ENGLISH LANGUAGE

TEACHING
(METHODS, TOOLS & TECHNIQUES)
Dr. M.F. Patel
Praveen M. Jain
PUBUSHERS & DISTRIBUTORS
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SUNRISE PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS
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First Published - 2008
©Reserved
ISBN: 978-81-906067-4-5
Printed at : Jaipur
All rights reserved. No pa.i of this book may be reproduced in any form or
by any mean without permission in writing from the publisher.
Dedicated to
Shrj M.N. Patel
Honourable President, Rajpur
Kelvani MandaI, Rajpur,
Vijayanagar, Gujrat
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
•••••
PREFACE
----------------------
Teaching of English as a second language in India
has assured an important place. Now, English is one of the
most widely used International language. The book
introduces some of the main areas that students and
teachers of English in India understand in order to follow
a scientific approach. The book covers many topics that
find place in the syllabi of universities of India. There is no
doubt that' this book will prove useful to students, teachers
and scholar in Indian Universities.
We express our sense of gratitude to Dr. V.S. Patel,
Principal, Sflri oc 3mt. P.K. Kotawala Arts College, Patan;
Dr. J.H. Pancholi, Principal, B.Ed. College, 'Patan; Dr. B.S.
Patel, Principal, B.Ed. College, Daramali and Dr. S.S. Jain,
Principal, B.Ed. College, Vijaynagar for their constant
encouragement to complete our work.
We are thankful to the Trustee Shri M.N. Patel and
Honourable Secretary, Shri H.M. Patel of Rajpur Kelavani
MandaI, Rajpur for their positive attitude and conducive
atmosphere for our work.
We are thankful to our colleagues Shri J.M. Purohit,
Department of English; Shri B.N. Patel, Department of
Physical Education, Art College, Vijaynagar and Shri
JitendrakumaT J. Patel, Shri Deepak Pandya, Shri Akhilesh
JO,shi, Department of Education, REd. College, Vijaynagar
for their inspiration and encouragement to produce a book
of such a literary calibre.
We are thankful to the librarian, Shri A.P. Palat,
Vijaynagar Arts College for helping us in providing the
books that we needed for our work.
We also take this opportunity to express our thanks
to Shri Jitendra Gupta, Sunrise Publishers and Distributors,
Jaipur, India for his promptness in bringing out this book
in a very short time.
Authors
• ••••
CONTENTS
----------------------

Preface v
1. The Place of English In Indian Education 1
2. Foreign Language Learning 25
3. Instructional Material and Text Book 57
4. Methods 71
5. Approaches 89
6. Oral Work 102
7. Reading 113
8. Writing and Composition 125
9. Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar 133
10. Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 145
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1
.....
THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN INDIAN
EDUCATION
----------------------
PIIIIElI ... ,. .......
I 1
It is not taught as
It is taught on:]
compulsory subject
English
It is not atl--
It is taught at upper
Examination
English Level
It is taught as
It is not compulsory I Second Language
for Eng lis h I
2 The Place of English in Indian Education
Introduction:
English plays a key role in our educational system
and national life. The British introduced English in our
educational system in order to produce cheap clerks for
their colonial administration and to produce, what Lord
Macaulay called: U a class of people, Indian in blood and
colour, but English in t a s t e ~ in opinions, in morals and in
intellect." So long as the British ruled over India, English
could not be displaced from the position of predominance
given it by Lord Macaulay. British came here as traders
and their first,attention was on trade. At first they did not
concentrate their attention on teaching of English. English
helped the growth of nationalism which ultimately freed
India from foreign fetters.
English is rich in literature and culture. English served
as a great unifying force in India's freedom struggle. English
is a link language. It has greatly contributed to the
advancement of learning. It reflects in our ways and views.
After independence, the English spread like water in India
and it became very essential for India to have a national
language. The teaching of English should be made more
practical and language-oriented. English is to be taught as
language of comprehension rather than as literary
language. The role of English within a nation's daily life is
influenced by geographical, cultural and political factors.
The role of English at a given point in time must affect
both the way it is taught and the resultant impact on the
daily life and growth of the individual.
Position of English:
English is the language that is found in all comers of
India. English is the language of the global village. It is a
language of trade and industry. English is full of knowledge
and information. English is the language that is used for
The Place of English in Indian Education 3
IMPORTANCE OF SECOND AND
FOREIGN LANGUAGE
~
1
INTERNATIONAL LANGUGE
I
"'
J
LmERARY IMPORTANCE
I
.,
.1
NATIONAL IMPORTANCE
I l
.1
RECREATIONAL IMPORT ANCI!:
I
"'
.I
EDUCATIONAL IMPORTANCE
I
J
CULTURAL IMPORTANCE
I I
,
VOCATIONAL IMPORTANCE
I 1
4 The Place of English in Indian Education
connecting peoples having different tongues. Champion
has said:
In considering the position of English
language in India, the outstanding
consideration in the English is the
language of the government public
administration, the legislature and
law courts. It is the language of
commerce and business. It is the
medium of communication between
two persons and between various
language areas.
When India became independent then a controversy
began about the place, importance and study of the English.
People like Rajgopal Chari favoured its importance and
place. But who were nationalist, they did not support the
view of Rajgopal Chari and said that British should leave
this place early with English. They declared that students
can express their ideas and thought in their mother tongue
language. Other causes responsible for revolt against
English were lack of use of English in every day life,
defective method of teaching of English and British policy
of preserve clerks.
But we can ignore that by learning and speaking for
the last 150 years, English has become the language of
Indians to a great extent. This language has taught them
to love freedom and democratic way of life. It has knit them
into one unit. It has made them capable to take an
advantage of western scientific researches and inventions.
We should give the Hindi place of national language. But
we should not forget that English is too important for us so
it should not be completely removed from the Indian
curriculum.
The Place of English in Indian Education 5
(1) Place of English in Curriculum of State:
It is misfortune of Gujarat people that Gujarat
Government has not decided its language teaching policy
and in clear terms. It runs without visualizing the benefits
and advantage of English language from students' point
of view, from national point of view and the state
development point of view.
The place and position of English can be summarized
as under:
• English is not being taught as a compulsory
subject at lower primary level. It is taught only
in some private school.
• English is taught as a compulsory subject at
upper primary level in class V, VI and VII. But
there are no enough qualified teachers of
English.
• It is being taught as a compulsory subject at
secondary level in class VIII, IX and X. It is not
compulsory at H.5.C. Examination.
• In higher secondary level, it is being taught as
compulsory subject in class- XI.
• It is also being taught as compulsory subject at
college level. Students passed H.S.C. Exam
without English are allowed offering English at
college level in some universities and they have
to study English compulsory.
Thus indefinite English language teaching policy of
Gujarat state has become the main reason for low education
standard and poor performance of Gujarati students at
national and international level.
6 The Place of English in Indian Education
(2) Importance of Second and Foreign Language
Teaching:
English is the language of the world and the
knowledge of the language makes a person, a citizen of
the world. Pandit Nehru has said "English is a big key on
the modern world." Its importance as international
language can be denied by none. For this ours reasons are
as follows:
1. International Language :
English is the international language. International
English is the concept of the English language as a global
means of communication in numerous dialects, and also
the movement towards an international standard for the
language. It is spoken all over the world. This language is
mother tongue of nearly 320 million people and another
200 million people use it as second language. So it is vary
useful to establish international relation for communication
purpose and for the exchange of views with different
qmntries of the world. It is also referred to as Global English,
World English, Common English, or General English.
Sometimes these terms refer simply to the array of varieties
of English spoken throughout the world.
The English language evolved from a set of West
Germanic dialects spoken by the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes,
who arrived from the Continent in the 5th Century. Thus
English is more closely related to West Frisian than to any
other modern language, although less than a quarter of
the vocabulary of Modern English is shared with West
Frisian or other West Germanic languages because of
extensive borrowings from Norse, Norman French, Latin,
and other languages.
The establishment of the first permanent English-
speaking colony in North America in 1607 was a major
The Place of English in Indian Education 7
step towards the globalization of the language. British
English was only partially standardized when the
American colonies were established. Isolated from each
other by the Atlantic Ocean, the dialects in England and
the colonies began evolving independently. In the 19th
century, the standardization of British English was more
settled than it had been in the previous century, and this
relatively well-established English was brought to Africa,
Asia and Oceania. It developed both as the language of
English-speaking settlers from Britain and Ireland, and as
the administrative language imposed on speakers of other
languages in the various parts of the British Empire. The
first form can be seen in New Zealand English, and the
latter in Indian English. In Europe English received a more
central role particularly since 1919, when the Treaty of
Versailles was composed not only in French, the common
language of diplomacy at the time, but also in English.
English as an additional language (EAL) usually is
based on the standards of either American English or
British English. English as an international language (ElL)
is EAL with emphasis on learning different major dialect
forms; in particular, it aims to equip students with the
linguistic tools to communicate internationally. Roger Nunn
considers different types of competence in relation to the
teaching of English as an International Language, arguing
that linguistic competence has yet to be adequately
addressed in recent considerations of ElL.
International English sometimes refers to English as
it is actually being used and developed in the world; as a
language owned not just by native speakers, but by all those
who come to use it.
It especially means English words and phrases
generally understood throughout the English-speaking
world as opposed to localisms. The importance of non-
8
The Place of English in Indian Education
native English language skills can be recognized behind
the long-standing joke that the international language of
science and technology is broken English. International
English reaches towards cultural neutrality. This has a
practical use:
What could be better than a type of
English that saves you from having
to re-edit publications for individual
regional markets! Teachers and
learners of English as a second
language also find. it an attractive
idea - both often concerned that
their English should be neutral,
without American or British or
Canadian or Australian coloring.
Any regional variety of English has
a set of political, social and cultural
connotations attached to it, even the
so-called 'standard' forms.- Peters
(2004, International English)
According to this viewpoint, International English is
a concept of English that minimizes the aspects defined by
either the colonial imperialism of Victorian Britain or the
so-called "cultural imperialism" of the 20th century United
States. While British colonialism laid the foundation for
English over much of the world, International English is a
product of an emerging world culture, very much
attributable to the influence of the United States as well,
but conceptually based on a far greater degree of cross-
talk and linguistic transculturation, which tends to mitigate
both U.S. influence and British colonial influence.
The development of International English often
centers around academic and scientific communities, where
The Place of English in Indian Education 9
formal English usage is prevalent, and creative use of the
language is at a minimum. This formal International English
allows entry into Western culture as whole and Western
cultural values in general.
2. Library Importance :
The Kothari Commission suggested that English be
studied as a library language with the aim of getting the
knowledge of science and technology, commerce and trade
by reading standard books in English. The Commission said
that no student be deemed qualified for a Master's Degree
unless he has acquired a reasonable proficiency in English
or in some other library language. In view of the fact that
the medium of instruction even at the Post Graduate stage
is the regional language in many Universities (only the
Professional courses are taught through English medium),
the Commission's recommendation would imply that
teachers at Post Graduate level should be essentially
bilingual, that is they should be able to teach in the regional
language as well as English.
English is a key to the store house of the knowledge.
The books on all branches of knowledge are written into
English language. The importance of English as a library
language nicely described by the Radha- Krishnan
commission in the following words:
English however must continue to be
studied. It is a language which is rich
in literature, humanistic, scientific
and technical. If under sentimental
we give up English, we could cut
ourselves from the living stream of
ever growing knowledge.
The use of English as a library language also implif's
that among the language skills of speaking, reading and
10 The Place of English in Indian Education
writing, the reading skill is the most important and it should
be developed in the students to a high degree so that they
will be able to read all reference material, general and
technical, which is in the English, make notes and use it
for their purposes. Students develop the ability to read fast
and with understanding. The skill of getting the summery
of books and periodicals in English quickly and properly is
the most useful in modern life. This is the essence of using
as a library language. Even with the growth of Indian
languages English continues to be the link language
between the States and the Centre and also between the
multilingual Indian communities, apart from its being a
valuable link with the world organizations and with the
growing knowledge in science and technology and trade.
English is a window on the world, opening up a vast vista
of knowledge and scholarship, literature and art.
3. National Importance:
The English language is the window which opens up
the vast prospect of human achievement. The more effective
grasp of English in all its diversities of speech, vocabulary,
structure and meaning, the more will be benefit personally
and contribute to the growth of our country as a modern
nation of the 21
st
century.
The chairman of the University Education
Commission Dr. Radhakrishnan's (1948) words on the
importance of English to India needs repetition:
It (English) is a language, which is
rich in literature - humanistic,
scientific and technical. If, under
sentimental urges we give up
English, we would cut ourselves off
from the living stream of ever
growing knowledge.
The Place of English in Indian Education 11
In India, English is the link language, serving to
connect people of various regions and diverse backgrounds.
English is the lingua franca of the people from the South,
North, East and West of India. English is the official
language, being the language used for communication
among the Central and State Governments.
English has also its national importance because it is
used as inter state communication language and in centre
also. In India it is used as link language so that people could
express their ideas easily. It is useful for both official and
private communication between many parts of the country
and thus it serves as a link language in the nation itself.
Pandit Nehru's words bear repetition about the invaluable
linking role of English in the country and across the world:
The language link is a greater link
between Us and the English speaking
people than any political link or
Commonwealth link or anything
else ... If you push out English, does
Hindi fully take its place? I hope it
will. I am sure it will. But I wish to
avoid the danger of one unifying
factor being pushed out without
another unifying factor fully taking
its place. In that event there will be a
gap, a hiatus. The creation of any
such hiatus or gap must be avoided
at all costs. It is very vital to do so in
the interest of the unity of the
country. It is this that leads me to the
conclusion that English is likely to
have an important place in the
foreseeable future.
12 The Place of English in Indian Education
IMPORTANCE OF MOTHER
TONGUE
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION I
LEARNING BY IMITATION 1
MAXIMUM OPPORTUNITIES I
LEARNING BY SITUATION I
The Place of English in Indian Education 13
Thus English helps us to keep pace with the explosion
of knowledge and scientific and technological
advancement. English has one of the richest literatures in
the world. India has gained immensely from its contact
with English linguistically, scientifically, politically,
administratively and in all spheres of modern activity.
English is the world's widely used language. It is useful to
distinguish three primary categories of use:
1. As a native language,
2. As a second language and
3. As a foreign language
4. Recreational Importance:-
English is one of the five languages of the United
States. It is the first language in UK, USA, Canada and
Australia. English is a source of recreation and useful
employment of leisure. Person who knows English can take
enjoy the best stories, dramas, novels etc. written in English
language. It is also the language of world sports, radio ard
television, telecommunication and internet, fashion and
glamour.
5. Educational Importance :
Education systems around the world give special
attention to teaching of English. The main aims of teaching
English are language development and library
development. It enables students to understand spoken
English, speak English, read English and write perfect. The
English system of education was introduced in India in
1835 by the British. It was the language used by the British
administrators. The English was politically imposed on the
Indian education system. The University Education
Commission (1948) headed by Dr. Radhakrishnan
recommended:
14 The Place of English in Indian Education
English is studied in high schools and
universities in order that we may
keep in touch with the living stream
of ever growing knowledge. This
would prevent our isolation from the
world, and help us take advantage
of wider reach of the English

English is a direct medium of acquiring knowledge of
modem arts, science, technology and Humanities. It is also
important for politician, scientist, doctors, engineers,
educationists, businessmen and research workers. They
increase their knowledge and experience by reading books
available only in English language. Almost all our great
leaders, well-known scientists, renowned philosophers and
famous writers are the product of English education.
6. Cultural Importance:
English widens one's cultural and intellectual horizon.
It develops commercial, scientific, technological relation
with other countries. English enriches knowledge of foreign
culture.
7. Vocational Importance :
English offers opportunities many and varied
vocational like diplomatic and foreign services, business,
commerce, medicine, teaching law etc. all over the world.
(3) Importance of the Mother Tongue Language and
Habit:
According to Mahatma Gandhi: "The mother tongue
is as natural for the development of the man's mind as
mother's milk is for the development of the infant's body."
It helps child in all kinds thinking. As Ryburn remarks in
his book- The teaching of English:
The Place of English in Indian Education
Mother tongue is the basis of the all
works. Mother tongue learning
begins from infancy. Child learns
mother tongue naturally. When he
comes at the age of youth,
unconsciously he has learnt the
mother tongue and he can express
his ideas, feelings, and thoughts and
he can understands their. It is quite
right that mother tongue is not
taught but it is caught and foreign
language is first taught and after
caught.
15
The teaching of English through mother tongue is not
new. In earlier the third language Sanskrit was learnt
through mother tongue. English was also learnt with the
help of mother tongue language in the later half of the 19
th
century. Justifying the use of mother tongue in the teaching
of English language, Ryburn remarked:
If sufficient attention of teaching of
mother tongue and if it is well taught,
habit may be formed in the class
room which will be of greatest value
in connection with the learning
English.
Importance of Mother Tongue in Teaching of English :
1. Importance of Motivation :
Teacher should try always to motivate students to
learning the foreign language because motivation provides
the necessary encouragement for learning. In beginning
the child is motivated by his parents to use mother tongue
to express his thought, ideas and feelings and in same way
16 The Place of English in Indian Education
if a child is motivated by his teacher to learn English with
the help of mother tongue, he can easily learn English. A
students of correctly motivated to learn foreign language
can himself manage to learn the language.
2. Learning by Imitation :
Traditionally basic emphasis in learning has been
placed on seeing, doing, hearing, and saying. Language is
still largely learned by imitation, and good language is
largely judged by its sound. A child learns his mother
tongue by imitation. When family member pronounce any
word the child imitate that word and learn to speak by
mother tongue. On the same principle the English can be
learnt by imitation in class. Teacher should pronounce the
word or sentence and ask students to pronounce it. Thus
student can learn English easily by imitation.
3. Maximum Opportunities :
In class room the teacher should use mother tongue
language in teaching learning process. Because we know
that in India many people can not understand and learn
English directly so teacher should use mother tongue most
so that students could understand it easily. Teacher should
give opportunities to students to learn foreign language
with the help of mother tongue.
4. Learning by Situation :
While learning his mother tongue, the child forms a
concept and grasps the situation. He tries to associate
certain symbols with the objects. While teaching new words
and structure of the foreign language should create
appropriate situation, for teaching them, in the class room.
So that the students may exchange with each other their
ideas and concepts already learnt by them in the process
of learning their own mother tongue. In this context
Dodson has rightly remarked:
The Place of English in Indian Education 17
The best and perhaps the only way in which a human
being learns a second language is for him to have the
maximum numbers of meaningful and purposeful contact
with this language in useful environments and situations.
How the Mother Tongue helps in Teaching of English:
1. The Teaching of Grammar :
Grammar is an attempt to develop concepts,
principles and rules relating to usage and to the structure
of language. Grammar provides a stock of ideas and
understandings that help to make language intelligible, to
give some insight into its structure, to supply some help in
the use of language forms and in the correction of errors.
We know that student use grammar unconsciously
in his talking. The learnt by a child of his mother tongue
forms the back ground of the English language. If the
students has a good knowledge of grammar, he will very
easily learnt English. Thomas and Wyatt remarks:
If the grammar of the mother tongue
is well known, it forms a back
ground of knowledge to which new
grammar may be liked either by
similarity or by difference.
Ryburn has correctly evaluated the importance of
mother tongue in the teaching of grammar by saying:
If pupils were given a through
grounding in the grammar of their
mother tongue, it would make things
much easier for the English teacher.
So the teacher can explain the five points of grammar
in better way by using mother tongue. He can with a view
to make the concept clear also present comparison and
18 The Place of English in Indian Education
contrast between the grammatical forms of their mother
tongue.
2. Composition :
Composition in any ability of collecting and
organizing different ideas. An English teacher can not speak
throughout in English because of the existing level of
knowledge of his students and if he does so student will
not be able to understand him. In beginning students are
neither expected trained nor to think in English. The topic
already attempted by the student for composition in their
mother tongue lesson of the students. The well graded
practice of mother tongue can be attempted easily for
composition in English subject matter for written
composition in English can be borrowed from the mother
tongue lesson of the students. The well graded practice of
mother tongue acquired by the students will help them in
arranging all the ideas, thoughts and information in English
also.
3. Oral Work:
Oral expression in English depends also upon the oral
expression in the mother tongue. So before le:lrning English,
a student must be well conversant to express himself freely
in his own mother tongue. Before they are expected to
narrate their ideas English. They must be able to narrate
them in their mother tongue. R Gurry is quite right when
he remarks:
If a speaker talks freely and fluency in his own
language he can soon learn to speak well and easily in
mother tongue.
4. Translation:
"Translation of passage has as its object the securing
of an exact parallel in the mother tongue of a passage in
The Place of English in Indian Education 19
PROBLEM FACED IN SPEAKING
LEATING
LINGUISTIC PROBLEM
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEM
PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM
20 The Place of English in Indian Education
English. Its aim is to ascertain to what degree of perfection
the art of paralleling has been persuading." Translation
from and mother tongue occupies a very important place
in learning English language. Translation imparts the
student sufficient practice in expressing them in English,
as they are given various fresh passage in their mother
tongue which the students are required to translate it into
English and vice versa English passage into mother tongue.
5. Use in Pronunciation:
If pupils' pronunciation in his mother tongue is clear,
his pronunciation in English will be also clear. English is a
foreign language and has a very complex system of vowels,
specially the dip-thongs which do not have any sound in
any Indian language.
6. Reading:
Reading is a complex skill involving a number of
simultaneous operations. Reading has been divided into
two parts:
1. Reading aloud
2. Silent Reading
These two parts of reading in the mother tongue
provides sufficient help in reading aloud and silent reading
in English. Reading aloud is helpful in developing speech
habit and silent reading develops power of expression in
writing and quick comprehension. Silent reading is the
more efficient way of reading and more useful in life. Silent
reading means reading completely silently, without even
moving the lips. The importance of silent reading does not
reduce the importance of oral reading at the initial stages
of language learning. A teacher can develop reading habit
among his students through reading exercise in the mother
tongue. P Gurry remarks:
The Place of En/dish in Indian Education 21
Children who have taught to read in
their mother tongue well can quickly
learn to read English after one or two
years of oral English.
In Indian condition, pupil may take more time. But
ultimately reading habit can be developed in them through
reading exercises in their mother tongue.
Extensive reading helps in supplying new vocabulary,
new ideas, new sentence- pattern and new thoughts. It
should be properly done in the class room and proper
attention should be paid to it. It should be started with the
help of mother tongue. The use of mother tongue will help
the pupil in creating interest in the reading of additional
material in English.
(4) Problem faced by Gujarati speaking learner in
Learning Foreign Language
We know that Gujarati is second language for those
who have brought up in the Gujarat. It is taught as second
language in Gujarat state. It has been observed from the
society of Gujarat that the people or Gujarati learner find
this language very difficult. Why, the Gujarati learner feels
it too difficult. Naturally to learn English needs a boost, an
internal motivation to learn another language. As we know
that first language is learnt naturally. No any special
training is given to learn mother tongue while to learn
second or foreign language the special training is given to
Gujarati speaking learner. The important question is that
why Gujarati speaking learner of English find it difficult to
learn English.
Gujarati speaking learner are learning almost in
vacuum. The Gujarat is one of a state of India. Gujarati is
spoken in Gujarat. It is used every where, in all government
department and other department. The Gujarati is widely
22 The Place of English in Indian Education
spoken and there are many dialectical varieties within. The
code in Gujarati is based on Indian language, Sanskrit. From
the through out studies in the field of linguistic Sanskrit is
found the most scientific language. So naturally the Gujarati
is also one of scientific language of the world. The Gujarati
has its own speech and script and Gujarati speaking people
have mastered it. It is very difficult to find the subsidiary
environment using another language among Gujaratis.
Now we see that which difficulties are faced by Gujarati
speaking learner.
1. Linguistic Problem
2. Social and Political Problem
3. Pedagogical Problem
1. Linguistic Problem:
• Gujarati is syllable rhymed language while
English is stressed rhymed language.
• In Gujarati, the spoken language is closed to its
script whereas in English, spoken language
differ in it form.
• The word order in both language differ in form;
in Gujarati it is SCV, SOY, or SA V whereas in
English SVO, SVC, SVA.
• The Gujarati is scientific language while English
is not because in Gujarati there is one to one
correspondence between sound and its letters,
in English 26 letters represent 44 sounds.
• Syllabic formation in Gujarati is different from
English. In Gujarati it is V, CV, CVC, CCVC,
CCCVCC, etc. So Syllables are not easily
recognized by learner.
2. Social and Political Problem:
In Gujarat the English teaching has been considered
a problem because there is no clear policy about teaching
The Place of English in Indian Education 23
of English in college and school. There is no perfect sequence
of teaching English in school and college. In this category,
the social and political problems are included:
• We know that Gujarati is basically a business
community. The society has been divided into
two parts. Rural and Urban. In both these
stream, people like to live in there respective
community. Rural want to live with rural people
while urban like to live with urban. They don't
like to live together so they did not need any
other language to communicate. The elite class
is too small; they prefer English but the greatest
mass neglect learning 3econd language.
• In school there is no importance of teaching or
learning English. We know that there is no clear
policy of teaching English in colleges and
schools. English is taught but without having
goal of acquiring skill of using English.
• The some of the groups advocating learning in
vernacular language oppose almost policies on
this issue. So English medium institutes are
mushrooming like anything and teaching
English as second or foreign language is
neglected in school where Gujarati is the
medium of instruction.
• The language teaching is based on
recommendation of Dr. Kothari Commission.
The Government of Gujarat has accepted his
formula of teaching three languages in
secondary schools. English has been found a
compulsory component in very short period of
school education 2 to 4 years. The policy makers
are still in dilemma to make it compulsory from
lower primary.
24 The Place of English in Indian Education
3. Pedagogical Problem:
The way of teaching first language is different from
the way of teaching second language. The way teaching of
first language in teaching English, one can not teach
English. In pedagogical problem the teacher is not only
responsible but also those are also responsible who are
engaged in language teaching at whatever leveL Now we
see the problems which Gujarati speaking learners face:
• There are lack of good English teacher
• Little knowledge of linguistic
• No good methods are practiced
• Lack of the knowledge of how languages are
acquired and learned
• Lack of resources like authentic material and
software.
• Objectives should be based on psychomotor
domain.
• The language teaching should be task based,
• The language teaching should be
communicative.
• The teacher must have liberty of deciding
language activities and materiaL
• The school must have technological resources.
• The grammar teaching should be moderate and
language oriented.
+++++
2
+++++
FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING
----------------------
(1) The Psychology of Foreign Language Learning
Many branches of language emerged from philosophy.
Psychology is one of them. The development of psychology
in the field of philosophy has made teaching and learning
very effective and scientific. First the education was in
shadow of teacher. They were the master of education and
what they spoke was next to God. The education was slave
of teacher. They have no any role in teaching learning
process. Whole teaching learning process was teacher
centred. Teacher teaches in his own way. He did not think
the mental condition of child. The psychology has made
us eligible for think minutely understanding teaching more
scientifically. It has provided the way of teaching and
learning both teacher and students have got this advantage
from the psychology. The psychology has helped "How to
teach language and "How it may be useful in teaching
learning process."
Language:
The different languages are spoken in the world. The
different languages are used all over the world. There are
many varieties within the language. How these languages
26 Foreign Language teaming
CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGE
l
Language is cultured based
Language is unique system
Language is social behave
Language is medium of instruction
Language is structural system
"
Language is made up habit
Foreign Language Leaming 27
are originated, it is very difficult to know. It is believed that
people started conveying message quest, signals, postures,
gestures and sign etc. The Researcher has made it clear
that the language is a medium through which a one can
express his ideas, thought, feeling and message. Robins
rightly points out those definitions tend to be trivial and
uninformative but he does list and discuss a number of
silent facts that must be taken into account in any seriously
intended study of language. He notes:
Language is a symbol system based
on pure arbitrary conventions ...
infinitely extendable and modifiable
according to the changing needs and
conditions of the speakers.
Every language choices some symbols from the
alphabet of the language and joins in different combinations
to form meaningful words. Language conventions are not
easily changed. Language is extendable and modifiable.
Language is the method of human communication. Edward
Sapir quotes:
Language is purely human and non-
instinctive method of communicating
ideas, emotions and desires by means
of a system of voluntarily produced
symbols.
In their Outline of Linguistic Analysis Block and
Trager wrote: /I A language is a system of arbitery vocal
symbols by means of which a social group co-operates./I
Collins Cobuld Essential English Dictionaries defines
language as:
Language is a system of
communication through which
28 Foreign Language Learning
consists of a set of sounds and written
symbols which are used by the
people of a particular country for
talking or writing.
Darbyshire noted: "Language is undoubtedly a kind
of means of communication among human beings. It
consists primarily of vocal sounds. It is articulatory,
systematic and arbitrary." Language is a fully developed
means of communication. Language has changed the entire
gamut of human relations and made it possible for human
beings to grow into a human community on this world.
Cambridge International Dictionary of English (1995:795)
defines the term "language" as:
... a system of communication
consisting of small parts and a set of
rules which decide the ways in
which these parts can be combined
to produce messages that have
meaning.
Noam Chomsky Syntactic Structures observes: "A
language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences, each finite
in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements."
The Cambridge Concise Encyclopaedia defines the term
"language" as:
A species-specific communicative
ability, restricted to humans, which
involves the use of sounds, grammar,
and vocabulary, according to a
system of rules. Though other
animals can communicate vocally
and by gestures, they are restricted
to a participate set of messages,
Foreign Language Learning 29
genetically given, which cannot be
creatively varied.
In his Essays on Language Hall notes: "Language is
the institution whereby humans communicate and interact
with one another by means of habitually used oral auditory
arbitrary symbols." Encyclopaedia Britannica comments:
Language is a system of conventional
spoken or written symbols by means
of which human beings, as members
of a social group and participants in
its culture, communicate.
The teaching of language is basically conditioned by
the nature of the subject. Language is the manipulation of
experience by the use of symbols. The concept of language
as a learning task is a complex of interrelated and
interdependent experiences and elements, in which growth
proceeds simultaneously but in varying degrees, dependent
on points or emphasis and interest.
The primary functions of language are
communication, self-expression and thinking. The
expression of feeling and meaning becomes more exact.
The command of words and groups of words grows with
practise and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to
be expressed. The communication function is obvious. The
use of language as a means of clarifying ideas and feelings
is equally real. Language is a means of clarifying perception
of discovering likeness and differences in thing observed,
of forming general ideas, and of discovering relationships.
It has been observed in the first place that language is
a vital part of the growth process. Language is a social act,
a means of adjustment to control over other people. The
entire process of socialization is largely a process of
language development.
30
F. L.
F. L. is acquired
It is acquired
naturally
Foreign Language Learning
LANGUAGE
l
s .....
S. L. is learnt
It is learnt through
practice

Foreign Language Learning
31
In the second place, it has been noted that, native
equipment gives potentialities of growth. It is a vital part
of the process of adjusting to life, physical and social.
Language is a means of gaining control of people and
thought. It is a means of bringing order into a bewildering
world. Command of language is an important factor in
the development of total personality of the child. Command
of language gives a feeling of confidence, satisfaction and
security. Such mastery is a wholesome influence that affects
the whole life of the child.
Language is purposeful, not a mechanical. The
purpose is largely utilitarian. The fourth important
implication is that language develops as a whole. The fifth
principle relates to grading and sequence.
Language is used to communicate our thoughts and
ideas. Language is essential for our survival and
development as human being. Language is a result of
cultural experience. Language is also a system of phonetics,
grammar and vocabulary. English Language has a set of
sounds peculiar to it. Language is learnt by imitation. With
patience and time, every language can be mastered. No
language is inferior or superior. Every language represents
its culture in the best possible way. Few characteristics are
given of Language:
• Language is a very important means of
communication
• Language is symbolic
• Language is dynamic
• Language is structured system
• Language is unique system
• Language is a carrier of civilization and culture
• Language is a form of social behaviour
32 Foreign Language Learning
rOREIGN LANGUAGE [CHARACTERISTICS
Diff'erent sound pattern
Diff'erent words
Little 0 de structure
Diff'erent meaning
Foreign Language Learning
33
• Language is arbitrary
• Language is medium of instruction
• Language is made up of habits
• Language is a symbol of system
• Language is as important as the air we breathe
• Language is the most valuable passion of man
• Language is an inseparable part of human body.
First Language :
There are many states in our country. Every state has
its own language like Gujarat, Tamil, Rajasthan and other
state. These languages may first for one state anQ for other
state second language. When a language is learnt naturally
or without training than it is called first language. For
example a child of Gujarat learns Gujarati naturally
because he has natural environment of Gujarati in house,
in society and many places. It is routine language for him,
so he speaks Gujarati without any problem. Thus Gujarati
is first language for him. The first language is used to learn
second language in many states. The first language can be
defined as under:
It is the language that an individual
has acquired when he was child as a
part of natural process of acquiring
language without any formal
training.
Second Language :
There are different kinds of languages are spoken in
India. All languages are different in nature. Diversity is
features of Indian but they have unique identity. In the
world several languages are used and they are differs from
each other. They are different in way of script, rhythms
34 Foreign Language Learning
PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING
~
1
Behaviorism Cognitivism
~ 1
Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
..
/
Sounds of bell
(C onditioning
~ ~
Stimulus)
Come larva from mouth
of dog (Conditioning
Food ~
response)
( ~ ~
Stimulus)
,
I
r r e ~ ~ trigger to get Give
Give ReWfo:rcement r
f-----Jo
food resporue
Resporue is to Get Food
1
Foreign Language Learning 35
and sounds. Some time we find numbers of varieties within
language.
For example: In Gujarat, Gujarati is first language for
Gujarati people because it is learnt without any particular
training. But in Rajasthan it is not first language because it
is not learnt in routine in environment. In school and
colleges and other places the only Hindi is used so Hindi is
first language and Rajasthani may be second language. To
learn Rajasthani we need special training.
In south India the Hindi is Second language because
the Hindi is not used as routine language. The Tamil is First
language for them. They use it as first language. The term
second language can be defined in these words:
When a child learns a language
systematically or he is given
particular training for it then it is
called second language.
Foreign Language :
It is the language which is used by the people of other
country or society. For example Russian, Chin and other
country also use these languages. These are foreign
language because they have different sound pattern,
different words, little ode structure and entirely different
meaning. The term "Foreign language" has been defined
as:
Foreign language is the language where the secondary
environment is not observed and the people of linguistically
foreign societies use such language.
Difference between Acquisition and Learning :
Acquisition :
Many languages are used in our country or societies.
When languages are learnt without any practice it is called
36 Foreign Language Learning
first language. Child learns first language without any
problem and practice. He learns FL naturally. When
language is learnt naturally and without any systematic
practice then it is called Acquisition. The language when it
is learnt in primary environment or learnt without practice
it is Acquisition.
Language acquisition is the process by which a child
acquires its mother tongue. The acquisition of a first
language is the most wonderful feat we perform in our
whole life; we do it at an age when we can hardly do
anything else. Language acquisition is an active process.
Children take the clues available to them and use these
clues to construct their own grammatical rules, rules which
grow in sophistication as acquisition proceeds.
Learning:
Learning a language requires the operation of an
innate capacity possessed by all human beings. In our
schools many subjects are taught. English taught as second
language because particular practice is given to the students
to learn English. To learn English, the help of mother tongue
is taken. The term "Learning" can be defined as:
The way through which the art of using skill and
practice is given to learn it than it is learning.
Psychology of Learning :
1. Behaviourism
2. Cognitivism
1. Behaviourism:
This school of psychology has been established by
Russian Psychologist Pavlov and American Psychologist
B.F. Skinner. Behaviourism is the theory that psychology
should invoke only observable and measurable phenomena.
Foreign Language Learning
37
Behaviourism originated as a healthy reaction to this state
of affairs. The early behaviourists wanted to sweep away
what they saw as empty speculation and the endless
postulation of undetectable concepts. Behaviourism
exercised great influence over the linguist Leonald
Bloomfield and the American structuralists who followed
him. In 1957 the American Psychologist B.P. Skinner
published Verbal Behaviour. It was an attempt at
interpreting language acquisition strictly in terms of
Behaviourism. It was the most radical attempt ever treating
language in a behaviourist framework. A behaviourist
method of language teaching should embody at least the
following principles. It should be firmly anchored in spoken
language. Pavlov has given theory of classical conditioning
and B.F. Skinner has given the theory of Operant Condition.
Classical Conditioning: This theory is based on the
habit formation. Pavlov says that human or any creature
gives response due to stimulus. Stimulus are that things
which create excitation in creature. It means that human
learn due to stimulus. Pavlov has done one experiment on
a dog. In which when at first Pavlov rings a bell before dog
and dog hears it. With it, it is given food then it drops larva.
Just after he rings bell then it drops larva after again food
is given. In this condition we look that dog is given stimulus
and it gives response. Thus student can also be taught
according of this theory.
Operant Conditioning: This theory is also based on
the habit formation. B.F. Skinner says that human or any
creature gives response due to Reinforcement. He wants
to say that human or creature learns due to reinforcement.
B.P. Skinner has done experiment on Pigeons and Rats.
When they are reinforced they get their target or food. It
means student can be taught very effectively if they are
given proper reinforcement.
38 Foreign Language Learning
The structuralists believe in the pattern of practice.
They say that teacher should motivate to their student so
that he could get his all desired objectives. The motivated
learner learns fast and effectively.
Few Essential Points :
1. Language is learnt only through practice. The
more the learner is exposed to the use of
language, the better chance of learning it.
2. Producing the correct linguistic response to a
stimulus requires efforts. If the learner is not
called upon to make this effort there is no
learning.
3. Producing correct response also requires
attention.
4. -The spoken language comes earlier than the
written and the passive experience of language
is necessary before any productive (active) use
can begin.
5. Learning takes place fast if a correct response is
given t the students. The learner must know at
once if his effort is right or wrong.
6. Every new item must be learnt by reinforcement
by further practice before further learning
begins.
2. Cognitivism :
Cognitivism is the doctrine that the mind can be
invoked in scientific investigation and even be made the
object of study itself. Today most psychologists,
philosophers and linguists, are preferably happy to invoke
invisible things like minds and purposes and even to make
mind itself the object of study. This approach is called
Cognitivism.
Foreign Language Learning
COGNITIVES
~
Cognitive emphasizes the importance ofthn!e things
1
Meaning
Understanding
39
Cognitive says that the language acquisition can be automadcaBy
attained
40 Foreign Language Learning
This theory is based on the developmentally readiness
of learner. The psychologist Piaget says when child is ready
to learn then he can be taught. He learns naturally. This
idea can be regarded as a starting point of the cognitivist
idea. The psychologist emphasizes the importance of three
things:
1. Meaning
2. Knowing
3. And understanding
According them learning is a meaningful process of
"relating new events or item to already existing already
cognitive concept." And it is thought to involve internal
representations that guide performance. In the case of
language acquisition, these representations are based on
language system. That involves procedure for selecting
appropriate vocabulary, grammatical rules and pragmatic
conventions governing language use.
David Ausubel has criticized the popular audio
lingual method for its theory based on reinforcement and
conditioning. Adult learning a second language could profit
from certain grammatical explanation. Though children
do not use deductive method of grammar and they do not
have superior cognitive capacities. They acquire mother
tongue quietly.
In short, the cognitivists say that language acquisition
can be automatically attained. Behaviourists favour the
view that language is behaviour is one sided and some what
superficial. According to Cognitivists there is some thing,
. which mediates between the stimulus and the response,
and the cognitive function. A learner just does not behave
in a mechanical manner. He uses his mind also. He not
only perceives the whole phenomena but also develops in
insight through which he solves a problem.
Foreign Language Learning 41
(2) Use of Motivation, Attention, Reinforcement,
Habit Formation, understanding and Memory in
teaching English
Motivation :
We know that first language is acquired and second
language is learnt. To learn first language we need not to
motivate the child, he is internally motivated and he
acquires first language. To learn second language students
are given systematic practice, it means he is motivated to
learn second language. Without motivation he can not learn
second language. Motivation is a term which occurs in
discussion of second rather than first language learning. It
is through speech that a child learns to organize his
perception and regulate his behaviour and mental activities.
Faced with problems and needs, the child wills merely look
for outside assistance. The word "Motivation" has been
defined as:
Motivation is considered with the
arousal of the interest in learning and
to the extent is basic to learning.
Motivation is the central factor in the
effective management of process of
learning. Some types of motivation
must be presented in learning.
Motivation is an energy change
within a person characterized
effective arousal and anticipatory
goal reaction.
Importance of Motivation :
1. Man became civilized from uncivilized man. It
is only due to motivation.
42
2.
Foreign Language Learning
Motivation makes expected change in human.
Human can adjust himself with society.
Motivation plays main role to encourage people.
3. Motivation makes learning and teaching
effective.
4. Motivation creates teaching atmosphere in class
room.
5. Motivation makes students active and creative.
They desire to do some thing new.
6. Motivation creates interest for self studies in
students. So that the atmosphere of motivated
situations could be created.
7. Motivation makes students to identify
themselves. Motivated students can move their
limitation by using their powers and ambitions.
8. Motivation inspires students to become active
and regular in their work and start their work.
9. Motivation inspires students to prove their goal
and objectives.
Reinforcement :
When you go to any shop. Do you think that if you
don't give charge of any goods? Will shopkeeper give
something to you? No he will give nothing to you without
any charge. Thus reinforcement is goods which can be
obtained by giving some thing right. The reinforcement has
been defined as:
Any environmental event that is
programmed as consequence of a
response that can increase that rate
of responding is called reinforcement.
Which makes any response powerful
is called reinforcement.
Foreign Language Learning
43
r-
KINDS
OF REINFORCER l
Positive Rein-
forcer
I Punishment
I Reputation I
Negative rein-
forcer
Primary Rein-forcer
Secondary Rein-forcer
I Get Wealth
! Post or Seat I
44 Foreign Language Learning
When an award or punishment is
given to make response powerful is
called rein-forcer.
Kinds of Rein-forcer :
1. Positive
2. Negative Rein-forcer
3. Punishment
4. Primary Rein-forcer
5. Secondary Rein-forcer
Attention:
Attention plays important role in teaching learning
process. Attention is a mental process of students which
decides the role of students' involvement in teaching
learning process. When we say that, this student is not
intelligent. It means that he does not draw his attention in
teaching learning process. Inattentive students can never
perceive knowledge. He disturbs whole teaching learning
process. The teacher should follow the simple rules for
stretching their attention till at the end of the class:
1. The teacher should be live in his presentation.
2. The stimulus variation technique should be used
in class room teaching.
3. The learning material and content must be
interesting.
4. The teacher should held enjoyable activities.
Memory :
You have listened about computer. In computer we
can store data on large scale. Why, the computer has
memory power which remembers whole data till long time.
Just like it human also has brain which have memory
Foreign Language Learning 45
STAGES OF PROCESS OF MEMORIZATION
I
RE GIS l'ER
I
1
RETAINING
RECOGNITION
RECALLING
46 Foreign Language Learning
capacity. Human brain is store house of memory. Human
performs several tasks which remembrance is stored in
memory system. There are stages in the process of
memorization. They are registering, retaining, recalling and
recognizing. If the learners can not fix the concept about
the language, they can not use. The learners have fixed the
ideas and when they need, they should recognize and recall
the retained information. The teacher should try to make
teaching so simple and lucid for better retention. If not, the
learner will not be able to fix and recall.
Habit Formation :
We know that practice plays important role in
teaching Learning process. If sufficient practice is given to
the students to perform task, he will learn language easily.
According to behaviourists psychologist the habit is
conditioned behaviour. So learning a language means
forming habit of using language. If we want to learn
language we should take it in practice. Acquiring new habit
is the result of learning. Learning a second language means
forming the habit of using English. Now we take the
example: at first child forms the habit of producing sound
in English. They have learnt it, later they form the habit of
forming words, letter and passage and then talking. In this
process the learner are acquiring these skills by modifying
their acquired behaviours in their respective mother tongue.
Communication skills are nothing but habit formation. The
learners have to form the habit of behaving in the manner
of English. Almost all kinds of primary or motor skill
learning is kind of habit formation. The teacher of English
should form following habit in order to attaining second
or foreign language:
1. Better articulation
2. Good acceptable rhythm
3. Better intonation and pronunciation
Foreign Language Learning
47
r------.---J>I
c
! Better articulation I
I--------J>II Good acceptable rhythm
I I
I--------J>II Better intonation and pronunciation
I I
1-------.j.1 Using English manner
I I
J Speaking and writing I
'---------.II
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
48 Foreign Language Learning
4. Using English manner
S. Speaking and writing
(3) Aims and Objectives of Teaching English at School
level in Term of language Point and Skill
Introduction :
We know that man performs several tasks. He is
always active. We study in our life. I don't think that a
man performs a task without any purpose. There is always
aim or purpose behind any task. Thus we can say that a
task without any purpose or objectives or aim is wasteful.
There is no meaning of that task. There should always be
purpose behind the task. Now we come to the point,
teaching of English. Is there any purpose or aim of teaching
English at school Level? Yes, there are aims and objectives
of teaching English at school Level. There are general and
specific objectives of teaching English. What are general
and specific objectives of teaching English? How can we
define general and specific objectives? We take an example
of a teacher who teaches English in class room. Suppose
he is teaching the unit "Mahatma Gandhi". What will be
general and specific objectives of this unit? General
objectives of this unit are:
1. To enable the student to speak English correctly.
2. To enable student to understand topic correctly.
3. To enable student to read English with ease.
4. To enable student to listen English with ease.
5. To enable student to write English correctly.
General objectives are those which are obtained at
the end the year. Specific objectives are of this unit:
1. To enable students to develop quality of
Mahatma Gandhi.
Foreign Language Leaming
49
OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH
GENERAL
OBJECTIVES
Those am got after the
end of the )'iarofihe
course
I TG uruhDtmd ~ (cxn:edly
TG nad J!n&Wh Wih. eue
SPECIFIC
OBJECTIVES
Those am got after the
ending ofihe Wlit
TG enable sIu.d.fnU ~ d.ev't!k>p quality d I
faaifke.
50 Foreign Language Learning
ENGLISH TEACHING
English should be taught
as languaIJ! not m
literature becalR on tlIis
st¥. students do not
understand tIE literary
sense of English. At this
st¥ language
development should be
chief objectives.
Develop taste for English
literature
Develop interest in English
literature
Develop transJating ability
Understanding of critical value
Drawing aesthetic pleasure
Foreign Language Learning
51
2. To enable students to develop the quality of
sacrifice.
3. To enable student to develop the quality of
loyalty for our country.
4. To enable student to develop the quality of high
thinking and simple living.
Thus we can say that the general objectives are those
which are got after the end of the year course and specific
objectives are those which are got after the ending of unit.
Now we take two types of objectives of teaching of
English which are limited to particular class V to VIII
and IX to XII:
1. Language Development
2. Literary Development
1. Language Development:
It is only for the students of class V to VIII. During
this stage the main aim of English teaching is only language
development of child. It means that English should be
taught only as language not as literature because on this
stage, student does not understand the literary sense of
English. We can say that teacher should not care about
pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and structure of
language but he should think only about the language
development of students. According to above opinions,
student starts the learning the language on this stage. So
first, they should have a good command over the language.
At this stage, language development should be chief
objective. According to P. Gurry,
It is necessary that the Indian people
should not only understand English
when it is spoken or written but also
52 Foreign Language Learning
GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH
l
I
To enable the students to understand the spoken
______ . ___ __ ge _______
___ __ T_o_e_na_b_le_the_stu_d_e_nts_t_o _sp_e_ak_E_D_gIis_" _h_c_orr_e_ct_-l
.
___ T •• nab" ............. to write "'" language prop.'" I
___ T. enabm "'" .tnd_ t .... ad .... _ with """'.
Foreign Language Learning 53
he should himself be able to speak
and to write it.
2. Literary Development:
This objective is for the stage of senior class students
from IX to XII. On this stage the ability of reading, listening,
speaking and the writing and understanding should be
developed in the students. Literary development is an
important objective at higher secondary stage. Literary
development to means to develop:
1. A taste for English literature by reading prose,
poetry, story etc.
2. Develop interest in English literaturE'
3. Development of translating ability
4. understanding the critical value
5. Drawing aesthetic pleasure, from reading
English literature
General objectives of Teaching English :
General objectives are global and long term goals.
Genera.l objectives state what to achieve at the end of the
course of the year. They are :
1. To enable students to understand spoken or
written language.
2. To enable students to speak simple English
correct language.
3. To enable the student to write the language
properly.
4. To enable the students to read the language with
ease.
Specific objectives of Teaching English :
Specific objectives are short term goals. Specific
objectives state what to achieve at the end of the unit.
54 Foreign Language Learning
Specific objectives are based on the above sub skills or
general objectives.
• To enable the students to understand spoken
language.
To enable student to ....... .
1. Differentiate sounds of English words and
sounds of words of mother tongue.
2. Recognize the sounds of English.
3. Associate ideas with pictures, chart or object
during oral presentation.
4. Carry out oral instruction.
5. Follow the meaning of words, phrases and
structure in their context.
6. Establishment of chronological order of
statement narration, maintaining a continuity
of thoughts.
7. Get main idea of the narration, talk and
discussion.
8. Point out the missing point in oral presentation.
9. Understand the purpose of the speaker by
noting his stresses and intonation pattern.
10. Follow the typical usage of the spoken form of
language.
• To enable students to speak simple English
correct language
To enable students to ........ .
1. Pronounce the sounds of English letters and
words correctly.
2. Speak sentence with proper stresses, pauses and
intonation pattern.
3. Use appropriate words and sentence pattern.
Foreign Language Learning
55
4. Answer the, questions.
5. Speak without any reversion.
6. Speak without using any meaningless and
unnecessary words.
7. Put ideas in proper sequence.
8. Speak with confidence.
9. Acquiring skill of effective communication.
10. Acquire active vocabulary.
• To enable the student to write the language
properly
To enable the students to ....
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Write the letter correctly.
Shape the letter correctly.
Write words with proper spacing between
letters.
Write sentence with proper spacing between
words.
Use capital letters in writing.
Use appropriate words, phrase and sentence
pattern.
Use punctuation correctly.
Spell the word correctly.
Write different types of compositions.
Write answer keeping in mind the format of
questions.
To enable the students to read the language
with ease
To enable the students to .......... .
1. Recognise words of English.
56
2.
Foreign Language Learning
Follow the meaning of words, phrases and
structure in their context.
3. Recognise different shades and meaning of
words.
4. Note and keep in view the punctuation mark
while reading.
5. Associate ideas of reading material with a
picture or a chart.
6. Read with the correct pronunciation and clear
expression.
7. Find out appropriate answer to question based
on reading material.
8. Locate key word, phrases and sentence.
9. Give the list of content material read.
10. Locate the sequence of ideas and facts.
11. Read with ease and appropriate speed.
+++++
3
..........
INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL AND TEXT
BOOK
----------------------
(1) Use and selection of Instructional Material and
Teaching Aids
Introduction :
We know that teaching and learning is process.
Teacher teaches and students learn from teacher. In process
of teaching learning process teacher uses some thing to
make his teaching learning process effective. The material
and aids which are used by teacher to make his teaching
very effective is called teaching aids and instructional
material. The language teaching is not a static process but
it is a dynamic process.
We know the general objectives and specific objectives
of teaching English. Teacher should select teaching material
and instructional according the objectives decided by
teachers so that skill of reading, understanding, writing
and speaking and sub skills of skills could be developed in
students.
We know that English is second or foreign language.
So the teaching material and instructional material play
58
Slide Proj edu
O.H.P.
Instructional Material and Text Book
TEACHING AIDS
CompWir &sisud
L ~ LemUr!g (C.ALL)
v.c.P.
'--__ Ra._dW_--..." V. C. D.
I TdeWion
I HIm Pr(lj edflr
Instructional Material and Text Book 59
important role in teaching learning process. Thus we can
say that use and selection of teaching aids must be very
carefully.
Types of Teaching and Instructional Material :
• Visual aids :
1. Boards: Blackboard, Flannel boards, soft
boards.
2. Charts, Maps, Pictures, Drawings.
3. Static and Working Modal
4. Film strip, Slide Projector, OHP,
Transparencies and Episcope.
• Audio aids :
1. Audio Cassette Player
2'. Radio
• Audio Visual aids :
1. Video Cassette player
2. Video Compact Disc Player
3. Television
4. Film Projector
• Language Laboratory
• Computer Assisted Learning
Visual Aids :
1. Boards: Blackboard, Flannel boards, soft
boards: These boards are used to display different types
of display material. There are kinds of display boards used
to display charts, maps, tables etc.
2. Charts, Maps, Pictures and Drawings: These
teaching aids play main role in teaching learning process.
60 Instructional Material and Text Book
They interest in students. They prepare students mentally
and motivate for further preparation. Teachers can prepare
these aids himself of readymade. But he should himself be
a creative person so that student could follow him. Charts
may be written or drawn on thick coloured papers and
can be hanged or displayed by using any of the boards.
Pictures can also be displayed by using any of the boards.
Maps can be either hanged or displayed by using any of
the display boards. The teacher can draw picture or any
sketch ar,y item also to be displayed with the help of display
board.
3. Static and Working Modal: Models play
important role in teaching learning process. Teacher can
use models to make his teaching very effective. For example,
teacher wants to teach the topic elephant. He can use both
the static and working model. Working model of elephant
creates primary interest in students. Static modal can be
used if working model is not available. If models are not
available he can use charts, pictures or drawing.
4. Film strip, Slide Projector, OHP,
Transparencies and Episcope : The teacher can use film
strip and slide projector to make his teaching too effective.
These aids make students to draw their attention very
carefully toward teaching. Slides are available in the market
and teacher can use them according to need of content.
Over Head Projector :
OHP is the hardware used to project the
transparencies. The transparency is plastic sheet which on
which teacher can develop his own material to be
presented. Use of OHP by teacher is good practical that
help him to make his teaching very interested and effective.
Episcope:
Episcope is also known as Epidiascope. The material
on opaque sheet is projected with the help of this hardware.
Instructional Material and Text Book 61
The teacher can project any material developed on simple
plain paper sheet. Small size of picture can be projected
through this instructional materiaL
Audio Aids:
1. Audio Cassette Player: We all are introduced
of tape recorder or audio cassette player. We use it in our
houses and shop to listen song. It is also used in teaching
learning process by teacher. It makes teaching very scientific
and effective. In this process the subject matter is recorded
as audio cassette and played on this machine. The students
repeat that subject matter and learn. The learners have an
access to native language and they better drill the pattern
in its required form. The teaching activities become more
and more effective and alive.
2. Radio: The radio was very famous medium of
mass media before three decades. It was first attempt to
teach English with the help of radio. In this source the
teacher has no criteria to select the learning material
because whatever aired is the source.
Radio must appeal to every type and level of taste.
But there is room on the air for instrumental and vocal
music, both classical and popular, addresses, forums,
debates, sports events, mysteries, religious broadcasts, quiz
programmes, variety programmes. It should be possible for
the listener to make a free selection from among many of
these kinds of programmes both during the day and in the
evening.
The first of the objectives of the study of radio in
secondary schools arises from the nature of the control of
the industry. In a democracy the best defence against
monopoly in the field of communication is an enlightened
public; and the schools have a major responsibility for
providing enlightenment.
62 Instructional Material and Text Book
The second important objective of the schools in the
area of radio study is the elevation of the listener's taste.
The third and perhaps the most important objective for
the radio study in secondary schools is the development of
the ability to evaluate news reports and communication as
the air. The method of improving young people's tastes in
radio is not the method of coercion. William Levenson
declares:
Enduring standards and tastes
cannot be imposed from without, but
must be developed from within. A
genuine continuous growth begins
first with an understanding of the
levels at which tastes exist.
Consequently, as applied to radio,
before the teacher attempts an
abstract discussion of comparative
standards, it is well to know to what
programmes the children are
listening. What programmes are
available in the community? When
do they listen? Such a simple survey
of the listening habits of the class is a
good preliminary step in guidance.
It will not only provide the teacher
with the information she seeks, but
if parents' reactions are solicited also,
the enterprise can serve to promote
further interest in parental guidance
at home. ( Teaching Through Radio,
New York, Rinehart & Company,
Inc., 1945:474)
Audio Visual Aids :
In the twentieth century technology was advanced
at the highest pace. In the beginning of the year there were
Instructional Material and Text Book
CHARACTRISTICS OF INSTRUCTIONAL
MATERIAL
1
Supplement of oral Teaching
As Motivators
Prevent indiscipline and monotony
Make learning permanent
Save time and energy
Provide direct experience
63
64 Instructional Material and Text Book
limited resources available but in the end of the options are
many. It is believed that audio visual aids may create interest
and motivation at the highest degree because through this
teaching aid learners' both eye and ear become active so
they are widely used in teaching of language. Audio and
visual both media have high impact on the mind of
learners.
1. Video Cassette Player: We have seen many
films on video. How we see this film on video. Through
which tool we take enjoy of film? That is video cassette
which enable us to take enjoy of film. This material is
recorded in the video cassette and we look film. Thus in
teaching learning process teacher uses this VCP to make
his teaching effective and alive. Teaching materials
available on the video tape are played by this machine VCP.
2. Video Compact Disc Player: Now we can take
the help of VCD to make teaching effective so to view the
material the VCD is played on this machine. It is the latest
audio visual aid. The programmes record on the video
c a s s e ~ t e can be transferred into compact disk.
3. Television: We all know about television
because rather it is available at every house in India. On
television we take enjoy of film, serials, and other
programmes. Television is instrument through which one
can view educational programme. The educational
programmes are also aired from respective TV programmes
production centre. They are as good as radio programmes
which teacher can not select.
Film Projector :
Before the introduction of TV and other media
resources, the film was very famous media. The
programmes which are recorded on film are projected with
the help of film projectors.
Instructional Material and Text Book
CRITERIAL OF GOOD TEXT BOOK
~
The book should be accorclingthe individual cUfference of
students
The book should be accorclingthe objectives of teaching English
The subject matter should he well graded
Exercise work and practical work should be given at the end of
the chapter
It must develop moral qualities in the students.
There should he no printing mistake
It must not he very costly
The paper should he qualitative
The cover should he attractive and qualitative
65
66 Instructional Material and Text Book
Language Laboratory :
Language laboratory is the place where the learners
have to listen on headphone. The language labs are set up
with a view to provide listening activities in order to make
them developing good speech habit. The learning material
are recorded on audiotapes which are played back by
teacher is to be drilled and the same is monitored by the
mentor. Leamer himself records his practice and listens to
it.
Computer Assisted Language Learning:
Computer Assisted Language Learning means is to
present teaching material trough computer. To use of
computer in teaching learning process is innovation in
educational circle. The computer technology has brought
multimedia package means the programme is developed
with all kinds of media available for presentation. In this
presentation, texts, graphics, audio and video are available.
The computer is multi media system. It is VCD, DVD, VCR,
Slide projector and Film projector.
(2) Characteristics of Various types of Instructional
Material used in the class room Instruction:
Supplement Oral Teaching :
We know that most of class room teaching is verbal
which can not make teaching learning effective: The verbal
statements made by teacher do not help to clarify the view
points. At such a stage audio visual aids help to clarify the
view of teacher.
Audio Visual Aids as Motivator :
Audio visual aids work as motivators in teaching
learning process. Without use of these aids the teaching
becomes alive less. While teacher uses teaching aids to clear
Instructional Material and Text Book 67
his content then students take more interest in that
teaching. They mentally prepare for further teaching. They
are motivated to work more and effectively. Motivation, in
other words, is the preparatory. phase for all acts of
learning. Audio visual aids are helpful in establishing
motivation.
Prevent Indiscipline and Monotony :
Teacher uses teaching aids to make his teaching
effective and alive. Use of aids prevents monotony and
indiscipline of student because it creates interest in student
to know something. Thus it is helpful to make teaching
very interesting.
Make Learning Permanent :
Audio Visual aids involve more than one sensory
organs of the 1earner which improve retentiveness and
make learning permanent. In audio visual aids, seeing and
hearing go together which play extraordinary roles in
learning. The aids appeals to those senses that can respond
adequately.
Save Time and Energy :
When teacher clear his content verbally or without
any teaching aid, it takes more time for students to
understand that content. But when it is cleared by using
audio visual aids, it takes lees time and makes students to
understand very easily. It saves more time of and energy of
teacher and students.
Provide direct Experience :
There are aids that provide direct learning experience
to students. Under this category, educational tours, visit to
zoo, and museums, taking the students into the
community- resources etc. are some of the sources that
68 Instructional Material and Text Book
provide first hand knowledge and serve as important aids
for learning.
(3) Requisite and Evaluation of Good Text Book
Text book is the area in which the language material
is presented prescribed for teaching and learning English.
The textbook boards of respective state develop the material
required. In Gujarat, the Gujarat state textbook board is
publishing books for teaching and learning English.
Criteria of the Selection of Good Text book:
Keeping in view the significance of text book one
should keep in his mind while selecting a text book those
below mentioned points:
1. According the age, interest and individual
differences should be kept in mind of selector.
He should select on the base of this criteria.
Selector should keep himself away from the
influence of out ward agencies and use his own
directional only.
2. The subject ~ a t t e r should be well graded in text
book and lit should be directly related to the
interest and life of the interest.
3. Text book should cover the objectives of the
English teaching.
4. Exercise work and practical work should be
given to the students at the end the chapter.
S. The teacher should select those books which help
to produce moral qualities in students.
6. There should be no any printing mistake and it
should be attractive and illustrative.
7. Language should be according the age and
interest of the students in the textbook.
Instructional Material and Text Book 69
8. The book should be not very costly so that every
student could purchase that could develop his
qualities.
9. The paper which is used in text book should be
white and durable.
10. The cover should be attractive and qualitative.
Characteristics of Good text books :
A good text books not only teaches but it also tests. A
few essential characteristics of good text books are given
below:
1. The words and structure are carefully graded.
2. No difficult words and new words are given in
good text book.
3. The words and structure already learnt are
repeated in the coming pages so that the students
could revise them making them stable in their
memory.
4. The size of text book should be handy for the
students.
5. The binding should be proper and strong.
6. The subject matter should be printed on good
quality paper.
7. Heading and subheading should be printed on
title page in bold form.
8. Illustration should be attractive. For every young
pupil, the picture should, be well drawn and
realistically coloured and not in black and white.
9. Clear and unambiguous instruction should be
given along side the test and practice and
exercise.
70 Instructional Material and Text Book
10. There should be both practice and text exercise
at the end of the chapter.
11. The subject matter of text book should provide
new information so that students could get new
knowledge.
12. The practice should be low which the majority
of students could solve them easily.
13. The introduction at the beginning and
conclusion at the end of the chapter should be
given in the text book.
14. A list of related books should be given at the
end of the lesson for the further study.
15. Textbook should cover whole syllabus.
16. Textbook must contain the lesson of national
integration, world peace, love and co-operation
among people without the distinction of caste,
sex and race .
..........
4
•••••
METHODS
----------------------
Introduction :
In India English is taught in each and every state's
school. English teaching is very complicate task in India.
The way of teaching English is very different in different
part of India. We know that English is taught as a second
language in our country. We know that when any language
is taught as second language, it becomes very necessary to
know for teacher "How and what to teach to students"
because it is very difficult for teacher to use suitable method.
Indian classes have their own problem and one of them is
teaching methodology. There is no single method that is to
be considered effective and accepted by all.
Methodology is systematic and scientific way of
teaching any subject. It guides teacher "How to teach" and
"How his teaching may be effective". It is very necessary
for teacher to know various types of methods and
techniques of teaching English. Method may also be defined
as: "The process of planning, selection and grading
language materials and items, techniques of teaching, etc."
Anthony (1963) defines the term 'Method' as: ''It is a
particular trick, strategy or contrivance used to accomplish
72 Methods
TYPES OF TEACHING METHODS
1
l 1 1
TheG.T.
I I
Direct I
I
Bili.ng1W
I
Reading
Method method Method Method
Situa:lional
I
Method
English or
Emphasis In .. adD:ng of
Emphasi
on:mather S.L ma.diJlc
.-
... "and.
t o ~ i n maybe wry
mo"'r
la:ncuaP
teadane; useful
t o ~ i n
is taudkt
... "and.
u.ordinc;to
teuhinc:
wi ......
la:ncuaP
Dr. Michel
.... and.
...... of
liJte Endish
Peu_._
la:ncuaP
cesium,
la:ncuaP. leam.S.Lby
Ji1e
utillJl.and
ThUis readine;
English
shDwinc:
irnpmved
difio_t
la:ncuaP
objeds.
.... ra-of boo., Nowh,
A. v. aids. Drama and
rnm>yo"'r
boo ••
In .... me"ihod "'m is dimct band. between speech ande"llm..u.n. TIle
difio_tsu-.u,iums am pJl!llll!nled inmeaninc:fu1situaiion. u.ameu am to
know ... siiuau-in which di1Ii!mnt riru.ctuII! am ...... d for tmmmitdnc;
mao .... ore"llmainc: ide ....
Methods
73
an immediate objective. It must be consistent with a method
and harmony with an approach as well." According to
W.E Mackey:
A Method must include four things
viz., Selection of Linguistic Material,
and Gradation of Linguistic Material,
Techniques of presentation, and
Practice by people.
Types of Methods :
1. The Grammar Translation Method
2. The Direct Method
3. The Bilingual Method
4. The Reading Method
5. The Situation Method
1. The Grammar-Translation Method:
The Grammar-Translation Method is the oldest
method of teaching English. This method is also known as
the Classical Method. The Grammar-Translation Method
dominated European and foreign language teaching from
the 1840s to the 1940s. It modified form it continues to be
widely used in some parts of the world today.
The Grammar-Translation Method was used for the
teaching of English in the beginning, under the influence
of classical languages like Latin, Greek and Sanskrit. In
The Grammar-Translation Method the students first study
the parts of speech and syntax in detail. The seni:ences in
English and the mother tongue were compared and
contrasted side by side. The Grammar-Translation Method
was the offspring of German scholarship. It was first known
in the United States as the Prussian Method.
74 Methods
The Grammar-Translation Method is called old
method of teaching. To use of this method is vary easy for
teacher. This method is also called classical method because
it is very helpful in learning the classical language like
Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic, Latin and Greek etc. In this
method the mother tongue is used to teach English. This
method is very famous in average teacher because it is very
easy for them to use this method. In English words, phrases
and sentences are taught with the help of this method. It
tells that every thing in English should be taught by
transiating into mother tongue. It is believed that
vocabulary and phraseology of a foreign language can be
learnt through translating its meaning into the mother
tongue and the teacher points out the grammatical point
and rules.
Characteristics :
!J The unit of teaching is word, not a sentence. It
means vocabulary is taught in the form of
isolated words.
• It considers grammar as a soul of language.
• Grammatical rules of teaching of English are
explained into mother tongue.
• This method does not help in development of
lmguistic competence of learner.
.. English grammar is taught through rules,
translation, definition and comparative study
of mother tongue grammar.
• Grammar is taught deductively.
• The main function of language learhing,
communication is ignored.
• Reading and writing are the major focus.
Methods "75
• Words are taught through bilingual word-lists,
dictionary study and memorization.
• The English is taught in mother tongue with little
use of target language.
• The students' native language is the medium of
instruction.
• Students are expected to attain high standards
in translation.
Advantage:
• When words and phrases are translated into
mother tongue, his understanding of those
words become very better and quicker.
• The Grammar-Translation Method develops the
art of translation.
• In this method the child associates foreign words
with translated words so strong memory bond
is created.
• The use of mother tongue helps the children in
vocabulary getting. It saves time and more
effective.
• The words and phrase are easily learnt and
explained if translation method is used.
• The working knowledge of mother tongue helps
them to learn grammar of a foreign language.
The principle of "to proceed from known to
unknown" is followed.
• Through this method we can test the ability of
comprehension of our students and we can
know the form of understanding the subject
matter.
• English grammar can be easily taught by
comparing with the grammar of mother tongue.
76


Methods
Students who studies in Gujarati medium
school, this method is very useful and effective
for Gujarati learner.
This method is very useful in over crowed
classes.
Disadvantage :
• The Grammar-Translation Method does not
emphasis on the basic skills like listening and
speaking etc.
• It is not possible to translate important aspect
of spoken language like pronunciation,
articulation, intonation, pauses, pitch etc.
• There are words, idioms, phrases in English for
which words can not be translated into mother
tongue. For example; prepositions and
propositional phrases.
• Language learning means speaking and reading
but translation in mother tongue prevents
students to read and speak in English.
• Student gets no opportunities to participate in
the discussion of the unit.
• Some of lingUistic items can not be translated
into mother tongue like article a, an, the.
• Translation into mother tongue affects the
originality of the words. It affects the sense and
beauty of the words.
• It prevents students to think directly in English.
Students first think in mother tongue and then
in English. Thus it prevents establishing of direct
bond between thought and expression.
Methods 77
• Grammar class can never be effective when
there is use of translation of grammatical rules
and their explanation.
• The Grammar-Trilnslation Method favours to
teach English by rules and not by use. According
to Dr. Ballard: "To speak any language whether
native or foreign entirely by rules is quite
impossible" .
• Psychologically and linguistically, this method
is not suitable. The language is multi-sensory
whereas this method makes it only a part of the
human information.
2. The Direct Method :
Child learns his mother tongue naturally and without
practice. It means child learns mother tongue directly. An
attempt to teach the language as one could in learning
mother tongue is known as the Direct Method. It is also
called natural method because it is learnt naturally like
mother tongue or first language. It is very difficult to bring
exact environment in which mother tongue or first language
is acquired, so later the same method became popular
called Direct Method. This method was against of
Grammar-Translation method. The extreme use of mother
tongue affected the naturalness of language. The students
did not learn language but practiced of ac:quiring mother
tongue or first language. In this method same environment
is created to learn second or foreign language but learning
SL is not natural process. It depends on the will of the
learner to learn for his own development. So teaching of
SL or FL by observing the principles of language acquisition
is the Direct Method. Prof. P. Gurrey in Teaching of English
as a Foreign Language (1966) comments:
78
Essentially, it (The Direct Method) is
a Principle, not a teaching method,
a system that operates through many
methods, a way of handling the new
language and of presenting to the
class. It demands a direct bond that
is a direct association between word
and thing and between sentence and
idea, between experience and
expression instead of an indirect one
through the mother tongue.
Methods
The Direct Method was quite successful in private
language schools. The Direct Method overemphasized and
distorted the similarities between naturalistic first language
learning and classroom foreign language learning. This
method represented the product of enlightened
amateurism. Henry Sweet viewed that it offered
innovations at the level of teaching procedures but lacked
a through methodological basis. Its main focus was on the
exclusive use of the target language in the classroom.
Sauveur opened a language school in Boston in the late
1860s. His method soon became referred to as the Natural
Method. Sauveur and other believers in the Natural Method
argued that a foreign language could be taught without
translation or the use of the learner's native tongue.
Webster's New International Dictionary notes:
Direct Method is a method of
teaching a foreign language,
especially a modern language
through conversation, discussion
and reading in the language itself,
without the use of the pupil's
language, without translation, and
Methods
without the study of formal
grammar. The first words are taught
by pointing to objects or pictures or
by performing actions.
79
The German scholar Franke wrote on the
psychological principles of direct association between forms
and meanings in the target language. For him a language
could best be taught by using it actively in the class room.
Teacher must encourage direct and spontaneous use of the
foreign language in the class room. Learners would be able
to induce rules of grammar. The teacher replaced the
textbook in the early stages of learning. Speaking began
with proper attention to pronunciation. Famous words
could be used to teach new vocabulary, using name,
demonstration and pictures. These natural language
learning principles provided the formation for what came
to be famous as the Direct Method.
Enthusiastic supporters of the Direct Method
introduced it in France and Germany. It becomes widely
known in the United States through its use by Sauveur
and Maximilan Berlitz in successful commercial language
schools.
Characteristics of Direct Method :
• There is no interference of mother tongue. In
TG method at first child comes with the contact
of mother tongue and after with the target
language.
• In this method, there is direct bond of target
language. Child thinks into target language and
express into target language.
• Unit of teaching is sentence. Teacher performs
such activities which tell the meaning of the
sentence in the context. Teacher performs an
80 Methods
action related to the sentence which shows
meaning of the sentence.
• Direct Method is full of activities. The teacher
shows object or performs the action to clear his
concept.
• Direct Method is interesting and ,natural for
learners.
• Teacher shows the meaning of the sentence with
help of gestures, postures and action. It enable
student to establish direct bond between words
and expression.
• The teaching learning process is carried out in
English environment.
Advantage:
• This method is called natural method. The
English is taught as the child learns his mother
tongue.
• The pronunciation, accent, intonation and
rhythm are essential for better and effective
communication. This method helps to speak
language effectively.
• This method is based on the principle of
"Learning by Doing". Thus this method is
scientific and very effective.
• New teaching points were introduced orally.
• Both comprehension and speech were taught
• It observes scientific path of language
acquisition: LSRW.
• To learn any language means speak that
language with fluently. Thus this method creates
this ability in students.
Methods 81
• This method helps learners to enjoy the
language. So the learners start using the
language without fear.
• Correct use of grammar and pronunciation
were emphasized.
• Grammar was taught inductively.
Disadvantage :
• For every sentence or subject matter, the teacher
can not perform an action and show any object. It means
that every subject matter can not be explained by an action
or showing any object.
• This method is not useful in over crowed classes.
• This method does not help in important aspect
of language learning like reading and writing.
• To use this method in the class, the teacher
should be mastered in subject. He should have active
command on his teaching. He should be a perfect teacher.
• This method requires many audio visual aids,
which are very expensive so our schools can not afford
such equipments.
3. The Bilingual Method :
India is very big country. Many languages are spoken
in India. To make teaching effective, the appropriate
methods have to be applied in teaching learning process.
For this process we need huge fund. We know that teaching
materials are very costly so we can not use them in teaching
activities. There are basic requirements like school building,
blackboard, language laboratory, language rooms and
problem of over crowed class. How can we solve these
problems? We need large amount for this. Through specific
method the teaching can be made effective due to many
82 Methods
problems. Only there is one obstacle which can solve this
problem and that is use of mother tongue in teaching of
English. This method is improved version of audio visual
aid. Dr. c.J. Dodson of the University College of Wases has
developed this method during 1967 to 1972. This method
is known as Bilingual method because of proper use of
mother tongue is allowed. The use of mother tongue is one
of the resources of this method. There is drilling of the
pattern to enable learners to master basic required sentence
pattern which is effective practice of this method.
In the Bilingual Method, two languages, thilt is the
mother tongue and the language to be learnt are used. In
this method, the mother tongue is used only to explain the
meanings go difficult words. Mother tongue equivalent of
English words are given and the use of the mother tongue
is gradually dropped as the students' progress in learning
the language. Thus the Bilingual Method recommended a
restricted use of the mother tongue only by the teacher and
not by the pupils. It also provided for intensive practice of
patterns in English, helping the formation of correct
language habits.
Characteristics of Bilingual Method :
• Due to use of judicious use of mother tongue,
the leaner can easily grasp the situation of
learning English. He can learn target language
easily through this method.
• The learner can learn abstract ideas easily in
mother tongue while in secondary environment
it is very difficult for learner.
• It saves time and money because of use of mother
tongue. For secondary environment we need
extra ordinary talented teacher and larger
investment of fund.
Methods 83
• In primary environment student can assimilate
message very quickly and easily. It makes
teaching vary interesting and effective.
Advantage:
• Bilingual Method saves time and learning to
make effective use of learners' mother tongue
to understand content quickly.
• The teacher can provide them enough drilling
or pattern practice due to time saved.
• Bilingual method helps learner to developing
both fluency and accuracy in the target the
language.
• An average teacher can use this method easily
and effectively.
• In this method there is no need of audio visual
aids other technology so this method is very
useful for every teacher. This method is boon
for all those institutions where limited facilities
are available.
Disadvantage :
• Extreme use of mother tongue makes student
inactive to learn foreign language. He becomes
master of mother tongue but not Second
language.
• Teacher should be master in use of mother
tongue while teaching second language.
• The teacher should have the knowledge of use
of both methods while teaching English.
• If teacher is not innovative in her teaching
learning practice, she follows the rules of
grammar translation method. This method can
easily degenerate into the translation method.
84



Methods
It is used only in the earlier stages of learning
the language.
Students become weak in the target language
because he will try to learn every language
through mother tongue.
It requires a curriculum developed specially for
this method otherwise it is difficult to teach
target language in classroom.
• Bilingual method is used for rural and urban
schools.
4. The Reading Method:
Dr. Michael waste was the Director of education in
Bengal before partition. He was an innovative professor in
Dacca. His through study in field of teaching raised some
of the basic knowledge of teaching English. At that time
the direct method was being used by teacher and the result
was very weak. Dr. Waste drew his attention toward the
utility and aims of teaching English particularly to Indian
learner. Dr. Waste said that "English language was the need
of the time because it was the language that provided the
easy channel for communication with the international
community. In his opinion the Indian were learning English
to open the window of the world to look in the
advancement in the field of science and technology. These
all information is available in English language. To get this
knowledge, speaking is not necessary but reading is
necessary. He emphasized the silent and loud reading.
Characteristics of this Method :
• He emphasized on reading ability. He says
person who posses good reading ability can
learn speak and write easily. It is shortest road
to learn speak and write.
Methods 85
• Silent Reading: The reading is also very complex
skill but the Indian learner needs silent reading
not oral reading as they do to get knowledge.
• Reading material: The material that enable
learner to read was developed and they were
called Readers.
• This method is not helpful to average students
because it aims at the active command over the
language.
• This method ignores reading and writing aspect
of language learning.
Advantage:
• This method develops the reading ability in
learner. It makes learner a good reader.
• Reading becomes very easy and free from
phonetic difficulties.
• It trains the eye of reader to recognize the
graphics and other graphic object. It enables
reader to read easily.
• It is very effective in developing written
comprehension means reading.
• Reading increases the interest and confidence
of learner in reading literature written in target
language.
• New words and their meanings are easily
understood by learner. It means controlled
vocabulary is developed.
Disadvantage :
• This method is not scientific. Language is
integrated skill. Every skill is useful in developing
of language. This method emphasizes only on
reading which is unscientific.
86 Methods
• Much reading can not be helpful in mastering
of language.
., According to waste the ability to speak is more
difficult than reading is more doubtful.
• This method talks about only one skill that is
reading which is not proper. Every skill has it
contribution in developing of the language.
• Only reading can not create interest in students.
He also want to speak and listen and writing.
• Grammar, composition and idioms are of
secondary importance in this method.
• Emphasis on reading and particularly, silent
reading is educationally unsound. It makes
teaching procedure passive and dull. Students
require overt activity in the form of drill,
question and conversation. In the absence of
such activities they will not be able to feel and
use the language.
6. The Situation Method;
This approach is also known as situational language
teaching. British applied situational approach developed
by linguists. It dated from 1930s to the 1960s and which
had an impact on language courses. Many teachers are
still using this approach.
This approach is based on the structural view of
language. In this approach speech is emphasized as the
basis of the language and structure is very important for
developing speaking ability. In this method there is direct
bond between speech and expression. This approach
suggests to present different structures in meaningful
situations. Learners are to know the situation in which
different structures are used for transmitting message or
Methods
87
expressing ideas. The American psychologist also insisted
this approach. British linguists Firth and Halliday gave the
idea that structure must be used in different situations in
which they could be used. So they gave its distinctiveness
to Situational language teaching.
Principles :
The situational approach is based on the theory
established by the behaviourists. It includes the following
principles:
• Language learning is just a habit formation.
• The mistakes should always be avoided because
they create bad habit among learner.
• The language skill can be learnt more effectively
if they are presented orally first and after in
written form.
• Similarity is better foundation for language
learning than analysis.
• The meaning of the words can be learnt only in
a linguistic and cultural context.
Advantage:
. • This approach is very useful in teaching of
foreign language. Through structural items and
creating situation, the subject matter can be
explained easily.
• With the help of situation the students can
understand effectively and can master the
structure effectively and have durable
impression in their mind.
• It helps to introduce the vocabulary including
abstract vocabulary by using rear as well as
planned situation.
88

Methods
It makes teaching very effective and interesting
and alive instead of a burdensome process.
Disadvantage :
• It is useful I lower class only. Higher class
students are not benefited by this method. Only
few selected items can be taught through this
method not all language items.
• Such as a prose, poetry, rapid readers, and
composition items can not be taught through
this approach. Only intelligent and bright
students can take the benefit of this approach,
not average students .
•••••
5
+++++
APPROACHES
----------------------
Method refers the way of teaching a language and
approach refers the theories of language learning.
Types of Approach:
1. Structural Approach
2. Communicative Approach
According to Cambridge international Dictionary :
Method means a particular way of
doing something and Approach
refers to different theories about the
nature and acquisitions of language
or how languages are learned.
1. Structural Approach:
The structural approach means the arrangement of
words in such a way as to form a suitable pattern of
sentence. The mastery of sentence structure in considered
to be mare with than the acquisition of vocabulary.
In structural, content words are also taught. The
selection of content words is directed by their usefulness,
simplicity and teachability. A appropriate situation should
90 Approaches
APPROACHES
This approach tells about the
structure of the language.
According to it every language has
its own language structure like this.
Example:-
Gujarati - the vezb is placed at the
end of the sentence. Exa:-
Hu tyan jaun chun. In this sentence
the vezb "Jaun chun" is placed at
ele end of the sentence.
English- the vezb is plac ed after the
subject in the sentence. Exa.:-
I gQ there. In this sentence the vezb
"go" is placed after the subject.
Thus we can say that every
language has its own language
structure.
in this approach the teacher tries to
develop the communicative ability in
students.
GraJllJn.a tical Co JIlpe1encies
Speech Co JIlpe1encies
TecJudcal COJllpe1encies
Socio Linguistic COJllpe1encies
Approaches
91
be created to practice the structure and to relate its meaning
to it and to build up a vocabulary of content words even
structure is separately taught. The term is predated in a
appropriate situation by the teaching.
Generally the Structural approach to teaching English
refers to the way the language material is organised for
presentation. It is the way some English sentences all
carefully selected and graded are arranged to form a
syllabus.
Structural approach is based on the theory of
behaviourist. To teach language through this approach we
have to understand the pattern and structure of the
language. Each and every Language has its own structure.
Every language differs structurally. There are structural
difference between Gujarati and English.
In Gujarati the verb is placed at the end of the sentence
but in English the verb is placed after subject and after the
object or adverb according to sentence. The learners have
to practice this pattern thoroughly for naturalizing habits.
c.c. Fires says:
Only after much practice of the same
"Pattern" with diverse content do
the pattern themselves become
productively automatic.
Principles :
• Language is system of structure and signals.
Students can learnt very well if the teaching is
accords with its structure and signals in
scientific way.
• Students' activity is important rather than the
teachers' activity.
• Importance of speech.
92





Approaches
Importance of the formulation of language habit
in arranging words in proper pattern.
Language learning may be very easy if language
is presented into small structure which clears
the concept of the language entirely.
Language learning may be very effective if the
structure of the language is presented in the
context of the child's mother tongue.
The effectiveness of the language learning
depends upon the quantity of the subject matter.
If there is proper gradation of the subject matter,
the teaching may be very effective.
If the language is learnt as a living system,
learning of language may be too effective.
Advantage:
After learning five or six items can be categorised
• This method help student to learn very fast
because the subject matter is present in form of
structure. Students understand it easily.
• Students first listen to the teacher and they
repeat it. Thus they learn to speak first and then
read and write.
• When students learn the structure of the
language, they automatically learn grammar.
Words order, use of the word and sentence
pattern.
• This approach promotes the use of everyday
English.
• This approach enables student speak first which
is very important and then read and write.
• Proper stress on oral learning.
Approaches
93
COMMUNICATION ASPECTS
1
1 __
PHONOLOGY FUNCTIONS
GRAMMAR VARIATIONS
VOCABULARY INTERACTION SKILL
TEXTUAL
I CULTURAL FRAMWORK I
94


Approaches
Both the teacher and the student are active .
This method can be adopted for all the students
of language learning.
Disadvantage :
• This method prefers the selection and gradation
of the structure which does not solve the
problem of teaching English.
• This approach doesn't advise the teacher that
how should he present the structure of the
language or teaching material?
• This approach does not advise the teacher about
the teaching material for written exercise. The
technique of gradation is good in theory but it is
not good in practice work
• Structural approach is not suitable for higher
classes.
• Drilling makes the atmosphere of the class dull
and boring.
• Only well selected sentence pattern can be
taught.
• Predsed text book can not be taught.
• More teaching aids are needed.
• If the structure syllabus is followed strictly, it is
difficult to complete the syllabus.
2. Communicative Approach :
The communicative approach is a learner centred
approach. This approach gives the learner not only
grammatical competence but also a social skill as to what
to say. How to say, when to say and where, in order to
satisfy his daily needs as larger aim. In this approach, apart
from fluency, accuracy and appropriateness are equally
Approaches 95
important. Thus an effective use of language needs to
produce grammatically well formed.
This approach tries to develop both the accuracy and
fluency from the very beginning of language learning. In
this approach the role of teacher is that of a co-participant
not that of an authoritarian master. Teacher should provide
all the resources necessary for communication to be
effective in every context.
Communicative approach stresses the purpose of
writing and audience of it. So teachers using this approach,
have extended the readership. Teachers specify readers
outride the classroom.
The goal of communicative approach is to make
learners communicatively competency. In this approach the
teacher is seen as a facilitators of his students, learning.
Communicative approach is based on the idea that
the aim of learning second language is to gain
communicative competency. In this approach learner have
to knowledge of the rules of use of language to generate
language appropriately for certain situations. He should
have also the knowledge of the use of techniques to
communicate effectively. This approach draws attention
toward on the use of language in every day life.
Communicative Language teaching emerged in the 1970s
and 1980s.
The "term communicate" meant to express or convey
the ideas verbally or non-verbally. This approach
emphasizes the communicative capability of the learners.
In English language teaching, the teacher tries to develop
communicative ability in students or learners.
Communicative capability is also known as communicative
competence includes the following competences.
Communicative Competences :
1. Grammatical Competences
96 Approaches
2. Speech Competences
3. Technical Competences
4. Socio-Linguistic Competences
1. Communicative Competence :
This concept was introduced by Dell Hymes.
According. For him the speaker of English should have
knowledge of more and more grammatical competences
to become good speaker in English language or other
language. The learner of EFL \ESL have to know that how
a language is used by the member of the speech community
to accomplish their purpose?
There are eight aspects of communicative
competences. They are grouped into two parts.
1. Linguistic aspect
2.
(A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
(8)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Pragmatic aspect
Linguistic Aspects :
Phonology and grammatical description
Grammar
Vocabulary
Discourse
Pragmatic Aspects:
,
Functions
Variations
Interaction skill
Cultural Framework
For Savignon (1983) observes:
A communicative competence is
relative, not absolute. It depends on'
all participants who cooperate in this
Approaches 97
process. We know that human beings
are social creature but which things
make them social creature. Their
capabilities of exchanging ideas,
thoughts and the way of conveying
message makes them social creature.
With the help of communication,
people can establish interpersonal
relation. So communication is the
soul of human interaction.
Communication plays important role
in developing relation among people.
So teacher should emphasis on
communicative aspect of language.
Language is a mean or tool of communication so all
communicative competences should be developed very
carefully and effectively in children and people. The above
competences are very important with a view to developing
integrated skill of communication.
The Aim of Communicative Language :
The aim of communicative language is to develop the
communicative competence among learner. Functions
communicative language teaching is below:
1. Instrumental function of language is using
language to get things.
2. Regulatory function of language is using
language to control the behaviour of others.
3. Interaction function of language is using
language to create interaction with others.
4. Personal function of language is using language
to express personal feeling and thoughts.
5. Imaginative function of language is using
language to create the world of imagination.
98 Approaches
6. Representational function of language is using
language to communicate.
7. Heuristic function of language is using language
to learn and discover.
Characteristics of Communicative Approach :
1. Communicative approach emphasis on
communication of language because it plays
important part in development of sociality of
human. creature.
2. The message or thoughts expressed in
communication are always in form of function
so this approach is very useful.
3. If this approach is used in classroom activities
then it will be very useful for leaner because in
many classes language is taught as to pass
examination only so this approach enables
students to develop communicative ability which
is very important activity of life.
4. Through communicative approach, the leaner
learn target language as he learns mother
tongue. It means that the atmosphere of English
language is created so that student could learn
English directly.
5. Communicative approach enable student to
learn language naturally because the
environment of target language learning is
created.
6. All the teaching learning materials are prepared
according to child attitude and interest or
individual difference so that child could learn
language easily and effectively. This approach
is learner centred.
Approaches 99
7. In communicative approach every where, in
schools, classroom, on stages, and seminars, we
can say that the learner are taught as a native
person learn his language.
8. The students should be provided real life
situations. Creativeness of role play, simulation,
should be produced in students so that
they could connect these all with real life
situation.
9. In communicative approach, the emphasis on
active mode of learning is given. Thus it makes
students active in their activities including pair
work and group work.
10. The learners have to develop skill of language.
Speaking and listing aspect of language are too
important for oral communication so oral
expression is more emphasized. The oral
communication and written communication are
distinctively taught in this approach.
11. In this approach the visual aids are permitted.
These aids help to provoke practical
communication. They help to motivate and
focus pupils' attention.
12. The language is never static: it is dynamic. This
approach helps to learner to use language
naturally and according to accepted form and
usage.
13. The active use of lexical items help learner to
develop vocabulary. There should not be passive
use of lexical items. They need active command
of using words in meaningful message, so in this
approach the lexical items taught in context.
100
Approaches
Principles:
1. How to use the language is basic principle of
this approach. The communication is soul of the
human lives. People use communication for
verbal communication.
2. Communicative approach is based on natural
acquisition of language. so this the second
principle of this approach. Natural Acquisition
is principle of this approach. When learner
learns any language naturally then that is real
and authentic.
3. The teaching should be related to real life
situation so that students could understand the
reality of the life. The teaching without relating
real life situation is useless and vague.
4. We should not take language as a subject. In
school it is taught as a subject. Student study it
only to pass examination but it not proper.
Teacher should teach it as a skill. He should make
his students to speak perfectly so that they could
use it in their real life. So it should be accepted
as skill.
5. In this approach teacher is a main hero and his
role is different than conventional teacher
teaching other subjects. The teacher should teach
with heart but not the brain.
6. Developing communication ability is other
principle of this approach. Four sub skills are
main key of this approach. The four sub skills
are LSRW which should be developed in student
orderly. It combines active and passive skills to
design learning tasks.
Approaches
Merits :
101
1. Main function of communicative approach is
to develop communication competences, so they
are provided with optimum opportunities to use
the language.
2. This approach create communicative
environment among learners, teachers, and
society. They are motivated to form the bridge
of communication and to make use of real life
language, in other words language in use.
3. This approach is child or learner centred. So it
is very scientific. All the teaching materials are
prepared according to mentality and interest of
the students.
4. In this approach the modem methods are used
make teaching very e£.(ective and interested.
5. In this approach every leaner are active during
teaching because there are interaction among
learner and teacher. They communicate verbally
and non-verbally to each other, so every student
is active.
6. This approach provides sufficient opportunity
to students for practice of communication with
other students or people .
•••••
6
•••••
ORAL WORK
----------------------
1. Importance and uses of oral work in English
Teaching
When there is talking and writing there is also reading.
Mr. Mehta says there is much difference between speaking
and reading. When person speak then words come
naturally but in reading there is just reading or speaking
of only that things which have been written in the text.
There is in order of importance. The tongue is important
tool of speaking and reading so when there is writing and
speaking, there is reading also. The logical starting place
of any language teaching is oral work.
Usefulness of Oral Work:
1. To suggest new ideas : When teacher wants
to increase the vocabulary of students, he at first
should introduce the new ideas to the students
so that student could be able to increase his
vocabulary. During tris process, the teacher
should not apply his own notions on students.
He should put a topic' before students so that
Oral Work
103
UTILITY OF ORAL WORK
To suggest new ideas
cC Introdncenewldeas y
Knowledge of way of arranging words
properly
DeveJop the habit of speaking
104 Oral Work
TECHNIQUES OF CONDUCTING ORAL WORK
1
Oral composition
Read or look p i c ~ carefully
Completing Story
Dramatization
I
Conversational Activities
Language game
Oral Work
105
there will be discuss or talking among them on
the topic. Teacher should put topic according
to experiences and interests of students.
2. When teacher introduces new ideas, then new
word also should be introduced to students so
that students could be acquainted of new words.
With little efforts students can learn two or three
words of English language. Thus student can
be strong in remembering of words.
3. When students learn new ideas and new words,
then he should be given the knowledge of way
of arranging words properly. There is much
difference in order of words in English and
Gujarati language. Teacher should tell about the
two patterns of the languages. So that student
could understand it very well so that they could
apply them in their speech.
4. When students learn how to arrange the words
properly, then teacher should develop the habit
of speaking among his students. He can
develop it by asking questions and receiving
answers from students. He can organize debate
or discussion. So that the habit of speaking
could be developed in students.
Importance of Oral work:
• It unable student to speak very effectively and
mastery on communicate on skill.
• It makes student perfect in any kind of reading
and writing.
• Oral work helps students to read lesson of the
text very effectively and it helps to prepare the
way for textual teaching.
106








Oral Work
It prepares the foundation of good silent
reading.
It develops good speech, good pronunciation,
speak correct sentence and effective vocabulary.
The oral work helps students to improve their
spelling mistake.
Oral work helps to students to develop all
linguistic skill like LSWR very effectively.
Through oral practice, graded and controlled
vocabulary can be developed.
The oral work remits the pronunciation mistakes
and thus develops the habit of correct or
accurate speech.
It enables the students to understand how to
speak and how to use stress, intonation and
articulation in speech.
The oral work helps students to acquiring
proficiency in writing.
2. Material and techniques of conducting oral work
There are few techniques which help to conduct oral
work.
• Oral Composition is a first technique of
conducting oral work. In this work teacher can
take the simple objects, story, picture or any
incident. He can take answer orally from
students and can ask them to write on the
blackboard.
• Next the teacher can present the picture of any
object and ask them to read or look carefully
the picture. Then teacher ask questions on the
basis of picture. This technique helps the
Oral Work 107
students to draw their attention toward
particular objects.
• Completing story is good technique of
conduction oral work. In this work teacher tells
a story twice or thrice and then he asks students
to repeat it again and again. Last he asks them
to tell the story in their own words. This
technique develops the logical thinking and
sentence sense in the students. Story should be
brief, simple and interesting. It should be full of
actions.
• The other technique is dramatization. In this
work the teacher presents drama related to
English oral work. This works impress students
very much. They learn by acting and acting is
good technique of conducting oral work. It
touches the heart of student and develops the
oral quality perfectly.
• The other technique is conversational
activities. In this technique the command and
do exercise and question and answer exercises
have been included. In first exercise the teacher
orders to student and student follows it and he
speak that sentence which he does. In second
exercise teacher asks questions related to their
daily work and students give the answer of
question.
• Other technique is language games which
develop the correct speech habit in students.
Teacher divides students into two groups. He
gives them to frame the question and ask them
to converse.
• Other techniques are debate, talks and discussion
which also help to conduct oral work effectively.
108 Oral Work
MEASURES OF DEVELOPING CORRECT
SPEECH HABIT
Perception
There am ....... 01.
phone'iU: metho4.
1. RecGCllll_n.f
-n-......,..
Imitation
.owuII
I Recitblg poems
2. MaldRcef ...
I
........ b,. .........
J. Le...u..c ....
Feedback
I
.owuII ia. .. ap of
1-==. ... 1
.owuII eHdItu'"
4. Le ...... pn .........
Drill
I
the ..........
... ,,_:npidIy and.
I I
.. eedl.-a. of. Debating
I G1DrlD I
.... _.r .. the
text.
5. Pra.:&e.f
I
Dramatising
I
proolucinc c ..... c:t
.owuII.
I
Individ1lal Drill
I
Conversing
Oral Work 109
Teacher puts a topic before students and asks
them to discuss. Thus the oral quality can be
developed in students by conduction good oral
techniques.
3. How to develop correct Speech Habit
It is the duty of the teacher to unable his student to
speak in English. Through speech the pupil learns to make
a direct connection between English words or phrase, and
the object and ideas. He learns the habit of using words in
the correct sentence pattern and phrases pattern and he
can learn this in no other way.
Spoken words always have first place over the written
words. BloomfIeld has rightly pointed out "We write the
spoken word." The written word or printed word is nothing
but a symbol of spoken wont. For cultivating good speech
habit enough attention should be paid to pronunciation
because it is the root to a good speech. The teacher must
himself be acquainted with the fundamental of English
pronunciation. There are few causes of incorrect speech.
• Less attention is paid on speech training in
schools. When teacher teaches in class, he does
not care about the pronunciation of himself and
students.
• During teaching teacher himself, commits faulty
pronunciation so student also follow him.
• Teacher has no knowledge of speech sounds.
Every language has its own sounds. There is
difference in the sounds of English and Hindi
language. So enough knowledge should be given
to students and teachers.
• Regional effect on the speech.
• Retroactive inhibition.
110 Oral Work

Physical disability.


Lack of knowledge of intonation and stress.
Clipping of the sounds.
Measures to develop correct speech habit:
There are three main methods of teaching which can
develop correct speech habit in students:
1. Imitation method
2. Phonetic Method
3. Subsidiary method
Imitation Method :
The teachers' pronunciation must be good and correct
and it must separately be imitated by his students. This
method has four steps:
1. Perception
2. Imitation
3. Feed back
4. Drill
Perception:
Teacher writes the words or sentence on the black
board and himself gives model pronunciation among the
student. Students follow the pronunciation words or
sentence.
Imitation:
The training of the ear is an importance means of
mental development. The students therefore, carefully
attend to the two processes of listening and imitation. The
teacher pronounces the words and students try to
pronounce the words clearly and exactly like the teacher
but the pronunciation of the teacher must be correct.
Oral Work
Feed Back:
111
The teacher asks the students to pronounce the words
and if he finds that the pronunciation is not correct, he
tells them correct or exact pronunciation. That is called
feedback.
Drill :
It is the last step of imitation method. It had two parts.
1. Individual drill
2. Group Drill
The teacher asks the students to listen to his
pronunciation carefully and then ask them to speak the
word individually in higher class and -:::ollectively in lower
class.
Phonetic Method :
Phonetic is science of sounds as used in speech. The
teacher tells the correct pronunciation to student by giving
the knowledge of English phonetics. There are many sounds
in English language. So students must receive the
knowledge of English phonetic to produce these new
sounds correctly. In this method the teacher tries to tell
about 45 sounds presents in the English letters. He tells
that these sounds are produced by different human sounds
organs and also side by side explain the rules of producing
these sounds.
Daniel Jones has given five steps of the phonetic
method in his book An Outline of English Phonetic:
1. Recognition of various speech sounds correcting
the English language.
2. Making of these sounds by students.
3. Learning these sounds in the usage of sound
attribute.
112
4.
Oral Work
Learn to pronounce the complete sequence
rapidly and to each sound of a sequence or to
the text.
In the phonetic method practice of producing correct
sounds is very important. The teacher can also take the
help of different material aids in teaching pronunciation
through this method.
Subsidiary Method :
In addition to the above there are various other
methods also that can be used to teach pronunciation of
words. These are as follows:
1. Singing songs in chorus as well as individually
2. Reciting poems.
3. Analysing long and difficult words.
4. Debating.
5. Dramatising.
6. Conversing.
+++++
7
•••••
READING
----------------------
Introduction :
Bacon remarks in his essay Of Studies "Reading
makes a full man." Reading means to understand the
meaning of printed.. words Le. written symbols. Reading is
an active process which consists of recognition and
recognition and comprehension skill. Reading is an
important activity in life with which one can update his/
her knowledge. Reading skill is an important tool for
academic success.
Bacon's dictum: "Some books are to be tasted, others
to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and diverted"
provider available guidance about the kind of reading habits
to be developed in our pupils. It implies the pupil should
have two types of reading: Intensive reading and extensive
reading.
Reading is most useful and important skill for people.
This skill is more important than speaking and writing.
Reading is a source of joys. Good reading is that which
keeps students regular in reading which provide him both
pleasure and profit.
Reading is the most important activity in any language
114 Reading
class. Reading is not only a source of information and a
pleasurable activity but also as a means of consolidating
and extending one's knowledge of the language. Reading
is very necessary to widen the mind and gain and
understanding of the foreign culture. Reading is certainly
an important activity for expanding knowledge of a
language. Thus Reading and writing reinforce each other
and consolidate the aural-oral learning. The teaching and
speaking, provides for greater variety of classroom activity
for both teacher and students than a purely aural-oral
programme.
Reading habits not only help the student to get
knowledge and wisdom from the cultural of heritage, but
are also very helpful in passing for leisure period. Leisure
hours are not only, during the active period of life but also,
more significantly, during the period when man has retired
from active life. Therefore the learner of English must know
reading English. The education of a child is imperfect,
unless he is supplied every things needed with the ability
of reading. A.S. West comments: "Reading is a process of
sight- second sense." W.S. Gray notes:
Reading is form of experience.
Reading brings us in contact with the
minds of great authors, with the
written account of their experiences.
Their recorded lines and the
made by them in
various fields.
The process of reading may be broadly classified into
three stages:
1. The first stage is 'the recognition stage'. At this
stage the learner simply recognizes the graphic
ccunterparts of the phonological items. For
Reading 115
TYPES OF READING
INTENSIVE READING
IS ALOUD READING
nw. -dine can lie caIled.xi
redineorp ..... _ ~ In
this type of_dine ihe
leamer D!iiUIs ihe Btto CjI!t
Ja.w1edp. ru -dine-
do_ to cuv _tto CjI!t
-.ec:ifk mi>nnlkt-.
EXTENSIVE READING IS
SILENT READING
Exmn.riw -dine- ihe madinc
fiorpleuu:lll!. De ma.derwan_ to
ahoabDJnI!ihinc. The D!a.der
do. not QUI! ah .... tspec:ifk or
important DmnnlkUon at'i!r
r e ~ UruaJlypeople madfior
-.. ihe:m lIPda ••
116
Reading
instance he recognizes the spoken words in its
written form. Difficulty at this stage depends
upon the difference between the script of the
learner's mother tongue and English and
between the spelling conventions of two
languages.
2. The second stage is the 'structuring stage.' The
learner sees the syntactic relationship of the
items and understands the structural meaning
of the syntactical units.
3. The third stage is the 'interpretation stage'. This
is the highest level in the process of reading. The
learner comprehends the significance of a word,
a phrase, or a sentence in the overall context of
the discards. For instance, he comprehends the
serious and jocular use of words, distinguishes
between a statement of fact and a statement of
opinion. It is this stage at which a person really
reads for information or for pleasure.
Silent reading is the most important type of reading.
Silent reading should be introduced when the students has
mastered the basic structured, comprehends the meaning
of words and can recognize and pronounce words
accurately. Silent reading enable s the students to read
without making sounds and moving his lips. It helps him
read with speed, ease and fluency. It aids comprehension
and expands the student's vocabulary.
1. Teaching Reading at the earlier Stage:
At the early stage the necessary precautions should
be observed during the course of good teaching reading:
1. The teacher should not insist on speed of reading
but on the accuracy pronunciation while
teaching reading.
117 Readi!lg
2. While teaching reading teacher should ask not
more than one pupil to read at one time and he
should pay individual attention to every
students of class.
3. While teaching reading the teacher should be
very careful in pointing out and rectifying the
mistakes of pronunciation, articulation and
intonation of the pupil.
4. While teaching reading the teacher should first
try to find out the causes of mistakes committed
by the students and then try to correct them by
eradicating the cause of mistake.
S. While teaching reading the teacher should be
aware of the right sitting or standing posture
for reading.
The pupil should be enlightened on this point from
time to tome. Further pupil should be asked to read, keeping
the book at a right distance from the eyes and it should
also be ensured that when there reading, there should be
proper arrangement of light facility. If the visibility is poor
the door and windows should be opened. Light may be
put on a table lamp may also be used to improve viSibility.
While reading the book should be held in left hand and the
index finger of the right hand should be placed under the
word or line which is being read.
Types of Reading :
1. Intensive Reading.
2. Extensive Reading
3. Aloud Reading
4. Silent Reading,
1. Intensive Reading :
Intensive reading is related to further progress in
language learning under the teacher's guidance. Intensive
118 Reading
reading will provide a basis for explaining difficulties of
structure and for extending knowledge of vocabulary and
idioms. It will also provide material for developing greater
control of the language in speech and writing. The material
selected should parallel the type of material the advanced
student would enjoy in the native language: short stories,
novels, plays, and poems, articles on scientific discoveries,
artistic achievements, political development, and aspects
of contemporary community life in a country where the
language is spoken. Since this reading matter will be studied
in detail, it will not serve as the ideal vehicle for further
practice in direct teaching. This purpose will be served by
the material chosen for extensive reading.
Intensive reading material will be the basis for
classroom activity. It will not only be read but will be
discussed in detail in the target language, sometimes
analyzed and used as a basis for writing exercises. At this
stage, some teachers fall into the monotonous pattern of
setting a section of reading material for homework
preparation every night. Then they begin the lesson each
day by asking student to translate what they have
prepared, sentence by sentence around the class. This
becomes a tedious chore, completed in a purposeless way,
and soon destroys any pleasure in the reading assignment.
Teachers must work continuously for variety of presentation
in the classroom. Sometimes sections of intensive reading
material may be set for preparation before hand, the
students being supplied with questions to think about before
they come to class. The ability of the students to talk and
write in the foreign language about the material chosen
for intensive reading will be very dependent on the teacher's
choice of texts. The literature chosen for intensive study
should be predominantly contemporary.
Intensive reading is text reading or passage reading.
In this reading the learner read the text to get knowledge
Reading
119
or analysis. The goal of this reading is to read shorter text.
This reading is done to carry out to get specific information.
Learner reads book to acquire knowledge is the kind of
intensive reading. There are few characteristics of intensive
reading:
1. This reading helps learner to develop active
vocabulary.
2. Teacher play main role in this Reading.
3. Linguistic items are developed.
4. This reading aims at active use of language.
5. Intensive reading is reading aloud.
6. In intensive reading speech habit are
emphasized and accent, stress, intonation and
rhythm can be corrected.
2. Extensive Reading :
Material for extensive reading will be selected at a
lower level of difficulty than that for intensive reading. The
purpose of extensive reading will be to train the student to
read directly and fluently in the target language for
enjoyment, without the aid of the teacher. Extensive
reading can be made the basis for oral reports, to the rest
of the class, or full class discussion. It may be the source for
written compositions in which students deal with specific
issues arising from the material in the book. On occasions,
the class may be divided into groups to read interrelated
material. Each group may prepare some part of the project
on some present a group report to the rest of the class. This
type of class project gives a point and purpose to extensive
reading by building reading practice into a matrix of
purposeful activity. Thus, the attention of the reader is
directed toward the extraction of information from the text,
rather than towards the reading process itself.
120 Reading-
Extensive reading assignments may direct students
to articles of current interest in foreign language magazines
or newspapers. To ensure that students do not become
bogged down in reading which is too complicated, the
teacher will be well advised to discuss the relation of articles
to be read, with due regard to the special interests of the
readers. Extensive reading is the reading for pleasure. The
reader wants to know about something. The reader does
not care about specific or important information after
reading. Usually people read for to keep them update.
Few Characteristics of Extensive Reading are :
1. It helps learner to develop to active vocabulary.
2. Extensive reading is silent reading.
3. In extensive reading the subject matter is
emphasized.
4. In the extensive reading the learners play main
role because they have to ask for measures.
5. In extensive reading the idea can be developed.
6. The aim of extensive reading is to enrich learners'
knowledge.
7. Through extensive reading the good reading
habit can be developed.
3. Aloud Reading :
Reading aloud also play important role in teaching
of English. Teacher should know that the training of
reading aloud must be given at primary level because it is
the base of words pronunciation. If it is not cared, it will be
vary difficult at secondary level. According to S.
Venkateswaran reading aloud is not useful at the secondary
level because of the following reasons:
1. It is very difficult skill. In unseen text or in other
text there are many words which student does
not know how to pronounce it.
Reading
2.
3.
4.
121
If student have riot prepared himself for reading,
it will be very difficult for him. The reading will
be unnatural.
Reading basically is reading silently.
According to Venktes, only those text should be
read aloud, which have been written to read
aloud like poetry, dialogue, and other type of
text. The texts which have no need not to read
aloud should not be read aloud.
How to make reading aloud interesting :
English teaching is very important task at secondary
level. Because at this stage learner comes in contact of other
people and have to talk and read any subject matter. So it
becomes very necessary for him to pronounce very well in
English. In their academic college they have to read and
read so the skill of reading becomes very important for
learners. What the teacher can do for better and effective
teaching of reading as under:
1. The material which teacher present before
students should be according to previous
knowledge of the students or related t their own
experience.
2. The teacher should emphasize on the stress of
learners.
3. The teacher should be very careful while process
of reading is going on. If any mistake is
committed by learners, he should correct it.
Correction should be friendly and productive.
4. The teacher should care about all readers. He
should also draw his attention toward weak
readers
5. While teacher present model reading, this model
reading should be according the level of readers
122 Reading
so that readers could upderstand it very well
and pronounce very well.
Advantage of Aloud Reading :
1. It enables learner to develop the skill of reading
very well by speaking or expressing ideas.
2. It enables learner to develop the skill of
pronounce very well.
3. It makes reading very enjoyable while teacher
uses reinforcement during reading.
4. Language learning is a kind of imitation. When
teacher says anything or read any text, the
learner also tries to imitate that. So teacher
should have innovative ideas so that it can make
this activity very affective.
Disadvantage of Aloud Reading :
1. Over crowed class is very big problem. The
teacher can not provide sufficient opportunities
to all students.
2. At earlier stage reading aloud is very necessary.
If enough training of reading aloud is not given
at primary level, it will be difficult to read aloud
at secondary stage.
3. Only bright and intelligent students learn to
read aloud very well because they get chance
frequently while average/students hardly get the
chanced of reading. So they become the passive
learners.
5. Reading aloud takes more time so it is time
consuming. All students can not read at a time
so managing classroom becomes impossible.
4. Siler.t Reading :
Silent reading is a very important skill in teaching of
English. This reading should be employed to increase
Reading 123
reading ability among learners. Silent reading is done to
acquire a lot of information. Teacher has to make them
read silently as and when they are able to read without
any difficulties. It is kind of habit in which learner are
enabled to read without any audible whisper.
How to make Reading Interesting :
Teaching reading is very important skill because this
is the stage where the knowledge of learners starts to flight.
The selection of reading material should be authentic. How
the teacher can make his teaching reading effective:
1. Teacher should tell about the topic first to the
learners. He should motivate students. Teacher
should not read first but he should allow the
students to read the text.
2. Teacher should not allow the student to
murmuring while reading.
3. The subject matter should be interested and
effective and selected from the reading material
developed for it.
4. Eclectic approach can be used by teacher for
better comprehension and understanding.
Advantage of Silent Reading :
1. This reading makes students very active and
accurate.
2. Silent reading concentrates the attention of
learners toward subject matter and he learns
naturally.
3. It saves time because this activity is done at a
time. All students participate together in this
activity at a time.
124 Reading
4. It is very useful to develop the skill of reading
fast.
S. This skill plays main role to increase the
knowledge of students.
Disadvantage of Silent Reading :
1. This technique is not useful at earlier stage of
language learning.
2. Through this skill one can learn the
pronunciation.
3. In this skill the leaner can cheat the teacher if
subject matter is not interested.
4. Only bright and intelligent students can learn
this skill but average students learn it hardly.
+++++
8
+++++
WRITING AND COMPOSITION
----------------------
1. Mechanism of Writing Written Exercises
Language is primarily speech and writing is a means
to preserve it. Writing is a kind of linguistic behaviour; a
picture is not. It presents the sounds of language through
visual symbols. Writing may be very important for one
group of students but much less important for others. The
decision on how much writing to include will be made
independently according to the needs of each group of
students. Writing is a skill which must be taught and
practised. Writing is essential features of learning a language
because it provides a very good means of foxing the
vocabulary, spelling, and sentence pattern. It becomes an
important aspect of students' expression at higher stage.
Writing is the most efficiently acquired when practice
in writing parallels practice in the other skills. Writing
provides an excellent consolidating activity. Writing is also
useful for setting homework exercises and for some class
text. It has been suggested that writing is hailed a service
activity for most students rather than an end in itself; the
teacher will find that the problem 'how much writing?'
soon solves itself. The type of writing in which the students
126 Writing and Composition
are engaged will became more sophisticated as they acquire
greater facility in the exercise of the other skills.
Mechanics of Writing :
1. Making strokes with proper hand movements.
This means to know from where to start a letter
and where to end it
2. Write letter of appropriate size and proper
shape.
3. Write letter in words with proper space.
4. Write words in sentence with proper space.
5. Write sentence in paragraph with proper space.
6. Write correct spelling in words.
7. Write capital letters correctly.
8. Write legibly and neatly.
During the first new weeks of teaching English the
teacher may write on the black board occasionally, show
the flash card of picture with word on it and expect
students to read and then only to transcribe them. The
teacher may teach the writing in a formal way after a few
weeks of oral work.
How to Introduce Writing:
In the beginning the teacher must teach every thing
by demonstration. It is very necessary that the teacher gives
students practice in pattern drawing.
The teacher must give practice in writing script
because it is simple and easy. It helps the students to write
correct spelling because they have t reproduce the visual
image that they get while reading. The teaching of print
script is profitable also because it gives less strain to the
muscles because effort is not to be made to join letters. But
Writing and Composition 127
COMPOSITION
l
1
1
Guided and
con'lrolled
Free Composition
composition
/
In i1U11;ype ofcomposi"IiDn In i1U11;ype ofworkdae
the Jeamer IlOmple._ JeamerisJeftfme io
work1DUlerdae &Uidan.ee comple. his _rk
or controlJinc;of ....,her There is no inar:li!:dnc
.He is given all _quimd of.amer. The Jeamer
maaJial io IlOmple. his uses his own mind. and.
work. comple •• his wod.:

Oral composition Writlen composition

In tlu:s composition the learner
In this composition the learner
eXPlesses their ideas ani thoughts
eXPlesses his ideas ani thoughts
orally. Oral a:lmpositian maybe
in written farm. It may also be
comrolled or flee. comrolled or flee.
I
PkiuJ:e Composiii.an.
I
In ihU campomlan. _ms: Pve! .. pidun uul uk D lG4IJcinc
IhU lIidure. Iii. _type d IUi4ed C4lJIIP4IsDUxn.
128 Writing and Composition
teacher must make it a point to group the letter according
to their shape and size if he teaches the alphabet. He must
also decide to teach the small letters afterwards.
2. Graded Exercises in Written Work
The teacher may give the following types of exercise
after the students have acquired a writing skill to a certain
extent:
1. Transcription of sentence.
2. Writing sentence from the substitution table.
3. Forming sentence from disorders words.
4. Fill in the blanks
5. Matching parts of sentence.
6. Changing statement into questions.
7. Changing sentence into negative and other.
8. Changing singular in plural and gender change.
9. Putting capital letter and punctuation marks
in a sentence.
10. Writing answer of simple question.
11. Framing sentence to use particular words.
3. Picture Composition :
English Composition occupies a very important place
in the learning of English. It is now accepted that students
must be given intensive practice in controlled composition
and after that only they should be expected to write free
composition. Picture composition is one type of guided. The
teacher should teach picture composition very carefully
because the students have to develop the skill of observation
and then onl'y they have to arrange their ideas in proper
sequence using correct vocabulary and framing
Writing and Composition
129
grammatically correct sentences. The teacher may follow
the steps while teaching picture composition:
1. Before coming to composition exercise the
teacher should select a picture according to the
level of the students. Then he should revise the
structure and vocabulary.
2. The teacher will present a picture before students
to observe or he may give a list of word to write
paragraph on the picture
3. The teacher may present structure of words to
frame the sentence of the same type using them
from the ready list.
4. Then the teacher may ask students to develop
the composition.
5. The teacher must always present a picture
composition and ask students to write the
composition in their words.
6. The teacher can teach picture composition by
giving them unarranged sentence and ask them
to rearrange the sentence keeping in view the
picture presented to make a good composition.
7. The teacher may present a list of questions in
sequence and a picture. Then he may ask
students to write answer of question looking the
picture.
8. The teacher will present a picture and give
complete composition giving blank space and
ask the students to fill appropriate word in blank
space.
9. The teacher may present a picture before
students and gives points related to picture and
can ask them to write complete composition.
130 Writing and Composition
10. The teacher may present a picture and can ask
them to describe complete composition orally.
1. Guided and Controlled Composition :
In this type of composition, the learners are supplied
all necessary structural and lexical items to along with the
thoughts and ideas to be expressed. The role of the teacher
in this is only a improver and guide. The teacher gives them
guidance by way of asking questions, pictures, cues etc. it
enable students to work independently under guidance of
teacher. It is one of the activities included into supervised
study.
2. Free Composition :
This is the composition in which the learners express
their ideas freely and without controlling. The language is
not used in control manner by the learners. According
situation the learners prepare their composition freely. This
type of composition develops the ability of "learning
through insight". In beginning they need the guidance of
teacher but later they use it independently. It is called free
composition because at this stage the learners are free to
choose their structure and vocabulary and express their
own thoughts and ideas on a given topic.
3. Oral and Written composition:
A. Oral Composition : In oral composition the
learners express their ideas and thoughts orally. The oral
composition may be conti"Olled or free. In this, composition
only the spoken language is used. Learners are prohibited
to use pen and pencil. They are to express their thoughts
only orally. They can not express their ideas in written form.
It is very useful in primary classes of teaching English.
B. Written Composition: In written composition
the learners express their ideas and thoughts in written
form. The written composition may be also free or
Writing and Composition 131
controlled. In the written composition only written form
of language is accepted. Learners use pen or pencil in
written composition. This is also very useful exercise for
learning language.
4. Paragraph Writing:
In this writing the learner are asked to write a
paragraph on any topic. In this writing the learner express
their thoughts and ideas in his own way. In this writing
the learner needs special and specific training to write
sentence meaningfully. In the paragraph the lexical and
structural items should in proper order. This writing task
needs a idea or theme to be expressed in paragraph.
Teacher should give interesting topic to the students so that
he could make paragraph writing very interesting. The
teachers should give only those topics, on which students
could write. For example teachers may give these types of
topics:
• For primary classes:
My class teacher, My School, My Class room
• For intermediate class:
The Railway station, The Public Park, The post
man
• For Advanced Classes:
A Visit to a Museum, Do I like tea or Milk, A
Visit to A Zoo
5. Spelling and Pronunciation correction of written
work:
"Language is sound contextualized." When we learn
language, listening comes first than speaking. The teacher
must give motor training to enable student to write in good
manner, speedily and correctly.
Dictation is a good training to ear and as well as motor
132 Writing and Composition
training to the sttidents. There are many advantages of
dictation:
1. It trains students to reproduce in writing what
they listen.
2. It gives good aural practice to the students. It
develops the habit of listening attentively in
students.
3. It enables students to understand the part of
each sentence and word phrases.
4. It enables student to write at good reasonably
speed.
5. It enables students to understand spelling and
punctuation.
6. It enables student to write- to use capital letters.
7. It enables students to develop the habit of
listening spoken language and getting used to
the sound of system of the English language.
In dictation the teacher speaks the students listen to
him and write that in their note book. Dictation exercise in
early stage must be planned to help the students to write
correctly and also with reasonable speed. It should not be
used as the test exercise. It should be given out of the
language material which the students have already
practiced. If there is any difficulty or unfamiliar words in
the paragraph, the teacher should write them on black
board.
It is very necessary that the teacher at once corrects
the dictation but always not. In that case the teacher must
ask the students to exchange their note book with their
neighbours and then the teacher should write the words
likely to be mis-spelt and ask the students to check the note
books they have.
• ••••
9
+++++
TEACHING OF PROSE, POETRY AND
GRAMMAR
----------------------
1. Teaching of Prose
In English language teaching the teaching of prose
occupies an important place. In the yearly years all
language items should be practised before reading. Reading
implies reading with comprehension. Reading
comprehension involves understanding the meaning of
context, vocabulary, grammatical structure and concepts.
Reading reinforces the vocabulary. Intensive reading aims
at providing practice with sentence of newly introduced
pattern. It concentrates on the study of the language.
Extensive reading concentrates on the matter. It is reading
for information. Both are important in teaching prose.
Extensive reading reinforces the vocabulary and structure.
In intensive reading there is model reading by the teacher
and loud reading by the students.
In the language one can use language in two forms.
One is prose and other is verse. The verse is the oldest form
of expressing thoughts and ideas whereas the prose is a
latest form of expressing ideas. Whole literature is divided
into two forms, verse and prose. The learners should have
134 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
TEACHING PLANNING
-
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---

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TEACHING PROSE
I I
TEACHING POETRY
I
TEACHING
I
GRAMAMR

---..----
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!Il!!!!!m.WuIAl b. odced *'

know.twImD _emad One .... ilW ..... g ....... t-...
in T.L.l'n' ... _eo.<h WuIAl b. odced *' Jawwfiwl_
DUIa.t!'f!"ih. rei:nfe:rt emmt.
inw.lvuIuntin T,L.l'n, ... oftor
I
4--5 Ouerii.m.I:&smUrlmu
eo.<h rim ...... rlinforU! ...... t
"'co ... ,WWeWIln
4-5 Ouerii.m.llllIliillmlI
AfIu: ....... oIion
....
... c ....
!l!!!!!!igWulAlb •
AfIu: ... oIu.ation ..........
pnper rlinfortemmt,
1Mn. Obj.div.typ.
du>uI4 b. odced. Obj.di""

typ.
..
At ........
At 1ari t ... m. WuIAl ncit.
At ........
WuIAlb. 1Mn, Effaytype
p .... "' • .(l!{pIouun,
WuIAl b. 1Mn. E •• ay
lL
typ.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar 135
LANGUAGE FORM
OBJECTIVES OF
TEACHINC PROSE
1. To ,Jevelop ahili.",. of
readalowl with
correaprcm:unciaom.
and JhyiIoninJeamer.
2. To emiclL iheir
.
3. To clevelop. &hili.",.
Gf campmllll!!lul .
-anbIc ofihe ieD.
4.. To clevelop • &hi6..",.
of u,joy mading smri
pusap in iarpt
vmSEFORM
OBJECTIVES OF TEACHINC
VERSE
1. To enahJe s'ludenw ."
"UJUleutand and u,joy ihe
poetJy.
2. Undeuiand ihe amtm1
ide_. "Ihcnq;Jlw of ihe
poetJy and beauty of.
Lmc,u:ap.
3. To enahJe ihe s'ludenw ."
reaie • poem wi1h.

in'lDnaiim, _ami and
rhytun.
136 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
mastery in both verse and prose but expressing ideas in
verse is a little difficult. The prose is found very easily in
text book. Prose is a narrative art of expression. In higher
classes where the medium of instruction is English, prose
is taught.
Objectives of Teaching Prose :
Teaching of English is very complex task. It is taught
as second language in country like India. It is taught not as
other subject like math and social science. English is a
language so it is taught to increase the linguistic competence
in learner so that he could use it in his behavioural life.
There are objective which should be kept in mind while
teaching:
1. To develop the ability of read aloud with correct
pronunciation and rhythm in learners.
2. To enrich their vocabulary.
3. To develop the ability of comprehend meaning
of the text.
4. To develop the ability of enjoy reading short
passages in target language.
How can a teacher make teaching prose effective :
1. The prose should be selected according the
interest and individual differences of the
students.
2. The prose must be read aloud.
3. The teacher should motivate students for
listening.
4. Before teaching prose the teacher should narrate
the central idea or theme very briefly.
5. Teacher should use audio visual aids to make
his teaching effective.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar 137
6. Before model reading, there should be
pronunciation drill.
7. The students should be asked to read silently.
8. Teacher should ask questions with a view to
familiarize them with literature of target
language; they should not be on literary aspect.
2. Teaching of Poetry
Teaching of poetry embodies the beauty of the
language, thought and feelings. It uplifts the human soul
and brings music and joy into life. Poetry is the musical
and metrical form of language and it brings students in
touch with the very best of human nature. It develops the
aesthetic pleasure and students enjoy the lyricism which is
inherent in poetry. Poetry plays an important role in the
several curriculums. It helps in the all round development
of the student, particularly the emotional, imaginative,
intellectual and aesthetic sides. It enriches the expression
of students and introduces a variety of language pattern.
Poetry is the blossom and fragrance of all human
knowledge, human thoughts, human passion and
emotions.
Poetry embodies light in expression, stretched,
between thought, feeling and form, Poet works at the
frontier of knowledge. Ted Hughes in his important and
international book Poetry in the Making describes two
aspect of poetry. Hughes claim is that poetry is possessed
of certain wisdom, some thing special, something that are
curious to learn. His claim is that the latent talent for self
expression in any child is immeasurable. There recognitions
are at the heart of reading and writing poetry in schools.
The activities in the classroom need to reflect a desire to
promote both in a collaborative endeavour between the
teacher and taught.
138 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
METHODS OF TEACHING GRAMMAR
J
l l
DEDUCTIVE METHOD INDUCTIVE METHOD
-----
~ ~ ~
In fm me'lhod 'leacher&m In fm me'lhod 'leacher
prelll!Jl.iI defini:li.cm, "iheory fiDt giw,s esample to
orprincipal. Th.enhe giw,. male his i e ~
the examples *' dear his
e&dive and ihen. eMs
concept. the mnceptor holY.
.. ..
lNDUCTIVE DEDUCTIVE INCIDENTAL
MEmOD MEmOD
l
1
In fm me'lhod 'leacher&m
prelll!Jl.iI e ~ ihen. Ells h
definition or am.cept and. hn
In fm me'lhod h ieacher
he tales e ~ from
e ~ CORIpD III!JI.EIule
stud.enil. Then he dears his
pa:Hena.
concept.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar 139
Poetry is often neglected and poorly provided for.
Many students spend much more time completing language
exercises of little value than they do rending, writing or
talking about poetry. Some English teachers express great
unease about teaching poetry. Poetry should be encouraged
whereas possible. Teachers attitude to poetry are crucial in
the importance they attach to it; the enthusiasm with which
they read it aloud.; the extent to which they read it widely
themselves; and the way in which they demonstrate a
concerned responsibility for it in how they give it status.
Poetry is powerful form of expression. Poetry is a thing
of beauty. Beauty of form, beauty of language, beauty of
thoughts, mood and feeling. Poetry is included in the school
curriculum so as to develop the aesthetic pleasure, the
feelings for beauty in pupils.
The aim of teaching poetry is to give pleasure and lay
the foundations for an adequate appreciation of what is
beautiful in life. It eases the ennui owed by the intensive
study of subjects. Poetry is beauty and truth. Poetry means
much to the adolescent. Poetry can communicate the actual
quality of experience with a subi:le and precision
unapproachable by nay other means. A poetry teacher
should bear in mind to pick up an apt poem for his pupils,
learn by heart, read it aloud with stress, intonation, keep
examinations apart and make it an exercise.
It is well known that poetry is for pleasure, enjoy and
appreciation. It is not for teaching language. This means
that poetry is not taught for teaching any language item. It
is said that poetry is to be felt and not studied as a prose
lesson is studied. It is some thing that is personal. Poetry is
a piece of creative writing in verse. In the words of
Coleridge, 'Poetry is the best words in their best orders'.
Poetry is always read for aesthetic pleasure. The reader
reads poetry to enjoy the beauty of the language.
140 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
The Objectives of Teaching Poetry :
Dr. Paliwal (1998) has defined the objectives of teaching
poetry at the secondary level in his book English Language
Teaching. The objectives are as under:
1. To enable students to understand and enjoy the
poetry.
2. To enable the students to understand the central
idea, thoughts of the poetry and beauty of the'
language.
3. To enable the students to recite the poem with
proper beats, stress, intonation, ascent ~ n d
rhythm.
4. To enable the students to imagine and develop
their aesthetic sense.
How can a teacher make Teaching Poetry Effective :
1. In poetry teaching, the teacher should not
emphasis on content.
2. Poetry should be read for pleasure.
3. To enable the students to develop the habit of
reading and reciting poem.
4. To enable students to read aloud for listening
comprehension.
5. To enable the students to enjoy words, phrases
and rhythm.
6. Ask learner to read silently.
7. Teacher should ask simple questions and make
them employing their effort to understand it.
A teacher should always know How to teach poetry
to second language or first language learners. The teaching
of poetry should be live and it should enrich their linguistic
capabilities for acquiring communicative competence.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
3. Teaching of Grammar
141
Grammar is a scientific statement of the principles of
good usage which concerns with the relation of words in
the sentence. Educated people use certain forms of
expression. Language specialists study the forms they use,
note that they follow a few comparatively simple principles,
and state these principles. The result is grammar.
Teaching of grammar is a much debated topic in
language learning. Different expert have give different
pinion about teaching of grammar. According some, the
language can not be learnt without studying of grammar
of the language. According to Dr. Sweet "Grammar is not
a code of rules." According to Chapman:
Grammar is a study of language by
specialist, made in order to establish
the rules and principles which
underline the correct speech and
writing, rules and principles which
are followed more or less
unconsciously by the native speakers.
But some people say that the utility of teaching of
grammar is doubtful in learning English. They say that the
students who study grammar are very often able to solve
grammar exercise but do not write correct speech.
Teaching of grammar had very important place in
the past. It was commonly believed that to help the pupil
to learn English language its grammar must be taught first.
It was also believed"that without knowing and mastering
grammatical rules of English, one can not learn to speak
and write it. Slowly it was realized that correct usages go
on changing fro time to time. And as a result grammar
teaching which was regarded as an end in itself lost its
142 Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
importance. Then the direct method of teaching English
was introduced and teaching of grammar lost its
importance. The introduction of direct method gave an idea
that to be able to speak or write English knowledge of
grammatical rules is not necessary. Those who favoured
the direct method of teaching English said that language
can be learnt by practice and not by studying the rules of
grammar. Now it is believed that grammar can not be
taught in isolation. Teaching of grammar helps students
only to understand and to decide whether the language
that they speak or write is correct or not.
Methods of Teaching Grammar :
There are three methods of teaching of grammar:
1. Deductive Method
2. Inductive method
3. Inductive Deductive Method
4. Incidental Method
1. Deductive Method :
In deductive method the teacher uses a grammar text
book. He tells his students rules or definitions and explains
those with the help of examples then he gives exercise and
ask his pupils to apply the rules.
Advantages of Deductive Method :
1. Average teacher can use this method in country
like India.
2. This method hel ps students to compare the ideas
in grammar of mother tongue and second or
first language.
3. The learner can try the grammatical questions
very easily.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
143
4. Learner can respond effectively and can explain
rules, structures, etc.
Disadvantage of Deductive Method :
1. This method makes learner learning about
language.
2. This method can not develop communicative
ability among learners.
3. The learners become inactive during class room
teaching.
4. This method is not child centred but teacher
centred.
5. In the class room teaching there is hardly use of
audio visual aids.
2. Inductive Method :
In inductive method the teacher first presents or takes
the example from the students then comes on theory or
concept.
Advantage of Inductive Method :
1. Inductive method is based on the theory "From
example to generalization". So it is very useful
in class room teaching.
2. This method helps students to understand the
difference between particular notion in
grammar of L1 and L2/FL.
3. The learners learn the particular grammar point
through use. First they have to deduce the
meaning and later they generalize the form or
structure.
Disadvantage of Inductive Method :
1. This method is not useful in over crowed classes
like India.
144
2.
3.
4.
Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar
The institute must be ready to focus the language
aspect, not the mark criteria.
In this method the teacher has to use modern
method of teaching language.
Only an innovative teacher can use this method.
3. Inductive Deductive Method :
This method as the name shows is the synthesis of
both above the methods. This method can remove the
limitation of both the above methods. The teacher following
this method will first present the examples before his
students then will explain them or analyses them. Then he
will try to see that pupil draw some conclusion and then
teacher will give the rules. But here the teacher does not
stop. He then gives new examples and ask his pupil to verify
the rules.
This method of teaching grammar proves very
successful and advantageous as it become practical, real
and scientific. It proves very successful because it is very
psychological following all the accepted maxims of teaching
and the pupil are not forces to cram the rules.
4. Incidental Method :
Grammar teaching in this method is done during the
teaching of a textbook or composition writing. The teacher
explains complex sentence pattern. But the method at times
disturbs the teaching of a textbook or composition writing .
•••••
10
+++++
SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES OF
ENGLISH TEACHER
----------------------
1. Skills and competencies of English Teacher :
English is a foreign language. To teach it in a
satisfactory manner good teacher of English is required. It
must also be remembered that all the good teachers can
not teach English in good manner at all stage. It is common
experience that a teacher teaching English in standard V
or VIII Le. at the primary level very satisfactorily may not
succeed in teaching at the secondary or higher secondary
level.
In other words to teach at different levels a teacher
needs to have calibre and qualities appropriate for that level.
Still however, a good teacher of English must possesses
some qualities:
• He must be lover of English.
• He must have sound knowledge of English
language as well as literature.
• He must know different methods of teaching
English.
• He must have an ability and skill to teach
methodically and systematically.
146 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGLISH
TEACHER
l
Personal attribute
ProCessional expertise
Personality traits
I _____ A_w_·m __ de ____ ______ Kn __ ______
English la:nguage teacher k as Facilitator not as a Conventio na1
teacher
English la:nguage teacher k as hlstrw:tor not as a Preacher .1
English la:nguage teacher k as Content and Material developer 1
English la:nguage teacher k as Classroom Manager I
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 147
• He must know how to use different audio visual
aids.
• He must be able to pronounce English
responsible correctly.
• He must have ability to speak English correctly.
• He must know the techniques of writing.
• He must know and speak observing correct
intonation and stress pattern.
• He must be able to speak with correct phrases.
• He must have an ability to understand his
students.
• He should always take interest in his students
and become soft toward his students.
• He must have an ability to identify the mistakes
of his students.
• He must have an ability of thinking power.
• He must have an ability to adopt necessary
remedial measurements.
• He should have good hand writing.
• He must have the knowledge of different types
of activities and how to organize all activities.
2. Importance of Evaluation in the Teaching of
English:
Evaluation has important place in the teaching of
English. The class room teacher, the head master, the district
education officer and parents wants to know how much
and in what ways the students are benefited through
studies.
The students are taught English with a view to
developing their ability to comprehend and to express.
148 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
TYPES OF EVALUATION QUESTIONS
Completion
This 'type of questioJl
GexeraIly this 'type 0 f Test
is also kJtowJl as long
questioJlS is askeol 2. Alternate
axswer questioJlS.
witJta mwto response Test.
TIle studeJlis bve to
axswer into 0 JIe or 3 Multiple
elaborate the aJlSWer
two seJlteJU:e. TIle cholce Test
ad they bve to
cIirect questioJlS are 4 Matciung
explaill according to
askeol with millim.a1 Test
questioJl askeol. Ix
wdt of the COJlteJlt. 5. Analogy Test
this 'type of questioJlS
6 U nSUl.tability
kJtowledge of the
Test
Iearxers CaB be
7 One word
assessed.
answer Test
8 Recall Test.
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 149
EVALUATION TEST
In this type of In this type of test In this type of test the
test the the questions are practical or behavioral
questions are asked in written work is given to the
asked orally. Corm. The questions students. It may be an
The questions may be objectives or experiments, field
maybe short answer types. work or project work
objectives or on which students
short answer have to work.
types.
150 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
There for it is very necessary to find out in exact term the
out comes of the teaching learning programme in the light
of our instructional objectives. In evaluation the major
objectives are the outcomes in the broader terms and those
form the basis of the evaluation programme. Different way
and means must be devised and technique must be
employed to test the out comes of learning English.
Evaluation in that way is a means to judge the
achievement of the students in the field of education. The
achievement is generally measured through the test and
examination. This means the test and examination are very
important in the whole process of the learning.
The language arts teacher needs to arrive at an
understanding of the basic principles underlying his
practice. Basic principles concern the place that language
occupies in the life of the child and the adult, the nature of
language, the growth and development of the child and
the processes by which growth and development are
facilitated, the significant factors that contribute to
language development, the general curricular program of
work, the differentiation of work to meet individual
differences, and the techniques and procedures essential
to the implementation of the program. Because philosophy
and psychology inherently relate to every practical problem
of curriculum and teaching, they are best considered in
the situations to which they naturally apply. The basic
principles are summarized here, however, for emphasis and
review and to help raise teaching above the level of mere
pattern following.
The study and practice of teaching are threatened at
two extremes. At one, the student teacher is occupied with
abstract generalizations which, because of his inexperience,
he vaguely conceives and indifferently applies. Knowledge
of this kind has little effect on what the teacher actually
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
151
does. At the other extreme, the student teacher is primarily
occupied with acquiring a set of fixed patterns and with
using them more or less mechanically. If the patterns are
adaptable to the particular situation, he may do a good job
for a time. But situations vary and times change; inflexibility
results in inefficiency, helplessness, and stagnation. If a
teacher makes a choice, perhaps the second evil is to be
preferred to the first. But choice may not be necessary; it
may be entirely possible for the student teacher to gain a
command of practical techniques and, at the same time,
an understanding of the basic principles upon which the
techniques are based. This double grasp results in teaching
on a high leveL
Importance and Significance: The primary functions
of language are communication, self-expression and
thinking. These functions appear early in the life of the
child as inarticulate cries and gross bodily movements
expressing demands for attention and feelings of
satisfaction and dissatisfaction. As the child matures,
gestures, facial expressions, and sounds become more
specialized. The expression of feeling and meaning becomes
more exact : words express and communicate more
accurately and economically than cries an gestures. The
command of words and groups of words grows with
practice and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to
be expressed. The communication function is obvious. The
use of language as a means of clarifying ideas and feelings
is equally real, if not so obvious. Language is a means of
clarifying perception, of discovering likenesses and
differences in thing observed, of forming general ideas, and
of discovering relationships. One deals with symbols rather
than concrete experiences.
The operation of the communication and thinking
functions is observable in the preschool year and
152 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
thrqughout the school life of the child. These function lay
a broad foundation on which to base of language program
having far-reaching implications as to contact and
procedure.
Collateral to thinking and the expression of ideas are
two other functions, related and implied. In the first place,
it is to be observed that commui'l:ication and thinking, as
do most other personal activities, necessarily concern other
people. Language is a social act, a means of adjustment to
and control over other people. The entire process of
socialization is largely a process of language development.
In the second place, command of language is an important
factor jIl the development of the total personality of the
child. Command of language gives a feeling of confidence,
satisfaction, and security in meeting many life situations.
Such mastery is a wholesome influence that affects the
whole life of the child.
Nature of Language: The teaching of language is
primarily conditioned by the nature of the subject.
Language is, concisely, the manipulation of experience by
the use of symbols. It may be observed that the involved
symbolism is purely arbitrary, as shown by the existence of
different words in different language to express the same
idea; that words stand for certain concepts based ori the
direct or vicarious experience of the speaker or writer; that
words have meaning to recipients only to the extent that
they recall or are interpreted by similar experiences; and
that growth in language is at once growth in experiences
and growth in control of the symbols which stand for
experiences.
Other significant factors in the nature of language
concern the interrelation and the interdependence of
language functions (thought, self-expression,
communication) and of language experiences (speaking,
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 153
writing, listening, and reading). A language experience,
such as conversation, may include storytelling, discussion,
explanations, directions, asking and answering questions,
and introductions. In writing a letter, one is concerned with
describing incidents, telling anecdotes, giving information,
or asking for facts. Particularly significant is the fact that
in schoolwork, oral and written experiences are combined
and discussion often proceeds writing, in the primary
grades, the oral telling of a story precedes its writing.
Significant also is the complexity of the learning
situation as it embraces the various attitudes abilities, and
skills which are consciously or unconsciously employed in
<.:arrying on language experiences. In a given experience
such as storytelling a child selects content, builds to a climax
by relating a series of incidents in a logical or psychological
order, chooses appropriate words and phrases, uses a
variety of sentence patterns for interest and force, cultivates
voice quality, pitch, and modulation, practices
pronunciation and enunciation, and acquires a favourable
or an unfavourable attitude toward oral participation. All
these important elements of language experience are
progressively strengthened or weakened according to the
concrete situations involved. Attitudes, such as a desire to
be effective and a willingness to work on particular
weaknesses, are essential to growth in language skills and
abilities. Vividness and force are directly affected by variety
of words and sentences. Content is conditioned largely by
choice of subject. Organization depends on content.
The concept of language as a learning task, then, is a
complex of interrelated and interdependent experiences
and elements, in which growth proceeds simultaneously
but in varying degrees, dependent on points or particular
emphasis and interest. If the various elements could be
isolated and developed separately, teaching would be
154 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
relatively simple. Isolated treatment results in improvement
in specific elements but frequently makes little change in
total performance. The teacher's job in handling elements
is to direct growth in a single element or ability while
keeping it in its proper relationship to other abilities and to
the total language situation of which it is a part.
Growth in Language : Complexity characterizes
language in early stages of development, as well as at
mature levels. Complexity appears in the evolution of kinds
of language experiences and in their component elements.
The order of development of language experiences and in
their component elements. The order of development of
language experiences is in part vague, but it is obvious that
the first experience to appear is oral communication as the
infant attempts to make known his needs through cries,
gestures, grimaces, and words. The first language efforts
are practical and utilitarian in purpose, relating to food,
comfort, and pain.
When immediate physical needs have been met and
a degree of maturity reached, the child becomes absorbed
with the intriguing task of making the acquaintance of a
great variety of things. What's dat? is asked frequently.
Inquiries concern animals, cars, people, houses, trains-
all sorts of novel objects and experiences. Asking questions
is the characteristic type of language activity at this stage.
"The three-year-old asked 376 questions and the four-year-
old 397 questions during the day." In inquiry, the emphasis
shifts from use of language for communication to the use
of language for thinking. The child is struggling to identify
the various objects in his environment, to bring order into
a confusing world of sight, sound, smell and feeling. In
this explanatory-naming stage, which continues for some
years, the child's vocabulary is composed largely of nouns.
" At two years there is a high proportion of nouns (50 to 60
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 155
percent)." Gradually, with increasing maturity and wider
experiences, the child's concepts become more clearly
defined, and ideas of relationship take shape. Thus, as the
dog, horse, and cow are distinguished and identified, the
bow-wow ceases to be any four-legged animal; the train
says too-too; the dog runs : flowers are pretty.
Correspondingly, language changes. Other parts of speech
appear: descriptive words (adjectives and adverbs), action
words (verbs), connectives, and pronouns. Growth in the
uses of these various parts of speech goes on
simultaneously. Anderson says, "All phases of language
development proceed at a fairly uniform rate. This indicates
that language is learned by wholes, rather than by isolated
and individual response, and that the relative proportion
of parts of speech is fixed by one general language pattern."
Words in phrases soon follow the use of single words, as in
Tommy cold. The verb is finally added and the sentence
form takes shape: Tommy is cold, The dog barks. At first,
sentences are predominantly simple : declarative,
interrogative, and finally imperative; but the complex and
compound sentences are used early.
It would seem that another kind of language
experience which begins to take shape early is dramatic
play. The first manipulating of objects is probably purely
mechanical in nature; but soon the use of materials with a
purpose seems to appear, as in loading a truck, moving
blocks, or constructing an airport. Words accompany
actions. Dramatic play becomes more complex and social
when several children play together. Children express in
action and words ideas about phases of life which interest
them: preparing food, taking cared of a baby, storekeeping.
Further differentiation in kinds of experience performed
appears with increasing maturity and the response to the
demands of life in and outside the school.
156 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
It is also apparent that growth in performing an
increasing variety of language experiences is paralleled by
growth in the component abilities and skills, as was shown
above in the development of vocabulary and in the use of
sentences. This growth is likewise true of the mechanics of
oral speaking: articulation, voice management, and
pronunciation; the general abilities of having something to
say and speaking to the point; and later the mechanics of
writing.
Factors in growth are maturation and stimulation by
environment. Maturation concern the natural development
of speech functions and processes of thinking. For example,
the utterance of sounds follows a natural order, beginning
with vowels and the consonant m. But maturation is also
directly affected by language patterns set by other people
and by the stimulation to though and action of rich, varied
experiences.
From this brief sketch of growth in language there
appear certain basic principles significant for teaching. It
has been observed in the first place that language is a vital
part of the growth process. It is a vital part of the process
of adjusting to life, physical and social; a means of gaining
control of people and thought; and a means of bringing
order into a bewildering world. Training children in
language is training in living, in understanding, and in
getting along with people. In the second place, it has been
observed that, although native equipment provides
potentialities of growth, actual growth is conditioned very
largely by the stimulation and direction provided by
parents and teachers. A rich environment of varied
experiences is essential to good language development. A
third implication is that language is purposeful, not a
mechanical or perfunctory act. The purpose is largely
utilitarian-communicating and extending experience-
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 157
but not exclusively so, because there is a place for the
development of creative, artistic impulses. A fourth
significant principle is that language develops as a whole-
a whole made up of many complex, interrelated elements.
A fifth principle relates to grading and sequence. The
teacher attempts to set up a program of work that is
consistent with natural order in the development of
experiences, abilities, and skills. Goals are adjusted to
capacity. Problems are recognized as characteristic of
particular age grade or maturity level, such as articulartory
difficulties in the lower grades.
Individual Differences: The teacher is no less
concerned with individual difference than with the general
course of language development in children. Individual
differences are marked in the experience phases of the
work, oral and written. Some children participate freely in
oral work, make worthy contributions, and shoe marked
ability in thinking and expression; others do not. In written
work, differences are much more apparent, appearing in
both quantity and quality. Betzner points out that children
in the five-to-eight age group write compositions varying
from 9 to 1,0,74 words with a median length of 66.6 words,
and that there is a similar wide range in thought units of 1
to 69. Reed points out that the quality of compositions of
pupils in grade 7 varied from 1.0 to 8.2 on the Hudelson
scale. While there is progress in average achievement from
grade to grade, there is great overlapping among grades.
Extreme variations in total achievement are to be
expected in composition work; they are, of course, no less
wide and no less significant in specific abilities and skills.
These difference appear as the teacher makes a check list
analysis of oral and written experiences; some can be
measured objectively, using standard tests.
Statistics give a reliable estimate of the range of
individual differences that may be expected in any class or
158 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
age group, but they do not give a clear, detailed picture of
the individual children with whom the teacher must deaL
General facts of variability are interpreted in terms of
concrete realities as the teacher works with individual
children from day to day in the varied intimate situations
that arise in the a classroom. Gradually each child emerges
as a person, a complex of specific attitudes, abilities, and
skills and of general powers. Each element appears as a
clearly identifiable entity, but its significance is revealed
only when it is considered in relation to other factors that
combine to form an organic whole. The teacher must deal
with each child as a person, as well as make general
adjustments by instruction for children with varying levels
of ability. The child is an individual, not a statistic.
Participation as a Factor in Growth: Language has
been found upon examination to consist of a variety of
experiences through which the child carries on the business
of living and learning and by which he exercises and gains
control of specific attitudes, abilities, and skills. Normal
growth in language takes place through participation and
the simultaneous exercise of a number of component
elements. It follows that the school, to be realistic and
lifelike, must base its program on actual participation. The
school must recognize the common language experiences
of children and adults, and it must train children in carrying
on these experiences. Situations in which language
experiences serve an immediate purpose must be provided
by the school. Emphasis must be placed on the whole
learning situation; interest must be secured : insight and
understanding achieved; and specifics-attitudes, skills, and
abilities-learned as related, integrated components of the
whole. This emphasis on complete learning experience is
an application of the familiar gestalt theory, a principle of
psychology that underlies many modern education trends
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 159
and has wide application in various areas of the
curriculum.
Attitudes as Factors in Learning: The whole,
organic theory of learning is not inconsistent with
concentration on specific elements as factors in the learning
process. The teacher must recognize that it may be
necessary at times to separate from the total learning
situation specific elements for emphasis in order to bring
about improvement in total performance. However,
practice and training exercises should be handled so that
their usefulness is clearly evident. The purpose of practice
and its relation to a whole language experience must be
recognized by the learner; and practice must be motivated
by desire for improvement.
Of all the basic factors, attitudes are at once the most
fundamental and the most elusive. Attitudes constitute the
dynamics of learning, the drives to participate in
experiences and to improve abilities and skills. Although
real life provides adequate stimulation for certain kinds of
experiences, the teacher may find that children in school
are verbally inactive and unresponsive. The solution is to
make schoolwork lifelike and to set up conditions that
encourage free participation.
Even more difficult is creating a desire for
improvement in the quality of performance; children may
be satisfied with low level performance. Some leverage for
improving quality may be found in purposeful experiences,
but good form is to some extent a matter of good taste or
convention. The teacher may show the high social value of
maintaining certain standards and may cite worthy
examples and authorities. He represents, for the time, adult
judgment and authority, and expressions of approval carry
weight. Setting up specific goals and recording
accomplishments are other effective means of motivation.
160 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
Repetition as a Factor. in Learning: There is, in the
new psychology, no magic which eliminates the need for
repetition and drill; "that practice makes perfect is more
than a half-truth," says Reed. But that practice alone may
fail to assure competency in language is amply proved by
the results of traditional teaching. Making practice effective
involves certain basis considerations.
In the first place, it is recognized that practice must
be purposeful to the learner. Purpose derives from the
recognition by the individual of his shortcoming and from
the situation-an immediate one-in which the need for
the skill or ability is felt. Implied are some form or standard
with which a pupil can compare his work and some means
of diagnosis. Need is often revealed by failure to make
meaning clear or to convey a message adequately. Thus, a
child who mumbles is not heard, and the class protests;
and a child who combines his sentences interminably with
ands is a bore. Going from obvious effect to cause is the
most convincing evidence of need for improvement that
the teacher can present. However, at times the teacher must
resort to the appeal of convention or authority, such as:
"We show the end of a sentence by a period. . . . The
word get is pronounced get, not git. . . . Running is
spelled with two n's." Diagnosis is achieved by having a
child compare his performance or product with a given
standard and by testing; but often it is necessary for the
teacher to call attention to a specific difficulty of which the
child is not aware. Thus, a pupil through long use becomes
accustomed to certain faulty language patterns and to the
common mispronunciation of various words, and the
teacher must take positive steps to have the pupil hear and
get a feeling for the correct forms. Implied in the
consideration of purpose is the basic principle that a pupil
should be required to practice only forms needed by him
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 161
individually and that practice should be applied at the point
of error. The frequent assignment of class exercises, except
for testing purposes, results in a waste of time and lowered
class morale.
A second basic principle of repetition states that
practice should approximate as closely as possible the
situation in which the form is normally used. According to
this idea, strong reliance on the traditional language game
is faulty. Some children profit from hearing the correct form
repeated many times; but, in the main, learning is limited
to learning to play the game and does not result in use of
the correct form in real situations. Another point of error is
the reliance upon written blank-filling exercises for drill in
correct usage. The guide should primarily be sound.
A third basic principle emphasizes that repetition drill
should follow clear ideas of correct form. Live examples
should be set by the teacher and the textbook; incorrect
forms should be analysed as to the nature of difficulty and
the cause of error, and incorrect forms should be compared
with correct forms in the remedial phases of the work. More
than passive attention to explanations is here required. The
pupil should shoe recognition of correct form by choosing
correct forms, by reproducing them, and by using them in
original examples. The repetition following recognition is
at first deliberate, attentive, and consciously directed; later
it is used in connection with larger language units; and
finally it is practiced in total language situations with
marginal attention given to the specific skill or ability. The
situations in which a given form is practiced should be
varied. Multiple use in a variety of situations increases the
range of applicability and tends to maintain a high level of
interest.
The checking of progress toward the mastery of a
specific skill or ability may be recognized as a fourth basic
162 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
principle. Lists and record sheets used in the diagnostic
phase of the work are useful for recording progress. If
possible, the evaluation should be the pupil's own, and he
should keep his own record of progress. The teacher should
check and confirm the pupil's judgments. Repeated
checking in tests and actual use, as well as restudy and
practice, are constantly required until mastery is confidently
achieved.
Adequate repetition, carried to the point of mastery,
requires time, but effort should be concentrated on a short
list of basic skills and abilities determined by cruciality and
by the needs of particular pupils. Extensive treatment is
necessarily sacrificed to concentration on relatively few key
language elements.
Understanding as a Factor in Learning :
Traditionally, primary emphasis in learning has been placed
on seeing, doing , hearing, and saying. Language is still
largely learned by imitation, and good language is largely
judged by its sound. However, understanding is recognized
as an important factor in learning situations in which
generalizations, rules, and principles can be formulated and
applied. The traditional skill subjects are now being
approached in part from the point of view of meanings. It
is too early to say how far we may go in making the
mechanics of language meaningful to elementary pupils,
but some good examples of what may be done are offered
in recent literature. For example, Smith points out that
growth in the skills of punctuation and capitalization must
mean growth in sensing relationships between ideas and
gaining force through modification. The significance of the
period and question mark are made clear by recalling what
one does with the voice in oral reading. Specifically in regard
to commas, she says, "Commas are used to clarify meaning
when sentence elements are out of their usual order, to
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 163
separate interrupters from the main idea, and to make clear
the members of an enumeration." The growth of general
abilities relates mainly to developing ideas and meanings,
Le., understanding. Grammar is an attempt to develop
concepts, principles and rules relating to usage and to the
structure of language. Grammar provides a stock of ideas
and understandings that help to make language intelligible,
to give some insight into its structure, and to supply some
help in the use of language forms and in the correction of
errors.
Differentiation of Instruction : A differentiation of
work suited to the needs of individuals in the class is
necessary. This differentiation concerns all phases of work.
In handling the experience phases, the teacher assists pupils
in identifying and setting up general standards but allows
each pupil to select a specific standard as he gives his talk
and engages in conversation or dramatization. Moreover,
the teacher judges each pupil in terms of this ability, not in
terms of what other children do. For example, in handling
a lesson on reporting at the fifth-grade level, the teacher
may develop with the class the following standards :
1. Give facts that relate to the topic.
2. Tell the facts in order.
3. Use words that tell exactly what you want to
say.
4. Speak clearly.
5. Show interest in your topic.
All the pupils are engaging in a common experience-
reporting; the reports may be on the same or different
topics. The standards set up are those which the teacher
and pupils feel have some significance for the class as a
whole at its current stage of language development, but it
is not assumed that all the pupils have the same specific
164 :-_ ;l1s and Competencies of English Teacher
needs. Each child is encouraged to discover his weakness
and to pick a specific language goal on which he needs to
work and to concentrate on that goal during the
preparation and delivering of the report. The pupil is judged
by how well he does what he sets out to do, not in terms of
the total list of standards. Thus, differentiation and specific,
individualized training are provided within an experience
that superficially has the appearance of traditional whole-
class work.
In the practice or corrective phases, differentiation is
of the essence. The teacher makes an inventory of specific
individual needs, groups children having the same needs,
and provides the necessary instruction and practice
exercises. Pooley says, "Usage instruction should be as
highly individualized as it is possible to make it. Only those
errors lease acceptable in the speech and writing of a
majority of the class should be given class instruction and
drill; those occurring in the work of a few should be
handled in small groups or individually as the need arises."
It is desirable for the children, as well as the teacher, to
know what their specific needs are; and therefore each child
should have an inventory of his own skills and abilities.
The inventory serves as a note sheet, and the child refers to
it in preparation, in evaluation, and in recording progress.
Provision is made for extreme variants in the form of
individualized self-help materials.
Significance of Unit Organization: The organization
of learning experiences around lifelike situations contrasts
sharply with the traditional emphasis on small, isolated
language elements, chiefly skills. Through unit organization
children are trained not only for practical experiences but
in them; the ultimate goals become the immediate goals.
Also, the larger unit of learning preserves the integrity of
the learning experience; the varied and complex elements
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 165
of language are combined and to a large extent learned as
they function in purposeful expression; the learning
experience is an organic whole. Practice on specific,
component abilities and skills is related to some experience
and has an obvious, immediate purpose.
The significance of unit organization is apparent
whether the language program is developed independently
or as a part of larger curriculum units based on the social
studies and nature study. The trend toward large unit
organization in language gains additional respect when it
is observed that the same trend prevails in other areas of
the curriculum.
Processes: It must now be obvious that not one but
a battery of procedures is required to handle the various
phases of the language program. Three, or possibly four,
basic procedures will be used at various times, according
to the nature of the learning situation and the learning
outcome.
Handling an Experiences Unit: The first step in
handling an experience unit is to set up or utilize a situation
which creates definite reason for carrying on the work.
The situation may be one that requires the writing of a
thank-you note after the appearance of a guest speaker,
writing a letter to a sick friend, keeping the minutes of a
school council meeting, writing a playas a culmination of
a unit in the social studies, or summarizing information
gained in a nature-study field trip. The situation presents
a real motive and imposes requirements for worthy
performances. Alert teachers readily find occasions calling
for the various experiences in both the school and the out-
of-school experiences of children.
A second step is to develop ideas of good performance.
From past work or from trail performances in the
experience, initiated for that purpose, the class and teacher
166 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
presumably discover the need for further training. What is
good letter writing, reporting, storytelling, outlining, and
the like? Good models may be secured and studies. It is
relatively simple to secure good models of written work.
Textbooks provide them; the teacher may accumulate a file
from children's previous work; or children may supply
examples in the form of letters from home (with the help
and permission of parents). It is less easy to provide study
examples of oral work. Live examples of good
in the class provide the best material; recordings are
invaluable. The material should approximate the level of
work normally expected of the grade. Having pupils study
examples of varying degrees of merit and choose the best
is a procedure of considerable value. Study should be
directed first to content and general effect and then to the
specific literary devices employed by the author to produce
the effect. Some attention must be given to mechanics, oral
or written.
Analysis of models reveals key points which should
be listed as goals or standards to aim at, to imitate, and to
use in evaluation. Goals should be set with due regard to
the normal expectancies for the class and should be varied
enough to give every child something to work for. Generally,
a few key goals are better than many; the list may be
extended as the class grows in ability. Too many goals lead
to scattering of attention and effort. Thus, for a second-
grade class giving talks, it may be sufficient to set as
immediate goals willing participation, having something
to say, and sticking to the point. As these goals are reached
or approximated by a considerable number of the pupils,
the teacher may add to the list others such as the use of
complete sentences and apt, vivid words and phrases, a
clear, pleasing, well-modulated voice, good pronunciation
and enuncidtion, and interest-catching beginning sentences.
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 167
A third basic phase of the work is one commonly
neglected or poorly handled-the setting up of individual
goals. Too often this is postponed until after the child has
completed his recitation or written exercise, and setting
individual goals then assumes the form of a post-mortem.
This method violates the sound psychological principle that
the learner should fix his attention on the skill to be
performed before practice, not after, except as a check on
performance. Individual goals, therefore, should be set up
early, before recitation and even before preparation for
recitation.
The fourth phase, following the setting up of
individual goals, is preparation. The child prepares his
assignment with both the over-all purpose and his specific,
individual goal in mind.
The fifth phase is participation, such as giving a talk,
writing a letter, or taking part in a dramatization. There
should be evidence in the child's work that he has kept in
mind his individual goal as well as the general purpose of
the assignment.
Evaluation by the pupil, class or teacher follows as
the sixth phase. This should be in terms of the pupil's
individual goals and should always be friendly and
constructive, with full recognition of differences in
individual capacity. Self-criticism is usually worth more
than class and teacher criticism, although a pupil is also
often stimulated by the approval of the class and teacher.
The initial lesson or series of lessons is followed by
other similar lessons or series in which gains are preserved
and further improvement is sought. Records of
accomplishments in specific skills and abilities may be kept
on the pupil's individual goal sheet and on the teacher's
class record sheet. Opportunities will arise for the individual
correction of mistakes without the pupil's losing sight of
the major purpose of the experience.
,.
168 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
Handling a General-ability Lesson : A general-
ability lesson is a definite practice exercise designed to bring
about improvement in some specific ability, such as selecting
an appropriate subject, choosing pertinent content, dealing
with a sufficiently small and manipulable aspect of a topic,
organizing effectively, or composing a good beginning and
ending. The emphasis is on knowledge, understanding, and
judgment rather then on specific skills. An understanding
of what constitutes a good subject, for example, evolves
from a study and comparison of specific examples, such as
"The Fish I Didn't Catch," "Hired, Tired, and Fired," and
"Taking Home My Report Card," and from an analysis of
key qualities, such as personal approach, definiteness, and
brevity. The procedure is that which is characteristic of all
knowledge getting-the solution of problems; it is never
that of drill, as in the pronunciation of get.
The need for the lesson appears, of course, in an
experience phase of the work, and it results from an
analytical evaluation of the experience in terms of the
specific factors that condition performance. The training
lesson presumes inadequate performance and need for
improvement. The need may appear as a result of pupil,
class, or teacher evaluation; but it is important that the
learner recognize the need.
The second step, logically, is to gain some
understanding of what constitutes good performante. In
the selection of subjects, for instance, the teacher may
present to the class example, good and bad, taken from
current or previous work, from textb<;>oks, or from reading.
The examples are studied and the pupils are led to f e e ~ the
difference between good and poor subjects. The teacher
may present such subjects as the following and have the
pupils discuss them:
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 169
Poor Good
Where I Went
What I Heard
What I Did
Sunday
An Adventure
My Trip
Work
My Friend
What My Aunt Has
Catching a Rat
False Alarm
Too Sure
A Bad Shot
An Unexpected Ducking
A Hasty Reply
A Wet Seat
The Battle of Chicken Run
No Pie
Titles in the first list are found to be vague and weak.
Titles in the second list arouse curiosity and a desire to hear
more; they tap sources of personal experience and feeling;
and they set specific limits on a composition.
From the study of examples the children proceed to a
consideration of their own experiences, searching for phases
that are interesting to others and worth writing or talking
about, avoiding commonplace and sensational events. Then
they formulate good subject titles. Tentative lists of these
titles are profitably presented to the class for evaluation
and discussion. Approved subjects are then chosen, and
compositions are prepared and delivered. The value of the
subject is proved in the composition. When some assurance
as to competency has been gained, the children use their
improved ability in selecting subjects for all oral and written
work.
Handling Specific-skill Lessons : The third type of
lesson or exercise with which the teacher is necessarily
concerned involves the development of a specific language
skill, such as the pronunciation of words (often, going,
athletic), use of the comma in a series, and capitalization
of 1. Standards of usage are set by convention. The primary
170 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
emphasis in learning is on hearing or seeing and doing;
understanding enters into the learning process to the extent
that it is possible to show reasons for certain conventions
and to develop rules or principles. Understanding naturally
adds to ease of learning in this as in other phases of
language work.
The point of departure for a training lesson on a
specific skill is an immediate need, revealed usually by
performance in an experience. For example, in giving a
talk a child may say I seen for I saw; or in written work he
may fail to indicate clearly the persons attending a party
by the omission of commas in a series of names, as in /0
Ann Caryl and Tommy came to the party. The pupil may
be led to discover his difficulty by skilful questioning. The
next step is to show the correct form to the child by
explanation and demonstration or by directing the study
of example, correct and incorrect. Recognition of the correct
form and, if possible, the' reason for it is followed by
deliberate practice in selected example. Finally, consistent
use in exercises and in related speaking or writing is
provided. Work of this type is largely remedial, and involves
breaking old habits as well as forming new ones. The work
should be individualized, concentrated on a few of the most
important skills, and followed up consistently and
persistently until definite progress is made. The use of
individual record sheets is helpful in making a diagnosis
and later in recording progress.
There are many ways of handling directed training
lessons on specific skills and at the same time employing
good principles of learning. Specific procedures vary
somewhat in oral and in written work, although the basic
principles are the same. One procedure, making use of
original sentences as a means of drill, is illustrated in the
following quotation from Brown and Butterfield:
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 171
Another common drill is having children give original
sentences in which difficult forms are used correctly. For
example, the words seen and saw ,are put on the
blackboard. The children are told to make sentences using
each word correctly. The results may be something like the'
following: I saw a cat. I saw a dog. I saw a horse. I saw a
bird.
This kind of drill may be oral or written, but the
temptation will be to have the children write the sentences
because (from the teacher's point of view) this makes good
busywork.
To improve a drill of this sort and to make it mean
something to the children, the procedure can be changed
somewhat. The teacher, to begin with, asks the children to
tell, in their sentences, about something that they really
did see. John gives the first sentence, "I saw a cat." The
teacher remarks that this sentence is correct but that it
would be more interesting to the class if he could tell a
little more so that everyone could see the cat that he saw.
With a suggestion or two, John changes his sentence
to something like the following, "I saw a big black cat with
green eyes."
The class likes this sentences much better than the
first one; others may try to imitate it. Then the teacher will
suggest that there are many, many kinds of sentences using
saw and seen. She will give an example or two : "When
the boys went to the circus, they saw an elephant doing
tricks," or "If Mary had not seen the funnly little puppy,
she would have gone right home." This will encourage the
children to think out original sentences also. It is remarkable
how much a few suggestions add to the vitality of a simple
drill. The more intelligent children, instead of being bored
by meaningless repetition, will be stimulated by the
opportunity for creative expression.
172 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
Relation to Work in Other Subjects : The teacher
recognizes that only a small part of his pupils' total
experience in language takes place in the language class.
Language is used throughout the day in all phases of work
and play, and the use of language in other subjects and in
all extracurricular work obviously helps set patterns and
habits of expression. Language, therefore, is a service
subject and as such involves two key points worthy of
attention. In the first place, the immediate needs for
particular language experiences appear in other phases of
work. Various subjects require discussion, reports,
explanations, and directions. Class ·meetings and pupil
councils involve discussions, reports, and keeping minutes.
When parents visit the school, as on school visiting days,
opportunities arise for making introductions and
explanations. In the second place, it is necessary to maintain
reasonable standards in all language work in school if gOQd
habits of speaking and writing are to be established. In the
social studies, in arithmetic, and in the school assembly
some attention must be given to good speaking and writing.
If properly handled this attention adds to the effectiveness
of work under way, and it is not necessarily a distraction.
The whole school should become language-conscious.
Language Programs: The language program, as we
have said, should consist of real, lifelike experiences and
training experiences as needed to develop the essential
abilities and skills. The program is a functional one.
Language experiences at once provide the chief immediate
and remote goals, the chief medium of learning, and the
basis for organizing the program into units of work.
Training lessons grow out of and are motivated by
immediate needs for particular skills and abilities revealed
in the experience phases of the work. These skills are
learned as far as possible in use-incidentally; but to the
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 173
extent that further specific training is necessary, separate
exercises or lessons are provided.
The minimum essentials of a modern language
program, then, include (1) primary emphasis on and
training in language experiences and (2) provision for the
systematic development of essential language abilities and
skills. Within the limits set by these minimum requirements
there is opportunity for a variety of programs providing
combinations of experience work and training experiences,
and for programs offering opportunities to combine
experiences and relate them to other phases of the
curriculum. At one extreme must be recognized the very
liberal or informal teacher who handles language mainly
as an integral part of the work in other subjects and school
activities and who provides only occasional directed
practice or remedial lessons as needed by individuals and
groups. Such a program can be excellent and may be
regarded as the ultimate goal of language teachers. But
the attempt to carryon the extreme type of informal
program often results in gross neglect of training in
language. Without sacrificing the essentials of a vital,
functional program to traditional formality, it is possible to
set a middle course consisting of a definite series of basic
language experiences and supplementary systematic work
on essential abilities and skills. This middle course makes
possible the ready use of available instructional materials;
and it seems to be consistent with the position taken by the
Commission on the English Curriculum of the National
Council of Teachers of English.
Use of Textbooks: In considering the wealth of live
opportunities for using language in curricular and school-
life experiences, several questions arise: What place does
the textbook have in the language program? What does it
contain? How can it be used effectively?
174 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
In the first place, a textbook provides a basic program
of unit work in experiences and related abilities and skills
generally appropriate to the grade, and it gives emphasis
to the several experiences according to their importance.
The sequence is timed-in part, at least-to meet the
progressive needs of children throughout the year.
Instruction and drill in specific abilities and skills are
introduced as needed to carryon the various experiences.
The textbook is the product of the study and thinking of
specialists who are qualified by research and experience to
write in their fields. In using the textbook, the teacher is
taking advantage of this specialized, technical knowledge
and competence.
In addition to a general plan of organization, the
textbook offers certain other resources which the teacher
must understand and use effectively. Among these resources
are models of stories, reports, outlines, and the like. If wisely
chosen, they suggest reasonable standards. However, for
any particular class, such standards may be too high or
too low. The teacher, therefore should collect from time to
time samples of his pupils' work to serve as supplementary
models. In addition to their easier adaptability to a
particular class, the local samples are more interesting than
textbook models.
Another common feature of textbooks is list of key
points-standards-for particular experiences. Any such
list may be well devised; the important question, however,
is, What use should be made of it? In the authors' opinion,
it is better to let children derive their standards from a study
of samples and to use the textbook lists mainly for checking
their own items than to have pupils begin by studying the
standards of the textbook. The textbook lists of standards
usually contain many items, and the implication here is
that all children are to work on all of them simultaneously.
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 175
Again, in the authors judgment, such a precedure presents
and impossible task to the children; if a long list is used,
and it should be, each child should select one or two items
for emphasis in giving a story or report. Such selection and
concentration provide opportunities for individualizing
work within a common experience.
Textbooks also provide practice and remedial
exercises. Usually in this connection some kind of pretest
or diagnostic test is suggested so that only the children who
need the practice get it. This is common-sense procedure.
It is possible that some of the exercises will not be needed
by any child. It is also likely that common diffiqllties will
be found that are not covered in the test and practice
exercises. In this case the teacher should devise tests suited
to the particular needs of the children, possible using the
textbook exercises as models.
It may be found that the practice exercises in textbooks
are largely devoted to the mechanics of speaking, writing,
and usage. Little provision is commonly made for exercises
in the development of ability to select suitable topics, to
limit the scope of topics, to stick to the point, to follow a
clear sequence of ideas, and to introduce interesting details
and apt illustrations. Yet these language abilities are
regarded as primarily important in the language program.
If training exercises in this latter group of abilities are
needed, as they may well be, the teacher will be obliged to
supply them.
A further common textbook provision is the statement
of principles and rules relating to concepts, usages, and
mechanics. Rules and principles, it is generally agreed,
should not be memorized from the textbook but should be
arrived at inductively by pupils through a study of live
examples. The textbook statements can then serve as checks
on the children's own generalizations.
176 Skills and Competencies of English T e a c h ~
There are several general ways in which a book can
be used. One is, obviously, to follow it chapter by chapter
and exercise by exercise. It is unlikely, however, that a
textbook prepared for use in different sections of the country
and for different types of schools will be found perfectly
adapted to the needs of a particular class. Such use is
tolerable only in the hands of a teacher who lacks
confidence or through training.
At the other extreme, the textbook is used only as a
reference-exercise source. In this case, the basic program is
developed from purposeful experiences, largely arising in
connection with other curricular and extracurricular
activities, and units and exercises are selected from the
textbook as they are needed for training in particular
abilities and skills. Mature, well-trained, progressive
teachers are inclined to favour such use of the textbook
because in this method the functional concept of language
work is emphasized. The textbook work is also made vital
and purposeful. However, this procedure may lost the
planned continuity and sequence of training in essential
skills which the textbook provides, and the teacher thus
undertakes the responsible task of not only selecting the
experiences but also working out a systematic, sequential,
developmental program. This is certainly not impossible to
do, but the teacher must recognize his responsibility and
accept the amount of work involved.
There is a third plan, which combines adjusbnent to
present needs and the systematic treabnent of technical
content. The teacher follows the order of experiences set
by the textbook, but instead of using the exact topics for
oral and written work given in the text, he draws them
from the current lives of the children. This procedure is
thoroughly consistent with the purpose and specific
recommendations of many textbook authors. For example,
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 177
as the basis of studying outlining and reporting a certain
textbook sets up an experience in science in which children
are told the following : "Stir into half a cup of water as
much salt as the water will dissolve. Pour the water into a
saucer. Let it stand until the water is all gone. What
happens? What does this show?" Although a particular
class may not be performing this experiment at the time
when the language unit is taken up in the text, it may be
performing other science experiments or doing a similar
type of work in another subject that will provide materials
for outlining and reporting. The textbook, then, may serve
as a general guide and model in programming language
experiences and is using other curricular activities for
developing language abilities; its particular subject-matter
content need not be followed slavishly. The exercises for
developing technical skills may be used, if needed, or similar
exercises may be devised by the teacher to provide specific
training. This third plan conserves the general plan of
organization and the systematic program for the
development and maintenance of technical aspects of
language training as provided by the textbook, but it makes
the work functional and relates it to current needs.
Supplementary Practice Material : Teachers often
feel a need for more and different types of practice material
than is provided in the text. Authors commonly provide
supplementary practice exercises in workbooks designed
to accompany a parallel work in the texts. Workbooks
provide a convenient and inexpensive source of
supplementary practice material and save the teacher's
time. They are an additional expense to the school district
or to the children, however, and often not available. If
workbooks cannot be purchases for each pupil, the teacher
can devise a reasonably satisfactory supply of permanent
material by securing several copies of one or more
178 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
workbooks. Selected exercises are then torn out and
mounted on stiff paper. The material is filed in a convenient
place, accessible to pupils, possible in a standard vertical
file. The topics for filing are the particular abilities and skills,
mainly written, in which practice material is needed, e.g.,
content and organization, usage, capitalization, and
punctuation. The teacher naturally selects the exercises that
serve his purposes in meeting the individual needs of a
particular group of pupils. This material cannot be used
for whole-class assignments, but it serves very well for
individual and small-group assignments.
Old textbooks also can be used to provide
supplementary practice material. If the material is not
completely indexed by type of difficulty-and it probably
is not-it is necessary for the teacher to prepare such an
index. The index should be duplicated and given to the
pupils for filing in their language notebooks.
Supplementary practice work should be
individualized-directed at the point of difficulty. It is
inevitable that children will be working on many difficulties
at one time. The teacher will have little time for making
assignments, giving oral explanations, and checking. It
follows that the material should be housed so that the
children can get it with a minimum of teacher effort and
that the material should be self instructional and self-
checking. The answer key may be placed on the back of
the practice exercise. Cheating will be discouraged if the
teacher always gives tests on the work and checks it as
completed only on the basis of satisfactory test results.
Evaluation: It must be apparent to the student in
the field of language instruction, and even to the casual
reader, that evaluation is an essential part of a modern
language arts program and that such evaluation is
continuous and cumulative, serving various purposes and
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
179
taking various form throughout the term. These purposes
and forms, appearing as integral phases of the language
program in preceding chapters, are summarized here.
The teacher's first purpose is an evaluation survey to
determine early in the school year levels of achievement of
the class and individual pupils, in terms of performance in
language experiences and related abilities and skills.
Preliminary surveys are made to provide a basis for laying
out general plans and determining points of departure and
to provide means for measuring improvement during the
term. In the case of handwriting and spelling, for example,
surveys make possible an organization for group
instruction. The teacher should always be aware of the fact
that he is dealing with several different kinds of language
experiences and a multiplicity of skills, oral and written.
Evaluation forms and procedures are therefore adapted to
the experiences and to the nature of the learning elements.
The teacher's subjective judgment must be the chief
evaluation factor in most phases of oral experiences, abilities
and skills. However, the accuracy of his judgment is
improved by listing and evaluating specific points; thus in
judging a report, the teacher may concentrate on content,
organization, and effective delivery. (In general, the check
lists suggested throughout the book provide itemized bases
for evaluation.) In appraisal of written activities, the
teacher's judgment is similarly important; but the nature
of written work makes objective evaluation more
practicable through the use of suitable models. Standard
scales, though, offer teachers little help in evaluating quality
in written compositions. Only the mechanics of written
work-capitalization, punctuation, spelling, handwriting,
and usage--have been adequately covered in standard tests,
which may be profitably used early in the year to compare
the achievement of a class with that of other classes and to
180 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
locate deficiencies of individuals students. These survey
tests are not truly diagnostic, although their results may be
symptomatic. Many such tests dealing with various phases
of mechanics are available. The Unit Scales of Attainment
in Language cover capitalization, punctuation, and usage.
The Ayres scale for measuring the quality of handwriting
is widely used. The Morrison-MeCall Spelling Scale
provides a number of tests for use in grades 2 to 8. Taking
samples of handwriting early in the term and using them
as a means of measuring class and individual progress is a
sound, practical procedure. An informal preliminary test
in spelling, made up of words taken at random from the
term's work, gives the teacher valuable information on class
achievement and individual differences.
A second purpose of the teacher is to make a diagnosis
of individual accomplishments and needs in the
performance of various experiences and in general abilities
and specific skills. This diagnosis serves the all-important
purpose of directing attention to specific deficiencies both
in experiences and specific remedial exercises. Here, as in
the preliminary surveys, the teacher's judgment, as well
as the pupils', must serve. In written usage, handwriting,
and spelling, more objective treatment is possible. Many
standard tests are available, covering a large percentage of
usage crudities. One such is Charters' Diagnostic Test for
verbs, pronouns, and miscellaneous words, which is a
proofreading test designed for use in grades 3 to 12.
Covering the work of all grades, standard tests of usage do
not exactly fit the work of any particular grade. The teacher
will therefore find it extremely profitable to devise an
objective test including the key usage problems of his grade
and of preceding grades. The 'form may follow that of the
Charters tests and utilize proofreading or multiple-choice
techniques. Tests also may be taken from the textbook or
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 181
teacher's manual. Since the primary purpose of the
diagnostic test is determination of individual needs, not
measurement of achievement, the teacher-made test is as
serviceable as the standard test. In diagnosing handwriting,
the chief task is to determine the particular faults in letter
formation, slant, alignment, spacing, and colour of line.
The teacher' casual judgments may be refined, as suggested,
by the use of patterns and diagnostic sheets provided by
good handwriting books. Additional standard resources
are Gray's A Score Card for Measuring Handwriting and
Freeman's Diagnostic Chart. Diagnosis in spelling is mainly
a matter of locating particular words causing difficulty and
noting the nature of the difficulties. The customary weekly
protest serves as a basis for such diagnosis.
The third evaluative purpose of the teacher is to
measure the achievement of children during short periods
of time, from unit to unit or from difficulty to difficulty.
Here again the teacher must rely on his judgment of
achievement in most phases of the language program.
Records of progress on specific items should be kept on
goal sheets. The objective phases of the work-usage,
capitalization, punctuation, spelling, and handwriting-
can be measured in large part by informal objective tests
prepared by the teacher or selected from the textbook to
cover the specific items involved. These types of informal
objective tests are similar to those used in diagnosis.
The final purpose of evaluation is to measure progress
at the end of the term. The forms and procedures for the
survey are similar to those used in the preliminary
evaluation at the beginning of the term. Judgments of
general abilities and improvement in oral and written
experiences are made by the teacher, using check lists of
specific items for increased validity. Samples of written
work, as in the case of handwriting and composition, are
182 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
compared with the samples taken early in the term.
Improvement in handwriting may be determined by scores
on the Ayres scale. A final teacher-made test in spelling,
the term's work, shows the progress of individuals
and of the class; a Morrison-McCall spelling test may also
be given again, but the results should not be taken too
seriously. Informal objective tests covering essentials of
usage, capitalization, and punctuation may be given and
compared with scores on similar tests given early in the
term; or standard tests may be repeated. Scores on tests of
mechanics should be supplemented by observation of what
children do in actual writing. Mechanics are mastered only
when they are used habitually in purposeful expression.
Dictionary : A good children's dictionary should be
available to pupils in the intermediate and upper grades.
Training in habits and techniques of dictionary use should
be gradual and cumulative, adjusted to maturity and needs
at succeeding grade levels. Practice in alphabetizing is the
first step, which is provided interestingly through the
making of work and picture dictionaries in the first grades
and through the preparing of alphabetical word lists in
the second and third grades. Alphabetical order is used in
finding words, first by the initial letter and finally by the
second and third letters. One of the early uses of the
dictionary is for checking spelling, and this can begin in
the third grade. Checking pronunciation can begin in the
fourth grade, where attention is also called to syllabication
and marks for accent and the long and short sounds of
vowels. The use of key pronunciation words and of the
other common marks of vowel sounds is taught in the fifth
grade. The checking of meanings and the use of synonyms
and antonyms to .gain variety of expression may well be
emphasized in the sixth grade.
Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
Importance of Examination and Test:
183
• Test helps a teacher to plan remedial
programme. It means the test provide a good
feed back to the teachers.
• Test enables teachers to find out whether the
students have learnt a language item or not.
• Test serves as eye openers for the students. The
test helps students to find out that pOint they
did not understand properly.
• Test enables teacher also to asses the success of
this teaching.
• The examination system for good or for bad,
gears the whole education system. It influences
the framing of syllabus, preparation of the text
book and teaching.of method.
Criteria for Good Language Test :
• The test must cover limited language skill but
must cover al the language skills which the
students is expected to master.
• Question should be so written that the student
understands what is expected of him. This
means there should be no ambiguity in
questions.
• The questions must be so framed that they test
the specific language skill. They should be so
worded that they help the teacher to find out
that the specific objectives are achieved or not.
• The question paper must be very well balanced.
It should neither to be difficult not to easy. It
should contain challenging questions for
students of all levels.
184

Skills and Competencies of English Teacher
The question paper should include all types of
question, for examples objectives type, subjective
and others.

Average students must be kept in mind for
allotting time to answer the test.

The question paper must be so framed that it
has a wide coverage of content taught.
PLANNING OF TEACHING


YEAR PLAN
I I
UNIT PLAN
II PERIOD PLAN
.t .t .t
In this planning the Unit plans are the plans Lesson plan is
teacher plans of whole showing the details of normally p art of set
cowse and chvides it whatis gomg to be oflesson making up
into the units. The carned out dunng the a unit It there has all
teacher may plan the specific unit. Unit may be the same basIc parts
language activitie s, a chapter ar;r particular as unit plan but only
excursion, trips, etc. topic or topics. Unit plan for one day.
teacher can schedule should include following Following elements
all teaching and non elements:- shouldbe included
te aching activities 1. Objectives in le s plan.
including the dates of 2. techruques and Set induction:--
examinations. Year activities Aim of statement:-
plan should include 3. NecessalY

following elements:- resources Development
1. Objectives 4. time frame questions:-
2. Methods 5. Criterion of

3. Techniques determining questions' -
4. activities objectives Evaluation
Res ources:- 6. A set of daily Questions:-
1. A proj e ct time lesson plan
Frame
2. An evaluation
criterion
•••••
Questions 185
CHAPTER FIRST (QUESTIONS)
1. What is the constitutional place of English as a second
language in India?
2. What is curriculum of English in school and college
in Gujarat state? Discuss.
3. Hindi is first language and English is second language
for us. Why? Tell reasons.
4. What is importance of second and foreign language
leaning? OR English is window of the world. Why?
5. Which problems are faced by Gujarati speaking
learner in learning second or foreign language.
6. What is importance of mother tongue language and
habit?
7. Language is primarily speech. Discuss.
8. How English language is taught in Gujarat?
9. In spite of banishing the language from India the
people have made English as their own passion.
Discuss.
10. How mother tongue helps in learning second
language?
186 Questions
CHAPTER SECOND (QUESTIONS)
10 Language is tool of communication. How?
2. What is different between first Language and second
language?
3. What is different between Acquisition and Learning?
4. What is behaviorist's view on language learning?
5. What types of theory have been given by Pavlov and
B.F. Skinner in reference to language Learning.
Discuss in detail.
6. What is view of Cognitivist on Language Learning?
Discuss in detail.
7. Define motivation. How will motivate your students
to make your teaching effective as a teacher?
8. Attention and memory play important role in
developments of teaching learning process. How?
9. Define reinforcement. What are the kinds of rein
forcers? How they are helpful to make teaching
effective?
10. Language learning is nothing but habit formation.
Discuss?
11. What are the general objectives of teaching English
as Second language?
12. How specific objectives are differs from general
objectives?
13. What are the sub skills of language as skill?
Questions 187
CHAPTER THIRD (QUESTIONS)
1. Give the list of instructional material and teaching
aids.
2. How will use and select the instructional material and
teaching aid during teaching? Discuss.
3. What are characteristics or importance of teaching
and instructional material?
4. What is role of Computer Assisted Language Learning
(CALL) in development of teaching learning process?
5. How Audio Visual aids are useful to make teaching
effective?
6. What is the criterion of selection of good text book?
7. What are the characteristics of good text book? OR
How will you evaluate the good text book?
CHAPTER FOURTH (QUESTIONS)
1. Define Grammar Translation method. What are
advantage and disadvantage of the G.T. method?
2. G. T. method is very useful in Hindi medium school
in second language learning. How? Discuss.
3. Define Direct Method. What are advantage and
Disadvantage of Direct Method? Discuss.
4. Direct Method is not useful in Hindi Medium schools.
Why?
5. What is different between G.T. method and Direct
Method? Discuss.
6. Define Bilingual Method. What are advantage and
Disadvantage of this method? Discuss.
7. Define Reading Method. What are advantage and
Disadvantage of this method? Discuss.
188 Questions
8. Whatis Different between Bilingual and G.T. method?
Discuss.
9. Define Situational Method. What are advantage and
Disadvantages of this method? Discuss.
CHAPTER FIFTH (QUESTIONS)
1. What is structural approach? What are advantages
and Disadvantages of this approach? Discuss.
2. Define Communicative Approach. What are
advantages and disadvantages of this approach?
Discuss.
3. What are the principles of teaching English as second
language? Discuss.
4. What are the principles of communicative approach?
Discuss.
5. What is different between Method and Approach?
Discuss.
CHAPTER SIXTH (QUESTIONS)
1. What is importance of oral work in teaching of English
as second language? Discuss.
2. Which Two skills are included in oral work? Discuss
in detail.
3. What are the techniques of conducting oral work?
Discuss.
4. How can a teacher develop the correct speech habit
of English language learner as second language?
Discuss.
5. What are the c a u s e ~ of defective pronunciation of
students in learning of English as second language?
Discuss.
Questions
189
CHAPTER SEVETH (QUESTIONS)
1. What necessary precautions should be observed
during the course of teaching? Discuss.
2. What are the types of Reading? Discuss.
3. Intensive reading is type of reading aloud. How?
Discuss.
4. Extensive reading is type of silent reading. How?
Discuss.
5. What is aloud reading? Why it is not useful at
secondary level? Discuss.
6. How can a Teacher make reading aloud very
interesting? Discuss.
7. What are advantage and disadvantage of reading
aloud? Discuss.
8. What is silent reading? What are advantages and
disadvantages of Silent reading? Discuss.
9. What are general and specific objectives of reading
skill in leaning English as second language? Discuss.
10. What are general and specific objectives of listening
skill? Discuss.
11. What are general and specific objectives of speaking
skill? Discuss.
CHAPTER EIGHTH (QUESTIONS)
1. How a teacher can make improve bad handwriting
of students? OR What are the mechanics of writing?
Discuss.
2. What types of exercises should be given to the students
in written work? Discuss.
3. What steps should be kept in mind by teacher while
teaching picture composition? Discuss.
190 Questions
4. What is different between free composition and
controlled composition? Discuss.
5. Write short note on oral and written composition.
Discuss.
6. What should do a teacher to improve the spelling
mistake and bad pronunciation? Discuss.
7. Set induction is integral part of classroom teaching.
How? Discuss.
8. Imagine that you are teacher. What will you do to
make set induction very interesting and alive? Discuss.
CHAPTER NINTH (QUESTIONS)
1. What are the objectives of teaching prose? Discuss.
2. As a teacher, how will you make teaching prose very
effective? Discuss.
3. What steps should be followed by teacher while
teaching prose and poetry? Discuss.
4. Briefly describe the objectives of teaching prose.
s. As a teacher how will you make teaching poetry
effective and interesting? Discuss.
6. What steps should be followed by teacher while
teaching grammar? Discuss.
7. Write brief note on deductive and inductive method.
Discuss.
8. What are advantage and disadvantage of deductive
method? Discuss.
9. What are advantage and disadvantage of inductive
method? Discuss.
10. Why inductive- deductive method is more effective
than inductive and deductive method? Discuss.
Questions
191
CHAPTER TENTH (QUESTIONS)
1. What are the characteristics of good English Teacher?
Discuss.
2. What are types of test? Discuss.
3. What are types of evaluation question? Discuss.
4. Prepare objective types of questions or briefly state
the kinds of objective type questions. Discuss.
5. What is importance of evaluation in teaching of
English? Discuss.
6. What is importance of examination and test to
evaluate students' ac;hievements? Discuss.
7. What is criterion of good language test? Discuss .
•••••
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"

ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
(METHODS, TOOLS

& TECHNIQUES)

Dr. M.F. Patel Praveen M. Jain

PUBUSHERS & DISTRIBUTORS
E·566, Valshali Nagar, Near Akashwani Colony, Jalpur • 302021(Raj.)

Published by :

SUNRISE PUBLISHERS & DISTRIBUTORS
E-566, Vaishali Nagar, Jaipur- 302021 (Raj.) Ph.:9413156675,9772299149(M)

First Published - 2008

©Reserved

ISBN: 978-81-906067-4-5

Printed at : Jaipur

All rights reserved. No pa.i of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any mean without permission in writing from the publisher.

Dedicated to

Shrj M.N. Patel
Honourable President, Rajpur Kelvani MandaI, Rajpur, Vijayanagar, Gujrat

"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"

•••••

---------------------Teaching of English as a second language in India has assured an important place. Now, English is one of the most widely used International language. The book introduces some of the main areas that students and teachers of English in India understand in order to follow a scientific approach. The book covers many topics that find place in the syllabi of universities of India. There is no doubt that' this book will prove useful to students, teachers and scholar in Indian Universities. We express our sense of gratitude to Dr. V.S. Patel, Principal, Sflri oc 3mt. P.K. Kotawala Arts College, Patan; Dr. J.H. Pancholi, Principal, B.Ed. College, 'Patan; Dr. B.S. Patel, Principal, B.Ed. College, Daramali and Dr. S.S. Jain, Principal, B.Ed. College, Vijaynagar for their constant encouragement to complete our work. We are thankful to the Trustee Shri M.N. Patel and Honourable Secretary, Shri H.M. Patel of Rajpur Kelavani MandaI, Rajpur for their positive attitude and conducive atmosphere for our work. We are thankful to our colleagues Shri J.M. Purohit, Department of English; Shri B.N. Patel, Department of

PREFACE

Physical Education, Art College, Vijaynagar and Shri JitendrakumaT J. Patel, Shri Deepak Pandya, Shri Akhilesh JO,shi, Department of Education, REd. College, Vijaynagar for their inspiration and encouragement to produce a book of such a literary calibre. We are thankful to the librarian, Shri A.P. Palat, Vijaynagar Arts College for helping us in providing the books that we needed for our work. We also take this opportunity to express our thanks to Shri Jitendra Gupta, Sunrise Publishers and Distributors, Jaipur, India for his promptness in bringing out this book in a very short time. Authors

•••••

---------------------•
1.
Preface

CONTENTS

v

The Place of English In Indian Education Foreign Language Learning Instructional Material and Text Book Methods Approaches Oral Work Reading Writing and Composition Teaching of Prose, Poetry and Grammar

1 25 57 71 89 102 113 125 133 145

2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

7. 8. 9.

10. Skills and Competencies of English Teacher

"This page is Intentionally Left Blank" .

. . . I 1 It is not taught as compulsory subject THE PLACE OF ENGLISH IN INDIAN EDUCATION It is taught o n : ] English It is not compul~ory atl-Examination It is taught at upper English Level It is taught as Second Language It is not compulsory for Eng lis h I I . . 1 ---------------------PIIIIElI... ... .. .. ...

English could not be displaced from the position of predominance given it by Lord Macaulay. cultural and political factors. but English in taste~ in opinions. English served as a great unifying force in India's freedom struggle. what Lord Macaulay called: a class of people." So long as the British ruled over India. English is to be taught as language of comprehension rather than as literary language. Position of English: English is the language that is found in all comers of India. English is the language of the global village. the English spread like water in India and it became very essential for India to have a national language. The British introduced English in our educational system in order to produce cheap clerks for their colonial administration and to produce. The teaching of English should be made more practical and language-oriented. Indian in blood and colour. English helped the growth of nationalism which ultimately freed India from foreign fetters. in morals and in intellect. British came here as traders and their first.attention was on trade. English is the language that is used for . The role of English within a nation's daily life is influenced by geographical. U English is rich in literature and culture.2 The Place of English in Indian Education Introduction: English plays a key role in our educational system and national life. It has greatly contributed to the advancement of learning. At first they did not concentrate their attention on teaching of English. It is a language of trade and industry. After independence. The role of English at a given point in time must affect both the way it is taught and the resultant impact on the daily life and growth of the individual. It reflects in our ways and views. English is a link language. English is full of knowledge and information.

..1 RECREATIONAL IMPORT ANCI!: "' I . 1 I I I .The Place of English in Indian Education 3 IMPORTANCE OF SECOND AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE ~ 1 INTERNATIONAL LANGUGE J .1 "' I LmERARY IMPORTANCE NATIONAL IMPORTANCE I I l .I EDUCATIONAL IMPORTANCE I J CULTURAL IMPORTANCE VOCATIONAL IMPORTANCE .

they did not support the view of Rajgopal Chari and said that British should leave this place early with English. importance and study of the English.4 The Place of English in Indian Education connecting peoples having different tongues. defective method of teaching of English and British policy of preserve clerks. Other causes responsible for revolt against English were lack of use of English in every day life. But we can ignore that by learning and speaking for the last 150 years. Champion has said: In considering the position of English language in India. English has become the language of Indians to a great extent. the outstanding consideration in the English is the language of the government public administration. People like Rajgopal Chari favoured its importance and place. But we should not forget that English is too important for us so it should not be completely removed from the Indian curriculum. But who were nationalist. It is the language of commerce and business. It is the medium of communication between two persons and between various language areas. We should give the Hindi place of national language. It has made them capable to take an advantage of western scientific researches and inventions. the legislature and law courts. It has knit them into one unit. This language has taught them to love freedom and democratic way of life. When India became independent then a controversy began about the place. They declared that students can express their ideas and thought in their mother tongue language. .

But there are no enough qualified teachers of English. It is taught only in some private school. The place and position of English can be summarized as under: • English is not being taught as a compulsory subject at lower primary level. It runs without visualizing the benefits and advantage of English language from students' point of view. It is being taught as a compulsory subject at secondary level in class VIII. it is being taught as compulsory subject in class. It is not • • compulsory at H.C.The Place of English in Indian Education 5 (1) Place of English in Curriculum of State: It is misfortune of Gujarat people that Gujarat Government has not decided its language teaching policy and in clear terms. English is taught as a compulsory subject at upper primary level in class V. VI and VII. Exam without English are allowed offering English at college level in some universities and they have to study English compulsory.XI.S.C. Examination. .5. • • In higher secondary level. Students passed H. from national point of view and the state development point of view. It is also being taught as compulsory subject at college level. IX and X. Thus indefinite English language teaching policy of Gujarat state has become the main reason for low education standard and poor performance of Gujarati students at national and international level.

Saxons. The English language evolved from a set of West Germanic dialects spoken by the Angles. World English. Pandit Nehru has said "English is a big key on the modern world. Sometimes these terms refer simply to the array of varieties of English spoken throughout the world. a citizen of the world. It is spoken all over the world. and Jutes. Thus English is more closely related to West Frisian than to any other modern language. International Language : English is the international language. although less than a quarter of the vocabulary of Modern English is shared with West Frisian or other West Germanic languages because of extensive borrowings from Norse." Its importance as international language can be denied by none. The establishment of the first permanent Englishspeaking colony in North America in 1607 was a major . or General English. who arrived from the Continent in the 5th Century. and other languages. So it is vary useful to establish international relation for communication purpose and for the exchange of views with different qmntries of the world. Common English. Norman French. This language is mother tongue of nearly 320 million people and another 200 million people use it as second language. International English is the concept of the English language as a global means of communication in numerous dialects.6 The Place of English in Indian Education (2) Importance of Second and Foreign Language Teaching: English is the language of the world and the knowledge of the language makes a person. It is also referred to as Global English. For this ours reasons are as follows: 1. and also the movement towards an international standard for the language. Latin.

when the Treaty of Versailles was composed not only in French. English as an international language (ElL) is EAL with emphasis on learning different major dialect forms. the common language of diplomacy at the time. British English was only partially standardized when the American colonies were established. It especially means English words and phrases generally understood throughout the English-speaking world as opposed to localisms. in particular. Asia and Oceania.The Place of English in Indian Education 7 step towards the globalization of the language. it aims to equip students with the linguistic tools to communicate internationally. In the 19th century. as a language owned not just by native speakers. and as the administrative language imposed on speakers of other languages in the various parts of the British Empire. English as an additional language (EAL) usually is based on the standards of either American English or British English. the standardization of British English was more settled than it had been in the previous century. The importance of non- . the dialects in England and the colonies began evolving independently. Isolated from each other by the Atlantic Ocean. arguing that linguistic competence has yet to be adequately addressed in recent considerations of ElL. The first form can be seen in New Zealand English. It developed both as the language of English-speaking settlers from Britain and Ireland. but by all those who come to use it. and this relatively well-established English was brought to Africa. and the latter in Indian English. International English sometimes refers to English as it is actually being used and developed in the world. but also in English. In Europe English received a more central role particularly since 1919. Roger Nunn considers different types of competence in relation to the teaching of English as an International Language.

This has a practical use: What could be better than a type of English that saves you from having to re-edit publications for individual regional markets! Teachers and learners of English as a second language also find. While British colonialism laid the foundation for English over much of the world. The development of International English often centers around academic and scientific communities.both often concerned that their English should be neutral. social and cultural connotations attached to it. International English) According to this viewpoint. even the so-called 'standard' forms.Peters (2004. which tends to mitigate both U.. very much attributable to the influence of the United States as well. but conceptually based on a far greater degree of crosstalk and linguistic transculturation. International English reaches towards cultural neutrality. where . Any regional variety of English has a set of political.S. International English is a product of an emerging world culture. without American or British or Canadian or Australian coloring. influence and British colonial influence. International English is a concept of English that minimizes the aspects defined by either the colonial imperialism of Victorian Britain or the so-called "cultural imperialism" of the 20th century United States. it an attractive idea .8 The Place of English in Indian Education native English language skills can be recognized behind the long-standing joke that the international language of science and technology is broken English.

the Commission's recommendation would imply that teachers at Post Graduate level should be essentially bilingual. The importance of English as a library language nicely described by the Radha. The books on all branches of knowledge are written into English language. scientific and technical. It is a language which is rich in literature. humanistic. .The Place of English in Indian Education 9 formal English usage is prevalent. The use of English as a library language also implif's that among the language skills of speaking. we could cut ourselves from the living stream of ever growing knowledge. The Commission said that no student be deemed qualified for a Master's Degree unless he has acquired a reasonable proficiency in English or in some other library language. reading and 2.Krishnan commission in the following words: English however must continue to be studied. If under sentimental we give up English. In view of the fact that the medium of instruction even at the Post Graduate stage is the regional language in many Universities (only the Professional courses are taught through English medium). English is a key to the store house of the knowledge. and creative use of the language is at a minimum. This formal International English allows entry into Western culture as whole and Western cultural values in general. Library Importance : The Kothari Commission suggested that English be studied as a library language with the aim of getting the knowledge of science and technology. commerce and trade by reading standard books in English. that is they should be able to teach in the regional language as well as English.

general and technical. The chairman of the University Education Commission Dr. under sentimental urges we give up English. opening up a vast vista of knowledge and scholarship. English is a window on the world. National Importance: The English language is the window which opens up the vast prospect of human achievement. literature and art. we would cut ourselves off from the living stream of ever growing knowledge. . rich in literature . Students develop the ability to read fast and with understanding. the reading skill is the most important and it should be developed in the students to a high degree so that they will be able to read all reference material.10 The Place of English in Indian Education writing. apart from its being a valuable link with the world organizations and with the growing knowledge in science and technology and trade. Radhakrishnan's (1948) words on the importance of English to India needs repetition: It (English) is a language. make notes and use it for their purposes. the more will be benefit personally and contribute to the growth of our country as a modern nation of the 21 st century. Even with the growth of Indian languages English continues to be the link language between the States and the Centre and also between the multilingual Indian communities. If. structure and meaning. which is 3. scientific and technical. vocabulary.humanistic. The more effective grasp of English in all its diversities of speech. which is in the English. This is the essence of using as a library language. The skill of getting the summery of books and periodicals in English quickly and properly is the most useful in modern life.

being the language used for communication among the Central and State Governments. .. If you push out English. English is the official language. a hiatus. English is the lingua franca of the people from the South. The creation of any such hiatus or gap must be avoided at all costs. It is this that leads me to the conclusion that English is likely to have an important place in the foreseeable future..The Place of English in Indian Education 11 In India. does Hindi fully take its place? I hope it will. serving to connect people of various regions and diverse backgrounds. It is useful for both official and private communication between many parts of the country and thus it serves as a link language in the nation itself. East and West of India. In that event there will be a gap. In India it is used as link language so that people could express their ideas easily. North. Pandit Nehru's words bear repetition about the invaluable linking role of English in the country and across the world: The language link is a greater link between Us and the English speaking people than any political link or Commonwealth link or anything else . English is the link language. I am sure it will. English has also its national importance because it is used as inter state communication language and in centre also. It is very vital to do so in the interest of the unity of the country. But I wish to avoid the danger of one unifying factor being pushed out without another unifying factor fully taking its place.

12 The Place of English in Indian Education IMPORTANCE OF MOTHER TONGUE IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION I LEARNING BY IMITATION 1 I I MAXIMUM OPPORTUNITIES LEARNING BY SITUATION .

written in English language. As a second language and As a foreign language 4. The University Education Commission (1948) headed by Dr. It is the first language in UK. The English system of education was introduced in India in 1835 by the British. English is the world's widely used language. English is a source of recreation and useful employment of leisure. It was the language used by the British administrators. English has one of the richest literatures in the world. scientifically. 2. telecommunication and internet.The Place of English in Indian Education 13 Thus English helps us to keep pace with the explosion of knowledge and scientific and technological advancement. It is useful to distinguish three primary categories of use: 1. radio ard television. USA. The main aims of teaching English are language development and library development. politically. 3. It is also the language of world sports. speak English. fashion and glamour. Recreational Importance:- English is one of the five languages of the United States. Educational Importance : Education systems around the world give special attention to teaching of English. Person who knows English can take enjoy the best stories. As a native language. 5. The English was politically imposed on the Indian education system. dramas. novels etc. India has gained immensely from its contact with English linguistically. administratively and in all spheres of modern activity. Canada and Australia. It enables students to understand spoken English. read English and write perfect. Radhakrishnan recommended: .

technology and Humanities. engineers. well-known scientists.The teaching of English: . As Ryburn remarks in his book. educationists. technological relation with other countries. medicine. (3) Importance of the Mother Tongue Language and Habit: 6. scientific. all over the world.14 The Place of English in Indian Education English is studied in high schools and universities in order that we may keep in touch with the living stream of ever growing knowledge. businessmen and research workers. teaching law etc. Almost all our great leaders. Vocational Importance : English offers opportunities many and varied vocational like diplomatic and foreign services. and help us take advantage of th~ wider reach of the English langu~ge. 7. This would prevent our isolation from the world. English is a direct medium of acquiring knowledge of modem arts. It is also important for politician. English enriches knowledge of foreign culture. renowned philosophers and famous writers are the product of English education. science. According to Mahatma Gandhi: "The mother tongue is as natural for the development of the man's mind as mother's milk is for the development of the infant's body. doctors. scientist. Cultural Importance: English widens one's cultural and intellectual horizon. They increase their knowledge and experience by reading books available only in English language. business. It develops commercial." It helps child in all kinds thinking. commerce.

English was also learnt with the help of mother tongue language in the later half of the 19th century. 15 The teaching of English through mother tongue is not new. In earlier the third language Sanskrit was learnt through mother tongue. It is quite right that mother tongue is not taught but it is caught and foreign language is first taught and after caught. habit may be formed in the class room which will be of greatest value in connection with the learning English.The Place of English in Indian Education Mother tongue is the basis of the all works. In beginning the child is motivated by his parents to use mother tongue to express his thought. unconsciously he has learnt the mother tongue and he can express his ideas. Ryburn remarked: If sufficient attention of teaching of mother tongue and if it is well taught. feelings. Importance of Mother Tongue in Teaching of English : 1. Mother tongue learning begins from infancy. Importance of Motivation : Teacher should try always to motivate students to learning the foreign language because motivation provides the necessary encouragement for learning. Justifying the use of mother tongue in the teaching of English language. ideas and feelings and in same way . When he comes at the age of youth. and thoughts and he can understands their. Child learns mother tongue naturally.

While teaching new words and structure of the foreign language should create appropriate situation. Maximum Opportunities : In class room the teacher should use mother tongue language in teaching learning process. Teacher should give opportunities to students to learn foreign language with the help of mother tongue. On the same principle the English can be learnt by imitation in class. for teaching them. and good language is largely judged by its sound. Teacher should pronounce the word or sentence and ask students to pronounce it. 4. doing. Learning by Imitation : Traditionally basic emphasis in learning has been placed on seeing. Language is still largely learned by imitation. 3. Thus student can learn English easily by imitation. He tries to associate certain symbols with the objects. the child forms a concept and grasps the situation. So that the students may exchange with each other their ideas and concepts already learnt by them in the process of learning their own mother tongue. Learning by Situation : While learning his mother tongue. A child learns his mother tongue by imitation. A students of correctly motivated to learn foreign language can himself manage to learn the language. hearing. he can easily learn English.16 The Place of English in Indian Education if a child is motivated by his teacher to learn English with the help of mother tongue. in the class room. When family member pronounce any word the child imitate that word and learn to speak by mother tongue. 2. In this context Dodson has rightly remarked: . and saying. Because we know that in India many people can not understand and learn English directly so teacher should use mother tongue most so that students could understand it easily.

We know that student use grammar unconsciously in his talking. he will very easily learnt English. If the students has a good knowledge of grammar. How the Mother Tongue helps in Teaching of English: The Teaching of Grammar : Grammar is an attempt to develop concepts. it forms a back ground of knowledge to which new grammar may be liked either by similarity or by difference. Grammar provides a stock of ideas and understandings that help to make language intelligible. 1. to give some insight into its structure. He can with a view to make the concept clear also present comparison and . principles and rules relating to usage and to the structure of language. it would make things much easier for the English teacher. Ryburn has correctly evaluated the importance of mother tongue in the teaching of grammar by saying: If pupils were given a through grounding in the grammar of their mother tongue. to supply some help in the use of language forms and in the correction of errors. Thomas and Wyatt remarks: If the grammar of the mother tongue is well known. So the teacher can explain the five points of grammar in better way by using mother tongue.The Place of English in Indian Education 17 The best and perhaps the only way in which a human being learns a second language is for him to have the maximum numbers of meaningful and purposeful contact with this language in useful environments and situations. The learnt by a child of his mother tongue forms the back ground of the English language.

The topic already attempted by the student for composition in their mother tongue lesson of the students. The well graded practice of mother tongue can be attempted easily for composition in English subject matter for written composition in English can be borrowed from the mother tongue lesson of the students. An English teacher can not speak throughout in English because of the existing level of knowledge of his students and if he does so student will not be able to understand him. thoughts and information in English also. Oral Work: Oral expression in English depends also upon the oral expression in the mother tongue. In beginning students are neither expected trained nor to think in English. So before le:lrning English. R Gurry is quite right when he remarks: If a speaker talks freely and fluency in his own language he can soon learn to speak well and easily in mother tongue. 4. The well graded practice of mother tongue acquired by the students will help them in arranging all the ideas. 3. a student must be well conversant to express himself freely in his own mother tongue.18 The Place of English in Indian Education contrast between the grammatical forms of their mother tongue. They must be able to narrate them in their mother tongue. Before they are expected to narrate their ideas English. 2. Composition : Composition in any ability of collecting and organizing different ideas. Translation: "Translation of passage has as its object the securing of an exact parallel in the mother tongue of a passage in .

The Place of English in Indian Education 19 PROBLEM FACED IN SPEAKING LEATING LINGUISTIC PROBLEM SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROBLEM PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM .

Silent reading is the more efficient way of reading and more useful in life. 6.20 The Place of English in Indian Education English. Reading aloud 2. The importance of silent reading does not reduce the importance of oral reading at the initial stages of language learning. 5. Translation imparts the student sufficient practice in expressing them in English. Reading aloud is helpful in developing speech habit and silent reading develops power of expression in writing and quick comprehension. Silent Reading These two parts of reading in the mother tongue provides sufficient help in reading aloud and silent reading in English. specially the dip-thongs which do not have any sound in any Indian language. Reading: Reading is a complex skill involving a number of simultaneous operations." Translation from and mother tongue occupies a very important place in learning English language. Silent reading means reading completely silently. P Gurry remarks: . A teacher can develop reading habit among his students through reading exercise in the mother tongue. as they are given various fresh passage in their mother tongue which the students are required to translate it into English and vice versa English passage into mother tongue. English is a foreign language and has a very complex system of vowels. Reading has been divided into two parts: 1. his pronunciation in English will be also clear. without even moving the lips. Use in Pronunciation: If pupils' pronunciation in his mother tongue is clear. Its aim is to ascertain to what degree of perfection the art of paralleling has been persuading.

As we know that first language is learnt naturally. an internal motivation to learn another language. It has been observed from the society of Gujarat that the people or Gujarati learner find this language very difficult. No any special training is given to learn mother tongue while to learn second or foreign language the special training is given to Gujarati speaking learner. the Gujarati learner feels it too difficult. It is used every where. It should be properly done in the class room and proper attention should be paid to it.pattern and new thoughts. It should be started with the help of mother tongue. But ultimately reading habit can be developed in them through reading exercises in their mother tongue. in all government department and other department. Why. In Indian condition. The important question is that why Gujarati speaking learner of English find it difficult to learn English. Extensive reading helps in supplying new vocabulary. It is taught as second language in Gujarat state. (4) Problem faced by Gujarati speaking learner in Learning Foreign Language We know that Gujarati is second language for those who have brought up in the Gujarat. Gujarati speaking learner are learning almost in vacuum. The Gujarati is widely .The Place of En/dish in Indian Education 21 Children who have taught to read in their mother tongue well can quickly learn to read English after one or two years of oral English. Naturally to learn English needs a boost. Gujarati is spoken in Gujarat. The use of mother tongue will help the pupil in creating interest in the reading of additional material in English. new ideas. new sentence. The Gujarat is one of a state of India. pupil may take more time.

Linguistic Problem 2. Social and Political Problem: In Gujarat the English teaching has been considered a problem because there is no clear policy about teaching . So naturally the Gujarati is also one of scientific language of the world. in Gujarati it is SCV. The Gujarati is scientific language while English is not because in Gujarati there is one to one correspondence between sound and its letters. Pedagogical Problem 1. It is very difficult to find the subsidiary environment using another language among Gujaratis.22 The Place of English in Indian Education spoken and there are many dialectical varieties within. Linguistic Problem: • • Gujarati is syllable rhymed language while English is stressed rhymed language. Sanskrit. Social and Political Problem 3. CCVC. the spoken language is closed to its script whereas in English. or SAV whereas in English SVO. So Syllables are not easily recognized by learner. • • • 2. The Gujarati has its own speech and script and Gujarati speaking people have mastered it. Now we see that which difficulties are faced by Gujarati speaking learner. 1. Syllabic formation in Gujarati is different from English. SVC. CVC. CV. The word order in both language differ in form. From the through out studies in the field of linguistic Sanskrit is found the most scientific language. in English 26 letters represent 44 sounds. In Gujarati it is V. The code in Gujarati is based on Indian language. etc. SVA. In Gujarati. spoken language differ in it form. SOY. CCCVCC.

English has been found a compulsory component in very short period of school education 2 to 4 years. English is taught but without having goal of acquiring skill of using English.The Place of English in Indian Education 23 of English in college and school. The policy makers are still in dilemma to make it compulsory from lower primary. In this category. Rural and Urban. • • • . people like to live in there respective community. The some of the groups advocating learning in vernacular language oppose almost policies on this issue. they prefer English but the greatest mass neglect learning 3econd language. The elite class is too small. the social and political problems are included: • We know that Gujarati is basically a business community. They don't like to live together so they did not need any other language to communicate. The society has been divided into two parts. Rural want to live with rural people while urban like to live with urban. The language teaching is based on recommendation of Dr. In both these stream. So English medium institutes are mushrooming like anything and teaching English as second or foreign language is neglected in school where Gujarati is the medium of instruction. Kothari Commission. The Government of Gujarat has accepted his formula of teaching three languages in secondary schools. In school there is no importance of teaching or learning English. There is no perfect sequence of teaching English in school and college. We know that there is no clear policy of teaching English in colleges and schools.

The language teaching should be task based. teaching should be The teacher must have liberty of deciding language activities and materiaL The school must have technological resources. +++++ . one can not teach English. The way teaching of first language in teaching English. The grammar teaching should be moderate and language oriented.24 3. The Place of English in Indian Education Pedagogical Problem: The way of teaching first language is different from the way of teaching second language. The language communicative. In pedagogical problem the teacher is not only responsible but also those are also responsible who are engaged in language teaching at whatever leveL Now we see the problems which Gujarati speaking learners face: • • • • • • • • • • • There are lack of good English teacher Little knowledge of linguistic No good methods are practiced Lack of the knowledge of how languages are acquired and learned Lack of resources like authentic material and software. Objectives should be based on psychomotor domain.

Teacher teaches in his own way. The different languages are used all over the world. Psychology is one of them. First the education was in shadow of teacher. How these languages FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING . The development of psychology in the field of philosophy has made teaching and learning very effective and scientific. The psychology has helped "How to teach language and "How it may be useful in teaching learning process. They have no any role in teaching learning process. They were the master of education and what they spoke was next to God. The education was slave of teacher. He did not think the mental condition of child." Language: The different languages are spoken in the world. Whole teaching learning process was teacher centred. It has provided the way of teaching and learning both teacher and students have got this advantage from the psychology. There are many varieties within the language. The psychology has made us eligible for think minutely understanding teaching more scientifically.2 +++++ ---------------------(1) The Psychology of Foreign Language Learning Many branches of language emerged from philosophy.

26 Foreign Language teaming CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGE l Language is cultured based Language is unique system Language is social behave Language is medium of instruction Language is structural system Language is made up habit " .

It is believed that people started conveying message quest. Edward Sapir quotes: Language is purely human and noninstinctive method of communicating ideas.. emotions and desires by means of a system of voluntarily produced symbols. thought. He notes: Language is a symbol system based on pure arbitrary conventions . signals.Foreign Language Leaming 27 are originated. feeling and message. Robins rightly points out those definitions tend to be trivial and uninformative but he does list and discuss a number of silent facts that must be taken into account in any seriously intended study of language. infinitely extendable and modifiable according to the changing needs and conditions of the speakers. Language is extendable and modifiable.. gestures and sign etc. Language conventions are not easily changed. In their Outline of Linguistic Analysis Block and Trager wrote: A language is a system of arbitery vocal symbols by means of which a social group co-operates. postures. Language is the method of human communication./I Collins Cobuld Essential English Dictionaries defines language as: /I Language is a system of communication through which . Every language choices some symbols from the alphabet of the language and joins in different combinations to form meaningful words. The Researcher has made it clear that the language is a medium through which a one can express his ideas. it is very difficult to know.

It consists primarily of vocal sounds." Language is a fully developed means of communication. they are restricted to a participate set of messages. according to a system of rules. grammar. and vocabulary. It is articulatory. Noam Chomsky Syntactic Structures observes: "A language is a set (finite or infinite) of sentences. Cambridge International Dictionary of English (1995:795) defines the term "language" as: ..28 Foreign Language Learning consists of a set of sounds and written symbols which are used by the people of a particular country for talking or writing. systematic and arbitrary. restricted to humans. Darbyshire noted: "Language is undoubtedly a kind of means of communication among human beings. . each finite in length and constructed out of a finite set of elements. which involves the use of sounds.. Though other animals can communicate vocally and by gestures. a system of communication consisting of small parts and a set of rules which decide the ways in which these parts can be combined to produce messages that have meaning." The Cambridge Concise Encyclopaedia defines the term "language" as: A species-specific communicative ability. Language has changed the entire gamut of human relations and made it possible for human beings to grow into a human community on this world.

The expression of feeling and meaning becomes more exact. The teaching of language is basically conditioned by the nature of the subject. a means of adjustment to control over other people. which cannot be creatively varied.Foreign Language Learning 29 genetically given. dependent on points or emphasis and interest. The command of words and groups of words grows with practise and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to be expressed. The entire process of socialization is largely a process of language development. In his Essays on Language Hall notes: "Language is the institution whereby humans communicate and interact with one another by means of habitually used oral auditory arbitrary symbols. It has been observed in the first place that language is a vital part of the growth process. The primary functions of language are communication. Language is a social act. The use of language as a means of clarifying ideas and feelings is equally real. The communication function is obvious. Language is the manipulation of experience by the use of symbols." Encyclopaedia Britannica comments: Language is a system of conventional spoken or written symbols by means of which human beings. and of discovering relationships. Language is a means of clarifying perception of discovering likeness and differences in thing observed. communicate. self-expression and thinking. . as members of a social group and participants in its culture. The concept of language as a learning task is a complex of interrelated and interdependent experiences and elements. in which growth proceeds simultaneously but in varying degrees. of forming general ideas.

. L. L.. s.. F. is learnt It is learnt through practice ISe4:0nd~ .30 Foreign Language Learning LANGUAGE l F.. L. is acquired It is acquired naturally S.

It is a vital part of the process of adjusting to life. Language is also a system of phonetics. Language is purposeful. Language is essential for our survival and development as human being. It is a means of bringing order into a bewildering world. Language is a result of cultural experience. No language is inferior or superior. English Language has a set of sounds peculiar to it. Command of language is an important factor in the development of total personality of the child. The fourth important implication is that language develops as a whole. Such mastery is a wholesome influence that affects the whole life of the child. The purpose is largely utilitarian. With patience and time. physical and social. Few characteristics are given of Language: • • • • • • • Language is a very important means of communication Language is symbolic Language is dynamic Language is structured system Language is unique system Language is a carrier of civilization and culture Language is a form of social behaviour . Language is a means of gaining control of people and thought. grammar and vocabulary.Foreign Language Learning 31 In the second place. Language is learnt by imitation. satisfaction and security. native equipment gives potentialities of growth. Every language represents its culture in the best possible way. Language is used to communicate our thoughts and ideas. not a mechanical. The fifth principle relates to grading and sequence. Command of language gives a feeling of confidence. it has been noted that. every language can be mastered.

32 Foreign Language Learning rOREIGN LANGUAGE [CHARACTERISTICS Diff'erent sound pattern Diff'erent words Little 0 de structure Diff'erent meaning .

These languages may first for one state anQ for other state second language. It is routine language for him. First Language : There are many states in our country.Foreign Language Learning 33 • • • • • • • Language is arbitrary Language is medium of instruction Language is made up of habits Language is a symbol of system Language is as important as the air we breathe Language is the most valuable passion of man Language is an inseparable part of human body. Diversity is features of Indian but they have unique identity. When a language is learnt naturally or without training than it is called first language. The first language can be defined as under: It is the language that an individual has acquired when he was child as a part of natural process of acquiring language without any formal training. Tamil. rhythms . Thus Gujarati is first language for him. They are different in way of script. Rajasthan and other state. In the world several languages are used and they are differs from each other. in society and many places. All languages are different in nature. For example a child of Gujarat learns Gujarati naturally because he has natural environment of Gujarati in house. The first language is used to learn second language in many states. so he speaks Gujarati without any problem. Every state has its own language like Gujarat. Second Language : There are different kinds of languages are spoken in India.

34 Foreign Language Learning PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING ~ 1 Behaviorism Cognitivism ~ Classical Conditioning 1 Operant Conditioning . Sounds of bell (C onditioning Stimulus) Food (~~ ~~ ~ . / Come larva from mouth of dog (Conditioning response) Stimulus) I Give ReWfo:rcement r rre~~ trigger to get food f-----Jo Give resporue Resporue is to Get Food 1 .

Difference between Acquisition and Learning : Acquisition : Many languages are used in our country or societies. The Tamil is First language for them. Some time we find numbers of varieties within language. But in Rajasthan it is not first language because it is not learnt in routine in environment. These are foreign language because they have different sound pattern. They use it as first language. The term "Foreign language" has been defined as: Foreign language is the language where the secondary environment is not observed and the people of linguistically foreign societies use such language. For example: In Gujarat. Gujarati is first language for Gujarati people because it is learnt without any particular training. little ode structure and entirely different meaning. The term second language can be defined in these words: When a child learns a language systematically or he is given particular training for it then it is called second language. different words. When languages are learnt without any practice it is called . Chin and other country also use these languages. Foreign Language : It is the language which is used by the people of other country or society. In school and colleges and other places the only Hindi is used so Hindi is first language and Rajasthani may be second language. To learn Rajasthani we need special training. For example Russian. In south India the Hindi is Second language because the Hindi is not used as routine language.Foreign Language Learning 35 and sounds.

In our schools many subjects are taught. He learns FL naturally. The language when it is learnt in primary environment or learnt without practice it is Acquisition. rules which grow in sophistication as acquisition proceeds. Behaviourism: This school of psychology has been established by Russian Psychologist Pavlov and American Psychologist B. The term "Learning" can be defined as: The way through which the art of using skill and practice is given to learn it than it is learning. Skinner. Language acquisition is an active process. English taught as second language because particular practice is given to the students to learn English. we do it at an age when we can hardly do anything else. Children take the clues available to them and use these clues to construct their own grammatical rules. When language is learnt naturally and without any systematic practice then it is called Acquisition. Child learns first language without any problem and practice. . Language acquisition is the process by which a child acquires its mother tongue. the help of mother tongue is taken. Behaviourism Cognitivism 2. Behaviourism is the theory that psychology should invoke only observable and measurable phenomena. To learn English. Psychology of Learning : 1. Learning: Learning a language requires the operation of an innate capacity possessed by all human beings. The acquisition of a first language is the most wonderful feat we perform in our whole life.F. 1.36 Foreign Language Learning first language.

Foreign Language Learning

37

Behaviourism originated as a healthy reaction to this state of affairs. The early behaviourists wanted to sweep away what they saw as empty speculation and the endless postulation of undetectable concepts. Behaviourism exercised great influence over the linguist Leonald Bloomfield and the American structuralists who followed him. In 1957 the American Psychologist B.P. Skinner published Verbal Behaviour. It was an attempt at interpreting language acquisition strictly in terms of Behaviourism. It was the most radical attempt ever treating language in a behaviourist framework. A behaviourist method of language teaching should embody at least the following principles. It should be firmly anchored in spoken language. Pavlov has given theory of classical conditioning and B.F. Skinner has given the theory of Operant Condition.

Classical Conditioning: This theory is based on the habit formation. Pavlov says that human or any creature gives response due to stimulus. Stimulus are that things which create excitation in creature. It means that human learn due to stimulus. Pavlov has done one experiment on a dog. In which when at first Pavlov rings a bell before dog and dog hears it. With it, it is given food then it drops larva. Just after he rings bell then it drops larva after again food is given. In this condition we look that dog is given stimulus and it gives response. Thus student can also be taught according of this theory. Operant Conditioning: This theory is also based on the habit formation. B.F. Skinner says that human or any creature gives response due to Reinforcement. He wants to say that human or creature learns due to reinforcement. B.P. Skinner has done experiment on Pigeons and Rats. When they are reinforced they get their target or food. It means student can be taught very effectively if they are given proper reinforcement.

38

Foreign Language Learning

The structuralists believe in the pattern of practice. They say that teacher should motivate to their student so that he could get his all desired objectives. The motivated learner learns fast and effectively.

Few Essential Points :
1. Language is learnt only through practice. The more the learner is exposed to the use of language, the better chance of learning it. Producing the correct linguistic response to a stimulus requires efforts. If the learner is not called upon to make this effort there is no learning. Producing correct response also requires attention. -The spoken language comes earlier than the written and the passive experience of language is necessary before any productive (active) use can begin. Learning takes place fast if a correct response is given t the students. The learner must know at once if his effort is right or wrong. Every new item must be learnt by reinforcement by further practice before further learning begins.

2.

3. 4.

5.

6.

2.

Cognitivism :

Cognitivism is the doctrine that the mind can be invoked in scientific investigation and even be made the object of study itself. Today most psychologists, philosophers and linguists, are preferably happy to invoke invisible things like minds and purposes and even to make mind itself the object of study. This approach is called Cognitivism.

Foreign Language Learning

39

COGNITIVES
~
Cognitive emphasizes the importance ofthn!e things

Meaning

1
Understanding

Cognitive says that the language acquisition can be automadcaBy attained

40

Foreign Language Learning

This theory is based on the developmentally readiness of learner. The psychologist Piaget says when child is ready to learn then he can be taught. He learns naturally. This idea can be regarded as a starting point of the cognitivist idea. The psychologist emphasizes the importance of three things: 1. 2. 3. Meaning Knowing And understanding

According them learning is a meaningful process of "relating new events or item to already existing already cognitive concept." And it is thought to involve internal representations that guide performance. In the case of language acquisition, these representations are based on language system. That involves procedure for selecting appropriate vocabulary, grammatical rules and pragmatic conventions governing language use. David Ausubel has criticized the popular audio lingual method for its theory based on reinforcement and conditioning. Adult learning a second language could profit from certain grammatical explanation. Though children do not use deductive method of grammar and they do not have superior cognitive capacities. They acquire mother tongue quietly.
In short, the cognitivists say that language acquisition can be automatically attained. Behaviourists favour the view that language is behaviour is one sided and some what superficial. According to Cognitivists there is some thing, . which mediates between the stimulus and the response, and the cognitive function. A learner just does not behave in a mechanical manner. He uses his mind also. He not only perceives the whole phenomena but also develops in insight through which he solves a problem.

Motivation is an energy change within a person characterized effective arousal and anticipatory goal reaction. To learn first language we need not to motivate the child. he is internally motivated and he acquires first language. Habit Formation. The word "Motivation" has been defined as: Motivation is considered with the arousal of the interest in learning and to the extent is basic to learning. Faced with problems and needs. To learn second language students are given systematic practice. Importance of Motivation : 1. Some types of motivation must be presented in learning. Without motivation he can not learn second language. understanding and Memory in teaching English Motivation : We know that first language is acquired and second language is learnt. Man became civilized from uncivilized man. . It is only due to motivation.Foreign Language Learning 41 (2) Use of Motivation. Attention. the child wills merely look for outside assistance. It is through speech that a child learns to organize his perception and regulate his behaviour and mental activities. Motivation is the central factor in the effective management of process of learning. Motivation is a term which occurs in discussion of second rather than first language learning. it means he is motivated to learn second language. Reinforcement.

Thus reinforcement is goods which can be obtained by giving some thing right. Do you think that if you don't give charge of any goods? Will shopkeeper give something to you? No he will give nothing to you without any charge. 5. Motivation plays main role to encourage people. 6. The reinforcement has been defined as: Any environmental event that is programmed as consequence of a response that can increase that rate of responding is called reinforcement. So that the atmosphere of motivated situations could be created. 8. Motivation makes students active and creative. Motivation makes learning and teaching effective. They desire to do some thing new. 3. 9. Motivation inspires students to prove their goal and objectives. Motivation creates teaching atmosphere in class room. Human can adjust himself with society. Reinforcement : When you go to any shop. Motivation creates interest for self studies in students. Which makes any response powerful is called reinforcement. . 7. Motivation makes students to identify themselves. Motivation inspires students to become active and regular in their work and start their work. Motivation makes expected change in human. Motivated students can move their limitation by using their powers and ambitions. 4.42 Foreign Language Learning 2.

Foreign Language Learning 43 rI KINDS OF REINFORCER l Negative reinforcer Positive Reinforcer Punishment Primary Rein-forcer Secondary Rein-forcer I Reputation II Get Wealth ! Post or Seat I .

In computer we can store data on large scale. The teacher should be live in his presentation. The stimulus variation technique should be used in class room teaching. When we say that. ~ The teacher should held enjoyable activities. 3. the computer has memory power which remembers whole data till long time. 2. 5. Inattentive students can never perceive knowledge. The learning material and content must be interesting. 4. 2. this student is not intelligent. It means that he does not draw his attention in teaching learning process. Attention is a mental process of students which decides the role of students' involvement in teaching learning process. Kinds of Rein-forcer : 1. Positive Rein~forcer Negative Rein-forcer Punishment Primary Rein-forcer Secondary Rein-forcer Attention: Attention plays important role in teaching learning process. 3. Just like it human also has brain which have memory . He disturbs whole teaching learning process.44 Foreign Language Learning When an award or punishment is given to make response powerful is called rein-forcer. Memory : You have listened about computer. Why. 4. The teacher should follow the simple rules for stretching their attention till at the end of the class: 1.

Foreign Language Learning 45 STAGES OF PROCESS OF MEMORIZATION I RE GIS l'ER I 1 RETAINING RECOGNITION RECALLING .

If not. letter and passage and then talking. So learning a language means forming habit of using language. The teacher of English should form following habit in order to attaining second or foreign language: 1.46 Foreign Language Learning capacity. he will learn language easily. If the learners can not fix the concept about the language. later they form the habit of forming words. Habit Formation : We know that practice plays important role in teaching Learning process. they should recognize and recall the retained information. Now we take the example: at first child forms the habit of producing sound in English. Communication skills are nothing but habit formation. In this process the learner are acquiring these skills by modifying their acquired behaviours in their respective mother tongue. the learner will not be able to fix and recall. According to behaviourists psychologist the habit is conditioned behaviour. The teacher should try to make teaching so simple and lucid for better retention. The learners have fixed the ideas and when they need. They have learnt it. Human brain is store house of memory. The learners have to form the habit of behaving in the manner of English. retaining. 3. Human performs several tasks which remembrance is stored in memory system. Almost all kinds of primary or motor skill learning is kind of habit formation. If we want to learn language we should take it in practice. If sufficient practice is given to the students to perform task. They are registering. 2. There are stages in the process of memorization. Better articulation Good acceptable rhythm Better intonation and pronunciation . Learning a second language means forming the habit of using English. recalling and recognizing. Acquiring new habit is the result of learning. they can not use.

Foreign Language Learning 47 r------.---J>I c ! I I Better articulation I I--------J>II Good acceptable rhythm I I I I--------J>II Better intonation and pronunciation 1-------.j.II J Speaking and writing I ~--------------~ .1 I Using English manner '---------.

To enable the student to speak English correctly.48 4. What are general and specific objectives of teaching English? How can we define general and specific objectives? We take an example of a teacher who teaches English in class room. To enable students to develop quality of Mahatma Gandhi. To enable student to understand topic correctly. teaching of English. 2. . We study in our life. What will be general and specific objectives of this unit? General objectives of this unit are: 1. There is always aim or purpose behind any task. 4. There should always be purpose behind the task. To enable student to read English with ease. 5. 3. To enable student to listen English with ease. Suppose he is teaching the unit "Mahatma Gandhi". Specific objectives are of this unit: 1. S. He is always active. Is there any purpose or aim of teaching English at school Level? Yes. Now we come to the point. There are general and specific objectives of teaching English. To enable student to write English correctly. Foreign Language Learning Using English manner Speaking and writing (3) Aims and Objectives of Teaching English at School level in Term of language Point and Skill Introduction : We know that man performs several tasks. Thus we can say that a task without any purpose or objectives or aim is wasteful. There is no meaning of that task. there are aims and objectives of teaching English at school Level. I don't think that a man performs a task without any purpose. General objectives are those which are obtained at the end the year.

ev't!k>p quality d faaifke.fnU ~ d. eue TG enable sIu. I .d.Foreign Language Leaming 49 OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH GENERAL OBJECTIVES SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES Those am got after the end of the )'iarofihe course Those am got after the ending ofihe Wlit I TG uruhDtmd ~ (cxn:edly TG nad J!n&Wh Wih.

Understanding of critical value Drawing aesthetic pleasure . students do not understand tIE literary sense of English.50 Foreign Language Learning ENGLISH TEACHING English should be taught as languaIJ! not m literature becalR on tlIis Develop taste for English literature Develop interest in English literature Develop transJating ability st¥. At this st¥ language development should be chief objectives.

Language Development Literary Development 2. Thus we can say that the general objectives are those which are got after the end of the year course and specific objectives are those which are got after the ending of unit. According to P. student starts the learning the language on this stage. Gurry. So first. vocabulary and structure of language but he should think only about the language development of students. should not only understand English when it is spoken or written but also . We can say that teacher should not care about pronunciation. 4. It is necessary that the Indian people 1. 51 To enable students to develop the quality of sacrifice. they should have a good command over the language.Foreign Language Learning 2. Language Development: It is only for the students of class V to VIII. According to above opinions. At this stage. During this stage the main aim of English teaching is only language development of child. Now we take two types of objectives of teaching of English which are limited to particular class V to VIII and IX to XII: 1. language development should be chief objective. 3. student does not understand the literary sense of English. grammar. It means that English should be taught only as language not as literature because on this stage. To enable student to develop the quality of loyalty for our country. To enable student to develop the quality of high thinking and simple living.

......52 Foreign Language Learning GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING ENGLISH l To enable the students to understand the spoken ---~~~_ _ _ _ _ _.___mn_~ ge _ _ _ _ _ _~ ___ I ___-..~l__ T_o_e_na_b_le_the_stu_d_e_nts_t_o_sp_e_ak_E_D_gIis_"_h_c_orr_e_ct_-l mn~ge ___~. to write "'" language prop..I T ••nab" .. enabm "'" . j.tnd_ t ....'" I ___ ~...I T...ad . _ with """'. ...

Foreign Language Learning he should himself be able to speak and to write it. Literary development is an important objective at higher secondary stage. speaking and the writing and understanding should be developed in the students. poetry. Genera. Specific objectives state what to achieve at the end of the unit. To enable students to understand spoken or written language. from reading English literature General objectives of Teaching English : General objectives are global and long term goals. 4. story etc. Literary development to means to develop: 1. correct language. 4. 3. 3. 53 2. They are : 1. Literary Development: This objective is for the stage of senior class students from IX to XII. A taste for English literature by reading prose. To enable the students to read the language with ease. Specific objectives of Teaching English : Specific objectives are short term goals. To enable students to speak simple English 2. . On this stage the ability of reading. To enable the student to write the language properly. listening. 5.l objectives state what to achieve at the end of the course of the year. 2. Develop interest in English literaturE' Development of translating ability understanding the critical value Drawing aesthetic pleasure.

.. talk and discussion. pauses and intonation pattern. . • . 10. phrases and structure in their context.. Establishment of chronological order of statement narration. Speak sentence with proper stresses. . 8..... 7. • To enable students to speak simple English correct language To enable students to . 4.. Understand the purpose of the speaker by 9... Follow the meaning of words..54 Foreign Language Learning Specific objectives are based on the above sub skills or general objectives. noting his stresses and intonation pattern. Associate ideas with pictures. 2. Get main idea of the narration. To enable student to . Recognize the sounds of English. 3. words correctly. 6. To enable the students to understand spoken language. Follow the typical usage of the spoken form of language. Point out the missing point in oral presentation. Use appropriate words and sentence pattern. Pronounce the sounds of English letters and 1. 3. 1. chart or object during oral presentation. 5.. Differentiate sounds of English words and sounds of words of mother tongue.. maintaining a continuity of thoughts. 2. Carry out oral instruction.

• To enable the students to . To enable the students to . To enable the students to read the language with ease Recognise words of English... Speak without any reversion. l. Write words with proper spacing between letters. 4. Spell the word correctly... Put ideas in proper sequence.. 6. Acquiring skill of effective communication... Use appropriate words. 10. Shape the letter correctly. phrase and sentence pattern.. 6.. . 8. 8. 9.. Acquire active vocabulary. 7. . Write sentence with proper spacing between words. To enable the student to write the language properly Write the letter correctly. 55 Answer the. 7. Use punctuation correctly... Write answer keeping in mind the format of questions.Foreign Language Learning 4. 9. 5. Speak with confidence. 5. • 10. Write different types of compositions. Use capital letters in writing. questions. 2. 1. Speak without using any meaningless and unnecessary words. 3.

Foreign Language Learning Follow the meaning of words. 6. Find out appropriate answer to question based on reading material. Give the list of content material read. Locate the sequence of ideas and facts. 10. Read with the correct pronunciation and clear expression. 11. 5. Note and keep in view the punctuation mark while reading. 7. Associate ideas of reading material with a picture or a chart. 8. Locate key word. Read with ease and appropriate speed. 4. 3.56 2. Recognise different shades and meaning of words. phrases and sentence. phrases and structure in their context. 9. +++++ .

So the teaching material and instructional material play 3 INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL AND TEXT BOOK . Teacher teaches and students learn from teacher... In process of teaching learning process teacher uses some thing to make his teaching learning process effective. writing and speaking and sub skills of skills could be developed in students. We know that English is second or foreign language... The language teaching is not a static process but it is a dynamic process. Teacher should select teaching material and instructional according the objectives decided by teachers so that skill of reading. ---------------------(1) Use and selection of Instructional Material and Teaching Aids Introduction : We know that teaching and learning is process. We know the general objectives and specific objectives of teaching English..... understanding... The material and aids which are used by teacher to make his teaching very effective is called teaching aids and instructional material.

P.-_ _ Ra. D. C.P. ' . .ALL) v." V.c. I I TdeWion HIm Pr(lj edflr Slide Proj edu O.58 Instructional Material and Text Book TEACHING AIDS L~ CompWir &sisud LemUr!g (C..H._dW_--..

soft boards. Audio Cassette Player 2'. Transparencies and Episcope. OHP. 2. Film Projector Language Laboratory Computer Assisted Learning • • • Visual Aids : 1. There are kinds of display boards used to display charts. Flannel boards.Instructional Material and Text Book 59 important role in teaching learning process. Charts. Video Compact Disc Player 3. tables etc. 2. Pictures. Pictures and Drawings: These teaching aids play main role in teaching learning process. Slide Projector. Boards: Blackboard. • Audio aids : 1. 4. maps. Radio Audio Visual aids : 1. Thus we can say that use and selection of teaching aids must be very carefully. Types of Teaching and Instructional Material : • Visual aids : 1. Maps. Static and Working Modal Film strip. Television 4. 3. Charts. . Maps. Video Cassette player 2. Boards: Blackboard. Flannel boards. soft boards: These boards are used to display different types of display material. Drawings.

These aids make students to draw their attention very carefully toward teaching. The transparency is plastic sheet which on which teacher can develop his own material to be presented. Film strip. The material on opaque sheet is projected with the help of this hardware. He can use both the static and working model. They prepare students mentally and motivate for further preparation. Working model of elephant creates primary interest in students. Episcope: Episcope is also known as Epidiascope. If models are not available he can use charts. Charts may be written or drawn on thick coloured papers and can be hanged or displayed by using any of the boards. 3. Pictures can also be displayed by using any of the boards. pictures or drawing. Static modal can be used if working model is not available. . Maps can be either hanged or displayed by using any of the display boards. 4.60 Instructional Material and Text Book They interest in students. teacher wants to teach the topic elephant. Slides are available in the market and teacher can use them according to need of content. Teachers can prepare these aids himself of readymade. Static and Working Modal: Models play important role in teaching learning process. Teacher can use models to make his teaching very effective. But he should himself be a creative person so that student could follow him. Use of OHP by teacher is good practical that help him to make his teaching very interested and effective. OHP. The teacher can draw picture or any sketch ar. Slide Projector. Transparencies and Episcope : The teacher can use film strip and slide projector to make his teaching too effective. For example.y item also to be displayed with the help of display board. Over Head Projector : OHP is the hardware used to project the transparencies.

The learners have an access to native language and they better drill the pattern in its required form. In this source the teacher has no criteria to select the learning material because whatever aired is the source. The students repeat that subject matter and learn. Radio must appeal to every type and level of taste. In this process the subject matter is recorded as audio cassette and played on this machine. quiz programmes. debates. Small size of picture can be projected through this instructional materiaL Audio Aids: 1. But there is room on the air for instrumental and vocal music. We use it in our houses and shop to listen song. Audio Cassette Player: We all are introduced of tape recorder or audio cassette player. It makes teaching very scientific and effective. and the schools have a major responsibility for providing enlightenment. forums. It was first attempt to teach English with the help of radio. variety programmes. sports events. The first of the objectives of the study of radio in secondary schools arises from the nature of the control of the industry. . It is also used in teaching learning process by teacher. In a democracy the best defence against monopoly in the field of communication is an enlightened public. Radio: The radio was very famous medium of mass media before three decades. 2.Instructional Material and Text Book 61 The teacher can project any material developed on simple plain paper sheet. It should be possible for the listener to make a free selection from among many of these kinds of programmes both during the day and in the evening. mysteries. religious broadcasts. The teaching activities become more and more effective and alive. addresses. both classical and popular.

The method of improving young people's tastes in radio is not the method of coercion. the enterprise can serve to promote further interest in parental guidance at home. William Levenson declares: Enduring standards and tastes cannot be imposed from without. The third and perhaps the most important objective for the radio study in secondary schools is the development of the ability to evaluate news reports and communication as the air. Rinehart & Company. but if parents' reactions are solicited also. before the teacher attempts an abstract discussion of comparative standards. A genuine continuous growth begins first with an understanding of the levels at which tastes exist.62 Instructional Material and Text Book The second important objective of the schools in the area of radio study is the elevation of the listener's taste. 1945:474) Audio Visual Aids : In the twentieth century technology was advanced at the highest pace. It will not only provide the teacher with the information she seeks. Inc. it is well to know to what programmes the children are listening. New York. In the beginning of the year there were . as applied to radio. ( Teaching Through Radio.. Consequently. What programmes are available in the community? When do they listen? Such a simple survey of the listening habits of the class is a good preliminary step in guidance. but must be developed from within.

Instructional Material and Text Book 63 CHARACTRISTICS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL 1 Supplement of oral Teaching As Motivators Prevent indiscipline and monotony Make learning permanent Save time and energy Provide direct experience .

Video Compact Disc Player: Now we can take the help of VCD to make teaching effective so to view the material the VCD is played on this machine. Audio and visual both media have high impact on the mind of learners. 1. Through which tool we take enjoy of film? That is video cassette which enable us to take enjoy of film. 2. Thus in teaching learning process teacher uses this VCP to make his teaching effective and alive. the film was very famous media. On television we take enjoy of film. It is believed that audio visual aids may create interest and motivation at the highest degree because through this teaching aid learners' both eye and ear become active so they are widely used in teaching of language. The programmes record on the video casse~te can be transferred into compact disk. serials. This material is recorded in the video cassette and we look film. It is the latest audio visual aid. Teaching materials available on the video tape are played by this machine VCP. Film Projector : Before the introduction of TV and other media resources. The educational programmes are also aired from respective TV programmes production centre. . 3. Video Cassette Player: We have seen many films on video. How we see this film on video. Television: We all know about television because rather it is available at every house in India.64 Instructional Material and Text Book limited resources available but in the end of the options are many. They are as good as radio programmes which teacher can not select. The programmes which are recorded on film are projected with the help of film projectors. Television is instrument through which one can view educational programme. and other programmes.

There should he no printing mistake It must not he very costly The paper should he qualitative The cover should he attractive and qualitative .Instructional Material and Text Book 65 CRITERIAL OF GOOD TEXT BOOK ~ The book should be accorclingthe individual cUfference of students The book should be accorclingthe objectives of teaching English The subject matter should he well graded Exercise work and practical work should be given at the end of the chapter It must develop moral qualities in the students.

The computer is multi media system. Without use of these aids the teaching becomes alive less. DVD. audio and video are available. Leamer himself records his practice and listens to it. In this presentation. Audio Visual Aids as Motivator : Audio visual aids work as motivators in teaching learning process. At such a stage audio visual aids help to clarify the view of teacher.66 Instructional Material and Text Book Language Laboratory : Language laboratory is the place where the learners have to listen on headphone. Slide projector and Film projector. texts. VCR. The language labs are set up with a view to provide listening activities in order to make them developing good speech habit. The learning material are recorded on audiotapes which are played back by teacher is to be drilled and the same is monitored by the mentor. graphics. Computer Assisted Language Learning: Computer Assisted Language Learning means is to present teaching material trough computer. To use of computer in teaching learning process is innovation in educational circle. It is VCD. While teacher uses teaching aids to clear . The computer technology has brought multimedia package means the programme is developed with all kinds of media available for presentation. (2) Characteristics of Various types of Instructional Material used in the class room Instruction: Supplement Oral Teaching : We know that most of class room teaching is verbal which can not make teaching learning effective: The verbal statements made by teacher do not help to clarify the view points.

are some of the sources that . and museums.resources etc. It saves more time of and energy of teacher and students. Motivation. Use of aids prevents monotony and indiscipline of student because it creates interest in student to know something. They are motivated to work more and effectively. seeing and hearing go together which play extraordinary roles in learning. They mentally prepare for further teaching. Prevent Indiscipline and Monotony : Teacher uses teaching aids to make his teaching effective and alive. visit to zoo. educational tours. In audio visual aids. Thus it is helpful to make teaching very interesting.Instructional Material and Text Book 67 his content then students take more interest in that teaching. it takes lees time and makes students to understand very easily. Audio visual aids are helpful in establishing motivation. taking the students into the community. Save Time and Energy : When teacher clear his content verbally or without any teaching aid. Make Learning Permanent : Audio Visual aids involve more than one sensory organs of the 1earner which improve retentiveness and make learning permanent. it takes more time for students to understand that content. in other words. But when it is cleared by using audio visual aids. Under this category. Provide direct Experience : There are aids that provide direct learning experience to students. phase for all acts of learning. The aids appeals to those senses that can respond adequately. is the preparatory.

(3) Requisite and Evaluation of Good Text Book Text book is the area in which the language material is presented prescribed for teaching and learning English. 6. 7. Criteria of the Selection of Good Text book: Keeping in view the significance of text book one should keep in his mind while selecting a text book those below mentioned points: 1. interest and individual differences should be kept in mind of selector. There should be no any printing mistake and it should be attractive and illustrative.68 Instructional Material and Text Book provide first hand knowledge and serve as important aids for learning. Exercise work and practical work should be given to the students at the end the chapter. Selector should keep himself away from the influence of out ward agencies and use his own directional only. He should select on the base of this criteria. According the age. Text book should cover the objectives of the English teaching. the Gujarat state textbook board is publishing books for teaching and learning English. In Gujarat. The subject ~atter should be well graded in text book and lit should be directly related to the interest and life of the interest. 4. Language should be according the age and interest of the students in the textbook. The textbook boards of respective state develop the material required. 3. 2. The teacher should select those books which help to produce moral qualities in students. S. .

2. The subject matter should be printed on good quality paper. 6. 8. 7. the picture should. No difficult words and new words are given in good text book. be well drawn and realistically coloured and not in black and white. The book should be not very costly so that every student could purchase that could develop his qualities. The binding should be proper and strong. Characteristics of Good text books : A good text books not only teaches but it also tests. 5. The cover should be attractive and qualitative. 3. 4. Heading and subheading should be printed on title page in bold form. 9.Instructional Material and Text Book 69 8. . The paper which is used in text book should be white and durable. For every young pupil. 9. Illustration should be attractive. The size of text book should be handy for the students. 10. The words and structure already learnt are repeated in the coming pages so that the students could revise them making them stable in their memory. The words and structure are carefully graded. A few essential characteristics of good text books are given below: 1. Clear and unambiguous instruction should be given along side the test and practice and exercise.

70 10.. . A list of related books should be given at the end of the lesson for the further study. Textbook must contain the lesson of national integration. 15. Textbook should cover whole syllabus.. 16. 13. The introduction at the beginning and conclusion at the end of the chapter should be given in the text book.. .... Instructional Material and Text Book There should be both practice and text exercise at the end of the chapter.. world peace. The subject matter of text book should provide new information so that students could get new knowledge. love and co-operation among people without the distinction of caste. 11. 12. 14. The practice should be low which the majority of students could solve them easily.. sex and race ..

Methodology is systematic and scientific way of teaching any subject.••••• 4 ---------------------Introduction : In India English is taught in each and every state's school. selection and grading language materials and items. it becomes very necessary to know for teacher "How and what to teach to students" because it is very difficult for teacher to use suitable method. Method may also be defined as: "The process of planning." Anthony (1963) defines the term 'Method' as: ''It is a particular trick. techniques of teaching. The way of teaching English is very different in different part of India. There is no single method that is to be considered effective and accepted by all. It guides teacher "How to teach" and "How his teaching may be effective". etc. It is very necessary for teacher to know various types of methods and techniques of teaching English. Indian classes have their own problem and one of them is teaching methodology. strategy or contrivance used to accomplish METHODS . We know that English is taught as a second language in our country. English teaching is very complicate task in India. We know that when any language is taught as second language.

.. me"ihod "'m is dimct band. u..."and.... teadane.. between speech ande"llm. siiuau-in which di1Ii!mnt riru...ordinc.........d for tmmmitdnc.ng1W Method 1 I Reading Method 1 I Emphasis on:mather to~in ..u..L ma.... ThUis irnpmved ..72 Methods TYPES OF TEACHING METHODS TheG. ore"llmainc: ide. v.. Method l 1 I I Situa:lional Method I I Direct method Bili. . mao. Nowh..ameu am to know .diJlc maybe wry useful u. Michel Peu_...adD:ng of S... Drama and rnm>yo"'r boo•• la:ncuaP. TIle difio_tsu-. .T.to Dr. In . utillJl._ leam....S.iums am pJl!llll!nled inmeaninc:fu1situaiion.and shDwinc: objeds. aids.ctuII! am .. la:ncuaP teuhinc: ..and. Ji1e English la:ncuaP la:ncuaP is taudkt wi. ra-of A."and.- Emphasi mo"'r to~in English or ...Lby readine..u. difio_t boo.n. .. la:ncuaP liJte Endish In . of cesium.

Methods 73 an immediate objective. under the influence of classical languages like Latin. 3. and Practice by people. The Grammar-Translation Method was the offspring of German scholarship. Techniques of presentation. It must be consistent with a method and harmony with an approach as well. The seni:ences in English and the mother tongue were compared and contrasted side by side. 2. Selection of Linguistic Material.E Mackey: A Method must include four things viz. The Grammar Translation Method The Direct Method The Bilingual Method The Reading Method The Situation Method 4. It was first known in the United States as the Prussian Method. It modified form it continues to be widely used in some parts of the world today. The Grammar-Translation Method: The Grammar-Translation Method is the oldest method of teaching English. 1. In The Grammar-Translation Method the students first study the parts of speech and syntax in detail. 5. . Types of Methods : 1." According to W. This method is also known as the Classical Method.. The Grammar-Translation Method was used for the teaching of English in the beginning. and Gradation of Linguistic Material. The Grammar-Translation Method dominated European and foreign language teaching from the 1840s to the 1940s. Greek and Sanskrit.

Characteristics : !J The unit of teaching is word. It is believed that vocabulary and phraseology of a foreign language can be learnt through translating its meaning into the mother tongue and the teacher points out the grammatical point and rules. This method does not help in development of lmguistic competence of learner. • • • . translation. It means vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated words. In this method the mother tongue is used to teach English. Arabic. not a sentence. It tells that every thing in English should be taught by transiating into mother tongue. In English words. This method is also called classical method because it is very helpful in learning the classical language like Sanskrit. English grammar is taught through rules. Reading and writing are the major focus. Grammatical rules of teaching of English are explained into mother tongue. definition and comparative study of mother tongue grammar. This method is very famous in average teacher because it is very easy for them to use this method. Persian. Grammar is taught deductively. The main function of language learhing. To use of this method is vary easy for teacher. Latin and Greek etc. • • • . It considers grammar as a soul of language.74 Methods The Grammar-Translation Method is called old method of teaching.. phrases and sentences are taught with the help of this method. communication is ignored.

• Through this method we can test the ability of comprehension of our students and we can know the form of understanding the subject matter. • English grammar can be easily taught by comparing with the grammar of mother tongue. his understanding of those words become very better and quicker. dictionary study and memorization. Students are expected to attain high standards in translation. It saves time and more effective. • In this method the child associates foreign words with translated words so strong memory bond is created. The students' native language is the medium of instruction. . The principle of "to proceed from known to unknown" is followed. Advantage: • When words and phrases are translated into mother tongue. • The use of mother tongue helps the children in vocabulary getting. • The words and phrase are easily learnt and explained if translation method is used. • The working knowledge of mother tongue helps them to learn grammar of a foreign language. The English is taught in mother tongue with little use of target language. • The Grammar-Translation Method develops the art of translation.Methods • • • • "75 Words are taught through bilingual word-lists.

Thus it prevents establishing of direct bond between thought and expression. Disadvantage : • The Grammar-Translation Method does not emphasis on the basic skills like listening and speaking etc. articulation. intonation.76 Methods • • Students who studies in Gujarati medium school. This method is very useful in over crowed classes. idioms. this method is very useful and effective for Gujarati learner. It prevents students to think directly in English. phrases in English for which words can not be translated into mother tongue. Some of lingUistic items can not be translated into mother tongue like article a. • There are words. Translation into mother tongue affects the originality of the words. It affects the sense and beauty of the words. an. For example. prepositions and propositional phrases. Language learning means speaking and reading but translation in mother tongue prevents students to read and speak in English. the. Students first think in mother tongue and then in English. pauses. Student gets no opportunities to participate in the discussion of the unit. pitch etc. • • • • • . It is not possible to translate important aspect • of spoken language like pronunciation.

Methods • 77 Grammar class can never be effective when there is use of translation of grammatical rules and their explanation. The language is multi-sensory whereas this method makes it only a part of the human information. • • 2. Ballard: "To speak any language whether native or foreign entirely by rules is quite impossible" . Prof. this method is not suitable. An attempt to teach the language as one could in learning mother tongue is known as the Direct Method. It means child learns mother tongue directly. It is very difficult to bring exact environment in which mother tongue or first language is acquired. so later the same method became popular called Direct Method. Psychologically and linguistically. The students did not learn language but practiced of ac:quiring mother tongue or first language. It depends on the will of the learner to learn for his own development. The extreme use of mother tongue affected the naturalness of language. Gurrey in Teaching of English as a Foreign Language (1966) comments: . The Direct Method : Child learns his mother tongue naturally and without practice. This method was against of Grammar-Translation method. P. The Grammar-Trilnslation Method favours to teach English by rules and not by use. It is also called natural method because it is learnt naturally like mother tongue or first language. So teaching of SL or FL by observing the principles of language acquisition is the Direct Method. In this method same environment is created to learn second or foreign language but learning SL is not natural process. According to Dr.

between experience and expression instead of an indirect one through the mother tongue.78 Essentially. Sauveur and other believers in the Natural Method argued that a foreign language could be taught without translation or the use of the learner's native tongue. This method represented the product of enlightened amateurism. It demands a direct bond that is a direct association between word and thing and between sentence and idea. Sauveur opened a language school in Boston in the late 1860s. a system that operates through many methods. it (The Direct Method) is a Principle. Methods The Direct Method was quite successful in private language schools. and . Its main focus was on the exclusive use of the target language in the classroom. His method soon became referred to as the Natural Method. especially a modern language through conversation. a way of handling the new language and of presenting to the class. Webster's New International Dictionary notes: Direct Method is a method of teaching a foreign language. without translation. The Direct Method overemphasized and distorted the similarities between naturalistic first language learning and classroom foreign language learning. not a teaching method. discussion and reading in the language itself. Henry Sweet viewed that it offered innovations at the level of teaching procedures but lacked a through methodological basis. without the use of the pupil's language.

Teacher performs an • • . Characteristics of Direct Method : • There is no interference of mother tongue. In TG method at first child comes with the contact of mother tongue and after with the target language. Famous words could be used to teach new vocabulary. Child thinks into target language and express into target language.Methods without the study of formal grammar. using name. The first words are taught by pointing to objects or pictures or by performing actions. For him a language could best be taught by using it actively in the class room. there is direct bond of target language. 79 The German scholar Franke wrote on the psychological principles of direct association between forms and meanings in the target language. These natural language learning principles provided the formation for what came to be famous as the Direct Method. demonstration and pictures. Speaking began with proper attention to pronunciation. Enthusiastic supporters of the Direct Method introduced it in France and Germany. The teacher replaced the textbook in the early stages of learning. It becomes widely known in the United States through its use by Sauveur and Maximilan Berlitz in successful commercial language schools. In this method. Learners would be able to induce rules of grammar. Unit of teaching is sentence. Teacher performs such activities which tell the meaning of the sentence in the context. Teacher must encourage direct and spontaneous use of the foreign language in the class room.

It enable student to establish direct bond between words and expression. • Direct Method is full of activities. Thus this method is scientific and very effective. This method is called natural method. This method helps to speak language effectively. Both comprehension and speech were taught It observes scientific path of language • • • Advantage: • • • • • • acquisition: LSRW. • To learn any language means speak that language with fluently.80 Methods action related to the sentence which shows meaning of the sentence. The teaching learning process is carried out in English environment. The teacher shows object or performs the action to clear his concept.natural for learners. The pronunciation. This method is based on the principle of "Learning by Doing". . Thus this method creates this ability in students. intonation and rhythm are essential for better and effective communication. The English is taught as the child learns his mother tongue. accent. Direct Method is interesting and . New teaching points were introduced orally. Teacher shows the meaning of the sentence with help of gestures. postures and action.

There are basic requirements like school building. It means that every subject matter can not be explained by an action or showing any object. He should have active command on his teaching. • To use this method in the class. the teacher can not perform an action and show any object. blackboard. So the learners start using the language without fear. We know that teaching materials are very costly so we can not use them in teaching activities. He should be a perfect teacher. How can we solve these problems? We need large amount for this. Grammar was taught inductively. the teacher should be mastered in subject. language rooms and problem of over crowed class. For this process we need huge fund. Many languages are spoken in India. To make teaching effective. Correct use of grammar and pronunciation were emphasized. 3. The Bilingual Method : India is very big country. Through specific method the teaching can be made effective due to many . which are very expensive so our schools can not afford such equipments. • This method requires many audio visual aids.Methods • 81 This method helps learners to enjoy the language. the appropriate methods have to be applied in teaching learning process. • This method is not useful in over crowed classes. • This method does not help in important aspect of language learning like reading and writing. language laboratory. • • Disadvantage : • For every sentence or subject matter.

thilt is the mother tongue and the language to be learnt are used. This method is known as Bilingual method because of proper use of mother tongue is allowed. the mother tongue is used only to explain the meanings go difficult words. c. Dr. The learner can learn abstract ideas easily in mother tongue while in secondary environment it is very difficult for learner. There is drilling of the pattern to enable learners to master basic required sentence pattern which is effective practice of this method. For secondary environment we need extra ordinary talented teacher and larger investment of fund. the leaner can easily grasp the situation of learning English. The use of mother tongue is one of the resources of this method. It saves time and money because of use of mother tongue. Thus the Bilingual Method recommended a restricted use of the mother tongue only by the teacher and not by the pupils. It also provided for intensive practice of patterns in English. Only there is one obstacle which can solve this problem and that is use of mother tongue in teaching of English. Mother tongue equivalent of English words are given and the use of the mother tongue is gradually dropped as the students' progress in learning the language. He can learn target language easily through this method. Characteristics of Bilingual Method : • Due to use of judicious use of mother tongue. • • . helping the formation of correct language habits. Dodson of the University College of Wases has developed this method during 1967 to 1972.82 Methods problems.J. This method is improved version of audio visual aid. two languages. In this method. In the Bilingual Method.

• • The teacher should have the knowledge of use of both methods while teaching English.Methods • 83 In primary environment student can assimilate message very quickly and easily. This method can easily degenerate into the translation method. • Teacher should be master in use of mother tongue while teaching second language. . Advantage: • Bilingual Method saves time and learning to make effective use of learners' mother tongue to understand content quickly. Disadvantage : • Extreme use of mother tongue makes student inactive to learn foreign language. He becomes master of mother tongue but not Second language. If teacher is not innovative in her teaching learning practice. she follows the rules of grammar translation method. This method is boon for all those institutions where limited facilities are available. • • The teacher can provide them enough drilling or pattern practice due to time saved. • • An average teacher can use this method easily and effectively. It makes teaching vary interesting and effective. In this method there is no need of audio visual aids other technology so this method is very useful for every teacher. Bilingual method helps learner to developing both fluency and accuracy in the target the language.

Characteristics of this Method : • He emphasized on reading ability. Students become weak in the target language because he will try to learn every language through mother tongue. It is shortest road to learn speak and write. Dr. To get this knowledge. speaking is not necessary but reading is necessary. Bilingual method is used for rural and urban schools. It requires a curriculum developed specially for this method otherwise it is difficult to teach target language in classroom. His through study in field of teaching raised some of the basic knowledge of teaching English. He says person who posses good reading ability can learn speak and write easily. These all information is available in English language. Michael waste was the Director of education in Bengal before partition. At that time the direct method was being used by teacher and the result was very weak. . Dr. It is used only in the earlier stages of learning the language. Waste said that "English language was the need of the time because it was the language that provided the easy channel for communication with the international community. In his opinion the Indian were learning English to open the window of the world to look in the advancement in the field of science and technology. The Reading Method: Dr. Waste drew his attention toward the utility and aims of teaching English particularly to Indian learner. He was an innovative professor in Dacca.84 Methods • • • • 4. He emphasized the silent and loud reading.

• It trains the eye of reader to recognize the graphics and other graphic object. This method is not helpful to average students because it aims at the active command over the language. It makes learner a good reader. • Reading increases the interest and confidence of learner in reading literature written in target language. • Reading becomes very easy and free from phonetic difficulties. . Reading material: The material that enable learner to read was developed and they were called Readers. • It is very effective in developing written comprehension means reading. Language is integrated skill. • • • Advantage: • This method develops the reading ability in learner. This method emphasizes only on reading which is unscientific. • New words and their meanings are easily understood by learner. Every skill is useful in developing of language. Disadvantage : • This method is not scientific. It enables reader to read easily.Methods • 85 Silent Reading: The reading is also very complex skill but the Indian learner needs silent reading not oral reading as they do to get knowledge. This method ignores reading and writing aspect of language learning. It means controlled vocabulary is developed.

This method talks about only one skill that is reading which is not proper. It dated from 1930s to the 1960s and which had an impact on language courses. composition and idioms are of secondary importance in this method. Students require overt activity in the form of drill. He also want to speak and listen and writing. Grammar. Every skill has it contribution in developing of the language. This approach is based on the structural view of language. Learners are to know the situation in which different structures are used for transmitting message or . In this approach speech is emphasized as the basis of the language and structure is very important for developing speaking ability. Many teachers are still using this approach. In the absence of such activities they will not be able to feel and use the language. British applied situational approach developed by linguists. • Methods Much reading can not be helpful in mastering of language. It makes teaching procedure passive and dull. silent reading is educationally unsound.86 • . This approach is also known as situational language teaching. In this method there is direct bond between speech and expression. Only reading can not create interest in students. question and conversation. According to waste the ability to speak is more difficult than reading is more doubtful. This approach suggests to present different structures in meaningful situations. The Situation Method. • • • 6.. Emphasis on reading and particularly.

So they gave its distinctiveness to Situational language teaching. It includes the following principles: • • • Language learning is just a habit formation. The language skill can be learnt more effectively if they are presented orally first and after in written form. The American psychologist also insisted this approach. . Through structural items and creating situation.Methods 87 expressing ideas. the subject matter can be explained easily. The mistakes should always be avoided because they create bad habit among learner. Principles : The situational approach is based on the theory established by the behaviourists. Similarity is better foundation for language learning than analysis. British linguists Firth and Halliday gave the idea that structure must be used in different situations in which they could be used. • With the help of situation the students can understand effectively and can master the structure effectively and have durable impression in their mind.• This approach is very useful in teaching of foreign language. The meaning of the words can be learnt only in a linguistic and cultural context. It helps to introduce the vocabulary including • abstract vocabulary by using rear as well as planned situation. • • Advantage: .

not average students . poetry. Disadvantage : • It is useful I lower class only. rapid readers. Higher class students are not benefited by this method. Only few selected items can be taught through this method not all language items. • Such as a prose. ••••• . Only intelligent and bright students can take the benefit of this approach. and composition items can not be taught through this approach.88 Methods • It makes teaching very effective and interesting and alive instead of a burdensome process.

The selection of content words is directed by their usefulness. In structural. simplicity and teachability. The mastery of sentence structure in considered to be mare with than the acquisition of vocabulary. A appropriate situation should . Structural Approach 2. Communicative Approach Method means a particular way of doing something and Approach refers to different theories about the nature and acquisitions of language or how languages are learned. content words are also taught.5 +++++ ---------------------Method refers the way of teaching a language and approach refers the theories of language learning. 1. Types of Approach: 1. APPROACHES According to Cambridge international Dictionary : Structural Approach: The structural approach means the arrangement of words in such a way as to form a suitable pattern of sentence.

in this approach the teacher tries to develop the communicative ability in students. In this sentence the vezb "Jaun chun" is placed at ele end of the sentence. Exa:Hu tyan jaun chun. English.the vezb is plac ed after the subject in the sentence. Example:Gujarati . According to it every language has its own language structure like this. Thus we can say that every language has its own language structure.the vezb is placed at the end of the sentence.a tical Co JIlpe1encies Speech Co JIlpe1encies TecJudcal COJllpe1encies Socio Linguistic COJllpe1encies . In this sentence the vezb "go" is placed after the subject. GraJllJn. Exa.:I gQ there.90 Approaches APPROACHES This approach tells about the structure of the language.

Principles : • Language is system of structure and signals. To teach language through this approach we have to understand the pattern and structure of the language. • Students' activity is important rather than the teachers' activity. In Gujarati the verb is placed at the end of the sentence but in English the verb is placed after subject and after the object or adverb according to sentence. .Approaches 91 be created to practice the structure and to relate its meaning to it and to build up a vocabulary of content words even structure is separately taught. Each and every Language has its own structure. Students can learnt very well if the teaching is accords with its structure and signals in scientific way. The term is predated in a appropriate situation by the teaching.c. Fires says: Only after much practice of the same "Pattern" with diverse content do the pattern themselves become productively automatic. Every language differs structurally. c. It is the way some English sentences all carefully selected and graded are arranged to form a syllabus. • Importance of speech. The learners have to practice this pattern thoroughly for naturalizing habits. There are structural difference between Gujarati and English. Generally the Structural approach to teaching English refers to the way the language material is organised for presentation. Structural approach is based on the theory of behaviourist.

The effectiveness of the language learning depends upon the quantity of the subject matter. • • • • • .92 Approaches • • • Importance of the formulation of language habit in arranging words in proper pattern. If there is proper gradation of the subject matter. Language learning may be very easy if language is presented into small structure which clears the concept of the language entirely. Language learning may be very effective if the structure of the language is presented in the context of the child's mother tongue. learning of language may be too effective. When students learn the structure of the language. Words order. use of the word and sentence pattern. This approach enables student speak first which is very important and then read and write. This approach promotes the use of everyday English. they automatically learn grammar. the teaching may be very effective. • • Advantage: After learning five or six items can be categorised • This method help student to learn very fast because the subject matter is present in form of structure. Students understand it easily. If the language is learnt as a living system. Proper stress on oral learning. Thus they learn to speak first and then read and write. Students first listen to the teacher and they repeat it.

Approaches

93

COMMUNICATION ASPECTS

1 __
PHONOLOGY

1

FUNCTIONS

GRAMMAR

VARIATIONS

VOCABULARY

INTERACTION SKILL

TEXTUAL

I

CULTURAL FRAMWORK

I

94

Approaches

• •

Both the teacher and the student are active . This method can be adopted for all the students of language learning.

Disadvantage : • This method prefers the selection and gradation of the structure which does not solve the problem of teaching English. • This approach doesn't advise the teacher that how should he present the structure of the language or teaching material? • This approach does not advise the teacher about the teaching material for written exercise. The technique of gradation is good in theory but it is not good in practice work • Structural approach is not suitable for higher classes. • Drilling makes the atmosphere of the class dull and boring. • Only well selected sentence pattern can be taught. • Predsed text book can not be taught. • More teaching aids are needed. • If the structure syllabus is followed strictly, it is difficult to complete the syllabus.
2. Communicative Approach : The communicative approach is a learner centred approach. This approach gives the learner not only grammatical competence but also a social skill as to what to say. How to say, when to say and where, in order to satisfy his daily needs as larger aim. In this approach, apart from fluency, accuracy and appropriateness are equally

Approaches

95

important. Thus an effective use of language needs to produce grammatically well formed. This approach tries to develop both the accuracy and fluency from the very beginning of language learning. In this approach the role of teacher is that of a co-participant not that of an authoritarian master. Teacher should provide all the resources necessary for communication to be effective in every context. Communicative approach stresses the purpose of writing and audience of it. So teachers using this approach, have extended the readership. Teachers specify readers outride the classroom. The goal of communicative approach is to make learners communicatively competency. In this approach the teacher is seen as a facilitators of his students, learning. Communicative approach is based on the idea that the aim of learning second language is to gain communicative competency. In this approach learner have to knowledge of the rules of use of language to generate language appropriately for certain situations. He should have also the knowledge of the use of techniques to communicate effectively. This approach draws attention toward on the use of language in every day life. Communicative Language teaching emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. The "term communicate" meant to express or convey the ideas verbally or non-verbally. This approach emphasizes the communicative capability of the learners. In English language teaching, the teacher tries to develop communicative ability in students or learners. Communicative capability is also known as communicative competence includes the following competences. Communicative Competences : 1. Grammatical Competences

96
2.
3. 4.

Approaches
Speech Competences Technical Competences Socio-Linguistic Competences

1.

Communicative Competence :

This concept was introduced by Dell Hymes. According. For him the speaker of English should have knowledge of more and more grammatical competences to become good speaker in English language or other language. The learner of EFL \ESL have to know that how a language is used by the member of the speech community to accomplish their purpose? There are eight aspects of communicative competences. They are grouped into two parts.
1.

Linguistic aspect Pragmatic aspect Linguistic Aspects : Phonology and grammatical description Grammar Vocabulary Discourse

2.
(A)

1.
2. 3.

4.
(8)

1.

2.
3. 4.

Pragmatic Aspects: , Functions Variations
Interaction skill Cultural Framework

For Savignon (1983) observes: A communicative competence is relative, not absolute. It depends on' all participants who cooperate in this

Communication plays important role in developing relation among people. Imaginative function of language is using language to create the world of imagination. 4. Personal function of language is using language to express personal feeling and thoughts. people can establish interpersonal relation. With the help of communication. 3. Interaction function of language is using language to create interaction with others. . Functions communicative language teaching is below: Instrumental function of language is using 1. language to get things. So teacher should emphasis on communicative aspect of language. So communication is the soul of human interaction. Their capabilities of exchanging ideas. thoughts and the way of conveying message makes them social creature. The Aim of Communicative Language : The aim of communicative language is to develop the communicative competence among learner.Approaches process. The above competences are very important with a view to developing integrated skill of communication. We know that human beings are social creature but which things make them social creature. language to control the behaviour of others. Regulatory function of language is using 2. 97 Language is a mean or tool of communication so all communicative competences should be developed very carefully and effectively in children and people. 5.

Communicative approach enable student to learn language naturally because the environment of target language learning is created. 2. the leaner learn target language as he learns mother tongue. 6. 5. Communicative approach emphasis on communication of language because it plays important part in development of sociality of human.98 6. Heuristic function of language is using language to learn and discover. . 4. Approaches Representational function of language is using language to communicate. The message or thoughts expressed in communication are always in form of function so this approach is very useful. Through communicative approach. Characteristics of Communicative Approach : 1. If this approach is used in classroom activities then it will be very useful for leaner because in many classes language is taught as to pass examination only so this approach enables students to develop communicative ability which is very important activity of life. This approach is learner centred. 7. creature. All the teaching learning materials are prepared according to child attitude and interest or individual difference so that child could learn language easily and effectively. 3. It means that the atmosphere of English language is created so that student could learn English directly.

12. There should not be passive use of lexical items. in schools. These aids help to provoke practical communication. the emphasis on active mode of learning is given. 9. This approach helps to learner to use language naturally and according to accepted form and usage. The learners have to develop skill of language. The oral communication and written communication are distinctively taught in this approach. and seminars. we can say that the learner are taught as a native person learn his language. on stages.Approaches 7. 10. The active use of lexical items help learner to develop vocabulary. so in this approach the lexical items ~re taught in context. 11. The students should be provided real life situations. 99 In communicative approach every where. Creativeness of role play. Thus it makes students active in their activities including pair work and group work. . They need active command of using words in meaningful message. project~ should be produced in students so that they could connect these all with real life situation. In communicative approach. They help to motivate and focus pupils' attention. simulation. 13. classroom. The language is never static: it is dynamic. 8. In this approach the visual aids are permitted. Speaking and listing aspect of language are too important for oral communication so oral expression is more emphasized.

The teacher should teach with heart but not the brain. so this the second principle of this approach. It combines active and passive skills to design learning tasks. In school it is taught as a subject. The communication is soul of the human lives. Teacher should teach it as a skill. 3. Approaches How to use the language is basic principle of this approach.100 Principles: 1. Natural Acquisition is principle of this approach. Student study it only to pass examination but it not proper. The teaching without relating real life situation is useless and vague. 4. The teaching should be related to real life situation so that students could understand the reality of the life. 6. The four sub skills are LSRW which should be developed in student orderly. Developing communication ability is other principle of this approach. 2. So it should be accepted as skill. We should not take language as a subject. He should make his students to speak perfectly so that they could use it in their real life. . When learner learns any language naturally then that is real and authentic. In this approach teacher is a main hero and his role is different than conventional teacher teaching other subjects. 5. Four sub skills are main key of this approach. People use communication for verbal communication. Communicative approach is based on natural acquisition of language.

teachers. so every student is active. 3. 2. They communicate verbally and non-verbally to each other. So it is very scientific. All the teaching materials are prepared according to mentality and interest of the students.(ective and interested. This approach is child or learner centred. ••••• . 5. in other words language in use. They are motivated to form the bridge of communication and to make use of real life language. This approach create communicative environment among learners. so they are provided with optimum opportunities to use the language. Main function of communicative approach is to develop communication competences. and society. In this approach every leaner are active during teaching because there are interaction among learner and teacher. 4. 6. In this approach the modem methods are used make teaching very e£.Approaches 101 Merits : 1. This approach provides sufficient opportunity to students for practice of communication with other students or people .

the teacher should not apply his own notions on students. he at first should introduce the new ideas to the students so that student could be able to increase his vocabulary. When person speak then words come naturally but in reading there is just reading or speaking of only that things which have been written in the text. To suggest new ideas : When teacher wants to increase the vocabulary of students. there is reading also. He should put a topic' before students so that .••••• 6 ---------------------1. There is in order of importance. Mehta says there is much difference between speaking and reading. The tongue is important tool of speaking and reading so when there is writing and speaking. Mr. During tris process. Importance and uses of oral work in English ORAL WORK Teaching When there is talking and writing there is also reading. The logical starting place of any language teaching is oral work. Usefulness of Oral Work: 1.

Oral Work 103 UTILITY OF ORAL WORK To suggest new ideas cC Introdncenewldeas y Knowledge of way of arranging words properly DeveJop the habit of speaking .

104 Oral Work TECHNIQUES OF CONDUCTING ORAL WORK 1 Oral composition Read or look pic~ carefully Completing Story Dramatization I Conversational Activities Language game .

Teacher should put topic according to experiences and interests of students. then teacher should develop the habit of speaking among his students. So that the habit of speaking could be developed in students. • Oral work helps students to read lesson of the text very effectively and it helps to prepare the way for textual teaching. . He can organize debate or discussion. then new word also should be introduced to students so that students could be acquainted of new words. then he should be given the knowledge of way of arranging words properly. Importance of Oral work: • • mastery on communicate on skill. When students learn how to arrange the words properly. It makes student perfect in any kind of reading and writing. 2. Teacher should tell about the two patterns of the languages. There is much difference in order of words in English and Gujarati language. When teacher introduces new ideas. So that student could understand it very well so that they could apply them in their speech. 4. It unable student to speak very effectively and 3. Thus student can be strong in remembering of words.Oral Work 105 there will be discuss or talking among them on the topic. With little efforts students can learn two or three words of English language. When students learn new ideas and new words. He can develop it by asking questions and receiving answers from students.

It develops good speech. He can take answer orally from students and can ask them to write on the blackboard. Material and techniques of conducting oral work There are few techniques which help to conduct oral work. • • • • • The oral work helps students to improve their spelling mistake. 2. picture or any incident. • speak correct sentence and effective vocabulary. • Oral Composition is a first technique of conducting oral work. good pronunciation. Oral work helps to students to develop all linguistic skill like LSWR very effectively. It enables the students to understand how to speak and how to use stress. graded and controlled vocabulary can be developed. Then teacher ask questions on the basis of picture. This technique helps the • . story. In this work teacher can take the simple objects. Next the teacher can present the picture of any object and ask them to read or look carefully the picture. • The oral work helps students to acquiring proficiency in writing. intonation and articulation in speech.106 Oral Work • It prepares the foundation of good silent reading. The oral work remits the pronunciation mistakes and thus develops the habit of correct or accurate speech. Through oral practice.

simple and interesting. • • • • . In second exercise teacher asks questions related to their daily work and students give the answer of question. It should be full of actions. This works impress students very much. He gives them to frame the question and ask them to converse. This technique develops the logical thinking and sentence sense in the students. The other technique is conversational activities. Teacher divides students into two groups. In this technique the command and do exercise and question and answer exercises have been included. In this work the teacher presents drama related to English oral work. Story should be brief. In this work teacher tells a story twice or thrice and then he asks students to repeat it again and again. • Completing story is good technique of conduction oral work. Other techniques are debate. The other technique is dramatization.Oral Work 107 students to draw their attention toward particular objects. It touches the heart of student and develops the oral quality perfectly. They learn by acting and acting is good technique of conducting oral work. talks and discussion which also help to conduct oral work effectively. In first exercise the teacher orders to student and student follows it and he speak that sentence which he does. Other technique is language games which develop the correct speech habit in students. Last he asks them to tell the story in their own words.

. .f -n-. .....owuII Imitation 2.c:t ...u... RecGCllll_n........ I I I Recitblg poems I I J. Pra. . . . phone'iU: metho4....f proolucinc c.. and... 1. 5..-a.owuII eHdItu'" 4... the I I Conversing . .. 1-==...108 Oral Work MEASURES OF DEVELOPING CORRECT SPEECH HABIT Perception There am ...._:npidIy . . pn........ the . .... . Le.c ....ap of . ..:&e.. .. ... _.. b...... 1 Debating Dramatising I of... Feedback Drill MaldRcef.owuII.r.. I G1DrlD I I I Individ1lal Drill text..... Le..owuII ia. eedl... 01....

How to develop correct Speech Habit It is the duty of the teacher to unable his student to speak in English. During teaching teacher himself. Regional effect on the speech.Oral Work 109 Teacher puts a topic before students and asks them to discuss. So enough knowledge should be given to students and teachers. 3. Teacher has no knowledge of speech sounds. He learns the habit of using words in the correct sentence pattern and phrases pattern and he can learn this in no other way. commits faulty pronunciation so student also follow him. Every language has its own sounds. Retroactive inhibition. • Less attention is paid on speech training in schools. he does not care about the pronunciation of himself and students. There is difference in the sounds of English and Hindi language." The written word or printed word is nothing but a symbol of spoken wont. and the object and ideas. For cultivating good speech habit enough attention should be paid to pronunciation because it is the root to a good speech. BloomfIeld has rightly pointed out "We write the spoken word. Thus the oral quality can be developed in students by conduction good oral techniques. When teacher teaches in class. The teacher must himself be acquainted with the fundamental of English pronunciation. Spoken words always have first place over the written words. Through speech the pupil learns to make a direct connection between English words or phrase. There are few causes of incorrect speech. • • • • .

Students follow the pronunciation words or sentence. Imitation method Phonetic Method Subsidiary method Imitation Method : The teachers' pronunciation must be good and correct and it must separately be imitated by his students.110 Oral Work • Physical disability. The teacher pronounces the words and students try to pronounce the words clearly and exactly like the teacher but the pronunciation of the teacher must be correct. Imitation: The training of the ear is an importance means of mental development. 2. 3. . Clipping of the sounds. carefully attend to the two processes of listening and imitation. This method has four steps: 1. Perception Imitation Feed back 4. 3. Drill Perception: Teacher writes the words or sentence on the black board and himself gives model pronunciation among the student. • • Measures to develop correct speech habit: There are three main methods of teaching which can develop correct speech habit in students: 1. The students therefore. 2. Lack of knowledge of intonation and stress.

Oral Work 111 Feed Back: The teacher asks the students to pronounce the words and if he finds that the pronunciation is not correct. Learning these sounds in the usage of sound attribute. Daniel Jones has given five steps of the phonetic method in his book An Outline of English Phonetic: 1. It had two parts. Individual drill Group Drill The teacher asks the students to listen to his pronunciation carefully and then ask them to speak the word individually in higher class and -:::ollectively in lower class. There are many sounds in English language. So students must receive the knowledge of English phonetic to produce these new sounds correctly. 1. He tells that these sounds are produced by different human sounds organs and also side by side explain the rules of producing these sounds. 2. 3. That is called feedback. Recognition of various speech sounds correcting the English language. Making of these sounds by students. he tells them correct or exact pronunciation. Phonetic Method : Phonetic is science of sounds as used in speech. Drill : It is the last step of imitation method. . 2. In this method the teacher tries to tell about 45 sounds presents in the English letters. The teacher tells the correct pronunciation to student by giving the knowledge of English phonetics.

Conversing. Dramatising. Debating. 5. 3. Learn to pronounce the complete sequence rapidly and to each sound of a sequence or to the text. The teacher can also take the help of different material aids in teaching pronunciation through this method. 4. +++++ . 2. These are as follows: 1. Analysing long and difficult words. 6. Singing songs in chorus as well as individually Reciting poems. Subsidiary Method : In addition to the above there are various other methods also that can be used to teach pronunciation of words. In the phonetic method practice of producing correct sounds is very important.112 Oral Work 4.

others to be swallowed and some few to be chewed and diverted" provider available guidance about the kind of reading habits to be developed in our pupils. written symbols.••••• 7 ---------------------Introduction : Bacon remarks in his essay Of Studies "Reading makes a full man. Reading is an active process which consists of recognition and recognition and comprehension skill. Reading is most useful and important skill for people. Reading skill is an important tool for academic success. This skill is more important than speaking and writing. Reading is an important activity in life with which one can update his/ her knowledge." Reading means to understand the meaning of printed. Bacon's dictum: "Some books are to be tasted. Reading is the most important activity in any language READING .. Reading is a source of joys. Good reading is that which keeps students regular in reading which provide him both pleasure and profit. words Le. It implies the pupil should have two types of reading: Intensive reading and extensive reading.

unless he is supplied every things needed with the ability of reading.second sense. For . A. Reading brings us in contact with the minds of great authors. The teaching and speaking. The first stage is 'the recognition stage'. Reading habits not only help the student to get knowledge and wisdom from the cultural of heritage. At this stage the learner simply recognizes the graphic ccunterparts of the phonological items. Thus Reading and writing reinforce each other and consolidate the aural-oral learning. but are also very helpful in passing for leisure period. Reading is certainly an important activity for expanding knowledge of a language. Therefore the learner of English must know reading English. Their recorded lines and the advancem~nt made by them in various fields. The education of a child is imperfect.S. with the written account of their experiences. Reading is very necessary to widen the mind and gain and understanding of the foreign culture." W. West comments: "Reading is a process of sight.S. during the period when man has retired from active life.114 Reading class. provides for greater variety of classroom activity for both teacher and students than a purely aural-oral programme. Gray notes: Reading is form of experience. during the active period of life but also. The process of reading may be broadly classified into three stages: 1. Leisure hours are not only. more significantly. Reading is not only a source of information and a pleasurable activity but also as a means of consolidating and extending one's knowledge of the language.

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Silent reading should be introduced when the students has mastered the basic structured. The second stage is the 'structuring stage. The learner comprehends the significance of a word. This is the highest level in the process of reading.' The learner sees the syntactic relationship of the items and understands the structural meaning of the syntactical units. The teacher should not insist on speed of reading but on the accuracy pronunciation while teaching reading. ease and fluency. It helps him read with speed. It aids comprehension and expands the student's vocabulary. Silent reading is the most important type of reading. distinguishes between a statement of fact and a statement of opinion. Difficulty at this stage depends upon the difference between the script of the learner's mother tongue and English and between the spelling conventions of two languages. For instance. or a sentence in the overall context of the discards. Silent reading enable s the students to read without making sounds and moving his lips. comprehends the meaning of words and can recognize and pronounce words accurately. 2. The third stage is the 'interpretation stage'. 1. . 3. a phrase. Teaching Reading at the earlier Stage: At the early stage the necessary precautions should be observed during the course of good teaching reading: 1. he comprehends the serious and jocular use of words.116 Reading instance he recognizes the spoken words in its written form. It is this stage at which a person really reads for information or for pleasure.

3. keeping the book at a right distance from the eyes and it should also be ensured that when there reading.Readi!lg 2. While teaching reading the teacher should be aware of the right sitting or standing posture for reading. While teaching reading the teacher should first try to find out the causes of mistakes committed by the students and then try to correct them by eradicating the cause of mistake. Light may be put on a table lamp may also be used to improve viSibility. Intensive . While teaching reading the teacher should be very careful in pointing out and rectifying the mistakes of pronunciation. 3. If the visibility is poor the door and windows should be opened. there should be proper arrangement of light facility. Types of 1. Further pupil should be asked to read. Reading : Intensive Reading. articulation and intonation of the pupil. 2. 117 While teaching reading teacher should ask not more than one pupil to read at one time and he should pay individual attention to every students of class. 4. Intensive Reading : Intensive reading is related to further progress in language learning under the teacher's guidance. S. 1. While reading the book should be held in left hand and the index finger of the right hand should be placed under the word or line which is being read. Extensive Reading Aloud Reading Silent Reading. The pupil should be enlightened on this point from time to tome. 4.

It will also provide material for developing greater control of the language in speech and writing. some teachers fall into the monotonous pattern of setting a section of reading material for homework preparation every night. The literature chosen for intensive study should be predominantly contemporary. In this reading the learner read the text to get knowledge . The ability of the students to talk and write in the foreign language about the material chosen for intensive reading will be very dependent on the teacher's choice of texts. and poems. articles on scientific discoveries. Teachers must work continuously for variety of presentation in the classroom. political development. it will not serve as the ideal vehicle for further practice in direct teaching. the students being supplied with questions to think about before they come to class. Intensive reading is text reading or passage reading. This becomes a tedious chore. completed in a purposeless way.118 Reading reading will provide a basis for explaining difficulties of structure and for extending knowledge of vocabulary and idioms. artistic achievements. sentence by sentence around the class. and soon destroys any pleasure in the reading assignment. Since this reading matter will be studied in detail. Then they begin the lesson each day by asking student to translate what they have prepared. This purpose will be served by the material chosen for extensive reading. and aspects of contemporary community life in a country where the language is spoken. Sometimes sections of intensive reading material may be set for preparation before hand. The material selected should parallel the type of material the advanced student would enjoy in the native language: short stories. sometimes analyzed and used as a basis for writing exercises. novels. At this stage. Intensive reading material will be the basis for classroom activity. It will not only be read but will be discussed in detail in the target language. plays.

This reading helps learner to develop active vocabulary. Extensive reading can be made the basis for oral reports. 5. the class may be divided into groups to read interrelated material. Extensive Reading : Material for extensive reading will be selected at a lower level of difficulty than that for intensive reading. or full class discussion. rather than towards the reading process itself. 3. This reading aims at active use of language. This reading is done to carry out to get specific information. The purpose of extensive reading will be to train the student to read directly and fluently in the target language for enjoyment. 2. There are few characteristics of intensive reading: 1. It may be the source for written compositions in which students deal with specific issues arising from the material in the book. . the attention of the reader is directed toward the extraction of information from the text. On occasions. Teacher play main role in this Reading. 4. without the aid of the teacher. 6. to the rest of the class. intonation and rhythm can be corrected. The goal of this reading is to read shorter text. Thus. Linguistic items are developed. stress. 2. Intensive reading is reading aloud. In intensive reading speech habit are emphasized and accent.Reading 119 or analysis. Learner reads book to acquire knowledge is the kind of intensive reading. Each group may prepare some part of the project on some present a group report to the rest of the class. This type of class project gives a point and purpose to extensive reading by building reading practice into a matrix of purposeful activity.

Usually people read for to keep them update. It helps learner to develop to active vocabulary. According to S. The aim of extensive reading is to enrich learners' knowledge. To ensure that students do not become bogged down in reading which is too complicated. 2. Through extensive reading the good reading 7. In extensive reading the idea can be developed. Aloud Reading : Reading aloud also play important role in teaching of English. If it is not cared. The reader does not care about specific or important information after reading. The reader wants to know about something.120 Reading- Extensive reading assignments may direct students to articles of current interest in foreign language magazines or newspapers. Venkateswaran reading aloud is not useful at the secondary level because of the following reasons: 1. In the extensive reading the learners play main role because they have to ask for measures. 3. 5. Few Characteristics of Extensive Reading are : 1. 4. habit can be developed. . Extensive reading is silent reading. In unseen text or in other text there are many words which student does not know how to pronounce it. Teacher should know that the training of reading aloud must be given at primary level because it is the base of words pronunciation. 3. the teacher will be well advised to discuss the relation of articles to be read. it will be vary difficult at secondary level. 6. with due regard to the special interests of the readers. Extensive reading is the reading for pleasure. It is very difficult skill. In extensive reading the subject matter is emphasized.

5. 121 If student have riot prepared himself for reading. 4. Correction should be friendly and productive. and other type of text. Reading basically is reading silently. The teacher should care about all readers. The material which teacher present before students should be according to previous knowledge of the students or related t their own experience. If any mistake is committed by learners. He should also draw his attention toward weak readers While teacher present model reading. The texts which have no need not to read aloud should not be read aloud. In their academic college they have to read and read so the skill of reading becomes very important for learners. dialogue. How to make reading aloud interesting : English teaching is very important task at secondary level. Because at this stage learner comes in contact of other people and have to talk and read any subject matter. . According to Venktes. he should correct it. What the teacher can do for better and effective teaching of reading as under: 1. 3. only those text should be read aloud. this model reading should be according the level of readers 4. The teacher should emphasize on the stress of learners. 2. The reading will be unnatural. which have been written to read aloud like poetry. The teacher should be very careful while process of reading is going on. 3. So it becomes very necessary for him to pronounce very well in English.Reading 2. it will be very difficult for him.

Disadvantage of Aloud Reading : Over crowed class is very big problem. it will be difficult to read aloud at secondary stage. If enough training of reading aloud is not given at primary level. consuming.t Reading : Silent reading is a very important skill in teaching of English. Reading aloud takes more time so it is time 5. teacher can not provide sufficient opportunities to all students. 3. .122 Reading so that readers could upderstand it very well and pronounce very well. So they become the passive learners. 4. The 1. very well by speaking or expressing ideas. 2. Language learning is a kind of imitation. When teacher says anything or read any text. Advantage of Aloud Reading : It enables learner to develop the skill of reading 1. It makes reading very enjoyable while teacher uses reinforcement during reading. It enables learner to develop the skill of pronounce very well. All students can not read at a time so managing classroom becomes impossible. At earlier stage reading aloud is very necessary. 3. 2. the learner also tries to imitate that. Only bright and intelligent students learn to read aloud very well because they get chance frequently while average/students hardly get the chanced of reading. Siler. This reading should be employed to increase 4. So teacher should have innovative ideas so that it can make this activity very affective.

Silent reading concentrates the attention of learners toward subject matter and he learns naturally. Advantage of Silent Reading : 1. 3. All students participate together in this activity at a time. 2. Eclectic approach can be used by teacher for better comprehension and understanding. 4. This reading makes students very active and accurate. How to make Reading Interesting : Teaching reading is very important skill because this is the stage where the knowledge of learners starts to flight. Teacher should not read first but he should allow the students to read the text. The subject matter should be interested and effective and selected from the reading material developed for it. How the teacher can make his teaching reading effective: 1. Teacher should tell about the topic first to the learners. Teacher should not allow the student to murmuring while reading.Reading 123 reading ability among learners. It is kind of habit in which learner are enabled to read without any audible whisper. Silent reading is done to acquire a lot of information. The selection of reading material should be authentic. 2. . It saves time because this activity is done at a time. He should motivate students. Teacher has to make them read silently as and when they are able to read without any difficulties. 3.

+++++ . Only bright and intelligent students can learn this skill but average students learn it hardly. In this skill the leaner can cheat the teacher if subject matter is not interested. 2. 3. 4. S. Disadvantage of Silent Reading : 1. It is very useful to develop the skill of reading fast. This technique is not useful at earlier stage of language learning. Through this skill one can learn the pronunciation.124 Reading 4. This skill plays main role to increase the knowledge of students.

Writing is the most efficiently acquired when practice in writing parallels practice in the other skills. Writing is a kind of linguistic behaviour. It presents the sounds of language through visual symbols. It becomes an important aspect of students' expression at higher stage. Writing is essential features of learning a language because it provides a very good means of foxing the vocabulary. spelling. Writing is also useful for setting homework exercises and for some class text.8 +++++ ---------------------1. It has been suggested that writing is hailed a service activity for most students rather than an end in itself. Mechanism of Writing Written Exercises Language is primarily speech and writing is a means to preserve it. Writing is a skill which must be taught and practised. and sentence pattern. The decision on how much writing to include will be made independently according to the needs of each group of students. Writing may be very important for one group of students but much less important for others. The type of writing in which the students WRITING AND COMPOSITION . the teacher will find that the problem 'how much writing?' soon solves itself. a picture is not. Writing provides an excellent consolidating activity.

The teacher must give practice in writing script because it is simple and easy. Making strokes with proper hand movements. 4. 8. Write letter in words with proper space. 5. Write legibly and neatly. show the flash card of picture with word on it and expect students to read and then only to transcribe them. Write correct spelling in words.126 Writing and Composition are engaged will became more sophisticated as they acquire greater facility in the exercise of the other skills. 7. Write sentence in paragraph with proper space. This means to know from where to start a letter and where to end it Write letter of appropriate size and proper shape. The teaching of print script is profitable also because it gives less strain to the muscles because effort is not to be made to join letters. The teacher may teach the writing in a formal way after a few weeks of oral work. Mechanics of Writing : 1. 3. Write capital letters correctly. 2. It is very necessary that the teacher gives students nec~ssary practice in pattern drawing. Write words in sentence with proper space. 6. During the first new weeks of teaching English the teacher may write on the black board occasionally. But . It helps the students to write correct spelling because they have t reproduce the visual image that they get while reading. How to Introduce Writing: In the beginning the teacher must teach every thing by demonstration.

comple•• his wod.Writing and Composition 127 COMPOSITION l 1 Guided and con'lrolled composition 1 Free Composition ~ In i1U11. ~ In this composition the learner eXPlesses his ideas ani thoughts in written farm.ype ofworkdae JeamerisJeftfme io comple.. _type d IUi4ed C4lJIIP4IsDUxn. .. I Wlitep~ lG4IJcinc In ihU campomlan.an. Oral a:lmpositian maybe comrolled or flee._ work1DUlerdae &Uidan. and. pidun uul uk D IhU lIidure.ee or controlJinc.of .He is given all _quimd maaJial io IlOmple.... his work. It may also be comrolled or flee. I PkiuJ:e Composiii. / ~/ In i1U11.: ~ Oral composition ~ Writlen composition ~ In tlu:s composition the learner eXPlesses their ideas ani thoughts orally. _ms: Pve! .ype ofcomposi"IiDn the Jeamer IlOmple. Iii.amer. his _rk There is no inar:li!:dnc of.her . The Jeamer uses his own mind.

Forming sentence from disorders words. Changing statement into questions. Graded Exercises in Written Work The teacher may give the following types of exercise after the students have acquired a writing skill to a certain extent: 1. 10. Writing sentence from the substitution table. Picture Composition : English Composition occupies a very important place in the learning of English. Framing sentence to use particular words. 4. 7. 9. The teacher should teach picture composition very carefully because the students have to develop the skill of observation and then onl'y they have to arrange their ideas in proper sequence using correct vocabulary and framing . Changing singular in plural and gender change. 11. Putting capital letter and punctuation marks in a sentence. Picture composition is one type of guided. 5. 8. 2. 2.128 Writing and Composition teacher must make it a point to group the letter according to their shape and size if he teaches the alphabet. Transcription of sentence. 3. Writing answer of simple question. Fill in the blanks Matching parts of sentence. Changing sentence into negative and other. 3. It is now accepted that students must be given intensive practice in controlled composition and after that only they should be expected to write free composition. 6. He must also decide to teach the small letters afterwards.

The teacher can teach picture composition by giving them unarranged sentence and ask them to rearrange the sentence keeping in view the picture presented to make a good composition. The teacher will present a picture and give complete composition giving blank space and ask the students to fill appropriate word in blank space. 7. 3. 8. Before coming to composition exercise the teacher should select a picture according to the level of the students. 9. 2. . Then he may ask students to write answer of question looking the picture. Then he should revise the structure and vocabulary. The teacher must always present a picture composition and ask students to write the composition in their words. 5. Then the teacher may ask students to develop the composition. 6. 4. The teacher may present a picture before students and gives points related to picture and can ask them to write complete composition. The teacher may follow the steps while teaching picture composition: 1. The teacher will present a picture before students to observe or he may give a list of word to write paragraph on the picture The teacher may present structure of words to frame the sentence of the same type using them from the ready list.Writing and Composition 129 grammatically correct sentences. The teacher may present a list of questions in sequence and a picture.

Written Composition: In written composition the learners express their ideas and thoughts in written form. Oral Composition : In oral composition the learners express their ideas and thoughts orally. composition only the spoken language is used. It is called free composition because at this stage the learners are free to choose their structure and vocabulary and express their own thoughts and ideas on a given topic. B. it enable students to work independently under guidance of teacher.130 10. They are to express their thoughts only orally. The language is not used in control manner by the learners. It is very useful in primary classes of teaching English. Free Composition : This is the composition in which the learners express their ideas freely and without controlling. According situation the learners prepare their composition freely. 2. The role of the teacher in this is only a improver and guide. The teacher gives them guidance by way of asking questions. pictures. In beginning they need the guidance of teacher but later they use it independently. It is one of the activities included into supervised study. . The written composition may be also free or 3. Learners are prohibited to use pen and pencil. They can not express their ideas in written form. Writing and Composition The teacher may present a picture and can ask them to describe complete composition orally. Guided and Controlled Composition : In this type of composition. In this. Oral and Written composition: A. the learners are supplied all necessary structural and lexical items to along with the thoughts and ideas to be expressed. cues etc. This type of composition develops the ability of "learning through insight". 1. The oral composition may be conti"Olled or free.

For example teachers may give these types of topics: • • For primary classes: My class teacher. In this writing the learner express their thoughts and ideas in his own way. My Class room For intermediate class: The Railway station. Dictation is a good training to ear and as well as motor ." When we learn language. A Visit to A Zoo 5. In the paragraph the lexical and structural items should in proper order. My School. 4. The teacher must give motor training to enable student to write in good manner. The post man • For Advanced Classes: A Visit to a Museum. speedily and correctly. Paragraph Writing: In this writing the learner are asked to write a paragraph on any topic. In this writing the learner needs special and specific training to write sentence meaningfully. on which students could write. This writing task needs a idea or theme to be expressed in paragraph.Writing and Composition 131 controlled. In the written composition only written form of language is accepted. listening comes first than speaking. Do I like tea or Milk. The Public Park. Learners use pen or pencil in written composition. This is also very useful exercise for learning language. Teacher should give interesting topic to the students so that he could make paragraph writing very interesting. Spelling and Pronunciation correction of written work: "Language is sound contextualized. The teachers should give only those topics.

It should not be used as the test exercise. 6. It gives good aural practice to the students. It enables students to understand spelling and 5. If there is any difficulty or unfamiliar words in the paragraph. Dictation exercise in early stage must be planned to help the students to write correctly and also with reasonable speed.to use capital letters. In dictation the teacher speaks the students listen to him and write that in their note book. It is very necessary that the teacher at once corrects the dictation but always not. It develops the habit of listening attentively in students. the teacher should write them on black board. It enables student to write at good reasonably speed. It enables students to understand the part of each sentence and word phrases. It enables students to develop the habit of listening spoken language and getting used to the sound of system of the English language. 2. It should be given out of the language material which the students have already practiced. they listen.132 Writing and Composition training to the sttidents. punctuation. 3. There are many advantages of dictation: It trains students to reproduce in writing what 1. It enables student to write. ••••• . 7. 4. In that case the teacher must ask the students to exchange their note book with their neighbours and then the teacher should write the words likely to be mis-spelt and ask the students to check the note books they have.

It concentrates on the study of the language. One is prose and other is verse. POETRY AND GRAMMAR ---------------------1. Teaching of Prose In English language teaching the teaching of prose occupies an important place. grammatical structure and concepts. Reading implies reading with comprehension. It is reading for information. In the language one can use language in two forms. Both are important in teaching prose. The verse is the oldest form of expressing thoughts and ideas whereas the prose is a latest form of expressing ideas. The learners should have . Extensive reading reinforces the vocabulary and structure.9 +++++ TEACHING OF PROSE. verse and prose. Reading comprehension involves understanding the meaning of context. vocabulary. Extensive reading concentrates on the matter. In the yearly years all language items should be practised before reading. Whole literature is divided into two forms. Intensive reading aims at providing practice with sentence of newly introduced pattern. In intensive reading there is model reading by the teacher and loud reading by the students. Reading reinforces the vocabulary.

..div.....iIIuft:nIimf..m. odced *' know.. pnper bl... .. pnperiDufjntient... by .iure*' . rlinforU!.g .... Effaytype pnper rlinfortemmt.lvuIuntin T..... ~firri""'" .. 4--5 Ouerii.. w... One .. "'dJniqw!o .... _eo.....GD.<h DUIa.m. WuIAl b. . "v..... ... c...134 Teaching of Prose.. we fIf pnpertodmiquoo .. J!!!I!!trir.. . I I TEACHING POETRY ---...... EXDImdonbyteuher ...t .. ~ .. odced.. by . . by teuh.pk Teadter WuIAl~ l!..... E••ay 4-5 Ouerii....iure *' rea<h Guo_... ... toJot One or ilW . Obj. topi. oIu..llllIliillmlI . oIion !l!!!!!!igWulAlb• 1Mn...._ . ninf"n .. p..WuIAl b. WuIAl ncit.... pnperbl.. AfIu: ..firri..bl..m. At . Obj. rei:nfe:rt emmt.rure *' reo... 1Mn..<h Guo ~ ...L.iure .a<k b...'" du>uI4 be . w....~- .j.. EXDImdonby teuher "'pnp..~ typ..WWeWIln ~pnporrlinfor'em . .. .(l!{pIouun. fIf pnpertodmiquoo .dlWrk..............ack b.iwIaIIf WuIAlnci1lo....j.---- I TEACHING GRAMAMR ... .......'" WuIAlbe .t . flfpnp...... !lo!!J!U!lt !Il!!!!!m. Teadter WuIAl ..m... "'• ......... I AfIu: .. firri. ...I:&smUrlmu ~fnm"- "'co... Teadter WuIAl ~ GuoUpi''''pnp.di"" typ.... ninf"n .ation .... du>uI4 b. Teadter WuIAl !!!I!!! ....d ~ .. WWeW. .. . ..typ..... pnper . topi<..<h rim .. El<!!lm!dim byteuher .-- "'.. Poetry and Grammar - TEACHING PLANNING '" " . I SelinAI!Jdim . --- ~.. eGuo Seliluiudim . ~ WuIAl b.rure ...... ~~ ~ lL At 1ari t ..a<kb...... ~.m. pnpor iIIwlnIi..... " "" ..... At ..l'n' ..../ ... pnper .. 1Mn..l'n....... :!!!!I!!! .....d wurk......L. .. ilW . pnp........ ...... odced *' Jawwfiwl_ inw. .. TEACHING PROSE ~ SelindudiAIn . .... ~ WuIAlb.j... oftor eo..... ninf"nellunt WuIAl be ..t!'f!"ih....firri.g .rur..twImD _emad in T..

To enahJe ihe s'ludenw . Poetry and Grammar 135 LANGUAGE FORM vmSEFORM OBJECTIVES OF TEACHINC PROSE OBJECTIVES OF TEACHINC VERSE 1. Undeuiand ihe amtm1 2.joy mading smri pusap in iarpt in'lDnaiim. 3. &hili. poetJy and beauty o f . 4.Teaching of Prose.. _ami and rhytun. ide_.stm." reaie • poem wi1h. .. To emiclL iheir .~ -anbIc ofihe ieD. 3.". To enahJe s'ludenw . ~cahu1ar. readalowl with correaprcm:unciaom. 2. To clevelop • &hi6. "Ihcnq.Jevelop ahili. ofu.Jlw of ihe Lmc.." "UJUleutand and u. Gf campmllll!!lul . To .". properbeaw. of 1.y. To clevelop..u:ap."..joy ihe poetJy. and JhyiIoninJeamer.

Teacher should use audio visual aids to make his teaching effective. Before teaching prose the teacher should narrate the central idea or theme very briefly. Prose is a narrative art of expression. The prose must be read aloud. It is taught as second language in country like India. 4. The teacher should motivate students for listening. To develop the ability of comprehend meaning of the text. . 2. It is taught not as other subject like math and social science. 3. Poetry and Grammar mastery in both verse and prose but expressing ideas in verse is a little difficult. There are objective which should be kept in mind while teaching: 1. English is a language so it is taught to increase the linguistic competence in learner so that he could use it in his behavioural life. prose is taught. In higher classes where the medium of instruction is English. 3. To develop the ability of enjoy reading short passages in target language. The prose should be selected according the interest and individual differences of the students. How can a teacher make teaching prose effective : 1. To develop the ability of read aloud with correct pronunciation and rhythm in learners. 5. The prose is found very easily in text book. To enrich their vocabulary. Objectives of Teaching Prose : Teaching of English is very complex task. 2.136 Teaching of Prose. 4.

Poet works at the frontier of knowledge. The activities in the classroom need to reflect a desire to promote both in a collaborative endeavour between the teacher and taught. intellectual and aesthetic sides. Hughes claim is that poetry is possessed of certain wisdom. Poetry is the blossom and fragrance of all human knowledge. between thought. feeling and form. they should not be on literary aspect. Teacher should ask questions with a view to familiarize them with literature of target language. It develops the aesthetic pleasure and students enjoy the lyricism which is inherent in poetry. human thoughts. imaginative. Ted Hughes in his important and international book Poetry in the Making describes two aspect of poetry. 2. It uplifts the human soul and brings music and joy into life. Poetry is the musical and metrical form of language and it brings students in touch with the very best of human nature. The students should be asked to read silently. particularly the emotional. something that are curious to learn. there should be pronunciation drill. It enriches the expression of students and introduces a variety of language pattern. stretched. human passion and emotions. 8. His claim is that the latent talent for self expression in any child is immeasurable. 7. Poetry and Grammar 6. It helps in the all round development of the student. Poetry plays an important role in the several curriculums. some thing special. There recognitions are at the heart of reading and writing poetry in schools. thought and feelings. . 137 Before model reading. Teaching of Poetry Teaching of poetry embodies the beauty of the language.Teaching of Prose. Poetry embodies light in expression.

enhe giw. ieacher e~ CORIpD III!JI. eMs the mnceptor holY. Poetry and Grammar METHODS OF TEACHING GRAMMAR DEDUCTIVE METHOD l J ~ l INDUCTIVE METHOD ----concept. lNDUCTIVE DEDUCTIVE MEmOD . Th. INCIDENTAL MEmOD In fm me'lhod 'leacher&m prelll!Jl.. hn he tales e~ from stud. "iheory orprincipal. *' dear his . Then he dears his concept.EIule definition or am. the examples male his ie~ e&dive and ihen. .enil.138 Teaching of Prose.iI e~ ihen. ~ ~ In fm me'lhod 'leacher fiDt giw. Ells h l 1 In fm me'lhod h pa:Hena.s esample to In fm me'lhod 'leacher&m prelll!Jl.cm.iI defini:li.cept and.

. . It is some thing that is personal. beauty of language. It is not for teaching language. intonation. and the way in which they demonstrate a concerned responsibility for it in how they give it status. Poetry is a piece of creative writing in verse. Poetry should be encouraged whereas possible. Poetry can communicate the actual quality of experience with a subi:le and precision unapproachable by nay other means. It eases the ennui owed by the intensive study of subjects. The reader reads poetry to enjoy the beauty of the language. Poetry means much to the adolescent. Poetry is beauty and truth. the extent to which they read it widely themselves. enjoy and appreciation. beauty of thoughts. The aim of teaching poetry is to give pleasure and lay the foundations for an adequate appreciation of what is beautiful in life. learn by heart.Teaching of Prose. Teachers attitude to poetry are crucial in the importance they attach to it. In the words of Coleridge. writing or talking about poetry. Beauty of form. Poetry is always read for aesthetic pleasure. Poetry is a thing of beauty. mood and feeling. Poetry is included in the school curriculum so as to develop the aesthetic pleasure. Some English teachers express great unease about teaching poetry. Poetry and Grammar 139 Poetry is often neglected and poorly provided for. keep examinations apart and make it an exercise. It is said that poetry is to be felt and not studied as a prose lesson is studied. A poetry teacher should bear in mind to pick up an apt poem for his pupils. This means that poetry is not taught for teaching any language item. read it aloud with stress. 'Poetry is the best words in their best orders'. Many students spend much more time completing language exercises of little value than they do rending. the feelings for beauty in pupils. Poetry is powerful form of expression. It is well known that poetry is for pleasure. the enthusiasm with which they read it aloud.

3. 4. Poetry and Grammar The Objectives of Teaching Poetry : Dr. 2. To enable the students to develop the habit of reading and reciting poem. To enable the students to recite the poem with proper beats. How can a teacher make Teaching Poetry Effective : 1. 2. The objectives are as under: 1.140 Teaching of Prose. The teaching of poetry should be live and it should enrich their linguistic capabilities for acquiring communicative competence. . Ask learner to read silently. 3. intonation. ascent ~nd rhythm. In poetry teaching. the teacher should not emphasis on content. 5. stress. To enable the students to enjoy words. Teacher should ask simple questions and make them employing their effort to understand it. To enable students to understand and enjoy the poetry. phrases and rhythm. Poetry should be read for pleasure. 6. To enable students to read aloud for listening comprehension. A teacher should always know How to teach poetry to second language or first language learners. Paliwal (1998) has defined the objectives of teaching poetry at the secondary level in his book English Language Teaching. 4. 7. thoughts of the poetry and beauty of the' language. To enable the students to imagine and develop their aesthetic sense. To enable the students to understand the central idea.

The result is grammar." According to Chapman: Grammar is a study of language by specialist. note that they follow a few comparatively simple principles. According some. and state these principles. But some people say that the utility of teaching of grammar is doubtful in learning English. Educated people use certain forms of expression.Teaching of Prose. According to Dr. It was commonly believed that to help the pupil to learn English language its grammar must be taught first. Poetry and Grammar 141 3. the language can not be learnt without studying of grammar of the language. Different expert have give different pinion about teaching of grammar. Teaching of Grammar Grammar is a scientific statement of the principles of good usage which concerns with the relation of words in the sentence. Teaching of grammar is a much debated topic in language learning. They say that the students who study grammar are very often able to solve grammar exercise but do not write correct speech. Teaching of grammar had very important place in the past. Slowly it was realized that correct usages go on changing fro time to time. It was also believed"that without knowing and mastering grammatical rules of English. rules and principles which are followed more or less unconsciously by the native speakers. And as a result grammar teaching which was regarded as an end in itself lost its . one can not learn to speak and write it. made in order to establish the rules and principles which underline the correct speech and writing. Language specialists study the forms they use. Sweet "Grammar is not a code of rules.

3. Teaching of grammar helps students only to understand and to decide whether the language that they speak or write is correct or not. Average teacher can use this method in country like India. 2. Now it is believed that grammar can not be taught in isolation. . The learner can try the grammatical questions very easily. Deductive Method Inductive method Inductive Deductive Method Incidental Method 1. Then the direct method of teaching English was introduced and teaching of grammar lost its importance. 2. This method hel ps students to compare the ideas in grammar of mother tongue and second or first language. Those who favoured the direct method of teaching English said that language can be learnt by practice and not by studying the rules of grammar. The introduction of direct method gave an idea that to be able to speak or write English knowledge of grammatical rules is not necessary. Deductive Method : In deductive method the teacher uses a grammar text book.142 Teaching of Prose. Poetry and Grammar importance. He tells his students rules or definitions and explains those with the help of examples then he gives exercise and ask his pupils to apply the rules. 3. Advantages of Deductive Method : 1. Methods of Teaching Grammar : There are three methods of teaching of grammar: 1. 4.

Disadvantage of Deductive Method : 1. 2. Advantage of Inductive Method : 1. This method can not develop communicative ability among learners. In the class room teaching there is hardly use of audio visual aids. First they have to deduce the meaning and later they generalize the form or structure. 143 Learner can respond effectively and can explain rules. 3. etc. 4. Poetry and Grammar 4. Disadvantage of Inductive Method : 1. This method makes learner learning about language. 2. 2. 5. . Inductive method is based on the theory "From example to generalization". So it is very useful in class room teaching. 3. The learners become inactive during class room teaching. This method is not useful in over crowed classes like India. Inductive Method : In inductive method the teacher first presents or takes the example from the students then comes on theory or concept. This method helps students to understand the difference between particular notion in grammar of L1 and L2/FL. This method is not child centred but teacher centred.Teaching of Prose. structures. The learners learn the particular grammar point through use.

not the mark criteria. It proves very successful because it is very psychological following all the accepted maxims of teaching and the pupil are not forces to cram the rules. Inductive Deductive Method : This method as the name shows is the synthesis of both above the methods. Incidental Method : Grammar teaching in this method is done during the teaching of a textbook or composition writing.144 2. Poetry and Grammar The institute must be ready to focus the language aspect. 4. 3. But the method at times disturbs the teaching of a textbook or composition writing. real and scientific. Then he will try to see that pupil draw some conclusion and then teacher will give the rules. He then gives new examples and ask his pupil to verify the rules. Teaching of Prose. Only an innovative teacher can use this method. ••••• . The teacher following this method will first present the examples before his students then will explain them or analyses them. This method can remove the limitation of both the above methods. But here the teacher does not stop. This method of teaching grammar proves very successful and advantageous as it become practical. 3. 4. In this method the teacher has to use modern method of teaching language. The teacher explains complex sentence pattern.

To teach it in a satisfactory manner good teacher of English is required. Still however. a good teacher of English must possesses some qualities: 1. • • • • He must be lover of English. at the primary level very satisfactorily may not succeed in teaching at the secondary or higher secondary level. In other words to teach at different levels a teacher needs to have calibre and qualities appropriate for that level. . He must know different methods of teaching English. He must have an ability and skill to teach methodically and systematically.10 +++++ SKILLS AND COMPETENCIES OF ENGLISH TEACHER ---------------------Skills and competencies of English Teacher : English is a foreign language. He must have sound knowledge of English language as well as literature. It must also be remembered that all the good teachers can not teach English in good manner at all stage. It is common experience that a teacher teaching English in standard V or VIII Le.

A_w_·mde ______ ~11~ ______ O_W_le_~ Kn __ ______ ~ .146 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD ENGLISH TEACHER l Personal attribute ProCessional expertise Personality traits I_____ ~.1 1 English la:nguage teacher k as Facilitator not as a Conventio na1 teacher English la:nguage teacher k as hlstrw:tor not as a Preacher English la:nguage teacher k as Content and Material developer English la:nguage teacher k as Classroom Manager I .

He must have an ability of thinking power.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2. He must have an ability to adopt necessary remedial measurements. He should have good hand writing. He should always take interest in his students and become soft toward his students. Importance of Evaluation in the Teaching of English: Evaluation has important place in the teaching of English. He must have ability to speak English correctly. He must know the techniques of writing. The students are taught English with a view to developing their ability to comprehend and to express. He must be able to pronounce English responsible correctly. He must have an ability to understand his students. He must know and speak observing correct intonation and stress pattern. He must have an ability to identify the mistakes of his students. He must have the knowledge of different types of activities and how to organize all activities. the head master. He must be able to speak with correct phrases. The class room teacher. the district education officer and parents wants to know how much and in what ways the students are benefited through studies. 147 He must know how to use different audio visual aids. .

witJta mwto axswer into 0 JIe or two seJlteJU:e.148 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher TYPES OF EVALUATION QUESTIONS Completion This 'type of questioJl GexeraIly this 'type 0 f questioJlS is askeol Test 2. TIle TIle studeJlis bve to elaborate the aJlSWer ad they bve to explaill according to questioJl askeol. this 'type of questioJlS kJtowledge of the Iearxers CaB be assessed.tability Test 7 One word answer Test askeol with millim.a1 wdt of the COJlteJlt. Alternate response Test. . Analogy Test 6 UnSUl. 8 Recall Test. Ix 3 Multiple cholce Test cIirect questioJlS are 4 Matciung Test 5. is also kJtowJl as long axswer questioJlS.

. The questions may be objectives or short answer types. In this type of test the questions are asked in written Corm. The questions maybe objectives or short answer types. In this type of test the practical or behavioral work is given to the students. It may be an experiments. field work or project work on which students have to work.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 149 EVALUATION TEST In this type of test the questions are asked orally.

The achievement is generally measured through the test and examination. they are best considered in the situations to which they naturally apply. for emphasis and review and to help raise teaching above the level of mere pattern following. and the techniques and procedures essential to the implementation of the program. Evaluation in that way is a means to judge the achievement of the students in the field of education.150 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher There for it is very necessary to find out in exact term the out comes of the teaching learning programme in the light of our instructional objectives. the student teacher is occupied with abstract generalizations which. In evaluation the major objectives are the outcomes in the broader terms and those form the basis of the evaluation programme. the significant factors that contribute to language development. the general curricular program of work. Knowledge of this kind has little effect on what the teacher actually . The basic principles are summarized here. Because philosophy and psychology inherently relate to every practical problem of curriculum and teaching. because of his inexperience. however. The language arts teacher needs to arrive at an understanding of the basic principles underlying his practice. The study and practice of teaching are threatened at two extremes. the growth and development of the child and the processes by which growth and development are facilitated. Basic principles concern the place that language occupies in the life of the child and the adult. Different way and means must be devised and technique must be employed to test the out comes of learning English. the differentiation of work to meet individual differences. At one. This means the test and examination are very important in the whole process of the learning. the nature of language. he vaguely conceives and indifferently applies.

the student teacher is primarily occupied with acquiring a set of fixed patterns and with using them more or less mechanically. it may be entirely possible for the student teacher to gain a command of practical techniques and. and sounds become more specialized. if not so obvious. self-expression and thinking. The command of words and groups of words grows with practice and with the complexity of ideas and reactions to be expressed. of forming general ideas. But choice may not be necessary. This double grasp results in teaching on a high leveL Importance and Significance: The primary functions of language are communication. One deals with symbols rather than concrete experiences. gestures. The expression of feeling and meaning becomes more exact : words express and communicate more accurately and economically than cries an gestures. an understanding of the basic principles upon which the techniques are based.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 151 does. Language is a means of clarifying perception. at the same time. The use of language as a means of clarifying ideas and feelings is equally real. and of discovering relationships. If the patterns are adaptable to the particular situation. and stagnation. helplessness. he may do a good job for a time. As the child matures. If a teacher makes a choice. inflexibility results in inefficiency. The operation of the communication and thinking functions is observable in the preschool year and . At the other extreme. The communication function is obvious. These functions appear early in the life of the child as inarticulate cries and gross bodily movements expressing demands for attention and feelings of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. perhaps the second evil is to be preferred to the first. of discovering likenesses and differences in thing observed. But situations vary and times change. facial expressions.

and security in meeting many life situations.152 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher thrqughout the school life of the child. In the first place. Such mastery is a wholesome influence that affects the whole life of the child. self-expression. related and implied. a means of adjustment to and control over other people. necessarily concern other people. Language is. as do most other personal activities. Nature of Language: The teaching of language is primarily conditioned by the nature of the subject. Language is a social act. command of language is an important factor jIl the development of the total personality of the child. These function lay a broad foundation on which to base of language program having far-reaching implications as to contact and procedure. It may be observed that the involved symbolism is purely arbitrary. concisely. that words have meaning to recipients only to the extent that they recall or are interpreted by similar experiences. as shown by the existence of different words in different language to express the same idea. The entire process of socialization is largely a process of language development. . Command of language gives a feeling of confidence. In the second place. and that growth in language is at once growth in experiences and growth in control of the symbols which stand for experiences. Other significant factors in the nature of language concern the interrelation and the interdependence of language functions (thought. Collateral to thinking and the expression of ideas are two other functions. the manipulation of experience by the use of symbols. communication) and of language experiences (speaking. satisfaction. it is to be observed that commui'l:ication and thinking. that words stand for certain concepts based ori the direct or vicarious experience of the speaker or writer.

in the primary grades. practices pronunciation and enunciation. and reading). may include storytelling. then.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 153 writing. Significant also is the complexity of the learning situation as it embraces the various attitudes abilities. pitch. and skills which are consciously or unconsciously employed in <. chooses appropriate words and phrases. dependent on points or particular emphasis and interest. explanations. and acquires a favourable or an unfavourable attitude toward oral participation. Organization depends on content. the oral telling of a story precedes its writing. and introductions. teaching would be . cultivates voice quality. in which growth proceeds simultaneously but in varying degrees. All these important elements of language experience are progressively strengthened or weakened according to the concrete situations involved. Attitudes. is a complex of interrelated and interdependent experiences and elements. asking and answering questions. If the various elements could be isolated and developed separately. listening. Particularly significant is the fact that in schoolwork. giving information. A language experience. In a given experience such as storytelling a child selects content. such as a desire to be effective and a willingness to work on particular weaknesses. directions.:arrying on language experiences. Content is conditioned largely by choice of subject. Vividness and force are directly affected by variety of words and sentences. The concept of language as a learning task. such as conversation. and modulation. one is concerned with describing incidents. are essential to growth in language skills and abilities. telling anecdotes. builds to a climax by relating a series of incidents in a logical or psychological order. discussion. or asking for facts. In writing a letter. uses a variety of sentence patterns for interest and force. oral and written experiences are combined and discussion often proceeds writing.

gestures. the emphasis shifts from use of language for communication to the use of language for thinking. and words. the child becomes absorbed with the intriguing task of making the acquaintance of a great variety of things. sound. relating to food. grimaces. comfort. to bring order into a confusing world of sight. Complexity appears in the evolution of kinds of language experiences and in their component elements. The first language efforts are practical and utilitarian in purpose.154 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher relatively simple. The order of development of language experiences is in part vague. "The three-year-old asked 376 questions and the four-yearold 397 questions during the day. as well as at mature levels. The order of development of language experiences and in their component elements. What's dat? is asked frequently. cars. but it is obvious that the first experience to appear is oral communication as the infant attempts to make known his needs through cries. and pain." In inquiry. Asking questions is the characteristic type of language activity at this stage. Growth in Language : Complexity characterizes language in early stages of development. When immediate physical needs have been met and a degree of maturity reached. Inquiries concern animals. The teacher's job in handling elements is to direct growth in a single element or ability while keeping it in its proper relationship to other abilities and to the total language situation of which it is a part. The child is struggling to identify the various objects in his environment. trainsall sorts of novel objects and experiences. In this explanatory-naming stage. which continues for some years. houses. Isolated treatment results in improvement in specific elements but frequently makes little change in total performance. smell and feeling. people. the child's vocabulary is composed largely of nouns. " At two years there is a high proportion of nouns (50 to 60 .

the bow-wow ceases to be any four-legged animal. At first. rather than by isolated and individual response. . and pronouns. Anderson says. and that the relative proportion of parts of speech is fixed by one general language pattern. language changes. Further differentiation in kinds of experience performed appears with increasing maturity and the response to the demands of life in and outside the school. storekeeping." Gradually. as in Tommy cold. Growth in the uses of these various parts of speech goes on simultaneously. moving blocks. and finally imperative. sentences are predominantly simple : declarative. but soon the use of materials with a purpose seems to appear. action words (verbs). The verb is finally added and the sentence form takes shape: Tommy is cold. taking cared of a baby. as in loading a truck. It would seem that another kind of language experience which begins to take shape early is dramatic play. with increasing maturity and wider experiences. and cow are distinguished and identified. the child's concepts become more clearly defined. Other parts of speech appear: descriptive words (adjectives and adverbs). This indicates that language is learned by wholes. The first manipulating of objects is probably purely mechanical in nature. Children express in action and words ideas about phases of life which interest them: preparing food. Words accompany actions. Dramatic play becomes more complex and social when several children play together. horse. Thus. "All phases of language development proceed at a fairly uniform rate." Words in phrases soon follow the use of single words.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 155 percent). as the dog. the train says too-too. connectives. interrogative. The dog barks. the dog runs : flowers are pretty. or constructing an airport. but the complex and compound sentences are used early. Correspondingly. and ideas of relationship take shape.

voice management. not a mechanical or perfunctory act. beginning with vowels and the consonant m. In the second place. For example. and a means of bringing order into a bewildering world. and in getting along with people. Training children in language is training in living. Factors in growth are maturation and stimulation by environment. This growth is likewise true of the mechanics of oral speaking: articulation. From this brief sketch of growth in language there appear certain basic principles significant for teaching. It has been observed in the first place that language is a vital part of the growth process. It is a vital part of the process of adjusting to life. in understanding. But maturation is also directly affected by language patterns set by other people and by the stimulation to though and action of rich. actual growth is conditioned very largely by the stimulation and direction provided by parents and teachers. the utterance of sounds follows a natural order. physical and social.156 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher It is also apparent that growth in performing an increasing variety of language experiences is paralleled by growth in the component abilities and skills. and pronunciation. the general abilities of having something to say and speaking to the point. A third implication is that language is purposeful. A rich environment of varied experiences is essential to good language development. and later the mechanics of writing. as was shown above in the development of vocabulary and in the use of sentences. varied experiences. although native equipment provides potentialities of growth. it has been observed that. Maturation concern the natural development of speech functions and processes of thinking. The purpose is largely utilitarian-communicating and extending experience- . a means of gaining control of people and thought.

In written work. differences are much more apparent. appearing in both quantity and quality. Statistics give a reliable estimate of the range of individual differences that may be expected in any class or . because there is a place for the development of creative.0. make worthy contributions.0 to 8.74 words with a median length of 66. and that there is a similar wide range in thought units of 1 to 69. there is great overlapping among grades. Reed points out that the quality of compositions of pupils in grade 7 varied from 1.6 words. and shoe marked ability in thinking and expression. interrelated elements. Individual differences are marked in the experience phases of the work. Goals are adjusted to capacity. and skills. These difference appear as the teacher makes a check list analysis of oral and written experiences. oral and written. Problems are recognized as characteristic of particular age grade or maturity level. A fourth significant principle is that language develops as a wholea whole made up of many complex. Extreme variations in total achievement are to be expected in composition work. Betzner points out that children in the five-to-eight age group write compositions varying from 9 to 1. artistic impulses. The teacher attempts to set up a program of work that is consistent with natural order in the development of experiences. of course.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 157 but not exclusively so. others do not. A fifth principle relates to grading and sequence. they are. Individual Differences: The teacher is no less concerned with individual difference than with the general course of language development in children. some can be measured objectively. Some children participate freely in oral work. such as articulartory difficulties in the lower grades. using standard tests. no less wide and no less significant in specific abilities and skills.2 on the Hudelson scale. While there is progress in average achievement from grade to grade. abilities.

158 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher age group. Each element appears as a clearly identifiable entity. Situations in which language experiences serve an immediate purpose must be provided by the school. abilities. and abilities-learned as related. must base its program on actual participation. as well as make general adjustments by instruction for children with varying levels of ability. and skills and of general powers. Emphasis must be placed on the whole learning situation. but they do not give a clear. and it must train children in carrying on these experiences. integrated components of the whole. Gradually each child emerges as a person. and skills. a complex of specific attitudes. The school must recognize the common language experiences of children and adults. but its significance is revealed only when it is considered in relation to other factors that combine to form an organic whole. The teacher must deal with each child as a person. Participation as a Factor in Growth: Language has been found upon examination to consist of a variety of experiences through which the child carries on the business of living and learning and by which he exercises and gains control of specific attitudes. This emphasis on complete learning experience is an application of the familiar gestalt theory. skills. detailed picture of the individual children with whom the teacher must deaL General facts of variability are interpreted in terms of concrete realities as the teacher works with individual children from day to day in the varied intimate situations that arise in the a classroom. The child is an individual. and specifics-attitudes. a principle of psychology that underlies many modern education trends . to be realistic and lifelike. interest must be secured : insight and understanding achieved. Normal growth in language takes place through participation and the simultaneous exercise of a number of component elements. not a statistic. It follows that the school. abilities.

and practice must be motivated by desire for improvement.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 159 and has wide application in various areas of the curriculum. The solution is to make schoolwork lifelike and to set up conditions that encourage free participation. Although real life provides adequate stimulation for certain kinds of experiences. Even more difficult is creating a desire for improvement in the quality of performance. The purpose of practice and its relation to a whole language experience must be recognized by the learner. children may be satisfied with low level performance. the drives to participate in experiences and to improve abilities and skills. Of all the basic factors. organic theory of learning is not inconsistent with concentration on specific elements as factors in the learning process. but good form is to some extent a matter of good taste or convention. practice and training exercises should be handled so that their usefulness is clearly evident. Attitudes as Factors in Learning: The whole. The teacher must recognize that it may be necessary at times to separate from the total learning situation specific elements for emphasis in order to bring about improvement in total performance. adult judgment and authority. the teacher may find that children in school are verbally inactive and unresponsive. However. for the time. attitudes are at once the most fundamental and the most elusive. He represents. Setting up specific goals and recording accomplishments are other effective means of motivation. . Attitudes constitute the dynamics of learning. The teacher may show the high social value of maintaining certain standards and may cite worthy examples and authorities. Some leverage for improving quality may be found in purposeful experiences. and expressions of approval carry weight.

a child who mumbles is not heard." says Reed. such as: "We show the end of a sentence by a period. Going from obvious effect to cause is the most convincing evidence of need for improvement that the teacher can present. it is recognized that practice must be purposeful to the learner. a pupil through long use becomes accustomed to certain faulty language patterns and to the common mispronunciation of various words. in the new psychology. and the teacher must take positive steps to have the pupil hear and get a feeling for the correct forms. . . not git. and a child who combines his sentences interminably with ands is a bore." Diagnosis is achieved by having a child compare his performance or product with a given standard and by testing. but often it is necessary for the teacher to call attention to a specific difficulty of which the child is not aware. in Learning: There is. Making practice effective involves certain basis considerations. But that practice alone may fail to assure competency in language is amply proved by the results of traditional teaching.160 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Repetition as a Factor. "that practice makes perfect is more than a half-truth. Thus. Running is spelled with two n's. Implied are some form or standard with which a pupil can compare his work and some means of diagnosis. However. In the first place. . Purpose derives from the recognition by the individual of his shortcoming and from the situation-an immediate one-in which the need for the skill or ability is felt. Implied in the consideration of purpose is the basic principle that a pupil should be required to practice only forms needed by him . Thus. . . Need is often revealed by failure to make meaning clear or to convey a message adequately. The word get is pronounced get. at times the teacher must resort to the appeal of convention or authority. and the class protests. no magic which eliminates the need for repetition and drill. .

The checking of progress toward the mastery of a specific skill or ability may be recognized as a fourth basic . results in a waste of time and lowered class morale. More than passive attention to explanations is here required. According to this idea. A second basic principle of repetition states that practice should approximate as closely as possible the situation in which the form is normally used. Multiple use in a variety of situations increases the range of applicability and tends to maintain a high level of interest. The repetition following recognition is at first deliberate. later it is used in connection with larger language units. Some children profit from hearing the correct form repeated many times. The frequent assignment of class exercises. in the main.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 161 individually and that practice should be applied at the point of error. learning is limited to learning to play the game and does not result in use of the correct form in real situations. and finally it is practiced in total language situations with marginal attention given to the specific skill or ability. attentive. but. strong reliance on the traditional language game is faulty. Live examples should be set by the teacher and the textbook. by reproducing them. incorrect forms should be analysed as to the nature of difficulty and the cause of error. and by using them in original examples. and incorrect forms should be compared with correct forms in the remedial phases of the work. The guide should primarily be sound. The pupil should shoe recognition of correct form by choosing correct forms. and consciously directed. A third basic principle emphasizes that repetition drill should follow clear ideas of correct form. The situations in which a given form is practiced should be varied. Another point of error is the reliance upon written blank-filling exercises for drill in correct usage. except for testing purposes.

to . However. rules. and principles can be formulated and applied. as well as restudy and practice. Smith points out that growth in the skills of punctuation and capitalization must mean growth in sensing relationships between ideas and gaining force through modification. Understanding as a Factor in Learning : Traditionally. Language is still largely learned by imitation. Extensive treatment is necessarily sacrificed to concentration on relatively few key language elements. Repeated checking in tests and actual use. she says. "Commas are used to clarify meaning when sentence elements are out of their usual order.162 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher principle. If possible. Specifically in regard to commas. It is too early to say how far we may go in making the mechanics of language meaningful to elementary pupils. but effort should be concentrated on a short list of basic skills and abilities determined by cruciality and by the needs of particular pupils. The teacher should check and confirm the pupil's judgments. Adequate repetition. primary emphasis in learning has been placed on seeing. Lists and record sheets used in the diagnostic phase of the work are useful for recording progress. hearing. The traditional skill subjects are now being approached in part from the point of view of meanings. the evaluation should be the pupil's own. doing . and saying. and he should keep his own record of progress. For example. understanding is recognized as an important factor in learning situations in which generalizations. and good language is largely judged by its sound. requires time. but some good examples of what may be done are offered in recent literature. are constantly required until mastery is confidently achieved. carried to the point of mastery. The significance of the period and question mark are made clear by recalling what one does with the voice in oral reading.

2. Grammar provides a stock of ideas and understandings that help to make language intelligible. to give some insight into its structure. Moreover. Show interest in your topic." The growth of general abilities relates mainly to developing ideas and meanings. All the pupils are engaging in a common experiencereporting. Grammar is an attempt to develop concepts. and to supply some help in the use of language forms and in the correction of errors.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 163 separate interrupters from the main idea. not in terms of what other children do. The standards set up are those which the teacher and pupils feel have some significance for the class as a whole at its current stage of language development. the teacher judges each pupil in terms of this ability.. the teacher may develop with the class the following standards : 1. Use words that tell exactly what you want to say. 4. 3. Differentiation of Instruction : A differentiation of work suited to the needs of individuals in the class is necessary. In handling the experience phases. Tell the facts in order. For example. the teacher assists pupils in identifying and setting up general standards but allows each pupil to select a specific standard as he gives his talk and engages in conversation or dramatization. Speak clearly. but it is not assumed that all the pupils have the same specific . the reports may be on the same or different topics. understanding. and to make clear the members of an enumeration. Le. This differentiation concerns all phases of work. 5. principles and rules relating to usage and to the structure of language. in handling a lesson on reporting at the fifth-grade level. Give facts that relate to the topic.

to know what their specific needs are." It is desirable for the children. and provides the necessary instruction and practice exercises. groups children having the same needs. The pupil is judged by how well he does what he sets out to do. individualized training are provided within an experience that superficially has the appearance of traditional wholeclass work. as well as the teacher. differentiation is of the essence. differentiation and specific. and the child refers to it in preparation. Provision is made for extreme variants in the form of individualized self-help materials. Also. In the practice or corrective phases. "Usage instruction should be as highly individualized as it is possible to make it. chiefly skills. the ultimate goals become the immediate goals. Significance of Unit Organization: The organization of learning experiences around lifelike situations contrasts sharply with the traditional emphasis on small. isolated language elements. The teacher makes an inventory of specific individual needs. and therefore each child should have an inventory of his own skills and abilities. Only those errors lease acceptable in the speech and writing of a majority of the class should be given class instruction and drill. Thus. not in terms of the total list of standards. the larger unit of learning preserves the integrity of the learning experience. The inventory serves as a note sheet. Through unit organization children are trained not only for practical experiences but in them. the varied and complex elements . in evaluation. Each child is encouraged to discover his weakness and to pick a specific language goal on which he needs to work and to concentrate on that goal during the preparation and delivering of the report. those occurring in the work of a few should be handled in small groups or individually as the need arises.l1s and Competencies of English Teacher needs.164 :-_ . and in recording progress. Pooley says.

the learning experience is an organic whole. initiated for that purpose. From past work or from trail performances in the experience. Practice on specific. writing a playas a culmination of a unit in the social studies. Alert teachers readily find occasions calling for the various experiences in both the school and the outof-school experiences of children. The trend toward large unit organization in language gains additional respect when it is observed that the same trend prevails in other areas of the curriculum. Processes: It must now be obvious that not one but a battery of procedures is required to handle the various phases of the language program. component abilities and skills is related to some experience and has an obvious. The significance of unit organization is apparent whether the language program is developed independently or as a part of larger curriculum units based on the social studies and nature study.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 165 of language are combined and to a large extent learned as they function in purposeful expression. Handling an Experiences Unit: The first step in handling an experience unit is to set up or utilize a situation which creates definite reason for carrying on the work. A second step is to develop ideas of good performance. the class and teacher . The situation presents a real motive and imposes requirements for worthy performances. immediate purpose. Three. keeping the minutes of a school council meeting. or possibly four. writing a letter to a sick friend. or summarizing information gained in a nature-study field trip. basic procedures will be used at various times. according to the nature of the learning situation and the learning outcome. The situation may be one that requires the writing of a thank-you note after the appearance of a guest speaker.

the list may be extended as the class grows in ability. outlining. a few key goals are better than many. It is relatively simple to secure good models of written work. a clear. or children may supply examples in the form of letters from home (with the help and permission of parents). pleasing. Textbooks provide them. it may be sufficient to set as immediate goals willing participation. Some attention must be given to mechanics. storytelling. the teacher may add to the list others such as the use of complete sentences and apt. . for a secondgrade class giving talks. oral or written. Goals should be set with due regard to the normal expectancies for the class and should be varied enough to give every child something to work for. to imitate.166 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher presumably discover the need for further training. As these goals are reached or approximated by a considerable number of the pupils. Analysis of models reveals key points which should be listed as goals or standards to aim at. Thus. and sticking to the point. and the like? Good models may be secured and studies. Too many goals lead to scattering of attention and effort. Having pupils study examples of varying degrees of merit and choose the best is a procedure of considerable value. well-modulated voice. Generally. reporting. good pronunciation and enuncidtion. the teacher may accumulate a file from children's previous work. having something to say. It is less easy to provide study examples of oral work. and interest-catching beginning sentences. What is good letter writing. Study should be directed first to content and general effect and then to the specific literary devices employed by the author to produce the effect. vivid words and phrases. Live examples of good performanc~ in the class provide the best material. The material should approximate the level of work normally expected of the grade. and to use in evaluation. recordings are invaluable.

Opportunities will arise for the individual correction of mistakes without the pupil's losing sight of the major purpose of the experience. Records of accomplishments in specific skills and abilities may be kept on the pupil's individual goal sheet and on the teacher's class record sheet. The fourth phase. before recitation and even before preparation for recitation. individual goal in mind. writing a letter. Individual goals.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 167 A third basic phase of the work is one commonly neglected or poorly handled-the setting up of individual goals. This should be in terms of the pupil's individual goals and should always be friendly and constructive. The fifth phase is participation. should be set up early. This method violates the sound psychological principle that the learner should fix his attention on the skill to be performed before practice. therefore. . Evaluation by the pupil. such as giving a talk. Too often this is postponed until after the child has completed his recitation or written exercise. although a pupil is also often stimulated by the approval of the class and teacher. and setting individual goals then assumes the form of a post-mortem. not after. The child prepares his assignment with both the over-all purpose and his specific. The initial lesson or series of lessons is followed by other similar lessons or series in which gains are preserved and further improvement is sought. or taking part in a dramatization. with full recognition of differences in individual capacity. Self-criticism is usually worth more than class and teacher criticism. following the setting up of individual goals. except as a check on performance. There should be evidence in the child's work that he has kept in mind his individual goal as well as the general purpose of the assignment. is preparation. class or teacher follows as the sixth phase.

The need may appear as a result of pupil. The teacher may present such subjects as the following and have the pupils discuss them: . and it results from an analytical evaluation of the experience in terms of the specific factors that condition performance. in an experience phase of the work. and Fired. and judgment rather then on specific skills. In the selection of subjects. or teacher evaluation. for instance. or from reading. The examples are studied and the pupils are led to fee~ the difference between good and poor subjects. An understanding of what constitutes a good subject." and "Taking Home My Report Card. and brevity. taken from current or previous work. The second step. such as "The Fish I Didn't Catch. of course.. good and bad. is to gain some understanding of what constitutes good performante. dealing with a sufficiently small and manipulable aspect of a topic." "Hired. as in the pronunciation of get. or composing a good beginning and ending. from textb<. such as personal approach. such as selecting an appropriate subject. The training lesson presumes inadequate performance and need for improvement. understanding. it is never that of drill. the teacher may present to the class example. for example. 168 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Handling a General-ability Lesson : A generalability lesson is a definite practice exercise designed to bring about improvement in some specific ability. choosing pertinent content. class.>oks." and from an analysis of key qualities.. The emphasis is on knowledge. but it is important that the learner recognize the need. The procedure is that which is characteristic of all knowledge getting-the solution of problems. The need for the lesson appears. Tired. evolves from a study and comparison of specific examples. logically. definiteness. organizing effectively.

Standards of usage are set by convention. the children use their improved ability in selecting subjects for all oral and written work. Handling Specific-skill Lessons : The third type of lesson or exercise with which the teacher is necessarily concerned involves the development of a specific language skill. The primary . they tap sources of personal experience and feeling. and capitalization of 1. From the study of examples the children proceed to a consideration of their own experiences.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Poor Where I Went What I Heard What I Did Sunday An Adventure My Trip Work My Friend What My Aunt Has 169 Good Catching a Rat False Alarm Too Sure A Bad Shot An Unexpected Ducking A Hasty Reply A Wet Seat The Battle of Chicken Run No Pie Titles in the first list are found to be vague and weak. The value of the subject is proved in the composition. Tentative lists of these titles are profitably presented to the class for evaluation and discussion. Then they formulate good subject titles. Approved subjects are then chosen. and they set specific limits on a composition. use of the comma in a series. and compositions are prepared and delivered. When some assurance as to competency has been gained. going. searching for phases that are interesting to others and worth writing or talking about. such as the pronunciation of words (often. athletic). avoiding commonplace and sensational events. Titles in the second list arouse curiosity and a desire to hear more.

The point of departure for a training lesson on a specific skill is an immediate need. making use of original sentences as a means of drill. There are many ways of handling directed training lessons on specific skills and at the same time employing good principles of learning. Understanding naturally adds to ease of learning in this as in other phases of language work. Work of this type is largely remedial. Specific procedures vary somewhat in oral and in written work. the' reason for it is followed by deliberate practice in selected example. in giving a talk a child may say I seen for I saw. correct and incorrect. or in written work he may fail to indicate clearly the persons attending a party by the omission of commas in a series of names. For example. although the basic principles are the same. understanding enters into the learning process to the extent that it is possible to show reasons for certain conventions and to develop rules or principles. The next step is to show the correct form to the child by explanation and demonstration or by directing the study of example. as in /0 Ann Caryl and Tommy came to the party. is illustrated in the following quotation from Brown and Butterfield: . revealed usually by performance in an experience. The use of individual record sheets is helpful in making a diagnosis and later in recording progress.170 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher emphasis in learning is on hearing or seeing and doing. consistent use in exercises and in related speaking or writing is provided. concentrated on a few of the most important skills. The work should be individualized. and involves breaking old habits as well as forming new ones. One procedure. and followed up consistently and persistently until definite progress is made. Finally. Recognition of the correct form and. The pupil may be led to discover his difficulty by skilful questioning. if possible.

" This will encourage the children to think out original sentences also. The more intelligent children. I saw a horse. To improve a drill of this sort and to make it mean something to the children. will be stimulated by the opportunity for creative expression. many kinds of sentences using saw and seen. but the temptation will be to have the children write the sentences because (from the teacher's point of view) this makes good busywork. asks the children to tell. others may try to imitate it. For example. about something that they really did see.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 171 Another common drill is having children give original sentences in which difficult forms are used correctly. she would have gone right home. She will give an example or two : "When the boys went to the circus. the words seen and saw . the procedure can be changed somewhat. The teacher. "I saw a cat. John changes his sentence to something like the following. . With a suggestion or two. in their sentences. "I saw a big black cat with green eyes. This kind of drill may be oral or written. instead of being bored by meaningless repetition." The teacher remarks that this sentence is correct but that it would be more interesting to the class if he could tell a little more so that everyone could see the cat that he saw. The results may be something like the' following: I saw a cat. to begin with.are put on the blackboard. John gives the first sentence. It is remarkable how much a few suggestions add to the vitality of a simple drill." or "If Mary had not seen the funnly little puppy. they saw an elephant doing tricks. I saw a bird. Then the teacher will suggest that there are many. I saw a dog. The children are told to make sentences using each word correctly." The class likes this sentences much better than the first one.

The program is a functional one. reports. The whole school should become language-conscious. and keeping minutes. explanations. and in the school assembly some attention must be given to good speaking and writing.172 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Relation to Work in Other Subjects : The teacher recognizes that only a small part of his pupils' total experience in language takes place in the language class. In the first place. as we have said. Language Programs: The language program. Language. is a service subject and as such involves two key points worthy of attention. Class ·meetings and pupil councils involve discussions. In the second place. reports. Language experiences at once provide the chief immediate and remote goals. the chief medium of learning. opportunities arise for making introductions and explanations. If properly handled this attention adds to the effectiveness of work under way. and the basis for organizing the program into units of work. Training lessons grow out of and are motivated by immediate needs for particular skills and abilities revealed in the experience phases of the work. but to the . the immediate needs for particular language experiences appear in other phases of work. In the social studies. in arithmetic. When parents visit the school. Language is used throughout the day in all phases of work and play. as on school visiting days. Various subjects require discussion. and directions. therefore. should consist of real. These skills are learned as far as possible in use-incidentally. and the use of language in other subjects and in all extracurricular work obviously helps set patterns and habits of expression. lifelike experiences and training experiences as needed to develop the essential abilities and skills. it is necessary to maintain reasonable standards in all language work in school if gOQd habits of speaking and writing are to be established. and it is not necessarily a distraction.

At one extreme must be recognized the very liberal or informal teacher who handles language mainly as an integral part of the work in other subjects and school activities and who provides only occasional directed practice or remedial lessons as needed by individuals and groups. include (1) primary emphasis on and training in language experiences and (2) provision for the systematic development of essential language abilities and skills. Within the limits set by these minimum requirements there is opportunity for a variety of programs providing combinations of experience work and training experiences. several questions arise: What place does the textbook have in the language program? What does it contain? How can it be used effectively? . and for programs offering opportunities to combine experiences and relate them to other phases of the curriculum. Use of Textbooks: In considering the wealth of live opportunities for using language in curricular and schoollife experiences. separate exercises or lessons are provided. and it seems to be consistent with the position taken by the Commission on the English Curriculum of the National Council of Teachers of English. Without sacrificing the essentials of a vital. functional program to traditional formality. But the attempt to carryon the extreme type of informal program often results in gross neglect of training in language. This middle course makes possible the ready use of available instructional materials. it is possible to set a middle course consisting of a definite series of basic language experiences and supplementary systematic work on essential abilities and skills.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 173 extent that further specific training is necessary. Such a program can be excellent and may be regarded as the ultimate goal of language teachers. The minimum essentials of a modern language program. then.

the teacher is taking advantage of this specialized. In addition to a general plan of organization. The textbook lists of standards usually contain many items. If wisely chosen. The sequence is timed-in part. However. the textbook offers certain other resources which the teacher must understand and use effectively. and the like. reports. such standards may be too high or too low. therefore should collect from time to time samples of his pupils' work to serve as supplementary models. Among these resources are models of stories. Any such list may be well devised. and it gives emphasis to the several experiences according to their importance. What use should be made of it? In the authors' opinion. they suggest reasonable standards. In addition to their easier adaptability to a particular class.174 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher In the first place. a textbook provides a basic program of unit work in experiences and related abilities and skills generally appropriate to the grade. it is better to let children derive their standards from a study of samples and to use the textbook lists mainly for checking their own items than to have pupils begin by studying the standards of the textbook. The teacher. Instruction and drill in specific abilities and skills are introduced as needed to carryon the various experiences. Another common feature of textbooks is list of key points-standards-for particular experiences. In using the textbook. The textbook is the product of the study and thinking of specialists who are qualified by research and experience to write in their fields. the local samples are more interesting than textbook models. at least-to meet the progressive needs of children throughout the year. technical knowledge and competence. however. outlines. . for any particular class. and the implication here is that all children are to work on all of them simultaneously. the important question. is.

Rules and principles. to follow a clear sequence of ideas. and it should be. It may be found that the practice exercises in textbooks are largely devoted to the mechanics of speaking. writing. and mechanics. It is also likely that common diffiqllties will be found that are not covered in the test and practice exercises.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 175 Again. A further common textbook provision is the statement of principles and rules relating to concepts. and to introduce interesting details and apt illustrations. should not be memorized from the textbook but should be arrived at inductively by pupils through a study of live examples. Such selection and concentration provide opportunities for individualizing work within a common experience. It is possible that some of the exercises will not be needed by any child. and usage. If training exercises in this latter group of abilities are needed. Yet these language abilities are regarded as primarily important in the language program. if a long list is used. . it is generally agreed. possible using the textbook exercises as models. to stick to the point. This is common-sense procedure. to limit the scope of topics. the teacher will be obliged to supply them. each child should select one or two items for emphasis in giving a story or report. Textbooks also provide practice and remedial exercises. usages. as they may well be. in the authors judgment. Little provision is commonly made for exercises in the development of ability to select suitable topics. The textbook statements can then serve as checks on the children's own generalizations. In this case the teacher should devise tests suited to the particular needs of the children. such a precedure presents and impossible task to the children. Usually in this connection some kind of pretest or diagnostic test is suggested so that only the children who need the practice get it.

well-trained. that a textbook prepared for use in different sections of the country and for different types of schools will be found perfectly adapted to the needs of a particular class. In this case. This procedure is thoroughly consistent with the purpose and specific recommendations of many textbook authors. progressive teachers are inclined to favour such use of the textbook because in this method the functional concept of language work is emphasized. but instead of using the exact topics for oral and written work given in the text. this procedure may lost the planned continuity and sequence of training in essential skills which the textbook provides. the basic program is developed from purposeful experiences. however. he draws them from the current lives of the children. This is certainly not impossible to do. One is. The teacher follows the order of experiences set by the textbook. which combines adjusbnent to present needs and the systematic treabnent of technical content. and units and exercises are selected from the textbook as they are needed for training in particular abilities and skills. . It is unlikely. At the other extreme. largely arising in connection with other curricular and extracurricular activities. Mature. to follow it chapter by chapter and exercise by exercise. the textbook is used only as a reference-exercise source. For example. developmental program.176 Skills and Competencies of English Teach~ There are several general ways in which a book can be used. sequential. obviously. and the teacher thus undertakes the responsible task of not only selecting the experiences but also working out a systematic. There is a third plan. but the teacher must recognize his responsibility and accept the amount of work involved. The textbook work is also made vital and purposeful. However. Such use is tolerable only in the hands of a teacher who lacks confidence or through training.

Workbooks provide a convenient and inexpensive source of supplementary practice material and save the teacher's time. If workbooks cannot be purchases for each pupil. the teacher can devise a reasonably satisfactory supply of permanent material by securing several copies of one or more . however. What happens? What does this show?" Although a particular class may not be performing this experiment at the time when the language unit is taken up in the text. but it makes the work functional and relates it to current needs. Let it stand until the water is all gone. its particular subject-matter content need not be followed slavishly. Supplementary Practice Material : Teachers often feel a need for more and different types of practice material than is provided in the text. Pour the water into a saucer. and often not available.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 177 as the basis of studying outlining and reporting a certain textbook sets up an experience in science in which children are told the following : "Stir into half a cup of water as much salt as the water will dissolve. They are an additional expense to the school district or to the children. Authors commonly provide supplementary practice exercises in workbooks designed to accompany a parallel work in the texts. it may be performing other science experiments or doing a similar type of work in another subject that will provide materials for outlining and reporting. then. may serve as a general guide and model in programming language experiences and is using other curricular activities for developing language abilities. This third plan conserves the general plan of organization and the systematic program for the development and maintenance of technical aspects of language training as provided by the textbook. The exercises for developing technical skills may be used. The textbook. if needed. or similar exercises may be devised by the teacher to provide specific training.

The topics for filing are the particular abilities and skills. in which practice material is needed. Evaluation: It must be apparent to the student in the field of language instruction..g. content and organization. and even to the casual reader. mainly written. e. It is inevitable that children will be working on many difficulties at one time. and punctuation. The answer key may be placed on the back of the practice exercise. possible in a standard vertical file. capitalization. usage. The teacher will have little time for making assignments. serving various purposes and . The index should be duplicated and given to the pupils for filing in their language notebooks. This material cannot be used for whole-class assignments. and checking.178 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher workbooks. Cheating will be discouraged if the teacher always gives tests on the work and checks it as completed only on the basis of satisfactory test results. that evaluation is an essential part of a modern language arts program and that such evaluation is continuous and cumulative. giving oral explanations. The material is filed in a convenient place. The teacher naturally selects the exercises that serve his purposes in meeting the individual needs of a particular group of pupils. but it serves very well for individual and small-group assignments. If the material is not completely indexed by type of difficulty-and it probably is not-it is necessary for the teacher to prepare such an index. It follows that the material should be housed so that the children can get it with a minimum of teacher effort and that the material should be self instructional and selfchecking. Supplementary practice work should be individualized-directed at the point of difficulty. Selected exercises are then torn out and mounted on stiff paper. Old textbooks also can be used to provide supplementary practice material. accessible to pupils.

Evaluation forms and procedures are therefore adapted to the experiences and to the nature of the learning elements. (In general. the teacher may concentrate on content. The teacher's first purpose is an evaluation survey to determine early in the school year levels of achievement of the class and individual pupils. punctuation. for example. but the nature of written work makes objective evaluation more practicable through the use of suitable models. These purposes and forms. thus in judging a report. the accuracy of his judgment is improved by listing and evaluating specific points. Preliminary surveys are made to provide a basis for laying out general plans and determining points of departure and to provide means for measuring improvement during the term.) In appraisal of written activities. The teacher's subjective judgment must be the chief evaluation factor in most phases of oral experiences. in terms of performance in language experiences and related abilities and skills. Only the mechanics of written work-capitalization. the check lists suggested throughout the book provide itemized bases for evaluation. appearing as integral phases of the language program in preceding chapters. offer teachers little help in evaluating quality in written compositions. the teacher's judgment is similarly important. though. organization. handwriting. The teacher should always be aware of the fact that he is dealing with several different kinds of language experiences and a multiplicity of skills. spelling. In the case of handwriting and spelling. and usage--have been adequately covered in standard tests. surveys make possible an organization for group instruction. However. Standard scales. and effective delivery. are summarized here.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 179 taking various form throughout the term. abilities and skills. which may be profitably used early in the year to compare the achievement of a class with that of other classes and to . oral and written.

Covering the work of all grades. Taking samples of handwriting early in the term and using them as a means of measuring class and individual progress is a sound. A second purpose of the teacher is to make a diagnosis of individual accomplishments and needs in the performance of various experiences and in general abilities and specific skills. and usage. and miscellaneous words. An informal preliminary test in spelling. gives the teacher valuable information on class achievement and individual differences. The Ayres scale for measuring the quality of handwriting is widely used. standard tests of usage do not exactly fit the work of any particular grade. covering a large percentage of usage crudities. handwriting. the teacher's judgment. Tests also may be taken from the textbook or . The Unit Scales of Attainment in Language cover capitalization. The Morrison-MeCall Spelling Scale provides a number of tests for use in grades 2 to 8. Here. more objective treatment is possible. must serve. practical procedure. In written usage. as well as the pupils'. punctuation. and spelling. The 'form may follow that of the Charters tests and utilize proofreading or multiple-choice techniques. although their results may be symptomatic. The teacher will therefore find it extremely profitable to devise an objective test including the key usage problems of his grade and of preceding grades. which is a proofreading test designed for use in grades 3 to 12.180 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher locate deficiencies of individuals students. These survey tests are not truly diagnostic. This diagnosis serves the all-important purpose of directing attention to specific deficiencies both in experiences and specific remedial exercises. One such is Charters' Diagnostic Test for verbs. as in the preliminary surveys. Many standard tests are available. Many such tests dealing with various phases of mechanics are available. made up of words taken at random from the term's work. pronouns.

The final purpose of evaluation is to measure progress at the end of the term. capitalization. and colour of line.Skills and Competencies of English Teacher 181 teacher's manual. using check lists of specific items for increased validity. and handwritingcan be measured in large part by informal objective tests prepared by the teacher or selected from the textbook to cover the specific items involved. the chief task is to determine the particular faults in letter formation. not measurement of achievement. are . spacing. Records of progress on specific items should be kept on goal sheets. Since the primary purpose of the diagnostic test is determination of individual needs. as suggested. by the use of patterns and diagnostic sheets provided by good handwriting books. spelling. In diagnosing handwriting. punctuation. Judgments of general abilities and improvement in oral and written experiences are made by the teacher. Samples of written work. from unit to unit or from difficulty to difficulty. The third evaluative purpose of the teacher is to measure the achievement of children during short periods of time. The forms and procedures for the survey are similar to those used in the preliminary evaluation at the beginning of the term. The teacher' casual judgments may be refined. Diagnosis in spelling is mainly a matter of locating particular words causing difficulty and noting the nature of the difficulties. slant. Additional standard resources are Gray's A Score Card for Measuring Handwriting and Freeman's Diagnostic Chart. The customary weekly protest serves as a basis for such diagnosis. as in the case of handwriting and composition. These types of informal objective tests are similar to those used in diagnosis. alignment. Here again the teacher must rely on his judgment of achievement in most phases of the language program. the teacher-made test is as serviceable as the standard test. The objective phases of the work-usage.

Mechanics are mastered only when they are used habitually in purposeful expression. where attention is also called to syllabication and marks for accent and the long and short sounds of vowels. Alphabetical order is used in finding words. which is provided interestingly through the making of work and picture dictionaries in the first grades and through the preparing of alphabetical word lists in the second and third grades. Scores on tests of mechanics should be supplemented by observation of what children do in actual writing. and punctuation may be given and compared with scores on similar tests given early in the term. Checking pronunciation can begin in the fourth grade. cov~ring the term's work. Improvement in handwriting may be determined by scores on the Ayres scale. Informal objective tests covering essentials of usage. . first by the initial letter and finally by the second and third letters.gain variety of expression may well be emphasized in the sixth grade. Dictionary : A good children's dictionary should be available to pupils in the intermediate and upper grades. The checking of meanings and the use of synonyms and antonyms to .182 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher compared with the samples taken early in the term. and this can begin in the third grade. shows the progress of individuals and of the class. One of the early uses of the dictionary is for checking spelling. The use of key pronunciation words and of the other common marks of vowel sounds is taught in the fifth grade. A final teacher-made test in spelling. but the results should not be taken too seriously. capitalization. or standard tests may be repeated. a Morrison-McCall spelling test may also be given again. Practice in alphabetizing is the first step. Training in habits and techniques of dictionary use should be gradual and cumulative. adjusted to maturity and needs at succeeding grade levels.

It means the test provide a good feed back to the teachers. gears the whole education system. The test helps students to find out that pOint they did not understand properly. The question paper must be very well balanced. It should neither to be difficult not to easy. Test enables teachers to find out whether the students have learnt a language item or not. Test enables teacher also to asses the success of this teaching. It should contain challenging questions for students of all levels. The examination system for good or for bad. The questions must be so framed that they test the specific language skill. Question should be so written that the student understands what is expected of him. preparation of the text book and teaching. • • • .Skills and Competencies of English Teacher Importance of Examination and Test: • 183 Test helps a teacher to plan remedial programme. They should be so worded that they help the teacher to find out that the specific objectives are achieved or not. This means there should be no ambiguity in questions.of method. Test serves as eye openers for the students. It influences the framing of syllabus. • • • • Criteria for Good Language Test : • The test must cover limited language skill but must cover al the language skills which the students is expected to master.

trips.t In this planning the teacher plans of whole cowse and chvides it into the units. activities Res ources:1. Criterion of determining objectives 6. Techniques 4. Objectives 2. NecessalY resources 4. techruques and activities 3. Unit may be a chapter ar. Year plan should include following elements:1. Set induction:-Aim of statement:~ti~ Development questions:&J:~ questions' Evaluation Questions:AssI~ent:- Unit plans are the plans showing the details of whatis gomg to be carned out dunng the specific unit. The question paper must be so framed that it has a wide coverage of content taught.r particular topic or topics. A set of daily lesson plan ••••• . etc. Objectives 2. A proj e ct time Frame 2.t Lesson plan is normally p art of set oflesson making up a unit It there has all the same basIc parts as unit plan but only for one day. Following elements shouldbe included in le s ~on plan. PLANNING OF TEACHING ~ ~ ~ YEAR PLAN . Methods 3. subjective and others. for examples objectives type.184 Skills and Competencies of English Teacher • • • The question paper should include all types of question. time frame 5.t . The teacher may plan the language activitie s. Unit plan should include following elements:1. An evaluation criterion II UNIT PLAN II ~ PERIOD PLAN . excursion. Average students must be kept in mind for allotting time to answer the test. teacher can schedule all teaching and non te aching activities including the dates of examinations.

Questions 185 CHAPTER FIRST (QUESTIONS) 1. 6. Why? Tell reasons. What is the constitutional place of English as a second language in India? What is curriculum of English in school and college in Gujarat state? Discuss. Discuss. 3. . 8. 2. What is importance of second and foreign language leaning? OR English is window of the world. Hindi is first language and English is second language for us. Why? Which problems are faced by Gujarati speaking learner in learning second or foreign language. 4. 7. Discuss. 5. How mother tongue helps in learning second language? 10. 9. What is importance of mother tongue language and habit? Language is primarily speech. How English language is taught in Gujarat? In spite of banishing the language from India the people have made English as their own passion.

8. 9.F. Define motivation. 3. .186 CHAPTER SECOND (QUESTIONS) Questions 10 2. Discuss in detail. 13. How will motivate your students to make your teaching effective as a teacher? Attention and memory play important role in developments of teaching learning process. How? What is different between first Language and second language? What is different between Acquisition and Learning? What is behaviorist's view on language learning? What types of theory have been given by Pavlov and B. 4. Discuss? What are the general objectives of teaching English as Second language? How specific objectives are differs from general objectives? What are the sub skills of language as skill? 6. 12. 10. Skinner in reference to language Learning. 7. What are the kinds of rein forcers? How they are helpful to make teaching effective? Language learning is nothing but habit formation. 5. How? Define reinforcement. What is view of Cognitivist on Language Learning? Discuss in detail. 11. Language is tool of communication.

Define Reading Method. 3. What are characteristics or importance of teaching and instructional material? What is role of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in development of teaching learning process? How Audio Visual aids are useful to make teaching effective? What is the criterion of selection of good text book? What are the characteristics of good text book? OR How will you evaluate the good text book? CHAPTER FOURTH (QUESTIONS) 1. 6. 7. 4. 4. What are advantage and Disadvantage of this method? Discuss. How? Discuss. What are advantage and Disadvantage of this method? Discuss. method? G. Define Grammar Translation method. 187 Give the list of instructional material and teaching aids. What are advantage and Disadvantage of Direct Method? Discuss. How will use and select the instructional material and teaching aid during teaching? Discuss. 6.Questions CHAPTER THIRD (QUESTIONS) 1. What are advantage and disadvantage of the G. Define Bilingual Method. 7. 5.T. Why? What is different between G. .T. method is very useful in Hindi medium school in second language learning. 5. 2. 2. Direct Method is not useful in Hindi Medium schools. T. Define Direct Method. method and Direct Method? Discuss. 3.

. Define Communicative Approach. 9. CHAPTER FIFTH (QUESTIONS) 8.188 Questions Whatis Different between Bilingual and G. What are the principles of teaching English as second language? Discuss. What are advantages and disadvantages of this approach? Discuss. Which Two skills are included in oral work? Discuss in detail. 5. What are the techniques of conducting oral work? Discuss. 1. 2. How can a teacher develop the correct speech habit of English language learner as second language? Discuss. What is importance of oral work in teaching of English as second language? Discuss. What is different between Method and Approach? Discuss. CHAPTER SIXTH (QUESTIONS) 2. What are the principles of communicative approach? Discuss. What are the cause~ of defective pronunciation of students in learning of English as second language? Discuss. method? Discuss. 3. 5. 4. What is structural approach? What are advantages and Disadvantages of this approach? Discuss. What are advantage and Disadvantages of this method? Discuss. 3. 1. Define Situational Method.T. 4.

5. What types of exercises should be given to the students in written work? Discuss. What necessary precautions should be observed during the course of teaching? Discuss. 3. 4. 10. 8. Extensive reading is type of silent reading. What are general and specific objectives of reading skill in leaning English as second language? Discuss. 11. CHAPTER EIGHTH (QUESTIONS) 1. 9. 7. What are the types of Reading? Discuss. What is aloud reading? Why it is not useful at secondary level? Discuss. What is silent reading? What are advantages and disadvantages of Silent reading? Discuss. 2. How? Discuss. . What steps should be kept in mind by teacher while teaching picture composition? Discuss.Questions 189 CHAPTER SEVETH (QUESTIONS) 1. How can a Teacher make reading aloud very interesting? Discuss. What are general and specific objectives of speaking skill? Discuss. 6. Intensive reading is type of reading aloud. 3. 2. What are general and specific objectives of listening skill? Discuss. How? Discuss. How a teacher can make improve bad handwriting of students? OR What are the mechanics of writing? Discuss. What are advantage and disadvantage of reading aloud? Discuss.

Discuss.190 Questions 4. Why inductive. Set induction is integral part of classroom teaching. What are advantage and disadvantage of deductive method? Discuss. Write brief note on deductive and inductive method. 5. What is different between free composition and controlled composition? Discuss. 2. What are advantage and disadvantage of inductive method? Discuss. As a teacher. how will you make teaching prose very effective? Discuss. What should do a teacher to improve the spelling mistake and bad pronunciation? Discuss. As a teacher how will you make teaching poetry effective and interesting? Discuss. . How? Discuss.deductive method is more effective than inductive and deductive method? Discuss. 8. Write short note on oral and written composition. CHAPTER NINTH (QUESTIONS) 1. Discuss. 3. 4. Imagine that you are teacher. 9. 6. What steps should be followed by teacher while teaching grammar? Discuss. s. What will you do to make set induction very interesting and alive? Discuss. Briefly describe the objectives of teaching prose. What are the objectives of teaching prose? Discuss. 7. 6. 10. 8. 7. What steps should be followed by teacher while teaching prose and poetry? Discuss.

hievements? Discuss. ••••• . What are types of test? Discuss. What is criterion of good language test? Discuss . Discuss. What are types of evaluation question? Discuss.Questions CHAPTER TENTH (QUESTIONS) 191 1. 6. 4. What is importance of examination and test to evaluate students' ac. What is importance of evaluation in teaching of English? Discuss. 2. What are the characteristics of good English Teacher? Discuss. 7. 5. 3. Prepare objective types of questions or briefly state the kinds of objective type questions.

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