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The Ability to control power flow in an electric power system with out generation rescheduling or topology changes can improve the power system performance using controllable components, the line flows can be changed in such a way that thermal limits are not exceed, losses are minimized, stability margins are increased and contractual requirements are fulfilled with out violating the economic generation dispatch. Flexible AC Transmission systems (FACTS) technology is the ultimate tool for getting the most out of existing equipment via faster control action and new capabilities. The most striking feature is the ability to directly control transmission line flows by structurally changing parameters of the grid and to implement highgain type controllers based on fast switching. The application of FACTS devices to power system security has been an attractive ongoing area of research. In most of the reported studies, attention has been focused on the ability of these devices to improve the power system security by damping system oscillations and minimal attempts have been made to investigate the effect of these devices on power system reliability. The opportunities arise through the ability of FACTS controllers to control the interrelated parameters that governs the operation of transmission systems including series impedance and shunt impedance, current, phase angle and damping of oscillations at various frequencies below the rated frequency. These constraints cannot be overcome otherwise, while maintaining the required system stability, by mechanical means with out lowering the useable transmission capacity. By providing added flexibility, FACTS controller can enable a line to carry power closer to its thermal rating. Mechanical switching needs to be supplemented by rapid-response power electronics. The facts technology can certainly be used to overcome any to the stability limits, in which case the ultimate limits would be thermal and dielectric. Static VAR controllers control only one of three important parameters (voltage, impedance, phase angle) determining the power flow in the AC power system viz. the amplitude of voltage at selected terminals of transmission line . It has long been realized that an all solidstate or advanced, static VAR compensator, which is true equivalent of ideal synchronous condenser, is technically feasible with the use of Gate Turn-Off (GTO) Thyristor. The UPFC is recently introduced FACTS controller which has the capability to control all the four transmission parameters. The UPFC not only performs the functions of STATCOM, TCSC, and

the phase angle regulator but also provides additional flexibility by combining some of the functions of these controllers.

FACTS DEVICES

1.1 Introduction to FACTS Devices: Most of the world’s electric supply systems are widely interconnected. This is done for economic reasons, to reduce the cost of electricity and to improve its reliability, it must however be kept in mind that these inter connections are very complex and they emerged gradually based upon the requirements of various power utilities. These interconnections apart from delivering the power pool power plants and load centers in order to pool power generation and reduce fuel cost. Thus they reduce the over all number of generating sources, but as the saying goes a coin has two sides, like wise as the power transfer grows. The power system becomes increasingly complex to operate and system can become less secure for riding through major outages. It may lead to large power flows with inadequate control, excessive reactive power, and large dynamic swings between different parts of the system. Thus the full potential of a transmission connection cannot be utilized. It is very difficult to control such transmission of power in such systems. Most of the controllers designed in the past were mechanical in nature. But mechanical controllers have numerous intrinsic problems. Many power electronics controllers have been designed to supplement the potentially faulty mechanical controllers. These power electronic controllers are all grouped in a category called flexible AC transmission controller or FACTS controllers. Facts technology opens up new opportunities for controlling power and enhancing the usable capacities of present, as well as new and upgraded lines, the possibility that current through a line can be controlled at a reasonable cost enables large potential of increasing the capacity of existing lines with large conductors. Also, the use of one of the FACTS controllers to enables corresponding power flow through such lines under normal and contingency conditions. These opportunities arise through the ability of FACTS controllers to control the interrelated parameters that govern the operation of transmission system. “Series Impedance, Shunt Impedance, Current, Voltage, Phase angle etc.,” are some of the interrelated parameters that are controlled. These constrains can not be over come while maintaining the system reliability by

mechanical means with out lowering the usable transmission capacity. By providing added flexibility FACTS controllers can enable a line to carry power closer to it thermal rating. It must however be emphasized that FACTS is an enabling technology, and not a one to one substitute. The FACTS technology is not a single high power controller but rather a collection of controllers, which can be applied individually or in co-ordination with others to control one or more of the interrelated system parameters mentioned above. A Well-chosen FACTS controller can overcome specific limitations of designated transmission line on a corridor. But all FACTS controller represent applications of some basic technology, their production can eventually take advantage of technologies of scale. Just as the transistor is the basic element for whole variety of micro electronic chips and circuits, the thyristor or high power transistor is the basic element for a variety of high power electronic controllers. FACTS technology also lends itself to extending transmission limits in a step-by-step manner with an incrementing investment as and when required. A planner could force a progressive scenario of mechanical switching means and enabling FACTS controllers such that the transmission lines will involve a combination of mechanical and FACTS controller to achieve the objective in an appropriate, stage investment scenario. It is also worth nothing that in implementation of the FACTS technology, we are dealing with base technology, proven through HVDC and high power industrial drives. Nevertheless, as power semiconductor devices continue to improve, particularly the devices with turn off capability cost of FACTS controller tend to decrease.

1.2 Basic Types of FACTS Controllers: Basically the FACTS controllers are four types:1. Series controllers 2. Shunt controllers 3. Combined Series-Series Controllers 4. Combined Series -Shunt controllers 1. Series controller-.By means of controlling impedance or phase angle or series injection of voltage a series FACTS control can control the flow of current. Hence, the series controller could be variable impedance, such as capacitor, reactor or power electronics based variable source to

serve the desired need. But generally all series controllers inject variable voltage in series with line. Even variable impedance multiplied by current flow through it represents an injected series voltage. As long as voltage is in quadrature with the line current, the series controller only supplies or consumes variable reactive power. Any other phase relationship will involve real power as well. 2. Shunt Controllers: - As in the case of series controllers, shunt controllers may be variable impedance, variable source or a combination of these. In principle all shunt controller inject current into the system. Even variable shunt impedance causes a variable current injection into the line. As long as injected current is in phase quadrature with the line voltage it supplies or consumes variable reactive power. Any other phase relationship will involve real power exchange also. 3. Combined series-series controller: - This could be a combination of separate series controllers, which are controlled in a coordinated manner, or it could be a unified controller. The series controllers could provide independent series reactive compensation but also could transfer real power among the lines via the power link (D.C link). The real power transfer capability of the unified series-series controller, referred to as interline power flow controller, makes it possible to balance both the real and reactive power flow in the lines. And there by maximize the utilization of the transmission system. Note that the term “unified” here means that the DC terminals of all controller converters are all connected together for real power transfer. 4. Combined series-shunt controller: - This is a combination of series and shunt controllers which are controlled in a coordinated manner or a unified power flow controller with series and shunt elements. In principle combined shunt and series controller inject current in to the system with the shunt part of the controller and voltage in series in the line with the series part of the controller. However when the shunt and series controllers are unified, there can be a real power exchange between the series and shunt controllers via the power link. Inferring from one and two of above, the shunt converter of the UPFC injects current into the line while the series converter injects voltage in series with the line. The power link enables real power exchange between the two.

Static Synchronous Generator (SSG) 3. also the power link if provided with a storage system such as d. Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR) . series – series and series .c. Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) 4. FACTS controller can be defined as:A power electronic based system and other static equipment that provide control of one or more AC transmission system parameters Below a list of FACTS controllers that fall into the four categories discussed has been given. Super Conducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) 5. Shunt Controllers:1. Static VAR Compensator (SVC) 6. is much more effective for controlling the system dynamics.From the above discussion it can be inferred that the word unified emphasizes or refers to the existence of a power link via which the combination of controllers i. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) 2.e. batteries etc. After all the above discussion FACTS can be defined as:Alternating current transmission systems incorporating power electronic based and other controllers to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability. This has to do with dynamic pumping of real power in and out of the system as against only influencing transferring of real power within the systems as in the case of power links lacking storage. The working of each has not been discussed as their general principal of working has already been discussed.shunt exchange real power. capacitors.

its ac output voltage is controlled such that it is just right for required reactive current flow for any ac bus voltage DC capacitor voltage is automatically adjusted as required to serve as a voltage source for the converter. An overall cost point of view the voltage sourced converter seem to be preferred. requirements of utilities. 1. Static VAR Generator or Absorber. For the voltage sourced converter. Series controller:1. 1. The flow of power is ordered.7. It may be as per the contract or as per the .3 Advantages of FACTS The following are the benefits that are principally derived by using the FACTS controllers. Thyristor Switched Series Capacitor (TSSC) 5. Thyristor Switched Capacitor (TSC) 9. Inter line Power Flow Controller (IPFC) 3. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) 2 Thyristor Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer (TCPST) STATCOM (Static synchronous compensator):. It can be based on a voltage sourced or current-sourced converter. Thyristor Controlled Series Reactor (TCSR) 6. and will the basis for presentation of most converter based FACTS controllers. Thyristor Switch Series Reactor (TSSR) Combined shunt and series connected controllers:1. STATCOM is one of the key FACTS controllers. Static Synchronous Series Comparator (SSSC) 2. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) 4.A static synchronous generator operated as a shunt connected static VAR compensator whose capacitive or inductive output current can be controlled independent of the AC system voltage. STATCOM can be designed to also act as an active filter to observe system harmonics. Thyristor Switched Reactor (TSR) 8.

It increases the loading capability of the lines to their thermal capability.the design has to be validated when the various sub-systems are integrated. Upgrade of lines 7. 3. It improves the stability of the system and thus makes the system secure.e.in each case. the external system is represented by simple equivalent . Provides greater flexibility in sitting new generation. Overcoming their limitations and sharing of power among lines can accomplish this. To simplify the design procedure we carry out the design of the series and shunt branches separately . Reduce loop flows 8. modeling UPFC using MATLAB/SIMULINK and to analyze the control strategy to use the series voltage injection and shunt current injection for UPFC control. 1. A UPFC control strategy. The aim of the project is to develop a control strategy for UPFC. 2. thereby decreasing over all generation reserve requirements on both sides. This arrangement functions as an ideal ac to ac power converter in which the real power can freely flow in either direction between the ac terminals of the two converters and each converter can independently generate or absorb reactive power at its own ac output terminals. 1. have following attributes. FACTS devices improve the speed of operation of the overall system. 5. Minimizes the cost of transmission and hence the over all cost of generation.4 Aim of the Project The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) consists of two voltage sourced converters using power switches. 9. real and reactive power flows) should be readily archived by setting the reference of the controller. 4. should preferably. which operate from a common DC circuit of a DC –storage capacitor. in general. Dynamic and transient stability improvement by appropriate modulation of controller reference.2. 6. Provides secure tie line connections to neighboring utilities and regions. The design tasks are . Steady state objective (i.

. The performance of all controllers is subsequently evaluated detailed simulation for a case study 1.1) Series injected voltage control a) Power flow control by series voltage injection b) UPFC part2 voltage control by series voltage injection 2) Shunt converter voltage control a) Closed loop current (real and reactive) control. basic control functions and characteristics of the UPFC are discussed.presents an introduction to SIMULINK and modeling of UPFC for MATLAB/SIMULINK. In this chapter three – phase to DQ transformation and mathematical modeling of the control strategy for independent control of shunt and series branches of the UPFC are discussed. operation. Adequate references are provided at the end of the chapter. b) UPFC part1 voltage control by reactive current injection c) Capacitor voltage regulation using real current injection The basic design considerations are illustrated using simplified systems models. The last chapter presents important conclusions and future scope of work. The chapter 6-discusses the challenges in computer simulation of power electronics system and presents the simulation results on the test system for different cases.5 Organization of the Report: The report of the work done is organized on as follows After this introductory chapter1. chapter 2 gives a brief overview of unified power flow controller . The chapter 3.in this chapter the circuit arrangements.discussed the proposed control strategy. The chapter 5.

which in the implementations considered are voltage source inverters using GTO THY valves. Besides. In practice. these two devices are two voltage source Inverters (VSI’s) connected respectively in shunt with the transmission line through a shunt transformer and in series with the transmission line through a series transformer. These back to back converters labeled” inverter1”& “inverter 2” in the figure. active and series compensation and phase shifting. simultaneously or selectively. as illustrated in fig 2. Thereby. 2. the UPFC allows a secondary but important function such as stability control to suppress power system oscillations improving the transient stability of power system.e. This arrangement functions as an AC to AC converter in which the real power can freely flow in either direction between the ac terminals of the inverter and each inverter can independently generate or absorb reactive power at its own ac output terminals. 2. the UPFC consist of two switching converters. The series inverter can be used to control the real and reactive line power flow inserting an opportune voltage with controllable magnitude and phase in series with the transmission line. and phase angle). The UPFC is able to control.1. With the framework of traditional power transmission concept. providing multifunctional flexibility required solving many of the problems facing the delivery industry. the UPFC can fulfill functions of reactive shunt compensation. The UPFC was devised for the real time control and dynamic compensation of ac transmission system. connected to each other by a common DC link including a storage capacitor. it can independently control both the real and reactive power flow in the line. And this unique capability signified by the adjective ‘unified “in the name. Such “new FACTS device combines together the features of two “old FACTS devices: the static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and the static synchronous series compensator (SSSC). The shunt inverter is used for voltage regulation at the point of connection injecting an opportune reactive power flow into the line and to balance the real power flow exchanged between the series inverter and the transmission line. Alternatively. are operator from a common dc link provided by a dc storage capacitor.2 Operation of UPFC . impedance.1 Introduction: Gyugyi proposed the unified power flow controller (UPFC) concept in 1991.2 Circuit Arrangement: In the presently used practical implementation. voltage. all the parameters affecting power flow in the transmission line (i.CHAPTER 2 UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER (UPFC) 2.

This DC link power is converted back to ac and coupled to the transmission line via a shunt connected transformer. The real power exchanged at the ac terminal (i . The injected voltage is considered essentially as a synchronous voltage source.at the power frequency . if it is desired and there by it can provide independent shunt reactive compensation for the line. is generated internally by the inverter. . This means there is no continuous reactive power flow through the UPFC. The basic function of inverter 1 is to supply or absorb the real power demanded by the inverter 2 at the common DC link. It is important to note that where as there is a closed ‘direct ’path for the real power negotiated by the action of series voltage injection through inverter 1 and 2 back to the line.Inverter 2 provides the main function of UPFC by injecting an AC voltage Vpq with controllable magnitude Vpq(0≤ Vpq ≤ Vpq max) and phase angle ρ (0≤ ρ ≤360˚) . the corresponding reactive power exchanged is supplied or absorbed locally by inverter2 and therefore it does not flow through the line. in series with the line via an insertion transformer.inverter1 can also generate or absorb controllable reactive power. The transmission line current flow through this voltage source resulting in real and reactive power exchange between it and AC system.e at the terminal of insertion transformer) is converted by the inverter into DC power that appears at the DC link as positive or negative real power demanded. The reactive power exchanged at the AC terminal. Thus inverter1 can be operated at a unity power factor or be controlled to have a reactive power exchange with the line independently of the reactive power exchanged by the inverter 2.

2.3 Circuit arrangement: Fig: 2. and phase shifting the UPFC can fulfill these functions and there by meet multiple control objectives by adding the injected voltage Vpq. . with appropriate amplitude and phase angle to the terminal voltage V0.1 diagram basic circuit arrangement of Unified Power Flow controller 2.4 Basic control function Operation of UPFC from the stand point of conventional power transmission based on reactive shunt compensation.

d. The powerful hitherto unattainable. Series capacitive compensation: .It is executed by simultaneous terminal voltage regulation. the injected series compensating voltage can be kept constant. phase shifting etc. This functional capability is unique to the UPFC. a. Within this concept. independent of the line current variation. Multi Function Power Flow Control:.It is similar to that obtainable with a transformer tap changer having infinitely small steps.. the basic UPFC power flow control Functions illustrated in figure 2. Functionally this is similar to series capacitive and inductive line compensation attained by SSSC. series capacitive line compensation and phase shifting.2(d).Using phase representation. and independently controllable. the conventional terms of series compensation.Here Vpq = Vc is injected in quadrature to the line current.Vpq = Vσ is injected with an angular relationship with respect to the Vσ that achieves the desired phase shift (advance or retard) without any change in magnitude. the UPFC simply controls the magnitude and angular position of the injected voltage in real time so as to maintain or vary the real and reactive power flow in the line to satisfy load demand and system operating conditions. The ΔV0 shown in the Figure 3 is injected in phase (or anti phase with V0) b. if desired. become irrelevant. can be integrated in to generalized power flow controller that is able to maintain prescribed . No single equipment has similar Multifunctional capability. c. capabilities of the UPFC summarized above in terms of convention transmission control concepts. Thus the UPFC can function as a perfect phase angle regulator. is shown in fig 2. Transmission angle regulation: . Terminal Voltage regulation: .2. which cans also the supply the reactive power involved with the transmission angle control by internal VAR generation.where Vpq =(∆V+Vc+Vδ). . or can be varied in proportion with the line current to imitate the compensation obtained with a series capacitor or reactor.

(a) Voltage regulation (b) Series compensation Vo +ΔVo Vc Vo ( o+Vc) V Vo I (c) Phase angle regulation (d) Multi-funtion power flow control Vc Vc ΔV Vpq V σ Vo δ (Vo+Vc) Vo δ (Vo+ΔV+Vc+Vσ) where Vpq (ΔV+Vc+Vσ) = Fig 2.2 Basic UPFC Control Functions. .

(assumed. Consider figure 2.3 is expanded to include the UPFC. The line current represented by phasor 1. at figure (d) the reactive power Q= Q r=Qs is shown plotted against the transmitted power P corresponding to’ stable value of δ (0≤ δ ≤90˚). and line or tie impedance X. which as explained in the previous system. The UPFC is represented by a controllable voltage source in series with the line. bye the sending end generator. the Transmission end of line. In order to represents the UPSC properly. At figure (b) the voltage of system in the form of phasor diagram of shown with transmission angle δ and Vs = Vr =V. flows through the series voltage source Vpq and generally results in both reactive and real power exchange. or absorbed from it. This is in arrangement with the UPFC structure in which the DC link between the two constituent inverters establishes a bi at sending end . receiving end voltage Vr. for simplicity.3with the well known transmission characteristic is introduced for the purpose of providing a vehicle to establish the capability of the UPFC to control the transmitted real power P and reactive power demands. Thus the real power Ppq it negotiates with the line is assumed to be transferred to the sending end generators if a perfect real power flow between it and sending end generator excited. At figure (c) the transmitted power P= (V2 / X) sin (δ) and the reactive power Q=Qs = Qr {Q = (V2 / X) (1-cos (δ)} supplied at the end of the line are shown plotted against angle. as illustrated in the figure. but the real power it exchanges must be supplied to it. can generate or absorb reactive power that it negotiates with the line.2. inductive is shown. Qs and Qr respectively.3 at (a) simple two machine (or two bus ac inter line) system with sending end voltage Vs. the series voltage source is stipulated to generate only the reactive power Qpq it exchanges with the line.5 Basic Principles of P and Q Control Consider fig 2. The UPFC in series with the line is represented by the phasor Vpq Having magnitude Vpq (0≤Vpq ≤ Vpq max) and angle ρ (0≤ ρ ≤360˚) measured from the given phase position of phasor Vs.4 the simple power system of figure 2. The basic power system of figure 2.

As figure 2.3 – (a) Simple two machine system.5 P 1 (b) (d) Fig2.4 implies. in the present discussion it is further assumed for clarity tat the shunt reactive components capability of the UPFC not utilized.Qr 2 Qs Qr 1 1 0 0 0 90 º δ 180 º (a) 1 Vx Qs Qr Vs Vr (c) δ=90º 0. (b) related voltage phasor (c) real and reactive power verses transmission angle. the UPFC shunt inverter is assumed to be operated at unity power factor. This is.directional coupling for real power flow between the injected series voltage source and the sending end bus. Qs X Vs P Qr 2 P Vr P Qs. (d) sending and receiving end power verses transmitted angle. Its sole function being to transfer the real power demand of the series inverter to the sending end generator.5 δ ΙVsΙ-ΙVrΙ P=(V²/X) Sinδ Qs=Qr=(V²/X) (1-Cos δ) 0 0 0 . With these assumptions the series .

Vdc is also required. . the transmittable real power as well as the reactive power demand of the line at any transmission angle between the sending end and receiving end voltages.6 Operating modes of upfc The upfc have many possible operating modes. by varying the magnitude and angle of Vpq. For this mode of control a feedback signal representing the dc bus voltage.4 Two Machine systems with the unified power flow controller It can be readily absorbed in figure 2. In particular. 2. The shunt inverter control converts the VAR reference into a corresponding shunt current request and adjusts gating of the inverter to establish the desired current.4 is an accurate representation of the basis UPFC. VAR Controllable mode: The reference input is an inductive or capacitive VAR request. Qs Vpq P Qr Vx ρ Ppq Vs Vpq Vs Vx δ Vr Vr Fig 2. together with the real power coupled to the sending end generator as shown in figure 2.4 shows that transmission line sees Vpq + Vs as effective sending end voltage. the shunt inverter is operating in a such a way to inject a controllable current Ish into the system transmission line. Thus it is clear that the UPFC effects the voltage (both its magnitude and phase angle) across the Transmission line and therefore it is reasonable to expect that it is able to and reactive power demand of the line at any given transmission control.voltage. The shunt inverter can be controlled in two different modes 1.

Automatic power flow control mode: The reference inputs are values of P and Q to maintain on the transmission line despite system changes. voltage feedback signals are obtained from the sending end bus feeding the shunt coupling transformer. The actual value of the injected voltage can be obtained in different ways. 3. CHAPTER 3 .Phase angle shifter emulation mode: The reference input is phase displacement between the sending end voltage and the receiving end voltage.Automatic voltage control mode: The shunt inverter reactive current is automatically regulated to maintain the transmission line voltage at the point of connection to a reference value. 4. 2.Direct voltage injection mode: The reference inputs are directly the magnitude and phase angle of the series voltage. To this mode of control.2.Line impedance emulation mode: The reference is an impedance value to insert in series with the line impedance. 1. The series inverter controls the magnitude and angle of the voltage injected in series with the line to influence the power flow on the line.

1 VECTOR REPRESENTATION OF INSTANTANEOUS THREE PHASE QUANTITIES: The notation of real reactive power is well known in phasor séance.phase voltages set that could be eliminated at any instant without altering P. The vector contains the all the information on the three phase set. However.1. By definition the vector drawn from the origin to this point has a vertical projection onto each of the three symmetrically disposed phase axis. and Unbalance.CONTROL STRATEGY OF UPFC 3. A set of three instantaneous variables that sum to zero can be uniquely represented by a single point in a plane. which is valid on an instantaneous basis. we need broader definition of reactive power. . The instantaneous real power at a point on the line is given by P=VaIa+VbIb+VcIc. This transformation of phase variables into instantaneous vectors can be applied to voltages as well as currents. We can define instantaneous voltages conceptually as a part of the 3. As the values of phase variables change the associated vector moves around the plane describing various trajectories. which corresponds to the instantaneous values of the associated phase variables. as illustrated in figure 3. including steady state unbalance harmonics waveforms distortions and transient components. to study and control the dynamics of the UPFC with in sub cycle frame and subject to line distortions. disturbances. The definition of instantaneous reactive voltage is obtained by vector interpretation of the instantaneous values of circuit variables.

√ 2 (Vrms) sin (wt-240). The transformation of phase variables to Ds and Qs co-ordinates as follows.3.THREE PHASE TO d-q TRANSFORMATION In figure 3.2.1 1/√2 1/√2 = (2/3√2) 1 . the vector representation is extended by introducing an orthogonal co ordinate system in which each vector is described by means of is Ds and Qs components. √ 2 (Vrms) sin (wt-120). Vb. Vc are balanced set of voltages Va Vc = = √ 2(Vrms) sin (wt). 0 [C1] -1 Vb = -√3/2 -1/2 √3/2 1/2 1/√2 --------. If Va.

The constants are derived based on power invariance principle VaIa+VbIb+VcIc = VdsIds+VqsIqs.Fig: mmf3. the ds and qs axis co-ordinates are given by Vds = (Vrms) cos (wt) Vqs = (Vrms) sin (wt) The per unit values represents the rms quantities. The inverse transformation matrix is given by Vold = C1 Vnew 0 C1 = -√3/2 √3/2 1 -1/2 -1/2 1/√2 1/√2 1/√2 --------------.2 .3 ---------.2 +ds-axis +qs-axis C-axis A-axis Definition of orthogonal coordinates rotation Then by using above transformation matrix.3.3.

Single phase per unit system is used and the per-unit values represent the rms values.3 θ -axis qs-axis d-axis ds-axis Transformation in rotating reference frame Fig .3 shows how further manipulation of vector coordinate frame leads to useful separation of variables for power control purpose. They follow the trajectory of the voltage vector and d-q co-ordinates within this synchronously reference Frame are given by the following time varying transformation. The d-axis voltage component Vd accounts for real component and q-axis voltage Vq is instantaneous reactive component. q 3. Figure 3. The d-q axes are not stationary in the plane.

θ) Vc = √ 2(Vrms) Sin (wt-240.3.The transformation matrix is synchronously revolving reference frame is given by Cos θ C2 = -sin θ cos θ sin θ -------------. The inverse transformation in synchronous reference frame is [C]-1 =[C]t -----------. the co-ordinates of the voltage and current vectors in synchronous reference frame are constant quantities.3.θ) Vb = √ 2(Vrms) Sin (wt-120.θ) And d-q components are given by Vd = (Vrms) Cos (θ) Vq = (Vrms) Sin (θ) Under balance steady state condition.4 For balance set of phase voltages Va = √ 2(Vrms) Sin (wt. Q= VdIq-VqId. In complex form .4a The d-q axes real and reactive power components are P=VdId+VqIq.

V2b V1c.3.4 Ra V1 a Ra V1 b Ra V1 c La V2 c La V2 a V2 b La Fig3.2 THE TRANSFORMATION OF IMPEDANCE MATRIX The transformation is explained by considering a simple 3.V2c Z new R+PL 0 0 0 0 R+PL R+PL 0 0 ic ia ib --------.4 simple balance system The balance 3-phasesystem can be transformed into a synchronous orthogonal system V1a.4b 3.V2a V1b. --------------.5 = = C1 Z old C T In the ds-qs plane the impedance matrix transformed into .phase system as shown in figure 3.V=Vd +j V q I=I d+j I q P +jQ = VI* = (V d I d +V q I q) +j (V q I d -V d I q).3.

Vq2) / (X) --------3.3. The voltage equation after d-q transformation is given by the above equations can be written as Vd1.3.R+PL Z new = 0 transformed into 0 ---------.Vq2 -ώL R+PL iq R+PL -ώL id ----------.3.8 R+PL ------.10 Per unit system is adopted according to the following definitions ix = (ix / iB ) . Vx = (Vx / VB ) .3.ex = (ex / VB ) Zx = (Vx / iB ). X=(wBL/ZB ) .12 .ώid + ώ b ( Vq1 .7 did /dt = (-R/L) id + ώiq +( Vd1 .ώid +( Vq1 .11 diq /dt = ώ b (-R/X) iq .6 R+PL Now the synchronously revolving frame (d-q transform) the impedance matrix is R+PL -ώL Z new = ώL Where P=d/dt.Vq2)/(L) --------3. R=(R/ZB ) By using the per unit system the above equations can be written as did /dt = ώ b (-R/X) id + ώiq + ώ b ( Vd1 .9 ------.Vd2) / (X) -----3.Vd2)/(L) diq /dt = (-R/L) iq .Vd2 = Vq1.

in general. The transformed impedance matrix Z has only four terms. should preferably.4 SERIES VOLTAGE CONTROLLER . the external system is represented by simple equivalent . 2) The original circuit produced in figure 3.3 CONTROLLER DESIGN A control strategy. b) UPFC part 1 voltage control by reactive current injection c) Capacitor voltage regulation using real current injection The basic design considerations are illustrated using simplified systems models.in each case.Where wb=base frequency w=synchronously rotating system frequency The significance of the transformation summarized as follows. 2) Dynamic and transient stability improvement by appropriate modulation of controller reference. real and reactive power flows) should be readily archived by setting the reference of the controller. To simplify the design procedure we carry out the design of the series and shunt branches separately .the design has to be validated when the various sub-systems are integrated. 1) Steady state objective (i. 3. 1) The physical significance of the phase transformation C1 is therefore to replace the actual 3-phase system by an equivalent system.4 gave rise to an impedance matrix with nine non-zero terms. The design tasks are 1) Series injected voltage control a) Power flow control by series voltage injection b) UPFC part2 voltage control by series voltage injection 2) Shunt converter voltage control a) Closed loop current (real and reactive) control.e. The performance of all controllers is subsequently evaluated detailed simulation for a case study 3. have following attributes.

15 .3.we consider the control of real power using series voltage injection .13 diQse/dt = ώ b (-rse/ xse ) iQse – ώiDse + ώ b ( V2Q . V1Q=D-Q components of voltages at upfc part1 V2D. Vsq=D-Q components of voltages at sending end bus Vrd.3.VRQ)/( xse) -----------3.5 .since the feed back signal is readily available P2 = V2D iDse + V2Q iQse --------------. Vrq=D-Q components of voltages at receiving end bus V1D. Vsd. V2Q=D-Q components of voltages at upfc part2 Power at receiving end bus PR is appropriately equal to that at port 2 (Pu2) of the UPFC in the steady state.VRD)/( xse) ----------3.we carry out analysis on the simplified system shown below in figure 3.5 simplified UPFC system Where V2D= V1D + eDse V2Q= V1Q + eQse The subscripts D and Q denote the variable in D-Q reference frame.14 Rse Xse Ese Vr Vs Fig 3.4.the differential equations for the current at part2 in the d-q (synchronously rotating at system frequency wo) frame of reference are given by .1 Power Flow Control In this section . diDse/dt = ώ b (rse/ xse ) iDse + ώiQse + ώ b ( V2D . Therefore we control the port 2 .

hence the actual d-q currents X’D=iDse cos (δ) +iQse sin (δ) X’Q=iDse sin (δ) +iQse cos (δ) δ =Tan-1 (V1Q / V1D) ----------------. Note that the control scheme comprehend both phase angle and cross coupling control schemes .3.3.16 From the above questions we will get the actual D-Q currents flowing in the line reference for D-Q currents is set by the real power flow and the port2 voltage. I*Dse = (1/3) (P 2Ref /V 1) I*Qse = (1/3) (Q 2Ref /V 1) -------------.so that it can be considered a generalized control scheme for UPFC. Kp Kq values.19 . paying additional polarity of ese . This scheme has to additional terms with identical gains Kr.3.18 From the above differential equations we can calculate the Kr. The values are given by Kp = Kq = Xse and Kr acts as damping resistor.Power delivered by the series converter is Pse = eDse iDse + eQse iQse `----------------------------3. The above mentioned control strategy assumes that all quantities are referred to the synchronously revolving reference frame at bus 1 .17 Advanced Control Scheme the reference voltage vector for the series device e*se is generalized as follows : e*dse = e*qse Kp Kr i*Q –iQse Kr -Kq i*D –iDse ------------. a voltage vector produced by the two terms is in phase with a current phasor of I*-I.

(referred to receiving end bus)are transformed based on V1 reference as above before they are used in the above control equations . we can easily calculate the series voltage to be injected to obtain desired magnitude of V2. The transformed currents are given by.4. 3. the output voltage source ese .2 Port 2 voltage control The voltage at port2 of the UPFC is algebraically related to that at port1 and the series voltage injected for power flow control. V2 = √ {(V2D) 2 + (V2Q) 2} V2 = √ {(V1D +e Dse) 2 + (V1Q +e Qse) 2} -----------3.20 The series injected controller diagram in d-q axis referred to bus 1 is given by . Since all the quantities are locally available. (For simplicity the series transformer reference is clubbed with the impedance). The assumption here for transient analysis is: the series device is assumed to be an ideal and instantaneously controllable source.is equal to the reference e*se.similarly the control reference are transformed back into the synchronously revolving reference frame at receiving end bus. Therefore.

21 diQsh/dt = ώ b (. eqsh=converter output voltage components V1p.5 SHUNT CURRENT CONTROL The shunt current is controlled by the magnitude and angle of the voltage .the dynamic equations in the D-Q frame are given by diDsh/dt = ώ b (-rsh/ xsh ) iDsh + ώiQsh + ώ b ( eDsh – V1D)/( xsh) --------3.rsh/ xsh ) iQsh – ώiDsh + ώ b ( eQsh –V1Q)/( xsh) --------3. V1q=voltage components at the bus into which current injected shunt converter . xsh= shunt transformer resistance and leakage reactance edsh .22 Where rsh .Xq Xd Vu1 Q* P2 Pref V2ref V Series P ÷I PI2 Voltage Calculator + +_ _ + _ Fig 3.6 Series Injected Voltage Controller 3.

Id Iq Ip Ir θ Fig 3.24 ---------.iQsh sin(θ) iPsh = iDsh sin (θ) + iQsh cos (θ Where θ = Tan-1 (V1D / V1Q) ----------.23 V1 = √ {(V1D) 2 + (V1Q) 2 } eRsh = eDsh cos(θ) .3.3.7 Vector representation of real and reactive currents The real and reactive currents are defined as iRsh = iDsh cos(θ) .eQsh sin(θ) The real and reactive voltage of the shunt converter is given by ePsh + eR V1 Shunt PIPSHORD VdcRE VDCF REF Current Controls V1 = .

The deferential equations used in drop calculator are eRsh = (-Rsh Idsh ref ) .26ePsh = (-Rsh Iqsh ref ){(xsh /ώ b ) (dIqsh Fig3.9 Drop Calculator Port1 voltages are calculated by adding shunt and series currents and from the given sending end voltage .Fig3.8 Shunt current control In shunt control block we are calculating the shunt converter output voltages through the drop calculator by using Id ref and Iq ref.29 .28 --------3.{(xse /ώ b) (dIqL /dt)}+ xse IdL +V sQ ---------3.{(xse /ώ b ) (dIdL /dt)}+ xse IqL +V sD V1Q = (-Rse IqL) .the equations for port1 voltages calculations is V1D = (-RseIdL ) .{(xsh /ώ b ) (dIdsh ref /dt)}+ xsh Iqsh ref +V 1d V1d Iqsh edshref qsh dsh 1q Drop Calculator -------------- 3.

Since we allow variable series voltage injection and due to losses. and programming in an easy-to-use environment where problems and solutions are expressed in familiar mathematical notation. embedding the state of the art in software for matrix computation. MATLAB was originally written to provide easy access to matrix software developed by the LINPACK and EISPACK projects. CHAPTER4 MATLAB AND SIMULINK TOOLBOX 4. MATLAB engines incorporate the LAPACK and BLAS libraries. we set the real current reference (I psh ref) as the output of a PI type capacitor voltage regulator. and prototyping Data analysis. simulation. in a fraction of the time it would take to write a program in a scalar noninteractive language such as C or Fortran. It integrates computation. the capacitor voltage tends change.3. The name MATLAB stands for matrix laboratory. especially those with matrix and vector formulations.30 Any real power drawn or supplied by the series branch or by shunt branch (due to real currents injection Ipsh) manifests as DC side currents I DCser and I DCsh Respectively. exploration. Today.1 MATLAB &SIMULINK: MATLAB: MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. This allows you to solve many technical computing problems. including graphical user interface building MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not require dimensioning.The dynamic equations for the capacitor is given by (dVDC /dt) = {(-g cap w b VDC)/ bcap} + (ώ b/ bcap) (idsh-idse) --------. To compensate this by I DCsh. visualization. Typical uses include Math and computation Algorithm development Data acquisition Modeling. and visualization Scientific and engineering graphics Application development. .

In university environments. it is the standard instructional tool for introductory and advanced courses in mathematics. so you can take the results and analyze and visualize them. model it. Simulink: Simulink is a software package for modeling. With thousands of engineers around the world using it to model and solve real problems. through an environment that encourages you to pose a question.Bus sector: Description The Bus Selector block accepts input from a Bus Creator block or another Bus Selector block. It supports linear and nonlinear systems. knowledge of this tool will serve you well throughout your professional career. The commonly used blocks of simulink are as follows 1. i. You have instant access to all the analysis tools in MATLAB®. development. have different parts that are sampled or updated at different rates. sampled time. and see what happens. Systems can also be multirate. engineering. and analyzing dynamic systems.. or a hybrid of the two. You can easily build models from scratch. and analysis. The number of output ports depends on the state of the . Simulink is also practical. or take an existing model and add to it.e. modeled in continuous time. simulating. and science.MATLAB has evolved over a period of years with input from many users. This block has one input port. In industry. MATLAB is the tool of choice for highproductivity research. Simulink encourages you to try things out. A goal of Simulink is to give you a sense of the fun of modeling and simulation.

The input and the gain can each be a scalar.e. and the result is converted to the output data type using the specified rounding and overflow modes. The block generates scalar (1x1 2-D array). vector.CONSTANT Description The Constant block generates a real or complex constant value. If you select Muxed output. If you specify a vector for this parameter.. otherwise. depending on the dimensionality of the Constant value parameter and the setting of the Interpret vector parameters as 1-D parameter. or matrix. The gain is converted from doubles to the data specified in the block mask offline using roundto-nearest and saturation. The Multiplication parameter lets you specify element-wise or matrix multiplication. otherwise. or matrix (2-D array) output. 3. select the Interpret vector parameters as 1-D parameter..GROUND . 4.e. The output of the block has the same dimensions and elements as the Constant value parameter. 2. there is one output port for each selected signal.GAIN Description The Gain block multiplies the input by a constant value (gain). and you want the block to interpret it as a vector (i. For matrix multiplication.Muxed output check box. You specify the value of the gain in the Gain parameter. a 2-D array). this parameter also lets you indicate the order of the multiplicands. The input and gain are then multiplied. vector (1-D array). the block treats the Constant value parameter as a matrix (i. the signals are combined at the output port and there is only one output port. a 1-D array).

Description The Ground block can be used to connect blocks whose input ports are not connected to other blocks. or matrix signal. If any input is a non-vector-like matrix signal. the output of the Mux block is a bus signal. or a single-column or single-row matrix.e.MUX Description The Mux block combines its inputs into a single output. the output of a Mux block is a vector or a composite signal. the block's output is a vector. You can use any of the following formats to specify this parameter: Scalar . An input can be a scalar. Bus signals can drive only virtual blocks. a vector. The Mux block's Number of Inputs parameter allows you to specify input signal names and dimensionality as well as the number of inputs. Demux. A vector-like signal is any signal that is a scalar (one-element vector). e. Using Ground blocks to ground those blocks avoids warning messages. i. The Ground block outputs a signal with zero value. or Goto blocks. vector. The data type of the signal is the same as that of the port to which it is connected.g. 5. If all of a Mux block's inputs are vectors or vector-like. Depending on its inputs. If you run a simulation with blocks having unconnected input ports.. a signal containing both matrix and vector elements. Simulink issues warning messages.. Subsystem.

where N is the input port number. . Simulink assigns each input the name signalN. starting with 1. For example. the Mux block will have two inputs. Simulink assigns Outport block port numbers according to these rules: It automatically numbers the Outport blocks within a top-level system or subsystem sequentially. its port number is not renumbered unless its current number conflicts with an Outport block already in the system. the block accepts signals of any dimensionality. If you copy an Outport block into a system. A vector value [M N] specifies an M-by-N matrix. 6.Specifies the number of inputs to the Mux block. If you add an Outport block. Vector The length of the vector specifies the number of inputs. When this format is used. A value of -1 means that the corresponding port can accept signals of any dimensionality. Each element specifies the dimensionality of the corresponding input. A positive value specifies that the corresponding port can accept only vectors of that size.velocity. other port numbers are automatically renumbered to ensure that the Outport blocks are in sequence and that no numbers are omitted. Signal name list You can enter a list of signal names separated by commas. if you enter position. A value of -1 specifies that the corresponding port can accept vectors or matrices of any dimensionality. If you delete an Outport block. If an input signal width does not match the expected width. A scalar value N specifies a vector of size N. The value of each cell specifies the dimensionality of the corresponding input. For example. Simulink assigns each name to the corresponding port and signal. Cell array The length of the cell array specifies the number of inputs. respectively. it is assigned the next available number.OUTPORT Description Outport blocks are the links from a system to a destination outside the system. Simulink displays an error message. named position and velocity. [2 3] specifies two input ports of sizes 2 and 3.

SUBSYSTEM: Purpose: Group blocks into a subsystem . vector. then a single "+" or "-" will collapse the vector using the specified operation.7. "+-+" requires three inputs and configures the block to subtract the second (middle) input from the first (top) input. It can also collapse the elements of a single input vector. The Sum block first converts the input data type(s) to the output data type using the specified rounding and overflow modes. Plus (+). This block can add or subtract scalar. output ports correspond to outputs on the subsystem block.SUM Description The Sum block performs addition or subtraction on its inputs. minus (-). All nonscalar inputs must have the same dimensions.Out port: Purpose: provide a link to an external output and for linearization. and then performs the specified operations 8. A spacer character creates extra space between ports on the block's icon. then the number of characters must equal the number of inputs. or matrix inputs. In a subsystem. Description: The Out port block provides a mechanism for labeling a system’s outputs. If only one vector is input. and then add the third (bottom) input. then a numeric parameter value equal to the number of inputs can be supplied instead of "+" characters. If only addition of all inputs is required. You specify the operations of the block with the List of Signs parameter. and spacer (|) characters indicate the operations to be performed on the inputs: If there are two or more inputs. Scalar inputs will be expanded to have the same dimensions as the other inputs. 9. For example.

ACTIVE AND REACTIVE POWER MEASUREMENT: Description: The Active & Reactive Power block measures the active power P and reactive power Q associated with a periodic voltage-current pair that can contain harmonics. The first output provides a Simulink signal that can be used by other Simulink blocks. when opened. 11. 12.Description: Subsystem blocks represent one system within another system.Voltage Measurement: Purpose: Measure a voltage in a circuit Description: The Voltage Measurement block is used to measure the instantaneous voltage between two electric nodes. P and Q are . The Group command removes all selected objects from the active window and replaces them within a Subsystem block. 10.Current Measurement: Purpose: Measure a current in a circuit Description: The Current Measurement block is used to measure the instantaneous current flowing in any electrical block or connection line. The output is a Simulink signal that can be used by other Simulink blocks. Any set of blocks and lines can be converted to a Subsystem block with the Group command on the options menu. This new block. redisplays all of the grouped objectives.

SCOPE: Description The Scope block displays its input with respect to simulation time. . all axes have a common time range with independent y-axes. You can move and resize the Scope window and you can modify the Scope's parameter values during the simulation.calculated by averaging the V I product with a running average window over one cycle of the fundamental frequency. 13. The Scope allows you to adjust the amount of time and the range of input values displayed. so that the powers are evaluated at fundamental frequency. The Scope block can have multiple axes (one per port).

modeled in continuous time. SIMULINK includes a comprehensive block library of sinks. so we can build models using both top-down and button–up approaches. and connector. .1 INTRODUCTION TO MATLAB SIMULINK SIMULINK is a software package for modeling. and then double click on blocks to go down through the levels to see increasing levels of model in detail. either from the simulink menus. have different parts that are sampled or updated at different parts. One can also customize and create his own blocks. sampled time. linear and non linear components. It supports linear and non–linear systems. simulating and analyzing dynamically systems. simulink provides a Graphical user interface (GUI) for building models as block diagram. or by entering commands in MATLAB’s commands window.we can see the simulation results while simulation is going We can change the parameters and immediately see that what happens for ‘what if’ explanation. using a choice of integration methods.e. we can simulate it. using click and drag mouse operations. systems can also be multirate. Using scopes and other display blocks . sources. We can view the system at a high level. i. Models are hieratical. or a hybrid of the two. After we define a model.Chapter5 SIMULINK MODELLING OF UPFC 4. For modeling.

the numerical simulation is carries out in SIMULINK As the model increases in size and complexity it can specify by grouping blocks into subsystems. L3) and two 500 kV/230 kV transformer banks Tr1 and Tr2.Description of the Power System The single-line diagram of the modeled power system is shown in 500 kV / 230 kV Transmission System. 15000 MVA equivalent and to a 200 MW load connected at bus B3. It helps reduce the number of blocks displayed in model window. 500 kV / 230 kV Transmission System A UPFC is used to control the power flow in a 500 kV /230 kV transmission system. Two power plants located on the 230 kV system generate a total of 1500 MW which is transmitted to a 500 kV. connected in a loop configuration. 4.Two advantages of SIMULINK are access to sophisticated routers embedded in MATLAB toolboxes. consists essentially of five buses (B1 to B5) interconnected through three transmission lines (L1.1. For the performance evaluation of different control strategies.thus SIMULINK requires less CPU run time and memory space. And circuit equations are solved much faster than PSPICE .2 MODELLING 3-PHASE TO d-q TRANSFORMATION BLOCK 4.2. . The system. L2.

The example illustrates how a UPFC can relieve this power congestion. 4. For this demo we are considering a contingency case where only two transformers out of three are available (Tr2= 2*400 MVA = 800 MVA). The UPFC consists of two 100 MVA. The UPFC located at the right end of line L2 is used to control the active and reactive powers at the 500 kV bus B3. as well as the voltage at bus B_UPFC. The series converter can inject a maximum of 10% of nominal line-to-ground voltage (28.Each plant model includes a speed regulator. converters (one shunt converter and one series converter interconnected through a DC bus). the model has been initialized with plants #1 and #2 generating respectively 500 MW and 1000 MW and with the UPFC out of service . IGBT-based. In normal operation.2.Model of the UPFC Controlling Power on a 500 kV/230 kV Power System (power_upfc) Using the load flow option of the Powergui block. most of the 1200 MW generation capacity of power plant #2 is exported to the 500 kV equivalent through two 400 MVA transformers connected between buses B4 and B5.2. The load flow shows that most of the power generated by plant #2 is transmitted through the 800 MVA transformer bank (899 MW out of 1000 MW) and that 96 MW is circulating in the loop. Transformer Tr2 is therefore overloaded by 99 MVA. an excitation system as well as a power system stabilizer (PSS).87 kV) in series with line L2.

(Bypass breaker closed). This load flow corresponds to load flow shown in the single-line diagram. The resulting power flow obtained at buses B1 to B5 is indicated on the model by red numbers. in 500 kV / 230 kV Transmission System. DESCRIPTIONB OF THE SUBSYSTEMS: .

- UPFC
- FACTS HVDC Controllers
- MODELLING OF UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER,ppt
- flexible AC transmission systems
- Facts
- Report Overview of Flexible Ac Transmission Systems
- performance of UPFC in power transmission line
- voltage stability enhancement using the statcom
- upfc
- Flexible Ac Transmission System
- Dvr Matlab Simulation
- G.tang Thesis
- Parnu_2013_252-257
- A Classification Scheme for FACTS Controllers
- Unified Power Flow Controller
- Fuzzy Thesis
- Unified Power Flow Controller
- Pulse Transformer
- 91704260 DSTATCOM With Multilevel Inveter
- 8411
- 39 Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) Based Damping Controllers for Damping Low Frequency Os
- Thesis
- RELAYS EFFECT STATCOM -STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR
- Ppt of voltage stability enhancement using statcom
- abstract d statcom
- statcom
- Lecture on Basic Concept Operation and Control of HVDC
- ppt
- academic project of 2010 for EEE(B.Tech/M.Tech)
- Flexible Ac Transmission Systems (Facts) - Full Paper Presentation - Eeerulez.blogspot
- FINAL BOOK

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