WELDING TYPES, POSITIONS & DEFECTS

BASIC TYPES OF WELDED JOINTS

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472

TECHNICAL
Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD SPW GROUP PTY LTD

WELDING TYPES. POSITIONS & DEFECTS 6 Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD 1300 WELDER (1300 935 337) 473 TECHNICAL .

0 6 474 TECHNICAL Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD SPW GROUP PTY LTD .WELDING TYPES. POSITIONS & DEFECTS WELDING POSITIONS AND SYMBOLS PLATE AND PIPE POSITIONS TO ISO AND AS/AWS STANDARDS: s ISO STANDARD 6947s AUSTRALIAN STANDARD AS 3545s AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY AWS A3.

WELDING TYPES. POSITIONS & DEFECTS 6 Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD 1300 WELDER (1300 935 337) 475 TECHNICAL .

POSITIONS & DEFECTS 6 476 TECHNICAL Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD SPW GROUP PTY LTD .WELDING TYPES.

Adverse working conditions (Hot Cold). POSITIONS & DEFECTS DEFECTS IN WELDING TYPES OF DEFECTS EXTERNAL DEFECTS: Can be identified by a visual inspection method eg: Dye Penetrant and Magnetic Particle testing. Causes: Incorrect rate of travel. INTERNAL DEFECTS: Require a Non-Destructive testing (NDT) method eg: X-Ray or Ultrasonic testing. Slag inclusions. Causes: Excessive amperage. (ii) Main Defects: Undercut. Lack of fusion. UNDERCUT Definition: A groove at the toe or root of a weld either on the weld face or in previously deposited weld metal. Too long an arc length . Joint Misalignment. Incorrect electrode angle or size. Poor Design or lack of preparation. SLAG INCLUSIONS Definition: Refers to any non-metallic material in a completed weld joint. Too fast a rate of travel. Excessive weaving of the electrode. . Result: A stress concentration site and a potential site for fatigue 6 OvERLAP OR OvER-ROLL Definition: An imperfection at the toe or root of a weld caused by metal flowing onto the surface of the parent metal without fusing to it. Too large an electrode size. Causes: Insufficient amperage. Incorrect “angle of approach”. Overlap or over-roll. Angle of electrode too inclined to the joint face. Porosity. Too low an amperage. Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD 1300 WELDER (1300 935 337) 477 TECHNICAL Failure to remove slag from previous runs. (i) Main Causes: Welding operators carelessness or lack of skill.These inclusions can create a weak point in the weld deposit. Faulty preparation.WELDING TYPES. Result: Slag inclusions reduce the cross sectional area strength of the weld and serve as a potential site for cracking. Incomplete penetration. Result Has a similar effect as undercut and produces a stress concentration site due to the unfused weld metal. Weld cracking.

dust. Insufficient amperage. Causes: Current too low. Result: Weakens the welded joint and becomes a potential fatigue initiation site. Too large an electrode size. Incorrect electrode angle and manipulation. Result: Weakens the welded joint and becomes a potential fatigue initiation site. dirt. electrode flux breaking down or from impurities on the surface of the parent metal. Result: Severely reduces the strength of the welded joint. Surface porosity can allow a corrosive atmosphere to attack the weld metal which may cause failure. oil.WELDING TYPES. 6 LACk OF FUSION Definition: A lack of bonding between the weld metal and the parent metal or between weld metal passes. Inadequate gas shielding of the arc. Also known as ”Piping”. Causes: Small electrodes used on cold and thick steel. Incorrect electrode for parent metal. Parent metals with a high percentage of sulphur and phosphorus.). Insufficient root gap. not allowing proper fusion. 478 TECHNICAL Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD SPW GROUP PTY LTD . grease etc. Rate of travel too fast. Unclean surface (mill scale. “Blow or Worm Holes” Other Causes: Unclean parent metal surface ie. POSITIONS & DEFECTS POROSITY Definition: A hole or cavity found internally or externally in the weld. Porosity can originate from wet electrodes. dirt or rust contamination. INCOMPLETE PENETRATION Definition: A failure of the weld metal to penetrate into the root of the joint.

There are many types of cracks that can occur in the base Some common types of cracking include: Crater Cracking: Hot cracking mainly caused by a failure to fill up the crater depression at the end of a weld pass. WELD METAL CRACk MISALIGNMENT Definition: Normally defined as an unnecessary or unintentional variation in the alignment of the parts being welded.WELDING TYPES. Misalignment is a common fault in prepared butt welds. POSITIONS & DEFECTS WELD CRACkING Definition: Planar (Two Dimensional) discontinuities produced by the tearing of parent or weld metal. THROAT CRACk 9. Inadequate tack welds that break or insufficient clamping that results in movement. . Causes: Poor assembly of the parts to be welded. TOE CRACk 10. Weld metal cracking can occur in either the plastic condition (hot shortness) or by fracturing when cold (cold shortness). WELD INTERFACE CRACk 13. Underbead Cracks: Cold cracking that is usually in the Heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the parent metal. Result: Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD 1300 WELDER (1300 935 337) 479 TECHNICAL Misalignment is a serious defect since failure to melt both edges of the root will result in stress concentration sites which in service may lead to premature fatigue failure of the joint. (eg. HEAT-AFFECTED ZONE CRACk 4. Shrinkage stresses and inadequate weld metal in the crater causes crater cracking. FACE CRACk 3. UNDERBEAD CRACk 12. Base metal may contain a high carbon content (over 0. TRANSvERSE CRACk 11. Metals which contain high percentages of sulphur or phosphorus tend to crack easily .) Weld size may be too small for the parts being welded. LAMELLAR TEAR 5. so Hydrogen controlled electrodes are recommended. Cracking runs along the length of the weld. ROOT SURFACE CRACk 8. 6 CRACk TYPES: 1. and is produced when the root faces of the parent plate (or joint) are not placed in their correct position for welding. LONGITUDINAL CRACk 6. Wrong consumable or welding current.45%). CRATER CRACk 2. Longitudinal Crack: Usually a hot cracking phenomenon. ROOT CRACk 7. inadequate preheat etc. Main Causes: Incorrect welding procedures and techniques. Electrodes may be wet or damp.

clamps and fixtures Uniform pre-heating Pre-setting (ii) LONGITUDINAL DISTORTION 6 480 TECHNICAL Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD SPW GROUP PTY LTD . CAUSES AND CONTROL DISTORTION (i) ANGULAR DISTORTION Distortion to some degree is present in all forms of welding. Distortion Types the three main types of distortion are: Angular (iii) TRANSvERSE DISTORTION Longitudinal Transverse B) The Control of distortion can be broken up into three areas: (i) Before welding (ii) During welding (iii) After welding (i) The control of distortion before welding can be facilitated by: Tack Welding Jigs. In many cases it is so small that it is barely noticeable. metals may be stressed to the point where they will not return to their original shape or form and this point is known as the “yield point”. If these high stresses pass the elastic range and go over the yield point. some permanent distortion of the metals will occur. The study of distortion is very complex and the following is a brief outline of the subject. but in other cases allowance has to be made before welding commences for the distortion that will subsequently occur. heating and cooling of metals occurs unevenly resulting in high stresses and the metal distorts. A) The cause of distortion . (YIELD STRESS) As metals are heated they expand and when cooled they contract. POSITIONS & DEFECTS DISTORTION. Under light loading metals remain elastic (they return to their original shape or form after the load has been removed). Under very high load. *Distortion is the result of uneven expansion and contraction of heated metals. During welding.WELDING TYPES.when under load metals strain or move and change shape. A metals yield stress is reduced at high temperatures. This is known as the “elastic range”.

followed by slow cooling. (iii) The control of distortion after welding can be facilitated by: Slow Cooling s Flame straightening (also known as contra-heating) Annealing Stress Relieving Normalising Mechanical straightening Annealing is a heat treatment process designed to soften metals for cold working or machining purposes. and the contraction stresses set up by the cooling of the larger deposit of weld metal. The job or finished work is normally heated in a furnace so as the metal reaches its critical range (for .025% carbon steel @ 723-820˚C) and then the work is very slowly cooled.WELDING TYPES.025% carbon steel) for approximately 1 hour per 25mm thickness and then allowed to cool in still air. Normalising is a process used to refine the grain structure of the metal so it improves its resistance to shock and fatigue. so reducing the residual stresses in the work. POSITIONS & DEFECTS (ii) The Control of distortion during welding can be facilitated by: Backstep welding Intermittent “Chain” welding Intermittent “Staggered” welding Balanced sequence welding A correct welding procedure to reduce the size of the weld beads The correct welding procedure uses a greater number of weld runs positioned to refine the grain size of the weld metal in the previous layer. Stress Relieving is the uniform heating of welded parts to a temperature below the critical range. This process allows the yield point of the metal to be lowered allowing it to stretch or yield. A small number of heavy runs will cause more distortion due to the greater heat input. In normalising the welded parts are heated just above the critical point (820˚C for . Mechanical Straightening Includes: Bend Pressing Hammering Rolling 6 Copyright Produced with the permission of CIGWELD 1300 WELDER (1300 935 337) 481 TECHNICAL .

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