APA FORMATTING AND STYLE GUIDE
by University of Malaya Library (UML)
No Author Edited Book with an Author or Authors A Translation Edition Other Than the First Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Multivolume Work Reference List : Articles in Periodicals Basic Form Article in Journal Paginated by Volume Article in Journal Paginated by Issue Article in a Magazine Article in a Newspaper Letter to the Editor Review Reference List : Other Print Sources An Entry in an Encyclopedia Work Discussed in a Secondary Source Dissertation Abstract Government Document Report from a Private Organization Conference Proceedings Published Conference Paper Unpublished Conference Paper Academic Exercise / Thesis (Unpublished)
.Chinese Names with English Names Author .Chinese Names Author .Malay Names (without family names) Author .Title
Single Author Two Authors Three to Six Authors More Than Six Authors Author .Indian & Sikh Names (without family names) Inherited Names Conferred titles Local Government Institution as Author Foreign Government Institution as Author Unique Corporate Body Names Organization as Author Conference Names with Numbers Unknown Author
Reference List : Book Basic Format for Books Edited Book.
Email. and Other Personal Communications Motion Picture A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National Availability A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability Television Broadcast or Series Episode Single Episode of a Television Series Television Broadcast A Television Series Music Recording Suggested Reading Materials
. Web Page.Title
Reference List : Electronic Sources Article From an Online Periodical Online Scholarly Journal Article Online Scholarly Journal Article with Printed Version Available Article From a Database Nonperiodical Web Document. or Report Chapter or Section of a Web Document Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting Computer Software Reference List : Other Non-Print Sources Interview.
D. Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. (1993). 44(3).
Berndt. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. D. Use the ampersand (&) instead of "and. A.. K.. Berry. (2001). Hoffman. H. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology. (1995)."
Three to Six Authors
List by last names and initials." which stands for "and others.." Omit bin/binti
Harris. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbitan Pustaka Antara. C. R. 11. T.
More Than Six Authors
If there are more than six authors.. DeNiro. 59-65. C. R. followed by author initials. Friendship quality and social development. P. et al." Remember not to place a period after "et" in "et al.
Author .Chinese Names with English Names
Family names followed by the initials of the English name and the author initials
Vincent Foo Hiap Khian Cite as Foo. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Sarawak: Mini episodes of the past.
. followed by author initials. M. 56. 1034-1048. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.. H. N. Wegener. & Harlow.Chinese Names
First name first. (2002).Malay Names (without family names)
Asmah Binti Omar Cite as Asmah Omar. 65. E. Stacks. M. P.
Author . V. 66. R. Karper.. (1991). Journal of Film and Writing. A comparison of modeling strategies.General Rules
Last name first.
Author . commas separate author names.
Chu Chin Ning Cite as Chu... G. (1983). Current Directions in Psychological Science. (1994)... & Petty. T. 7-10. list the first six as above and then "et al. Cruz.. D.
List by their last names and initials. E. Cornell.. Simulated counter-current adsorption processes. Chemical Engineering Journal. 1190-1204. T. J. Sun. Kemahiran berbahasa. while the last author name is preceded again by ampersand (&).
Kernis. 213-245. Petaling Jaya: Fajar Bakti.
a/l. (2009).(1993). Cite as Narrayani Jeganathan. (2003).
If the name starts with Foundation (Yayasan).
. Cite as Raja Ahmad Niza.
Tun Mahathir Mohamad Cite as Mahathir Mohamad
Local Government Institution as Author Foreign Government Institution as Author Unique Corporate Body Names Organization as Author Conference Names with Numbers
Cite under state and followed by the name of department in Malay
Pahang. MA: Merriam-Webster. (2009). (2009). Department of External Affairs.
Cite under state or country and followed by the name of department in English
New Zealand. (2009).Author-Indian & Sikh Names (without family names)
Omit d/o. Springfield.
Do not include the numbers
Fifth Asia-Pacific Physics Conference Cite as Asia-Pacific Physics Conference
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed. a/p
Narrayani a/p Jeganathan. Board (Lembaga). (2009). cite as it is given
Yayasan Sabah.). Jabatan Alam Sekitar.
Cite as it is
Raja Ahmad Niza. s/o.
American Psychological Association.
(1997). B. Plath. (F. M. (1991). Location: Publisher. A.V. R.
. Truscott & F. Title of book (pages of chapter). Ed." before the numbers: (pp. . Editor & B. New York: Dover. Location: Publisher. W.
Edition Other Than the First
Rogoff. Trans. A. R. Editor (Eds. Emory. R. (1985). Cognitive learning and memory in children (pp. use "pp. B. Washington. J. A. The New Criterion. (1996). but you should also include the state if the city is unfamiliar or if the city could be confused with one in another state.).S. R. The unabridged journals (K.). J. S. C. & Mistry.
Laplace. B. DC: American Psychological Association. 117-142). In M.). (1951). R.
Edited Book with an Author or Authors A Translation Note: When you cite a republished work in your text.).. & Brooks-Gunn.J. New York: Springer-Verlag. does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references. The eclipse of listening. A." you should always list the city. A philosophical essay on probabilities. (Eds. APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
Article or Chapter in an Edited Book
Author. G. Title of chapter. (Original work published 1814).Brainerd (Eds. P. L. however. & Drugman.. Note: For "Location.). New York: Russell Sage Foundation. S.
Scruton. & Valencia. Kukil. it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951).. This abbreviation. 1-21). No Author Duncan. (2000). (Year of publication). Calfee. Edited Book. (Year of publication).. Pressley & C. Memory development in cultural context.E. Note: When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title. New York: Anchor.Reference List : Books Basic Format for Books Author. R. J. & Author.. except for newspapers. In A. Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle.). 15(30). Keme.D. Consequences of growing up poor.. The battered child (5th ed. 5-13. (1997).
Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. B2. e. G. (1996). or pp. multiple pages take pp. April 9). H. Contemporary Psychology. Author.
Letter to the Editor Review
Article in Journal Paginated by Issue
Journals paginated by issue begin with page one in every issue. C. 893-896. 55.. 466467.. p.. A. Title of article. A. Therefore. with the title. & Author. B2.
Scruton. III. and continue numbering in issue two where issue one ended. December 28). Making the grade in today's schools. Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles.. pp. Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. 12. R.
Henry. C. Scientific American. (1993). The Country Today. Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. publication year goes between parentheses. Harlow. 5-13. volume number(issue number). F..g. 15(30). Single pages take p. (1983). C1. The eclipse of listening. Author. B. B4 or pp. Baumeister. pp.
. 38. August). is also italicized or underlined. Time.. Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control ]. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. 2A. F. followed by a period. (1990. and is followed by the volume number which. e.g. A. W. 28-31.. (2002. Article in Journal Paginated by Volume Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one. Title of Periodical. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined. (Year). The title of the article is in sentence-case. The periodical title is run in title case.Reference List : Articles in Periodicals Basic Form The APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials. 287(2). R. pages. S. meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. B. 135. C3-C4. 1A.
Article in a Magazine Article in a Newspaper Unlike other periodicals. Schultz. p. (2005. The New Criterion.
Curtis. if Seidenberg and McClelland's work is cited in Coltheart et al. and you did not read the original work. & Haller. Washington. M. Atkins. American Psychiatric Association. list the Coltheart et al. & Cunnius.
Report from a Private Organization Conference Proceedings
..). 501-508). 589-608. Essays in urban transportation (Doctoral dissertation. name the original work.L. G. use the following citation:
In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart. E. (2001)... Curtis. D. Relativity. Government Printing Office. M. Proceedings from CSCL '95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. 100. 62. National Institute of Mental Health. Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. (Eds. For example.. (1995). (1990). In the text. 2001). . 7741A. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol. P. In the text. B. Mahwah. pp. Schnase. Y. (2000). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. 1993). Boston College.C.. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica. (1993).). P. reference in the References. Practice guidelines for the treatment of patients with eating disorders (2nd ed.S.
Yoshida.L. ADM 90-1679). 26. & Haller. DC: U. and give a citation for the secondary source.
Work Discussed in a Secondary Source
List the source the work was discussed in: Coltheart.: Author. Dissertation Abstracts International. Psychological Review. Washington. NOTE: Give the secondary source in the references list.. (1993).Reference List : Other Print Sources An Entry in an Encyclopedia Bergmann. NJ: Erlbaum. J. Atkins.
The economic depression of the 1930s : Its impact on race relations in the Federated Malay State. (Ed.
Unpublished Conference Paper
Academic Exercise / Thesis (Unpublished)
Santini. (2008).). Manila. S. International trade agreement of intellectualproperty rights (TRIPS). Kuala Lumpur. University of Malaya.Published Conference Paper
Hasmah Zanuddin. (2006. Y. N.
. Kuala Lumpur (pp. Research methods for business: A skill building approach. Unpublished master’s thesis. Nov). Korean studies in Southeast Asia: Strategic cooperation and development in research and education: nd Proceedings of the 2 International Conference of the Korean studies Association of Southeast Asia held on 29 January – 1 February 2007 at the University of Malaya.& Azizah Hamzah. Nadaraja Kannan. (2007). In Choi K. copyright issues & burden to enforce in Malaysia. 121-138). Philippines. KualaLumpur: University of Malaya. Paper presented at the International Association of Historians of Asia Conference.
. (2002). Power through appointment [Electronic version]. M. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites.html Bernstein.alistapart. B.. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. provide appropriate print citation information (formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work). 535-555. 10 tips on writing the living Web. Title of article.psu.edu/jbe/twocont. 29. A. (2002). 149. J. L. A.
. & Author. A study of enjoyment of peas. Use "Electronic version" in brackets after the article's title. Title of Journal. (Date of publication).M.someaddress.com/full /url/ Online Scholarly Journal Article Author. Title of Online Periodical. Journal of Abnormal Eating. L.. A. from http://www. the URL is not required. Journal of Buddhist Ethics. D.someaddress. & Pease. Retrieved day. Retrieved month day. including an issue number in parentheses.com/articles/cite living
Online Scholarly Journal Article with Printed Version Available
Whitmeyer.. volume number.Retrieved 20 February 2001. Parker. B. A. M. (Date of publication). Then add information that gives the date of retrieval and the proper name of the database. year.
Article From a Database
When referencing material obtained from an online database (such as a database in the library). 8(3). month. from http://www. A. B. Retrieved 20 February 2003. from http://www. Kenneth. A. Title of article. B. from http://www.com/full /url/ If the article appears as a printed version as well. (2000).Reference List : Electronic Sources Article From an Online Periodical / Databases Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available. A. & Author. (2000). year. Retrieved 2 May 2006. This will allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. from PsycARTICLES database. Social Science Research. I. Author.cac. volume number(issue number if available). 8.
month. NOTE: If only the screen name is available for the author.someaddress. provide a URL that links to the home page or entry page for the document.d. include the title of the message. If the date is unavailable for the document use (n. month. July 23). (1997). Be sure to provide the exact date of the posting.Nonperiodical Web Document. Message posted to http://groups.htm. PsychInquiry [computer software]. and somepage. D. Title of document. B. A.com/forum/messages/00025. from http://www. A.ht ml
Ludwig. year. from http://Web address NOTE: When an Internet document is more than one Web page. Module mod_rewrite : URL Rewriting Engine. A.
Frook. T. Follow the date with the subject line. (Date of publication).apache.) for no date. use their real name instead. year.
Chapter or Section of a Web Document
Author.htm does not carry the information you are looking for. If there is a page such as http://www.3 Documentation (Apache modules. or Report
List as much of the following information as possible (you sometimes have to hunt around to find the information. month. if the author provides a real name. Retrieved day. B. 2006. (Date of publication). Title of document (Date of publication). from http://Web address. Retrieved day. B.org/docs/1.somesite. not the home page of the Web site. & Author. However. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number)..earthlink. Retrieved day. & Author. NOTE: Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section. year. as in other types of references. html
Online Forum or Discussion Board Posting
For a message posted to an online newsgroup.
. New York: Worth.com/somepage. New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. A. B. R. In Apache HTTP Server Version 1. S. then use the screen name. move up the URL to http://www.. (1999. from http://httpd. Provide any identifiers in brackets after the title. Web Page.) Retrieved March 10.com/) Author.com/full /url/. (2002). forum. the thread of the message (not in italics). and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board.
Engelshcall. or discussion group.somesite. Title of article. B.3/mod/mod_rewrite.
D. (Available from Purdue University Pictures. (Writer). Basic reference list format: Producer. P. A. Title of episode [Television series episode]. add the following to your citation after the country of origin: (Available from Distributor name. (1986). I. In D. M. Title of broadcast [ Television broadcast or Television series ].
.D. IN 47907) Producer. November 3. Note: If a movie or video tape is unavailable in wide distribution. P. M. W. United States: Paramount Pictures
Harris. Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. personal communication. M. Writer. Creatures and monsters. (Director). & Director. (E. P. (Director). November 1). (Producer). (Producer). A. 2002). W. P. Country of origin: Studio or distributor. 500 Oval Drive. Dude (Producer). Really big disaster movie [ Motion picture]. and Other Personal Communications No personal communication is included in your reference list. I. & Director. instead. The rising angel and the falling ape [Television series episode].D. J. (Date of broadcast or copyright).F. (Director). City of origin: Studio or distributor. full address and zip code). (Writer). & Turley. S.Reference List : Other Non-Print Sources Interview. P. Robbins. In P. (Producer). (Date of publication). (Producer). (Director).R. Producer (Producer). (2001). (2002). J. West Lafayette. City of origin: Studio or distributor.D. (Producer). The nightly news hour [Television broadcast]. Series title. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication. (Director). W. & Smithee. Writing labs: A history [Motion picture]. (1990. Wendy. & Martian. D. January 4. New York: Central Broadcasting Service. Los Angeles: Belarus Studios.
A Motion Picture or Video Tape with International or National availability A Motion Picture or Video Tape with Limited Availability
Smith. (Date of publication). Email. 2001). parenthetically cite the communicators name and the date of the communication in your main text only.
Television Broadcast or Series Episode
Single Episode of a Television Series
Title of song [Recorded by artist if different from song writer]. Location: Label. (Producer). W.
Songwriter. D.A Television Series
Bellisario. (Recording date if different from copyright date). (1992).
University of Malaya Library (UML) Updated 25 June 2009/SB
. B. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. On Title of album [Medium of recording].L. London: Big Pig Music Limited. (Date of copyright). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. (1975). W. Hollywood: American Broadcasting Company. Exciting action show [Television series].
Scientific authorship: Credit and intellectual property in science (2 ed. (1993). The student’s guide to preparing dissertations and theses (2 ed. London. Westminster.J: Information Today.
Holtom. (2008). Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaya Press. (1996). (2006).
Suggested Reading Materials
Allison. Punctuation matters: Advice on punctuation for scientific and technical writing th (4 ed. (2003). New York: McGraw-Hill.). P. (2003). B.
Gibaldi. Electronic styles: A handbook for citing electronic information.
Biagioli. B. (1998).
Holloway. Amato. London: Imperial College Press. Kuala Lumpur: IPS. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Routledge Falmer. CA: Stargazer Pub. J. (1991).
Creme. R. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis. Buckingham: Open University Press. Enjoy writing your science thesis or dissertation: A step-by-step guide to planning and writing dissertations and theses for undergraduate and graduate science students. (2003). The world’s easiest guide to using the APA: A user-friendly manual for formatting research papers according to the American Psychological Association style guide nd (2 ed.
Kirkman. How to write a thesis: The thesis writing journey from start to finish. X.. Guide to the preparation of research reports: Dissertations and theses. Writing at university: A guide for students. (2004).
Huckin. (2005). N. B. New: Routledge. T. A. D. & Crane. N. M.
Li. Upper Saddle River: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Technical writing basics: A guide to style and form (4 ed.).
Jariah Mohd Jan. Medford. C. J. N.
Lindsay.). MLA handbook for writers of research papers (6th ed.
.). (1999).).). D. J. Panduan penulisan saintifik: Manual untuk pelajar dan penyelidik. New York: Modern Language Association of America. Technical writing and professional communication: For nonnative speakers of English. (2008).
Mass. Forth Worth. An outline of scientific writing: For researchers with English as a foreign language. K. Panduan penyelidikan sains dan penulisan saintifik. technical and business communication (2 ed. W.). A. England: Open University Press.
Turk. The unwritten rules of PhD research. Yusof Hj. London: E & FN Spon.
Rugg. Othman. with an Appendix on APA style. O’Connor.Lunenberg.N.). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.). and dissertations: Chicago th style for students and researchers (7 ed. C. Writing the research paper: A handbook with both the MLA and APA th documentation styles (5 ed. F.: Houghton Mifflin. L. (1991).). Science and technical writing: A manual of style (2
ed. How to write a successful science thesis: The concise guide for students.
Matthews. J. Singapore: World Scientific. Writing successfully in science. Effective writing: Improving scientific. London: E. C. M. (2007). J. The essentials of MLA style: A guide to documentation for writers of research papers. C. Proposals that work: A guide for planning dissertations and grant proposal (5 ed. R.
Winkler. (2006). (2008). theses.
. F. (2001). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P. (1989). Maidenhead. (2000).
Rubens. (1996). & F. T. G. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press. J. New York: Routledge. (1995). Writing a successful theses or dissertation: Tips and strategies for students in the social and behavioral sciences. Boston. Thousand Oaks: Sage Pub. (2004).). Spon. A manual for writers of research papers. E. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. TX: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Successful scientific writing: A step-by-step guide for the biological and nd medical sciences ( 2 ed. (1999).