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Engineering - Audel Automated Machines & Toolmaking, 5th Edition - Wiley 2004

Engineering - Audel Automated Machines & Toolmaking, 5th Edition - Wiley 2004

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Other methods of heating are used in the hardening process.
Various liquid baths are used as follows:


•Cyanide of potassium

•Barium chloride

•Mixture of barium chloride and potassium chloride or other
metallic salts

The chief advantage of the liquid bath is that it helps to prevent
overheating of the workpiece. The work cannot be heated to a tem-
perature higher than the temperature of the bath in which it is
heated. Other advantages include:

•The temperature can be easily maintained at the desired


•The submerged steel can be heated uniformly.

•The finished surfaces are protected against oxidation.

The leadbath cannot be used for high-speed steels because it
begins to vaporize at 1190°F (643.33°C). The cyanide of potassium
bath is used in gun shops extensively to secure ornamental effects
and harden certain parts.
A thermoelectric pyrometer can be used to indicate the tempera-
ture of a barium chloridebath. Potassium chloridecan be added for
heating to various temperatures as follows:

•For temperatures from 1400°F (760°C) to 1650°F (899°C), use
three parts barium chloride to one part potassium chloride.

•For higher temperatures, reduce the proportion of potassium

Annealing,Hardening,and Tempering323

324Chapter 11

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