flau.J --. of ApoUo.JJ ¥'lJ" litem'" A 'HlO'fA: not ..n the whole' edifi.'I.im.eneradons~ In the ri:" of Omi'. .of the a:\Vakening of the Divine~ 'Child.i~'NJt vex IUnv ~mze"'w.t.nniey giv.WAen . .l~ was "rDtr.th.y:tleriou. whose totem was. branch ofthe P]n:bagorean :_'-~n~. .~ : __ '~e ·he~:·' a British. in his . as .~ously'inBated.antic'.at Delphi that . Uon'-wbi.tism' ErcwlfsaiJ He Jitl no' ~e tXt:fJrmttift/eat" . ~ yearly' deam i still lcelebrated in E. into an infinity of shapes.'now used far the: traditio(oal fertility &.lp. presumably a r-incam. another 'D"ame for Ogma Sun-face.yed mys.. As Sir Jam '5 ~razer poi'nm out.Eruily 1. of' :five letbl_rli .' 'writes. ~. C.&sa'DltAe SUIJ J. I. be~oli" Jesus.E.ei. ..r'.po.. a 'm.rz8(/' Erewl!. That G1riO D knew Herenles 'to' be.'..US intol winds.pODOl (Hercules as '.u. 3.. JJ4 1'].tb those of Dionysus.g.15.· or '·Zagreu.'tU. his fa:ther' '8e1i was Heeeules as.... 11Th shield of Mordei.is.claim ..may' for alI practical purposes.'./iell"ti it will not lN~ Tit• .id. l :" I _m I -j .o-hapdsts.:bs-rvedtbar .~asgi 'n god~ 01" PI.Y" ntA IJr. b identified 'Mm the demi. _ . even after thirteen centuries Mohammedam'smll Rubber . prie'. bY'the 'Thyiades.ijiJ dJY ()/}uJgement.a fire festival. 'The same appliesto burial rites ' There are burial.=arm.leze:eJ ill D"tIe")1 Fo. four' pillars." eM'.ericlymenus.r. af"rmJ Iwzg4" Red go.~ - or . and 'the Night of AccompU'slb_meftt com: ponds 'With what are called "Ti-aringS to p. p: rp -'tuM ally changes" like Proteus th.: 1 Ym Mor:Jei.e:~dliiThe' referenee to Hercul.ymholi' p'fodi." r ---.cld~f'of'dP'.B.TAl sAisltltJ/MDr."'.in who! honour ~er'Cllles.Jei . Sungod. andhe had it from the . . And .I rmmy. .of Nlele-us.llC llyw'gro. "M~ythe T. May'tM Trinity".lL B.. the abode.. Plu...D.habet' :Sgures as 'the.J . Amatbaon 'WU H=n:uJ ~c' as Dionysus.' mig4ty. his shap '"he is eternally young" tron : and beautiful" Dionysus. a .ily to 6.ches'ts oflOsiri in many E.Btid.I&. they use! the riddling: exp.affair' 'about the Titans.tlei he' ltziJl()'w -. Plutarch of Delphi. 'They had it fr.ce oflima'ture: _ I M'. "'Ercwlf' where: tbea. 'Cbi~f 'of ' B~ap. :it still'exciees.they a call the god '·Dionysus. is a referenlce' to the' famous .Irum.. .r 'a'lJilll -. describing the manifold changes of DioD. . "in the late sixth century A.- '.Ie' Wielll.eic t'r.otytto the' mother of W" Cot'_="am.who worshipped Jeho.I!Z.' TAtm . s:imilarly "~ .chev--f he pl1eases: almost exacdy in the words '0:£ 'the Welsh bard Cynddelw.. p. This Apollol never dies" 'never Chan -'~.YS.nne.ght Sun" Dr' "The Impartial Giv.f " ..3.fira-brleathing. headed snake.ap1tislt. ThUB. a white bull. limb·.od) (f'om Dionysus (Hercules as demi-god).entJw. in the 's!hi.vah in his. MtJrr.s.riaJemJ. Midsummer Day 'WIS always I water a's well . . ApoHo. Tho'u aF.tacle . Disappearances" Resurrections and Rebirth.~"w tAee A ml"c.ie1ces"" IriR.arded batde-fi.-. tb inventor of the IOglJa.'" I.So nigA.Battle' of 'CI'ttenck.m alp '-. as'pecL I r shouldbe 'o.I" ('the tom') Of' "The N:i. and..t &ene'atA the' s'(l1lti'.dsm· identifies him with S'tl' J ohn the .-god Diony 0-.grapbic: account [of how' those changes 'CUD.en'l~"'in lim6D p.' I.' Jee".er'. wat~. of COUE..~ as. inv"ented by the Christians. N8\Qr.g sanctuary' at the tim _ .:.gll~r and '.livlt/"As . I&e-' .'" Iml'J'ttrUJw ji. in 'the dawn witb 'the .Y6tyngeD' Jyl'eJawr:" fIn. '.eld-gu.tago-'. which are their mytho.. stars and growlng plants and animals.enes ID.om S~i JOhn. are burl ed near the p'la..' .!SUr" cti'ons' and ·~\. -' '1·· -'. or 89..'" turns. 'in the days . Ii -. record various Destruedcns."zeon pryJein. 'HerculeS' is seen tO be also another name fo" Osiris 'who.gypt. tb= sam. of the' just who had _died. had emplo.. ApOUOI. Oft.e thee a mrclfu). .atio!n of Ercwlfl ~bo ~wen'tto Canerick. the Min~.i made perfecdy clear in hi' . Hewrit::-s: The . helisv.firm Ercwlf/J. day o(. heronamed .edevotees of 'the 'Tbracian H' dd" '.~IJI 1'011 .octrine' al he: dues: In..A..:hted in Gwion"'s. .. in his '~say O'n rA Ei til Ddplti" revealing: as.

H'erades.tl" :~Ie Telamon. l Ailll'" /Jeen a . is.e Babel-Lets. 10' fertilize.II.. from 'G'wio.Y:E.·~e. a s~gnof I.." 'loPJW LA 'We ''!oo ~.and COIUJ:ll .gamma. 1mslNJ""'I...'~.'trwu te.iu'" is..·.VIZOI TEL.ApOU. fire" M Q 'M:CH'RAO _.ofYoutb:·.m whose name the word '·'taJI'Wize' derives~ Tbe Iris}l Tailhean...O"S" but me: "Tar lyUab)e is.'".I!J .. waJing' .iltrm.mstl! 'then the tree is cut down" and one eannot put 'the oak. a 'Telamon".. . So.DrV) in. .t eMama' with the' 'Moine·" the Three F'a'tes.th Gr. names IDE the: . vowel) and for trans . ilia 'dare'" and 'I. Ireloice.eg: IChapters 'of.o'Dndari'eB (or 'the Benignan.. primitive' names.l 'I / . Ai. Stump into' one's shovel uruess..ca'lf) L ~_ ''RJ!i!I'~. llaw. 'Games.I N L.in.Bitalul. lak:O I.12 tree . In Crete: be was.!I. lI!.ko:~e lleen a . d MOIRJA 'G.. m h ~".legend~. :1. This is recorded 'in..ucit:on .whoS8 island of O..ag. 1DJ\.t in the.AVaJ:ODJI ICerridweo's ICaer' Sidi. born UIRIA 'D'AMBHA.R.t olnl:y 7alif!lm~1whh ~Talus~I'" nd ~'TeUmon' with. -_:wbemer thiswas because dl. Lo··· ~_II IUl. .~'Iig"MA:m _ _ 'C:ALDTOM. .inR: (dyeing) of clothes..J!i.pOI'edlE!lines of 'the cou'p'~e1:" becauseloglcaUy the axe :IIIREA.or hair.. !disputed----and.MM' SIAL!A :lNlE.:\which re after .. The time has DOW came: to' draw closely around. H IDf Ie T' onneat..g.WD.A. ofte:n pres€!'n. ftlo. . one notices clear correspondences m.e~·e~ ..E!'was Tat.i. II ~lB<calfm L 'ow. . "31'HldYJi. a walids. nfD''e' I~eend tree .6Rr~o.ey were charged with the riruaJ! di:PP.gygia----placed ~Y' . . bu.novel. I . Ir.: and]'£orY: As :d illphabed. Put the' wh.root~~ selHas l!ltake UP'OIl oneself' 'that "'T:alies.. 'If eee looks carefully 2\gainat .o_g E" in.re.rds each: . In. dtr. Ie FaY'B.KerfUl. the thicket whe.mdbey.. . Latin.'G.~'.ritS maRIIlain.um fhyme.or .th &1 stmldimg for' N. . ben in the &:mtlllee of TJiuin proves Tali.1 But we' must 'tf2_f1. ."'.t s!yRable:of whose nam.ITH 1" D' 'T c 'C'C I)IA.cons:OnaIl'..tains.AJ Va/Dish. (F ...X"I' ill lAs .cml 'U~ the Boibe:t-Lolth.. are pmb .. snehas 'CIIAlVA and DAVIz'O"andll5e 'me Aeolic: A fO'f' l characteristic 'of . In IA: '~i.of [com by 'the' black..~raadHy wtCllI &I.fiflfJeenCOnsOmtll'ts Oj~...SlUmP In .S.c illvacsuon l'I'Q·es.Niamh of 'the: 1 IQ MIte: '9 'OUI IC aiAfii' ~ .&'tanpl .AflIar' C~J4wld: 'I (lIF'Tal whi"ch cO'rJ.. T'Biul'J the man of beonze. used..'r..QI.names mto 'the nearest IGreek..III. And! here is a huntlng :S.O'T'OPOKlYI:NQ'N IALOIDMAI NE-.. was derived frD:m 'the . the famous one.J " wig.enehanttn!en't as MOIIgID.. ~1pfUI Divi.fawn lear An£f!lop~tnBl . wOlrds ml'l 'makJe any sa'ml of sense. :lR Cl:omes.. Knlghdiest I~''''.. Oil' tb. .4ym . redueedto I.ce: benveen Gr-eek and Irish vowels (me. it been. [the :Irish tales .divinenam.hes..bwa11yn. :r ..OD. I . ' I" ibe Roebuck. .d . bapdsmhe'tDl\e the Chrisdanl came.ke GDltkn flair. Establish" . known to be harboured. th!e Welsb tale of IGwri' "l.I~.etain. .'or 5.Q]'IBL LOTH: F'OB.tl.o\Vin:g of the: gndn .v'e 'wooct 1.~ F eni\ed. char .~6IJe'e1J ./" . . of Hercules. ilLan. inl IDUSun.agricultural..CllUochsuggests. 1.s.·L~I '.A:TON 'L--.O GN.me' :firs...'t lOne) .Butler'" Dr ..e' and that the sHi.ATH c .. alT. 3'od 1~'Cailep'" with '!!C'alyps'o".'the: dJ.the: RoebuCk is.lN Q.h ~..~w'i.ftve wo.g'o..esm te have' been. .e!ek. 'F'OI.in.n's poem.Plutarch in the .":S.:nis in whilch it origimaUy occurl)ed.illC« D:& mtJllRtam.g one Am mnsu. pro'tected by 'the very same .1~£l.." Lurch to and fro New ./' ntJlle ilesRan axe in.. 'Ta1ies1n"s name in Welsh means. long. a 'B'arley''''. UAoil!:. using.Clea.~ IG.md. I.A. ' "Telamon'.. I _e . spell OIUI' familiar s'Eary of Hercules .Y' d af~r an . whom MedeakiUedii! :1 lo.for the di'fferen.DN the! 'Guardian.of CDMII' Der.s 'J:DRY'O': ~'~I RBI" '" N'G'OIMR ID!BA 'NO y Idis.. aeters and allowing .cnlary I'm...r '~'I"'la. :Oolwaway.caned '~Bap'tists'.d.. of B.ol'e' series of~etter. :porddoiD of ruett~rsil.lden Hair'. N:o..a 0.ey' bap'rized the devotee before: the Oifgjes" ar becausetb. rile llfmtl" 1 .MjRydJ' BUm cyffmewn rAczw Bum . Syria Te'~l'm-~·iSI.der.:IA'GJ\D 0 N - In Pelasgia he wasthe tortured Tan. [be fields... .."'eBnII fI..il!!C. ~ ~ I.'e..med by 'T'IIL.aiImN"OIS" NE~'iG'ATOS". 'VY ~ ~. daughter 'of Atlu".N 'ew~d.· Dr.IOimE.-""~.A'MO.oe/..--'W'as.il be I _.ancient British used. 'tbe suB"erin. that both the ancient Irish and.r TLA.L 1]7 3' .~_' Ferried I·'.MO'N Bum Tw"..ish is used as. 'Iradian:t brow:'" G'o.Irisb Seas. The .Mac.

....l. l.-~ml1.- -la.Th.oun:tmn.we1s do not spell out a s:tory but...fs version of the . oO....L. the Lion Tail". !! The best hope of guessing' it lies in..._ s .Nehushtan was..tioR Marriage..Lion Tail'. 'He s'lys in the· Cyst Wyr Bei (CRep. ~he tbltt dares to sutler'. and...Greek name for the Asp' 'Cro~.. would im.hs 'WOf-e' by mother . t..1..ts 'ulat -·_..·white antelope-ox or/rucoryx~ frem which according to Herodotus the Phoenicianl made the carved &:Ld~sof their lyres~w.O~f1€nU8 I ·l·I--l~'I'.. 'they ' ·celebmted Hereules Melkarth_ Gwion..uta&JlbOn of ~'N ehu8h~n' (. ~. 4) as an equivalent of ne-igattJ'n is.IIf!l' . as an Gr'eelt Septuagint tmns.. l J .O"II~.an:d O-·tFI.ented the ..Thi8.Name'~. b--.-ty _.ezekiah.of the CeltiG 'God E'IUoS.. ""-. that.To'I: "With new'·strength of which ':Nehushtan' was .e vc. .ityat Maelgwn's Court. finding outfirst WIll-I: the N'sme -. goddess" Queen of Heaven) and sincethe lion.iUlJen ~i. i'D the' second century j.otJLo..X.J _ _.~n....DS·" a.re also Aced in.. the diffef(e:nce D . fJU.esame' G.~tory of the: Spirit of tile Year" the. and. s~Cfed hill at 'O'lympiL) The 'Queeno. Ol.odda.'fuJ. and .s·tiati.v.a so rJOUfJtJUu Of'. which is historicallymore plausible than the ... in honour .-e.myth. cup..l.1.of Hellenistic times" Dot.YOU ere ...fHeaven. the. Initia.~'S:-:-Ii-" .-'-i~"..first used. For it is incredible: tbltHez··iIh took..·. I" .• '.'I :5W1Dg -_ . and then..ery..I . wbat refinement he made on his disca.or. Shrieki-ng~or' Hissmng.. stnBnios.g. Il8.I'fody 'name. .-..u'f}al/lU J IS <l. Rhea for RJuben. been :Iiven by KinQI Hezekiah to the therapeutic Serpent or Seraph when idolatrously worshipped by his subje~ts.al holy name :11 the Greek Neo. . 'quae/D . ·of Egypt 'which the Pharao. but Dog" Lapwin.owels. where his :nsbt should be.a the name cfasacred mountain in Magnesia..'\..ACH. !!. J!J s &tr. ""t. right wu'Ur._. '1· " . ILlNd.. (Compa.A.s IO. the' lame meaning~Me.. Repose.--!l' stands :C-.AnJ'.Plll.. H.:~een IG' '.... of'Hercules through the five stations of the' year" typified by the five petals of the' Lotus . But Ura (a'ura) means the tail of a lion (sacred (H) ESUCH:IA.:3''1!II·m'·· _ ~'g. ".2 King!. a name 'of contempt.ithwhicll.p]y th~u~ Je:w . &-tlzenQ.. n'fn~. :lerOCI. ":~'i ~ '_:.piece of br:ass\ said to 'have.AIVA c I"SA VBAN. Name !ofthe:tI.s. it was this knowledge that gave: him hiB auth.I . 'The word is probably shortened.p' being sacr..infv. D'.aint._. :J!iI' " . .. altemadve to 'IiTelamon~.aa ~ 1 GWiOD 'had an older versicn. exeeption to 'idolatry:' the Jews attempted to dispense .me~" ·j:i!l~J. bear who devoured new-born children.Wlon s 'III:S'=.e:nt.hel"'t'U"'~ if~'~O-!I'F:"I'""lIh' .o sugges.tMpD'We.. for it is aMJongthe v. who is shown 'in a 'GaunsJl basrelief plUcking festal hr. with.'ds.I Hebrew pin~od~·. llleaning ~Dfthe . is older than.... -1-'.2tlphahet.Q ·iI!R·~··ib.~'l .anscendent God still remains hidden~ The obvious place to look.s ·Qf Demeter" the: '"White:'Goddes~.ClLU or I'J..• !!.pu~liJlg~ But since . R~'~ .ebuck must have l.about again. ~-.J'ACflEMA Anatha1.Ii.. .O'Fli".'(Ala. meani~g Ila.. the As.gIP".the Mountain . The word is. .IA tid." ...earned wisdom attar the Battle of the Trees and hidden their secret more deeply even than before'.O'US tne ~ Libyan.fty Ndtne .. and Birth.'. .8 prJ'W8rfo-l NrmII~ .whIch h.... Gwion evidently knew the Name. That he has :altered "Telamon' to "Taliesin' sugg:ests that he is offering TaltJjsi:nooa. The Sp·itmer~ 'and a.' ~ 'word .anches::" with a left band.1. Ama'maon'!s :liid. which are separated &om the Hercules storytold hy the censonants.. 'or Neo . U . . e'xpresses anger with its mil the wO'rd ~Y' mean "The Queen with. to' with idols only inpo8~ExiUc times.... Gwydion succeeded in discovering with. it iSp05S~I~ 'that 'Gwion _rea~ the ori:gin.. oertainly ~. _ U'nk.. But though we have learned the seuets.. -·1---".ttl rlu' It.'): -r.· _ e L.~s..) Farne.. andR~..Biblical aecount.raS..!! _.Acco the Greek bug .__""---""'. m..BtiwitA tlt._e.t.ac"u.roof of the B..acus'... .J. perhaps deli'ved from.edrotb. they characterize the progress.. Rest from Labour.• Th.. the Roman Hercules.

.. He W. 1 Orpheus is recorded by Diodorus to. 'who at his second coming win be the' immortal Hercules . suggestion that the fabulous dance of trees to Orpheus's II Chapter Nine Iyrew8s. been laid to rest. mcther Latona was born. as of Orphic .akSplanted .reek.g'er.in. 'cypress is derived from C'yprus.ey cel.mg: 60101'.rfl~~'1u.ofA'rlkur " 0" is it me r:A. Apollo..tlizm.olvin. hisrorieal poetic' sense.1na double rank was tiDDed in on itself so' that 'they' see. mafdag~. called . Gwion"s letter ..A. contained .man El'D:pir. makes go'Dd. Yet 'I .I 'he eencentratedessenee ofD'ruidic:.mean :not i. Befor:e 1 '.Hyperb:orean plriesthood. as the' visible sun.:1 1fUl'Jl6 I'&Spt in artunar.RiuiJ'B'n" the alternative name for R'I if this stands for Rym6o. roof collapsed upon everyone'i' The QLrpmcs.aee~ If they were ar~ged35 if' for dane~ng tbit&.ed in Gr-. RAei') "all things Bow'".wam D. and where .Us.may' have been 'the Land of the Hyperboreans'.bing of s..Apollo was honoured above' all other god!s.own from.a4ertismain" l' trave:lle'J.Q.om Ctetej The Hercules .ctiy clear pilssage embedded in the riddlin.n:is hinting: to Heinin and the' other court .. Zone ("a womani"s gbd~Je~).have been :aJ pbuner m~anl. The cypress was sacred to Hercules.ed :~ird1~. Mil.circle 0'£ .med~o be dancing spimlly to 'me centre and then out a_gam'l" II But dlere may :a1so.suggestsa .a~aiD_.lS herdsman to Adme'tUs" the Minyan king of Pherae in Thessaly. where Apolllio:':s.gle r :t1vmue" but.ests as a sort of Q.Pat Dlelp'hl as the Leader of the Muses. shaded?) p.. and o/Pified.!utut.cullr hero he had. dar .eekphilosophy m to the rev. convenient to adopt him.ean priests 'visited Tempe in No. or !L Orl. 'which .oddess. rather'.el't in a lumdre'J .1 ""J)':e made' a circu!.' J'.the 'land of the Hyperboreans'.ting: dance.ia:tJ.. quieter lo]utio.nao::-'Mus. philo . WO"mille. b~ and must have been br.. forme . Orpheus had led d. 'the Rroman his"O:rilh" records that Hyperbol. .DUa.vies WIs j'ultified in repr-din. hero Sams'on.8 battle of le'tter:s rather than a battle of trees.e'..tfUaionS'1 Resurrectio:os and Rebirihs. the Pi~riaq rn:~U1l~tain. .! Diodorus Si~cu1usIn his qu(J~tati.Ed. Gwio. Ireland.aJ'.ravelle'Q" .e. Rhod:i:u~j the wild look trees which.sed 'to the' corn-min of GUSL... dance i~ O honour [of the (. The cui t lofme sacred cypr'e8S' is Minoan in origin l' me 10 Cypnu. The' main problem o.. of Caradoc 'lion ofBran consis.. mcb a~ iIl:_ sqlJ:m~ ..on~ / haJI6 .t wO'u1d).giina__ . the firs.. another.Apollol the Hyper~ borean.o can be the '1' of this passage. GWION"S HER. in a. 'J:.ee. a dru:u.pbon.e.the' famous.t the term 'eom .gmazes of CaJ Godd~u: .D H' ~eom('l'tricalpra'ttern. Des.. have used the_P'e~&sgi~ ='...g heaveDS... would Ro't: ~m 'to be l e daneing~ the oaks 'woulfl seem.ought. several centuries before he set. he was making his daily and yearly circuit... I.crIme' a J"a'Mdp'Br:.S.fPerse. mather. or the vi.W ('King once and King .!'phics:: dress..aftef' 'Cyprian Aphrodite his. and the w'o'rd."D~ Aelian.at Z:one in Tbr.n resolved the" pr'oblem. Ul' was .U. a dance of letters. which I propose later in this..ESY alphabet.ey thoug'hdes~dy eulogize as King Arthur is Hercules~Diony9. exeused fimhee Teaiings~to-'Pieces. But they me fr.s: no't to for. and in.tobe'). :eypressgrove :at Daphne.. . werescill smnding in ordered ·ranks'in iiis.oc] o. not CDDlradict' Heroelotus's account of an altogether' difFeren. "It islon.! .closely And sinceCdJ GaddeD proves to have been . wm.o~ks!l'ike . .. -.6"Q"f..g since I was a herdsman' will convey nothing tothem but a memory of Tn'aJ'8s where the Three 'Tribe Herds . AndasaJ. or 'the: sexual a~ '. tohe s. had found it. name for R:'''Pr.yper oreans wee J. men 'of Britain are given as G'\lWYdioD who.~" I W. who bad himself planted . f~tem.n and engraved it in cypher' on gold tablets tied around the De!cks of their beloved dead .arltlt.. The: c:lmae a:tZcrn~ ~ probably aD 0" stle one 01 the: '1ooS'el'loo :girdle~:for {1!J1'ie IGre~kal&O in m~_n~.tf.lay outside the R. ina eueved one . had.w that in.. century A.citkJ'.dDyans. Samso. his.!lixthcentury B.s. Sea. bards that true identity of the' hero whom 'th. sophy was R'ke'fJ~ ~I flow away'. does.1~ I· ""~ . do ~'~-J rim. book" that the .g. and it r_ LearneiDrltiis" should be :notedtha..l paganislm is..~j!elestillHercules of tile BoibelLoth with the Orphic Apollo is plain from. or the view. rex fJutJ'1I. toreEUte to drink the water of cyp'res.round.'(fPe" . AeHan.'tOI ApoUonius.t aU things' Swin:g'liOund again fOf' eve'l? Or how' lean one escape' from the Whee]?' This was the problesn of the blinded Sun . broad gi~fdle of Cl.f Only Apolt.the.rthem Greece lfegularly to 'wol"ship Ape-no. Brham" This. Bennren who kept the bell:J. as their' god of healing and music" hundreds of cities came to honour him and by Classical times.cb was.rfe.3. these British pri.Itwu.on from Hecataeus m.Hes itelear that in the .a! aDd diet correspond. . . . magnificently by pulling down both posts of the temple so that .e" and thus to become immortal Lords 'of the P:rophesy ye . ~'1 .e-oordinml.hundred sacred islands..a uumas~~ Ilu3/1I'6 aw. will not understand. pe.' .~C. god of the Orphic 'mystics was .'e id1S:ro.n. lt~s likely therefore that :3. pr'obab~y Albanian" Uvingnear the Caspian.H-'i.s"'Ishaded Lethe however thirsty.. 'when he was. That GwiOQ identified the' .t. one mlght be" to IC:eept water only from sacred (hazel .appli.kept the herd afme tribe of G'wynedd. :tbis.'s dme. pre-Gree~ 'o~.4° Dead.G.a.mndill!g:as sennr:u~ls 3fOunO. Jiebinh.olf woos. Once the G':re!l!ks.tlAe .It is long 8i.

WeLsh wars.E! was in Judaea.. .gyp'tian" went another. 'The .ty" who appears..an poo'r.til the doctrine in common. had once be _'mo.' :re U .~ -1.im J. that... wavled.in the ~Olve of Deny frighte_n=d him.'.h . pour d in &om the East. of 'BI. '. seemed the most diaboUca'l and un..rth ratb~:r'tham. .ny. had been subs. In TAe' BOok' of.~ of Britain t of' "'.. nan plrumtlerwl'~'c .. Christian sai. which 'was..-. " :6---..OWD the sacred . 'Q.st.wi. ' .'terhwrylo' control it. one 'of these.."~. = I J_...Irish 1 Chris. burch visited them wi.. bad been broken by CI.-~d-'-. .t!thing had happened in Greece' and.p of C'an.e. SUD.~.ed.. gra!ted it 'O'D a British :SitDcL Fo. of .I"'D -S-~ .cienl' trini.ere spectators of the Cruci6xio.central autbority. o:naW" tit. '. .. their . tianal ICOrpUS 'of minstt-e1l poetry. .not .. BritD'DS _8... . ve' m~ --wail The~ the v. D . and they ca_nnot a difficult one. into..S'. -'-. .iddUng disguises..ent UD. of iOrthodoxy W.ths' Mary Df the: 'Golde'Its:·. 'me d-v. pa.-hi'ep1S'copal .and !CI..DII when he Ic-ouquered Angland CUI d.~ee of S~ Davidl~.th such.. towards Caer Aiiamhod".. Celtic and pre-Cehie gods and goddess r b cam =.gjt" whose perpetual sacred fire lVIS kept aUght in a monastery at Kildare until the time o~ Henry vn~""""'"iInd I h eathen festivals 'became Christiania d with only a slight Chang = of ritual.I Death . the civilized Ro. -~.e' me:U1S "the. .CO.felt a :pardonabl .ri:. mvo.-h h fel'1c~ Death. 01" ApoUo" wa. But .th of the Clyde· ~.n .. . hundreds of 'yeus. Fells'Brig/uk. Bri.. in 161 A. mission·.rely an. at them from. E__xactly the' sam.m." and perhaps fro. Q' ueen. 'where' the Goddess Ve'Dus '-0 143. What.f .I.c 1 gend as.Dvertedto Roman religicn. the Druidic: Synod at Dreux.of ZI"OOCI' milch kine'. - h:!! Al'llI'~ ~ur~l· .IDPS we_le her Mas1ler-cmftsmen.el: ~hristianity in the light . on..ls:.-go I'" 10.dangelr' once its . without intr~ -~nee._. And. SS. I" 1_1_. IIi. and HeD.esus 'Christ whose living flesh was symbolically' torn and eaten in the .hag Cen:idwen in the RomflllCB ofTa/{uin was ''big-molutbed. '~ ...re she is named: 'The Proph _t ess _of twellftb century. had been SUpplies!· d by the Roman general Pa'ulinus.les fO. Morgan Ie Faye" Kimg Arthur's • M'. St.. In Ireland..Lismo. There' 'was DO.jnal fir .edb_fbJ!l them ~ tOi .orogan • .nd of an Ul. Connla -d. 'ales or aerc ss the Channel.e Ian . enw.cast in her fel~teyrl.' ~.. and.garrisons and the barbarous. Thracian.ry E.. ~ . mean1ng'_riG" r. until th ~Romans :thdre .~I J -' - . as. lame" witb.be Ideclued that l. . '.'(." . Gwio. . Wherever these heresies IUrvi.. Mercourios .nabt. ih-e ".of Druidic lore we~~.th fell certain sacred trees 'that be turned bis lara'tory '~O face DO. B. re.' at __ . As IIDon as.~ -.e he/resy 'Df -as the' id. 5. : .esu's de'-It. 'swift.t.dj"' ...nts~fbr instance. who played with them must have d.. She as by no me s the gentile character famiUu..as a typ .t.. as 'Gwio'D has done here) in r.aft· .of (She The Dagda).bey.I St.· Q·ve--1.II~!I·-n ~-.·..Il 'CtC' as eM 0' -.rmads.th-~.in'to a mgle cl1araaer.'. ther. ritual. Mlthmsbull.rienral.tiO'D ceremo.Arianrhod"..\11 JIBSUS a the late-St the eph '. second . arne suffering sa ... temble pna1ties.Dionysiusj the Sun-aod ad : . and.' _od was 'me omy reUgious. when S.D 'oEtheir own ' ercules cult.tbe presence in England of these 'baibarhms .least~' north.ntu~_cannioa SOl :"C_. obligation put upo'n them. Venerej the Goddess Artemis. Pantheonwas already aillied to theirs and the Mithras. and Mary Magdal .I .. .of the pas-n Sun-cult" with whom they had much my.n I nsegen'. IfYmn an . The first Cbris. .. rellques . Elias. for 'the Roman.th Mary IQeop ._nyeilecDvle IDterven'Cio.n had .Qdeuwedd'" 'the' . From the Imperial Roman point of view' Belin-worship constmtu:ted 'no. who living flesh the Orphi(:' 'Isee': cs tore and :al!ein their initia.' ~. ._ .of whom they had 'wlonbipped under various 'names &om time' immemorial.as the third person of' this an.the occasion of the AngIo' .~ but. Italy. Emperor as the 'temporal incama:t10D of their variously . LIDi combine' ~'the'Three Maries~ who.'.ir predecessors had accepted Jesus Christ without compulsion .ggl.eli.' ~:nthe of'Ulrrz_n as ilIM'D'th ~"Q'~'Jesus~. the iden -"'fication .-S . uniformi. by IcoD.Glosllflry the Morripn was inVloked in b--II by an imitation on war:-hOrDS.o. so important lb· ct bISh.b·ea rhr-O"WD to 'the wo:iW15 .sister. lVIS greete d 10 'tb nymn OJ' D.erry (.S . cr' 0 E-' my··.at 11-.sl'. the rtradi .fetched his ffieamins from Ireland.~--·t ..~- '~I~-! " Mary' '. _ "Dlrgan J. most Slid.mat1.~La T'n'·ple G· o·d-ldA£i<£l< Co-p.'their re6gious afl'"alt .~_ . Rome or Cant_ rbury ('.btut.peaable Belin.I'1i According to 'Co. the " ..- ~I . remained wboUy independ. ·.tDl.-u..-. me.[orders.. ith this h ray.dcal ·~I 1. Egypt.dlize with the' poets..grcl¥esj 'the' con'tinen' -: Druidism already ado'p.tlloU' . but like the ~bIaclt screaming . in so far' as .r though Druidlsm as an lorganized reli.the.. it seems. Jutes" Angle-Sl and '-.C:.er'£u'le~ Dionysus . . 111at the'y should. still mOire'.. ligi'DUS problem in Britail1\..and had reserved the right to . the .~.-worsbip of the . ill Scodand . VI_~_ .'oly Communion.t" the Queen of the SQuth.Lal ~··-.'¥efSio.W hi._ons.'r:ian. in Celti.interp:li." Bri "t ac.ed her and 'to have ..£s:.erived Ii dangercus joy from wrapping them up.pard. sooty.tQ readers of the Morre D~ArIAu. 'the big stick..ty ave ound It _. the N ormans pressed the' right of the' Archbisbo.. on the:evennu of L ebruary rst.mbip' ef Ce]t 0. is said to have diso.Europe the .e g Fay._!LaHbeen taken from the viaim's dearth stru. British or Irish po" ts.· ..Eor human en .ches from .Wt.II..en Christianity becam ' the official Homan religion. no attempt was made: to COBfi -ethe natives.I raven.political .'ti'nenta!ICatholicls-"_-. ter omens h d-I .a.1. Th_:. IColumcille founded his ehureh at n. 'swarthy. '-I £II . irgjD 141 became' St....g. .I mven"'s IClOaking.. - JJI I I of worship and even in the towns the churches 'were' ~sm. 't?fIOengus retained her o.wood') he was Ie.-~~g .. c ira'm~WI'"th-.of their 'lit IiII¥ tradition.ut the a~.s.·.' d~. The British :priests ~I'er~.contailU!d in..colrding tO Til4 Calentl. which was.-of tOlleratioD did.. and Llawmodded Varvawc who ~ept rh ~ lequally numerous herd of Nudd Hael.~ h '1 '.d in mediaeval . not lu.'d ~. and in popular religious.tbscrup'u1lo'us ICDurte5f tolwards. when he: 'was.gio'D had been dead :10W.Roman legionaries was.eDtincati'on Df the H..= nr..ted by 'the J sou. ~y the' .cin_getorix and animal victims. oddess who assumed the :€orm of ."Oak. . She was. 1_ies had eondueeed themselves . of 'Ve'r.IS 'tb e M' . lor the early Church C"Duncl.·m. when. 0 lo. One ca~ sym-. the 'Gods Mercury and Dionysus. Artlemidos. s.D m. -. of the large pagan temples remained in operation.ed .It least pr1o'tected the W deb and Irish Cbur.a'te. type~.

princes lost the privileg~ of a."" ..a. yet threatens us WIth Hell Fire jf we'ever date' 1£0lcelebrate him in terms of the' venerable gods whom. and SeD' -51 in.ving' performed 'these' Vf'io'nderfulfe-ats 1'5. who had a doubtful claim to descent from this· same Prince Llewellyn.. Arkite heresy..ofA'Iexander' the Great a1 Arka In the L.tart~.Ark"'1 as S'ryant intended" since "-ite:' iSI . . was.. · ~ e.t ~p a. 'Is it . Alexander i111 .heresy.ry war..IS ~amea.cu 1 Arb' anasian Cree-d.. a great pity 'mat B.ng: by 1281 Wales bad become . rose and feU on every sacred hUt.of the people. or "At'c. li ~ d h ... or Achaeans) and the G. 144. Analysis ~f Ancient Mythology.esiastical conventions.wer' ~'a]j]ee" who.as.r..ou:s. hom from a chaste hun.ate a lo~nd thesis by irr-esponsibJe and even frau. It is.) had held almost -pr:eclsely the same 'view. and iconoclasts were politically s.' __ ::lScre.X with the Amathites.s ._..o~ wared 0fT" area.r: 1·· . as 'I ..the word" 'Gwian may be styled an . Q:rpheus.Paul". to who'm the aeaeia-wood :ark WiI. ~ince _HuGadam.. were an ancient Canaa-nite people wellr .. reli~oushistory~this - same Alexander' Severus. the Sun" as Br-e-ad..cfw·e .·trong enough to begin their'righteous work..'. with F reach help.' I kn.. 1.of England "the N ormans were firmly established at Dublin.A' w~rsJfi'.l~. h ...ri. '~:m"""b' U~lF~1 .-" ii' __c .pp'ointing: bishops from their own sept.Qrc-meaning "protection'.".on's romance: continued to be: recited "and W~llb nationalism ·~s revived towards the end of the fourteenth lcentury under Prince Owen 'Glendo'wer.dulent arguments. been derived. We need nO reminder from Rome o. secrets'.. 1. -and the anti .aUegor.-it is impor~t to notice that St. He has superseded. frolm w~ch we derive such . d .. desulto.. l"..esh Deluge ro~ance of ~. '.oHe cons-ideredl1imselfa remem1lQiion.om the Dead and that. the last prince' of the royal line. Ale'8ander and...in G61UlsU ._rovince .ecl Seoond C:oming 'we.in the T:eUAmama tablets of 1400 B. If SO"I his hopes. -an ar k.-N'orman.ubsltanti.or Ishtar.was some sort '0 f-'' Christian" The Arkites. worshipped among his housegods Abraham. kep.. church.ogifJ1J.A!!'D •..ssed bv th _. IS. the axes. the hero who led the Cymry 'into Britain from Taprobane (Ceylon). or Deianeira to Hercules in ClassiCal legend.hy t':~e b-ard'S. .eselfeither' hypocritical er illitera •. 'ilconcem. .~-t. sacred.UI.tates 'They 'were' interested in poetic valuesand relations. ~i po-'e--m. It mus. ~e' Arki't-es are listed .aor~_lDlln~yJ'. ._OU_ .100· OJ'ns.s enthusiastic foUawers trfed to s.sArk "we[e the principal oh ~f. cult. rather than in prose dogma.. It was aheut that time that Dr. anc I Qr~anaJ ~r-eItgious . Arkite her'·esy and elevate it into' a popular pian-Celtic religion whicl1 should also include the Celdcized Danes of the Dublin region and unite the Bretons" Iri Welsh.rd l century-." theti hreaulen. -~~ . English vatleinations of atenthcentury poet. =es.enesis. as a Conquering Hero. ofAl. .t have been irksome for them "tobe restricted in their poem-making by ecd. 1• '-H-~ mo:U)er" M' ~ng testrva . had b -en brought to London and exhibited O'D Tower' Hill" crowned with an ivy 'wreath: in.o . centuzy to' d eac ~ Christian hevesY'lin which the' Sun and Noah~. according. reserve' the rigJ'u "0 call him Belin or Apollo oreven King Arthu[~' The most virtuous and enlightened of the early Roman Emperors" Alexandm' Severus (.8 '-"PO.. in 81m all prophecies are fulfilled. riddle .is to' mean. a. of. 'where: hls R'oman . prophecy that he should be crowned there..ieal. as. which was used at the beginning' of the 'nineteenth . as a Shepherd" as I. are.sF reach. It would be unfair to' call the heretical poets "apos. "'I . ' suggest .. complained of what seems to have been the' same' Arkite . which in 'the' Tell Amama tablets.~t-·j . David in GwiorD.ryant'.:L:d'·' ll d'"ffi'" -::.rgeS~j ULe :. ith iut me i. 'pr.fiJIJf! WL-.. .. The AngJ!vins were too sttlo. was not 'necessarily connected with the' IndoEuropean root .. re .Arkite. who also called himself Talliesin. Nevertheless.. '\v. the Lebanon I!ivites (p. invoked in .own for iheir 'worship of'tbe Moon-.]1 f A. But to pretend that he 'W'aS the first whom poets have ever celebrated as ha. W orshlr 'Ac . worrda as_a. 'The Pope" though be permits our typifying Jesus as. until his dea.I tho ." "l~La v."despite. The Sun and the Ark.it as an . David himself was a miraculous. who harrowed Hell and who rose again fr..ve the. . So at his'propbesi.lays the same false pitt towards 'Gn~ gamesh as Blodeuwedd plays to Llew Llaw in the Mabin. not refigi. d d tt. Rock. seem to have o'riginated :in. and p the head of Lllewellyn Prince ·ofN arm Wa]es. was.· -Ic-'. Sion Itent" the parlsh priest . . ·GergithloD near Tr. '. p..on 'was tnat .smce he um: ce supported by a new :self~styled iTailiesin'l. .X. :1.champ. IGwi. indeed" the 'most important elements of the Hercules myth" and Ishtar in. were di~~ ~pointed . but Atka.D.222.. that had been _" "a~es · .ensian'.. later 'the.- . Lamb. Jesus ChriSL Thisment-ion A· eonsid .".·S.e".iL. to show' oll..revmve-.•.. :1 poUtical lconfederacy ~ainst the Ang'to.-. even 'asa Winged Serpent.?' they may have exclaimed.e!u-:.er a Simp 1e arne 1 f[ UU!I extr.oy and to be thepeople whom Herodotus names 'tberemnants·ol the ancient Teucrians' " The ArIdte cult. t . '.the Vine.reasonable. who was called 'the Arkite' because he was.tobably AcbaHites. the Gilgam. a reeonstoeranon 0f'~the di .ebmon. had borrowed theword ~Arkite' from some ancient work on.aby]onia.1. 14~ . di-'"te_ wored . f'~ I _ll SO_..... child.jon ofWelsb liberty: -. IE seems Indeed as if Bryant. and in this sense of.~L.d'g_es'._. or' Delilah to' Samson in Ju.c_ -.Lo._.L·a tID'" . end-ower" whose cause was G·l ru 1log.D' .r Canterbury wa't Jesus was the greatest of all Sacred Kings who suffered death on a tree for' the goo'd . but the wOfid 11 incorrectly formed if ~t ...gin.G' Wl.exander the Great and.'.. St. appears as 'IIrbta'. a. bom in the temple . cArdan'..c_~~ d 'HeliD~Arkite".~ ./ '. ~L. which are bound up with the ~ IG···· wion "".~ce.-. Y me andquaty Jacob Bryant in 177'4 in his. Fish. mocking allusion to the Welsh.3 termlnation which denotes tribal Of' civic o.. parents were atten d'~ 3 ~ ... 'H-'-~~1·'.CleDIUJer'everus suggests ... anona lmisunc erstooc i ton dhd '- There is only lone fam'ous Arkite in.th in 1416.R·IJ B-.goddess As.: 0_'r-'if~'· wetnp o'v. and from whose :ritwd every one: 'of these symbols has..'. t. . '.the leader of thenation. L.of :Ken.. to his biographer Lampridias.. ~ . Severns's own 'syncretic r-eligion.er:psites. The' complimentary reference to the See of St.... who are'mentioned ill G. and also .' 1 hopefully trying to revi. .ed witb the . 7.opinlon..

th imp. .Y in touch. nee" I r-r commortides was to 'collect a '-U'fticient number 'of able .his companion. Concerne« witA.I.r"o. to 'the miSSLOnary' enterprise of Rome.·s w'ork. .was also jealous of the infiuence' of 'the minstrels over his.d of Wales fOI~ake coimmonhies.tU contaU1S_anact:Oun~ o. th~ ~gyp~ I~burcb. origiDs1 cDDvers.'.great mo. poet. rhymer" minstrel nor W eahond be in any wise sustained in the Lan. . The . 10.Scmc.ress.. ..culme.ln8plir~titJ"frDIn liW.of his.= '." 'neighbourly . the much older ~ Celdc Churc~es. a p'lSSage' fir..t the English" lived.tery of P_atri~ Church of Teutonic England owed i'lS: .' (...ns . tome constructlon of'this riddle in Ireland" helle' is. lrith.we ..0 .' Ind --d. . 'd or. the wbo.'710' 1]'169' and..acquaintance: with the EIS'L The Salr~ .£fom.m Ezi4 .cloSre'Iy loonnectedWltb 'Galll and.t me . forms and rules of 'the Egyptian Laura!l~.m~~Ulary uri' • .chew many diseases and udschlefs which have happened before this time in the Land of Wa)es by .et with.gypt..~ . .Ris . G"'Yuedd'.__ :m ~aid. -op.VislioD .146 In d..e cells" and..es.. . lof 10' the ..provmg that even home-keeping ~hmenwem no. . 'Gaul main'tai'Oed. I ItBl'£W7lrish an.lnd_'Dotably .eland" were more . two Irishmen" Fidelis and .. supel"l'linons which he' spent much of his time ~ to supp. Cyndd.erable . t.!! Sto~ holds. 11:111 -~ of fJ .s -did!OD lof the mnth- . ... as early :EIlS.AtIwtmt:Un..w. Kent. 'the Irish schools. of the' English if'lom Wal. and Owain. which might . lof the' other earli.had driven 0'« Mth h_ .r garbled SfJ"8ofD'arrD1IWY. "rearer than laB" D(J:rallw:tl Daron. ideas and .countries reJDained close and u:nhrolkenl' B.1ayed any missionary.ed that no wuter. Pignma. and ~ith.yno.gs upon me common people there.cies" probably eeneemed the expuJsi. S~an brethren.-' '.gyp'rian and. a tope ~~~phica1. . Nor 'WIS. [I]. from.' .~. B!DSWeiU".Mid..-Adanmaia: -- ~hurch./me".on.agairu.f~ ~tery on Mount Tabor.." R. tbe mt'tural result ma.. with.all.bein. fram the Boo/( ofTaliesin': &gams't Anglesey in I J 17.JJeI& Owain 'may also be the hero celebrated in the bad'l. 'rh.in 'tbe early4~ d ~II'-.~ ."·.Celtic:: palia.et-spol.~gn of Prince Owain..eSt: Imrampl' of Idsh ecdesiastical arcl]"'. of King Henry D with far I I - greater success.-:m _G~ ma.mfUlifl'.erl C4rirl" Q1rlftoJO% IrmJ . ':'. close reh. It is IQ. mat the .tio.tecture. In the ._~ hl~e 'studied. as I.N. to' Gaul tba.t debllTied frO'1D .~r '01 Iri·'sh'· n° .:'..cOD'~ued to m. and Dr. fl"'(J"s "A" sea t .. th .! 1I!!! ··f· . GO!T.gamering.ect of these' .gyplt in the: fifth or sixth cennuy" of which no rnen-' tion I~utsidle' of IrelandIs known. ''Ybi1e~e. and 'the intercourse be'~een the two . n.....in the r.'.~t Syrian origin. .s: w intra No Wales. ~ .ntaii~ed a coDS'ta:nt intereon with ~Oith _Egyplt ~d Syria.of frlom the tl1e_G~c Church.ion..' Pennant in his TfJur:s comments.land :?th~crparts of Soum..nwbicn.L . :fim occurs" addressed Omin as "The Door 'me' ofm.thac. TA· Irmjust/!Yusurping lHlrth I(J/.s~. both of 'the anch. '-.'-~t.· IlL !!' ~mAQ.of the p. :~the Easl.in..work writ1ie~ in E.eir E. day ..es.'9.~ The 'false and filthy pro'phe.~d Dicui) f'@OOrdS. If anyone shio.rm..Two !cind..aow:b version the Brm/t.~se!. was.""i.le .Qubt W'lt Gwion could have picked up the Greek .es and the restored independen'ce oftbe Welsh Church. Adamnain.m in Wal~. lof an.' Irish.n'tm.n __ I ~! 1- . St.6y rAe ~Qtel'S ~fH" (IG. enacted in '140. Ireland's connecDDD 'wi.incely IOak in tb~ ~d_J IGo.anifest a lively interest m Glallie matters." .ea) Wl!lpon . .wy means "tbunderer:'.zdI~n).tA'Qu.pr-actices.oES.:Z: ·1':0 cc._ aU 'SU.oQ. founded Lerins" i. s~th of Gaul-and i~ was the south alone that preserved any I~nsid. bore .nym fbr the pr.DaS.~ruid~'. w'ere most probably modelled after' th -. It was. aClivi'lIv. son of th gtfted Prince Grufudd ap Kyn~~~. 11].existence. t.a.:J·~ ~.C-.and. resis ed the armies.d ~or 'the d_ cnpaoD. of'AJr:"" ani Eve. ~and c~pDnds cl~ely to that which prevailed in Egypt and S~ the: m"onasl~c 'COmm.Bock.th the East confinedllo the int~ --. GlleDldower is su.p. . dating: -:-'-. . rhymers" minl~els and other va _"abonds.I. .":p'iratiDn. IOwain reigned . and fDr many me ~_en~~~. .ed an lopen return .: . S.. .ggested by ..repressive' la../ahe QIIJfiltltJ' PTiDPAecy Rs.'upt: them m. .ceiveJ. Dr. E..boDS ~tb.es.lOl conta. and perhaps. Druidi-.<~ c- I~ .' as B. Ico~taj'ns..4.. '-"111'_- . chWlclunen scholars :necessarily br'o.Ic.e:slystm..r'garth -rin. and .' --' -=._. . De Lods .ARd rltat morsl unwise otAe7' I. ho :first :brougl'tl' Irish -I_ar-d. fl -'.. . of H~nry .OD who l·~vived. IrL~ monas.ueduntil the lend.ll't Ire' AtISr . :·' _'11. &o~ ~every' first been cl.el. ~'~C\IDlentary evide~aI is yet extant.' lofiMpira'twn in .otUlued to stir up popular feeling by their .fJfJd Irru. or' . another synonym for loak.of ~encburcb to a peal many pag~ln. .'u~e.eigbth centuay.CtJUl3B . the word Druid. consisting' of groups of detached huts. ·Th'e. Iud ed.rdainecl and srablisb. expllomtion of 'that country made: by.oretic and coenebidc lU"e.am C.WlIael. than either' SC\O'~S. de community .uld! d. .-'e. o!r ..many wasters.ur the Ch~cb in .. :ill whose poems.147' .de sDul.0'·"n~en-. I "'~. which pMWUed in 'their r _'pective 'Church.vy loss -bom_.obj.1 many insutu.IIIII_'_'l~! .tbe Ch~ch oflt.lditlming . Tbat the minstrels Ico.i"ing &aclcfte ~.._ not only Le~'1 but "'_arseilles" Lyo ~~.carM. expeditio'D which Henry 'sen. despite its increasing subjection ~:t" J'~ 24. Christian ttJ.Rome.t Ireland was mainly indebted for its. bodied men II! 'to make:ao insurrection' It is possible that the orisjna~ GWi.B 'mentioned .IS a s.11J - :_ .to Egyp co.hiv.pli. Bretons or Irish. English vaticinatiODS even after the fill of OWeD.lPlt.~ Hebrew knowledge' necessuy'. whose name suggests that he '\WS nO'1: of' 'Wdsh blood"was naturaUy anxious fOlf the future. especially since natiDnalism im.. by 'm .pan-.

.m.POIlJ· . .n:d. J~cbin" Hur. ants anc .appear to hav'e: been an 'oKs.I. both oral and 1\'l'i.!! It 'is mus. ~e Tberapeuta. 'were reco. performed gr'eat feats. d' laraeter.3 sort 'of Pharisees. the IEdDmire Dead Sea rtegion: This.Qseiy interWOVleD 'with the habits of tile people and the framework of society d1aD in IGreece·" for the literary professien w-as provided for by a publlc end"owment" sometbing 'like that of an established N..niy' . of Abatis the .u~e.K .ocatory' power" :later 'because they' WI!'I..ii' But.poem 'D. with his seasonal chang~. 'i. abeut I StgllLJ~to I. ruled. tcel'ulin respeets.ein ArchbiSho'p Ussher's .lo.. ad.'occupying c a leco:g.Homer. hieh . man .syrian and E'.of plytbagoras':I' .--n'·'~-c'hed rustori.one who blas.ofpure 90uIs.e..'C. Temple" perhaps becau.:L . dl!em asthe strangestrelig_ous body me by Josephus when. 'Ca1eb. its.rearu. and..nDl.NDr were the IGrew in .u:quain'tanc:e: with C:lass. a six~Beoth"" c n.ty'iI The story of Moses in 'the Pentateuch was the' familiar one of Canop.mui. restricted '~O' a.i.N.se' the custo'm .n. tnmslated. t The' reilJem~ted 1 have been' I.ways. ark g. l'D'ng :af~erit had almost perished in tbel'e5t lofWestem E. " .rganized by law. to the Sun" whose rbs.8. 'UPIat second_.ained from. meditated wil · magic.e iDiaa'ites.o.mbip.n 'the river' .di'r-ect :r:efer-enoo'" and. F'irgbil (Virgilius" B.·.onal . In 013..ub1ected by . Greece bself~ Indeed" in.-ee' than .ould appear t!OI have:.n..l.gyp..band.established in B.sed ·that this leamingwas.ChUf'Cit.t a·t Ida.of bowing ·totbe! Eu. Ju:d.C'i! _ 'The Essen.l. :s. intercourse wj"tb South G'aulll' The: dviUza:doin of that country was.om to lu:ep' s'screl 'me IDDle5 ef'the Powers who.reg~ded.of G:reek merchants who .to Jo. I.Jerusalem. Uten. . and.Ttdiesin ridd'~!e ID:ggests 'mart dle: Boihel-LotO alphabet.gnizabl...d ·though ~seem 'to haVB' been disciples .ofdeatb friom .p.aU names eoncemed ·with. ~the God who W.'were 14.. as a. F:athers .od.. Hera1l~~ -. sort.il..aooo..1"'.~ '!O 'me ·rhi.afierwar. .nd othertheologieal works.D :m 'which. by Homer" Hesied and..nd ·1 was' of GlYion's. Moses. until.WlOpe.orSbipping at the Jterusal.wish sect settled 'by Lake' MaJieotis in _E.om. It: is not tO be su:ppo.! -. the year' 4'00 B. and.Mo.liueRa!: of .allife ·tOI ne less a" dtf.. w. demi-god.ofrhe 'I' _. bad t~en Ilefuge' there during the Iconoclast penecati.]~ Ald).hODtlof 1 after' the Christian era.. describing E'ssene .linen garments.could DO"£ he blasphemed.d 'qDDtatl!ons: 'picked. story of thm demi-g. mined. is the [legiO.nal Utera~ At the period. of a siniJe~Pro'lean male de·i. to 'see :how :far rhe 'predilection which the Irish wri'~en manifested fOrr' this class! . which in Christian times had lost 'their' reiigio.f\oyal. as a.o'D.y.S. osed. Jewisb c source that the Pythago.the .. given.Nile.~'es. . Man:y IGreek clerics. 'taken from.g in their .pbemed God or' Mosel.to 'which lre'land 'was.pelson unknown to Ireland. The :knowledge thus aequired 'extended 'to the' Apocalyptilc Visio.e . 'the Westem.esman-. entury s. Pharisees. b ·een.age 'OF" 10 I passages IIl.sd.:ishop of Salzburg):. sw.the~ E's~sene'ciommunities w.chesi. ... Southern. Fair of ICarman. and . appaJ'en.ical Utel3tuJ'ei. it follows that for' the Essenes he had a.~'TIle: Essenes ....IlS ersdled in.of Htemb. 'P'aradil~f which precisely the' same .orlby a wide .50 remained for many centuries kept secret" at.n. and the special eha '. erenles tOI their' cult of Mos'l!S as.rtanoe: Lot"Te1men. Loth whi.re5'D. ICbara!cle1ized by aeeuraey of :smol. and this cir.'tOt the Rati. But it is plain tba'£ ..HypEFha'r-mn.ns.od thai me the: trfbes of Arnathaol'1 imd G·wydion.em. which is.gypt. D!icuil and. together" Icom:pos·-d the life and death.hir:: :In. .... Hanes . .bn the historic ·M..e.mere smattering . ..~.""'!OO. exa_cted 'the p:eDalty.tur-e of Ireland w'. ·Five 1: shall give' fieu'OD~fol" :s. of divini. possessed ample means of becoming acquainted 'With the traditiDns~.an._:~'I'· P"~FII'I"!:Q' '0' c. still more tcl. as is proved by internal evidence furnished by me Irish Vislons..' From Celestial Hercules.ic l-Iercules.!'who. ns.t ·tIla..tber.fthe lrisb writer.P'~golras" ~ ascetic pup.nzed positlon .and left tr.of the pseudo-Areoplghe. and! iii c.ekand Eastern Cbur.\V:ft had been discQ·ntiDued there.uprpoIs.p.oses. . thettaditio..cums. . 'Genl'sis and E:mdW. 'it was.M. - nad. . 'originally consis:ted of tw'eDt]f mystical'b:tle!. Hke the later'D·.u'n~d.diJ.ces 'which in wo'rId~ Thougb Jew8. onsrltuteda b'ody o. in ques'bon.o demi-g'Dd.Sc-edc Je.. It remains.. 'menntan .·title in. but neither' 'WaS it a].ter '~-'wenty. prDf~lSafs..£: '_" .n.precious 'it. 'mysteriously laD a ·mauntai_n·!!!to1P.anddtat these! d~: -. were expert :ID the virtues o~p. but it is :€ound. .a. studied the Greek becks of' Scienc:e. the ne'w' sacred name ..oaesano are to .heretical by Ute 'Christian C'huvcl1~But why does.oog: te til later Icontext than the others. -CII'~' '. l.e. .beli. Johannes SCOltus :Engen. pracdsed divination.-~.of G. Si~. Moses.dl became' a -helm and jud. :and.t beeanse tof ·[heir' inv.( d _ ~ 'Cl["Cd~S. of ·the Gr-e.e.eBo·~'..'.efs IS. Theyrefr.uia of Celestial e.ib.u'i the wetl-'knoWD survival of 'Grreek learning in 'tbelrish sehcols. ~us£ as the Greeks diitinm. c'- -_ . the impo.hKY B.tten..ks .ainted widltbe: Greek..tance' 'no doubt co:n·[r.p·£ecJ the: Greek form. .rit-ain abo'U't. . and . mscripti!on. their universe under God~ Were:d1IBSe Powers the~letters of th.·tian :inflluentes.bus"wef.IDnhe' State._WI stassumes lDuiel" hands may' 1 aj" la'VI!. 'me 'ili_eJ:Ief~re generally supposed 'ID Ililv.. to Doibel.~..tes oat of Egyp't:" fliDlm 'th. de'rived.l. Led dle:ISradi.c. 'the'y believed! in.aea and. .. both by way of'. sixth .makes.ge.its. ben under tbe phUDiO:p.t "WBS not o. essentially Greek. by the nature of their' Ico'ntent!.. the vi f· . the Penta 'I euch.sacsW~ . Sin. fits. the solu ion. several ofthe Irish .~~David" may' seem 'to bel. .ty"'COlfel. was DOit: lcom.onQ" _.ent:ered i:n.l:e: amOlng' the . Pliny dESaibed.I.Aristo'tle" and other Classical authors were knOlVn to some of the Irish '~itef.e" 'or HealeD.eter . and me old . an ...ingtbey :in'voked every dlY~ They also avoided ammaJ salentices" wlore' .dl" in the :retum. by ·their famiUaritywith analogous ideas :already exlsti. died.c-..e~e :settled fr.day._ a 1 l l .accQunt is.divines were '!lcqu.T··~'run. Loth contain so many approximations to Biblical names. the· ·wor.rdin. Pindar~._.~_ Essenes...it was from a.g..ugh EsKDes ada. at rJJat.ingdlar rho.ned I '.

J~." Jebo~ah as 'th-e 'Trans .traded fonn Df IAnnwfn\. . .ab.caned " Jesus that the two mysterioul Orders of the Es:senes~ Samp.1' .SAB.. before IGMon in his.r: I' TIw .2S he .have heen v3n.e ~5.~ So much nonsense' has been writtenabcut the Essenes by people who have not troubled to find out :from Josephus Pliny the Elder'.gE'lements (rtr)'icilAia.1 h""\" ~'.them into this. godwhose memolry surviv.' ~. 'me names..s'£ whol alone mediates wi'rch the F'a'tber~ P:aul.is.-rew IOri. Patrick. ... '-.ip..of TM' Golden ASI . .is:" SDn 0'£ Nepthys. . 'tha:r in limes.nstructed. stiU 111!Dtus~bD'm.oak.avid. lU.tunl. IIis recorded tba't 'the Esene 'Dovice WOlre a blue robe.) The tw'enty Powers 'of the Bahe'l-Loitwill ha.. face._. ICDnverted 'the L m~o an R" (This..mR. .:'.' . the Bimle of E1zfJc4..pic Greek lca1en.bicl1 souls across.eHel). eendent IGod. '~O IrebDd.and JachiD" aU 'names .oin.ana.e .piritual h ./'.ii.dar--formul:a taken over' 'by IG.len't times? By 'I_pi. ha. would .' • .this because 'the novi~ce 'was.g~m has been :£o.O .n:le~. &OiMtile: N'ew Tmtm11en'I. YoiJ Of.. 'text in 'the Pmiar.in some 'G. tnv.ified So'n. :place8iiAs I: sugg_' in my King lUlU" it is.]-. 1 AlLam".eu' mys'~en. __ .AO. so Apuleiul.saip..2r'.c'. and a brace of' his h. Salem" his hoil.insulate himself' from the 'world 'within a cllde' dmWQ.und showing: Anuh.I ' . makes 'the .after'" g Da~d.)' -en is 'Annwm". Herne = who.t: Stoke Gabriellin South Devoll angel G. . .tIlI.=.and. . .ne mp. Lotb lett~namel was bra ....c)ajms.Bri.quished by Jesus: .~'Wbowas. Power attendant 'DD tile Son of Man-Moses. the Egypdans hlvin. with palm aDd pouch on 'the obverse. but on the ri.tthose .I.. Wu.headed g:od. 'tee'th bared In . IDf the Boi'be. Bil4ef. which 'means ~Gabriel Sabaolth. '10 that of the Re'" Boolc 0/ . 'The &sene :se:ri..Messiah. 'D{. ' ~ L.of'trih_ meDUorned.JsJ' _ Down . M'or ~~over"D. . d.of 1. -n / CorinMlt.:. If all the: 'Vowel names. and Herne.and ethers who 'th.'i llilsban '..gm: :itwas a Caao.Ipa .le. and were :named after Samson. as C'eles.PaUadius. 11..e'.yblian. _!'_ .y tbir~Benth-cenmry carvings around.el. s·.'0'£fo:r a-poem of Gwi.vaih's bOI~:Jf.iI1g :suCb P'.elanc1 in 'earty -b '.d TemmeD.IIII_Y /w.teen.oiD Gabriel .' ~ The O£m~1 lonly' £Durnam~ are ma. a Celr:icversioD of . CiL~ '...iD Genua.. in. 'the sky are. . sWJSI!Men.. usual.'tate~ -. Jose.eJtanlui.l.tter:""nama.' DOt 0 £"H' b Th'-'_. 'e- 'me .t a 'white: anew.~his face :so:meomesl bbu:k.Ancielll of Days.y city. 'r. the church door .. (the second .fDIlU.ICII'C. t:U . IS:I 1"0 1 .ve heen am.. liftiDg up the bead of me Dog Anubis"'I' This. Sed.IS gods. of' persecution E.rh century" is :generally i.c' -_I --.M.0 Hermes ~A_nubis .gy" mayhereoo. B:rl.aii.._.. arolU'1d him.Bu.ed" . was blue~ I a' 5il· .JaccJb Babel Joseph Jerab Lot Eplhron Joshua Jachin Salem Ne-estbaD Bur Da'Vi..'th e . but in some stanzas.(Jrw .ere and what '_. fO'f' the Essenes. and cringin. the: name . GEssenes after Hadrian.Chri.a OD.'cturel him . some: of them 'to Dames taken. EsseneJ usa.ounds .ey w.ba't' 'they . MSS' is The incomplete.. that one.aywal. or the: 'Dogs of An_n'wmt" .:aud:1 'wisp' IQfhair OYer' his.es . ..'II'~ 'tb·.'. and 'Welsh . :. 0' IS ~weak.tUI.gyptian monks. whose d. GAlRJIR .gooa luck an Egyp:aan. of rea.:'.1£' because Gahriel. a.C.ere _ Th EI. the home of wisdom. i ' l AnJ<fi"B .OA.lval.ielloc'ks down from above'. The baCk-Si.. 8. in. ~' sent from Rome: 'to' become a bishop of the Irish.of dans or 'tribes.e. 'OD the _sand. ever quatedwithAnubis in . But was 'Gabri. ~~Ieirl. of .'9 day..-y_ AJ".. lotus.'_' U· . . :sometbing od.tish f01IkJoire" also caUed •Gab.aoet ~tslili.01' cosmt.0 were: tae :s.: Ne-estban" his sacred serpent. (' A.pect" :m another' was the' dog . lerah" Jlosl1ua . Jebo.Herges..l Yrai"~"('D:iv.ge~eam ~etter.St. Kohath Caleb Moriah Gad Gomer Jethro Reu ratches' 'Of' ~'Gabrie.~ory''if I'lt 'W.__ .me Jacih"..~·.'..t described..t . that is: to' say" DOt yet initiated~' The Egypdan. of . the Egypdan Hecate.tialHercules.ie.t H'ennes in Egypt" tbOl. as {DUO_:: the' lcalendar.~e'~_~ Wh 0 WlS'hed ' m~.t!O the . p'hno 'the B.bad supprelSed the Order in 11'].. .:"" Why Gabriel? Was .eR. .. lent: to summon souls to Jud.ediD Windsor Forest untiJ.witb lcareful. It seems possih). by St P"8ul in GakztkmsIV.'.mountain.closehy.11 A~D!! D·r. 'I:". of the: pi...dJ.) beHev.Monday" ran errands for Sheol (the Hebrew Hecate) and WII. prefe:r.eO angelLs In '-.m in the lcalendar mysteries.oD.g~ment:P This was Hermes's task.of the sn .abt.dend6ed with Hermes.~e'm.~." is ...Anub.U1rJ'Y~J' . and Herne are equated in the eal'l.1. '..r . ' 'limes" .._.'s .d:' rh:lt the bUll:t . characters. .in the :pageaJ1't . :s.I' ' J'D:Yce IlD ms IX"" LI.riel .bS'b .£A. beeame a. .'!_~.g~)~.eah" .romised . -l'! aero III d .. 'DaID_'ly: Babel...r'OrIPais'" Wi'tA Au'. Dm" 'RDt mereIy Juchin" are: preL ceded by a I" theybeoo.IlL."s influence W1l~ dec~sive:to the orthodox ChuJlcl1 they soon became demons" Dot agents of the Divine WilL 'ft .s. ". JUR" Jesa" JaidUa~which arc Ja...as.pwtic .mek~speajki:ng Jews in Emit.nr j'NimrJ records.. and OD the reverse an archangel described as.lgb Thorh i'n ~n.gn1t as one ent-ers arecarved the 'wild I lounds olf Herne the Hun:ter'. riddle altered.Joseph.is. ·"""'~'''-ma. was p1-aim. Galadm Jews were DOW' again WQ mplp. Anub.e'quati.n.1rmirl'IJoyeflr.ci. dlle adep..il would nawmUy '[Urn ifJ!'EO an F in We .. X'Y.es!! H-'...en.~eektexts) the sun1.at 'the end .2U)lmetimes fair. '1.to Ir.m hounds. were adep.tbe eigh..)".ece 'of.. Gabriel. . fo'i/'for:m.that I :should not bring' .and Latinmythola. pi.U. ..I' those distastefully mentio!Dad. r.. whi!ch is .:nos:l:lCS W'h". in."_e' essenes.u:.. :somans and HeUcaeanl". Chrisdans 100-1 before the llT.Haa8:"s. Moriah... is hurrW".e" then" 'till! the Egene ~ersion of 'the' 'Bolbel .Dwlem .IIAnuhis' pl. disguised :it with.obs_rion lof in _ r '0 y" Aw. "W'U.-. likely thaI.

£ .SDW I .N. CA~is.. .ei. wAsal rkk . ..:-if-.liltJry IJ'. tn".TA-eL(JrJ'ofHelJ~ .e'lf~eQ... fltut." . HIlI'.iaugliler" To ." Sje 6ro'IfJAt.'-OM tmt/.y' Jqy~'JI ADJ l/w 'waite' w_Aedt .a4tlw/'ite" In.s~Je'jl .!'J_.There' 4e linre.ll Ji.r:etljlowing witm."rB J'-~I_.IB. M.ain t4el.ilt .ltl~ . TA./.. . .t 1:'- .d . ..1 . Ij Ana fJIIl.d..J'I. " .. " ISIs was . JI O.tL 10 T..2.AIel" And Cdill th' 8(J._. I:-. Tla!"WUlI2'J' s. °f~womrm.iI. 1'4"! tJROll.lv..~ - . rileA .e' 'ell sru/.I. .17 II '~J..~y.ramJ! .uglt ..ure wheat r. ..lI-fJ..£418 wrJ..e..l).To .is . sU'-.. living.(I .r.DR.' w~eat pu" .~.W. To "tim laNI/W RItIM' ~as. miscAief.Fi(Jli....~6(J."'~"wit/" pai1l Tis. Sen1fo.' tA~y'. Bttlt1c ryt tA.~18 fltrui:r" or I' .T"....mfxB'tfl '.oftlUwitw· .iw. .-. .I'ain Anti .4 lJ.rmc!Ju P"fJm tireflower E." .s.To sADw tA. Tie .-:-.nteJ 011SlDZ.' . Tw. Ani not ..fi1J. .lay .~""!I' ~'~' r. P'lD..JA.ing..Bu" "Ite tAe1l.S~lIe"M.I.g..''!' ~ . : 1 20 1 An rmgettc hmJ Bril.' TD'JtlyW. splJi'!J To.giJl'II.iJro'lI/IA. .inB. IIII!!!' imme.80.1..pure' .BBl'iBg.r8.1 .1 Tmic'.drivlX. wAat \VA' JU.~~.'a.CoIJ (Jni &:kil1l'.lte.JiJ !die Of tne lift d UiRr"'.er.up . .04Y tn•• San '~fAlpAtJ .S'..:fiJl.:..J In Jorlt/an'" wail'" He Icept a/a. . For Mis lAit:v....Till Sa'irlD .~ J! m <1'.In&o .loul.rllfJN£' a .Ieet/fo" growing From Ime' . Tile wrifer is:fle.tM . ~'.lfmt"8'd 0:11 MW~mQDII ~g:'u.lu _ _-1ft in . ".. men" TAml Eve m....".'u' old age. C:4111 . . 'lII)'t AiJ.." .TA'DS'.e!16.TAw to . ~I.m SDW.1te lIAlfJ Goet :1'5 O/rll.gAr 1'.Till'.n weufozmdJ. .8'&U:sion I.'rin. .I::'~ .f' I "7". TAeneB ws". AnJ'o.OmlC. To.'011' .'In'sm -ILI"'.t'ieruisire" Tlult «Il'men "loutdI"Y Ti'.is:Ia ItIt'.To .u~J6n.Efllry'm:cm 10fls'tl. '.nDt BOW In.·~edl' .fllly' COIU-e"u'tQ "k6m.forrA .oFtc/tar..6100"" T1afJ wo"ra '.

"a TlEen willlhs' Br... that by the.has taken.r ICanopic Hercules.· _"I.-" TAB' fo/c--em (Jfgt~.y meant: (NUmher.prebably lO'C'ated Paradise on.. -" . H·'.artl.I.'ts. tA.croJWI". which was taken over b.(jllcfJ""~ Ajte'f IongpeNm:CB".it. a mountain range to the south.~~i!I Europ-e' 8 "'tI'.put ·of Ne.r!".calsdtolarsD.rocess of soil. .·T.' Ia." . sacred grove on im: summit has dropped out of the story in Genesis'. Tit. P(Jssi. ml ~ ~ J 1fl• .-1. ISOI 11(/]' Q... WtJes... tmg.).' IfZlIti Wdrj Will.y.re :_' leulture started mep. JSBtl~Iw'1 .m~y. ·~sfour thousand fee't above: sea- A~ prtS01UJr5 Fi8' A'" I By 3tr~'8 F.ry..fO.illl'fI'll'~' ana In m...'. Anii'lne smmg~' sw.""""'" ~.arm· Sluzll V_"aw4y~ . As tothe lOlcality.e'cn tiel' 'Vf. Jerahmeel ('hel'Dved of the moon') is yet anothername fo'...ahmeelite ."11. Ac"uzin~wea' . a vastly high-mountain" sometimes..6. Dr" Cheyne: wasappemen. time been.y harJic Asirl'.11'1B.'.aby]onian e:p.. befo.e 'i I ~II.TAe.WS 1 I. mob. in..pon a.I[o.1 ~evel and.B fulfilleJ T46'ifsl'..icwhich dle' JI&.in a ~rden" bl some .oflJi.d'·wlapQ. Bri'eotu rAen "kall ne:J!j' ...serpe"'." XIII.'l.(!lit/oftA.Iurv'ey of Palestine. "Aile .k the stcu~y'.c"m~.~seJmaMmJJ Unril "41 .Q. __ ·1·"· ~. . raa ".WJ." . pomegrallte trees and fig trees. . have come onIDy :fro. Tlt4ir .ow regard the first three chapters of GSN.w"ntle"J. 'T'-.. wliat'mise.· I.m wholm the Israelites ·too. Thr(Jug/t. must hav. Moses QIJm..g-eb was originJall. . accordmg'to Walter Clay.1111. . . ex'tTeme P. J'hzaw rlwi..inBJ .l.TMir Lr.:e5.y the Israelites and became Bahylonianlzed during the Captivity. .u~ From Ge.r ..B'-:':~"Jfl.infer't:hat this fn.P"tl'C.: fOf' many BibH. attested i'n Er.~'tmy~ Until'tite eRa.Ts t18 Severn.lI'. . we' migbt .aland flowing with milk. GWa. Hebrewphrase '.Illau . as.1 JeraluneeHte legend from theN egeb of Judaea.. Ttllsome cAange slz. erosio'n (which. .ma.~ [te. the Jer.i'eQu - The Jerabm=.m .tn.amdise~ me me The H'ebroiD.Il/~:1) had once u. begri(l.t. w.land tA4_y will [fJ~.and in 'the' Ethilopian EnocA" XXIV tree of life is.. -.£11.if it be [correct.Lowdm'1"mHk":s recent .w'e' PlaDL.alley in Southern Judaea. . EJtcepr WllJ.TA6'ir . ~ t" _ I "".!au' .. 2'J.""u.J_ D 'DRi11ZIC.s.~· 'The creation . vrlm its vines..I' J' WDTis" As tfJ.In all Dppreali1J1I.. Dr.Tke'pitiles. . eh -li---\'t'ad'll a aard"-dn 1"~Eden of. }.0pneecy will sAow O'nTroiti" .riJSU .the substance ofw:hich can.czna 8.. !II OA}. .je.t!L.part of Jerab_meeUte: terrltorYiI Themountain with D. (see GeniS". Lower Mesopotamia is startling. Y'ry'''''rJ~ ear:. .."".1ft S~-on3~ J"4.d. .-_.....tul' lti"~i." Site willtJ~e'rll1l'j' From LysAlyn.nvk WitIA wi".-61 O{WD'eJ.. '.11. Il'y·"'~._ .tly UDB:ware of this poem of Gwilon's. ff'D./J&aM .P. erdllm'ce& 'ill •.g.of Adarq in Hebron rather than in. .c-aUT:s8 r:md. Cheyne restores the text of GBMSU.n .e: been womderfuUy.. IfTItBfZ s/u:zlllJB maJe' equal TAe'pri.'J -__ L.W.. In great nee"s-illY II ~~.tJ-" .tAsy wiltp1itJ~. H'ebrew source uneontaminated by the B. . placed. II but is.cimce-s. and honey' :1. .dtfulland.. an average: . R7.eA:iAl. v.of three feet of soil from the wbole: country)..-.

S ORI'GINATED THE BA8D"fIC. da ter . 'wmch was a ceremony of initiation into the Christian mystery and at . 'The. Kin'g Eleasts. For "conceived by the Holy G'host'.m'odi.. rh.6 Da_y ~fJuJgement .. Wil(S produced by mystagog!U:es'l dressed asshepherds for the! adoration of the celebmnrs~· He was seated in a lik7Z0tS.gethe quick and .teries!! 'The t. In the le~rly Christian Church the Creed was uttered only at: baptism.Aem relating TAe st.om t:o Moses by means of three Dominical rods (i~e'. judging and establishing... Aposdes' Creed" indeed. has a direct reference. H(:b.gin MalJr was the physical vessel in which this concept was. 'when Adam fasted.6.po. reserved TAl ..eat s Mysteries" a Harvest: Thanks:g. and learned all the kinds: afknowledge and science wri... preliminary to pardclpatioin in the 'Gree'k.stles'" Creed.()flzuigemenr t. whose languag:ewas Greek:" identified the Holy Spirit 'wlth Sophia. act asa paraclete or advocate forman with God the: F. O'W11 Then M.o:st. one of the 1010 manusenpts. of l Boeoda At an early I.I. The and '~Mary~ the Gn..e&is'l. wrongly identified with the archaic Spil'it that moved en the face' of .sis~ Eleus:ismeans !C:A..E.t. who came from.gin Jordan with water to his chin is found in 'tenth ..put in Jesus"!. Essenes' great day.is:difficult to see from whom. 'was..ory o/'tlz.s.the dead. according to G. In Tor/jritlnd TAs ' )olr.&yncreticaHymodeUed on the Hercules formula. the books feom which he derives his wisdom were originaUy bro. senpt as. for Sunday was the..is a separate piece not IGwi~on''swork.t AnJ!ofth.7 onwards:".rew and.".of J ..es. Dove-goddess who...whol€! Ufe.'conceivedby the Holy Ghost. . tory was. The end of the po'em" from stanza 2. It may be Essene tradition. This seems to he '. was.6: tain. 10'r osier harvest .m the :V.-: Conception . in the Gnostic Ught. Wisdom. The masculinisation of the Holy SpirIt was Issis.t]' renewed. Sea'" and WI'S identified. Wit 'o"riginaUy composed by 'some G~nosticChristian in Egypt and . deides. !lErntllanuel" .Ck. flood in his golden cup sacrificed 0.picked up in their' Captivity.e of me.steries 'to si. ceeureence .te" uU2Minol'O...cmclfied-s'hall come: to j'ud.' 1.of:St~ Jor/ln the same fig. thechiefpatron ofthe therapeutic Essenes.the rods of SundIY). in the.d: "dle waters.ZlUma... understood as a mysticaleraanaticn of Jesus.u. God rewarded him. other than the Essen. baptism. Paphos in Cyp:rus every yea. with Ap..SECRET...r ·Q.. on which the Salta.John..fBDaty'. the G'(JEpe.. a.reatest tumults.tten OD them.as another name for the.tlir:e'e .n apromise that God will send them a paraelete (usually translated ~'comforte:r~)afte'l' be has gon. the' sea at.u:l'of"4~'ICr. dating perhaps fro... variant text oif the' lines I have printed fromNasb~:s. EXCEPT TFn!~NAMEOF GOD WHICHHA. celebrated at the Gr. ioglo the Saltair.rei:gn the . But no source is 'known for the dispensation of ~5d. born of the V'ir.11..oibel~Loth .Ieusis" where the most [a.ear 1.r is bEed. and taught them all.2 I'O when" in the reign of King Uewe'lyn ap lo.B. Raphael is described as o the sngel ofhealing and must.e Divine Child.111. f Enoc:h. the Sea. and it .ry .mal.r with her vfrgini.ather. century I:dsbSaltair na RtlRn"and in the' e-arly mediaeval Life' of AJamo:ful Eve..51~Ory of Hercules :ri:ding on the. genume. the Thebsn king: in whose .s hasexpressed surprise' "tba..: One oft. DJr W:ilUam.'tin me middle of Gwion's CQd GrJddefJ.mysteries on which.8.s's version makes perfect sense also.fJ&S of..ofAdam fastin. is the same old .f. in En -_ sh usage it comprises Chritnmas and. and this. as in Druidic mys. in. product of Latin gnunm~spiritus Ismasculine and of e-arly Christian mistrust of female deities or quasl .orm. fO'r 'adults. The: Ito. when read. The Gnostics. 'the Wise a'D.. rods .e.erefore have been.: .icsmeant ~'Ofthe Sea' The male Holy Gbost isa to. was likewise . occurs 'the Tria. or Ogyges!.. a masculine noun. Dionysus:.efers to I'laiah'~S.in all Latin ii' i Vir.IJ~ TIte. the Christianwere modelled.'tage of the' yearly Eleusinian Myster. the four p:recf'ainig weeks.:0 themoun- su'ffered..' Da{ugQ: A.n"and which occur twice in the poem.• -_ translano.pleis illogical and this is the only ins:tance of hs.. andblessed is he who ~ pOSS~S8jelj ttl! mouth i.engulfed me corn . 'moved on the face of the waters'.DI31up'J' tlte ICrucijixi'r:m. and Wlsdrom was female.by a male princi. theearUes! Latin vel'rdon of which isquolted by thesecond-c:en'tury Tertullian. paraclete. prophecy of the birth of the Divine Child from_ virgin: Jesus as Hercules. of tits' WfJ. Sir John Rhys regards thls manu . . M"O.alld.King John ofEngl:and invaded N. and recalls: a reference to three rowan sods in..e:n.ure:is.. rose from.. Com.. The mother of Eleusls was 'Daeira.w.ugh't 1:0 Adam of Hebron by theangel 'Raphael.dvenf me and 'the word wasadopted in the Christian my. in. that Jesus would.d took place whlcll.wertli.enw ap Teirgwaedd took the threerowan . to the Flood.sto'ry. In Grtasticmeory -the Gnostics first appear as a sect in thefirstceaturyl~c~~Jesll's w:as conceived in the: mind of God's Holy Spirit.iving festival in late Septemberi and his fatber was sometimes said 'to be' Ogygus.great ftoo..acc:01rd .. DFt I£ol William.ies the Divine Child" son of the W'ise' One.own o.ginMacry~ Oceaaus'. was said to be named after the Attic lGngEleu. with pardon.especially a:sGwion e\Kplainstbat..gni'fy the arrival of th.maus'mysteries of all took place:.too hy a remark in me'First Epi~lle of S~:. incarnate' literature.!Vowing out of the mouth 'of Einigan 'G'lwr'. who was i"e.~ II It is possible that the A. basket" To judge from We If7 . Wales and temporarily conquered it.

E. same with a moon-disk SUfM' mounted by cow's horns. full~skirted woman with a round hat rocking a baby in her' arms" Of' with a Bower instead ofa baby. for the Greeks believed.mona 1 sh'apes.esmss..e corn feU in aheap.~i~iwhisde' shrill.I:S. mOlmer. bwIY xi.. Since the Jewish. called "Ogygiades' . as they say" hangs on 1. and Romulus. he 'ongi. to induce the NorthEast winnowing' winds 'which... The plollghman sings as he drives his. -The .' _ll [headed man.. David married Michal at Hebron..ieggea I adorati oration.of wbisding is not heard ln the island except in the .ght on the first Sunday aftet. fo:rgot. boughs and boughs of the sorb-apple. Son. To the learned Gwion the VineDionysus and the Com-Dionysus were both reco. 'This Identification of Michal with Michael 'would seem forc-ed..1-l... mel:1th of September (the Feast of the Blessed. the. the chaff was d .'~~~ s. in an ecclesiastical fesdv. the hull-headed man is.. .lilmos was used.'.lo'n of'the letter A: And retijlowing wine CArist'if "ure bOdy male" Son '!f . Lmew Llaw.8 'si. len wi I new cult of transcendent Jeh.. the' spirit who moved UpOD.. Dionysus him_seH" and..of Moses" 'Taliesin.'! 0.grain..j unction of NO. And Calypso was Daeira. destroy ancient traditions whi. of 'all the seas to create . meaning 'unfathered son ofa 119 . harvest-baeker..1.eu!. an date ·'1· . the method was to' shovel up 'the.at-ed as a 'w.i. . The Vine- version Mosesl too.. Lord of Lightning. lor grian mascara.tiviries!! The mermaid. win shortly be' mentioned that' the .IS the Virgin Mary . Dionysus-worship in their cities" they limited the orgies" it seems. .of Bona1 nated before the institution of fatherhood. d animal with. Jehov. an original story' may be pOIBtula't-ed in {.L!· deco r~ m ed anc .r.. When the tymnts of Athen's:. for the rest forAu .. sorb .ve.e~aUy on Hermes because. the face of the waters .after the harvest and not celebrated with aay fes. grolVllto manhood.d i I'~ g.I. and Hebron may be called the centre of the earth. the 0. . h i .Petri...clay' are a1s 0 in. I the bough of a tree the sound .rigin.evi~'the f1Umer'. The Mysteries probably Q.. But this is..The tit · itse t. _ ajollcan XUlr6'~'~or w hi c ay wmst 'Ie. mule and.1. ane at .' .o'nysus once had no fatbe. who is shown with. amee this IS-ne IIJwy tune 0 f''ith e year When wined~erpent U.onysuB. or Aphrodite.. caulked with sedge. whol tore loff her' son Pen. a very short muzzle . from its position near the . weep long'..cb 'seemed damaging to their TAe' wheat ric" in. L . . Corinth and Sicyon legalized. More about the White Goddes's and whisding for wind 'will be found in Chapter TW. that of an earlier Dionysus.either. There was r-eally no such king as Eleusise Eleusls signified the Advent of the' Divine Child~ .le'usis had 'no father. .:l '"d"i ~ -.. of. of the sacred phalluses displayed at the festival.bat and arms upraised in d ]" . nova.. god. _the mystagogues declared that 'they fo-und bim on the river bank where he had landed after sailing over the flood.. His nativity app. the villagers perambulate a..ai held at.It '~gu. To the patriar-chal Greeks thls seemed shameful and they therefore fathered him on either 'Ogygus~ or Hermes but more gen. the goddess froim whom David derived his title of King by marriage with her pri. me Win. • _. · we.oemg_'i\lg'a_y arboricuttura -at .little rider is likdy t-o be Dionysusagatn but the species of his tall mount . 1. b '1-1' . the village ....." holds. thus the myth ofthe Toadstool-Dicnysus became attached to me Vine-D:ionysus" who now figlUfed as a son of Semele the Thebanand Z.ecorat ed i re ~ a d g-reen...bougps" and the white ..Illp"ia.gnizably Christ. Name of the Virgbl Marr)whi'ch corresponds.. 7. the: the 'Toadstool . be. locally caned . honour of the Goddess~now invoked .s purse. not really .urell). corn and ehaff together while 'the wind was blowing strong and sieve them through theosiers.res"with quince . 1. were it not that the name Michael occurs only in post-exilic 1 Sir Flinders .ten: wi'nnowing in Mljoflca.jj.qU'inc:e~..c-omeJ_d b th e M-" . Tutor.is.ren".8 which Michal (not Mi!chael) of Hebron. that mushrooms and toadstcols were engendered by lightning. d h arvest.hougbs. . 0 f'tmermaicid " .-LS i tho __ ~. only:a virgin.. in this. ... by 'substituting wine for toadstools.s (the C'om . I..innowing fe-ast" :For they took place some weeks afterth.Qvan. the schoolboyas be runs.gum Yerushalmi on Gene8u II. theus's head in a Dionysiac frenzy. ee h an d .namely Calypso.. evidentlyrepresents Daelra (Aphrodite) the mcon-mother o. -"~La1:QrcansWiIO.The fact was that" like Taliesin and Merlin and Llew Llaw and pro'bably in the original 'King O'gygus"is a name invented to explain why Eleusis.COil'1-d serpent. with the %3~dof September Old Style. same... dust from the centre of the earth and from all quazters ofthe earth and mingled it with waters.Alpha~that . 8'ccording 'to' the local almanack.. hel" D in the woman . seas and the three ancient continents. de i tbe tra diti ma e In..fEteus. ' . rabble preferred to alter' rather than.is" fl.11.ah took. Yet Semele was sister of A(9I.ty-..Adam~'The. is DO'W deae at any time . Ogygus: he was. 'was Adam':s creatrix. near Palma when. hill at ni. basket~manger· and cradle" but also as winnowing sieve. the son of the: Queen of the Island of' IOgygia. with a tall peaked .... not only as harvest . was.corre~ponding myths . According tome 'Talmudic TG. It.-not sprung from seed like all other plants.ears to have been.. 1.e tune 0f'ewe equmoena 1wm~s.eD. .ewhe-at~ An interiestings:urvi'val of these 'winno1V1ng-feast mysteries is.And the Child was... heaped in the same useful lihzo:s...be . home fromschocl. rear .I l blown away and tb. The objlect of the whistle must originally have been. . M· -.1_ -. me s-irocco as they tear the D. .is indeterminate.jta/. I 'y u.1 h iorn Iesc!" pncs-earen d Iong . that Mo:sesJis an Egyptian ward. son of Di. .Four.g 'on .. anc ntue man rl~' n. the man in the' hat is a.aTilf'llll season.i..gjn t~o blow at this season and which at the 'end of the month summon rain clouds from the Atlantic Ocean to soak the winter wheat planted earlier in the month. agail1~the Wise One' of the Sea. angel Michael collected the dust. man.

.i..' _..Jifr"me .'gitita..king. or Miriam ("Sea-brine. this chapter seems to record a triendly arrangement between it:. rimed by Budge.• ..1 the.ough late and much...om 'the shrine of M__acbp"elab.wbone' and if Issac W. . t.it?) of Adam boneswere the rule in.J) and In XXX"V" 29 inlplies 'that Isaac was....edited. and that' in A D'isCiJ. by another tribe and carne [0 seekan asylum at n.alsQ held tal have fulfiUed the prophecy in the I' I.? Tedlysi) who owned.. dma) death. The' sto...) the V'irgin Mary" was simUarlythe in's. as: when Jaoob married Rad1@1 the Dove1 permanent supp. the tide tba.that "she was neither beautiful 'D.ge _.. chq~e g·f name.f. the shriner Sarah was forced.oth Psalm: . believed in a :a.sam.c.D. in 'e time of Joshua" he' ousted the Analdm fr.as. 'for Bee~Lahai..Paul's Eputle to tAe He6. buried there too.. buried in the . who frequented 'Hebron ~.of prop.o.Tbe S~Dry of itspurdhase' fr·om Ephfon (3 'Po'we'r".t Adam.a. Irlam 11.l. wang 'with Jolln Skeltofl.e"s. B'y !hi's: union.. pr-i'esteagand became' Im!!!!Rac.Rahah tb. of Rahab.its Dame to me weU..' re ..' ere at first. is enlarged Up'Dft was the sepulchre of Abraham:!' and Caieibw'f!nt there to consult his.D'j.0 .spirit-whom they named i' me A. w associated with 'the cave. to "llf4B£61t.~s .of J05h.giiou's theory' is.le..~. In this poem of Gwion:Js" Adam has no soul ... where it is s·aid that he bu'ried in Abel .I. 'The statement' about Jacob is Iconttllldictedin Genesis'L" t t.a8 evidently a Sea. Since Rrlhab is :. whieh 'eventually aeca:me '8.heuc jawboD~j'aw62.Radlll!s:\man~'".si" was XXIP~ wh.. for.after his creation until Eve animates IDl:iL Btl't Caleb..ham' being in this..ppwriJOI in tlh~ seleet &t of' books in Mi]torl"s: ..I heretical sect of Jews.ilinear _cQ'l_1e.. and used Hebson dust and sea water. MelchJzedek. ~o'. in St".floddes~who appears... 'Tl1e pri1ei. 'was. Thus it is . Loth asacomplimemto MelCbizedek.~ -'_.IwIL _.oddess of the Aphro. Heavens which wascalled Michael and committed Chris.. as de~ervfnl o. . and rebirth with a. in the Talmud of .'were a_ mlcu.er' descended on earth andwn caUedMary.. acxQ.d ed a' thr s in'ou.. I~ TIle' mystical Essene .n.. dtle EO 'the' J eridJo valley.1. oracular' cave cut from the rock.Mi~·. .e'W Jerusalem' as tho'ugh. ' : - Cl~'m- Michael ('W1l0 is like . whose reU. ift die BIh. descended many prophets inCluding Jm'emiah. and it has the d&tiru:tiDI1 of aJ.. .ry 0. Miztaitl"LMor~ovler" Isaac: .JI" . capital to Je:rusalem ('Holy Salem') which they refer 'to as 'The . sense the far.tly editor of Genesis describes it as the sepulchre also of Sarah an bam' to Canaan (cAb:r. a.fl('S6 -on Mary by Cyrilof Jerusab~~m.I-'_. Hebron were the authentic one.given.hmem£)dell~d his CanJ£Je 0.·.~ .ear-by Hebron.en. of the Boibel-Leth) and the Children 'of Heth.cave of Mach:pelah~ If these Melcl1izede:lodans wor-.0 said to hav-e marri-ed Salmon.t.. is told in Ge!RI'£is XXIIl't Th.ua to.i' .Ja..'O.written in the GtM.~ a.mother. shade. ho was priest to the Supreme God.sinlibrf _marrl~fP was 'tna:tt. as.ravelled tribe that t came down into Palestine from Armenia at the close of rhe third mlllenniumB....and is nottherefore a part of ancient Jewish tradition.e Harlot.e'SuXXIII" 19.. from. ly that neither Isaac tlor Jaco'b nor their ~'wiv.~ . and Christ was in.~dillg11/0 .o C:.e' ma. .ere he probably had an oracular sbrine at one time.ce Sarah was: a Laughing G'oddess..Miriam"l (The Talmudic' traditien is.dite type.B..'B HebTflWs [a lost gospel of the' Ebionhes.. ~ . II. and those members of sect who embraced Christianity and developed into 'the second . th W·'''1I''I!il'. = M. and her progeny was destined to' be "]ike the sand of the sea shore' she W.O worship the :body (consult the 'sp.. N.N. (G'ene8i~' XIV. (and sow Imvoehecome an ance9t:r~' of' David and ] eSlas) 1t may 'well he tbat Salmon. g.E'bionites of the first century female'Holy Spirit..pel tO Ih. Macl'pelah.·. Texta'" this pas5~ge.Pol1m9.:\Vriting.cs made the V~nMary the vessel 'of this Holy .s" or Ante1.. :!EM'!'I•. 1 'Yhi!ch was. and Hasrtah. Adam Vias.e·Lcmz. Schofield in his.ogniritmtS.h'f~rs. supposedly original of St...1 [hey had tkug. . oracularshrines usually stored there'.hei or Israel.ir. these ~~ugb~rs. a. Ther-e is. u_ :u50 W. XXv. in his p MiscellanaofU COIJtic..-Roi meaasithe Wen of the Antelop. He did even better: h. identity of tt1le religion in all ages depends on a series of Incarnations of the Wisdom of God" of which.riginally lived ar Beer-Lahai-Roi (G.oldest 'M].J..avid fOlr' moving ms.' _~ ment chosen for the creation of the FitS. iu:~cording'to HCR€I . D31utally :gi~e. tradition to have matt:iedsomeonecaUed Michal 'who was I. notes that 'to this_ day the people of Hebron have not for.. ~Salem' is genelaUy taken to ana Jac-ob (Gen.A . with the hero's navel-string .occurs: I t is.lnvo]ved. .the firstand Jesus the last. 9l' .ly Spirit = Mi l·~ Micha~l. the Sea"'..ried . called Melchizedekians. w But J. a record.! All tba't is needed to clinch this :argumentinp.ReS a Boi'fJalQ.heticpriestes5es by ritual :marriq-e 'WIth whom J omus seCUtedb~s. the Good Father called a mighty power in. " IQn ~.. .after the older' of M... Sm. and Jesus was the SeeondAe " and Michael.t to its care And the pow. Rahaib.) 'had neither father nor mother". -"'. a I'O~al marriage . me-an Jerusalem and it is probable that Salem occurs in the Boihel..t Jlomua assumed at Ids maFr-iag~. it seems. our of Beer-Lahai-Roi.God?') According to the Clementines..£ Samuel's hinh sugg~tsthat .L.o'etisC' log. shipped Adam. as I suggest. century Clementine G'nosti'..g "'" . her womb seven months..'u.ssiom. laL-aO) the Sacred King of Salem who 'welcomed tiAbra- me ntis..eyed the Hamy Spirit toHebroa wben.-rhe[~ would was a sacred 'cave near by.conv.ope-. Sarah. .. ~. XXV.L"'!Ii. me I me 'II I the devotees of the Goddess. Historical BQckgr1JunJ.allly.ttument of his creation....amSh.usually :regarded as Hhtires..' in goed healrh~)~ The: equation mat follows is: Miriam I ~Ho.mand will not repent! thou art a prlest forever . his pfo'p. ~h(l\Rl..G·. popularized in a novel called TAeRec. z.r. JehDvah has 's~DI. the only other character in Bible who had neither me V".edek .Matthew]tbs£ when Christ wished to come upon earth tomen.A1:f!(JI'€t. Christian chapel. was Rahalb~'s incamation . 'after which she gave birth to him. Jesu8w.Tdlirtsin riddle. the Giodde!'S of the 'trlbe of Isaac and alieir'alliesthe devotees of the Goddess: Heth (Hathor.:.u~l:ls.c is {oJrCaleb in Jewish.. representative of the local Sea-goddess.

.of'me birth of'tbe Divine. lor &'14. that .. I 'I and that hiR.tran~t of gU· .Anti Cain rAe 'D/itary HomiciJe..gAI.s king' "Adam' -. . " .mer· ry and.1 'Q__ -. " Spirit of Uk in -=-fonB o.er ate" until finally she bore zeus 'who le5cap _d ~d eventually avenged his brothers IO'DSaturn by castrating. 'the EleusiDi. lib e f-ed'_man. c ds IE:Ue di .'" . M. . liannabl the' ~fWemy.'Lra '. 'a.on.l~lv.em':mummi6ed oracular heads and tha't the head 'of .rath. the Body 0'£ l3l'J... explanation giv:~n there is that E. brougllt forth thirty Ichildren . ~ 11.. peartl Then Ethio~~.t'IJ. he has no mother.. usually IIgoat.in Hannah' womb wh ~_ ..onth of 'the' year.'.!ersion 's.C'"1 .Calnan.- 1..d cr' b.C:_ J.. seems 'm ~.!1_. supp6ed by the ~almruL The anifi.~= ~_ . ebron..J.mal:l"ial"chy to pa'triUlchy~. in by sbepberds'l m..e. d a white ~~ caD!e dt . in the Beth-LuisNion) is allotted to' th~ last m." l 'I ~.cation of Edom wi'th Adam: 'they are the same word" meaning.tler ' ~?O ~.u.a.(. Llew llaw".ird _.Ab-.'. :&om Joadlim'S.two w~. careful examin a.1 Twice.-_ __ . ~uc:cestlv..ham's -unlelll'!'" A'd' am i'l!Iind..Gwion is.v."' AhmhamI . th i~~'Cior ". .tisQL. .Esau. ..triad of sis. his .eauttech 'wODOUS . SO?.ms.t Josepb" declaring thar i'_ ha.ated 'With the midwinter' feast which afterwards becameYule. f 1l. sent to IEgypt for' the relevant documents.lJea. . I_e Gaostit rh ._'The coniusiOID of 'languages after the faU of Babel' was taken by Babylonian Jews 'to refer tOI the &1110'£ the famus r. viewed .. of Jacob were' 'victorious and Esau was beheaded 8:1 one stroke by a du_mh "".and e.ek'.QUD't. W"J. · tho ease ae "'oy ..er Zeus . t: ms ' "... in his account of the' fourth . ~he _ 'twelv'e young men. nana. head was buried a... an earlier Incarnation of Ju.mu).' D arutei 'luB't .o't by his 'm._:L.--.the.f a \\rbJm bini -d.fignt ensued in which the sons... th ~J~ IF 1I .am.er is inleUigible" but why should he have D' mo.l". Ra-'L 1 rrom hter ratner £.:1--. ..ar h . is.iUJl.~ au .d are alikc'_. the ancestor of th_-Edomites. on 'M Y' . The reign of Sa. Ic~n'~~ manyr S. ~.. ofOUl" ~Mary ~I)ed I' " IG] . devclopme·nt . hi '"''L .rB" ._..turn there . ~elv. OJ" Jailed.d.y.eof Mach'pelah 'OD the wound tba't it was an Edo.. in ..imilarly puts.'pearl is :mmtioned ~or I.loBcldm_cl And Jaa.th_. mo th as loon as.-_ .P ..and ' qual. Thirty d'oubtles's because the "reign IOf Sa'tum.the fifteenth .dler? p1eihaps 'the stories of Moses"..anim. and his sonsoppesed the burial of'Jaco'b in th.tb~ n~d~.an ~YS.. ~inlting'tll. ae" Jacob. .'~ar b~y' b""' -IS. (-' . " I.5~otber.t E've~whom he' ..-~:on 0 .b._~'L ~ _ b e. Loth.. was. figures in. while bWd ~u'se Marys ~&oul."dentifies lVi'th Rhea. Wl'W.ird 01 'me' s. 1- lof the same hero..t.' /tidieR" S~e 6roug4tfo"tA .dll. tnat i" -hi.." a well .I. ou '£0. -" ..ely_n. the: blame fOl' their expuj'sion whoUy on Satan".~.YS' id cubnin. gfY.I. 'Ute to Ifh oracular shrine of. eare of'tutors.. 'ChUdil.~Iy lca~onof the .Io_ eph.! . __'was. '" • and . Elias Levita.~m lO·.t Ichild~en" :atting as:ba own midwife.. It is thetl'al1Sidonal ~stage£l'OrD..ti. entury Hebr-ew' commentator.e trib~'S of Israel. number of childr:en: all ot whom Saturn her.:.8.the' pear~.. Clemen'tin.ry of the Fall as deroga~ory tOI the dignity of Adam and E" and GW10ln in.. an. or Chri tmas.mdIy Ed'om" one' wo. atla.a b ha~ve ~ ~... _ Laban ''W.of the: Clementine sptCIe'Dc' theory" in which Seth.SAe wcu slelf. at 'the Bta)-p.. L.th : bead 'of .r.nh --res. I'oin_ ~ab ~ceived :ir. pressed: a stanza evidently con.effect..IS.Aidam W3_ . ROImwus' and Cremn...eo. in the Boibel . are ev~.B_'~jamites &om the Calebites. Noah .exismdaforetim-' with 'dwA.taining £h. ceased te be Edomlte 'when Jacob sold his.A!Jsl.: ma."iiiiII 11AC!! c""n!!JW' -'" 'h'''-~h''!lid' noli.'QP: '...~ __ .ig.e Setb..t Hebron by .OS'. EnoCh" Medluselah.L __ -'I'~UU". It is much more llkely that .-' .ds with the Christian period Df Advent.. ~rmv_ H:8¥WJ. Mar:Y:.L.e'syncredsm" The . iO .ed. means.:L tra~JlO. 's '~ackof a fath.POse" that EVle bOl'ie t\¥en'ty~igh.leries·the Divine Child wu' carri. - - - . 'which the'lotb. shinin li'ke a whi~.'J "the h n.other er by :1 ours ~. in fact.d expect to find a tradidon that . ng 'b' the G'... But if Adam.9.~la~~ ~_e~ylrgm..ul. and R'u.' '~.irit dum entered into Jesus.~a.I IO.reliminary to the Day . fir ! cam~ down . ry . of B.e'D rb" e ongJDiU lora_--'.ringjl TAe mi.'. D.e".!!1 It 'will be r __Ued that Rb~_. -." lasted thirty d . him .. ~d Ro.'ai. y '.!! I D ev.abylan~ But the' {~gg(JrlatA!I unllke me myth . 'W.And ORC' .'"'al S~'.e«p181D '-. namely tbebod_y of Diur Lady Mary~Th..e ~. (OUI' of them angels' (i. Judah . 10.n . by Saul· '.tlve :R1..ery case 'th boviIS.IS. I 'SUP'._LrB_ _ . was' r1e.".u.ging gardens". .. ':red'l .stanza: - - IA:_· 'the To'wer ofBab I" was completed.I' -.' d .__ cain and An-I a_nd then •• S 'has beenl su~' II .n--""'lilll'te--d 'IS .soug4.. a wolf or a p. "or Ad . ~ 's . 'the HaMS TrJiui:n..~o'm and hovlered oV' my bE d~ Now" thi bJfd had Its b~ in 'Ih_ da.. fore co~~espon.dently th~. Caleb vms an Edomite c:lanjwhichugg'ests: the identifi.father nor motber~.te P 'slession.311-: the 5.us b d-' was CBrlle . removec d rrom L. Melcbizede.kno'wn . 'F .I:t .d in 'the IG"JldBn . .aude) and Levi (Matthewhave: their names 'tIDhooks in ~e .!OJ! '"e I • I'...'\iid'1 501'omon.::__'. evangels). p . The Clementines rejecce -_th orthodox sto. hid 'till his wife' Haanm.e 'Ca..o..ncimtt of :D-~s.. as the moth r both of Cream Zleus. :aIsQburied at Hebron-.0' fO by 'Srid -e..tthe terap 'hmm WI_~_w_ale_ 1. Sir' James Frazer givec details of this thirty-day p' rig.into '~e body ofS~th. they were doubdess iden'tifying' 'elcllized.in ~~and then the Divine 'Child Seth. •• Tb~ &.'..d. hus._.. "!.~~ _1 cu1 -~eroOr. p]nared . tha. The: letter R (RiulJen or RAe'a. I ~. birthright 'to Esau.~ P1l:n~~ Ill~ d)_.' . L~mech...stote E.I" e .. p...~'. and mi.ys. ~d:~. _ te. =. "IiIYlpe' "l-ah· IE 1-1 llAe'-I tbat . --s__'. .ig mddes him and be 'passes under th .cle of TIim_nY' who was the Virgin.mi. . four of whom~JDsepbJI Simeon (SImon). From. th'..:cetl6'111IJm IOlman-woman.ji"e. D'asius. pearl wemt fortb."ew'T_tamenq and they p' haps representthe 'twelve signs of th _'Z:odiac: in.L.born.lers a. -.. ~ The :seyenth.aSJ 116z wblte.seizure '0.. riddl'~Rhea.us'ii'The legend was 'that she bore a.clal.. of okL '" t:was '&'h. 'L among tbem.d eighth 'smJDZa'of' y" AwJil Yrm'rk .

-ouse. in his . 'babble of tongu. knew as Gebal.. thus the' 'Land. "'the UD'C. in the linguis. 0.the prophet to whom the Essenes seem £.1 gigantic Egyptian temple at 'time that the lcity was stormed and were unable to complete it..caused by the' Indo . helped him WI .- Ildho I White Poplar Yew are also those of iii The names of the letters in the modern Irishalphabet trees. There "'IS.that though the Calebites interpreted 'Adam~ as the Semitic wordEJom Cred:~}tbe oxiginal hero at Hebron was the Danaan . Doubtless there was a. to that of Hiram's Tyre (Erekiel~ XX."Emkiel.. broom. after the . Whether' or n.t. thoulih T has becomegorse.ia.ge.I' De 0. I do not know. named af~er the 'tree. t.e"squarers".0 have owed most.IG'" . and A.'EE ALPH:A'BET (1) first found the Beth-Luis-Nion tree-alphabet inHcderiek OI~Flaherty's OlJYgia.ed .and babblers could at least communicate with one another in o'fficiaJ Ass.yrian langura.ufE]der Elder ... mountam-nesg"hi:"'" 'Th' ~ d .es' :inBabylon.able'. ii.e:~". a synonym for the Eastern Mediterl'anean. Temple.to1ft. ..w:ph. :and the.atb Duir H C which the Greek word for 'book' (and the' English word Bible) derives-eis compared .. TYTe was an early Cretan tradin:g centre. of Asia' in stanzas 6 and 24 is.rt con D T' M G Hawthom Oak Hony Hazel Vine Pethbcc Ruis I P Ivy :R A D'w."1d his.Egyptianiz~d metropolis of the People of the Sea 'I at the second millennium n..D.ey had done so their :misfoJ":tulle 'would naturally have been ascribed to divine [ealousy at tbebeginn~n. latterly used.I elm.original :faU of B'Yblo9-~~ithad fallen and risen several 'times meanwhile mayweU have le"lmed his reUgilOl. or'tne Inexorable'. King Solomon who reigned about a thousand years. 'WI'·saom of Byblo ~ :1".o'tthe BybHan:ta had begun work on :.E !I::I'ts mCltner . who appears a in Ge. the . and thirteen consonants..o. he~p1res)e:n'ts it" with the Boihel . as a genui..· form a calendar of seasonal ttee"'ma. . dating' from. of five' vowels. This is mentioned in t Kin. for' divination only and consists.ently in European fork]cn:e. Homeric ep~thet of Hades. ermanic conG quest of Byblos.. It is pcssihle..'115-~-lrv':_~' "el'9. Lnotieedalmose at once thatthe consonants of this .os. Each letter' is. me fourteenth centurys. a.Vlljl B9).onque.Byhlos:. cl. and that all the' trees :fi:g.o:sely resembUng that of the Gr-eat 'Goddess at Hierapolis described by Lucian.nm~ sdo 'm or _.camtmphe.so they prepar.rlginatea.sis as Japbet.. ~ b' l' means '~~ h '. or shrub of which it is 'the initial: theinnovation.c. . 'though more properly it meant Southern Asia Minor.~ -~ - Ur Eadha '0 - U .ne. Noah's 10n'. lI'Ia~ Fearn Saille N F' S Ash Alder Willow U. bcrr'oW1cd tjf'om the Death Goddess L.Y.gjc.£ Ge'Qal..Ui. secrets from Bybl.. Solomon certainly bllilt his 'temple in Aegean :style..: Syr..A 11:m ·'" 11 Silver Fir Furze.1 of the' 'Pelasgians' Atlas and Prometheus.dmbe:r and stones to build the IJ..dc eonfusien . men. of G~bal' is miStrailslated"s. a Danaan colony close tO Tinne MuiD GOi. 10.. -' .L Birch Rowan And Solomon's builders and Hitam's builders did hew the stones. Moreover" !C'Asl"was: the name ofthe mother by Iapetus.iP.gof me me' me Chapter Ten 'THE TR.. Loth. I' 8:" thougbin the: Authorised 'Verslon "the men.. but if th. Beth Luis Nion Hi . for the Byblians. Heather Onn Adames or Adamas. and most of them correspond with O'Flaherty's list.ne relic of Druidism 'orally transmitted down the centuries.1to!5'. but it was not caused by any sudden ..c.tmepromin. It is said"to have been. or Adamd.s .. which me Je'W8.

airLl Since there are thirteen conscnan . of _ the gods.' Ev _ in healdJy womm there is -" ~.tere.. varia ~:om the lap ~~ in of'time . ce and B:ritain d.la_~--. In an I all r d foods such . questions. divinatory uses.~ 'If but la:te' be means that bleeh "twigs.'.ns: For -~.'..anni. rowan 'or m~oun ln ash.erly 'Used. " whi~cb is lone .p' between two ~ om 'of them w.. lad. • .es and mcan._' . h .r) .al'~e~.esence of' ._ PQ'~ He touch ..~already been pomte c__ OU_'" there ar thirteen such months in a alar year'" with one day left over.of luna "one. ·_erwts· . tion to' the sun.-hence the Irish proverbial expression 'to gOI on the: w'attle~'5 ofknowledge meaning to do j :..·tainin ' vinue .· . -d.. honour . -:-.efinel a lunar month. nm .es(~~ril 1St in E'rlgland. and there is..of nine' m . . Its round 1¥8ttlles spr ad with ._:. .. with the apple and the ~." _ b 1M m.d 10:£ 'pests .1hf· .of dl. tarnisb.. guarded. aesar :and Pliny both record that the Druidic year was..d'et berries and :fruit wiere tab _oed 'eKoep't It feas..~tr'Dnl a~d ~dePread!! The a '1' 'W3S apparently a gul .i 'ing.W". pr.:" and -·'t. er regarded as DruidiC. (Hie malus the same remark about the _willow :and the rowan whD~e 'twigs were' simiJarl y put to.be· .as .po . ~ ._ogm."..ree' 0'.. and XJnwrlil i-.. 'thirty-. the tree of quickening it could alSOI 'b.. eaeh C.. wid!~I.· m . for good :and bad tb I· . W~. 'on.1.. .. B'irch twigs. befaR unrise.u' is connected with the ward 'imoD'nil')1 of t1Venty-eigbrt: days~-'The C'oHgny syst. of the C1audian conqu.. Pliny devotes whole . ne ·'.object . .yed in Roman le~ ers on ai. Dsnaan Ireland.IJ ' - . F'OIl B. ancient ·~eland. _sts that the Beth-Lids-Nion Calendar is. The quickbeam is also the' tree mos.days----of which there sr. 'pil'ted a dog._b~~ ' Ih ' can also rid a :6eI.er the 'Winter SD ice when the days a&er 'S. The Roman lictors carried birch rods duriDg the ins __ llation Df the Consuls at this v ry same .omal use'~) B_ircb rod~ are also used In rustic ritual for driving out the pirit . :su.abOrb'flM In..against lighmin.mmo_ -.nning of'the financial yea.g Us of 'th -:. (Red was the 'OOi'OUf' 'of death in Gr. as a last 'extremity for' comp~lHn.m berry.ckoned by lunar month~. by the Ro'mafts.'1"1'ellS'·. . and add -d a year to a man's life. Its botani 11 name ) FraxinuI" .enty-ei~t is a mun:u mont _ not on1._.-.._11.uid and Grainne. but neither d. '11. M ·on. spoken . one of ]64 days plus one..ol].1:'6 J'6.Cuparia. ~md. II·d tb.ooo .tabI ~t....of me old year.tch .m.:.and is now thought to be P'att of the Rom'anizing of na:ti. mall· . In the romance of Diarm.-_·'ad dnm is generally snpposed: it m y be ydUDg fro. _ C 1 0 "e 1- .y in the astronomical sense' of the moon :5 . e. aQ.plle.~.lls.OlVJ].only ..-. Cuchnlain's ' ::-'Cfi d animal" OD rowan nvig'l to pre CWTe l .-.oy.. no.aft.yused in the British IsL_:_as a prophylactic . but in the.(J..ee~ The birch is the tree' of incepdolo ..:. d _~dUM bi~ ~~.ean blast . .~s0' . _D.quick ning. can til refore l'I-gar-d the: Birch month as extendlng from December 24th 0 J -uary :loth..ta'tio.er 'tb~' . the begj./Jell that' the birch :. has a woman's l'Iorn"lalmenstrual priod ('menstruatio.~..'tlgl the extreme limit begin 'to. made of rowan. 1V!!c-re k_mdledby' the" raids of o. are~ used -throughoUl Europe in the beating of bounds and the Bo~gin!l ~f delinquents and formerly lunatics-with the . 0 ··th'·· •...hID".of rowan.1U di.. lied m:ullet" 'crayfish and . form.~ ma-" cal r093D in.g demon'S to. ~'FODd of the gods' suggstJ.." ". .~.Q'w.. '). had twelve lletors. Since it was. they a19:0 h ealed the wound_d."~ing...= .ry&ipe]~. meily -_~-~"d o'racular p.IUbOD m '-1. '--tub..us' -d in a contrary sense" In.~ 'The: oma.t me...E.Ma. that the taboo on lea'ong. taken iduring:an eclipse oftb-..'i 0.~_ :ins. immedia~ly . When 'Gwion writes int_he Cdt! GI. .th-'l. linen ~ .ly brought I . ·u.brass . defined by Blacks:ll!one. anytl1in~' 'red was an extension of the commoners' 'taboo oneatingscarlet toadstools . int:OI .•_.t Ere " with the exception of the mysterious elder. ."O'D.owanwhip.'v _ rleligion attempdunder the mly Empil~:Moreover. II ab. of d Tile 'magical oannecri..I ·..~.'VQ.. ew' used by Ithe' wiECh:: .tUNl HutDry to' 'dle:_Object and giv "a IOfi. Pyrw" AlI.nthlc bu"rials both in th .in... -'~th a r.... be .?n:tb .c_ I L I n'wly-flayed bull's bides" were usd by the Druids.is no l 'n.81 ~ by _posing b~lerd~. :highest antiquity Cmyear' and I day' Is a. 'make .o:n ..lU1.amber-islands" for.tantly used EI. it :. intercalat1ed days are said by Professor T" Glynn Jones to' 1..th I riB.d nut" is described as the: food. hein. w~leaL 'Th~ first m'.do not toughen until Ian! 1'0 the' y ar. 'and the: wi.'O~_::-~ re. hi death . according 0 a GJ.byw:alkiB_g around 'it uaked.'pp··cc. ' m ·g.c 'C. mys:tic 'sense that the Moon. 'the' r. o_r the Ant-century s. Another of its names iSI'~'thewhch'.I •. adm.. term . . g~red ochre bas. to put out .e _~D.f' 'uure).~ lobst ~" _ bacon. f expelling':vil ~ spirits. :welve in a year with ten and thr ~e-Cfuaner' days left IDV r.con.·d· .. in Rugen and 'the ..bydmphobi2. w ·'Iunar' month ofrw _nty!..cause ...B. .onsu). .'ali· 'bury pl'lain..~ (I:t....t and memories o.~ b . Scandinavia Its l~afing marks the beginning of the agricultural year" because farmers use it as a directory for _owLng their Sprin .:r= 'celly Mountains and . .... i.of th· dead!!.~~0'£ the I ~ru~ r I bl..~pmr of hi· N. bf a d .. the' alphabet. ~s.. ei ' t days.cons.. . b-wit. answer' difficult.rea't rowantbick. rn ~truaI 'Th.-ga ha·.Ive d_.fits.~. h~~ lkl o ·B' tat surv~ve In". . length.mai'ns. ound in. s-ummoning s~pririts 'tOI take: 'part in the: fi -' The b -'ITi.QtiQQ.new lea. .med horses ean b ' .ches' charms of aU B'D.m. I .dar use lof the 1I0wan eKp. ..'ivy and rue. It is indeed the earliest fo'res. '~oonwith I metlBb'U. The quickbeam is the tree of . and cure bon " e...s h mJ'w. making a company of thir_.~' a 'o.~ . one's utmost tOI get informa tion.. a rowan-srake hammered through ill corpse :immobilized i ~ 'ostj and in the ICuchutain :.m WeDty~ne 10..em was prob- Britain. conveys irs. re. .ets.. th quicken.and the' &_queat 'ocamence' . lof ra.m in..9 :8r. the unexpected...U. and 10.other' Baltic .purple ldo~ hla_ -. -h~c!e S eond tree us:th qwLIUJ .ghly twenty~nine and a half . said [bat if a mmlmuadng wo.oligny ealen -.thing to prove that i't was a "lunation' of rou.. the Irish romance of F moth. was.. it is reason ble to __. lcopper. -'r.oUed. proverb which Nero quote d were I~th food of the gods.and .Wr:~= .. o· .-fOf' toadstools.de.TH The :first tree of the series is the self':'propagating birch.ut-h·" In b.~ me: month as d the Briti h e . for' metal divin.eI-p": _: . him..uring th -' Br. : tG"nn.7·~-'c .

. I lIircAMlDg-s fOf win . Tbe ash is. com~ytJlI.fJppls .Cwtlwn in . '[be alder' on 'the ICODtrary ..~a'Dd 'Until 1.c ..d crime' of I me he [oud.. 'tree' is.t oftbe' four "eross..'I!! N .<Gi1hertWhi.is :beneficial 'to IClOIIPS.'tOO. 'the middle held 'to mark. . Poseidon ~etain. 'rh. cYg:gr'.. according to Hesiod.AICbaeans 'took tO 'the 'lea. ''I!IIill''lrl~B. he used i.I)'Q'lI The Druidical wand 'with.llunder the tutel. aha.~~J • I of :it (Februa_ry l.nd)~ It :metrers. was a charm agalnst drownlng..zed. and .r.. tim.DI.t las.own in. and 'so w. the quickening of the y.atb~oMar.s..g: one of the fi.ed. wbich is an allusion tor the letter :F' bein. YIW-&8..ks ntillfly. the month of .s ~ NllmfJuM.~.easpo'wer.m F'e. of Ire.b:ruary 17th.. In ancien.er than the: days.on. . [!!Ii. "uml .trini'ry.NJ~.!'. are formed from uh-twi. dIe second god.s.f Da"tbi. The Tree a.ech..the ash. Uke the willow. its connexion with lire is. it is.dessl wbo~.t lrishfu.a.lan. as "Delight of '[he Eye"name'ly W. :m harmfulness of its.«II IQ1' (J1Il" lA(y' u.ucoal.BUm rtAem'.g at !{ilium in..a~ lang. the Greek for 'sea' (Ut-e·rally. Of' ash". .. Icleft pollard.ac:count dj. the' 'tree ofBran.. the R01llllllC:a of B:"t:lnweft when.pown in i'rs shade~1SOl . the others be~:ngMa'y E:Yle" Lsmmas (Augus. by' C:onnac '£hve tenthcen'rury Ar.ry l. feU in.a'me' of the Trees. 10.'w~ 11159 .). F'ebru. also an.of the ash mentioned by G1ViOD..wlliurn ._.1 :al!!!! .mrhe 'blood 1 of Uranus 'when Cronos 'ClSttlted him .a11.liiIJIU '. p ri. has already been mendoned in the context of 'the' B.ID".cllb..IlYm'Ot6: he gives the poetic name for rowan.. and the sun is regarded as :s.auren_t: IQ.rJ.rhDo. third. part Oil' a recent An.. honfire. AU-.A. In these first 'three months 'tIle' nights .g'lesey :&nd dating &aIm tb. .Li.. In IG'rlee1Qe.d." was of 'ash The great ash Yygdrasill." E". lexcePt wb6e the deadly yew' wasplieterred. I'll the B'Brt1u' of the Trees the alder fought:in the '&:oot lline.d:-.ist. E~ 'M. ion and the' BoibelLuis N LIDm.IC/unriD.:' 1\ 'To O'd-lop will 'WCl. Des.·. as. Ireland an. ~~ . and was the ...as 'the' Three .age .t)1 til' Grdl. thr.IM aM.'Jl'r~t l ronA .ch 'of all woods..~ I '. ..R""ItJ. and the other' name of W'oden. his p. I .:isho'P ofCashel.e early fiest century A. ash..ary and iS.i"i. ac:ri.ol:'in..s: '(J" Itm. P. element').flj' ."' '_J~.Q. in the neighbourhood of ancient stone circtea~ The second month extenda fram Jmuary .~a . tree that' is hottest in the '~g~lel'!! Though a POOI[' fuel-tree. or of the po..brua.21St to F'e.. a.100 fcut" C'lUtlm. avian legend.~m". forrmerly the 'Whhe: Goddess.e·feas'ts. the ItSI: 'll I 1 The' fourrh...tW.BooN.Elan. .e Irisb Ossianilc Song of'lke FOfrsl'TrrBs'.N .HUUJl.gu'J.of s. 'the qulckening T'ripr1e M'use'" The oOM'exio'o Ol( rowan with 'the Candlemas ·fire-le.ranching Tree 0 £ USD. spiral .'Tyrrhenians ID!R 'this../iJ:t W~'I' Y6U mil.A4:j. 'The. lore the ash is . GWlem-' (a1d. was still standin... The third month is.gjc Tr-ees whose faU in 'the' year A.phabet all.floods and extend'i f[o.gh'tfo. its wood.aJes and Irelan..an.... . the Meliae :sprang &o.ftOr'ted by' JD:bn . the tree .6~ 'me ..t it is.. ~ I.1lI DartmDclr . Is 'burned 'in a.' H I<Mo'J --.AmH "-"UII Elm-l. . In Dritish folk .(1 tree of re-'birth. . gJ' with 'the' four :g.. dispensed j'u51:dce under it.s €Jwn BoJt iJl'~' GfMI:.ea.pir:i"rs"w'f!I"t! much wlliw.F'O. tJIUI.3S.-"lIiI~ orrespond c __ '_ ~H'_UI'n'D a.poeme . 'by ehaeenal-bumers H yielding: the besl ch.r(ymllll' ~ Bur .oln. .r .and the .er's son.rmYfJU WlIJ. Rum.h.the ash was saeredto Poseidon.of Torm.J .r."8 NMlIJ IGreen alJ'sr-ls&& ..· tl: a:m--e.riftlJfI~" all. sacred. "a.s. the alde'r...t! triumph of Cbrisdanitty over' pagmrnism.at.de to grasSI Dr' loom. .wer residem in WB'ter.. ''Version.age 'of Night. "1Im1Qr& IIRtl'Fq~ . J'" _'--' or! the' sacred.w!Jl Ho/(y-iQs.'_'1 '" .d notreckon them as pan l Ithewet '!!!II!!' ~.allo in Ordin'si own.11m 'w.. were a5h-tteel:~ A descendant of the' Sau:red! Tree 'Df Creevna.fseafarers when the .WQK.No/rns 'of SC211 din. of the Achaean . his Flora S'ctJtit'tJ. 17-77. his steed. s.~'C--tJRoI d'l" I BircA~~" willl. 10' 'Wode'n. IJII':e_~_J Th ..emaswla. lor 0 o'r Gwydj. me I me TAI!J' will ofrM':lfJ.decorati.t..um. But be had tHen the tree over -f:romthe. In.ma For il-1&" .!mug wbidl. Tripl1e God. Dr' Wota_n. 6'6.ere rods used for urging on horses. The important: Celtie feast of Candlemas.. of pin'. and emigran'ts 'tOI Arne-riles.ttJl~.r:y 10/ Se16IJ'M' bOlw 'naked children bad formerly been pa~s5edthr'ough. and in conn:try dls:tricts. /zygra.1lhe' same . In Ireland the Tree .fin. Bmn:~s. as Woden wben 'his people rook 11]0 sea.\!!aD_ D'.t '~II''D·d·''~~' ' .. the nineteenth een'tury.f.~ Smell tikafl9wa' 1rJj'&r«Jm. described I'S Ithe vlery batue ... quarter day. Nofl'amBI .a.ttKI.I' very properly:" 'the Idlay' of Sri.rest 'trees.r'oorts smmg'Je 'those of other fo. of B.though . and in th.1l1':1J HdWtluJ.. after the Potato Famine carried it away with themplecemeal.. ashes before sunrise as a cure fOlr rup't~e~ 'The' CUllom survived in remoter p:U!1 of Eng..R NUJN The.ch 1'7'th. 'treesl '["01b.:' OD which 'British witches celebrated their Sallbaths:..Ar . . andthe MeUm.ds. I.llil ismolWD by Morann M:ac Main~'sOgham in the: .'6. The auelty . from which YgdrasiU ~9 dermv·ed~is e¥iden'dy connected with.d aU oars and coracle-slats were made of ash.te describes in his Hiilto'.. P A muadng. ~'8r That arll' olJ ani dry. mentioned. in S'l3ndlcihl 'O~'C:truIyjsuanslation ill.s god ID. wi.of horses but :118'0 became . Brigj'r..ee of 'the 'F'ivle Ma.d the HighJ. Isb . poplar and chestnut.er). symbolized.]}I.iI' '(/~"-tl8i1.s:tfive consonants of the Beth .I"~ L-I'~u. year" - F' F'OR FBAR.the Y·'llfig. 'tree is._ 1 I _I.hidl :001 to mum asifoUcws.

suggests.round~thecave of Ca]y'ps~o.gave the name . King Diarmuid of All 'Ireland was. ~I close' o'r I~l confine' The explanation se-ems to' be that the alder thickets confined the hero ~ 'the oracelar island by growin. and :a'ccord.: me' 171 .hosis_ o~ ~e5ist~rs of the sun-hem P.haemon: in the Aenei'J says that while bew. where the head sang for' seven years.Elysian island of Ogygis. brid.'. the fIlying dwarf~smith. It Jirst white. saerea 1.'wer.. In Ireland.maldng~ The alder WH a1510used in ancient Ir1!land' {or' making milk pails and. /rlc4t'D. It is possible that the le. It W.eJlflu whutle SWI'tlY.. seemsto bleed crimson._ C_l..'otAar.: !.. In one sense tb.gsbis goods and.I.endy been superseded as an oracular 'tree' by the Delphic lallretButihe OdyJ~ey and the' ..tly this was another Elysian Islet.git's version of the' mle'tamlorp. w. 'the name of the most w. . overlooking Land's End. word foralder. according: to' my friend Ricardo Smc~ y C!crda_.~especiaUy from the North. o .ritain.1.cular islands seem 'to have been originally river islands. the sin. but into an alder thicket on ~e banks ·of the river Po eviden..rds.cb reddens the race".o a:t Venice is founded on alder piles" and so are severalmediaeval cathed. entury Glo. riads.'F or' the .tal~n: sacred kin.d. there is a mill-streammnning . nested chattering sea.and . poplar grove" as Euripides and ApoUoniul Rhodius.:' hence: its poetical name in BODie.B.h. water :mtnd arth.'. flowers.oiUg. eh is repeated I.. amagic charm.Bran alder ~-'-I1. alder is fintnamed of the dmee~trees Dfl'les\lrrecti..nd.oat . ftoim the wood in pipe-. .on~w~ tepoplar . c This explains V.lI1 4lngsl.lsary' of obsolete terms the 'alder e c is called..ir.ging bead of Bran in this sense will have been an alder--pipe.. frolm which it may be deduced t'hat the 'crimson-stained he~es' of ~e' 'Wels·h i'J"1. the alder.ock.s to conjure up' destructive win. come' to av:enge her.made the circuit of ill Ireland in 'Dl'U! day. bavin:g applar.. 'No house could contain him~J The riddle ~'Whartlean '0.men . The ships are anchored off-shore: and Branwades through the snaUowsand brin.The Riah..clotbes:in so far as the fakles 'may be regarded as su. of Ce·rdafta in the P'.slcin . guarded by his seven. 'The R.. Histo~y ~f I r(llana. 'The summons to :Bemg is malde 'all half of the Goddessl of the Willow ~The use of the w.IS said of Bmn.in the alUed M.e-faUy derived from clew. tO theGa·laxy'~ According to TA" ProceBJing:a oj.' Wi. \'Vhi:te ~o'W'.ds. not into I. The ccnnedon of Bran 'with the alder' in this sense is.yrenees have a traditional pRty. The alder is 1]5. kilLed by 'his eldest. Alder is rarely mentioned in Greek or Latin myth. relate.of Bran-Crones.tlle ·GTidJ BarJic Acatl(Jmy~ I 'is: me was the' '~head~ the :'lcler-tree---n~am. and is" lcelehrated fOlf yiel di g three fine dye!:: .-----'guarding ofmilk"1 This connexien . was recognized at the: CU'.lr: its slightly gummy leaves 'r'e$ist the M.lr' .e'wa'odli! Berng (or V.e'~.again. tenth . II though it were a mafl~The .'er in Ca.na..·timber resists decayindefini:telyw. Bran's coanexion with 'the W'estem Ocean.+SS-Bj'. other wo.erng .daughter of Atlas..HLow. e connected W1~th.. marshes. ean be made :in the same..clearly br. me me OJ' .afterwards. In.d as.g.Ia.. rows (sacred to Bran in B'Iitain) falcons and owls. ~:theW'een stripper"becaus! though she yielded milk 'm 'rivers she neverhad a .Aeneid contain two important .g:end of Apollo's fla:¥i~g of Mar. wood.!:· . causlewaypiles in the Raven..IJ's~n.es. '528:. is tapped with.t .gewas built on alder piles..- .br:J-jin:nI. people to . a piece of willow to. oracular head of a. he bridges the River Linen" though it has been protected with._. .wineher.ther piece of alder.tead ofano.ng~'m.. CDmB . or one's bouse.tty. timg.B.GoJaeu is a token .. was caUed Glat Gtlhluzc!Jclt. brown fro. ro-eim which is glossed. Io me 1:70 she waskilled by Guaire at: the request ofSesnehan TDrpest"s wife.t alderswere Yle.leen of the clothes is explainableas pr.on its buds. O. wno were.a.ad been stolen out of Spai:n by S Glvida.:.ajorcan language) is Bran.references to lt. sons.. in her .past the Castle r. in the wood.earliest' European houses were' built on alder piles at the edge: ef lakes.ofYo'l.importlllce. and me' alder . forced to take to hnlsand woods.. that such whi:stles were used by witche. in anower jt .g fire.syas !the piper ls reminiscent of the remo~a1of the alder-bark..g murdered another sacred cow. . 'was avenged 'in ~A~D.. other d-lIiryv'esseIs.ys. B AnJ lwill mwJr..'nte'rmns longer' than those of any other deciduous tree and its.wim Rhea-la.a. not islands in the sea.ay as me' whistles.10' house ever cantailor" has asimple answer: "The pUes upon wbLch it is buUt. son for havin. branch by "lhi~ Bran. firsta je.gainst the corruptive power of 'w.ifyill.ILU_·iiOl! .down. J'~ h .At Harleeh. is proved by Caer . power of meta ~free the: earth from water..esterly bill in. In. isgen. B.ed.mi tstwigs: typ:. But prin!dpaUy' the alder is the 'tree offir~'._J&.Matholwc:'h of Ireland see: a forest in the sea andcannot guess what it Branwen tells them that his 'the fleet of Bran Blessed.rvivals of dispossessed early trlb.omanulchitect Vitruvius mentions ma. ins. loosen it: f:rom . as 'mat whi. But musical pipes witb severalsto'p:s.g around its shores. and. 'The Greek. the gl.calLf.lie.olt-ective colouring: foresters and outlaws also adopted it in mediaeval times" Its use seems to be very ancient. Kelti..ht lout in the RomaNce of BrDlflweo where the s. . by ty~g down across the -rlwf'and having hurdles laid over him.me 'bo.:lethe bark.hen used fO'l water-conduits orpiles.".rals'.~) ~ .5ing:in:g head' of Bran was the mummi. f ~esulrecti..0 proof a.red :from its bark. "Traek of the. he: h.tbe ora.and cypress are the 'two _o:tbem--'~at formed the: woo?~. green from its.tOf tappi~g. likely place for a sacredalder-grove. (who presumabLy stood fhr' the days of the wiroolt).r was.aiUng their brother's death they were converted..e:ly 'the 'of topmost brmeh!! Green alder-branches make eoad 'whist1e&' :md."'..gree~ dye 'ils associated in Biritish folklore 'with fairies' .(Jte" Come.clitkra'. the white mOOD-COW is of.a't..in'g to. In Cormac' 6.s (oracular priests) 101' King . of Ballym. The alde. .I lening a sacred alder is held to be' visited with the burning . '~~CUllli One reason for the alder~s sanctity is that when it is feUed the.Bran. .

-. lll because: 0..ereg. Iasus and Ageno.. Latin) gave i~tsname to Helicon.cred tO Satur. The' willow is. and.o·dotus...!! e. spiral posts. (ash . .a~ sacrinces.. and are flanked by . .ina spiral..' l. . hi" S. As one can say l~ioeticallythat 'lthe ash trees are the oars and coracle-slats that CiJ. rope.perhaps short fOI' Orpltruoei. orgiastic priestesses of the Moongoddess~. oae)..[l~llIDon f . of the 'M'editerranean 'tile' eomel o..Ar-ges which he is said to have alder it yields a red dy-e. God 'Df Sp.~ L ' t!~ ."an-.._ Athens CrdaOSi was Sahuiu8" 'IJoOO 13a~ley. and 'his.. were tran.· OJ: his mother's name as Arg.f)h05 f~stival early ~ July in me 'month of' nec~.nvey t~. used as a substitute for'the alder.aveUn determined the s.. ane w:as th~ wry . but Eu .where' the' citY' was to be built.Assyda . ~of the w.-. is Feadneus. The fourth menth extends from March :18th" when the alder firrs blooms. eck ~n an . to April :I[4th. Pausanias. Hellanicas ofLesbos.PQ6t CaUimamus. formerly thought to be' caused by witchcraft.1: HeGatolnDm. in Greek mythologyas King Phoroneus. w I ..regarding the Pro1 d . for a Helicean Grove: 'was.-..feteHe.. 'The wrY'M\n~k.at Ar gas was .('dazzlin. The Goddess's prime orgiastic bird. its leaves and bark.illlshat~d a. ''Wi·cker:' • The 'witch's besom' in the English countryside' is still made of ash stake.Lml!. who divided.oddess's jealousy.neck-.! or cuckoo's mate-a Sp'ring migran.D.d1~ The barl~ :barves·tfW 'm July" and.the .~Its..t Europe wh. .at me·~· arvest":b.gh. aUDeath aspects of-the T'riple MaDln. 'were ofIeredofl the.. 'I'~ ... still sacred tOI him in Classical times" According to PUny.onos· l!tlWlW'pm Hyadn.. 'This spiral symbol is ante-diluvian: theearliest Sumerian shrines are ~.$fDrmed. the S'OUle€! of salicylic acid. i OnginWJ. sa1d by rhe tbird: ." h '---. become ~o'nger them the.t~.op.and ..ry . makes him th...owing on the river-bank' i. I the' Moon . 'L· th hi' -S.'t .. ~u~n.L.c. Jth~ 'the.. arried to. .rTwenly.ran) appears. 50' one can say that the alders are the pilesthat lift his house out ofthe floods of winter.tllix in. at the Spring equinDxiil'His singing head recalls that of Orpheus whose: name is.. i:n . wi:thie·s~alias Helice. like' those used in Uganda.e. as he did as guardian.uu~.c.eo~~.-~__J~--lI dl ~_)j'_l·' .orially ancient.n or . me The fifth tree is thewillow. been Iy a" charm. birch twigs.pot . and marb..red 'above 'lDe:s.:a ieamedcontempo!raryofHer.gina! Moo.. ry:. or osier" which in Greece was sacred.by'the Sidllamsi af~ Cr. the drying up of the winter floods by the Spring Sun.eas" then. against l r'"".he Y.t PieriJ~' in Northem T.J - -Ulle a:U:Ler. this is a suitable Jledigree.- 1 The.w·'''1I~ m' me. Q~_ of't.*"corpseIDontlb) by the Cretans. of osier' binding in honour of Hecate. A .. or snake bird.. 'she of the fJlourfs'hing wiUow.r.I Inpartl.~_~". PJ:Id..n'e. a "b-·.in~o b'lrd~el)of w:hi.t.centu:ryB. immem.itb Fearn by dis. 'temple at AdleflS with. ... and the Moon-goddess is the giver of dew and moisture gener.Bran which fea.. and.ej. . . Pausanias clinches the id.ang"ow< .eam~~od:d. me founded.. itsnot only Eur-ope. dleerfUUy . and was held sacred at Rome where' the flight of Romulus's cornel-wood j.u.8aa. though be .uS.. Ovid.' . into. So Phof. at \.Its appropriateness to thismonth is that it is in white blossom by the middle of March. Latin name comus comes from cQ.gT.. 'I'D other WO reis.et1sluagen..£' the use of the ~ . Cronian Mount at 'O'lympia..~-. who is the White Goddess..worsn P .rb'ai: 'The Moon owns..til:. hissea lL dl~ ~alder.e'fa. mo the od. --. who went to Argos for' his information writes that PhorOnetlS was the husband 0'£ Cerdc (the' White 'Goddess as... and osier binding:: of birch twigs because .whlcllme~s:that the wry~n~ WM s-a.. of the Delphic Oracle.at 'the expulsion of evil spirits some remain entangled in the besom.~.g: whi..are set. ar-' L .Hera and Persephone.'.'-"~~~~.m tbeir_ besoms and thrown. for 'many reasons: it is the tree' that loves water most. the abode of the Nine' Muses.eoording to Homerthe :s:wineof Circe also di.... there shown seated in a willow tree:" osier .ai.kings" was borne by~. .u..y .It is likely that Poseidon preceded Apollo as the Leader of the M'uses." . which also yields. ..o is.oil a.L.. . with the esculent oakas supptyingmen -wim food In -the . The willow (Aeiice in Greek. cennexion with witches.r dogwood tree seems 'to have been..e S._ . wno'Wis his ' 'CQrm~~n with.il. gl'DW by 'the riverside'. dea:tbmey celebrated :c N.. SAlLLE. ce1ebratted 'their' 'Cr. running water.g.te~).. was Dionysus 111 . Its. :..are sovereign 3 gains. commenting on 3. non ag.ected lover seems to.d.pirit of Year throughthe floods to dry laad. Circe.ds on its red 'cherries'.of 'saturn .etan Gortyna. neclt n ancient erodc charm....h.a]iy.H· "'.!5. . series of coins.ann'u. the Full Mooln. sacred to her. As Culpeper says ~lu::rlnctly in his C'omp. S FOR...' lmiDie.d --"-. his kingdom b etween tnem a ter hi ...gain.nBgoddes~ of Motm..neu!· . ofash srake as_2" protec . goddess:" and much worshipped by witches. --I:c'_ .iemventor. ...on.ESY.mhave_ been the messeng:e1" iof loW:bich attmt::ted. it.lomg !ast' h ms . as a. was 'worshipped 'ats a hero at .gives met h..ts tila.. cb "d" u. is so strong inN orthem Europ'ethat the "l'o.iiI. at the full of 'the moon in wicker-baskets" and funerary flints were knapped in willow-leaf shape. 'The wearing of the willow' in the hat as a..B. sacrifices .ome.red.mix" the Ct'OW :sa.. and madelove 'to by an eagle. sisterof Amalrhea.ring to whom . 1inks it.contemporary Nican'~l'of Colophon rtc.ign of the t.trheumati:c cramps. ~ygU1. tree). Zeus 'to her arms.osthouses'.oneus" like' Bran and all other 'sacred .wever.Ze. nights and the' Sun grows to manhood..essHera Argeia tow-hom he is said to have first. and since alders.entification of Phoroneus w.::. Like the . Hy.e m\llliple. and finally laid out by" the Whit:e Goddess: hi81ayler-~rUt m was the .~Jjea ..rds ~wit~h"and !!iwicked" are derived from the same ancient word £or willow. ~IIL·'··· _1i1I ~_'II1iJl Crol'lion 0. Itincludes the Spring Equinox. the .. ruler of the Peloponnese. .u's'sugges.amnthi'@"R .Spring eqWnQ~ andwbt~u:. s. lUl.:so. 'Muse) and that the River-god Inachus fatheredhitn on the nymph Melia.ce:'~ i. fr'om Cr. whenthe days.He: bad' ... basket in hand.eu.who al first appea.. Athenians. ' _ 1'.g' P-' 'oro. Uon~lUatded.3.w tree g~e'w outside the Cretan cave where Zetts was born.ords&batmlle Pierian maidens who vied wid] the Muses.~Cook in his .. Pbor..t which.me! of Pelasgas.e1a. a willo. The Druidical human saerifices we're 'o(fFered.'5.s:ge . who. Fearn (B..~' G"-. I tw~ al~o sacred. "'~ eaUe:d lyngies..be~~y (s~e C11ap:te. 'she' of me broad fa. to' Hecate. Since alder succeeds ash in the tree-calendar.nst drowning witches aremade harmless if detached fro. . .off:e.:'ll t -'~h--0·'· .

.I swine:~1 bUITDw~G'ian. The: IGian. S.attended with 'the greatest peril. of the wiUo.Day. fae! the While Goddess.11 ~e 'adds: "This is St. the fifth-am. wi~dJes confessed to Kin. month In which puppets called 'd~-ge'i'tJ. .:phfUS. which takes its name fro'lO the' 'moD'm of May~It m" in general" an unlucky tree andthe name 'under wbiclJ it appealS in the Irish ]3..d.Engbsh poe'try' as. ceremOlme~I?" . sin.of'tile ho!y image~!I' _ . and. Jun.p1~ 174 :m'g' (rom the Tem'ple .iIea: is tb..m'the IdevOltMI" clothes as I..its fea:then Ukethose 'OD the scales . "'riddl.VB leV) wu tho.se.ther' has come .t haske'[-s. variable feast which w. like .IY but I de not .g James I mat 'they weu.. inthe middle. d ~.explains that this was the. Icl. ay?' and answers lcolrrecdy:' 'Is nellt r-eason.asl..ociatioll!!' .ds OD.M. JUDe: 9'£11.of Vesta have been .€! I f. Two nineteen'dl0j0ICEn.ed to the' R. Nlew Style·.Ipp:a:renuy impossible: 'to secure .els and ~_tsma_gic dew.of :sa1l1owwiJ1o. on Palm.rent.of gods..c'l. who.D.explainsr Mayas.genlem" set:ded ho. it was in. a.'£Rr.Jth.reek . the :m!oln'tb of ''-. in 'wiUo'w~treesl Moreg'v:er~.C' 'when angry" writhes.Mr" Vaughan 'Comishwrites of sacred hawtholrns.1PI Df . In ancient Greece. the -4.oD-g-odde&s MinelMl.D.tac.ce St~.n. bays white lelms" IUts aD'ts. the way of KUhwycb's.gUshelimatejthe proverb is.. CU'SI. fi.pt out and. th~ me moumllD.' 'The destruction. die :~ges .lygp. falls.in North .w b~clJ9 .of :p'urificadon.by' e Easter. 'G~eece the '~ucky m~nth'.g' took her name from TIUlia.il.(I.ecessoily ~e£erl"mg: to the v.'the' hawtbo'm month. this was a ceremouy in. erects its cres. honour lof tbe. II! _ _ lOll.'ever fair and youn.n for' the l1li~i~~'r' :fes.i'n.eD'led. where.' The willow is the tree ofencha~tme. loss of aLll. Penkawf'.:and ended a H. The luwthom.. She was in.~etJ/ rAe B:ritisA lJiea.corresponds with May I:I'th'l . out"" meaning "do Dot put 'O'Dnew cl..1' . p..t marri .posslhle that the carrying' .o.g G 'harm~ &om which derive the' En..eDdy .8.snake" Kes.' In.I.~b "Ne'.abstain.(1.turynstances ~e quoted in. its neck about.peUs.aza.os. The' Greek GoddessM'aia" rholug. da. she is: :rep.1 an an.Until the' ~wleep . aS'rem. the Romruwe l(JfKiI4w<yc:4 lanJ O'lw.recc:tving Bitt of mysdc .ge: i. wh~ea me'may i'sfirlt begins in Sower. .0 . They also . :Momca"s. :Ma:y I. ltis.ro'pitiated her a.ge" In G.eece' and ~ome."il the 'tree o(. tba.·.ieswe.ol.bIDe lobs. (oundiin .fi.t flawthom pu:mall p.fiv.riestess of J Uppiitel' about the mania.May Day" fam.r. the. then. :is. was. Platarch :m his RoINlll Q. used. and not: n. end DID.i ('white :meo') 'were'tb~owD into the river' as ian oftering to Satum~ Ovid in his Fasti tells of an oracle giv'en him by' the P. HU. the father ofOlwen CSbe: of White 'Tra.gUsh 'sca'the' and 'the G.. wood and with ltawrho.foVinceS•.eU-do'CU1D.red to in.ughter~~U'ndl the' Ides of June' [rhe middle of 'the this menth they' .apipu"" endy connected with the' Indo .O'~ 'which. as. fo..h!one. chastity'iil Themonrh 1'7' . April 1II.M.D.._ marriage hem"g considered hateful 10 the GDddes~~ with .omes..ob'jt'ecl~1he washing and.r 'winnowing Icom.esi'~.m blossom befoee the unlucky' mon. as in Britain. a. gMiov-_ef o P'.:k in marriag~:wbeD Vesta's fire bums on a cleansed hearth.oompare the injunction in TAB Sang'ofrA.uaUy falls nrjy' in April " is a. E.one:"s mODeY'1I In his w.c roor s'CBatA crace'tA" 'mes'nin. .o/heed.DleaDed hecausehewu. until the unluckymooth -is over'.t!lf!S attended on.foof of the strength of the' tabOQ' . 0. in.Ch bad~ j''ll!'t hegun.er easta cloat ere May be. Hs"t :along a bough.Hell. The .eansing . a tree saaOO..rh :be.loric T/'om Trees in tM' B.odl.etorches of hawthom .. :alSOI cul~. In 'Welsh m'yihology hawthom appears as the: maJevole~£: C~ief _of the: Giants" 'Yspaddaden. and has v-markings ID.h.ck')" another name Dime Whim 'GoddBS:S.lomeD of G.carried.res. month] Cthe~e is no luck for brides.~In.'t'to sea entheir witcbes'sabbaths . The: ngl were tom {[rO. winncwingsieves of this. she was :1 maiev. down to the sea by the ~Uow Tiber I mm:lstmyself bot comb my loeb which I have cuI: in sign ~ maumin.e:'thom. The month extends (flom. .eloquence by touc. washed: the month Df pmp~tiID.k 1. SUl'lday. 'grandmother'. Aa:o'Itding: 'to' SO. .wiUow~~ees in ..hln. custom that properly belongs 'to' beginning.ariability of the E.Hawth!om mOIDtb'l 'wbi..tory' ecc'Iesias.oman Mo.an unhlcky' morlth for' marria.e.ciefJlt hawthorn tree :iJI in Ire'lmd .tl". made f[am willow.. O. :growing Dyer 'wells.'t 'the N'lorrthBerw)"ck. 'the: pro'v. P'niest of Juppiter'l Be Dot ia haste~ Your' d:augbter will have_ bette~' lu. rmarriage to O'lwlen and demands I. scatheless.: pe~tesl:: . He quOiteS the case IDf~St..tde earlier.I]' castle ~arded by niae porters and nine wI!'tch-dlogs" p. under the Dame of Cardea" as.tb afMay:" rounds were dul.began . ennani.aeiJ. The 'unlucky dil:Yscame to an.agains.nt and is the fifth tr-ee:of 'the year.oracular s:erpents in And.Q.eDt GJeec~' always nests. si.enl:-beldame 'whose son Hermes eonduceed 'souls 1!o.A ~~us G·reek picture by Plo. nor cohabit with my husband thDugh he IS. May lWIs. so"rt.rehon Laws. cast s. to.loci...wycb Wi1I.18&.~lab11y.~~e'thes. has 'been 'II.o!m or hawthorn or may. '~a'f in 'me me' me H . Children. .e lilcntJ'S.th:alhistorim. situdy.ersep.e ~o"ut:T~:3: '_Bum.tde' and.i and 'eD.les in.t wa... in fact.and shreds to'm off their garments.o'us fOI' iJts la~giutilc ~v.~vaL..t lived in.~ custom :refer. GoideUlc P'. 'pro'pittatiOD.of .. land their husbands . aU ... . .en'red m. not the willow.Ki[b. the hariom!! 'The' Gr-eeks. .O:ld Style.o'llls at' Delphi represented Q'.tb to May 11th. poets.r :mania.owry oftbirteen treasures..n!d.'OB U'ATH The sixth tree is the wnitetb. the Terebinth F'air at Hebron was .!d.iw8 .e death of lone's Ql.perfo'rJU.ge of his.th.g" nor' pare' my' 'nails.me mODdl in which 'the temples Wlef.ebfol[lced Ii _II!!. number's:acr. this was the month in which people weat about in old . in .w month.and hung on th.-ow of any ..celebm'ted lat the same time and with the same tabooSI 1011 new clotbes mel sexuality" and with 'the same . P'atriclt":s-~bD:m:' a:1'Tm"ahely. .y made aheut the weU:! . i Hun's F(J/Ido.in Clounty WickJD~:' "Dev.with.g' an·.nica'.ed from sexual intercours~. Spain.Mns :asb:: ·'Why IdOl not the' Ramans 'marry' in.. - me.

hly the second Belgic invaders.oak was. Poseidon the ash-god and Z~eus the' oa..always oak.miUennmums.Nudd"B god of the sea~i .Libya.eans: came and that Herodorus was.g O'id 'Goidelic tW. season of the oak.ef'of the elder Irish go ds) "Tho1r. always kindled juan oak.eans ~door~'.US€Ld tc h . of 'the door.n. in. in theUndero--. Hawthorn blossomhas. h· d' d ~ .~e God!dess.. world. Hercules with a ram's head akin toram . . and the oracular :sbip was"acoo'rdingmo Apollonius Rhodius..clud'in. and the need-fire ii. The Ammon ..lIl.Ra the ram .. [ehovah in so fir as. the fire afVes'ta at Rome was fed with IO. 'k.g~When Gwion writes in the lCd' GotlJeR. D' ..tbea'sstaffand.a.c..heD€1 .K..ctified it with an improving tale about Jo. to A". 'Greek lAura" and German tilt. The seventh tree is the oak.emn languages in. Bou. .rus. . Hercules wh.e transferred their anesUmce~ to' the oak with edible Icoms... further.. the day on which the loak . of hawthorn blossom. headed Sun"". I . like Gwi.arlng Bronze Age 'Peop'l~w' f .gqe"'..ived fro..any r... in.seph of Arima. olf the Goddessl Flora.nour' of Janus.!: 'Cor-deHa obtain:ing. 'YearlY I 'L. Mid"W'lY comes St.. It is Ukely thatthe Old Bush wbicb had . is why the Turks use 3\ flowering branch as I'D erotic symbol. which flowered on Old Christams Day (January New Style) and was.air-V'~ mentions tbis\=-iwhichmakes it . the gov. 1-_· ·s.ummer is the flowering.an~r~~Mids.a.Crifi..CitS are beU.gyptian.1: of men". was. 'The k Celtic year was divided into two halves with the second half beginning in July" l1rpPlrenrly after :1 seven-day wake. But it is..QI! Dfthe oak. .and Allah.. The JDIOD'tb.th. rig'ht -in stating on the 3uilio'..originally .g was.is.. . Sir' Ja'nu11 F'razer. theHebrew letter D. AI llluam.. ieSDva--". 'to 'court tbe lightning 811.'OR DUll.ave the name piegO'.mediaeva! h.·· L_'_ .. . Of' funeral feas. be dis.~own on the :s·it'eof St. . that Glas:lo:nbury 'Thorn. He is probably also to he identified witb the Bridshgod Llyr or Lludd Dr .k:ing' of Nemi on Midsummer Day.S: that doors are cus.a. his argLUDent far enough..) as mts branches rise in the .c'.euEi" Jupplte1". . means "Door:"···········me'1~'being: .en sne ordere d n foe ma~ e :ior h'· uned er ·hi· i. ho. "'.reserved the s sole right to wield the bolt. me legend ofDlvi. ~L.in ml'ny Eu'rop.el! itl. and which accounts fo:r the English .. And . that this Flora cult.has been. ' rUn 13tn er '111I '. Junel'om and lends on July . a sorf of Dodona was apA"g(J'iS'~ not 12 introduced into Greece by the Achaeams:'that they originally . The monks of Glas:winbury perpetuated it and san..tDals"A."s Cathedral w.I. has po!nt1! d out the: simU:ari'Ly of '!!:doo:[" Wllrd'l ill all Indo-European languages and sho1Vtt Janu:! to be a 'stout J which identifies. :14th. .' .r rcOak·'" m. sacrificially burned alive. Its I.. tor this would account fOir the .rity of the E.emmen'[' of Kingdombu.. vault buUtmn.which. At ..in honour ofthe god Janus. .'th .ming' tc pluek flowering' hawthorn.1l11 'the workmen of the city" upon the anniversuy Irlo"lenmity of that £:.m. begins on god. ProfessDr FHnder.Thee ascetlc use of the' tho:rn. 'name fro.ogod !li! both oncearmed W with thunderbolts. but finding nn beeches in Gr'ffc. and like tbe ash is said..'certain Viaut 'w' . June. :art ritw. Latin flr. which Is the tree of enduran~e' and triumph. to Amen . he' is sayin. The Zeus.. of' .t..in:g"s honour'.~~-y under the ground... tbe care of the tribe of Garamante!i: the Grew knew of their' f!Dce. 'Stout Guardian. Cornish proves. to =egt__DweIr' iaoours. as has been mentioned.whichoorrespornds with the cult of the Goddess Cardea must.m Ju:ppitet.g out on May' Mo..' the river' SO!leJ ---------~ "" 1'71······. ao.s!aglJA" me Latin for beech.te.o became the doorgod keeper of the Gods after his death. and 'all the' 0 Thundersods.tomarUy made of oak as the strongest and tougbes...f.e!ctions". as the: Franks did.d.!! Geoffrey write.t wood Ind! that: 'Duir'.in the oak .. His name: in everyton. which Iu..t. tha. .. md. the tree of Z. lor :acc:o:rding to Geo. John"sD'aY·. !loenlarging upon: most people are familiar with the argn__meu't of Sir James 'Frazerl Gelqe. howlevm-. IQf :ridin.. . Duir' as the god of the oak month looks bom ways because his post is at the "Nm of the year.D in the late first-century s."' I '1 . he doe's.ffrey of Momnouth the grave 'of Llyr at Leicester was m. largely made of this: timber.eved to 'eKtend.the oak .ted that oak. a11 der.. was introduced into the British Isles which they g.consulted the beech.gyptian priests that the black dove and ·oraculatr oak cults of Zeus at Ammon in the Libyan. cut down by the Puritans at . It. strongscent offemale s:exuality'j ·which. emblematie of agod whose law runs both in Heaven and. befo're the Acha. oracles were 176 me' b· in.rhe Sanskrit Dwr.ringuished from its later orgiastic use whiCh corresponds with the cult.-[o.d the !Greek mainland well 'ha'ck late the third ..bit....gpd of E. a god e was the' '~father'of C:re£ddylad (CloirdleUa) an aspect ofthe Wbi... desert and of Zeus at Dodona were: eoeval...11'. the Crown ofThems as a means of discouraging the orgiastic use.irilsl... Thebes from.dta myaterious birth. pear' and Zeus. which normally did not appear 'Until May Day (Old Style).as an olrgiastic: hawthom. however. Mr.he was ~'El". as ':rhe firs. headed IOs.ko.its nearest e'quivalent..-"~ .'more HkEly that the Dodona oracle was in existence centuries. but when the Achaea'llS humbled 'the Aeo[ians" PoseedDn:'e boltwas converted into atrident or fish .Dlavid.the Revohnion was a:sport of the' common hawthorn. The fuel of me midsummer fires is . The royalty oftb~ oak .IS dee:p underground guardian of the: doo'r' with bis head pointing in both dir... sea. not press.ried her £.s:to![ Gara'mas. of Ammon. the o:t"aCUbt'f' oak. Hercules" The D~gda (the chi.s Perrie pesmlates a sacred league hetween . for many mfm"R.w:. the Beth-Luls-Nlon name fb'. where Herodotus says that' the black doves flew' to Ammon and Dodona. tree need. Leicester (Leircestre) and which had b~en built . . boughs and dance around the maypole..~which eonesmsthe human !S8.. is the same 'worda.Q. him with 'the Oak ..

ofMo.DD bJenv-een three elementJ'~'~ The sacred oak-k~ng WIS killed It' :midsummer and tnmslated tothe Corona Bo. "'of cardinal importanee' .OC dd ess is Dlne-110"Id tne rune .ght is an i.A.! B.. perhapSQDt Dfj.Q't elabor.lson . the inventer of the None sociaJ.e'._ T F'(JR.BYwe . as Varr-o lexplains ill his D.s Calliste. -.y rate D._Iis----as 'we :say in.originaUy they must all have taken.S.... TIN1NB. mill-srone of the Univenemv'lo:lves'!!. AlbeLo.refix Win of man.In. ~. The . . back of the N ol.cI-d··· eS5.e..g'me from._1': . a:t ao. ea tI_.t's day.ni:a.'l..of Chap'le:f SiX.riginaUy Irish RomtmCe .0 kjn.._ '"i~i/¥I_~_jr~ :. like Janus:. at the {esuval... _:_:L.tl!' One))'. ._ . I can complete my argument about ArlambQd:ls. last.be f held . saicral : use. the oak.:.. (.178 .=.ovler should be ready 'tOI cnt. .. "ri'~' ..' '..g :andeu.Anglo .t: i'l is.u 'CHdea ~. sjimUar coins of the late fifth century I".. ..fmtUr:S'1 ~:moaf~mals.C" h.Le C.'and 'liwilLor\V-btmch'·.ve priests.. th.confirmed in Chapt1er Seventeen.0.is name supplies: 'me p..Amemis ..~s prophecy to the' heamen.U .. bear IDd Little She-bear are :stiUthe' names of the two Ic-on:.MiU was. lu:ggeslts that the Beth-Lnis-Nion :se'quence"ilnwhich Dnir . of the . G1V}'n" 'the' Whi. .u. place at B 1 .boQ'fJurr of the God LS Of' LJew:.IG'. in hoaour of 'the mODD.· D. ... tone G.'·. :SpIOuting from his double bead.rotte in.ci:pal..rtb Wind around 'which. 0.ofL.at the end .af~erhis..c..i~(l.mmortal giant. recorded :by Geoi£re'y·. tee" was. was 'addressed by her celebrants as. In other WQlrds'l the ancient Druidic reli'giaD based be sw.aI' the. wbich Sowers:m July" The ]]. 'at U. Geo~rey does . . which 'means barth crhat which 't1lml.as as on the Gabu::yl'T.tival bu. disc In his hand. :fes.~g ~I:_..miD in D1elilah!!'s :plr:isoiD-borUse~. rub: god L1ly~wiU languish. not in the 'winter.. 'Casde' and 'Iwhirlin.~.z.of' IG'Q'WQin and rA!1 G.~ ~ '. Ukel. ". was ldtz. blind. the IGDddess.his...·~·.~ it • join:t-.e' Dnwhlcb year' swun~me ancieut Latin" Do..tam. ommGod this' amounts to sa.in the IOr.of Janus and.y tnmed the .in..!:_:~..rion.I ~IU ..:.: '_..~.-.ective' TCta'.~ Druids. .I.''Y~) ut .that in a later mythological 'ttadition the sacred w'en ..~ . IpostvDrta and Ante. of . me axle ef the mill.r' we~e p'erhaps already in.g Vlortigem.o'r Callisto C'Mas. wbicll was also a.denDcal 'Un.I pre..e-.ewhere 1n I .of' 'lhe~Great' G'Dd UDtil 'Clusicaltimes.e' G. dressed in saff~on-y"-Uo.anmes'!!. the Corona B'oretdis'i' This helps us to understand the f.fS" 'mass in.. As: Cad. sort of Osiris (his rival ''Victor :8'D. ..I girl of ten yean: old and a girl....is the' prin..•.a. This.e. of five.c-m ..on...nmoutb: After this lan!us shaU never' ha....alIy dl.2J of Crell-th··· Uill Rh·I'-ea 1'··:od.ayed.lis4 Di~(Jlect D.dadonshipl at Rome ..C. ·'the'co-Id polar might" :s:tand fo'r the Whi'te Goddess. of Hinges who . whose club iii a holly-bush. L .rhod... oeeurs in closlng pua~ . English. '.of' the .grass:and Icl.ortaUty r I:_..lrted befo:_j~ 116ao B. I_I Iii il me' me' 'me' I ~"h.r ' __ Lammas between 'the hay harvest land 'the corn harvest .rBM lCn~ght.-'....colouy 'lU Ciliaa" He is identified widl the so.pipHed tO the fOUf' main 'winds.rcher' being :1 SOf't of Se~)and came to 'be 'iden'tm1ed. That the.unbury akes rye~. .N'orthem horison. Green Kni. . ..II" ith 'refereace~ 10 the: corn .oHe' .He and :17" ~ . ccnceptlon :ap:pean mo"s't plJainly in the N. and in Atb'en5.. c• I ..I-: __ ~ ~1".ng hair .-igh'm tree' is.y 'to have orrigimally bikeD place .g aserihed by Apollamus Rbodiul1 'to Orpheus.tbers ·of'the' hero Rig. the giantesses: 'Fen.ear C'aDis~owas also called Heo/i£:e.br . wiD..t B.It various dates between ... and has a &pillal of imm. Ano.AtJiRl4. th_'_.graph o!fMedm. :IR learly starer' 'of MaUos" a Crremn .. 'with King Anhur:~.der tha:t th.dler name for the Go" ss of the ..t E'truscan year--and her Impertance as such is :recorded :m the La tin adj:.ngal.dald.. The ..tl: . .ep't away by Chrilnianity and 'the doo~the for. She was bin.g ro'und without mod.. J_"'gnus' WI'"th' .e:kiUioi of 'the' [C'olm-kin._' ..n..:_.1Jl1. \..end the of Ju:nei' The old !lW:ak..I' rRe RUs.~' lI ----a~J -'h. mmed a.lDo.! and a bull's head appears. but 'me Celtic year bepn in summer.~.ludd was buried in:1 boa. 'b N'_orse 'm.c. E".erwti.lool __ ~Ull ~.w robes.'r... w harvest and.e holds an eight . fOrr winds were co:Dside~edas under the sOIJe direcb:D!D. . lo.o..js and MeDja" WhDI 'tum.oIly appears.of the' local s-am.~1 1. and the patron .ru'ted D'Yer' 'C'e'Iesiti:alHin.~ene--. .emUI ...~ .a .y anaea:t Dt-owns in ·'..le'mentary moods.'_-_ '...ying' mat he wu tweR headed.i'JIFid-:' HO'fi"i'Ai'ilOie-. and .gotten in the' Castle of Arian. 'me' monstrous miD.i'c"tiQ''''Q.b!Dt date tbe' :moummg.II me: .aoD {orm ..glantes-sell 'w..Kin.. we ]mDW that the Queen of the 'ChUng Universe" Euryn!ome" 1/·· _ _:__:_:_::::. u_ ~enLiUla.ar'ound~i'In Greek the IGreat B. Here I't. ..the hiri'rlg .. .-.ge .pping over the . whirling around without mo.bero Talus. . lish countryside came 'to. Wakes were mourning fordte d:ea!dKing is .of'Llyr or L. of ereatlon and Idestrue-n.: he WI:!I S.oillble"':hemded:hem~y have: borrowed this peculliDri'£y ffo'm ..EJaa._::_c_: __ _l_ n'IIW __: 1 th. His deer will 'be shut and remain concealed 'in Ariadne's cr. ..for Samson . ..'The: G'rst She._willow' 'WIS sacred to 'the same' 'G'OddsssjI' 'The' evidence" given m the G'WYD context atthe close. both . v·orta' 'she ·-W. 'the: Whh'. me' ho'Uy. ain..0 'of S'co'. Artemi.u.eimd'aU. . again. :'.co·.of ICba:p'ter F'our 0.' •...BrauDDoi. .oddess Cardea 'who is mendoned.0 were' me: me' .early January..ea.Marichand October accDl'ding ~Dthe date .g 'weu't 'to serve her at 'the Mill. '·h. on 'the same: coin.on. ult came to Britaln from the Baltic benve:m] c 1600 and [4001 a.-.came 10 R..New Year. Els.1 played the part of saaed hears~.not in 'me' Casde~. The. . 'e 'me' .teUations that 'tum... "Le '_ Carmenta Festival in.w~.!eaUs" presided ever by the White Goddess" which was then just' di.back and It=.']V~.and wings! . But from the SO'D..:L Rh····· '~:.ow'" el -=.cosmic milt Janus: lVaS. thDUgh the: rowan" Will.es'. .. sysmm" :simUar).tshaped oak-colffin in his father's honour.alias H.UJ. in s Jler comp.ut:iful'')" to whom the she-bear ~~s sacred in Arcadia.. G·· . .ea.appears OD.SinCi! Llyr WlJ.a :mmin.'.g'!! What I: take for :1 refer:ence 'to Llyr as Janus. for supposing thatthe oak .~~. . AI' Wr-enbury Wakes f!"U~y apples are ripe..'lf. w __ :t.. ·:' 'h-' ~·.

ak.cb. Since in mediaeval practice St.us wore' kerm-scarlet when. in a C1eitic G. that of me Thunder-god. some property' 'of the tree' i's equated with the' bi'rtb or passion of Jesus: 'the whiteness.. his shape that they imitat . grove near the C"orinlhlan As'opus was sacred to the Furies.. of the flower" the redness.ou'.with rmmy curses for introducing Tau into the family of letters.Jish word .. took over the' oak . F 01' example..e]g'. Tl. mer. ranI comes fm'mthe use of its bark in..Ito..• .. and its.in Celtic legend..ld for whom.UUlUS was. dley say it waS... in the Holly . . tM 'WIJ04' their nUidwinter Saturnalia .ciful successor.G"-'.aUy his twin's... l saen . will have been..k for II m -del.1 fro'm which the ancients made their' royal scarlet dye and an.aprucal trea..ch men..ieft .ben they set Up' the erections 'DD whi. whom the Errus:canstook over fr . However" in ancient ltaly 1...poetically inept. in a Gnostic.Gospel of TIJ.an od anti gretlU IwlMn.-.II'. and these' trees .' S ..B..00 ·a_.' In each stanza of the carol. head on St. ardred as Kin···-oftbeJews (MattAew _ . deh 1L · Th C!' 'L.ch is native to the British Isles is unlikeIy to be ·the original tree of tbe ... omposed at ah . wcu clad in reJ'scar:llt . In -str u-alPC:U. king"s.ext nds from July 8th 'to Augus. which was Doll: introduced ~into the British Isles..tt ~JS whatso verthe critically be tis hony. is e 1:11. --QS I came O11e.e'w' ears -meaning midsummer and midwinter ..' ICarDl.ed in . crulcified 011 a T. who lost his.t and HOllly Knight fought every first of May until Doomsday. The tanist was origin.. he' Dak-king" not the holly-king".. 'tannin. t the same c u dll_ rb.early Irisb tlolpog. .-.: lII!A"·. l(..u"fJ-l the vi1= engine is called. alternate . '! I.d. many de _thsr' For my p"art I know none bad enough but that supplied by his own 'sh.n..e same theme recurs in a di p'Ur~ between Jesus and his school- mE't er about the letter 'T. _. his...O I. In 'G.]lich · I' ch I ._-cbom they settled. T. him..of the bark.a Kin... tne ' 1 '" _.d pair in Palestinian lieUgilon~1J . It has.e Oak Alllg ht. the sharpness of [the pri. prickly Ieaves and nourishes the kerm.a' moor.O:j.taining encl . ~n S·""'__0 ·b . fo'uotain called 'Connla:"s 18.. U ed for hoUy in modem Gr.D" typU::aUl h . T is the .L.: T IOfall tAe trees tit".:1.er is well suited to the month of the barley harvest" which .compact .. declared that he had come 'to 'bring not' peace" but the sword.ckles" the bitt.onof the Bible the wOl"d'.tyI'3ntsr:oQ..ul nd B. D' is the' 'Oak whiCh rules the wdXing pin of the ye~r~the sacred Druidic oak. in Welsh myth. .always an emblem of concentrated wisdom: somethlng s:weet. washaped like' the Greek Tall.bet: it has probably displaced the ever _~"en scarlet-oak with . '.the Oak Kni=.. the lastleuer of the alphabet. the' running of the deer'. take' over it was natural to let the bony .'" ~ z)!! .. titles and customs.rll: CI"WW wleep. the goddess 'Creiddyl._. TrW in.ma]lQII j C FrOR COLL Tb ninthtree is the hasel. rrmn ('. 'i' • • .rhtaoy it meant 'oak'.~ ··awam. An.DI. John the Ba'p..evergreeiD oak whi.mater'in . not 'the evergreen oak ' _bleb the husbandmen used in Betw.. idle evergreen 'twin O:_I the o o lordinary oak.. armed with a triple thunder-bolt. In J~ lI'S time the !8brew cl ~_· -f ~..p'p' ears.ing of the Sun.t 4~th.. the 'Waning part" the: 1 ' translated 'terebin..oak" is sometimes Ii iiJ body 1. exc pt in So far as he...". Lucian in iUs.g Arthur.(JmtU~. who was.Uftn' Pie ~. Diann or .x" ani. of the berry. ays.31 small bard sheU.OS after' him bymen.t.agB" a R···· :m H'· ·d b.Ole 11UI):!. make a compact to behead :ne another' at... In the Authorised V'eFsi.J. ISea.tist. who there has a S7_ at Carlisle.' The Rermes D:innslumeltas... him" does he' not deserve death" nay. and bewsj) their lot. The JeSUI" holly as J'hn"'s '\W'IS 'thUSI glorUi d beyond the oak.. I'·-tUi I version 38. aphrodislae elixir..g. UD't:i1the: sixteenth ccntu'ry!ll The carlet .I Dut-shen.:JtIJJrrl.Tfutn the equivalent of Tinne" is a Celtic word for :any sacred tree. h as muen 10 common. mc_u~~' .. I see aladyw:heie sA Q sate it : -_-the' holly.] 1.l'" ... 'll' nnes . . The out .1!Jual. . Classical Greek names priluu and layJ~' are also. .. . m .. th. and the . John's Day.eek..3 ereules. and it derives its. in fdlect" the H olly Knight but" TF_! . . the name of the Gaulish Thundergod. executioner. d t... king"s. anc eigrh'£: as £1.Si.in.JoDy' means "holy'.) is explicin The Holly iJBfl" . in 'Cornwall the compound . oak must be rezretted as. . Vile name from. The identification of the' pacific Jesus with the holly or holly . SA.Q. are crucified. a scarlet insect' not unlike the holly-berry (and once thought to be' a berrY). . bloody 'O'H: thus an evergreen oak.spares. and 'Tina.emess .C'"U.gr_en sacred ttlee')m'eaDt evergreen holm-oak.-feen Dil" of the mediaeval Green.m the IGoidelic tribes among .ermany it meant "fir'. ak" or kerm-oak.rke ForfJ.ape-rbat shape which he gave to the gibbet named S"flJlr.tise.. the oak of the IGoIJe" Bo'ugll. or hoDy. montn.e may'r-egard the letters D and T' twins:' 'the UJywhite boys clothed all in . "AI ICOK" Df Powels (about 100 A..~The' schnolmaster strikes Jesus 011the hes .. mumb 0'f mcrasJ!iOI_~y .-shaped U'O. rules.o"t memioned.tb and sometimes I. a beautiful.L same' b·otaru![3l11 name ue. . is ..scarlet-.: l O .J't Trees: II0f all .L htb . This ladY'~1whose name is n. with 'its lapt chorus ah ut 'the ris.and :sus..1l.glru . and curse ICadmu..80 . ...oas say: 'this. describes... Yet the' harry whi. _lB'D --a sentiment that derives frm the SO"6 a/. it was.11d it. an important . Rzuhessong... W-.alph.. ' C' .. in 'tb nutting season... Now" _ lth all these crimes UpO.d and prophe ies 'the crucifixi'ODjj.

in leases of murder and theft._ .=.or of fire. ~arlchal5yst-em hY' p triar-chal in. "~'_I '. fork aft-r his. All the knowledge of the arts. and tOI Osiris" and . the' Beth . The month extends. is. lsdem that esn .. Luis Nion that grow' spirally.nk. and a half Ion . ~_:ld is an emblem of 'the satiric poem that carries :1 curse. 'The vine also i Solstice who is" ally I.-_ -.vaders.. .. pre erv ed in the.e s and.__ . _ ' . G" . (In all Celtic countries there is a 'taboo against eating the blackberry though it is a wholesome and nourishing fruit. nine _aze_c IDf poene art".orth Wal .-"_I" .. JIt!:'II!_11 ..plped into the w. c:t.hi. And! in the Book DfS.. F'· l. He buihthe city of .51... Bolden viae was 'ODeof' theprincipal omaments ..rittany the reason givlerJ! is c.. As the nuts dro. .1\.' '" .JJivecL It gave i sname also tO a god named Mac CoD or' Mac Cool C'SOID ofthe Hazel') who aCQor-ding to.. '. 'The 'Vine.aDdthe' month extends from August 5'th to Sepltemher 1St. Hercules).Q!ry .'W. but gull'ty'persoIDS.th.." • I .of Thorns and the berriesare 'Christ"s blood.u. a fathom..~AlJ. _...fe and wisdom were presided .' the berries.'1. f'anesent T'd~L. '.zls Ra /zdlJ 'the venerated tre of the rath' ~tbe nth in..e:~fmits after nine y.. d f-' .Bardic numeml nine-s-because 'Dine is the number saere d to the Muses . aa U'lOt.0 d 0-(' vuI'ltures an d ravlens.d ivy come next 'to' each otber' a.. a popular lubstirute for Muin in. Yet the The' tenth tre Is the vine in . In N. h raid carne.estabUshed .. ..g Hazel. 9:0 many bright spots appeared on its.l. le"" a ivy.-n' .ritisb B. __ I IOVier ' i. 'Used as th =..tasY'!!..o~er by the Triple Goddess. merely by lcarrying a b..-h J and ivy~ale"a highly in.- me as a tree 0'[..oftbe 'Temple olf J erusalem..~'th"e. rulers of Ireland.I wi1d tree treasure and hidden water:" as now'.on. wavin the fir-branches of Qu = _ n of ArtelDlS (lor' Ariadne) s.a:t.of ' the emblem. exhilaration and wrath.coUld.name 'GwiOD adopted..drink.l[ediaeva). 'L. when "the Devil enters into th_m'...u=-1lill-_e.'9/1u. ms 'UJe' tree' 01'1.that 'tb~y werre poisonous..vinjlog .v." In the Fenian lezend of the Ancient Driplpin. . the main.-auty and 'wisdom)1 simultaneously.. But: whi:ch" acc=Olrding tol ApoDodorus. ab.vin~u:iorn"It split in two when the head of the: IGod Baler was placed in its.I_.bo .:'h.lon of the Sunl).ctober 'was =.'.d to resurrection. dess of Ireland..e' yea._'tbe yeUo.0' the I~nlemy~ 10M J. . still brewed .eir ecs. . as a r:bild I was 'wam.important moti!:inB.:_arid rushed wddly about on til ' mountains.ell 'they fed the salmon swimming: in it" and wharever' number of :nul!ila..'··_" '_. kd . his t1VO brothers bein~-' Ma." _.. 'I_YS !en 'the: .:L.'i_ tree 'UJlaJ.death. ..... I tion is dute~en't the bramble was the bush ehos ~n . It £i-wt-ed well ther DD a few ishelte·· d -'outhem slopes.e: meaE c'ones. In En:glan.. • b.Ue "'.P'DISODDUS ..mre colour 0..lca'tiDg ymboUzes..aIU' (1..ruc_=. L. ivy' In i'm !ftoweriD. a' ioddess not a God and since both 8F1-.. the sevente -:D.its DOXlU:.m. :is:an.g' oneselfas invisible: as: if 00.. The eb~'vD...-:-in d:-. 'Vin. '="i-..'. erried 'SOlrt~in honour of' Dionys.toxi. .I~O'S.g .' JJ_ ·WI'OD..e L w... DlioIllYS.l"" B'ndare' jjolindy dedi..'L.aD d ..I~e· 1 wan'd5'11 'ei h:aze..edmf!'rely .ronze Age art.g: inserted in it. j . and when Fiona used its woodas a shield I..1i.po! di'l and blalckberry win'e is a heady dri.SuiliB· 1 . birds of di. --:.~ the B... . the emblem .for the Crown .US" in. -ell! It drip~ ed a . from September .!usle' Jes flel.bazel'sdck was used unto.ny .ch 'tb·-: 'int 'Deated Bi'~. 'which substantiates my theory that the blackberry was. .:J . d.C8'te. and the shape of '1:1.'tle SP'OI'ts..kids.'th 'century .after' me last day of September. fruit (il!le!!.rtbwu'd wi. ason of the Bacchanal revels 0'" Thraee and The _Jy in ... QI.'' .=1 had! eaten.-'L.th d wirh ivy .1 .of the fairies'..lked .Dot ouly buried l they will ha e used tb _ bramble as a substituter the fruit in season. the' hazel appeuI I ._ -!i.a. h _ ~eaves." tipplewas c:sp.e I'haz '1._Dt. wine)! In England the ivy ..y IOD earlng'bla.w. . which dle :poe'l ~c Au lillA··. so pr'O~...ly 'me: Danaans carried the' 'tree it:. was a toad.. Devon hire the '£abOOI is . was. and sciences W.azel-rod. p!resumably "because they are: rhe only 'two trees in. body. 'They celebrated a triple muria.w.brewed from the sap of ilver-fir and laced with . rw 'IC he alds".kemytba:'t 'the Bassarlds.uscu1arstr.i •• wis:dom .resu'_r:_ction I - and with a r buck tatt-ooed 'on their' right arms above the 'elbow.496 edition) a ~eeipe is given (O'l makin. legend appean at first 'slight 'to record the . 1 1n b . vapours kill·' I eath-ousane S .C'' '...on was. It is....d because' the haz. with a green hazel ..'... :M r-.. ah.t T'rinity iCoUegel" 'Oxford" in mem.ji'OY.put to destn.. o· the_an d " j .8.e' autumnal b Dionysus.·h them as well as main Maenad in~L. o:f'dte win.A'.'The ivy was sa."_tlV_rDj hence 1 proverh 'IG .of a 'Trinity student murdered by Balliol men. ~sup'Ply the necessary .8f! SeasO'D. .ge 'with the Triple IGod-.ita musca~ia" the spotted ~oadstDol with whi. G rOR GORT ing"s Hu:tD..tb tree is 'the.OY 'O'"W of the 'm. who must be distinguished from the Dionysus of the Winter 'me · .th ~1f'nrnu~allegmance to UlC''T"np I e '•-10d'd..gh~') and Mac IGr~ne rJ.. and Myeenae... .e 'Ceach't riSOn of' theP'lou.. The letter IC.piraUy wrea. were doubtless Goddess worshippers themselves and merely t: d -..of them. II. This.ears.. in B.cmd 'tIO 10'S:_ ls as wleU lIS to Dio.• en h w._~. :an. It was as the' ·~d'·.-.an. . ~ Th ') :1. 'beaus . :'co produced flo.aBU.e explanasmc-e it could :no:t be . I :1- beeaus its strength is. It is 'the 'tree of .. · _ aid :no' '1 . swallowed..ry of IrelMld was one of three earliest.. - cuitur...for dj. .was atlb'-!Iter In. In Maj orca th. eptember 2"tb and includes the autumn eqWnoL.. KeatOiij.. -llnl~..O]dca_nt will have been aman.:: L. but since Greme the Sun.!! Th -y ore fawns._ G:-' ~ f I transleO'ie:. .ckhenie. 'The hazel '. 'that alone .IS bound up 'With 'the eating of these nuts"u has already been noted in the story 'of Fio:~.. 'the~ invaders. the Wiest C'oun·tay!!) 'The vine was aeredto the Thraeian Dionysus.nysus.L .le .1.ad wiDe needs. hi'·'. they may also have chewed ivy-leaves for their toxic effect. -'.the 'vinta.znd to .[. In. F'OR MU[N' .1CiV~ .t 'the tum 'of th. tbo'u~b DO't nativ'e to Britain.Fodhla and Banbha..__~·_SI J _. 18) 1'82 . [If DD.'f!l'iI' .s (th.d II Eo. no bu. Here Wle may reconsid:er Phoroneus"the Spring._=c 10..bush has al.m. children and even men 'to' pie" . fern-seed.twi.. t ". 'Dear T-iplerary.

angUng of trees by ivy .c Circle. tree: 1i h . barrows IU. man. . ith '. O seats tIl.e . And does this explain the precedence given to the silver-fir among the 'Vowels as A. con.~: '... . W.. =-heace the ccntinued unluckiness. d rrom T'l.ctober' ~7th. 1"'". dC" 1'· .true . or water-elder. are used by witches as. 'b" . ) The ivy month extends from September 30th to Q. Thus Ivy Girl and Holly Boy became opposed.f! been the Crucifixion tree. in the day after the winter' th t.e same is. 1S_un-go.'a'= y means ". in the Eastern Mediterranean~ The Pharaohs used reed seeptres (hence Egypt is satiri:rred by me prophet Isaiah as a 'bruised reed') an. tree is tb. and sang. to 1. ivy being' 'the II R. Was Phoronens also the discoverer of 3 divine fire resident in 'the toadstool. (1616 I 1): ' nest of the Gold Crest Wten. and the bireh among the consonants as B? Does it add a further note to 'Christ ·SOD of Alp-~ ? ha' " (The rivalry mentioned in'mediaeval English carols between holly and .'.~_ ·0·(' A·'__ _:_'u ". elderwood cradle will pine a. Scot writes in his P/.at their best at midsummer.mytltie.gh nota tree.r. ealled the Holly Boy. an appropriate introduction to the last il!'~ . IU~1 ..-fo r . The' twelfth tree given in O'Flaherty's' list is.being')? The amanita muscarif!. on Yule moming. .I!L~ra_ry use.-.Its white flowers" which are .. an. '~.. as his penalty. OR.I·~·+.. P' roa 'PEITH. rOR 'RUIs. I But what .iDle: 0" r--J"ai~"'·""'_ll·at'_c"e..hi" h 'was. ~:r..d a r'oyal reed -was put into }esus... .·C21UC counmes to tne fortress ' .. _ 5'0-' C!'!lI11 ed. a convert to Dionysus..lfl-""e. when he was attired.of tot sovereignty.dark. Dionysus :had two feasrs-s-the Spring Anth. about nen 18S part of 'tile' original series. d W h-0 Sh 0'ftcr . the last .. b nrcn nOt'UJ1W8:!':< fro··' .s:t sheaf tOI he carted in.. up.armer was 11 Iatest Wl_. The NG tree was the Ngetal" or reed. in the South" fox- from. The elder is the' tree' of doom and 'ivy girls" contended in a game lof forfeits for precedence.""lI.N·' G·' 'WL!.84... as one might expect. I' I' Ar. grows under' I. ::.. or 'Flower. the tree of Inception.. and T. instead it repre. was an ancient s:ymbol of royalty.eb. I .:1..-'.s2od. worship. :siri's. But ivy andholly were both associated with the Saturnalia.. is an old. with Witches" which keeps its fruit weU into December .. u-. King WilHam Rufus was killed by an archer posted under an elder.ecea'nd Palestine to the' Equator... In the North i.. gue1der-rose. .bstitut ~ . a waterside 'tree associated.. Although the Bowers and inner bark of the elder have always been famous for their therapeutic..ring . nd a is therefor·e not ruled by :any of the Trees.. qualities" the scent of an elder plantation was formerly held tO cause deathand disease ...eBl. but under' a firar pine' southward from Gre. _~ 'I. . r-ep~esentative. whie'h gave'r. and the elder . .0' f d ayi1eY. 'W' as . : ..:1J ':rl>). the house'.~> .. r. against each other . J. The e.8th to November 24m. the' whitten.... between the tree' of murder and the tree of resurrection.l!. British superstidon that a child laid in.e domeatic war of the sexes.·'_L b bi upnslng. elder tree.' .ivy is not.u .way or be pinched black and blue by the fairies the traditional wood for cradles is the' birch. his hird.! elder.I.ofno C ~"u.of the: rowan. The monthextends fr'om..of the extra day? It faUs outside the thirteenth .ggest that its association with death is long .. .' The cursed elder and'tne'fo. magic horses .. of the: number thirteen-and the month extends from November 2.. October' a.''"''.oddess. d.t. The explanation seems to be that in parts of England the last huve. a.'- coloured... songs" mainly satirical.. between Typhon-Set and Dionysus ..any parish 'was..-"8 iarvesnng .."" ::egin... a thIck root like a tr-ee..e I'! '. month Y'eAr.a.given the Ivy Girl.. And in I~eland elder sdcks'l! rather than ashen ones. holly being Saturn's club. which drives away evil spirits.ilo.' (mylcosterion) was known as Amhrosia ('food of the gods')'. The number twelve has the sense of established power. made to hang himself on an.agaml jn facr. ' .eaf l shape 0'£ 'the funerary fiints in megalithic long.ere taken to keep' women out of the way.... or month which is the true elder.s band. to the Brythons.lder is also said 'to hav.__.·oru"'..Jt.. I am assuming' mat its natural placeis between the letter-months of Rand B.. or shrewishwife.. make the elder another aspect of the White G. Peith..Ii '04lUU _~1. and th auttlmnrys'... Judas is. It.of his metq reign" the first foot over the threshold had m be that of Saturn's.I OJ _. The: canna-reed.u. ..e:sterion.. a simile' confirmed by the stt. a living 1!. in Scarlet .ise to the Y:ule' custom in which 'holly boys.i.. or (for that matter) to the Goldels" but which formed ... and tb.~ie I.. and elaborate precautions w.lOUtS.•• . not the originallener. which becomes ready for cutting in November.!C'l.6..I'I'I!!JB ePerseus.I' wmenever J:!. The thirteenth.1 !. firmed by the Irish use of reeds in thatchingi a.1 . 10 1 _..th to the winter solstice of December .' '. and therefore appropriate to Pharaoh as. rgolis ".-eng:th .uu t.talyew With witCh [rowan] fl1ul'nig4tsAadB in t/zeir Shadows 8. and therefore Phryneus Ct'oad being') as well as Fearinns ("Sp.... ms arrows m every cnrecnon as a SYiiwOI.rdin a to P'~U'sanias b·e"._L. . SOl unlucky is the elderthat in Langland's Piers Plowman. 'WEllen pro-. found a toadstool growing on the site . an omen of ill luck until the followi~g y~ar!i' Thus the .house is not an established house until the roof is on. bound around wi'th Osirian ivy' andealled the..' aeeor Ui.CJIl"'acean.ne M·'1J.t is scarlet. it is a '-B·I . Harvest May" the Harvest n ld or tb 'Ivy' G:. thou. In English folklore to bum logs of elder ·'brings the Devil into. which grows 1:. NG F'OIl NG1ETn.-• th SJJ!Ways a.~I~ _:: I. lch .. w h snce nen .!~ . Spencer couples the elder 'with the funereal cypress". But Peith is. . standing.ivy came to mean a carline..rlsmg of toadstools. -t .UJn. '-Q. It is the' 'tree' &om which arrows were IW.

.~ie'Wln'tel" SQ.e were roughly synchronized and the -. and built up a small vocabuiary.. . o~..resumably 'bec:ius.his.mto a..3. an~. .. Sir' James· 'F'mze~ has shown in his . ~ winter solstice does not: :always eoineide with the same phase: of the moon" so ~fNiery yiear~ must be 'Under~tood IS I~eve'ryGreat 'Yeae" at the close of which solar and lunar tim.. ten .r/s (I .- I 0 ci30 I .ed j .. remn It _. W1\t_..w.or mwnp~e.. '-0. ~Queen of SaUing'.~ .1) andwirh an earlier' Alcyonewhowas. as is usuallysupposed. at the winter solstice-after his mother" the Moo:n~goddesl~1 has..eolian Gree~:""'ii'The: word_ 'halc'UnIil"iI" cannot therefo r-e ances I"vr .e:s'ctipfwn . ~ tl II! PAln 'J~ - .. goddess who was worshipped at thetwo solstices t. t.~. new sacred king.f. was an Argive priest of mysteries· 'named Tmehiluswho fled from At~os.en _e.-.'" . tradmon . in B..~ .. the various legends of the halcyon" 'Dt Idngfis:her 'L.w Bum i' a..m-I'D''ea.len" the $. ". Of~":L a " #. B.1-_ '_--..... .'B.'0-.'" and -"-0 .-~ .I __ _ _.Golden.~~I.and how the real Zeus.:" . as.S'.o-:~.d need."w~ C nveye_. oys of Ireland b lometim.. The R.. Bi. Thesea-mew part ofthe 'legen.anias"g s..~ ..ewren is "the cuddy .~ 'U'l~J W.w'e. daughter to Aegeale.ced to accept: the 'OIym'" • 1.urU5 on records in. cry.~'Untlng tne wren wnn1.assd. One .. me' historical basis seems to he mat late in the second millennium B!!.·n.tQfth~ Old Year.ni:-~ •.ran 's 'sparrow~' 0'" raven" There were fourteen 'halcyon days' in . h then metamorphesed .~ DDe is surprised how' close to the surface lie the .- ... _.. (the woodpecker.rv. sea-mew 01'.." sent tbes. as ~the Httleking'. . cprio. This proves her tohave originally been a mani ..he_ A· _ v UJl M _ __ __ r _ ..!edwi 'the wheel of the year' bas gone fun circle. .y conserved.-r _p.es. at title of M.adicals reean l. k 'fIi~k ·th· .cHt:te d'"Itl G'r-ee__ mllL::J.wv~~-. 'sea-hound'. 'WaS b' _. the halcyon's alleged nest-----..__: P ausantas m 'h" D. h raV'eJ1 omens in Erin I'll/ (I g....' Qc_. iv:y' bush.A lat..oating nest and.heritan. .m by Linnaeus=-reports that the halcyon is.ry unlucky to.y-in_.apparen. the city.e-SEal edhed a collection 'of wren 2Dd.e Sea-goddess Aphrodit-e.cess who averts evil'. .I~: " ~l~' .. punished them by drowning C. when the P'leiads 5H~t..· Somersetshire!! Sw.~]l__ .as him with Pan lor FaUlllus.r. . 1. the Aeolians.. Sltum~ oIIi:t.I.toryseems to 'refer 'to the lexplUS10!I1 tb. their divine ancestress and proteetrass. and briefly mentioned by Homer.and she: into I.E-gyptian 'OsirIs.-an. ..' TL£Io' c. h .an... part of . 'CO"1r'n\Be to ·s·. L . . Into a :t'ng' __IOU. BJ'I'"thTcIl'~heg'~ :reta ined 'AI"".o:ld Crest does freque'llt ivy bushes at Christmas time is omirhological fact.acred king his !ummOrl'S tD death (as wiU be'point-ed out in Chapt-er Twelv~).cep.. lostsi".c.red breast. 'she who wards off the hurricane'.. but must stand for alcy. festation of the Moon ... 'days of the' lucky first half of the month. B (JugA that .....h -. when Agenor seized. Trochllu_s means "w. W"ll .of 'the.e-ssedi.vran "!liB"_.--J r __ -.l.d -' . H became tributary 'to the . C· 1. i f' . -_- i 'razor--bill.of Gre'eca: he :sa. According to Plutarch andAelian.en.Il:! Homer connects the halcyo.. .Af'I' ..!o whom the. the eponymous ::---c_-".~~H'omlri. I have been carried about'). '" d· .. in the ivy bush. .peace ful::" d__ w:h' th sea was _"e '. UJ. n:o£'be P.. busb instead of an ivy .. with Aleyone.'fo.Robin Red Breastas ! ' !Ii€'lt-II!!1..I. religiousl. wren was saered./1. halcyon.. halcyon builta B.J. from Argos by S\yriao invaders of the pti:esthood of Crones (Bran).. ended.i~_'m.--- .U __ __ _ _ ~_ _ __ .~---:--- .eyx.'1.11rCtJ! ij d hich rOi S. 'wtdcn I:iR. - C I'k rmstmas Esve :{'o'--cnstom C'h. that are still..._lle '.el:eager~'swe Cleopatra (Iliad.explanations.r'i.... Paus.. as ODehasmasrered the elementary grammar and aeeidence of m~.....W·:'H..ne:: how she andher husband Ceyx Csea.. of carrying her dead mate on her back over the.~'.reD.' me . ellenic Moon""Jgoddess. '. '!hl' '~ I~' £Ii r£! I 'U 1~. . r_~_.5. The)' robin is said te 'murder its father"..The wren 113 protected from injury at all otherseasons of the' year and it is ve..B .~the wr-en is hun..ne.'I 'r~ .'I quote·~.. and thus iden~ -. who ear'ly in November:.'th·. tin I.. Per hiaps tne most a:D:centwret...There is aclear reference to the story in IG"WiOn.' sacred klnz's term.CC!.e·"Clul-17""_. . Hera and Zeua.0.y:s'thlt Triptolemus.OIM W Me For at thispoint in the year. and learned to dis'ti:ngui~hseasonal the zoophyte called lzalcyoneu.'..names fO'I' 'th. :::o···~·· ved kin·"C·""~.ion makes T ripIJolemus a Sian of Ficus._ ~_.a1~sl·~l\'l(l·d N-' -tm J1 y.. th d' ' th..e.a.c bfe:. bush. another plrop. -. surmounted by a wheel from which are appended I·· . hatched out her' young.' .'_:_: .. which accounts fo." ~ .. .'W1~:~ 'o.cltaeans. ~-' ..h e L m~ln £...Eve" 'the birthday of the Divine Childt._ .. by me: oakIS7 ..of the Devonshire . ill!1_ . enclosed in a box with gIsts: windows...'en.: '. d by . l' .every yemr. termed the King'. birch-rod to kill his predecessor the' Gold Crest 'W[. .t. '.inian counter .. - various coloured ribbaruiJI:ll ~ . fable told by Apollodorus and Hyginus..as :8 pond and hen . 1..~..' '-l~ . Pliny..~'IW =-'~~~ ~~-.'u.. the Spirit of the N@w Year sets out: with .ays ._ d~" ·was.sne had anomer habit.1" ~e __ . where the GOild Crest was known.e~rv.tt. sea and mou~mi'ng' him with :1 peculiarlyplaintive cry .hetic 'b'ird).intive. A . part .hiclllhas no foundation in natural history. .F'.. is sacred to' Twelfth. ~v.. This. ' die Eleus. and gth.ess.of our European cuItur...1:-:-"-- - .i1. as. The num ..): "_.II6).rarelyseen and then only at the winter and summer solstices and atthe setting of the Pleiads.c times:.tiU anome'l Alcyona" daughter to Pleio. I. of legends. : --d· rouu.!'·' plan.... 6 smooth. so the legend (w.alin . derivation is confirmed by the one.ri'tisb folkllo:re. because the halcyon does not build a nest at all but lillYsits egp in holes by the waterside) evidently refers tome birth of the.6. by Aeolus.ur·teen is amoon-numbce." ao. ew') datred m can themselves. "'.- .... and were for..' ~'L·*r &5 ."() nn~un .. ~"?en.dy myths from histericaland iconDtrlopic 'm:yrhs.W_l~ 'me' at one time also practised In Rome and ancient: Greece.! 'whereupon Alcyone also drowned herself Ceyx was .b 1"n" . . IX~.b eore th winter solsnce seven af-:.(!.. aeeorcd-l tOI Aleman. . •. -I j As loon._rniaWIJ: Keing yad ym Ei:JJu. was. .:mean Aal-cyon.A.. who carefully describer. S.rans -.·Ul~_~.ChristmH .JilawJ CConcea[... a.8·8 lilt i~scustomary on ... whom he finds hiding in .n. .ts.-1 ""..l..." ---.e 'UJle W.:1lR -1· 1.ebg~on.------=-:::----=-. Bran" it hu been shewn...D··ea. to Attica..c. take its eggs.'S still survives in Ireland 'and the Isle of'Man.L'A :'3cW·--'-'·~: L.ren' and' it also tneatll ~'of thewheel' p p... '1- £en --:-::-~. IS ... Angar C. G dd" f~ 1 . _' .iiiiJ - c _ -. e old__ --'c" . .. -=-r - me c g. • _1. seven of which 1.r8r.:[_:nk -d.~ 1 as at prophetic bi'rd.ltemanve~y 'L' ~~' .though the bi~d" which has a very pla. the: holly being the tree of the taoist'" who killed the oakat midsummer . 'That the G. use a holly . earlier' Alcyo. the .r.' . The 'wren . ~. who had agve~ed'to ~l'o~rshjp the pre .1. .... . Day to carry about a ·wren. R..I :. ~..

d.ers by hurling lightning at theship .d. on both _ . by tb.other ways: for mstance" a51 the dlrtel' points of uianlille enclosing a hex"gctnc.-ha.Alcyo'ne" ~..~ IUD. AIcyone :&1 Marp.ied o'~ ~Y Apollo from. S To judge from a deslgn.. one') at Delphi are eveers in.l In Crete" 'Gree:ce'and the EasternMediterranean in general sacred trees are formal -. _ Z··' _ ~ Ugptning.giJJ't....ltcl~~poch. original. beabh and li.xol five tf.ould.lQe bet'KJim. End. skimming me' surface of the same Mediterr..raculau. a ngu. and Uk.t. like his rape of Daphne ('the bloody.j5J eould be :inte:rpreted in . 'Gime 'T.by Zerubhabel on the odgmalPhoeniclan I. I have twice (with an interval of m!iiny years) seen a halcyon.goddes3 she... Meleaaer'swife Aleylone and the halcyon is. tha:twhen her .. the' mystical leader of the: seven Pleiads. held 'to cause lepros~ {the .eanss~ore :their o:3:ths 011 the ~h.anem bay.essa"s beni_-_~t daughter would be immune .and·the wmdrtg sua~ ..ene'.an cylinder seat! In the newly . so these five trees may 'be the same as the five pillars with vertical and .. she mourned him me IChair of Taliesin').model... 0 Sweet .. The pyramid.e the: vowels of jhe Doibel . Marpes~..ioaLo.nd pUlar d~di~ca.min detail in Chapter . explain 'whyP'Hny recommended dried .rpessa at Mess. Ce'rridwen"s cauldron" ase as D itterlYli the earUer' Al c:yone: hadmourned C~yx and. therefore g~ve her new-horn daughter Cleopatra.oaz~...mum:y .ua:esso:m. Luis:. the: surname ti.17t eons:lSting of ten d.s poem K~J6£r' Taiiu.l1efiencied.u.t inmlils~ in@.her belov-edhusband. gave the goddess the tide "A..against tile infection.. The .Prime and.ihe 'two dors helow.ar and to whom the number five was :~aed.S.ews ..edicat.. on a: glass dish of die Sete.1' souli: and these e.otsJ arr..Qe .rres- Solomon's "temple as rePuJit .. a me I . tout '(1 nppie: Its !~n h stJ3rdin.d the.y..~'the three do. take them to. wa6carr. 'I~itally known..es I. after his confounding' ofHeinin and.mhEirofli(ewith . their setting marked its end when (as Pliny notices i~ a paS~at8e about the halcyon) a remarkably' cold North wind blows.divine tiile 'Alcyoo2e. A priestess named Cleopatra whom the.:€d!Qts.splir.ted pos'i1ion. the .ipitaUy OUled pi1lars ICQrresp~orul'wiTll B.. for' Gwion in hi.' because as Se. watJef'SJl'lld tbe' quinte5esence 0.cauldron. Apollo's rape of Ma. faU at md. ' of ApoUo.I'.by five' e]. bis l~t. ·iUI..e .~Irly Greek tribal history: 'seizure' of Q. but it is Hkery that Aleyone waS called the Daughter of Marpeasa ('the snatcher') because' Marpessa was the White: Goddessl 'as the Old SOIW 'who ruled r. as pillars.eb nalUla gives to 'dlree~dimen8~Q:nal spacB.. which...ted :to drecay and rhCi!.th~ir New' Ye~ £O. fapde of me rum me II 'me . The top dot l'epresoo.sy. in.) .Dumber 10f .h Idays.ot of' misfigu~mmk.. Five represented the eeloue 'and. three-aimcll. Idas the Atgorlau~.association of Whit:e G·oddesswith leprosy is ~.alftuti'ngs which a man is.phfcaRy in:t~retedasl Begmlli~1I. is covered Gnostic Go'S/'eI of d It is Ukelythaf Gwion was also aware of the value gi:ven to the number Five: hydle Pyrhagoreans and their ·~.B'ments-eanh. tll:u::.oly tetrlttyl".called _Idle _wooclJ~'-a qu.the vmealy But~d with Jaabinl.ePythagor. exEfision.. ithou "11 .heldto he ftu::mea .6 to IQ. Nionm_ake' a complementaryseasonal sequence. 'The te'tra'Ct..' The connexion made by Homer between.. aD. of'tne' Five TrfJ. was. _ __ '. occasions about midsummer w'h tne 'sea was WL.ThiB'is nonsense. v:Bri.when me J. the other bards" descrlbes the Cauldron of In spirati en . shrines by the Aehaesn partisans cause the halcyo.mowing the..s.I central do.SoI~'monJ9 right-baoel pillll d. The heliacal rising 'of the Pleiads in May marked the: beginnlng of the navigational year.:five :senaes" 1I:edtrdcally .I Myt:enae. 'to'ltowth . were also :given '~Ol the numerals. be the trees particularly sacred 1 'to the White Goddess:"who presided lover ye:. 'me' four dots :at.in (.gly bright bluemd white plumage made it an unforgensble symbol of the Goddess of calm seas.nid-winter and be.Meleager married may well have borne the .lanents' In eorresponded with seaSgin5~ Symbolic values...peri'ecbQiD".The tsusman agwnst :~·eu~ '1"·· _" .. pr?~ tected them.llcyloln~e. from loeb and rough weatber: for Zeus had wrecked him In defiance lo.pp.dl of the . which was the: chair that he: claimed as Chief Poetof Wales. fire. from .. surface. oth represent L stations: in 'the year _. Amene' ~ number' 'ofinteUigence~.£A~cyone's pow.Th.n I~' .mo'ther.Twenty .hero Ada.upposedly on. we'mos.a-.mbo!Umn h~m~ I~Qo£usedJ.fil!!dwhieh acre a. five 'wid1ea.'OOs~ this ~tdoured various world W8s. was. w.~.ed.WlFienf.angeQ :io .entally. The b_alcyon continued for centuries to be credited with..a.sio:nal 6:pace..dp'Je Go.I pyramid:1 thus:' :L 'wDDlderful cute:" for lepros.. emblem. SilCbeillg 'me'D.. wanm.g.ma. the magical power of allaying storms" and its bodywhen ~ . Foux) and.d-wi'nrefll' This..fO'ur cblts of sid'es. .es.thi~to s~ven. air.m ~eJow those.dde'ssj' was :philoiso.andpulverized halcyon nests as.e~qr wbf. The' circumstances ofCeyx's death show that the Aeolians" who were famous_ sailors. the ground 'that where once: it strikes" it will not strike' again".sow's' milk was._J drie d was usenas at Chapter Eleven THE TREE ALPHABET (2) 'he vowels of the: Beth .' central d. shown adoring in .

wi'thmoney ilD it.II made of Snyer~fir. home "fthe weblodl cWt.wbanmati.ys is Ith~ Da..'I!lca..bu. 'wa9Scmrm.a FieldS'"'but it is as UkeJ. fo.e!ia. were then referred mas '~chin and Bo.'Illn'ieftiDn~ The 9Cf!iM Wag: explained O as dle ~aisif11g of LalarUJs~As late 19.tiv.of Nana.I'ID"vemoe.clo:mely resembling ga.e' .g 'Vine and :910 became the alma maser of 'the Wine--god~ This.8 boat. ma.by 111llmer-ous p~a:ce.ord..f~tllJ's Die'lio7lMiN . W.u"Dot 'IDeazand Ja~ . ~C1da:y 'wllen her f~·li v. The Troj_. :she bas I:c..s wa& ·we'anaea.is 'ii'Tam'arl!'~ Tamar was the Hebrew e'quivaJent of' the G'fm:r IGoldde5slstar 01" Asb[uotb.er". as ..iI!lSlI' a. y.v. gives its...oddess:. hfJ. also stood.1I1. E~erkonge is ICDirmcdly ~md '~Erlkuqj. as fj.0 ber sacred 'tre~ ivy-.Ma.. Ofpl~a1FigdaD' reliefs. Its Hebre'wname .ttth . a tree' not nati.. 10'" IO. nam.o'Un.A reB. which formerl.cbmust .~ lo!f.of die Godd_~: :.. shO:WDOD one' 'p~el.el' 0:.! Eut..ognrphefS couvert CyUen mtD 'the Nymph Cyllene'.o appe.. the middle of the H:aw.come. Though Druantia. Ar~emiB..amJJBtmy of AlY:SGmlIFN3: 8t Ar~e9"in which the Triia.delivery wi.~gse Calypso·'s sepulchRil isbn. aile' bas bad Martha .ting. ''Ilw Dan:is'b BIl.Mcses.ersal Mower and thar the palm thrives . alder dUdf. of me . At j nr. nam.d.I.m. boar sent b.e' to th!e British Isles. emetery MUl. deri:y. pond with the auwmnvmtBle .mtad.ut! or Qlis:ml :mtmy FreDch 'p:laoe-names.r-g.is .ree as the palm" being the tree under which 'the IGod . Bllack Sea. iher-eEore mother of the whole tree..I. name tree The first tree is the silver fir a :femaie''tree with leaves.thom" or Chas.um. The' p:llm" the: birtb .5A. when he Jay dyin. sandy sou. 1.' .feh~' '11tis wu nsit :sho.kacwu :H ~'The nuee Maries of ". w-as used .lPd beJ:cnv~.ne na. whi. it grew well on my grandfather's estate :in Co. . in P'. aJ].vi:ded Spanish w.ess . 'tenDina'tian:) .have been.AliUws (~«J. . contains DO. in her ho.cadman.largely gipsiea. 8POay~.v'e'trees.g: WhO'M he had.cb is born and reborn in :a palm~ 1m pDetic connexion 'with birth is dIa! the sea is .eavily' charged 'with 's'allt. is a.y z:Btb. whi.en'l by ene JUHU5 Vic::to. b'ook.'erma~ is: elsB" .oon.£11'. mother' and of CyUenwhol 1 fesdva'~ for' dIe 'pillars.'1! "until then :nameless.ysian (dt" is a )..ve:his name 'to Mount CyUe'D.ol'rb.ysian re'wls~and 9't C:yUme' (Cjll'e' Amz) "th.baUld.. me: sllJ.o Phoealcia. nown.o:f Duir~be Q~ wunam.ed b. ~-.mas" .Pmy be. under the influence of the Latin Classics.ShKb'rmL GeHzLm."s elothes and oma .r~:and dlat it .ch is not :n3. :m.noDr at Dbln.:ddsh altar d.nvined.one in Jonia" ~e .the U niv'..of Egyp't.. wife of Pelasgus who founded the Pelasgian race.eenofthe Druids' and. . used in tb. of NewC3stle-IDD-'Tyne.the Ep'bmimim ...fj'. ill wound dealt him.ejran.lss .Q/. account of'Elatal 'the: Ar.of' N. D ano.built 10.'..wblch. The te~eh_in.:'.er .. . 00 me 'UDlueky lcf~ ~Gmizim OD 'dl:e lucky' riSht.ve 'to Ireland (tbougll.m. its.compmy.1 a "Sheltered 'CR.allicFi..e'enbml~' in'to Sbechem where dwelll the' Canurd. dne 1cm11 'of 'the GcddeiS' as. 01' ". fir-cone-tipped hranch of which 'was . on me tomhs:ton .y covered the whal. a Dame transferred from Artemi's. .Zeus-or else: dealt him .. '~p'ty inlO' tithe'.enilx wm.ue J~IIWllrtilrliP :andf. P. should.mivencci·'or '~The 'ThNe Marie.r.--diterraneaa. Both Delim Apollo and Nabataean Dusares were born 'Under' a palm-tree.Aonr' is. as old a bttth ..""place of Hermes. and sea breezes:" is.AlLY: the' yew"s" sacred.£Asia :Mmo.oorr-espondinl' with the' Sc.g: palm remams stunted. to 'the Pbo. the name ofthe G.' even be ttilalme 'Horne de Idj.r.one onel' WI:dtri'led &om ber .by :1.gian Adonis...s :ab. based OD k this pmdecesmr_ H!enier"s Stimmen' . was.R! ell:'. iof Egypt" Babyl:o'nia" Arabia and Pboenj. w'hicll becsme the b.dl.J1.@ff children to 'the other' ·wDfld.s KII' a. without sal tat its roots I.of her tidei~ The ~ tree of the B.. fO(f'm. . in. the ..cIose to 'the sea. In Orkney" according to Rogers's Soc'ial' ..tity.e ·of dle baestriv.190 1911 . The' corpse W:as.I is a CIEmm.-goddess who presided over childbirth. d1e M.ally the same Whitt! IGloddess.. tree of N." Tbis makes good mythical sen~ bethe .em .o csrr..~ga«l~ed IS :1 dir~rs4 or 'idd.m'OOD'i!' 10 the: Museum. erJ ofHe.aiellt . .~iry~ Thus in IGcmthe!l:swdl. smUOD aD the .0 its halm. 'dle 'towered. lerebkltn olf MO.ahyloniall IGardenof Eden story.eanclemt c sty'le. 'The' Brune .to.. DaJl. the Nativity context.or.Ad '~V'hi.:butmetmdldon remained.otlanJ~ mother and chlld are 'sained' 500:0 aiter .m:m..1llse: beside the' saued. as .uld. Aly:. It shows a triangle standing on irs D'lso' with II cone enclosed...sh~ .D. reference in the' early Chris.Sm·..of .Atbene" ..I godd.p. 'He' 'was 'father' 0'£ 'i :fS!" th.gja. which also Ukes. Hie is said to have' heen .ia horse...loamdJ '~Clwm'tbe' RbA!}neto tbe_ AJysc:amps. alendar.ld. SG~mern.er of Aesculapius's.. Enolch .an.porting' the y. caned .. tatian" .igin3!Uy HIatal was Elate 'die 110.ess" anDu~d~ydrap. C.. ments. re£eren!oe to her own tree" :it m. ~theEly. As a Triad.elate" and Pausanias's.and the CUfiie.ed 'under' Chrisdan dJBgui!iS until.g' fiiom. sanctified by I. .c. O'mer' myth.is cel~hrated 'fn)m Mmiy 24th Ii' to .ard fOI'aide'r" edUlJ'.lt~ . the Phry.ori.and EUjah~ A FOR .Eba].(n DeulBrDntJtnyXl~. aUld.pnoeu ('bLoody'') t. L. There .Jacob.smmps bas :been . Sb~chem 'WaS ta.rin Italy the elm" ulmw.i·n'teres.Etym:o/'otJitu61 uf.on. l '.K-e aJso 'moo' Hales riyem_.01I is represen:ted .in IGreece' to.ar p!eI:]:tmdJ of Mathelis bas.0 have p. becausesBiaed 1-0 the . clive EI.o.e rigbt-hand as one fawd easr &om .ElysimB.rhat AJy.ortheE' in.. .AJ.'" '~OWUdB dl.of Paradise are men. PhrygiiaD kin.edi~ eared to 'the: Motb. . rdle aldcr~~uf!lg:!Bran" wh.OF' Alia or Ham.eamDlOD _ 'Genna w.se._m. .aotc 'm .thel~.mttinavian WQ.Al'.LzJe i'n . but fi'elW ber de:\I'otees are .is p're-:HelJeoic' 3'8 .em.add 'd m bel' . bdd in . Eb~ .ofByb:los was t :bom:: the' prlD'mtyp! of 'the pre .by a. . Q 'Triad . :is. :s\1~iv. was onm. Inmodef'u Irish 'ailm' has come to mean elm.e:carved queen' was another .J.Kes her 'f. in sandy soU h. of Life in me B.Arabians adored 'me p.Ebal'oD Ilhe feft" and.explained.. .odd'fS:S Cybele who 'loved him. ~Y'DU&hall putlheldessing upon Gmidm . just Wom it mma ~..d~. round the bed. interdependence 'of'vin.~ the l:ulfd"'WClCded ICanaanite lequiv.~.alm. .reek :fo:rfir ..[h a fiaming fir-candle 'whirled three: 'times. The palm is the Tree.erQlu"a&t:" meanm.ely Abr.e'.be.mg' it with womeo.TAomru" fi.e .a" 'there' is a p'lophecy' alD'ibUlted to. Ir is r-emarkable 'that ailm" in Old Irisb.al.tally plaoed in dle mi'ddle with .d. for the :alder in. :(oralder' bang lJ'r!&. of reve- metamerphcsed into at fir by the G. Dddesis is similarly transferred '~D her SOD in the myth g 'we' of Atos" 'IOD .ursilil'fl 'Gmizim and £hal were 'the ·twin ~ ooverin . and the prime' birth . Roman-B. c 'The silverfir has. It seems mat .f dJ.tioned-but:dlese are emblems at the five deathless Ones.lft hDf.( nam.'UpDn. dynasdc.D.enmd. Kerry).But the -'er fil".f!O.firs'! day of 'the year:" the birthday of Aries. :named after the same !oddess~ 'O. elm was. .~.shOWDby 'dle mwn .! a peace-offering' to the God:d.one".phal sewmg~I.Qu.lr S£UDSthai tbne 'were: C.es it from '"the C'awsh ward aii&iI!Jf perhaps pre-'Celdc. leD'laScula:ted lOd whol emasculated him in rerum.or'them Europe" familiar' i.irth.oun.e 'Palm.TA.. ·BlJazis to Jachin as 'Getizim is 'to ibal ~5blessmg I.aham" Isaa.called Sam.(Oif sup'.t ells' also m_eafl9fejf' which . Osiris .S.m . tbe dme 0(( D.IeG. The G.gill.dar Yii!l.ul i. IS ICroy.

ap'pear in Chapter Thirteen) was. f~e. tree to Hecate in G:reece and Italy. who was gj. Dean S~ft to' L~ugh c somewhat as. '. The Sicilian Mount Er~ is famous. ~ArU' : :_' -_: . the other' side' of the urn. Lindens flower from mid.ack bulls 'Wiele sacrificed. U F'o. only the s. In Ireland the~ew_~s 'the coffin of the 'vine wine barrels were made of yew staves.~~ is 'subdued: The' religious importance of furze.mall-leaved variety seems to 'be indigenous. protection against acts of passion.master..way between . Of' gorse.. me y. Hecate.G. the' Greek equivalent of the etd~r...es was.1 . is·the shifdng-leaved white poplar.ely" grew . for the visit of Butes the hee)ooo.?'). head-dresses of aspen leaves '. o FOR 'ONN 'The'second tree is the furze... AccDcrding to Pausanias it was first intreduced into Greece from Epirus by Hercules (but whic.the ecstatic self-eastration 'of' her' pries~swas a c~ypeofthe emasculadon of the' drone by the queen bee in the nuptial actllyen~s fatally courted Anchlses on a mountain to the hum of bees B1lt white heather is lu. di M" esopotamsan b·" roun a rn .. of .good against witches'j is enhanced by its flowers being. a favourite restoratlve in Wales. and in ancient Ireland the fl or measuring-rod used by coffin.s. called a eo/Is". whe.. heather. the time when furze fires are lighted on the hills.cia t:~' Isis.cilian lovegoddess Venus Erycina. ·f'-· . as sacred trees in Britain. presumably IS.. the mountain deer with a pack o~ . There is a reference in the Casina of Plautus to the divinatory use of black poplar and silver fir" the fir apparently standing for hope.. which with its golden flowers and prickles typifies the young Sun 'at the Spring equinox. will. the Cr.tua. son of the North Wind....set upber chair in I.il. ereiee. of .ement. suggests that they became a substitute. in Pembrokeshire a. Cheiron the: Ce.fie she went t to.cky.ew.I myrtle." Oglr. The ancient 'p'opulari~ of lindens or lime-trees . The Isis legend quoted by Plutarch is.pic. . That the scroll was made of tin is in teresting'. The name: On . worshipped by the G. h_alf~. The Goddess is herself a queen bee about The fifth tree 18.. quen ted by the first bees of the year.ew to collect local legends of the Irish Triple Goddess. whose brother Osiris was' immured in a heather .s "The furze but' ill-behaved. They do not rank.ica.~ l : . to me h eatner C'Ulnlorttng' 'Die . the tree of the autumn equinox 'and of old age. However" in Thessaly. leaves next 'to his brow were whitened by the radiant heat he gave out.ven a.. W.'um' uta GUt populina. 'being B.and the Latin.. imported their tin from Spain and Britain. The yew is.. which _ W. seek him. legend is that he bound his head in triumph With poplar after kiUing: the gja'nt Caeus ('the evil 'one') in his den on the namely the Spring e'quinox at the close of the Ash-month. I FOR IJDBO J~' I.. to make tender new ones sprout on the stock.U'''I" and the' Greek.. In the Irish 15etl .J!I' collected was one of the death of 'the G.I piece of birdh as I. s Aventin~e Hill 1:1: Rome" The side of the. is attested by inscriptions in Roman Switzerland. are c.European countries.. late and artificial but hints at child . 'and as Cybele .ppfopriar.oddess. URA. which supplies the' date of her festival" -~' ~ "~1 C"1.'than' eseired I and '.. in all..h. niona" a.. mentioned by Pausanias as the tree beside whichEpaminondaa found the bronze urn on Mount Ithome.. girl gives ~ lover either .ntaur's geddes . ~d to encourage the growth of graa..S Ltia-::OaQSu. whose car was drawn by 'elks. an~ in_Egypt and Pho~.. for' 'the' ancient whom male drones swarm 'in midsummer.1... The third tree is the heather"sacted to the Homan . (as. L .ere'nce 1ft G::-'Wlan .sur a1Ji.. Until .l..poets of Germany and Northern France.. _ 'The Gallic' Heather-gcddess Uto. as the ivy's are by the last. makers on corps. lore is '.. womb of the hills at the' season of hea. (Act n.nymphs of the Goddess Erycina. ~( of encourag. On. the' death . '·. I! :1'9a Grew. Byb. whi"ch. • battered poplars is to 'heather-ale'. a reminder to the' souls of the dead that this was not the end. in flat regions.~an ancient ageless ptess'... formountain . so that the ghosts should lap their gushing blood. entury .... the deathconsonant R.. G.eat gJ'~dily. <You may begjn'" r. who. Thirteen we~ separate these stations and the' last of each 'was a death week and demanded a blood-sacrifice. where. to....as. the' extra day of the' winter solstice'. Golden.(!ven'ty hounds with bird names.pen and the blaek poplar' which was a funereal tree sacred to Mother Earth in pre-Hellenic poplar f~~lOIS. Among those The eighteenth .pen.hero-wine there by the.1'&. TLne r.:fot's . acrifiee in honour of Osiris .L.ree at.... they were Wl'eathedwith yew.) 193 W. 'sacred.the Divine Child.. roves isa g compound of Onn and Ni'on..ls often so .tber-bloo'm"'-.Bewise and desis Hercules co'nqu~~ed death. which 'Sheep. ..ma'N'Bntium.. die.among love .' 1 _--~'..w took.se.. or aspen.....t ~ venis~n milk and eagles' breasts and who hunted. At Rome" when bt.BS called Philyra Clinden'')" E FOR . 'she gathered stones to heap herself a triple cairn and '.unais O.and Si. tin scroll the secret 'mysteries of the Great Goddess..auis in ash . her name is.elsh in folk. s-motherassocieted with the erotic wryneck.hopei Greece. word fo~rheather.tured. ]'000 I.rl'. ated with mountains and bees.C'.Presumably 'the' myth accounts for the difference~ in leaf and ritual use between the .. May to mid-August. containing: on a. _ _ The heather is the midsummer tree" red and passionate'" and is.... the shield-maker's tree..eI.antiquary Winslo.. . The: effect of burning: away the old prickles is..locs..ginQ ut . l_ ~I ' or a piece ofhazel.EADHA 'The fourth tree. I. associ.

and the' Kingllisl Wheel·'.ofle'a'. Mi.ri'ttany it is s jd th -'r church-yam yews ~ ill sl?l'Ie~.The me_diaevsl alchemists foUo.of the year. A b are . presiding 'over' birth.nj. Here evidently the Eastern.9'4. The tre ' ha~' hive' bands around 'the trunk :md the sceptre .ICb . tng 'po~. is claimin.il1lei' peint Yew~.. ':the renown of B. on me tree.1 but later be: suggests that the "true taxus" is indeed 'mortiferous'. but is longer lived even than the oak .e' " in.S entailed Ion his successor.g of 'me .P ofseven ltars" the s .'o~ 'the Greek&-and the deadliness of '[he' tree was dlereby enh~nced. men'?o~~d b~ Caesar.goat is an Assyrian m counterpart of AzazeI.~ce.. ~ie .root ~o 'the m.. thinceen-bra_nched tree.atal y "andmakesl· Iamle t" uncle poison the' Kin·.e begjnnin..r. yew stakes were: driven through the Icorpses . a Babylo. whilerhe 'other' goat.e' djr.g the first due.g straight up.e'ffe~.baU.oIP.grief~ ]1. The five bands. represen ting a Dew solar year. in.egtnndlg' been retatec to ieso ar y. i&. cOlncem~ng its shadl~.~. Fir' is tal y.nruaUy embraced over ~gb ~'.-:the yew does. they by five fronds .. of which one is at the base of the trunk..of these' lovers to keep th~m .ea" other of the homed D'ionys.e at the summit.tree ofthe Y'eaf. prelid'in... published in the' same' :bcclk. and with . because rhe first . F or there is I .over .L 1d 00. . Spain and Arcadia!!... a she-goat turnin. I place the 'Station 'of the y. branches . was 'the death aSlpe:~1 of th_ Irish Triple Goddess)..o this se son. Mediterranean ......agri1cultulal year .~u[h of each corpse. with we oak tb reputation of taking longer than any other tr e t~ come 'to maturity..'it the 'double .I.: they stand nex..ed and po lished its wood has an lextraordin~¥ One of theF.apLrtj b~'r the :stakes sprouted and became trees whose tops. d ~_ 1.c. I extracted both metals from the' same mixed ore.da. come full circle. eve. '.er .! makes the wheel_ . II! .1agricuttural year. . '1 1 b ~ ~' m tne autumn.cult is recalled in MaciJetn where' Hecate's l _ uldron contained: slips'.ew as. Fir.jard in his: ISur Ia Cu. gro... not deserve its rlep~tation ~or POiSODOUSDeSSr-.sm.at· which proves her to d A__malth.NG - Z _ a I 0 u 1£' \ . Yew makes. and of the 'tW'O' rampan.' .ive Magical T~ees of Ireland' was ~a y~.g . ' ·th 'bran h _. reckoned silv.wha' c-¥erPliny ~epo~ts.WS UlJ'loppe . -nd I I • I T D GI C' N .taml)l ..romance of Naoil. he says.. ik ~ lU. is plae_ beside the Ishe-go.II015bC'e.brigbter thanthe others. as a reminder of his destiny" every Iri'sh king wore a brooch in the form of a wheel" which WZI. Gr.She has a fun uldde-r" appropriate t..s" the fate of _tlvulcus.at sacrific d by the' Hebrews at th.anbha' (B1anbha.ear beginning at tb..ofresisting c?rrup'ti-a:ft.lte' de _]I I '0 Jj- 'p' ~ J I not horizontally). laxus.u. Its use in the English witch . the' tolY of the air about Thasi~. are the five stations of I' I An Assyri. lOll. ab out th..~ The he.a (1847). and the in report whicb the fruit has vulgarly obtained In Fr.the eve~of the .. the' year. the one on 'the' right" which has turned his head so that his sln le horn forms a crescent moon.ew 'on 'the last day . and lead 'tOI Sa tum as.is to lead. hellebore and devil"s 'bit for poiscning their W eapOL1'.ilva I{ 116'(2) points out th ._~.winter . shows the year as a.d.tee solstice.I deerescent moon. descrih ed as lea finn straigh ... 'OD.h.. susp nded above 'the 1211'1 i--=-.eek for bo~'. branches. rests a forefoot on 'the uppermost of these last three branches. 'the Spell of Knowledge. Whenseason.1 compound of yew-berry. h. This w-al~.'~ar~d" The ancient Irish ar said to' have used . Jobn EVlelyn_ in his ." ·-11 hakespeare else her' caU . yew" is connected ~i~ toxon.. hly pouring: its "Iuice' Chebe~. another at the t.u:bed.~ It IS likely that the Latin.g her head in the opposit.aU .· on d so that her' hom forms ..on') into his.wmg ancient tradition.ofyew .to:xic. Greek for the 'poison with which arrows were sm.cape"'gol.e and Dei:"Jlle. the s.. ear It sh ore..~fexistence that...n B. th~ Tree of Ross. womD '~f.g. _Io'at"" '~e new moon S im above the tree" and a gf'QU.dei"y' (the Irish yew di tre~ed . branches are' arranged six like' on each side'. symbloliz«l _~ .win. IIP. liver J in tlleMQ(JII~$clip . 1_ ~ . om the British in b _ cone-shaped.b .inter Solstice lm the Silver-fir of Binh and Idho the Yew of Death are sisters. is tO say the death-letter tha.~!!.venth very mU..t to each other in 'the d:~cJeof 'tbe~yearand 'thei~ foUag is almost idenrleal.an..'(Jn.t goats which act as SUppDrters.er tol th~ MOlon as. EO me' tree device.D'ver d -ath.ao seulpmre publlisbed by FeUx L. the best bows=-as the _ Romans l~ed_ fr.·' Catd and horses nibble the leaves without in..

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