Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and

older Versions)

General Remarks All stresses act as a TEAM on the insulation system Thermal Electrical Ambient (Environmental) Mechanical Very often Partial Discharges indicate above stresses, they are often not the cause but the result of the problem often defects occur in specific locations, there is no overall average ageing, e.g. using a hammer for placing only one bar might harm that specific bar. Single weak points in the insulation system are indicated by partial discharges. Partial Discharge Patterns represent the best way to identify the defect type. This application note gives an overview about typical partial discharge patterns and their physical origin. Conventional test methods as tanδ as well are sensitive to partial discharges, but, they represent an integral value as the loss created by the partial discharge pulses must be very high. Partial discharges are plasma processes which take place generally in a gas. Whenever the electrical field in a gas space exceeds the inception field of the gas, partial discharges are created: on the surface of an insulator, due to conductive contamination, in air inclusions of the insulation as a result of mechanical forces. The gas plasma accelerates ageing and corrosive substances as ozone and NO2 are created. However the mechanical wear or a surface contamination is usually more harmful than the partial discharge action. As the presence of partial discharges cannot be avoided in rotating machines insulation, mica is applied as a partial discharge resistant medium. By-products of the partial discharge are commonly white powders which can be found in many locations of the machines. Typical Partial Discharge Phenomena in Rotating Machines • loose wedges/bar vibration/slot discharges • cracked and broken conductors • end winding surface contamination • damage and corrosion of the corona suppression system • connection ring external discharge due to vibration • interphase discharge • insulation degradation • collector ring, brush sparking • faults in generator high voltage accessories

Im Stetterfeld 1

CH-5608 Stetten

+41 (56) 496 62 80

+41 (56) 496 6578

interpretation E

Bernd Fruth

Datum: 11.11.99

Seite 1 von 11

© PD Power Engineering AG

11.e.main insulation.usually pd . E see C A E B C F D G Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E Result: Field Strength is generally higher than typical inception fields of gases. E see C D: treeing in layers. discharge sources in the slot sections A: highest el. E = 1. semicon paint abrasion. the complex structure with all the differential thermal expansion always shows partial discharge Slot / iron Semiconducting Layer (corona protection paint or paper) conductors mica paper layers (main insulation) winding insulation (and/or inner corona protection) Bernd Fruth Datum: 11.field . internal discharges. unknown.Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Partial discharge locations: 1.g. field calc. very high locally E: broken strands G: voids.3xE0. E = 20 to 30 kV/mm B: delamination: winding . E = εE0 = 10 kV/mm C: delamination of tape layers.99 Seite 2 von 11 © PD Power Engineering AG . F: slot discharge.

11.) Insufficient Spacing. Tracking. discharge sources in the endwinding H: I: J: K: Discharges in Cooling Duct. mainly created by vibration and abrasion of corona protection layers Delamination of Insulation in Elbow (Especially when manually manufactured) endwinding surface discharge (contamination etc.Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Partial discharge locations: 2. external discharges. different phases Connection area between slot corona protection and endwinding corona protection H I J K L L: Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E Bernd Fruth Datum: 11. especially between bars with big voltage difference.99 Seite 3 von 11 © PD Power Engineering AG .

They are usually caused by vibration of the insulation in the slot. Typical is a discharge at nearly constant amplitude in both halfcycles as shown in the next Figure. The pattern in the negative half-cycle has a distinct triangular shape with a sharp rise around the negative voltage zero. Typical Discharge Magnitudes around 10 nC. Typical Pattern Sometimes two defects occur at the same time: in the following slot discharge F and sparking in the endwinding due to a light contamination with conductive remnants.Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Typical partial discharge patterns (applies to on. SLOT DISCHARGES + ENDWINDING DISCHARGES: F + J Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E Bernd Fruth Datum: 11. This vibration can be caused by loose wedges. So called sparking can occur between conductors which are not connected to a potential these conductors are capacitively charged and whenever the voltage between these conductors exceed the inception voltage a spark occurs.and off-line tests) SLOT DISCHARGES: F-Location The most harmful defect is called slot discharge.99 Seite 4 von 11 © PD Power Engineering AG .11. This pattern is asymmetric: the discharge magnitude is higher in the negative halfcycle than in the positive. Therefore the presence of slot discharges indicates loose wedges and can therefore be verified by wedge tightness tests and ozone detection in air-cooled machines.

11. This ist usually indicted by white powders on the surface or within the layers of the endwinding tape. SLOT DISCHARGES + ENDWINDING DISCHARGES: F + J A further typical superimposal of different discharge sources is given in the next example which shows the presence of slot discharges and discharges due to an eroded endwinding corona protection: The endwinding discharge pattern characteristics are explained in the next chapter ENDWINDING DISCHARGES: J endwinding discharges are created by a surface contamination or ageing or inadequate design of the potential grading in the endwinding.99 Seite 5 von 11 Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E © PD Power Engineering AG . Bernd Fruth Datum: 11.and off-line tests) Spark PD: J Slot PD: F Typical values for sparking are around 20 nC and higher.Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Typical partial discharge patterns (applies to on.

11. It is very typical that the traces of partial discharge can be seen at the edges of the semiconducting tapes or under the tape layers. But compared to slot discharges the triangular shape is different and more oriented to the voltage maximum. which is a superimposal of internal discharges in the main insulation (C-location) and surface discharges in an initial state.and off-line tests) The next Figure shows such deposits: The corresponding partial discharge pattern is shown in the next Figure: Typical is the asymmetry. negative halfcycle discharges are higher. Bernd Fruth Datum: 11. Another modification of endwinding discharges is shown in next example.99 Seite 6 von 11 © PD Power Engineering AG Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E .Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Typical partial discharge patterns (applies to on. Discharge magnitudes are around 10 nC.

Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Typical partial discharge patterns (applies to on.and off-line tests) endwinding discharge internal discharge external and internal PD INTERNAL DISCHARGES: C If discharges prevail mainly in the mica paper layers and many discharge sites are presents usually a pattern depicted in the next Figure is created. Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E internal PD alone INTERNAL DISCHARGES: A. C type in their initial state . B. these patterns are often encountered in new insulation (bars and machines and they exist in various similar patterns.11. The main characteristics are its symmetry with respect to voltage half-cycle and its centre of gravity which lies around 30 deg. B.99 Seite 7 von 11 © PD Power Engineering AG . Bernd Fruth Datum: 11. C The next Figures show internal discharges of A.

positive higher: probably A or B Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E Bernd Fruth Datum: 11. characteristic is the symmetry and sine shaped lines and envelopes: No asymetry: probably C Rather Symmetrical: Maybe C. B and C Location Initial or birth state.Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Typical partial discharge patterns (applies to on. probably slight thermal ageing Slight asymmetry.99 Seite 8 von 11 © PD Power Engineering AG .and off-line tests) Small defects in A.11.

and off-line tests) ENDWINDING DISCHARGES: C DEFECT INTERNAL STRESS GRADING: I Very strong sparking (200nC) at low repetition rate due to badly contacted internal corona shield Weak endwinding discharge: one or few sites maybe associated to surface tracking Poor contact stress grading: L Poor contact between slot corona protection and stress grading. Looks like a contact problem.Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Typical partial discharge patterns (applies to on. capacitive charging effect.11. high magnitudes.99 Seite 9 von 11 © PD Power Engineering AG . 30 to 100nC Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E Bernd Fruth Datum: 11.

Typical is a pattern which is similar to the slot discharge but the big partial discharge signals occur in the positive half-cycle.99 Seite 10 von 11 © PD Power Engineering AG .11. This is mainly caused by the differential thermal expansion of copper and the insulation material especially if no internal corona shield is applied and the machine is subjected to many load and temperature cycles. This may lead to a strong degradation and consequently to a deposition of pd by-products between main insulation and conductors: Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E Bernd Fruth Datum: 11.and off-line tests) INTERNAL DISCHARGES: C One of the most prominent defects occurs when the main insulation detaches from the conductors.Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Typical partial discharge patterns (applies to on.

attention. medium < 10 nC. depends on machine type!!! surface discharges • good: < 1 nC. bar vibration Generally one might say that: • Maximum Charge Level: reacts on defect size mainly. Im Stetterfeld 1 CH-5608 Stetten +41 (56) 496 62 80 +41 (56) 496 6578 interpretation E Bernd Fruth Datum: 11. of Use of this report: In no event shall PDTech GmbH be liable for special. statistical time lag decreases > lower amplitude • insulation expands with temperature > closing delaminations > lower amplitudes Increase with Load alone • wedge loosens • overhangs loose. medium < 10 nC. Bad > 15 Special attention: the nC calibration is ambiguous due to the attenuation of partial discharge pulses in the winding. Patterns or signal amplitudes may vary with load and temperature: Decrease of PD with load/temperature: • normal. Bad > 30 nC slot and near-conductor discharges • good: < 1 nC.99 Seite 11 von 11 © PD Power Engineering AG .11. indirect or consequential loss or damages.Sources of Partial Discharges in Rotating Machines: General Interpretation Scheme for Partial Discharge Pattern Monitoring (PDM-3 and older Versions) Some general remarks The patterns may vary in amplitude. If no drastic changes changes are detected over time and the shape remains similar the pd process is stable and the risk is usually low.