U.S.

Department
of Transportation
Federal Aviation
Administration
Advisory
Circular

Subject: Airport Pavement Design and
Evaluation
Date: 9/30/2009
Initiated by: AAS-100
AC No: 150/5320-6E
Change:

1. PURPOSE. This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance to the public on the design and evaluation of
pavements at civil airports.
2. CANCELLATION. This AC cancels AC 150/5320-6D, Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation, dated July
7, 1995.
3. APPLICATION. The FAA recommends the guidelines and standards in this AC for airport pavement design
and evaluation. In general, use of this AC is not mandatory. However, use this AC is mandatory for all projects
funded with federal grant monies through the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) and with revenue from the
Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Program. See Grant Assurance No. 34, “Policies, Standards, and Specifications,”
and PFC Assurance No. 9, “Standards and Specifications.
4. RELATED READING MATERIAL. The publications listed in Appendix 4 provide further guidance and
detailed information on the design and evaluation of airport pavements.
5. UNITS. Through this AC, customary English units will be used with soft conversion to metric units for tables
and figures and hard conversion for the text.



Michael O’Donnell
Director of Airport Safety and Standards

9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS iii
LIST OF TABLES vi
LIST OF FIGURES vii
FOREWORD viii
CHAPTER 1. AIRPORT PAVEMENTS— 1
THEIR FUNCTION AND PURPOSES 1
100. GENERAL 1
101. SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS 1
102. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 1
103. STAGED CONSTRUCTION OF AIRPORT PAVEMENTS 2

CHAPTER 2. SOIL INVESTIGATIONS AND EVALUATION 3
200. GENERAL 3
201. SOIL INVESTIGATIONS 3
202. SURVEYING AND SAMPLING 4
203. SOIL TESTS 5
204. UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION 6
205. SOIL STRENGTH TESTS 9
206. SUBGRADE STABILIZATION 10
207. SEASONAL FROST 10
208. PERMAFROST 11

CHAPTER 3. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRPLANES WEIGHING 13
MORE THAN 30,000 POUNDS 13
SECTION 1. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 13
300. SCOPE 13
301. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY 13
302. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH 13
303. BACKGROUND 13
304. PAVEMENT DESIGN USING FAARFIELD 14
305. TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION 20
306. TYPICAL SECTIONS 20
307. FROST AND PERMAFROST DESIGN 21

SECTION 2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN 24
308. GENERAL 24
309. HOT MIX ASPHALT SURFACING 24
310. BASE COURSE 24
311. SUBBASE 24
312. SUBGRADE 25
313. SWELLING SOILS 27
314. SELECTION OF DESIGN CBR VALUE 27
315. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN 28
316. DESIGN EXAMPLE 30
317. STABILIZED BASE AND SUBBASE 32
318. FULL-DEPTH ASPHALT PAVEMENTS 32
319. FROST EFFECTS 32
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009



SECTION 3. RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN 33
320. GENERAL 33
321. CONCRETE PAVEMENT 33
322. SUBBASE 33
323. SUBBASE QUALITY 33
324. STABILIZED SUBBASE. 33
325. SUBGRADE 34
326. DETERMINATION OF MODULUS (E VALUE) FOR RIGID PAVEMENT SUBGRADE 34
327. DETERMINATION OF CONCRETE SLAB THICKNESS 34
328. USE OF FAARFIELD FOR NEW RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN 35
329. CRITICAL AND NONCRITICAL AREAS 36
330. DESIGN EXAMPLE 36
331. FROST EFFECTS 36
332. JOINTING OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 38
333. SPECIAL JOINTING CONSIDERATIONS FOR POSSIBLE FUTURE EXPANSION 42
334. JOINTING STEEL 43
335. JOINT SEALANTS AND FILLERS 44
336. JOINT LAYOUT 44
337. CONCRETE PAVEMENT CONTAINING EMBEDDED STEEL FOR CRACK CONTROL 44
338. TYPE AND SPACING OF EMBEDDED STEEL BARS 44
339. AMOUNT OF EMBEDDED STEEL. 46
340. DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS OF EMBEDDED STEEL 46
341. WELDED WIRE FABRIC 47
342. JOINTING OF EMBEDDED STEEL CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 48
343. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT 48
344. CRCP JOINTING 51
345. CRCP TERMINAL TREATMENT 51
346. CRCP DESIGN EXAMPLE 54
347. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PAVEMENT 55

CHAPTER 4. AIRPORT PAVEMENT OVERLAYS AND RECONSTRUCTION 57
400. GENERAL 57
401. CONDITION OF EXISTING PAVEMENT 57
402. MATERIAL SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS 57
403. OVERLAY DESIGN 57
404. OVERLAYS OF EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS 59
405. OVERLAYS OF EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENTS 61
406. THICKNESS DESIGN FOR RUBBLIZED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 68
407. PREPARATION OF THE EXISTING SURFACE FOR THE OVERLAY 69
408. MATERIALS AND METHODS 70
409. NEW OVERLAY MATERIALS 70

CHAPTER 5. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRPLANES WEIGHING LESS THAN 30,000 POUNDS 71
500. GENERAL 71
501. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH 71
502. TYPICAL SECTIONS 71
503. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT MATERIALS 71
504. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN 72
505. RIGID PAVEMENT MATERIALS 75
506. RIGID PAVEMENT THICKNESS 76
507. AGGREGATE TURF 81
508. OVERLAYS 81
509. HELIPORT/VERTIPORT DESIGN 82
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E



CHAPTER 6. PAVEMENT EVALUATION 83
600. PURPOSES OF PAVEMENT EVALUATION 83
601. EVALUATION PROCESS 83
602. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS 84
603. APPLICATION OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EVALUATION PROCEDURES 84
604. RIGID PAVEMENTS 86
605. APPLICATION OF RIGID PAVEMENT EVALUATION PROCEDURES 87
606. USE OF RESULTS 88
607. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH 88

CHAPTER 7. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRFIELD SHOULDERS 89
700. PURPOSE 89
701. APPLICATION 89
702. BACKGROUND 89
703. PURPOSE OF DESIGN PROCEDURE 89
704. REPORTING PAVED SHOULDER DESIGN 89
705. DESIGN PROCEDURE 89
706. PAVEMENT LAYER THICKNESS AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 90
707. EMERGENCY AND MAINTENANCE VEHICLE CONSIDERATIONS 90
708. AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FROST HEAVE 90

APPENDIX 1. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 91
APPENDIX 2. ORDER 5300.7 95
APPENDIX 3. DESIGN OF STRUCTURES FOR HEAVY AIRPLANES 105
APPENDIX 4. RELATED READING MATERIAL 107
APPENDIX 5. AIRFIELD PAVEMENT DESIGN SOFTWARE 110
APPENDIX 6. FAARFIELD INTERNAL AIRPLANE LIBRARY 111

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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 2-1. TYPICAL SUBSURFACE BORING SPACING AND DEPTH FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION 4
TABLE 2-2. SOIL CHARACTERISTICS PERTINENT TO PAVEMENT FOUNDATIONS 8
TABLE 2-3. SOIL FROST GROUPS 11
TABLE 3-1. STANDARD NAMING CONVENTION FOR COMMON AIRPLANE GEAR
CONFIGURATIONS 15
TABLE 3-1. STANDARD NAMING CONVENTION FOR COMMON AIRPLANE GEAR
CONFIGURATIONS (CONTINUED) 16
TABLE 3-2. PAVEMENT REMAINING LIFE BASED ON CDF VALUE 18
TABLE 3-3. REDUCED SUBGRADE STRENGTH RATINGS 21
TABLE 3-4. SUBGRADE COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS 26
TABLE 3-5. DENSITIES FOR SUBGRADE IN EXAMPLE 26
TABLE 3-6. COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXAMPLE 27
TABLE 3-7. RECOMMENDED TREATMENT OF SWELLING SOILS 27
TABLE 3-8. LAYER TYPES IN FAARFIELD 28
TABLE 3-9. MINIMUM AGGREGATE BASE COURSE THICKNESS 30
TABLE 3-10. AIRPLANE TRAFFIC MIX EXAMPLE 31
TABLE 3-11. PAVEMENT STRUCTURE INFORMATION FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE 31
TABLE 3-12. ADDITIONAL AIRPLANE INFORMATION FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE 32
TABLE 3-13. AIRPLANE MIXTURE INPUT DATA 36
TABLE 3-14. PAVEMENT LAYER INPUT DATA 36
TABLE 3-15. PAVEMENT JOINT TYPES 41
TABLE 3-16. RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM JOINT SPACINGS - RIGID PAVEMENT WITH OR WITHOUT
STABILIZED SUBBASE 41
TABLE 3-17. DIMENSIONS AND SPACING OF STEEL DOWELS 44
TABLE 3-18. YIELD STRENGTHS OF VARIOUS GRADES OF REINFORCING STEEL 46
TABLE 3-19. DIMENSIONS AND UNIT WEIGHTS OF DEFORMED STEEL REINFORCING BARS
NOMINAL DIMENSIONS 47
TABLE 3-20. SECTIONAL AREAS OF WELDED FABRIC 47
TABLE 3-21. AIRPLANE MIX DATA FOR CRCP DESIGN EXAMPLE 54
TABLE 4-1. RIGID PAVEMENT DISTRESS TYPES USED TO CALCULATE THE STRUCTURAL
CONDITION INDEX, SCI 61
TABLE 5-1. SUBGRADE COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR LIGHT LOAD FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS 72

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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE 2-1. TYPICAL BORING LOG 7
FIGURE 2-2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AIR THAWING INDEX AND THAW PENETRATION INTO
GRANULAR, NON-FROST SUSCEPTABLE SUBGRADE SOIL 12
FIGURE 3-1. TWO EFFECTIVE TIRE WIDTHS - NO OVERLAP 19
FIGURE 3-2. ONE EFFECTIVE TIRE WIDTH – OVERLAP 19
FIGURE 3-3. EXAMPLE OF CDF CONTRIBUTION FOR AIRPLANE MIX 20
FIGURE 3-4. TYPICAL PLAN AND CROSS SECTION FOR RUNWAY PAVEMENT 23
FIGURE 3-5. FAARFIELD SCREENSHOT SHOWING FINAL PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN 31
FIGURE 3-6. STRUCTURE WINDOW IN FAARFIELD 37
FIGURE 3-7. AIRPLANE WINDOW IN FAARFIELD 37
FIGURE 3-8. RIGID PAVEMENT JOINT TYPES AND DETAILS 39
FIGURE 3-9. RIGID PAVEMENT JOINT TYPE DETAILS 40
FIGURE 3-10. TYPICAL JOINT LAYOUT PATTERN FOR RUNWAY, PARALLEL TAXIWAY, AND
CONNECTOR 45
FIGURE 3-11. JOINTING IN RIGID PAVEMENT WITH EMBEDDED STEEL 50
FIGURE 3-12. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – JOINT DETAILS 51
FIGURE 3-13. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – JOINT DETAILS 52
FIGURE 3-14. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – WIDE FLANGE BEAM
TERMINAL JOINT 53
FIGURE 3-15. COMPUTED SLAB THICKNESS, CRCP EXAMPLE 54
FIGURE 4-1. TYPICAL OVERLAY PAVEMENTS 58
FIGURE 4-2. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 59
FIGURE 4-3. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF RIGID OVERLAY ON EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 61
FIGURE 4-4. CDFU COMPUTATION USING FAARFIELD 63
FIGURE 4-5. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENT WITH SCI
70 64
FIGURE 4-6. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENT WITH SCI
100 65
FIGURE 4-7. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF RIGID OVERLAY ON EXISTING FULLY UNBONDED RIGID
PAVEMENT 67
FIGURE 5-1. TYPICAL SECTIONS FOR PAVEMENTS SERVING LIGHT AIRPLANES 73
FIGURE 5-2. FAARFIELD AIRPLANE WINDOW – LIGHT LOAD PAVEMENT DESIGN 74
FIGURE 5-3. CALCULATION OF SUBBASE LAYER THICKNESS 75
FIGURE 5-4. JOINTING TYPES FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT 77
FIGURE 5-5. JOINTING DETAILS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT 78
FIGURE 5-6. JOINTING LAYOUT PATTERNS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT – 60 FEET WIDE 79
FIGURE 5-7. JOINTING LAYOUT PATTERNS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT – 50 FEET WIDE 80
FIGURE 5-8. DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR AGGREGATE TURF PAVEMENT. 81
FIGURE 6-1. EXAMPLE OF A FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT STRUCTURE FOR EVALUATION 85
FIGURE 6-2. EXAMPLE OF A RIGID PAVEMENT STRUCTURE FOR EVALUATION 87

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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


viii

FOREWORD
This AC provides guidance on the structural design and evaluation of airport pavements.
Although airplane landing gears play a role in airport pavement design and evaluation, this AC does not dictate any
facet of landing gear design. In 1958, the FAA adopted a policy of limiting maximum Federal participation in airport
pavements to a pavement section designed to serve a 350,000-pound (158 757 kg) airplane with a DC-8-50 series
landing gear configuration. The intent of the policy was to ensure that future airplanes were equipped with landing gears
that would not stress pavements more than the referenced 350,000-pound (158 757 kg) airplane.
Throughout the 20
th
century, airplane manufacturers accepted and followed the 1958 policy and designed airplane
landing gears that conformed to it—even though airplane gross weights have long exceeded 350,000 pounds
(158 757 kg). Despite increases in airplane weights, manufacturers were able to conform to the policy by increasing the
number and spacing of landing gear wheels. Unfortunately, adding extra wheels and landing gears does not contribute to
efficiency, and airplane manufacturers are focusing on designing airplane gear configurations to optimize the efficiency
of the airplanes. With this change in philosophy and increasing airplane weights, airfield pavements must be designed to
withstand increased loading conditions.
Historical pavement design guidance presented in previous versions of this AC was based on methods of analysis that
resulted from empirical research and field performance. Although it may have been possible to adjust these methods to
address new gear configurations and increased pavement loading, newer design procedures, such as the layered elastic
and finite element procedures discussed in Chapter 3, were better adapted for this challenge
The pavement design guidance presented in this AC implements layered elastic theory for flexible pavement design and
three-dimensional finite element theory for rigid pavement design. The FAA adopted these methodologies to address
the impact of new landing gear configurations and increased pavement load conditions. These procedures are robust and
can address future gear configurations without modifying their underlying design procedures.
Chapter 6 presents the pavement evaluation portion of this AC. An airplane operator could be penalized unfairly if an
existing facility was evaluated using a method different from that employed in the original design. A slight change in
pavement thickness can have a dramatic effect on the payload or range of an airplane. Since a new pavement design
methodology might produce different pavement thicknesses, an evaluation of an existing pavement using the new
methodology could result in incompatible results. To avoid this situation, airport operators should base the evaluation,
whenever possible, on the same methodology as was used for the design.
Where new airplanes are added to the traffic mix at an existing facility, it may not be possible to evaluate the pavement
with the original design procedure. For example, when adding a new airplane with a unique gear configuration to the
traffic mixture at a facility, it may be impossible to assess the impact of the new airplane using the original design
procedures. In these instances, it is necessary to evaluate the pavement with a design procedure capable of addressing
the new traffic mixture.

9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


CHAPTER 1. AIRPORT PAVEMENTS—
THEIR FUNCTION AND PURPOSES
100. GENERAL. Airport pavements are constructed to provide adequate support for the loads imposed by airplanes
and to produce a firm, stable, smooth, all-year, all-weather surface free of debris or other particles that may be blown or
picked up by propeller wash or jet blast. In order to satisfactorily fulfill these requirements, the pavement must be of
such quality and thickness that it will not fail under the load imposed. In addition, it must possess sufficient inherent
stability to withstand, without damage, the abrasive action of traffic, adverse weather conditions, and other deteriorating
influences. To produce such pavements requires a coordination of many factors of design, construction, and inspection
to assure the best possible combination of available materials and a high standard of workmanship.
a. Types of Pavement. Pavements discussed in this circular are flexible, rigid, hot mix asphalt overlays,
and rigid overlays. Various combinations of pavement types and stabilized layers result in complex pavements
classified between flexible and rigid. The design and evaluation guidance in this circular can be adapted to any
pavement type.
b. Economic Analysis and Design Selection. With proper design and construction, any pavement type
(rigid, flexible, composite, etc.) can provide a satisfactory pavement for any civil airplane. However, some designs may
be more economical than others and can still provide satisfactory performance. The engineer is required to provide a
rationale for the selected design in the engineer’s report (see AC 150/5300-9, Predesign, Prebid, and Preconstruction
Conferences for Airport Grant Projects). Engineers often base this rationale on economic factors derived from
evaluating several design alternatives. Use life-cycle cost analysis if the design selection is based on least cost.
Appendix 1 demonstrates an example of a life-cycle cost analysis of alternatives for pavement rehabilitation. Research
report FAA-RD-81/078, Economic Analysis of Airport Pavement Rehabilitation Alternatives – An Engineering Manual,
provides more details on life-cycle cost analysis. Many new developments in construction have evolved, such as
recycling, that can significantly affect pavement costs. Alternate construction bids are appropriate in instances where no
clear cost advantage is established in the design process. Economic factors do not always control the design selection.
Operational constraints, funding limitations, future expansion, and other issues can override economic factors in the
design selection. The engineer’s report should address these considerations.
c. Pavement Courses.
(1) Surface. Surface courses include Portland cement concrete (PCC), hot mix asphalt (HMA),
sand-bituminous mixture, and sprayed bituminous surface treatments.
(2) Base. Base courses consist of a variety of different materials, which generally fall into two
main classes, treated and untreated. An untreated base consists of crushed or uncrushed aggregates. A treated base
normally consists of a crushed or uncrushed aggregate mixed with a stabilizer such as cement, bitumen, etc.
(3) Subbase. Subbase courses consist of a granular material, a stabilized granular material, or a
stabilized soil.
(4) Geosynthetics. The term geosynthetics describes a range of manufactured synthetic products
used to address geotechnical problems. The term is generally understood to encompass four main products: geotextiles,
geonets/geogrids, geomembranes and geocomposites. The synthetic nature of the materials in these products makes
them suitable for use in the ground where high levels of durability are required. These products have a wide range of
applications, including use as a separation between subbase aggregate layers and the underlying subgrade. The need for
geosynthetics within a pavement section is dependent upon subgrade soil conditions, groundwater conditions, and the
type of overlying pavement aggregate.
101. SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS.
a. Specifications. Reference is made by Item Number throughout the text to construction material
specifications contained in AC 150/5370-10, Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports.
b. Geometric Standards. AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, presents geometric standards for pavement
lengths, widths, grades, and slopes.
102. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS. Airport pavements should provide a skid resistant surface that will provide
good traction during any weather conditions. AC 150/5320-12, Measurement, Construction, and Maintenance of Skid
Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces, presents information on skid resistant surfaces.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

103. STAGED CONSTRUCTION OF AIRPORT PAVEMENTS. In some instances, it may be necessary to
construct the airport pavement in stages; that is, to build up the pavement profile, layer by layer, as the traffic using the
facility increases in weight and number. Lateral staging, i.e., planning for future widening of pavements, is sometimes
advantageous to accommodate larger airplanes. If stage construction is to be undertaken, the need for sound planning
cannot be overemphasized. It is important to design the complete pavement prior to the start of any stage and to assure
that each stage provides an operational surface. The planning of a stage-constructed pavement should recognize a
number of considerations.
a. Adequacy of Each Stage. Design each stage to adequately accommodate the traffic that will use the
pavement until the next stage is constructed.
b. Drainage. Design and construct the underlying layers and drainage facilities of a pavement
constructed in stages to the standards required for the final cross-section. Providing the proper foundation and drainage
facilities in the first stage is mandatory, as the underlying layers will not be readily accessible for upgrading in the
future.
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CHAPTER 2. SOIL INVESTIGATIONS AND
EVALUATION
200. GENERAL. The importance of accurate identification and evaluation of pavement foundations cannot be
overemphasized. Although it is impossible to explore the entire field of soil mechanics in a publication such as this, the
following text will highlight those aspects that are particularly important to the airport paving engineer.
a. Classification System. Use the Unified Soil Classification (USC) system in engineering matters
concerning civil airport pavements. To avoid misunderstanding, certain terms employed are defined below:
(1) SOIL Definition. For engineering purposes, and particularly as it applies to airports, soil
includes all natural deposits that can be moved with earth moving equipment, without requiring blasting under unfrozen
conditions. Harder materials are considered to be rock.
(2) Conditions and Properties. Soil conditions include such items as the elevation of the water
table, the presence of water bearing strata, and the field properties of the soil. Field properties of the soil include the
density, moisture content, and frost penetration.
(3) Profile. The soil profile is the vertical arrangement soil layers, each of which possesses
different physical properties from the adjacent layer.
(4) Subgrade. Subgrade soil is the soil that forms the foundation for the pavement. It is the soil
directly beneath the pavement structure.
b. Subgrade Support. It should be remembered that the subgrade soil ultimately provides support for
the pavement and the imposed loads. The pavement serves to distribute the imposed load to the subgrade over an area
greater than that of the tire contact area. The greater the thickness of pavement, the greater is the area over which the
load on the subgrade is distributed. It follows, therefore, that the more unstable the subgrade soil, the greater is the
required area of load distribution and consequently the required thickness of pavement is greater. The soils having the
best engineering characteristics encountered in the grading and excavating operations should be incorporated in the
upper layers of the subgrade by selective grading.
c. Drainage. In addition to the relationship that soil conditions bear to grading and paving operations,
they determine the necessity for underdrains and materially influence the amount of surface runoff. Thus, they have a
resulting effect on the size and extent of other drainage structures and facilities. (See AC 150/5320-5, Surface Drainage
Design.)
201. SOIL INVESTIGATIONS.
a. Distribution and Properties. To provide essential information on the various types of soils,
investigations should be made to determine their distribution and physical properties. This information combined with
data on site topography and area climatic records, provides basic planning material essential to the logical and effective
development of the airport. An investigation of soil conditions at an airport site will include—
(1) Subsurface Soil Profile. An investigation of subsurface soil properties to determine the
arrangement of different layers of the soil with relation to the proposed subgrade elevation.
(2) Sampling. Collection of representative samples of the layers of soil.
(3) Testing. Testing of samples to determine the physical properties of the various soil materials
with respect to in-place density and subgrade support.
(4) Availability. A review to determine the availability of materials for use in construction of
the subgrade and pavement.
b. Procedures. With respect to sampling and surveying procedures and techniques, American Society
for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 420, Standard Guide to Site Characterization for Engineering Design and
Construction Purposes, is most frequently used. This method is based entirely on the soil profile. In the field, ASTM D
2488, Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures), is commonly used to
identify soils by such characteristics as color, texture, structure, consistency, compactness, cementation, and, to varying
degrees, chemical composition.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

(1) Maps. Department of Agriculture soils maps, United States Geodetic Survey (USGS)
geologic maps, and USGS engineering geology maps can prove valuable aids in the study of soils at and in the vicinity
of the airport. Although the pedological classification, determined from these maps, does not treat soil as an engineering
or construction material, data so obtained are extremely useful to the agronomist in connection with the development of
turf areas on airports and to the engineer concerned with preliminary investigations of site selection, development costs,
and alignment.
(2) Aerial Photography. The practice of determining data on soils with aerial photographs is
established and commonly acceptable. Relief, drainage, and soil patterns may be determined from the photographs, and
an experienced photo interpreter can define differences in characteristics of soils. By employing this method of
investigation, it is possible to expedite soil studies and reduce the amount of effort required to gather data.
202. SURVEYING AND SAMPLING.
a. Subsurface Borings. The initial step in an investigation of subsurface conditions is a soil survey to
determine the quantity and extent of the different types of soil, the arrangement of soil layers, and the depth of any
subsurface water. These profile borings are usually obtained with a soil auger or similar device. Washed borings are not
recommended due to inaccuracies of depth determinations. The intent of the borings is to determine the soil or rock
profile and its lateral extent. Inasmuch as each location presents its particular problems and variations, the spacing of
borings cannot always be definitely specified by rule or preconceived plan. Suggested criteria for the location, depth,
and number of borings for new construction are given in table 2-1. Wide variations in these criteria can be expected due
to local conditions.
Nondestructive testing (NDT), as described in AC 150/5370-11, Use of Nondestructive Testing Devices in the
Evaluation of Airport Pavement, can be used for computing subgrade strength and to locate soil borings and sampling
locations for evaluation of existing pavements. Also, boring logs from original construction and prior evaluations can be
used.
TABLE 2-1. TYPICAL SUBSURFACE BORING SPACING AND DEPTH FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION
AREA SPACING DEPTH
Runways and Taxiways Random Across Pavement at 200-
foot (60 m) Intervals
Cut Areas - 10' (3 m) Below Finished Grade
Fill Areas - 10' (3 m) Below Existing Ground
1

Other Areas of Pavement 1 Boring per 10,000 Square Feet
(930 sq m) of Area
Cut Areas - 10' (3 m) Below Finished Grade
Fill Areas - 10' (3 m) Below Existing Ground
1

Borrow Areas Sufficient Tests to Clearly Define
the Borrow Material
To Depth of Borrow Excavation
1
For deep fills, boring depths must be sufficient to determine the extent of consolidation and/or slippage the fill may
cause.
b. Number of Borings, Locations, and Depths. Obviously, the locations, depths, and numbers of
borings must be such that all important soil variations can be determined and mapped. Whenever past experience at the
location in question has indicated that settlement or stability in deep fill areas may be a problem or, if in the opinion of
the engineer, additional investigations are warranted, more or deeper borings may be required in order to determine the
proper design, location, and construction procedures. Conversely, where uniform soil conditions are encountered, fewer
borings may be acceptable.
c. Boring Log. A graphic log of soil conditions can be of great value in assessing subgrade conditions. It
is recommended that the graphic log be developed, which summarizes the results of the soil explorations. A typical
graphic log is included as figure 2-1. The graphic log should include—
(1) Location
(2) Date performed
(3) Type of exploration
(4) Surface elevation
(5) Depth of materials
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(6) Sample identification numbers
(7) Classification
(8) Water table
(9) Standard penetration test (SPT)
d. Soil Survey Areas. The soil survey is not confined to soils encountered in grading or necessarily to
the area within the boundaries of the airport site. Possible sources of locally available material that may be used as
borrow areas or aggregate sources should be investigated.
e. Undisturbed Samples. Samples representative of the different layers of the various soils encountered
and various construction materials discovered should be obtained and tested in the laboratory to determine their physical
and engineering properties. In-situ properties such as in-place density, shear strength, consolidation characteristics, etc.
may necessitate obtaining “undisturbed” core samples. ASTM D 1587, Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube
Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes, describes a method of obtaining “undisturbed” soil samples. Because the
results of a test can only be as good as the sampling, it is of utmost importance that each sample be representative of a
particular type of soil material and not be a careless and indiscriminate mixture of several materials.
f. Inplace Testing. Pits, open cuts, or both may be required for making in-place bearing tests, taking
undisturbed samples, charting variable soil strata, etc. This type of supplemental soil investigation is recommended for
situations that warrant a high degree of accuracy or when in-situ conditions are complex and require extensive
investigation.
203. SOIL TESTS.
a. Physical Soil Properties. To determine the physical properties of a soil and to provide an estimate of
its behavior under various conditions, it is necessary to conduct certain soil tests. A number of field and laboratory tests
have been developed and standardized. Detailed methods of performing soil tests are completely covered in publications
of the ASTM.
b. Testing Requirements. Soil tests are usually identified by terms indicating the soil characteristics
that the tests will reveal. Terms that identify the tests considered to be the minimum or basic requirement for airport
pavement, with their ASTM designations and brief explanations, follow:
(1) Standard Practice for Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and
Determination of Soil Constants (ASTM D 421). The dry method should be used only for clean, cohesion-less
granular materials.
(2) Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils (ASTM D 422). This analysis
provides a quantitative determination of the distribution of particle sizes in soils.
(3) Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils
(ASTM D 4318). The plastic and liquid limits of soil define in a standard manner the lowest moisture content at which
a soil will change from a semisolid to a plastic state and at which a solid passes from a plastic to a liquid state,
respectively. The plasticity index is the numerical difference between the plastic limit and the liquid limit. It indicates
the range in moisture content over which a soil remains in a plastic state prior to changing into a liquid. The plastic
limit, liquid limit, and plasticity index of soils are used in engineering classification in accordance with the Unified Soil
Classification System (ASTM D 2487). In conjunction with particle size analysis, natural moisture content, and other
soil properties or conditions, the limits may be used to estimate engineering properties or behavior of soils such as
shrink/swell potential, consolidation characteristics, construction/stabilization characteristics, permeability, and strength
characteristics.
(4) Moisture-Density Relations of Soils . For purposes of compaction control during
construction, tests to determine the moisture-density relations of the different types of soils should be performed.
(i) Heavy Load Pavements. For pavements designed to serve airplanes weighing
60,000 pounds (27 216 kg) or more, use ASTM Method D 1557, Standard Test
Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort
(56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2,700 kN-m/m3)).
5
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

(ii) Light Load Pavements. For pavements designed to serve airplanes weighing less
than 60,000 pounds (27 216 kg), use ASTM Method D 698, Standard Test Methods
for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-
lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)).
(5) Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Laboratory-Compacted
Soils (ASTM D 1883). This test is used to assign a CBR (California Bearing Ratio) value to subgrade soils for use in
the design of flexible pavements.
(6) Modulus of Soil Reaction (AASHTO T 222). This test is used to determine the modulus of
soil reaction, k, for use in the design of rigid pavements.
c. Supplemental Tests. In many cases, additional soil tests will be required over those listed in
paragraph 203b above. It is not possible to cover all the additional tests that may be required; however, a few examples
are presented below. This list should not be considered all-inclusive.
(1) Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Soils by the Mercury Method (ASTM D 427).
This test may be required in areas where swelling soils might be encountered.
(2) Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) (ASTM D
2434). This test may be needed to assist in the design of subsurface drainage.
(3) Determination of Organic Material in Soils by Wet Combustion (AASHTO T-194). This
test may be needed in areas where deep pockets of organic material are encountered or suspected.
(4) Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Soils in Place (ASTM
D4429-04). Field bearing tests can be performed when the on site conditions satisfy density and moisture conditions
that will exist under the pavement being designed. The method is also described in Manual Series No. 10, Soils Manual
(The Asphalt Institute).
204. UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION. The standard method of classifying soils for engineering purposes is
ASTM D 2487, commonly called the Unified System. Table 2-2 provides general soil characteristics pertinent to
pavements.
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E



FIGURE 2-1. TYPICAL BORING LOG
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009



T
A
B
L
E

2
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2
.

S
O
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C
H
A
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8
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


205. SOIL STRENGTH TESTS. Soil classification for engineering purposes provides an indication of the
probable behavior of the soil as a pavement subgrade. This indication of behavior is, however, approximate.
Performance different from that expected can occur due to a variety of reasons such as degree of compaction, degree of
saturation, height of overburden, etc. The possibility of incorrectly predicting subgrade behavior can be largely
eliminated by measuring soil strength. The strength of materials intended for use in flexible pavement structures is
measured by the CBR tests. Materials intended for use in rigid pavement structures are tested by the plate bearing
method. Each of these tests is discussed in greater detail below. Resilient modulus is used for rigid pavement design
because of the variable stress states. Elastic modulus is estimated from CBR and k using the correlations E = 1500 ×
CBR and E = 26 × k
1.284
a. California Bearing Ratio. The CBR test is basically a penetration test conducted at a uniform rate of
strain. The force required to produce a given penetration in the material under test is compared to the force required to
produce the same penetration in a standard crushed limestone. The result is expressed as a ratio of the two forces. Thus
a material with a CBR value of 15 means the material in question offers 15 percent of the resistance to penetration that
the standard crushed stone offers. Laboratory CBR tests should be performed in accordance with ASTM D 1883,
Bearing Ratio of Laboratory-Compacted Soils. Field CBR tests should be conducted in accordance with the ASTM D
4429, Standard Test Method for Bearing Ratio of Soils in Place.
(1) Laboratory. Laboratory CBR tests are conducted on materials that have been obtained from
the site and remolded to the density that will be obtained during construction. Specimens are soaked for 4 days to allow
the material to reach saturation. A saturated CBR test is used to simulate the conditions likely to occur in a pavement
that has been in service for some time. Pavement foundations tend to reach nearly complete saturation after about 3
years. Seasonal moisture changes also dictate the use of a saturated CBR design value since traffic must be supported
during periods of high moisture such as spring seasons.
(2) Field. Field CBR tests can provide valuable information on foundations that have been in
place for several years. The materials should have been in place for a sufficient time to allow for the moisture to reach
an equilibrium condition. An example of this condition is a fill that has been constructed and surcharged for a long
period of time prior to pavement construction.
(3) Gravelly Materials. CBR tests on gravelly materials are difficult to interpret. Laboratory
CBR tests on gravel often yield CBR results that are too high due to the confining effects of the mold. The assignment
of CBR values to gravelly subgrade materials may be based on judgment and experience. The FAA pavement design
procedure recommends a maximum subgrade E value of 50,000 psi (345 MPa) (CBR=33.3) for use in design.
(4) Number of Tests. The number of CBR tests needed to properly establish a design value
cannot be simply stated. Variability of the soil conditions encountered at the site will have the greatest influence on the
number of tests needed. As an approximate “rule of thumb”, three CBR tests on each different major soil type should be
considered. The preliminary soil survey will reveal how many different soil types will be encountered. The design CBR
value should be conservatively selected. Common paving engineering practice is to select a value that is one standard
deviation below the mean. As a rule, a design CBR value of 3 is the lowest practical value that should be assigned. In
instances where the subgrade strength is lower than CBR equals 3, the subgrade should be improved through
stabilization or other means to raise the design CBR value. The following formula can be used to convert CBR to k
value for the subgrade. However, this is only an approximate relationship and it is the recommended appropriate testing
to establish design values.
7788 . 0
26
CBR 1500

×
= k , (k in pci)
(5) Lime Rock Bearing Ratio. Some areas of the country use the lime rock bearing ratio (LBR)
to express soil strength. To convert LBR to CBR, multiply LBR by 0.8.
b. Plate Bearing Test. As the name indicates, the plate bearing test measures the bearing capacity of the
pavement foundation. The result, k value, can be envisioned as the pressure required to produce a unit deflection of the
pavement foundation. The plate bearing test result, k value, has the units of pounds per cubic inch (Mega-Newton per
cubic meter). Plate bearing tests should be performed in accordance with the procedures contained in AASHTO T 222.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

(1) Test Conditions. Plate bearing tests must be conducted in the field and are best performed
on test sections that are constructed to the design compaction and moisture conditions. A correction to the k value for
saturation is required to simulate the moisture conditions likely to be encountered by the in-service pavement.
(2) Number of Tests. Plate bearing tests are relatively expensive to perform and thus the
number of tests that can be conducted to establish a design value is limited. Generally only two or three tests can be
performed for each pavement feature. The design k value should be conservatively selected.
(3) Plate Size. The rigid pavement design presented in this circular is based on the elastic
modulus (E) or k value. The k value can be determined by a static plate load test using a 30-inch (762 mm) diameter
plate. Use of a plate of smaller diameter will result in a higher k value than is represented in the design and evaluation
curves.
c. Additional Soil Strength Tests. Where stability of the underlying section is questionable, additional
soil strength tests may be necessary. Direct shear tests (ASTM D 3080) or field vane tests (ASTM D 2573) may be
required to adequately design the pavement structure.
206. SUBGRADE STABILIZATION. Subgrade stabilization should be considered if one or more of the following
conditions exist: poor drainage, adverse surface drainage, frost, or need for a stable working platform. Subgrade
stabilization can be accomplished through the addition of chemical agents or by mechanical methods.
a. Chemical Stabilization. Different soil types require different stabilizing agents for best results. The
following publications are recommended to determine the appropriate type and amount of chemical stabilization for
subgrade soils: Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Manual Pavement Design for Airfields, UFC 3-260-02; Soil Cement
Construction Handbook, Portland Cement Association; and The Asphalt Institute Manual Series MS-19, Basic Asphalt
Emulsion Manual (see Appendix 4).
b. Mechanical Stabilization. In some instances, subgrades cannot be adequately stabilized through the
use of chemical additives. The underlying soils may be so soft that stabilized materials cannot be mixed and compacted
over the underlying soils without failing the soft soils. Extremely soft soils may require bridging in order to construct
the pavement section. Bridging can be accomplished with the use of thick layers of shot rock or cobbles. Thick layers of
lean, porous concrete have also been used to bridge extremely soft soils. Geosynthetics should be considered as
mechanical stabilization over soft, fine-grained soils. Geosynthetics can facilitate site access over soft soils and aid in
reducing subgrade soil disturbance due to construction traffic. Geosynthetics will also function as a separation material
to limit long-term weakening of pavement aggregate associated with contamination of the aggregate with underlying
fine-grained soils. FHWA-HI-95-038, Geosynthetic Design and Construction Guidelines, provides more information
about construction over soft soils using geosynthetics (see Appendix 4).
207. SEASONAL FROST. The design of pavements in areas subject to seasonal frost action requires special
consideration. The detrimental effects of frost action may be manifested by non-uniform heave and in loss of soil
strength during frost melting. Other related detrimental effects include possible loss of compaction, development of
pavement roughness, restriction of drainage, and cracking and deterioration of the pavement surface. Detrimental frost
action requires that three conditions be met simultaneously: first, the soil must be frost susceptible; second, freezing
temperatures must penetrate into the frost susceptible soil; third, free moisture must be available in sufficient quantities
to form ice lenses.
a. Frost Susceptibility. The frost susceptibility of soils is dependent to a large extent on the size and
distribution of voids in the soil mass. Voids must be of a certain critical size for the development of ice lenses.
Empirical relationships have been developed correlating the degree of frost susceptibility with the soil classification and
the amount of material finer than 0.02 mm by weight. Soils are categorized into four groups for frost design purposes:
Frost Group 1 (FG-l), FG-2, FG-3, and FG-4. The higher the frost group number, the more susceptible the soil, i.e., soils
in FG-4 are more frost susceptible than soils in frost groups 1, 2, or 3. Table 2-3 defines the frost groups.
b. Depth of Frost Penetration. The depth of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of
the pavement and soil mass, the surface temperature, and the temperature of the pavement and soil mass at the start of
the freezing season. In determining the frost penetration depth, primary consideration should be given to local
engineering experience. Residential construction practice, including the experience of local building departments, is
generally the best guide to frost penetration depth.
c. Free Water. The availability of free water in the soil mass to freeze and form ice lenses is the third
consideration that must be present for detrimental frost action to occur. Water can be drawn from considerable depths
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


by capillary action, by infiltration from the surface or sides, or by condensation of atmospheric water vapor. Generally
speaking, if the degree of saturation of the soil is 70 percent or greater, frost heave will probably occur. For all practical
purposes, the designer should assume that sufficient water to cause detrimental frost action will be present.
d. Frost Design. The design of pavements to offset seasonal frost effects is presented in Chapter 3. A
more detailed and rigorous discussion of frost action and its effects can be found in Research Report No. FAA-RD-74-
030, Design of Civil Airfield Pavement for Seasonal Frost and Permafrost Conditions (see Appendix 4).
TABLE 2-3. SOIL FROST GROUPS
FROST
GROUP
KIND OF SOIL
PERCENTAGE FINER
THAN 0.02 mm BY
WEIGHT
SOIL CLASSIFICATION
FG-1 Gravelly Soils 3 to 10 GW, GP, GW-GM, GP-GM
FG-2 Gravelly Soils
Sands
10 to 20
3 to 5
GM, GW-GM, GP-GM,
SW, SP, SM, SW-SM, SP-SM
FG-3 Gravelly Soils
Sands, except very fine silty sands
Clays, PI above 12
Over 20
Over 15
-
GM, GC
SM, SC
CL, CH
FG-4 Very fine silty sands
All Silts
Clays, PI = 12 or less
Varved Clays and other fine
grained banded sediments
Over 15
-
-

-
SM
ML, MH
CL, CL-ML

CL, CH, ML, SM
208. PERMAFROST. In arctic regions, soils are often frozen at considerable depths year round. Seasonal thawing
and refreezing of the upper layer of permafrost can lead to severe loss of bearing capacity and/or differential heave. In
areas with continuous high-ice-content permafrost at shallow depths, satisfactory pavements are best ensured by
restricting seasonal thawing to the pavement and to a non-frost susceptible base course. This approach is intended to
prevent degradation (thawing) of the permafrost layer.
a. Susceptibility. The frost susceptibility of soils in permafrost areas is classified the same as given
above in paragraph 207.
b. Depth of Thaw Penetration. Pavement design for permafrost areas must consider the depth of
seasonal thaw penetration. Although the Modified Berggren equation (see reference 18, Appendix 4) can theoretically
be used with local climatic data to approximate the depth of thawing in permafrost, there are currently no software
programs available to do this. However, the depth to which thawing temperatures penetrate into permafrost may be
estimated using figure 2-2. Use of figure 2-2 requires inputs of air thawing index, average wind speed during the thaw
period, pavement type, and density of the permafrost layer. The air thawing index is expressed in degree days and is the
difference between average daily temperature and 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius) multiplied by the number
of days the temperature exceeds freezing. The thawing index used for design (design thawing index) should be based on
the three warmest summers in the last 30 years of record. If 30-year records are not available, data from the warmest
summer in the latest 10-year period may be used.
c. Muskeg. Muskeg is sometimes encountered in arctic areas. Muskeg is a highly organic soil deposit
that is essentially a swamp. Every effort should be made to avoid pavement construction on this material. If construction
in areas of muskeg is unavoidable and the soil survey shows the thickness of muskeg is less than 5 feet (1.5 m), the
muskeg should be removed and replaced with granular fill. If the thickness of muskeg is too great to warrant removal
and replacement, a 5-foot (1.5 m) granular fill should be placed over the muskeg. These thicknesses are based on
experience and it should be anticipated that differential settlement will occur and considerable maintenance will be
required to maintain a smooth surface. Use of a geosynthetic between the muskeg surface and the bottom of granular fill
is recommended to prevent migration of the muskeg up into the granular till. In this application, the geosynthetic is
considered to perform the function of separation. Additional information on the design and construction of
geosynthetics performing the separation function within pavement sections is provided in FHWA-HI-95-038 (see
Appendix 4).
d. Permafrost Design. Design of pavements in areas of permafrost is discussed in Chapter 3. Further
information on permafrost can be found in Research Report No. FAA-RD-74-030 (see Appendix 4).
11
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

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12
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


CHAPTER 3. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRPLANES WEIGHING
MORE THAN 30,000 POUNDS

SECTION 1. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS.
300. SCOPE. This chapter provides pavement design guidance for airfield pavements intended to serve airplanes
with gross weights in excess of 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg). Chapter 5 discusses the design of pavements serving lighter
airplanes with gross weights under 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg).
301. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY. The foreword of this AC describes the FAA policy of treating the design of
airplane landing gear and the design and evaluation of airport pavements as three separate entities. The design of airport
pavements is a complex engineering problem that involves a large number of interacting variables. This chapter presents
pavement mechanistic design procedures that are implemented in the FAA Rigid and Flexible Iterative Elastic Layer
Design (FAARFIELD) program. FAARFIELD implements both layered elastic-based and three-dimensional finite
element-based design procedures for new and overlay designs of flexible and rigid pavements, respectively.
Because of thickness variations, the evaluation of existing pavements should be performed using the same method
employed for design. Chapter 6 describes in detail procedures to use when evaluating pavements. Details on the
development of the FAA method of design are as follows:
a. Flexible Pavements. For flexible pavement design, FAARFIELD uses the maximum vertical strain at
the top of the subgrade and the maximum horizontal strain at the bottom of the asphalt surface layer as the predictors of
pavement structural life. FAARFIELD provides the required thickness for all individual layers of flexible pavement
(surface, base, and subbase) needed to support a given airplane traffic mix over a particular subgrade.
b. Rigid Pavements. For rigid pavement design, FAARFIELD uses the maximum horizontal stress at
the bottom edge of the PCC slab as the predictor of pavement structural life. The maximum horizontal stress for design
is determined using an edge loading condition. FAARFIELD provides the required thickness of the rigid pavement slab
needed to support a given airplane traffic mix over a particular subgrade/subbase.
302. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH. When designing new pavements, summarize all pavement
designs on FAA Form 5100-1, Airport Pavement Design, which is considered part of the Engineer’s Design Report.
Submit the Engineer’s Design Report for FAA review and approval along with initial plans and specifications.
303. BACKGROUND. An airfield pavement and the airplanes that operate on it represent an interactive system
that must be addressed in the pavement design process. Design considerations associated with both the airplanes and the
pavement must be recognized in order to produce a satisfactory design. Producing a pavement that will achieve the
intended design life will require careful construction control and some degree of maintenance. Pavements are designed
to provide a finite life and fatigue limits are anticipated. Poor construction and a lack of preventative maintenance will
shorten the service life of even the best-designed pavement.
a. Variables. The determination of pavement thickness requirements is a complex engineering problem.
Pavements are subject to a wide variety of loading and climatic effects. The design process involves a large number of
interacting variables, which are often difficult to quantify. Despite considerable research on this subject, it has been
impossible to arrive at a direct solution for thickness requirements. For this reason, pavement engineers must base
pavement thickness on a theoretical analysis of load distribution through pavements and soils, the analysis of
experimental pavement data, and a study of the performance of pavements under actual service conditions. The FAA
developed the FAARFIELD program using failure models based on full-scale tests conducted from the 1940s until the
present. Pavements designed and constructed in accordance with FAA standards are intended to provide a minimum
structural life of 20 years that is free of major maintenance if no major changes in forecast traffic are encountered.
Rehabilitation of surface grades and renewal of skid-resistant properties may be needed before 20 years because of
destructive climatic effects and the deteriorating effects of normal usage.
b. Structural Design. The structural design of airport pavements consists of determining both the
overall pavement thickness and the thickness of the component parts of the pavement. There are a number of factors
that influence the thickness of pavement required to provide satisfactory service. These include the magnitude and
character of the airplane loads to be supported, the volume of traffic, the concentration of traffic in certain areas, and the
strength of the subgrade soil and quality of materials that make up the pavement structure.
13
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

304. PAVEMENT DESIGN USING FAARFIELD.
a. Purpose. The design procedure presented in this chapter provides a method of design based on
layered elastic and three-dimensional finite element-based structural analysis developed to calculate design thicknesses
for airfield pavements. Layered elastic and three-dimensional finite element-based design theories were adopted to
address the impact of new complex gear and wheel arrangements. The design method is computationally intense, so the
FAA developed a computer program called FAARFIELD to help pavement engineers implement it.
b. Application. The procedures and design software identified in this chapter are intended to provide
pavement thickness design standards for all airfield pavements. To aid in the design review, the summary information
from the design software should be printed and included with the pavement design submittal. The summary
information can be printed from the FAARFIELD Notes Window by clicking the ‘Save XML’ button. FAARFIELD
then saves the information into an Extensible Markup Language (XML) format file for future import into FAA Form
5100-1.
FAARFIELD is based on the cumulative damage factor (CDF) concept, in which the contribution of each airplane in a
given traffic mix to total damage is separately analyzed. Therefore, the FAARFIELD program should not be used to
compare individual airplane pavement thickness requirements with the design methods contained in previous
versions of the AC that are based on the “design aircraft” concept. Likewise, due care should be used when using
FAARFIELD to evaluate pavement structures originally designed with the thickness design curves in previous
versions of this AC. Any comparison between FAARFIELD and the design curve methodology from previous
versions of this AC must be performed using the entire traffic mix.
c. Computer Program. The structural computations are performed by two subprograms within
FAARFIELD. These subprograms are called LEAF and NIKE3D_FAA. LEAF is a layered elastic computational
program implemented as a Microsoft Windows
TM
dynamic link library written in Visual Basic
TM
2005. NIKE3D_FAA
is a three-dimensional finite element computational program implemented as a dynamic link library written in
FORTRAN. NIKE3D_FAA is a modification of the NIKE3D program originally developed by the Lawrence Livermore
National Laboratory (LLNL) of the U.S. Department of Energy and is distributed in compiled form under a software
sharing agreement between LLNL and the FAA.
(1) Airplane Considerations. A wide variety of airplanes with pertinent pavement design
characteristics are stored in the program library. The FAARFIELD internal airplane library is divided into six airplane
groups: Generic, Airbus, Boeing, Other Commercial, General Aviation, and Military. The designer has considerable
latitude in selecting and adjusting airplane weights and frequencies.
(i) Load. The pavement design method is based on the gross weight of the airplane.
The pavement should be designed for the maximum anticipated takeoff weight of the airplane at the anticipated facility.
The design procedure assumes 95 percent of the gross weight is carried by the main landing gears and 5 percent is
carried by the nose gear. FAARFIELD provides manufacturer-recommended gross operating weights for many civil and
military airplanes. The FAA recommends using the maximum anticipated takeoff weight, which provides some degree
of conservatism in the design. This will allow for changes in operational use and forecast traffic. The conservatism is
offset somewhat by ignoring arriving traffic.
(ii) Landing Gear Type and Geometry. Gear type and configuration dictate how
airplane weight is distributed to a pavement and how the pavement will respond to airplane loadings. Table 3-1 shows
typical gear configurations and new gear designations in accordance with FAA Order 5300.7, Standard Naming
Convention for Aircraft Landing Gear Configurations (Appendix 2).
(iii) Tire Pressure. Tire pressure varies depending on gear configuration, gross weight,
and tire size. Tire pressure has significantly more influence on strains in the asphalt surface layer than at the subgrade.
Tire pressures in excess of 221 psi (1.5 MPa) may be safely exceeded if the pavement surface course and base course
meet the minimum design requirements for pavement loading along with a high stability asphalt surface.
(iv) Traffic Volume. Forecasts of annual departures by airplane type are needed for
pavement design. Information on airplane operations is available from Airport Master Plans, Terminal Area Forecasts,
the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems, Airport Activity Statistics, and FAA Air Traffic Activity Reports.
Pavement engineers should consult these publications when developing forecasts of annual departures by airplane type.
14
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


TABLE 3-1. STANDARD NAMING CONVENTION FOR COMMON AIRPLANE GEAR
CONFIGURATIONS
Gear Designation Gear Designation Airplane Example
S


Single
Sngl Whl-45
D


Dual
B737-100
2S


2 Singles in Tandem
C-130
2D


2 Duals in Tandem
B767-200
3D


3 Duals in Tandem
B777-200
2T


Two Triple Wheels in Tandem
C-17A
15
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

TABLE 3-1. STANDARD NAMING CONVENTION FOR COMMON AIRPLANE GEAR
CONFIGURATIONS (CONTINUED)
Gear Designation Gear Designation Airplane Example
2D/D1


Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Dual
Wheel Body Gear
DC10-30/40
2D/2D1

2D/2D1 Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main
Gear/Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear
A340-600 std
2D/2D2

Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Two
Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear
B747-400
2D/3D2

Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Three
Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear
A380-800
5D

Five Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear
An-124
16
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


(2) Units. The program may be operated with U.S. customary or metric dimensions.
(3) Availability. FAARFIELD can be downloaded from the Office of Airport Safety and
Standards website (http://www.faa.gov/airports/).
(4) Related Reference Material. The internal help file for FAARFIELD contains a user’s
manual, which provides detailed information on proper execution of the program. The manual also contains additional
technical references for specific details of the FAARFIELD design procedure.
(5) Airplane Traffic Mixture. FAARFIELD was developed and calibrated specifically to
produce pavement thickness designs consistent with previous methods based on a mixture of different airplanes rather
than an individual airplane. If a single airplane is used for design, a warning will appear in the Airplane Window
indicating a non-standard airplane list is used in the design. This warning is intended to alert the user that the program
was intended for use with a mixture of different airplane types. Nearly any traffic mix can be developed from the
airplanes in the program library. Solution times are a function of the number of airplanes in the mix. The FAARFIELD
design procedure deals with mixed traffic differently than did previous design methods. Determination of a design
aircraft is not required to operate FAARFIELD. Instead, the program calculates the damaging effects of each airplane in
the traffic mix. The damaging effects of all airplanes are summed in accordance with Miner’s law. When the cumulative
damage factor (CDF) sums to a value of 1.0, the design conditions have been satisfied.
d. Pavement Design Considerations. There are distinct differences between the previous FAA design
methodology and the methodology contained in FAARFIELD. These differences, along with some common design
assumptions between the two methods, are discussed below.
(1) Design Life. The FAA design standard for pavements is based on a 20-year design life. The
computer program is capable of considering other design life time frames, but the use of a design life other than 20
years constitutes a deviation from FAA standards.
(2) Traffic Mix. The design procedures in previous versions of this AC required the traffic
mixture to be converted into a single design aircraft and all annual departures converted to equivalent annual departures
of the design aircraft. The design aircraft was determined by selecting the most damaging airplane based on the
anticipated gross weight and the number of departures for each airplane. As noted in 303c(5), the FAARFIELD design
program does not convert the traffic mixture to equivalent departures of a design aircraft. Instead, it analyzes the
damage to the pavement for each airplane and determines a final thickness for the total cumulative damage.
FAARFIELD considers the placement of each airplane’s main gear in relationship to the pavement centerline. It also
allows the pavement damage associated with a particular airplane to be completely isolated from one or more of the
other airplanes in the traffic mixture.
(3) Pass-to-Coverage Ratio. As an airplane moves along a pavement section it seldom travels in
a perfectly straight path or along the exact same path as before. This lateral movement is known as airplane wander and
is modeled by a statistically normal distribution. As an airplane moves along a taxiway or runway, it may take several
trips or passes along the pavement for a specific point on the pavement to receive a full-load application. The ratio of
the number of passes required to apply one full load application to a unit area of the pavement is expressed by the pass-
to-coverage (P/C) ratio. It is easy to observe the number of passes an airplane may make on a given pavement, but the
number of coverages must be mathematically derived based upon the established P/C ratio for each airplane. By
definition, one coverage occurs when a unit area of the pavement experiences the maximum response (stress for rigid
pavement, strain for flexible pavement) induced by a given airplane. For flexible pavements, coverages are a measure of
the number of repetitions of the maximum strain occurring at the top of subgrade. For rigid pavements, coverages are a
measure of repetitions of the maximum stress occurring at the bottom of the PCC layer (see Report No. FAA-RD-77-81,
Development of a Structural Design Procedure for Rigid Airport Pavements). Coverages resulting from operations of a
particular airplane type are a function of the number of airplane passes, the number and spacing of wheels on the
airplane main landing gear, the width of the tire-contact area, and the lateral distribution of the wheel-paths relative to
the pavement centerline or guideline markings (see Report No. FAA-RD-74-036, Field Survey and Analysis of Aircraft
Distribution on Airport Pavements). In calculating the P/C ratio, FAARFIELD uses the concept of effective tire width.
For rigid pavements, the effective tire width is defined at the surface of the pavement and is equal to a nominal tire
contact patch width. For flexible pavements, for the failure mode of shear in the subgrade layer, the effective tire width
is defined at the top of the subgrade. “Response lines” are drawn at a 1:2 slope from the edges of the contact patches to
the top of the subgrade, as illustrated in figures 3-1 and 3-2. Tires are considered to be either separate or combined,
17
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

depending on whether the response lines overlap. Figures 3-1 and 3-2 are shown for information only. All effective tire
width and P/C ratio calculations are performed internally within the FAARFIELD program.
(4) Annual Departures and Traffic Cycles. Airport pavement design using FAARFIELD
considers only departures and ignores the arrival traffic when determining the number of airplane passes. This is
because in most cases airplanes arrive at an airport at a significantly lower weight than at takeoff due to fuel
consumption. During touchdown impact, remaining lift on the wings further alleviates the dynamic vertical force that is
actually transmitted to the pavement through the landing gears. The FAA has defined a standard traffic cycle (TC) as
one takeoff and one landing of the same airplane. In the situation described above, one traffic cycle produces one pass
of the airplane which results in a pass-to-traffic cycle ratio (P/TC ) of 1. To determine annual departures for pavement
design purposes multiply the number of departing airplanes by the P/TC. For most airport pavement design purposes, a
P/TC of 1 may be used.
In cases where the landing weight is not significantly less than the take off weight or in a case where the airplane must
travel along the pavement more than once, it may be appropriate to adjust the number of annual departures used for
thickness design to reflect a different pass-to-traffic cycle (P/TC) ratio. For example, in the case of a runway with a
central taxiway configuration the airplane is required to traffic a large part of the runway during the taxi movement. In
this case the airplane must travel along the same portion of the runway pavement two times during the take off
operation. For this scenario a P/TC ratio of 2 would be used (assuming that the airplane obtains fuel at the airport), and
the number of annual departures used for design should accordingly be increased by a factor of 2. Additional definitions
and guidance on determining the P/TC ratio may be found in AC 150/5335-5, “Standardized Method of Reporting
Airport Pavement Strength – PCN,” Appendix 1.
(5) Cumulative Damage Factor. In FAARFIELD, the “design aircraft” concept has been
replaced by design for fatigue failure expressed in terms of a cumulative damage factor (CDF) using Miner’s rule, CDF
is the amount of the structural fatigue life of a pavement that has been used up. It is expressed as the ratio of applied
load repetitions to allowable load repetitions to failure. For a single airplane and constant annual departures, CDF is
expressed as—

failure to s repetition allowable of number
s repetition load applied of number
CDF =


or

( ) ( )
( ) failure to coverages
ratio coverage
pass
years in life departures annual
CDF
× |
.
|

\
|
×
=


or


failure to coverages
coverages applied
CDF =

Table 3-2 describes pavement condition for different values of CDF.

TABLE 3-2. PAVEMENT REMAINING LIFE BASED ON CDF VALUE
CDF value Pavement Remaining Life
1 The pavement has used up all of its fatigue life.
< 1 The pavement has some life remaining, and the value of CDF gives the fraction of the
life used.
> 1 The pavement has exceeded its fatigue life.

In the program implementation, CDF is calculated for each 10-inch (254 mm) wide strip along the pavement over a total
width of 820 inches (20 828 mm). Pass-to-coverage ratio is computed for each strip based on a normally distributed
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


airplane wander pattern with standard deviation of 30.435 inches (773 mm) (equivalent to airplane operation on a
taxiway) and used in the above equation for Miner’s rule. The CDF for design is taken to be the maximum over all 82
strips. Even with the same gear geometry, therefore, airplanes with different main gear track widths will have different
pass-to-coverage ratios in each of the 10-inch (254 mm) strips and may show little cumulative effect on the maximum
CDF. Removing the airplanes with the lowest stress or strain may then have little effect on the design thickness,
depending on how close the gear tracks are to each other and the number of departures.

FIGURE 3-1. TWO EFFECTIVE TIRE WIDTHS - NO OVERLAP

FIGURE 3-2. ONE EFFECTIVE TIRE WIDTH – OVERLAP

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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

Example: To illustrate the results of CDF calculations, an existing taxiway pavement composed of the following
section was assumed: the subgrade k-value is 141 pci (38.4 MN/m
3
), equivalent to an E modulus of 15,000 psi (103.42
MPa), the PCC surface course is 15.2 inches (386 mm) thick, the P-306 econocrete base course is 6 inches (152 mm)
thick, and the P-209 crushed aggregate subbase course is 6 inches (152 mm). The pavement is designed for the
following airplane mix: B747-200B Combi Mixed weighing 836,000 pounds (379 203 kg) at an annual departure level
of 1,200, B777-200 ER weighing 657,000 pounds (298 010 kg) at an annual departure level of 1,200, and DC8-63/73
weighing 358,000 pounds (162 386 kg) at an annual departure level of 1,200. The CDF contributions for each individual
airplane and the cumulative CDF across the pavement section are shown on figure 3-3. Values of individual airplane
contributions depend on several factors of which the most important are annual departure level and airplane gross
weight.

FIGURE 3-3. EXAMPLE OF CDF CONTRIBUTION FOR AIRPLANE MIX

(6) Materials. In the FAARFIELD design procedure, pavement layers are assigned a thickness,
elastic modulus, and Poisson’s ratio. The same layer properties are used in layered elastic and finite element analysis
mode. Layer thicknesses can be varied, subject to minimum thickness requirements. Elastic moduli are either fixed or
variable, depending on the material. The permissible range of variability for elastic moduli is fixed to ensure reasonable
values. Poisson’s ratio for all materials is fixed. Materials are identified by their corresponding FAA specification
designations; for example, crushed stone base course is identified as Item P-209. The list of materials contains an
undefined layer with variable properties. If an undefined layer is used, a warning will appear in the Structure Window
stating that a non-standard material has been selected and its use in the structure will require FAA approval.
(7) Minimum Layer Thickness. When used in accordance with the user’s manual,
FAARFIELD will automatically establish the minimum layer thickness for each layer, as required. However, it is
recommended that the user consult the applicable paragraphs of this AC for design of new flexible, new rigid, and
overlaid pavements to assure that the minimum thickness requirements are obtained.
305. TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION. Research studies have shown that airplane traffic is distributed laterally on
runways and taxiways according to statistically normal (bell-shaped) distribution. FAA Report No. FAA-RD-74-036
contains research information on traffic distribution. The design procedures presented in this AC incorporate the
statistically normal distribution in the departure levels. In addition to the lateral distribution of traffic across pavements,
it also considers traffic distribution and the nature of loadings for aprons and high-speed turnoffs.
306. TYPICAL SECTIONS. Airport pavements are generally constructed in uniform, full-width sections.
Runways may be constructed with a transversely variable section, if practical or economically feasible. A variable
section permits a reduction in the quantity of materials required for the upper paving layers of the runway. However,
more complex construction operations are associated with variable sections and are usually more costly. The additional
construction costs may negate any savings realized from reduced material quantities. Typical plan and section drawings
for transversely variable section runway pavements are shown in figure 3-4. Deviations from these typical sections will
be common due to the change inherent in staged construction projects where runways are extended and the location of
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


taxiways is uncertain. As a general rule-of-thumb the designer should specify full pavement thickness where departing
traffic will be using the pavement; pavement thickness designed using arrivals weight and estimated frequency where
traffic will be arrivals such as high speed turnoffs; and pavement thickness designed using departure weight and 1
percent of estimated frequency where pavement is required but traffic is unlikely such as along the extreme outer edges
of the runway. Note that the full-strength keel section is 50 feet (15 m) on the basis of the research study discussed in
paragraph 305.
307. FROST AND PERMAFROST DESIGN. The design of an airport pavement must consider the climatic
conditions that will act on the pavement during its construction and service life. The protection of pavements from the
adverse effects of seasonal frost and permafrost effects are considered in the design of airport pavements as discussed
below.
a. Seasonal Frost. The adverse effects of seasonal frost are discussed in Chapter 2. The design of
pavements in seasonal frost areas may be based on either of two approaches. The first approach is based on the control
of pavement deformations resulting from frost action. Under this approach, sufficient combined thickness of pavement
and non-frost-susceptible material must be provided to eliminate, or limit to an acceptable amount, frost penetration into
the subgrade and its adverse effects. The second approach is based on providing adequate pavement load carrying
capacity during the critical frost melting period. The second approach provides for the loss of load carrying capacity due
to frost melting but ignores the effects of frost heave. Three design procedures that encompass the above approaches
have been developed and are discussed below.
(1) Complete Frost Protection. Complete frost protection is accomplished by providing a
sufficient thickness of pavement and non-frost-susceptible material to totally contain frost penetration. This method is
intended to prevent underlying frost susceptible materials from freezing. To use the complete protection method, the
depth of frost penetration is determined by local experience or engineering analysis following the procedure given in
Chapter 2. The thickness of pavement required for structural support is compared with the depth of frost penetration
computed. The difference between the pavement thickness required for structural support and the computed depth of
frost penetration is made up with non-frost susceptible material. Depending on grades and other considerations,
provision for complete protection may involve removal and replacement of a considerable amount of subgrade material.
Complete frost protection is the most positive, and is usually the most costly, method of providing frost protection.
(2) Limited Subgrade Frost Penetration. The limited subgrade frost penetration method is
based on holding frost heave to a tolerable level. Frost is allowed to penetrate a limited amount into the underlying frost
susceptible subgrade. Sixty-five percent of the depth of frost penetration is made up with non-frost-susceptible material.
Use of the method is similar to the complete protection method. Additional frost protection is required if the thickness
of the structural section is less than 65 percent of the frost penetration. The limited subgrade frost penetration method
allows a tolerable (based on experience) amount of frost heave.
(3) Reduced Subgrade Strength. The reduced subgrade strength method is based on the
concept of providing a pavement with adequate load carrying capacity during the frost melting period. This method
does not consider the effects of frost heave. Use of the reduced subgrade strength method involves assigning a subgrade
strength rating to the pavement for the frost melting period. The various soil frost groups, as defined in Chapter 2,
should be assigned strength ratings as shown below:
TABLE 3-3. REDUCED SUBGRADE STRENGTH RATINGS
Frost Group Flexible Pavement CBR Value Rigid Pavement k-value
FG-1 9 50
FG-2 7 40
FG-3 4 25
FG-4 Reduced Subgrade Strength Method Does Not Apply
The required pavement thicknesses are determined using FAARFIELD, using the reduced subgrade strength value from
table 3-3 in lieu of the nominal subgrade CBR or k-value determined by testing. Pavement thicknesses thus established
reflect the requirements for the subgrade in its weakened condition due to frost melting.
b. Applications. Due to economic considerations, the maximum practical depth of frost protection that
should be provided is normally 72 inches (1 829 mm). The recommended applications of the three methods of frost
protection discussed above are as follows. In addition to these recommended applications, local experience should be
given strong consideration when designing for frost conditions.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

(1) Complete Frost Protection. The complete frost protection method applies only to FG-3 and
FG-4 soils, which are extremely variable in horizontal extent. These soil deposits are characterized by very large,
frequent, and abrupt changes in frost heave potential. The variability is such that the use of transition sections is not
practical.
(2) Limited Subgrade Frost Penetration. This design method should be used for FG-4, soils
except where the conditions require complete protection, see (1) above. The method also applies to soils in frost groups
FG-1, FG-2, and FG-3 when the functional requirements of the pavement permit a minor amount of frost heave.
Consideration should be given to using transition sections where horizontal variability of frost heave potential permits.
(3) Reduced Subgrade Strength. The reduced subgrade strength method is recommended for
FG-1, FG-2, and FG-3 subgrades, which are uniform in horizontal extent or where the functional requirements of the
pavement will permit some degree of frost heave. The method may also be used for variable FG-1 through FG-3
subgrades for less sensitive pavements, which are subject to slow speed traffic and heave can be tolerated.
c. Permafrost. The design of pavements in permafrost regions must consider not only the effects of
seasonal thawing and refreezing, but also the effects of construction on the existing thermal equilibrium. Changes in the
subsurface thermal regime may cause degradation of the permafrost table, resulting in severe differential settlements
and drastic reduction of pavement load carrying capacity. Gravel surfaced pavements are rather common in permafrost
areas and generally will provide satisfactory service. These pavements often exhibit considerable distortion but are
rather easily regraded. The absence of a waterproof surface is not a great problem because these areas usually have low
precipitation. Three design methods for asphaltic or concrete surfaced pavements are discussed below.
(1) Complete Protection Method. The objective of the complete protection method is to ensure
that the underlying permafrost remains frozen year-round. Seasonal thawing is restricted to non-frost-susceptible
materials. This method is analogous to the complete frost protection method of design for seasonal frost. The thickness
of pavement required for structural support is first determined. The depth of seasonal thaw is then computed as
described in Chapter 2 or using information based on local experience. The difference between the depth of seasonal
thaw and the thickness needed for structural support is the amount of non-frost-susceptible material that must be
provided to fully contain the depth of seasonal thaw. The use of relatively high moisture retaining soils, such as
uniformly graded sands, should be considered. If some heaving can be tolerated, the use of frost-susceptible soils in the
FG-1 or FG-2 groups may also be considered. If FG-1 or FG-2 soils are used, they must be placed so as to be as uniform
as possible. Normally, economic considerations will limit the depth of treatment to a maximum of 6 feet (1.8 m).
(2) Reduced Subgrade Strength Method. If conditions are such that the complete protection
method of design is not practical, the design may be based on the reduced subgrade strength method. The use of this
method for permafrost design is identical to that presented in paragraph 307b(3) above. This method should provide a
pavement with sufficient structural support during the seasonal permafrost thaw period but will likely result in
differential heaving. If practical, it may be advisable to delay paving for 2 or 3 years to allow the embankment to reach
equilibrium.
(3) Insulating Panels. A third approach, which is not as common, is the use of insulating panels
beneath the pavement structure to protect against degradation of the permafrost. This method can lead to problems if the
insulating panels are crushed by the weight of the overburden or by the live loads. Crushing of the cell structure of the
insulation results in loss of insulating properties and failure to serve its intended purpose. Pavements using this
technique must be very carefully constructed and may be subject to load limitations because of the need to guard against
crushing the insulating panels. A significant change in the weight of using airplanes may fail the insulating panels.
Since the FAA has no standards or design criteria for the use of insulating panels, the FAA must approve their use on
federally funded construction on a case-by-case basis.
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E



FIGURE 3-4. TYPICAL PLAN AND CROSS SECTION FOR RUNWAY PAVEMENT

23
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

SECTION 2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN
308. GENERAL. Flexible pavements consist of a hot mix asphalt wearing surface placed on a base course and,
when required by subgrade conditions, a subbase. The entire flexible pavement structure is ultimately supported by the
subgrade. Definitions of the function of the various components are given in the following paragraphs.
309. HOT MIX ASPHALT SURFACING. The hot mix asphalt surface or wearing course must prevent the
penetration of surface water to the base course; provide a smooth, well-bonded surface free from loose particles which
might endanger airplanes or persons; resist the shearing stresses induced by airplane wheel loads; and furnish a texture
of nonskid qualities, yet not cause undue wear on tires. To successfully fulfill these requirements, the surface must be
composed of mixtures of aggregates and bituminous binders which will produce a uniform surface of suitable texture
possessing maximum stability and durability. Since control of the mixture is of paramount importance, these
requirements can best be achieved by use of a central mixing plant where proper control can be most readily obtained. A
dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete such as Item P-401 produced in a central mixing plant will most satisfactorily
meet all the above requirements. Whenever a hot mix asphalt surface is subject to spillage of fuel, hydraulic fluid, or
other solvents, such as at airplane fueling positions and maintenance areas, protection should be provided by a solvent
resistant surface.
310. BASE COURSE. The base course is the principal structural component of the flexible pavement. It has the
major function of distributing the imposed wheel loadings to the pavement foundation, the subbase and/or subgrade.
The base course must be of such quality and thickness to prevent failure in the subgrade, withstand the stresses
produced in the base itself, resist vertical pressures tending to produce consolidation and resulting in distortion of the
surface course, and resist volume changes caused by fluctuations in its moisture content. The quality of the base course
depends upon composition, physical properties and compaction. Many materials and combinations thereof have proved
satisfactory as base courses. They are composed of select, hard, and durable aggregates. Specifications covering the
quality of components, gradation, manipulation control, and preparation of various base materials for use on airports for
airplane design loads of 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg) or more are as follows:
(1) Item P-208 – Aggregate Base Course¹
(2) Item P-209 – Crushed Aggregate Base Course
2

(3) Item P-211 – Lime Rock Base Course
(4) Item P-219 – Recycled Concrete Aggregate Base Course
(5) Item P-304 – Cement Treated Base Course
(6) Item P-306 – Econocrete Subbase Course
(7) Item P-401 – Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements
(8) Item P-403 – HMA Base Course
¹The use of Item P-208, Aggregate Base Course, as base course is limited to pavements designed for
gross loads of 60,000 lb (27 216 kg) or less. When Item P-208 is used as base course the minimum
thickness of the hot mix asphalt surfacing should be 5 inches (127 mm).
2
The use of item P-209, Crushed Aggregate Base Course, as a base course is limited to pavements
serving airplanes having gross loads of 100,000 lbs (45 359 kg) or less except as noted in paragraph
317.
Rubblized Portland cement concrete can also be used as a base course for flexible pavement.
Depending on their composition, these materials have been divided into two major types: stabilized (P-211, P-304, P-
306, P-401, and P-403) and unstabilized (P-208, P-209, P-219, and rubblized Portland cement concrete) base courses.
Details on these materials are described in paragraph 315d.
311. SUBBASE. A subbase is included as an integral part of the flexible pavement structure in all pavements except
those on subgrades with a CBR value of 20 or greater (usually GW or GP type soils). The function of the subbase is
similar to that of the base course. However, since it is further removed from the surface and is subjected to lower
loading intensities, the material requirements are not as strict as for the base course. In the development of pavement
thickness requirements the CBR value of the subbase course is a variable.
24
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


a. Quality. Specifications covering the quality of components, gradations, manipulation control, and
preparation of various types of subbase courses for use on airports for airplane design loads of 30,000 pounds (13 608
kg) or more are as follows:
(1) Item P-154 – Subbase Course
(2) Item P-210 – Caliche Base Course
(3) Item P-212 – Shell Base Course
(4) Item P-213 – Sand Clay Base Course¹
(5) Item P-301 – Soil Cement Base Course¹
¹ Use of Items P-213 and P-301 as subbase course is not recommended where frost penetration into
the subbase is anticipated.
Any material suitable for use as base course can also be used on subbase if economy and practicality dictate.
b. Sandwich Construction. Pavements should not be configured such that a pervious granular layer is
located between two impervious layers. This type of section is often called sandwich construction. Problems are often
encountered in sandwich construction when water becomes trapped in the granular layer causing a dramatic loss of
strength and results in poor performance. A rubblized concrete layer over a stabilized base layer is not considered as
sandwich construction.
312. SUBGRADE. The subgrade soils are subjected to lower stresses than the surface, base, and subbase courses.
Subgrade stresses attenuate with depth, and the controlling subgrade stress is usually at the top of the subgrade, unless
unusual conditions exist. Unusual conditions such as a layered subgrade or sharply varying water contents or densities
can change the location of the controlling stress. The ability of a particular soil to resist shear and deformation vary with
its density and moisture content. Such unusual conditions should be revealed during the soils investigation.
Specification Item P-152, Excavation and Embankment, covers the construction and density control of subgrade soils.
Table 3-4 shows depths below the subgrade surface to which compaction controls apply. To use table 3-4, consider the
mix of the airplanes that will be using the pavement feature under consideration. The airplane in the mix that should be
used to determine compaction requirements is the airplane requiring the maximum compaction depth from table 3-4,
regardless of the anticipated number of operations.
a. Contamination. A loss of structural capacity can result from contamination of base or subbase
elements with fines from underlying subgrade soils. This contamination occurs during pavement construction and
during pavement loading. Aggregate contamination results in a reduced ability of the aggregate to distribute and reduce
stresses applied to the subgrade. Fine grained soils are most likely to contaminate pavement aggregate. This process is
not limited to soft subgrade conditions. Problematic soils may be cohesive or noncohesive and usually exhibit poor
drainage properties. Chemical and mechanical stabilization of the subbase or subgrade can be effectively used to reduce
aggregate contamination (refer to paragraph 206). Geosynthetics are effective at providing separation between fine-
grained soils and overlying pavement aggregates (FHWA-HI-95-038) (see Appendix 4). In this application, the
geosynthetic is not considered to act as a structural element within the pavement. For separation applications the
geosynthetic is designed based on survivability properties. Refer to FHWA-HI-95-038 (see Appendix 4) for additional
information about design and construction using separation geosynthetics.
b. Example. An apron extension is to be built to accommodate the following airplane mix: B767-200
(340,000 lbs./154 221 kg), B757-200 (256,000 lbs./116 1200 kg), and A310-200 (315,041 lbs./142 900 kg). A soils
investigation has shown the subgrade will be noncohesive. In-place densities of the soils have been determined at even
foot increments below the ground surface. Design calculations indicate that the top of subgrade in this area will be
approximately 10 inches (254 mm) below the existing grade. Depths and densities may be tabulated as follows in table
3-5.
25
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

TABLE 3-4. SUBGRADE COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
NON-COHESIVE SOILS
Depth of Compaction, inch
COHESIVE SOILS
Depth of Compaction, inch
GEAR TYPE GROSS
WEIGHT
Lb. 100% 95% 90% 85% 95% 90% 85% 80%
30,000 8 8-18 18-32 32-44 6 6-9 9-12 12-17
50,000 10 10-24 24-36 36-48 6 6-9 9-16 16-20
S
75,000 12 12-30 30-40 40-52 6 6-12 12-19 19-25
50,000 12 12-28 28-38 38-50 6 6-10 10-17 17-22
100,000 17 17-30 30-42 42-55 6 6-12 12-19 19-25
150,000 19 19-32 32-46 46-60 7 7-14 14-21 21-28
D (incls. 2S)
200,000 21 21-37 37-53 53-69 9 9-16 16-24 24-32
100,000 14 14-26 26-38 38-49 5 6-10 10-17 17-22
200,000 17 17-30 30-43 43-56 5 6-12 12-18 18-26
300,000 20 20-34 34-48 48-63 7 7-14 14-22 22-29
2D (incls. B757,
B767, A-300, DC-
10-10, L1011)
400,000 –
600,000
23 23-41 41-59 59-76 9 9-18 18-27 27-36
2D/D1, 2D/2D1
(incls. MD11, A340,
DC10-30/40)
500,000 –
800,000
23 23-41 41-59 59-76 9 9-18 18-27 27-36
800,000 23 23-41 41-59 59-76 9 9-18 18-27 27-36 2D/2D2 (incls. B747
series) 975,000 24 24-44 44-62 62-78 10 10-20 20-28 28-37
550,000 20 20-36 36-52 52-67 6 6-14 14-21 21-29
650,000 22 22-39 39-56 56-70 7 7-16 16-22 22-30
3D (incls. B777
series)
750,000 24 24-42 42-57 57-71 8 8-17 17-23 23-30
1,250,000 24 24-42 42-61 61-78 9 9-18 18-27 27-36 2D/3D2 (incls. A380
series) 1,350,000 25 25-44 44-64 64-81 10 10-20 20-29 29-38
Notes:
1. Noncohesive soils, for the purpose of determining compaction control, are those with a plasticity index of
less than 3.
2. Tabulated values denote depths below the finished subgrade above which densities should equal or exceed
the indicated percentage of the maximum dry density as specified in Item P-152.
3. The subgrade in cut areas should have natural densities shown or should (a) be compacted from the surface
to achieve the required densities, (b) be removed and replaced at the densities shown, or (c) when economics
and grades permit, be covered with sufficient select or subbase material so that the uncompacted subgrade is
at a depth where the in-place densities are satisfactory.
4. For intermediate airplane weights, use linear interpolation.
5. For swelling soils, refer to paragraph 313.
6. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound. = 0.454 kg
TABLE 3-5. DENSITIES FOR SUBGRADE IN EXAMPLE
Depth Below
Existing Grade
Depth Below
Finished Grade
In-Place
Density
1′ (0.3 m) 2″ (50 mm) 70%
2′ (0.6 m) 14″ (0.36 m) 84%
3′ (0.9 m) 26″ (0.66 m) 86%
4′ (1.2 m) 38″ (0.97 m) 90%
5′ (1.5 m) 50″ (1.27 m) 93%
For this example, the B767-200 gives the maximum required compaction values from table 3-4. Using table 3-4 for
non-cohesive soils and applying linear interpolation, obtain the following compaction requirements as shown in table 3-
6.
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


TABLE 3-6. COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXAMPLE
100% 95% 90% 85%
0-21 21-37 37-52 52-68
Comparison of the tabulations show that for this example in-place density is satisfactory at a depth of 38 inches (0.97
m), being 90 percent within the required 90 percent zone. It will be necessary to compact an additional 1 inch (0.03 m)
at 95 percent. Therefore, compact the top 21 inches (0.53 m) of subgrade at 100 percent density and the 21 to 38 inches
at 95 percent density.
313. SWELLING SOILS. Swelling soils are clayey soils that exhibit significant volume changes brought on by
moisture variations. The potential for volumetric change of a soil due to moisture variation is a function of the type of
soil and the likelihood of moisture fluctuation. Airport pavements constructed on these soils are subject to differential
movements causing surface roughness and cracking. The design of pavements in areas of swelling soils should
incorporate methods that prevent or reduce the effects of soil volume changes.
a. Soil Type. Only clayey soils containing a significant amount of particular clay minerals are prone to
swelling. The clay minerals that cause swelling, in descending order of swelling activity, are: smectite, illite, and
kaolinite. These soils usually have liquid limits above 40 and plasticity indexes above 25.
b. Identification. Soils that exhibit a swell of greater than 3 percent when tested for the CBR (California
Bearing Ratio), ASTM D 1883, require treatment. Experience with soils in certain locales is often used to determine
when treatment is required.
c. Treatment. Treatment of swelling soils consists of removal and replacement, stabilization, modified
compaction efforts and careful control of compaction moisture. Provisions for adequate drainage are of paramount
importance when dealing with swelling soils. Recommended treatments for swelling soils are shown in table 3-7. Local
experience and judgment should be applied in dealing with swelling soils to achieve the best results. Care should be
taken to minimize water flow along the contact plane between the stabilized / nonstabilized material.
TABLE 3-7. RECOMMENDED TREATMENT OF SWELLING SOILS
Swell Potential
(Based on
Experience)
Percent Swell
Measured
(ASTM D 1883)
Potential for
Moisture
Fluctuation
1

Treatment
Low Compact soil on wet side of optimum (+2% to +3%) to
not greater than 90% of appropriate maximum density
2
.
Low 3-5
High Stabilize soil to a depth of at least 6 in. (150 mm)
Low Stabilize soil to a depth of at least 12 in. (300 mm) Medium 6-10
High Stabilize soil to a depth of at least 12 in. (300 mm)
Low Stabilize soil to a depth of at least 12 in. (300 mm) High Over 10
High For uniform soils, i.e., redeposited clays, stabilize soil
to a depth of at least 36 in. (900 mm) or raise grade to
bury swelling soil at least 36 in. (900 mm) below
pavement section or remove and replace with
nonswelling soil.
For variable soil deposits depth of treatment should be
increased to 60 in. (1 500 mm).
Notes:
1
Potential for moisture fluctuation is a judgmental determination and should consider proximity of water table,
likelihood of variations in water table, as well as other sources of moisture, and thickness of the swelling soil layer.
2
When control of swelling is attempted by compacting on the wet side of optimum and reduced density, the design
subgrade strength should be based on the higher moisture content and reduced density.
d. Additional Information. Additional information on identifying and handling swelling soils is
presented in FAA Reports No. FAA-RD-76-066, Design and Construction of Airport Pavements on Expansive Soils,
and DOT/FAA/PM-85115, Validation of Procedures for Pavement Design on Expansive Soils.
314. SELECTION OF DESIGN CBR VALUE. Subgrade soils are usually rather variable and the selection of a
design CBR value requires some judgment. The design CBR value should be equal to or less than 85 percent of all the
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

subgrade CBR values. This corresponds to a design value of one standard deviation below the mean. In some cases
subgrade soils that are significantly different in strength occur in different layers. In these instances several designs
should be examined to determine the most economical pavement section. It may be more economical to remove and
replace a weak layer than to design for it. On the other hand, circumstances may be such that designing for the weakest
layer is more economical. Local conditions will dictate which approach should be used.
315. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN. The design process for flexible pavement considers two modes of
failure for flexible pavement: vertical strain in the subgrade and horizontal strain in the asphalt layer. Limiting vertical
strain in the subgrade is intended to preclude failure by subgrade rutting. Limiting horizontal strain at the bottom of the
asphalt surfacing layer guards against pavement failure initiated by cracking of the asphalt surface layer. By default,
FAARFIELD computes only the vertical subgrade strain for flexible pavement thickness design. However, the user has
the option of enabling the asphalt strain computation by deselecting the “No AC CDF” checkbox in the FAARFIELD
options screen. In most cases the thickness design is governed by the subgrade strain criterion. The user has the option
of performing the asphalt strain check for the final design, and it is good engineering practice to do so.
a. Design Life. The FAA design standards for airport pavements use the 20 year structural design life
criteria as a policy. FAARFIELD is capable of considering design life timeframes other than the 20 year life criteria, but
they are considered a deviation from FAA standards.
b. Traffic Mix. Input the complete air traffic mix into FAARFIELD. See paragraph 304c(5).
c. Hot Mix Asphalt Surfacing. Hot mix asphalt surfacing should meet the requirements of FAA Item
P-401. A minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) of hot mix surfacing is required. A fixed modulus value for hot mix
surfacing is set in the program at 200,000 psi (1 380 MPa). This modulus value was conservatively chosen and
corresponds to a pavement temperature of approximately 90 ºF (32ºC).
Two types of asphalt surface layers are available in FAARFIELD: asphalt surface and asphalt overlay. Both have the
same properties, with modulus fixed at 200,000 psi (1 380 MPa) and Poisson’s ratio fixed at 0.35. The asphalt overlay
type can be placed over asphalt surface or PCC surface types. The asphalt surface type can only be placed on the top of
a structure, or under an asphalt overlay.
d. Base Course. Two types of base courses are defined: stabilized and unstabilized (aggregate). A
stabilized base course may be required as described in paragraph 317.
(1) Stabilized Base Course. FAARFIELD includes two types of stabilized layers, classified as
stabilized (flexible) and stabilized (rigid). Variable modulus types are provided as well as fixed modulus types
corresponding to standard material items. The two stabilized flexible base options are designated P-401/P-403 and
Variable. The word flexible is used to indicate that these bases have a higher Poisson’s ratio (0.35), act as flexible layers
as opposed to rigid layers, and are not likely to crack. The standard FAA bituminous base is P-401/P-403, which has a
fixed modulus of 400,000 psi (2 760 MPa). The variable stabilized flexible base can be used to characterize a stabilized
base, which does not conform to the properties of P-401/P-403. It has a variable modulus ranging from 150,000 to
400,000 psi (1 035 to 2 760 MPa). Stabilized (rigid) bases, P-304, and P-306 may also be used as base courses in
flexible pavements. Item P-301, Soil Cement Base, is not acceptable for use as a stabilized base course for flexible
pavements. The properties of the various stabilized base layer types used in FAARFIELD are summarized in table 3-8.
TABLE 3-8. LAYER TYPES IN FAARFIELD
Base Layer Modulus, psi (MPa) Poisson’s Ratio
Stabilized (flexible)
Variable Minimum
Variable Maximum
P-401/403 Asphalt

150,000 (1 035)
400,000 (2 760)
400,000 (2 760)
0.35
Stabilized (rigid)
Variable Minimum
Variable Maximum
P-304 Cement Treated Base
P-306 Econocrete Subbase

250,000 (1 720)
700,000 (4 830)
500,000 (3 450)
700,000 (4 830)
0.20
The above minimum and maximum modulus values were determined on the basis of producing thickness designs
comparable with the CBR design procedures. Therefore, typical laboratory test data for stabilized materials should not
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be used in preparing input data for FAARFIELD designs. If it is necessary to establish a modulus for a variable base
layer the following guidance should be used:
For flexible pavement design, the minimum modulus value of 150,000 psi (1 034 MPa) corresponds to a base course
equivalency factor of 1.2 and the maximum value of 400,000 psi (2 758 MPa) corresponds to a base course equivalency
factor of 1.6 previously used in CBR method. The equivalency factor represents the ratio of the thickness of a standard
aggregate base layer (Item P-208) to a base layer of higher quality in the CBR method. The choice of base course
modulus value can have a significant effect on total thickness of a flexible pavement.
When a variable modulus layer is first created, the modulus is automatically set to the minimum value.
(2) Unstabilized (Aggregate) Base Course. The standard aggregate base course for flexible
pavement design is Item P-209, Crushed Aggregate Base Course. In FAARFIELD, P-209 Crushed Aggregate
corresponds to the standard material. Item P-208, Uncrushed Aggregate, is not suitable as a base course material. Item
P-208, when used as a base course is subject to the restrictions in paragraph 310. The modulus of aggregate layers is
computed automatically and cannot be changed manually.
To compute the modulus of non-stablized layers, the “Modulus” procedure developed by the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers Waterways Experiment Station is followed with sublayering performed automatically (maximum sublayer
thicknesses are 8 inches (203 mm) for uncrushed aggregate and 10 inches (254 mm) for crushed aggregate). The
modulus values of the sublayers decrease with increasing depth of a sublayer within the aggregate layer and are also
dependent on the modulus of the layer below the aggregate layer.
Aggregate layers can be placed anywhere in the pavement structure except at the surface or subgrade. The following
additional restrictions also apply:
- Only one crushed layer and one uncrushed layer may be present in a structure. This is
for compatibility with the “Modulus” procedure. (Sublayering by the “Modulus” procedure accounts for thick layers,
and multiple layers of a single aggregate type are not necessary.) The maximum number of aggregate layers that may be
present in a structure is therefore two, one of each type.
- If crushed and uncrushed layers are adjacent, the crushed layer must be above the
uncrushed layer (to be compatible with the “Modulus” procedure).
The modulus value displayed in the structure table for an aggregate layer is the average value of the sublayer modulus
values. The only exception is for newly created layers, in which case the modulus values of 75,000 psi (517 MPa) and
40,000 psi (276 MPa) are displayed for crushed and uncrushed respectively. These default modulus values are never
used in calculations.
(3) Minimum Base Course Thickness. FAARFIELD, by default, computes the structural
thickness required for the base course. Since it is assumed that the subbase layer provides the equivalent bearing
capacity of a CBR 20 subgrade, the structural base course thickness is computed as the thickness required to protect a
subgrade of CBR 20.
When an aggregate base course is used, the automatic base thickness design procedure in FAARFIELD consists of two
steps:
Step 1 Compute the aggregate base thickness structurally required to protect an assumed CBR 20 subgrade.
Step 2 Compare the base thickness computed in step 1 against the minimum base thickness requirements in table 3-9.
Select the thicker of the two values as the design base course thickness.
For traffic mixtures with airplanes exceeding 100,000 pounds (45 400 kg), a stabilized base course is required as
described in paragraph 317. The minimum stabilized base thickness is 5 inches (127 mm). When a stabilized base is
used, an additional step is added to the automated base thickness design procedure. After the thickness of the aggregate
base structurally required to protect a CBR 20 subgrade is computed (step 1 above), the required thickness of the
stabilized base is obtained by dividing by 1.6. The required stabilized base thickness thus obtained is compared with the
5 inch (127 mm) minimum requirement, and the larger of the two values is selected as the design stabilized base course
thickness.
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TABLE 3-9. MINIMUM AGGREGATE BASE COURSE THICKNESS
Design Load Range
Minimum Base Course
(P-209) Thickness Gear Type
lbs (kg) in. (mm)
30,000 - 50,000 (13 600 – 22 700) 4 (100) S
50,000 - 75,000 (22 700 – 34 000) 6 (150)
50,000 - 100,000 (22 700 – 45 400) 6 (150) D
100,000 - 200,000* (45 400 – 90 700) 8 (200)
100,000 - 250,000* (45 400 – 113 400) 6 (150) 2D
250,000 - 400,000* (113 400 – 181 000) 8 (200)
2D (B757, B767) 200,000 - 400,000* (90 700 – 181 000) 6 (150)
2D or 2D/D1 (DC10, L1011) 400,000 - 600,000* (181 000 – 272 000) 8 (150)
400,000 - 600,000* (181 000 – 272 000) 6 (150) 2D/2D2 (B747)
600,000 - 850,000* (272 000 – 385 600) 8 (200)
2D/D1 or 2D/2D1(A340) 568,000 – 840,400 (257 640 – 381 200) 10 (250)
75,000 - 125,000 (34 000 – 56 700) 4 (100) 2S (C130)
125,000 - 175,000* (56 700 – 79 400) 6 (150)
3D (B777) 537,000 – 777,000* (243 500 – 352 440) 10 (250)
3D (A380) 1,239,000 – 1,305,125* (562 000 – 592 000) 9 (230)
*Values are listed for reference. However, when the traffic mixture contains airplanes exceeding 100,000 lbs. (45
400 kg) gross weight, a stabilized base is required.
d. Subbase Course. Subbases may be aggregate or stabilized materials. The minimum thickness of
subbase for structural purposes is 4 inches (102 mm). Additional thickness might be required for practical construction
limitations. Acceptable aggregate and stabilized materials are defined in paragraphs 309, 310, and 311. Use of Item P-
301 is limited to locations not subject to freeze-thaw cycles. More than one layer of subbase material may be used, i.e.,
P-209 over a layer of P-154. Layering must be done so as not to produce a sandwich (granular layer between two
stabilized layers) section and to assure that material quality increases toward the top of the pavement section.
For traffic mixtures with airplanes exceeding 100,000 pounds (45 359 kg), a stabilized base course is required as
described in paragraph 317. When a stabilized base course is required, it is recommended that a higher quality material
be used for the subbase. Acceptable materials for use as subbase with a stabilized base layer are:
P-208 – Aggregate Base Course
P-209 – Crushed Aggregate Base Course
In addition, any material suitable for use as a base course can also be used as a subbase course with a stabilized base
layer.
e. Subgrade. The subgrade is assumed to be infinite in thickness and is characterized by either a
modulus or CBR value. Subgrade modulus values for flexible pavement design can be determined in a number of ways.
The procedure that will be applicable in most cases is to use available CBR values and substitute in the relationship:
CBR E × = 1500 , (E in psi)
This method will provide designs compatible with the previous FAA design procedure based on the CBR equation.
Although FAARFIELD requires input of the material elastic modulus, direct input of CBR values is also acceptable.
f. Seasonal Frost and Permafrost. Seasonal frost and permafrost effects should be considered by
applying the techniques in Chapter 2 and section 306.
316. DESIGN EXAMPLE. As an example of the use of the FAARFIELD, assume a flexible pavement is to be
designed for the airplane traffic mix in table 3-10.
The subgrade CBR is 8 (E=12,000 psi). Since the traffic mix includes jet airplanes weighing 100,000 pounds (45 359
kg) or more, an asphalt stabilized base will be used. The pavement layer thicknesses obtained from the design software
FAARFIELD are listed in table 3-11.
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TABLE 3-10. AIRPLANE TRAFFIC MIX EXAMPLE
No. Name Gross Weight, lb Annual Departures Annual Growth, %
1 A320-100 150,796 600 0.00
2 A340-600 std 805,128 1,000 0.00
3 A340-600 std Belly 805,128 1,000 0.00
4 A380-800 1,239,000 300 0.00
5 B737-800 174,700 2,000 0.00
6 B747-400 877,000 400 0.00
7 B747-400ER 913,000 300 0.00
8 B757-300 271,000 1,200 0.00
9 B767-400 ER 451,000 800 0.00
10 B777-300 ER 777,000 1,000 0.00
11 B787-8 478,000 600 0.00
TABLE 3-11. PAVEMENT STRUCTURE INFORMATION FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE
No. Type Thickness, in Modulus, psi Poisson’s Ratio
1 P-401/ P-403 AC Surface 5.00 200,000 0.35
2 P-401/ P-403 St (flex) 11.06 400,000 0.35
3 P-209 Cr Ag 18.78 51,440 0.35
4 Subgrade 0.00 12,000 0.35

The screenshot from the design software showing final thickness design is shown below:

FIGURE 3-5. FAARFIELD SCREENSHOT SHOWING FINAL PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

The pavement thickness design software also provides information on the damage caused by individual airplanes. This
additional information is provided in the Notes and Airplanes Windows. For the given example, the additional airplane
information is listed in table 3-12. Note that two fields are provided for CDF information. Each field contains different
information. “CDF Contribution” lists the contribution of the airplanes to the total CDF calculated at the critical offset.
This column should sum to 1.00 for a completed design, although due to rounding error and internal tolerances the sum
may be slightly greater than or less than 1.00. “CDF Max for Airplanes” lists the maximum CDF over all offsets
calculated for the airplanes, whether or not these occur at the critical offset. The sum of the values in this column should
be greater than or equal to 1.00 for a completed design.”
TABLE 3-12. ADDITIONAL AIRPLANE INFORMATION FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE
No. Name CDF Contribution CDF Max for Airplanes P/C Ratio
1 A320-100 0.00 0.00 1.21
2 A340-600 std 0.04 0.05 0.59
3 A340-600 std Belly 0.00 0.03 0.57
4 A380-800 0.01 0.01 0.42
5 B737-800 0.00 0.00 1.22
6 B747-400 0.01 0.01 0.57
7 B747-400ER 0.01 0.02 0.57
8 B757-300 0.00 0.00 0.73
9 B767-400 ER 0.04 0.05 0.60
10 B777-300 ER 0.86 0.86 0.40
11 B787-8 0.03 0.03 0.57
Table 3-12 shows that the pavement thickness design in this example is controlled primarily by the B777-300 ER,
which contributes 86 percent of the CDF.
317. STABILIZED BASE AND SUBBASE. Stabilized base and subbase courses are necessary for new pavements
designed to accommodate jet airplanes weighing 100,000 pounds (45 359 kg) or more. Exceptions to the policy
requiring stabilized base and subbase may be made on the basis of superior materials being available, such as 100
percent crushed, hard, closely graded stone. These materials should exhibit a remolded soaked CBR minimum of 100
for base and 35 for subbase. In areas subject to frost penetration, the materials should meet permeability and nonfrost
susceptibility tests in addition to the CBR requirements. Other exceptions to the policy requiring stabilized base and
subbase should be based on proven performance of a granular material such as lime rock in the state of Florida. Proven
performance in this instance means a history of satisfactory airport pavements using the materials. This history of
satisfactory performance should be under airplane loadings and climatic conditions comparable to those anticipated.
318. FULL-DEPTH ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. Full-depth asphalt pavements contain asphaltic cement in all
components above the prepared subgrade. Alternate design procedures can be used to design full-depth asphalt
pavements when approved by the FAA.
319. FROST EFFECTS. Frost protection should be provided in areas where conditions conducive to detrimental
frost action exist. Details are given in Chapter 2, paragraph 207. Levels of frost protection are given in paragraph 307 of
this document. Frost considerations may result in thicker subbase courses than the thicknesses needed for structural
support.

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SECTION 3. RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN
320. GENERAL. The design process considers one mode of failure for rigid pavement, cracking of the concrete
slab. The cracking of the surface layer is controlled by limiting the horizontal stress at bottom of PCC slab. Failure of
subbase and subgrade layers is not considered. FAARFIELD iterates on the concrete layer thickness until the CDF
reaches a value of 1.0. Once a CDF of 1.0 is achieved, the section satisfies the design conditions.
a. Structure. Rigid pavements for airports are composed of Portland cement concrete placed on a
granular or treated subbase course that is supported on a compacted subgrade.
b. Modeling. A three-dimensional finite element model is used to compute the stresses in concrete slabs.
The three dimensional finite element model has the advantage of considering the critical stresses for slab design, which
normally occur at slab edges, and also employs similar concepts for new rigid pavement design and rigid overlay
design. Rigid overlay design is covered in Chapter 4.
c. Applications. Refer to paragraph 304b.
d. Seasonal Frost and Permafrost. Seasonal frost and permafrost effects should be considered by
applying the techniques in Chapter 2.
e. Jointing Details. Jointing details for rigid pavements are presented in this chapter, paragraph 332.
321. CONCRETE PAVEMENT. The concrete surface must provide a texture of nonskid qualities, prevent the
infiltration of surface water into the subgrade, and provide structural support to the airplanes. The quality of the
concrete, acceptance and control tests, methods of construction and handling, and quality of workmanship are covered
in Item P-501, Portland Cement Concrete Pavement.
322. SUBBASE. The purpose of a subbase under a rigid pavement is to provide uniform stable support for the
pavement slabs. A minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) of subbase is required under all rigid pavements.
323. SUBBASE QUALITY. The standard FAA subbase for rigid pavements is 4 inches (100 mm) of Item P-154,
Subbase Course. In some instances, it may be desirable to use higher-quality materials or thicknesses of P-154 greater
than 4 inches (102 mm). The following materials are acceptable for use as subbase under rigid pavements:
Item P-154 – Subbase Course
Item P-208 – Aggregate Base Course
Item P-209 – Crushed Aggregate Base Course
Item P-211 – Lime Rock Base Course
Item P-301 – Soil Cement Base
Item P-304 – Cement Treated Base Course
Item P-306 – Econocrete Subbase Course
Item P-401 – Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements
Item P-403 – HMA Base Course
Rubblized Portland cement concrete can also be used as a subbase for rigid pavements.
High-quality materials meeting state highway specifications can be substituted. Materials of higher quality than P-154
and/or greater thicknesses of subbase are considered in the design program FAARFIELD. The costs of providing the
additional thickness or higher-quality subbase should be weighed against the savings in concrete thickness.
324. STABILIZED SUBBASE. Stabilized materials are required for subbase under rigid pavements serving
airplanes weighing 100,000 pounds (45 359 kg) or more. Acceptable stabilized materials are P-304 (Cement Treated
Base Course), P-306 (Econocrete Subbase Course), and P-401 and P-403 (Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements). The
minimum thickness of subbase is 4 inches (102 mm). More than one layer of subbase may be used, i.e., P-306 over a
layer of P-209. Layering must be done so as not to produce a sandwich (granular layer between two stabilized layers)
section. Exceptions to the policy of using stabilized subbase are the same as those given in paragraph 317.
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325. SUBGRADE. Subgrade materials under a rigid pavement must be compacted in accordance with table 3-4.
Specification Item P-152, Excavation and Embankment, covers the construction and density control of subgrade soils.
Swelling soils require special considerations. Paragraph 313 contains guidance on the identification and treatment of
swelling soils.
a. Contamination. In rigid pavement systems repeated loading might cause intermixing of soft subgrade
soils and aggregate base or subbase. This mixing can create voids below the pavement in which moisture can
accumulate causing pumping to occur. Chemical and mechanical stabilization of the subbase or subgrade can effectively
reduce aggregate contamination (see paragraph 206). Geosynthetics have been found to be effective at providing
separation between fine-grained subgrade soils and pavement aggregates (FHWA-HI-95-038). Geosynthetics should be
considered for separation between fine-grained soils and overlying pavement aggregates. In this application, the
geosynthetic is not considered to act as a structural element within the pavement. Therefore, the modulus of the base or
subbase is not increased when a geosynthetic is used for stabilization. For separation applications, the geosynthetic is
designed based on survivability properties. Additional information about design and construction using separation
geosynthetics can be found in FHWA-HI-95-038.
326. DETERMINATION OF MODULUS (E VALUE) FOR RIGID PAVEMENT SUBGRADE. In addition to
the soils survey and analysis and classification of subgrade conditions, the determination of the foundation modulus is
required for rigid pavement design. The foundation modulus should be assigned to the subgrade layer; i.e., the layer
below all structural layers. The foundation modulus can be expressed as the modulus of subgrade reaction k or as the
elastic (Young’s) modulus E and can be input into the program directly in either form. However, all structural
computations are performed using the elastic modulus E. If the foundation modulus is input as a k-value it is
automatically converted to the equivalent E value using the following equation:
284 . 1
26k E
SG
=

where:
E
SG
= Resilient modulus of the subgrade, in psi
k = Foundation modulus of the subgrade, in pci
For existing pavements the E modulus can be determined in the field from non-destructive testing (NDT) such as
falling-weight deflectometer (FWD) tests and this may be necessary if direct testing of the subgrade is impractical. If
the subgrade is accessible then the k-value can be determined directly by plate-load testing. If the k-modulus can be
determined by plate load testing, or is otherwise available, then the k-value should be input directly into the
FAARFIELD program without first converting to E modulus.
The preferred method of determining the subgrade modulus is by testing a limited section of representative subgrade,
which has been constructed to the required specifications. The plate bearing test procedures are given in AASHTO T
222, Nonrepetitive Static Plate Load Test of Soils and Flexible Pavement Components, for Use in Evaluation and
Design of Airport and Highway Pavements. If the construction and testing of a test section of embankment is
impractical, the conversion from CBR to k-value for the subgrade can be achieved using the following formula:
7788 . 0
26
1500

×
=
CBR
k
, (k in pci)
The designer is cautioned that the obtained values are approximate and engineering judgment should be used in
selecting a design value.
327. DETERMINATION OF CONCRETE SLAB THICKNESS. FAARFIELD designs the slab thickness based
on the assumption of edge loading. The gear load is located either tangent or perpendicular to the slab edge, and the
larger of the two stresses, reduced by 25 percent to account for load transfer through the joint, is taken as the design
stress for determining the slab thickness. Use of the design program FAARFIELD requires five groups of design input
data: concrete flexural strength, subgrade modulus, design life in years, structural layer data, and airplane mixture
information. The program computes only the thickness of the concrete layer. The minimum slab thickness is six inches.
Thicknesses of other layers of the rigid pavement structure must be selected by the user.
a. Concrete Flexural Strength. The required thickness of concrete pavement is related to the strength
of the concrete used for construction of the pavement. For pavement design, the strength of the concrete is characterized
by the flexural strength, since the primary action and failure mode of a concrete pavement is in flexure. For FAA design
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purposes, concrete flexural strength is measured in accordance with the ASTM C78, Standard Test Method for Flexural
Strength of Concrete, test method.
Although the flexural strength required for the pavement design is related to the flexural strength required by the P-501
specification, the strengths used for the pavement design and the P-501 specification are not necessarily the same.
Unless expedited construction requires early opening of the pavement to airplane traffic (e.g., less than 28 days), Item
P-501 typically uses a 28-day strength as a practical construction measure. However, the long-term strength achieved by
the concrete is normally expected to be at least 5 percent more than the strength measured at 28 days.
To establish the flexural strength for the thickness design the designer needs to consider several factors, such as:
- Capability of the industry in a particular area to produce concrete at a particular strength
- Flexural strength vs. cement content data from prior projects at the airport
- The need to avoid high cement contents, which can affect concrete durability
- Whether early opening requirements necessitate using a lower strength than 28-day
The FAA recommends a design flexural strength of 600 to 700 psi (4.14 to 4.83 MPa) for most airfield applications.
Lower strength requirements allow balancing the components of the concrete mixture for performance but may result in
slightly thicker pavement requirements. However, these conditions reduce the risk of early cracking, minimize curling
and warping stresses, and provide increased performance with respect to fatigue. The strength used for thickness design
should be reduced by 5 percent when stating the P-501 specification requirements for the 28-day flexural strength.
b. Subgrade Modulus. The subgrade modulus can be input as either a k-value or an E-value, as
described in paragraph 326.
c. Design Life. The standard design life for pavement thickness design is 20 years. The FAARFIELD
computer program is capable of considering other design life timeframes, but they are considered a deviation from FAA
standards.
d. Material Properties for Subbase Layers. Up to three base/subbase layers can be added to the
pavement structure in FAARFIELD for new rigid design. The number of subbase layers is limited because experience
shows that above three layers the effect on designed slab thickness is small and does not justify the additional
computation time that would be required. The layer thickness must be entered for each base/subbase layer. For standard
base/subbase materials, the modulus and Poisson’s ratio are internally set and cannot be changed by the user. However,
the variable stabilized and undefined layers allow the user to directly input a modulus value.
e. Airplane Mixture Information. The user inputs specific information for each airplane in the mix,
including airplane type, gross weight, number of annual departures, and percentage of annual growth.
328. USE OF FAARFIELD FOR NEW RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN. This design procedure for airport
concrete pavements is based on the computer program FAARFIELD. The internal help file for the FAARFIELD
program contains a user’s manual, which provides detailed information on proper execution of the computer program.
The manual also contains additional technical references for specific details of the FAARFIELD design procedure.
There are distinct differences between the design methodology in FAARFIELD and the design methodology contained
in previous versions of this AC. These differences along with some common design assumptions between the two
methods are discussed below.
a. Design Life. As noted in paragraph 315a, the FAA design standard for pavements is a 20-year design
life. The computer program FAARFIELD is capable of considering other design life timeframes. Use of a design life
other than 20 years constitutes a deviation from FAA standards.
b. Traffic Mix. Input the complete air traffic mix into FAARFIELD. See paragraph 304c(5).
c. Materials. Concrete pavement surfacing should meet the requirements of Item P-501. The minimum
concrete surfacing thickness is 6 inches (152 mm) for pavements intended to serve airplanes with gross weights above
30,000 pounds (13 608 kg). Elastic moduli are either fixed or variable depending on the material and layer position. A
fixed modulus value for concrete is set in the program at 4,000,000 psi (27 580 MPa). This modulus value was chosen
to produce results that closely matched thickness requirements for pavements designed with the Westergaard-based
design curves for rigid pavement used in previous versions of this AC. Materials are identified by their corresponding
FAA specification designations; for example, crushed stone base course is identified as Item P-209. The list of materials
contains an undefined layer with variable properties. If an undefined layer is used, such as variable stabilized rigid and
35
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

variable stabilized flexible layer, a warning will appear in the Structure Window stating that a non-standard material has
been selected and its use in the structure will require FAA approval.
d. Minimum Layer Thickness. FAARFIELD will not design the thickness of pavement layers other
than the PCC slab in rigid pavement structures, but will enforce the minimum thickness requirements for subbase layers
as specified elsewhere in this AC. It is recommended that the user consult paragraphs 322 for granular subbase, 324 for
stabilized subbase, and 327 for concrete surface layer to assure the minimum thickness requirements are met.
329. CRITICAL AND NONCRITICAL AREAS. The program FAARFIELD is used to determine the concrete
slab thickness for the critical pavement areas shown in figure 3-4. See paragraph 306 for pavement thickness
determination for noncritical areas. For the variable thickness section of the thinned edge and transition section, the
reduction applies to the concrete slab thickness. The change in thickness for the transitions should be accomplished over
an entire slab length or width. In areas of variable slab thickness, the subbase thickness must be adjusted as necessary to
provide surface drainage from the entire subgrade surface. Pavement thicknesses should be rounded to nearest 0.5 inch
or 1 cm.
330. DESIGN EXAMPLE. As an example of the use of FAARFIELD, assume that the input data listed in tables 3-
13 and 3-14 are to be used to design a new rigid pavement. Detailed steps for using the FAARFIELD program can be
found in the user’s manual. The user’s manual is available by mouse clicking on “Help” from any screen in
FAARFIELD.
TABLE 3-13. AIRPLANE MIXTURE INPUT DATA
Airplane Name Gross Taxi Weight, lb Annual Departures Annual Growth, %
Adv. B727-200 Option 210,000 1200 0.0
B747-400 877,000 800 0.0
B777-200 ER 657,000 1200 0.0
TABLE 3-14. PAVEMENT LAYER INPUT DATA
Layer Material Thickness, in. Flexural Strength, psi Modulus, psi
PCC Surface (Calculate) 700 Fixed (4,000,000) in
FAARFIELD
P-306 Econocrete 6 N/A Fixed (700,000)
P-209 Crushed Aggregate 6 N/A Variable
Subgrade Infinite N/A 15,000 (k = 141.4 pci)
Using the above data, FAARFIELD produces a PCC thickness of 16.15 inches, which is rounded to the nearest 0.5
inches, or 16 inches. Screen shots showing the designed section and the airplane traffic are presented in figures 3-6 and
3-7.
For comparison, if the subgrade modulus used is 80 pci rather than 141 pci, the resulting FAARFIELD PCC thickness is
17.47 inches, rounded to 17.5 inches.
331. FROST EFFECTS. As with flexible pavements, frost protection should be provided for rigid pavements in
areas where conditions conducive to detrimental frost action exist. Frost protection considerations for rigid pavements
are similar to those for flexible pavements. The determination of the depth of frost protection required is given in
paragraph 307b. Local experience may be used to refine the calculations.
36
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E



FIGURE 3-6. STRUCTURE WINDOW IN FAARFIELD

FIGURE 3-7. AIRPLANE WINDOW IN FAARFIELD
37
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

332. JOINTING OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS. Variations in temperature and moisture content can cause
volume changes and slab warping resulting in significant stresses. In order to reduce the detrimental effects of these
stresses and to minimize random cracking, it is necessary to divide the pavement into a series of slabs of predetermined
dimension by means of joints. These slabs should be as nearly square as possible when no embedded steel is used.
a. Joint Categories. Pavement joints are categorized according to the function that the joint is intended
to perform. The categories are isolation, contraction, and construction joints. All joints, regardless of type, should be
finished in a manner that permits the joint to be sealed. Pavement joint details are shown in figures 3-8 and 3-9 and are
summarized in table 3-15. These various joints are described as follows:
(1) Isolation Joints (Types A, A-1). The function of isolation joints is to isolate intersecting
pavements and to isolate structures from the pavement. Type A is used when conditions preclude the use of load
transfer devices that span across the joint, such as where the pavement abuts a structure or where horizontal differences
in movement of the pavements may occur. These joints are formed by increasing the thickness of the pavement along
the edge of the slab. No dowel bars are provided. Type A-1 joints may be used as an alternate in cases where thickened
edge joints are undesirable.
(2) Contraction Joints (Types B, C, D). The function of contraction joints is to provide
controlled cracking of the pavement when the pavement contracts due to decrease in moisture content or a temperature
drop. Contraction joints also decrease stresses caused by slab warping. Details for contraction joints are shown as Types
B, C, and D in figure 3-8.
(3) Construction Joints (Type E). Construction joints are required when two abutting slabs are
placed at different times, such as at the end of a day’s placement or between paving lanes. Details for construction joints
are shown as Types E in figure 3-8.
38
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E



FIGURE 3-8. RIGID PAVEMENT JOINT TYPES AND DETAILS
39
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


FIGURE 3-9. RIGID PAVEMENT JOINT TYPE DETAILS
40
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


TABLE 3-15. PAVEMENT JOINT TYPES
TYPE DESCRIPTION LONGITUDINAL TRANSVERSE
A Thickened Edge
Isolation Joint
Use at intersections where dowels
are not suitable and where
pavements abut structures.
Consider at locations along a
pavement edge where future
expansion is possible.
Use at pavement feature
intersections when the respective
longitudinal axis intersects at an
angle. Use at free edge of
pavements where future
expansion, using the same
pavement thickness is expected.
B Hinged Contraction
Joint
For all contraction joints in taxiway
slabs < 9 inches (230 mm) thick.
For all other contraction joints in
slabs < 9 inches (230 mm) thick,
where the joint is placed 20 feet (6
m) or less from the pavement edge.
Not used.
C Doweled Contraction
Joint
May be considered for general use.
Consider for use in contraction
joints in slabs > 9 inches (230 mm)
thick, where the joint is placed 20
feet (6m) or less from the pavement
edge.
May be considered for general
use. Use on the last three joints
from a free edge, and for three
joints on either side of isolation
joints.
D Dummy Contraction
Joint
For all other contraction joints in
pavement.
For all other contraction joints in
pavement.
E Doweled
Construction Joint
All construction joints excluding
isolation joints.
Use for construction joints at all
locations separating successive
paving operations (“headers”).
b. Joint Spacing.
(1) Without Stabilized Subbase. A rule-of-thumb for joint spacing given by the Portland
Cement Association is applicable for rigid pavements without stabilized subbase: As a rough guide, the joint spacing
should not greatly exceed twenty four times the slab thickness, or, L s 24t (valid for any unit system), where L is the
joint spacing and t is the slab thickness. Table 3-16 shows the recommended maximum joint spacings. Shorter spacings
may be more convenient in some instances and may be required to provide minimum clearance between pavement
joints and in-pavement obstructions such as light bases. A maximum spacing of 20 feet (6.1 m) is recommended. The
ratio of the longest side of a slab to the shortest side of a slab at two intersecting sides should not exceed 1.25 in non-
reinforced pavements.
TABLE 3-16. RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM JOINT SPACINGS -
RIGID PAVEMENT WITH OR WITHOUT STABILIZED SUBBASE
Part I, without Stabilized Subbase
Slab Thickness Joint Spacing
1

Inches Millimeters Feet Meters
6 152 12.5 3.8
6.5-9 165-229 15 4.6
>9 >229 20 6.1

Part II, with Stabilized Subbase
Slab Thickness Joint Spacing
1

Inches Millimeters Feet Meters
8–10 203-254 12.5 3.8
10.5-13 267-330 15 4.6
13.5-16 343-406 17.5
2
5.3
2

>16 >406 20 6.1

41
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

Notes:
1. Transverse and longitudinal joint spacing.
2. For typical runway and taxiway geometries, the corresponding longitudinal joint spacing is 18.75 ft. (5.7 m).
3. Joint spacings shown in this table are maximum values that may be acceptable under ideal conditions.
4. Smaller joint spacings should be used if indicated by past experience
5. Pavements subject to extreme seasonal temperature differentials or extreme temperature differentials during
placement may require shorter joint spacings.
6. See Chapter 5 for light-load rigid pavement jointing.
(2) With Stabilized Subbase. Rigid pavements supported on stabilized subbase are subject to
higher warping and curling stresses than those supported on unstabilized foundations. The recommended maximum
joint spacings are listed in part II, table 3-16. In lieu of historical performance records, a maximum spacing of 20 feet
(6.1 m) is recommended for slabs equal to or thicker than 16 inches (406 mm). The ratio of the longest side of a slab to
the shortest side of a slab at two intersecting sides should not exceed 1.25 in non reinforced pavements.
333. SPECIAL JOINTING CONSIDERATIONS FOR POSSIBLE FUTURE EXPANSION. When a runway
or taxiway is likely to be extended at some future date, it is recommended that a thickened edge joint (Type A in figure
3-8) be provided at that end of the runway or taxiway. Likewise, if any pavement will require an isolation joint in the
future, a thickened edge should be provided at the appropriate edge.
In pavements with drainable bases, thickened edge joints may create the potential to trap water beneath the pavement. In
such cases, the engineer may consider using a reinforced isolation joint (Type A-1 in figure 3-8) as an alternative to a
thickened edge joint. The amount of steel at the slab edge should be justified by structural calculations. Sufficient steel
reinforcement should be provided at the bottom of the slab for the reinforced concrete section to resist the maximum
bending moment caused by the critical aircraft loading the free edge of the slab, with an appropriate load factor applied.
Steel reinforcement is not required at the top of the slab for structural capacity, but if embedded steel is placed at the top
of the slab for crack control, it should conform to the requirements of paragraph 337.
a. Reinforced Isolation Joint (Type A-1) Design Example. A new rigid pavement will be constructed
for the following mix of airplanes: DC10-10, B747-200B Combi Mixed, B777-200ER. An isolation joint will be
provided at the location of planned future expansion. Because of the potential for trapped water, a reinforced isolation
joint is selected. Assume that the concrete compressive strength
c
f ' = 4,000 psi. Using FAARFIELD, the PCC design
thickness for a 20-year life was determined to be 15.5 inches (394 mm). The maximum stress to be used for the joint
design is determined using FAARFIELD as follows:
(1) In the Options window, under “General Options,” uncheck the “No Out Files” box.
(2) For the design section, and for each airplane in the traffic mix, run a “Life” computation. A
separate computation should be performed for each airplane.
(3) For each airplane, obtain the computed PCC slab horizontal (tensile) stress from the output
file NikePCC.out, in the FAARFIELD working directory.
(4) For the maximum stress found in step 3, calculate the free edge stress by dividing the PCC
slab horizontal stress by 0.75. (Dividing by 0.75 is necessary because the FAARFIELD stress has already been reduced
by 25% to account for assumed joint load transfer.)
For this design example, the maximum PCC horizontal stress from the output file NikePCC.out was found to be 357.71
psi, for the B777-200ER. Therefore, the maximum (working) free edge stress for the concrete section design is
calculated as 357.71/0.75 = 476.9 psi.
The reinforced concrete section will be designed using the ultimate strength method. The dead load will be neglected.
Assuming a live load factor of 1.7, calculate the ultimate bending moment M
u
as:
( )
in. 7.75
12
in. 12 in. 5 . 15
psi 9 . 476
7 . 1 7 . 1
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
× =
×
× =
c
I
M
g edge
u
o
= 389,555 lb.-in. = 32.5 kip-ft.
where:
edge
o is the maximum edge stress based on FAARFIELD, I
g
= the gross moment of inertia calculated for a 1-
foot strip of the concrete slab, and c = the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber, assumed to be one-half of
the slab thickness.
42
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


Assume the edge reinforcement will consist of No. 6 bars spaced at 6 inches at the bottom of the slab, as shown in igure
3-8. Calculate the flexural design strength using the following equation:

|
|
.
|

\
|
'
÷ =
c
y
y s n
f
f
d f A M p o o 59 . 0 1
where: o = stress reduction factor (= 0.90 for flexure without axial loading)
A
s
= steel area = 2 x 0.44 = 0.88 in
2
for 1-ft. width
f
y
= steel yield stress (assume f
y
= 60,000 psi)
c
f ' = concrete compressive strength
d = depth to steel centroid
p = steel ratio
bd
A
s
=
b = section width = 12 in.
For the minimum 3 in. (76.2 mm) clear cover on No. 6 bars, d = 12.13 in. (308 mm). Using the above values
n
M o is
calculated as 45.5 kip-ft. Since
n U
M M m < , the design is adequate for flexure.
A check should also be performed for minimum and maximum steel ratio. The minimum steel ratio is given by:
y
f
200
min
= p , where f
y
is in psi. From the above values, obtain
min
p = 0.0033. The calculated steel ratio = p 0.0060 >
0.0033, hence the minimum steel ratio criterion is satisfied. The maximum steel ratio is determined from the equation:
0213 . 0
87000
87000
85 . 0 75 . 0 75 . 0
1 max
=

+
'
× × = × =
y y
c
b
f f
f
| p p
where:
b
p is the balanced steel ratio,
1
| = 0.85 (for
c
f ' = 4000 psi) and f
y
is in psi. Since the calculated steel ratio
= p 0.0060 < 0.0213, the maximum steel ratio criterion is also satisfied. For the final design, provide four (4) no. 6 bars
spaced at 6 inches (152 mm).
334. JOINTING STEEL.
a. Tie Bars. Tie bars are used across certain longitudinal contraction joints to hold the slab faces in close
contact. The tie bars themselves do not act as load transfer devices. By preventing wide opening of the joint, load
transfer is provided by aggregate interlock in the crack below the groove-type joint. Tie bars should be deformed bars
conforming to the specifications given in Item P-501. The bars should be 5/8 inch (16 mm) in diameter and 30 inches
(762 mm) on center spacing. Do not use tie-bars such that areas of pavement with continuous tied joints greater than 75
feet (23 m) exist.
b. Dowels. Dowels are used at joints to provide for transfer of load across the joint and to prevent
relative vertical displacement of adjacent slab ends. Dowels permit longitudinal movement of adjacent slabs.
(1) Where Used. Provision for load transfer by dowels is provided as described in table 3-15.
Dowels for contraction joints should be provided at least three joints from a free edge.
(2) Size Length and Spacing. Dowels should be sized such that they will resist the shearing and
bending stresses produced by the loads on the pavement. They should be of such length and spacing that the bearing
stresses exerted on the concrete will not cause failure of the concrete slab. Table 3-17 indicates the dowel dimensions
and spacing for various pavement thicknesses.
(3) Dowel Positioning. The alignment and elevation of dowels is extremely important in
obtaining a satisfactory joint. Transverse dowels will require the use of a fixture, usually a wire cage or basket firmly
anchored to the subbase, to hold the dowels in position. Supports on the baskets do not need to be cut. During the
concrete placement operations, it is advisable to place plastic concrete directly on the dowel assembly immediately prior
to passage of the paver to prevent displacement of the assembly by the paving equipment. An alternate procedure for
placing dowels in the transverse joint is to use a paving machine equipped with an automated dowel bar inserter.
43
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

TABLE 3-17. DIMENSIONS AND SPACING OF STEEL DOWELS
Thickness of Slab Diameter Length Spacing
6-7 in (152-178 mm) ¾ in
1
(20 mm) 18 in (460 mm) 12 in (305 mm)
7.5-12 in (191-305 mm) 1 in
1
(25 mm) 19 in (480 mm) 12 in (305 mm)
12.5-16 in (318-406 mm) 1 ¼ in
1
(30 mm) 20 in (510 mm) 15 in (380 mm)
16.5-20 in (419-58 mm) 1 ½ in
1
(40 mm) 20 in (510 mm) 18 in (460 m)
20.5-24 in (521-610 mm) 2 in
1
(50 mm) 24 in (610 mm) 18 in (460 mm)
1
Dowels noted may be solid bar or high-strength pipe. High-strength pipe dowels must be plugged on each end
with a tight-fitting plastic cap or mortar mix.
335. JOINT SEALANTS AND FILLERS. Sealants are used in all joints to prevent the ingress of water and
foreign material in the joint. Premolded compressible filler are used in isolation joints to accommodate expansion of the
slabs. Joint sealants are applied above the filler in isolation joints to prevent infiltration of water and foreign material. In
areas subject to fuel spillage, fuel-resistant sealants should be used. Specifications for joint sealants are given in Item P-
605.
336. JOINT LAYOUT. Pavement joint layout is a matter of selecting the proper joint types and dimensions so that
the joints can perform their intended function. Construction considerations are also vitally important in determining the
joint layout pattern. Paving lane widths will often dictate how the pavement should be jointed. Generally speaking, it is
more economical to keep the number of passes of the paving train to a minimum while maintaining proper joint
function. Figure 3-10 shows a typical jointing plan for a runway end, parallel taxiway, and connector. In-pavement light
fixtures may also affect joint spacing. Joints should be placed with respect to light fixtures in accordance with AC
150/5340-30B, Design and Installation Details for Airport Visual Aids. It is impossible to illustrate all of the variations
that can occur at pavement intersections. Two important considerations in designing joint layouts for intersections are
isolation joints and odd-shaped slabs. More discussion on these follows:
a. Isolation Joints. Two intersecting pavements, such as a taxiway and runway, should be isolated to
allow the pavements to move independently. Isolation can best be accomplished by using a Type A isolation joint
between the two pavements. The isolation joint should be positioned such that the two pavements can expand and
contract independently; normally this can be accomplished by using a Type A isolation joint where the two pavements
abut. One isolation joint is normally sufficient to allow independent movement.
b. Odd-Shaped Slabs. Cracks tend to form in odd-shaped slabs; therefore, it is good practice to
maintain sections that are nearly square or rectangular in shape. Pavement intersections that involve fillets are difficult
to design without a few odd-shaped slabs. In instances where odd-shaped slabs cannot be avoided, embedded steel is
recommended. The embedded steel should consist of 0.050 percent steel in both directions in slabs where the length-to-
width ratio exceeds 1.25 or in slabs that are not rectangular in shape. The embedded steel should be placed in
accordance with the recommendations given in paragraph 338. Fillets may also be defined by constructing slabs to the
normal, full dimensions and painting out the unused portion of the slab.
337. CONCRETE PAVEMENT CONTAINING EMBEDDED STEEL FOR CRACK CONTROL. Concrete
slabs may contain embedded steel reinforcing bars or welded wire mats for crack control. The main benefit of
embedded steel is that, although it does not prevent cracking, it keeps the cracks that form tightly closed so that the
interlock of the irregular faces provides structural integrity and usually maintains pavement performance. By holding
the cracks tightly closed, the steel minimizes the infiltration of debris into the cracks. The thickness requirements for
reinforced concrete pavements are the same as plain concrete and are determined by the program FAARFIELD.
Embedded steel allows longer joint spacing; thus the cost benefits associated with fewer joints must be considered in the
decision to use plain or embedded steel concrete pavement.
338. TYPE AND SPACING OF EMBEDDED STEEL BARS. Embedded steel may be either welded wire fabric
or bar mats installed with end and side laps to provide complete embedded steel throughout the slab. End laps should be
a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) but not less than 30 times the diameter of the longitudinal wire or bar. Side laps
should be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) but not less than 20 times the diameter of the transverse wire or bar. End
and side clearances should be a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) to allow for nearly
complete embedded steel and yet achieve adequate concrete cover. Longitudinal members should be spaced not less
than 4 inches (100 mm) nor more than 12 inches (305 mm) apart; transverse members should be spaced not less than 4
inches (100 mm) nor more than 24 inches (610 mm) apart.
44
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E



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45
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

339. AMOUNT OF EMBEDDED STEEL.
a. The steel area required for an embedded steel concrete pavement is determined from the subgrade
drag formula and the coefficient of friction formula combined. The resultant formula is expressed as follows:
( )
S
S
f
Lt L
A
7 . 3
=

where:
A
s
= area of steel per foot of width or length, square inches
L = length or width of slab, feet
t = thickness of slab, inches
f
s
= allowable tensile stress in steel, psi
NOTE: To determine the area of steel in metric units:
L should be expressed in meters
t should be expressed in millimeters
f
s
should be expressed in mega newtons per square meter
The constant 3.7 should be changed to 0.64.
A
s
will then be in terms of square centimeters per meter.
b. In this formula the slab weight is assumed to be 12.5 pounds per square foot, per inch of thickness
(23.6 MN/m
2
). The allowable tensile stress in steel will vary with the type and grade of steel. It is recommended that
allowable tensile stress be taken as two-thirds of the yield strength of the steel. Based on current specifications the yield
strengths and corresponding design stresses (f
s
) are as listed in table 3-18.
c. The minimum percentage of embedded steel should be 0.05 percent. The percentage of steel is
computed by dividing the area of steel, A
s
, by the area of concrete per unit of length (or width) and multiplying by 100.
The minimum percentage of steel considered the least amount of steel that can be economically placed is 0.05 percent.
Embedded steel allows larger slab sizes and thus decreases the number of transverse contraction joints. The costs
associated with providing an embedded steel pavement must be compared with the savings realized in eliminating some
of the transverse contraction joints to determine the most economical steel percentage.
The equation in (a) may be reorganized to obtain the relationship between the percentage of steel and the required slab
length:
( )
S
S
f t
L L
P
×
×
=
8 . 30
%

For a 75 ft (23 m) long slab with 10 inch (254 mm) thickness and using f
s
= 27,000 psi (186 MPa), the required steel
percentage would be 0.23 %. For the 75 ft (23 m) long slab with 20 inch (508 mm) thickness and using f
s
= 47000 psi
(324 MPa), the required steel percentage would be 0.1. Both satisfy the minimum required percentage 0.05. They are
also smaller than the minimum required steel percentage for CRCP (0.5, see item 342). For safety reasons, the
maximum allowable slab length regardless of steel percentage is 75 feet (23 m) for normal concrete slabs containing
embedded steel.
TABLE 3-18. YIELD STRENGTHS OF VARIOUS GRADES OF REINFORCING STEEL
ASTM
Designation
Type & Grade of Steel
Yield Strength, psi
(MN/m2)
f
s
, psi (MN/m2)
A 615 Deformed Billet Steel, Grade 40 40,000 (280) 27,000 (190)
A 616 Deformed Rail Steel, Grade 50 50,000 (350) 33,000 (230)
A 616 Deformed Rail Steel, Grade 60 60,000 (420) 40,000 (280)
A 615 Deformed Billet Steel, Grade 60 60,000 (420) 40,000 (280)
A 185 Cold Drawn Welded Steel Wire Fabric 65,000 (460) 43,000 (300)
A 497 Cold Drawn Welded Deformed Steel Wire 70,000 (490) 47,000(330)
340. DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS OF EMBEDDED STEEL. Dimensions and unit weights of standard
deformed reinforcing bars are given in table 3-19, and wire size number, diameters, areas, and weights of wires used in
welded wire fabric are given in table 3-20.
46
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


TABLE 3-19. DIMENSIONS AND UNIT WEIGHTS OF DEFORMED STEEL REINFORCING BARS
NOMINAL DIMENSIONS
No. Diameter, in. (mm) Area, in2 (mm2) Perimeter, in. (cm) Unit Weight, lb/ft (kg/m)
3 0.375 9.5 0.11 0.71 1.178 3.0 0.376 0.56
4 0.500 12.7 0.20 1.29 1.571 4.0 0.668 1.00
5 0.625 15.9 0.31 2.00 1.963 5.0 1.043 1.57
6 0.750 19.1 0.44 2.84 2.356 6.0 1.502 2.26
7 0.875 22.2 0.60 3.86 2.749 7.0 2.044 3.07
TABLE 3-20. SECTIONAL AREAS OF WELDED FABRIC
Wire
Size
Smooth
Number
Deformed
Nominal
Diameter
Inches
Nominal
Weight,
lb/linear ft
Area of Steel When Center-to-Center
Spacing is (in inches)
4 6 8 10 12
W31 D31 0.628 1.054 .93 .62 .465 .372 .31
W30 D30 0.618 1.020 .90 .60 .45 .36 .30
W28 D28 0.597 .952 .84 .56 .42 .336 .28
W26 D26 0.575 .934 .78 .52 .39 .312 .26
W24 D24 0.553 .816 .72 .48 .36 .288 .24
W22 D22 0.529 .748 .66 .44 .33 .264 .22
W20 D20 0.504 .680 .60 .40 .30 .24 .20
W18 D18 0.478 .612 .54 .36 .27 .216 .18
W16 D16 0.451 .544 .48 .32 .24 .192 .16
WI4 D14 0.422 .476 .42 .28 .21 .168 .14
W12 D12 0.390 .408 .36 .24 .18 .144 .12
W11 D11 0.374 .374 .33 .22 .165 .132 .11
W10.5 0.366 .357 .315 .21 .157 .126 .105
WI0 D10 0.356 .340 .30 .20 .15 .12 .10
W9.5 .348 .323 .285 .19 .142 .114 .095
W9 D9 .338 .306 .27 .18 .135 .108 .09
W8.5 .329 .289 .255 .17 .127 .102 .085
W8 D8 .319 .272 .24 .16 .12 .096 .08
W7.5 .309 .255 .225 .15 .112 .09 .075
W7 D7 .298 .238 .21 .14 .105 .084 .07
W6.5 .288 .221 .195 .13 .097 .078 .065
W6 D6 .276 .204 .18 .12 .09 .072 .06
W5.5 .264 .187 .165 .11 .082 .066 .055
W5 D5 .252 .170 .15 .10 .075 .06 .05
W4.5 .240 .153 .135 .09 .067 .054 .045
W4 D4 .225 .136 .12 .08 .06 .048 .04
Note: 1 inch = 2.54 cm, 1 lb/linear ft = 1.5 kg/m
341. WELDED WIRE FABRIC. The use of welded wire fabric requires some special design considerations to
achieve the most economical design. The use of smooth welded wire fabric or deformed welded wire fabric is the option
of the designer. The choice should be based on the difference in allowable design stresses, the availability of the desired
sizes (smooth wire fabric is available in a wider range of sizes), and the costs associated with each style of fabric. It is
recommended that the minimum size of longitudinal wire be W5 or D5. The minimum transverse wire should be no
smaller than W4 or D4. In addition, should calculated area of longitudinal steel be less than 0.05 percent of the cross-
sectional area of slab, the size and spacing of the steel members (bars or wire) should be determined on the premise that
the minimum area should not be less than 0.05 percent. This percentage applies in the case of steel having yield strength
of 65,000 psi (480 MN/m
2
). If lower grades are used, the percentage should be revised proportionately upward. For
example, table 3-20 shows that W10 wires, spaced 10 inches (255 mm) apart, furnish an area of 0.12 square inches (77
mm
2
), which satisfies the requirement for pavements up to 20 inches (508 mm) thick. Sizing of individual sheets of
welded wire fabric is also important in providing an economical design. Not all fabricators supply all wire sizes in all
47
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

spacings. While nearly any fabric style can be produced on special order, it is generally more economical to specify a
standard production configuration. Sheet and roll widths in excess of 8 feet (2.4 m) can result in higher shipping costs.
342. JOINTING OF EMBEDDED STEEL CONCRETE PAVEMENTS. Contraction joints in concrete
pavements containing embedded steel meeting the requirements of paragraphs 338 – 340 may be spaced up to 75 feet
(23 m) apart, and all joints should be provided with load transfer devices as shown in figure 3-11. Also, this figure
presents other embedded steel details such as clearance at joints and edges of pavement and depth below the surface.
The longer joint spacing allowed with pavements containing embedded steel will result in larger joint openings. The
joints must be sealed carefully to accommodate the larger movements at the joints.
343. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT. A continuously reinforced concrete
pavement (CRCP) is a Portland cement concrete pavement with continuous longitudinal embedded steel and no
intermediate transverse isolation or contraction joints. Continuously reinforced concrete pavements normally contain
from 0.5 to 1.0 percent longitudinal embedded steel. The main advantage of continuously reinforced concrete pavement
is the elimination of transverse joints, which are costly to construct, require periodic resealing, and are often a source of
maintenance problems. Continuously reinforced concrete pavements usually provide a very smooth riding surface. A
properly designed CRCP will develop random transverse cracks at 2 to 10 feet (0.6 to 3 m) intervals. The resultant
pavement is composed of a series of articulated short slabs held tightly together by the longitudinal reinforcing steel. A
high degree of shear transfer across the cracks can be achieved because the cracks are held tightly closed.
a. Foundation Support. The reinforcing steel in a CRCP provides continuity of load transfer. However,
a good uniform foundation support must still be provided for satisfactory performance. The embankment and subbase
requirements given earlier in this chapter for plain concrete pavements, also apply to CRCP.
b. Thickness Design. The thickness requirements for CRCP are the same as plain concrete pavement.
Design inputs are the same for concrete flexural strength, subgrade modulus, material properties for subbase layers and
airplane mixture information.
c. Longitudinal Steel Design. The design of embedded steel for CRCP is critical to providing a
satisfactory pavement. The steel percentage must be properly selected to provide optimum crack spacing and crack
width. Crack widths must be small to provide a high degree of shear transfer across the crack and to prevent the ingress
of water through the crack. The design of longitudinal embedded steel must satisfy three conditions. The maximum steel
percentage determined by any of the three following requirements should be selected as the design value. In no case
should the longitudinal steel percentage be less than 0.5 percent.
(1) Steel to Resist Subgrade Restraint. The longitudinal embedded steel required to resist the
forces generated by the frictional restraint between the CRCP and the subbase should be determined by using the
following formula:
( ) ( )
S
t
S
f
f
F P 2 . 0 3 . 1 % ÷ =

where:
P
s
= embedded steel in percent
f
t
= tensile strength of concrete, in psi
F = friction factor of subgrade
f
s
=

allowable working stress in steel, in psi
Use of the above formula requires three parameters: allowable working stress for steel, tensile strength of concrete and a
friction factor for the subbase. The recommended working stress for steel is 75 percent of the specified minimum yield
strength. The tensile strength of concrete may be estimated as 67 percent of the flexural strength. The recommended
friction factor for stabilized subbase is 1.8. While not recommended as subbase for CRCP, friction factors for non-
stabilized fine-grained soils and coarse-grained soils are usually assumed to be 1.0 and 1.5 respectively.
(2) Steel to Resist Temperature Effects. The longitudinal embedded steel must be capable of
withstanding the forces generated by the expansion and contraction of the pavement due to temperature changes. The
following formula is used to compute the temperature embedded steel requirements.
T f
f
P
s
t
S
195
50
÷
=

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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


where:
P
s
= embedded steel in percent
f
t
= tensile strength of concrete, 67% of the flexural strength is recommended
f
s
= working stress for steel usually taken as 75% of specified minimum yield strength
T = maximum seasonal temperature differential for pavement in degrees Fahrenheit
Reinforcing steel should be specified on the basis of minimum yield strength. All deformed reinforcing steel bars should
conform to ASTM A615 or A996. Deformed welded wire fabric should conform to ASTM A497.
(3) Concrete to Steel Strength Ratio. The third consideration in selecting the amount of
longitudinal embedded steel is the ratio of concrete tensile strength to the specified minimum yield strength of steel. The
steel percentage is obtained by multiplying the ratio of the concrete strength to the yield strength of steel by 100.
y
t
S
f
f
P
100
=

where:
P
s
= embedded steel in percent
f
t
= tensile strength of concrete
f
y
= minimum yield strength of steel
d. Transverse Steel Design. Transverse embedded steel is recommended for CRCP airport pavements
to control “chance” longitudinal cracks, which sometimes form. It is also aids in construction by supporting and
maintaining longitudinal embedded steel spacing. The following formula is used for determining transverse steel
requirements:
( ) 100
2
% × =
S
S
S
f
F W
P

where:
P
s
= embedded steel in percent
W
s
= width of slab, in feet
F = friction factor of subgrade
f
s
=

allowable working stress in steel, in psi, 0.75 of yield strength recommended
e. Steel Detailing. Longitudinal embedded steel should be located at mid-depth of the slab or slightly
above. Transverse steel may be located either above or below the longitudinal steel. A minimum concrete cover of 3
inches (76 mm) should be maintained over all embedded steel. Longitudinal steel spacing should be 6 to 12 inches (152
to 305 mm). Transverse steel should be spaced at 12 inches (305 mm) or greater. The recommended overlap for splicing
of reinforcing bars is 25 diameters or 16 inches (406 mm), whichever is greater. The recommended overlap for splicing
deformed welded wire fabric is 32 diameters or 16 inches (406 mm), whichever is greater. When splicing longitudinal
steel bar reinforcing it is recommended that the lap splices be made on a 60 degree skew from centerline or staggered
such that not more than one-third of the bars are spliced on the same transverse plane.
49
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


FIGURE 3-11. JOINTING IN RIGID PAVEMENT WITH EMBEDDED STEEL
50
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


344. CRCP JOINTING. Even though transverse contraction joints can be eliminated with CRCP, some joints will
be needed to accommodate construction and to control warping stresses. The two types of joints are discussed below:
a. Construction Joints. Two types of construction joints are necessary for CRCP. Because pavements
are constructed in multiple lanes, a longitudinal construction joint is required between lanes. A transverse construction
joint must be provided where paving ends and begins, such as at the finish of a day’s paving and the start of the next
day’s paving. Typical construction joint details are shown in figure 3-12.
b. Warping Joints. Warping joints or hinged joints are needed when the paving lane width exceeds the
recommended maximum longitudinal joint spacings shown in table 3-16. Transverse steel is carried through the joint to
provide continuity and positive aggregate interlock across the joint. Since carrying the steel through the joint eliminates
any expansion or contraction capacity, the maximum width of tied pavement should not exceed 75 feet (23 m), see
paragraph 334a. Typical warping joint details are shown in figures 3-12 and 3-13.

FIGURE 3-12. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – JOINT DETAILS
345. CRCP TERMINAL TREATMENT. Since long slabs of CRCP are constructed with no transverse joints,
provisions must be made to either restrain or accommodate end movements wherever the CRCP abuts other pavements
or structures. Rather large end movements, up to 2 inches (51 mm), are experienced with CRCP due to thermal
expansion and contraction. End movement is normally not a problem except where CRCP abuts another pavement or
structure. Experience with highway CRCP shows that attempts to restrain end movement have not been too successful.
More favorable results are achieved where end movement is accommodated rather than restrained. Joints designed to
accommodate large movements are required where CRCP intersects other pavements or abuts another structures. Failure
to do so may result in damage to the CRCP, pavement or other structure. Wide flange beam type joints or finger type
joints can accommodate the movements. The wide flange beam type joint is recommended due to its relatively lower
costs. A sketch of the wide flange beam joint is shown on figure 3-14.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


FIGURE 3-13. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – JOINT DETAILS
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E



10ft (3 m)
FIGURE 3-14. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – WIDE FLANGE BEAM
TERMINAL JOINT
53
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

346. CRCP DESIGN EXAMPLE. An example design for CRCP is given below. Assume a CRCP is to be
designed to serve the following conditions:
a. The following mix of airplanes is assumed:
TABLE 3-21. AIRPLANE MIX DATA FOR CRCP DESIGN EXAMPLE
Airplane Gross Weight, lb Annual Departures % Annual Growth
B737-800 174,700 10,000 0
A320-100 150,796 750 0
B777-200 ER 657,000 8760 0
b. Subgrade E value is 25,000 psi (172 MPa)
c. The lower (aggregate) subbase is P-154, 8 inches (203 mm) thick, and the upper (stabilized) subbase
is P-306, 6 inches (152 mm) thick.
d. Concrete Flexural Strength - 650 psi (4.5 MPa)
e. Minimum Specified Yield Strength of Steel - 60,000 psi (414 MPa) (Longitudinal and Transverse)
f. Paving Lane Width - 25 feet (7.6 m) Cement Stabilized Subbase
g. Seasonal Temperature Differential - 100°F (38°C)
(1) Slab Thickness. Enter the input data listed in (a) to (d) in program FAARFIELD. The
calculated slab thickness (15.61 inches) is shown in figure 3-15. Round this thickness to the closest 0.5 inch to obtain or
15.5 inches (394 mm).

FIGURE 3-15. COMPUTED SLAB THICKNESS, CRCP EXAMPLE
(2) Steel Design. The longitudinal reinforcing steel would be determined as described in
paragraph 343c:
(i) Subgrade Restraint. Using the formula in paragraph 342c(1) with the following
inputs:
Working stress = 75% × 60,000 psi (414 MPa) = 45,000 psi (310 MPa)
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


Friction factor = 1.8
Tensile strength of concrete = 67% of 650 psi (4.5 MPa) = 436 psi (3.0 MPa)
The longitudinal steel required to withstand the forces generated by subgrade restraint is:
( ) % 91 . 0 100
000 , 45
436
8 . 1 2 . 0 3 . 1 = × × × ÷ =
S
P

(ii) Temperature Effects. The steel required to withstand the forces generated by
seasonal temperature changes is computed using the formula given in paragraph 343c(2).
% 86 . 0
100 195 000 , 45
436 50
=
× ÷
×
=
S
P

(iii) Concrete to Steel Strength Ratio. The strength ratio between the concrete and
steel is computed by the procedure given in paragraph 343c(3).
% 73 . 0
000 , 60
436 100
=
×
=
S
P

(iv) Transverse Steel. The transverse reinforcing steel percentage would be determined
using the formula in 342d:
05 . 0 100
000 , 45 2
8 . 1 25
= ×
×
×
=
S
P

This will yield a transverse steel requirement of 0.05 percent
(v) Final Design. The final design would be a 15.5 inch (394 cm) thick concrete slab.
Since the steel percentage necessary to satisfy the subgrade restraint condition is the largest steel percentage for
longitudinal embedded steel, the value of 0.91 percent would be selected for design. The transverse steel requirement is
0.05 percent. The longitudinal steel requirement can be satisfied by using #7 reinforcing bars spaced at 4 inches (102
mm). The transverse steel requirement can be met by using #4 bars on 24 inch (610 mm) centers.
347. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PAVEMENT. Prestressed concrete pavements have been used in airport
applications in Europe and to a limited extent in the United States. Prestressed concrete airport pavements are usually
post-tensioned with high strength steel strands. These pavements are usually considerably thinner than plain, jointed
reinforced, or continuously reinforced concrete pavements yet provide high load carrying capacity. Slab lengths on the
order of 400 to 500 feet (120 to 152 m) are generally used. A design procedure for prestressed airport pavements was
developed under an FAA research effort and is reported in Research Report Number FAA-RD-74-34, Volume II. Use of
prestressed concrete airport pavements on federally assisted projects will require FAA approval on a case by case basis.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009





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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


CHAPTER 4. AIRPORT PAVEMENT OVERLAYS
AND RECONSTRUCTION
400. GENERAL. Airport pavement overlays or reconstruction may be required for a variety of reasons. A
pavement may require an overlay or reconstruction because the original pavement has served its design life and it is
simply “worn out.” A pavement may also require an overlay or rehabilitation due to surface conditions or material-
related distresses. A pavement may have been damaged by overloading in such a way that it cannot be economically
maintained at a serviceable level. Similarly, a pavement in good condition may require strengthening to serve heavier
airplanes than those for which the pavement was originally designed. Generally, airport pavement overlays consist of
either Portland cement concrete or hot mix asphalt concrete. Techniques and equipment are now available to recycle old
pavement materials into reconstructed sections. Pavements that are severely distressed in the center portions can
sometimes be economically rehabilitated by reconstructing the keel section. The reconstruction method can consider
using recycled materials.
401. CONDITION OF EXISTING PAVEMENT. Assessment of the condition of the existing pavement is one of
the most important and difficult steps in design of a reconstruction or overlay project. Measurement of the properties of
the existing pavement should include the thickness, condition, and strength of each layer; the subgrade soil
classification; and some estimate of foundation strength (CBR or subgrade modulus). An assessment of the structural
integrity of the existing pavement is necessary. The overlay design procedures in this AC assume that the overlay is to
be placed on a base pavement with significant structural integrity. Problems such as alkali-silica reactivity in existing
rigid pavements should be addressed, and if necessary mitigated, prior to overlay. Severely distressed areas in the
existing pavement should be carefully studied to determine the cause of the distresses and to determine potential
mitigation. Subsurface drainage conditions should be assessed carefully and corrected if found to be deficient. In some
instances, subsurface drainage corrections are best performed through reconstruction. Overlaying an existing pavement
without correcting poor subsurface drainage will usually result in poor overlay performance. A valuable technique for
assessing the structural condition of the existing pavement is nondestructive pavement testing (NDT) (see AC
150/5370-11, Use of Nondestructive Testing Devices in the Evaluation of Airport Pavement, Appendix 4). NDT can be
used to estimate foundation strength, measure joint load transfer, and possibly detect voids in existing pavements. NDT
can also be used to determine structural capacity, to assist with calculating PCN, and to assess areas of localized
weakness.
402. MATERIAL SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS. Criteria are presented in this circular for both hot mix
asphalt and concrete reconstruction or overlays. The selection of the material type should be made after careful
consideration of many factors. The designer should consider the total life cycle cost of the reconstructed or overlay
pavement (see DOT-FAA-RD-81/078, Appendix 4). Life cycle costs should include initial construction and
maintenance costs over the design life of the pavement. Other considerations such as allowable downtime of the
pavement and availability of alternate pavements to use during construction will have a significant impact on the
material selected.
403. OVERLAY DESIGN. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to the design of overlay pavements. As
previously mentioned, the design of reconstructed pavements is essentially the same as for new construction.
a. Typical Overlay Cross Sections and Definitions. Typical overlay pavement cross sections are
shown in figure 4-l. Definitions applicable to overlay pavements are as follows:
(1) Overlay Pavement. Pavement that is constructed on top of an existing pavement.
(2) Hot Mix Asphalt Overlay. Hot mix asphalt pavement placed on an existing pavement.
(3) Concrete Overlay. Portland cement concrete pavement placed on an existing pavement.
(4) Sandwich Pavement. Overlay pavement sections containing granular separation courses
between the old and new impervious surfaces are called sandwich pavements.
b. Sandwich Pavements. Regardless of the type of overlay, FAA criteria do not permit the construction
of sandwich overlay pavements. They are not allowed because the granular separation course usually becomes saturated
with water and provides poor or, at best, unpredictable performance. Saturation of the separation course can be caused
by the infiltration of surface water, ingress of ground or capillary water, or the condensation of water from the
atmosphere. In any event, the water in the separation course usually cannot be adequately drained. The trapped water
drastically reduces the stability of the overlay. However, where an existing concrete surface layer over a stabilized
57
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

subbase is rubblized prior to placement of a HMA or PCC overlay, the overlaid structure should not be considered
sandwich construction.


FIGURE 4-1. TYPICAL OVERLAY PAVEMENTS
58
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


c. FAARFIELD Overlay Design. The layered elastic and three-dimensional finite element methods as
implemented in the FAARFIELD program allow a direct approach for overlay design. FAARFIELD calculates the
thickness of overlay required to provide a 20-year life, which satisfies the layered elastic failure criteria for limiting
stress or strain. The 20-year life thickness is defined as the design thickness. Report DOT-FAA-PM-87/19, Design of
Overlays for Rigid Airport Pavements (see Appendix 4), describes the developed through an FAA-funded research
effort design method for overlays of rigid pavement. Overlay pavements are grouped into four different types as
follows:
(1) Hot Mix Asphalt Overlay of Existing Flexible Pavement
(2) Concrete Overlay of Existing Flexible Pavement
(3) Hot Mix Asphalt Overlay of Existing Rigid Pavement
(4) Concrete Overlay of Existing Rigid Pavement
404. OVERLAYS OF EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS. The design of an overlay for an existing flexible
pavement is essentially the same as designing a new pavement. The existing flexible pavement is characterized by
assigning the appropriate thicknesses and moduli of the existing layers. A qualified engineer should be consulted to
characterize the existing pavement layers.
a. Hot Mix Overlay of an Existing Flexible Pavement. A trial thickness of overlay is selected and the
program iterates until a CDF of 1.0 is reached. The overlay thickness required to achieve a CDF of 1.0 is the design
thickness. However, the minimum hot mix overlay of an existing flexible pavement is 2 inches (50 mm).

FIGURE 4-2. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
(1) Example. To illustrate the procedure of designing HMA overlay, assume an existing taxiway
pavement composed of the following section: the subgrade CBR is 10, (E is 15,000 psi (103.42 MPa)), the HMA
surface course is 4 inches (102 mm) thick, the standard base course (P-209) is 10 inches (254 mm) thick, and the
subbase (P-154) is 6 inches (152 mm) thick. Frost action is negligible. Assume the existing pavement is to be
strengthened to accommodate the following airplane mix: DC10-10 weighing 458,000 pounds (207 745 kg) at an annual
departure level of 2,263, B747-200B Combi Mixed weighing 873,000 pounds (395 986 kg) at an annual departure level
of 832, a B777-200 ER weighing 634,500 pounds (287 804 kg) at an annual departure level of 425. The flexible
pavement thickness required based on FAARFIELD for these conditions is—
59
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

P-401 asphalt overlay 7.78 inches (198 mm)
P-401 asphalt surface 4.00 inches (102 mm)
P-209 standard base 10.00 inches (254 mm)
P-154 standard subbase 6.00 inches (152 mm)
Total pavement thickness 27.78 inches (706 mm)
The required overlay thickness of 7.78 inches (198 mm) will be rounded up to 8 inches (203 mm) as shown in figure 4-
2. In this example the existing pavement structure does not require a stabilized base to accommodate airplanes
weighting more than 100,000 pounds. The lack of stabilized base is compensated by designing thicker asphalt overlay
than it would be required in case of stabilized base in place.
(2) Summary. Structurally, an 8 inch (203 mm) thick overlay should satisfy the design
conditions. The overlay thickness calculated from structural considerations should be compared with that required to
satisfy geometric requirements. Geometric requirements include, for example, provision of drainage, correcting crown
and grade, meeting grade of other adjacent pavements and structures, etc. The most difficult part of designing hot mix
asphalt overlays for flexible pavements is the determination of the properties of the existing pavement. Subgrade and
subbase properties can be measured by conducting NDT. The subgrade and subbase must be at the equilibrium moisture
content when field tests are conducted. Normally, a pavement that has been in place for at least 3 years will be in
equilibrium. Procedures for calculating properties from nondestructive tests are contained in AC 150/5370-11.
b. Nonstructural Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays. In some instances overlays are required to correct
nonstructural problems such as restoration of crown, improve rideability, etc. Thickness calculations are not required in
these situations, as thickness is controlled by other design considerations or minimum practical overlay thickness.
Although the overlay in this case is not necessary for structural requirements it may be included when computing
pavement strength (PCN). Information concerning runway roughness correction can be found in FAA Report No. FAA-
RD-75-110, Methodology for Determining, Isolating and Correcting Runway Roughness (see Appendix 4).
c. Concrete Overlay of an Existing Flexible Pavement. The design of a concrete overlay on an
existing flexible pavement is essentially the same as designing a new rigid pavement. The existing flexible pavement is
characterized by assigning the appropriate thicknesses and moduli of the existing layers. A trial thickness of overlay is
selected and the program iterates until a CDF of 1.0 is reached. The overlay thickness required to achieve a CDF of 1.0
is the design thickness. The design process is relatively simple; however, the characterization of the existing pavement
layers requires judgment by a qualified engineer. The program assumes the interface between the concrete overlay and
the existing flexible surface is frictionless. When frost conditions require additional thickness, the use of nonstabilized
material below the rigid pavement overlay is not allowed, as this would result in a sandwich pavement. Frost protection
must be provided by stabilized material. The minimum thickness for a concrete overlay of an existing flexible pavement
should be 5 inches (130 mm).
(1) Example. To illustrate the procedure of designing a concrete overlay, assume an existing
taxiway pavement composed of the following section: the subgrade CBR = 10 (equivalent to E = 15,000 psi (103.4
MPa) or k = 141 pci (38.4 MN/m
3
) using the conversion formulas from paragraph 326), the HMA surface course is 4
inches (102 mm) thick, and the base course is 12 inches (305 mm) thick. Frost action is negligible. Assume the existing
pavement is to be strengthened to accommodate the following airplane mix: DC10-10 weighing 458,000 pounds (207
745 kg) at an annual departure level of 2,263, B747-200B Combi Mixed weighing 873,000 pounds (395 986 kg) at an
annual departure level of 832, and B777-200 ER weighing 634,500 pounds (207 804 kg) at an annual departure level of
425. The concrete overlay required based on FAARFIELD for these conditions is:
PCC overlay on flexible 15.41 inches (392 mm)
P-401 asphalt surface 4.00 inches (102 mm)
P-209 base 12.00 inches (305 mm)
Total pavement thickness 31.41 inches (789 mm)
Figure 4-3 shows the required concrete overlay thickness is 15.41 inches (392 mm), which is rounded up to the nearest
0.5 inch, or 15.5 inches (381 mm).
60
9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E



FIGURE 4-3. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF RIGID OVERLAY ON EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
405. OVERLAYS OF EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENTS. The design of overlays for an existing rigid pavement
is complex because deterioration of the underlying pavement as well as deterioration of the overlay must be considered.
The flexural strength of the existing rigid pavement can be determined using non-destructive testing (NDT), destructive
methods or engineering judgment. The condition of the existing rigid pavement prior to overlay is important and is
expressed in terms of the structural condition index (SCI) (see DOT-FAA-PM-87/19, Appendix 4).
a. Structural Condition Index (SCI). The SCI is derived from the pavement condition index (PCI) and
it is the summation of structural components from PCI. Additional guidance on deriving an SCI is provided in the
FAARFIELD user’s manual. The PCI is a numerical rating indicating the operational condition of an airport pavement
based on a visual survey. The scale ranges from a high of 100 to a low of 0, with 100 representing a pavement in
excellent condition and 0 representing complete failure. The PCI is measured following ASTM D 5340, Standard Test
Method for Airport Pavement Condition Index Survey (see Appendix 4). For rigid pavements, 15 different types of
distresses are considered in measuring the PCI. These distress types all reduce the PCI of a pavement, depending on
their severity and relative effect on performance. Not all distress types are indicative of structural distress. Report
DOT-FAA-PM-87/19 identifies six distress types that are indicative of the structural condition of the pavement. Table
4-1 lists these six distress types. The SCI can be computed automatically with computer programs such as
MicroPAVER, provided the distresses listed in table 4-1 are used to define the SCI.
TABLE 4-1. RIGID PAVEMENT DISTRESS TYPES USED TO CALCULATE
THE STRUCTURAL CONDITION INDEX, SCI
Distress Severity Level
Corner Break Low, Medium, High
Longitudinal/Transverse/Diagonal Cracking Low, Medium, High
Shattered Slab Low, Medium, High
Shrinkage Cracks (cracking partial width of slab)
a
Low
Spalling–Joint Low, Medium, High
Spalling–Corner Low, Medium, High
a
Used only to describe a load-induced crack that extends only part of the way across a slab.
The SCI does not include conventional shrinkage cracks due to curing or other non load-related problems.
An SCI of 80 is the FAA definition of structural failure of a rigid pavement, and is consistent with 50 percent of slabs in
the traffic area exhibiting a structural crack. The SCI allows a more precise and reproducible rating of a pavement’s
condition than the previous FAA condition factor ratings, C
b
and C
r
.
61
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

SCI can be calculated by the following equation:
¯¯
= =
× ÷ =
S
j
1 1
100 SCI
m
i
n
j
ij j i
) D , S , f(T a
where:
a = adjustment factor (see ASTM D 5340)
m
s
= total number of distress type related to the pavement structural failure
n
j
= total number of severity levels for the ith distress
f(T
i
,S
j
,D
ij
) = deduct value for distress type T
i
, at the severity level S
j
, existing at density D
ij
.
b. Cumulative Damage Factor Used (CDFU). In the case when the SCI of the existing pavement is
100 (i.e., no visible distresses contributing to a reduction in SCI), the condition of existing pavement is described by the
cumulative damage factor used (CDFU), which defines the amount of life that has been used by the existing pavement
up to the time of the overlay. For aggregate base layers, and assuming that traffic on the pavement has been constant
over time, a good estimate of CDFU can be obtained from:
CDFU
L
L
L L
L L
U
D
U D
U D
= <
= >
0 75
0 75
0 75
.
.
.
when
1 when

where:
L
U
= number of years of operation of the existing pavement until overlay
L
D
= design life of the existing pavement in years
This equation was derived from the empirical relationship between traffic coverages and SCI given in Report No. DOT-
FAA-PM-87/19 and applies to pavements on conventional (aggregate) base. However, FAARFIELD implements a
modification of this empirical relationship for higher quality base materials to account for the observed performance of
rigid pavements on stabilized bases. This modification essentially increases the percent of design life remaining after the
SCI starts to drop from 100 if the base and subbase layers are of higher quality than an 8-inch (203 mm) aggregate
subbase (aggregate base thicker than 8 inches (203 mm) or stabilized base thicker than 4 inches (102 mm)). Hence, the
simple relationship given above is not valid for such structures. In FAARFIELD, the percent CDFU is computed and
displayed when the Life button is clicked in the STRUCTURE window.
The procedure for computing percent CDFU for a rigid pavement with SCI = 100 follows:
(1) Set up the structure based on the original design assumptions.
(2) Estimate the traffic that has been applied to the pavement and enter it into the airplane design
list.
(3) Set “Design Life” to the number of years the pavement will have been in operation up to the
time of overlay.
(4) Run Life.
The percent CDFU will be displayed when the computation is completed. Values of percent CDFU greater than 100
indicate that the procedure predicts that the SCI of the pavement should be less than 100. A value of 100 should then be
entered for percent CDFU as input data for the overlay design. However, since the computation of percent CDFU will
be based on estimated structure properties and traffic, the value is likely to be unreliable. An alternative procedure is to
run Design Structure for the original structure with design life set to the actual design life, where actual design life is
typically the 20 year design period. Then repeat the steps given above and use the new value of percent CDFU.
If it is suspected that the pavement has been subjected to more or heavier traffic than assumed in the Life computation,
percent CDFU should be increased from the computed value. Setting percent CDFU to 100 will give the most
conservative design.
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For fully unbonded concrete overlay, the modulus of the base pavement varies as a function of the SCI of the base
pavement when the SCI is less than 100. This computation is done automatically within FAARFIELD. The equations
for the modulus reduction as a function of the SCI are given in Report No. DOT-FAA-PM-87/19.
Example. The following steps illustrate the procedure for calculating CDFU:

FIGURE 4-4. CDFU COMPUTATION USING FAARFIELD
(1) Set up the structure based on the original design assumptions. Assume an existing taxiway
pavement composed of: 15.3 inch (388 mm) thick PCC surface course; 6 inch (152 mm) thick stabilized base course,
Item P-306 Econocrete; 6 inch (152 mm) thick subbase course, Item P-209 Crushed Aggregate. The subgrade k-value is
141 pci (38.4 MN/m3), equivalent to an E-modulus of 15,000 psi (103.4 MPa). The existing pavement was designed to
accommodate the following airplane mix: 2263 annual departures of the DC10-10 (gross taxi weight 458,000 lbs (207
700 kg)), 832 annual departures of the B747-200B Combi Mixed (gross taxi weight 833,000 lbs (377 800 kg)), and 425
annual departures of the B777-200 ER (gross taxi weight 634,500 lbs (287 800 kg)). The design life was 20 years.
(2) Estimate the traffic applied to the pavement and enter it into the airplane design list. Assume
that the annual traffic levels actually applied to the pavement were: 1200 annual departures of the DC10-10, 300 annual
departures of the B747, and 200 annual departures of the B777.
(3) Set “Design Life” to the number of years the pavement will have been in operation up to the
time of the overlay. Assume that at the time of the overlay the taxiway will have been in operation for 12 years. In the
“Structure” window, click on “Design Life” and change to 12 years. Figure 4-4 shows that the design life has been
adjusted to 12 years.
(4) Run Life. The calculated percent CDFU will appear on the Structure screen, at the lower left
of the pavement section. (See figure 4-4).
For the above case, FAARFIELD calculates percent CDFU equal to 40.08. For overlay design, the value CDFU = 40
percent would be used.
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Higher traffic levels, heavier airplanes, or a longer “design life” will result in a higher calculated value of %CDFU. In
this example, if the higher traffic levels used in the original design had actually been applied to the pavement, the
percent CDFU computed by FAARFIELD would increase to 87.21.
c. Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays of Existing Rigid Pavements. The design process for hot mix overlays
of rigid pavements considers two conditions for the existing rigid pavement to be overlaid: (1) SCI of the existing
pavement less than 100; (2) SCI equal to 100.
(1) Structural Condition Index Less Than 100. The most likely situation is one in which the
existing pavement is exhibiting some structural distress, i.e., the SCI is less than 100. If the SCI is less than 100, the
overlay and base pavement deteriorate at a given rate until failure is reached. FAARFIELD assumes an initial overlay
thickness and iterates on the overlay thickness until a 20-year life is predicted. A 20-year predicted life satisfies the
design requirements.
(i) Example. To illustrate the procedure of designing a HMA overlay, assume an
existing taxiway pavement composed of the following section: the subgrade k-value is 141 pci (38.4 MN/m
3
),
equivalent to an E modulus of 15,000 psi (103.42 MPa), the PCC surface course is 14 inches (356 mm) thick, the
stabilized base course is 6 inches (152 mm) thick, and the subbase course is 6 inches (152 mm). Based on a visual
survey, the existing pavement is assigned an SCI of 70. Frost action is negligible. Assume the existing pavement is to be
strengthened to accommodate the following airplane mix: DC10-10 weighing 458,000 pounds (207 745 kg) at an annual
departure level of 2,263, B747-200B Combi Mixed weighing 873,000 pounds (395 986 kg) at an annual departure level
of 832, and B777-200 ER weighing 634,500 pounds (207 804 kg) at an annual departure level of 425. The flexible
pavement overlay required based on FAARFIELD for these conditions is:
P-401 AC overlay 4.29 inches (109 mm)
PCC Surface 14 inches (356 mm)
P-304 Stabilized base 6 inches (152 mm)
P-209 Subbase 6 inches (152 mm)
Total pavement thickness 30.29 inches (770 mm)
The required overlay thickness is 4.29 inches (109 mm) and will be rounded up to 4.5 inches (114 mm) (See figure 4-5).
The thickness generated by FAARFIELD does not address reflection cracking. Additional guidance on reflection
cracking is provided in paragraph 405c(5).

FIGURE 4-5. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENT WITH
SCI 70
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(2) Structural Condition Index Equal to 100. An existing pavement with an SCI of 100 might
require an overlay to strengthen the pavement in order to accept heavier airplanes. If the SCI of the base pavement is
equal to 100, an additional input is required, the percent CDFU. FAARFIELD assumes the base pavement will
deteriorate at one rate while the SCI is equal to 100 and at a different rate after the SCI drops below 100. As with case
(1), a trial overlay thickness is input, and the program iterates on that thickness until a 20-year life is predicted. The
design thickness is the thickness that provides a 20-year predicted life.
(i) Example. To illustrate the procedure of designing an HMA overlay, assume an
existing rigid taxiway pavement. The existing pavement section and airplane mix is the same as the example in (1)
above. Frost action is negligible. The SCI is 100 (there are no visible structural distresses), but based on an analysis of
the traffic that has been applied by the pavement to date, the % CDFU is estimated to be 50 percent. The flexible
pavement overlay required based on FAARFIELD for these conditions is:
P-401 AC overlay 3.25 inches (83 mm)
PCC Surface 14.00 inches (356 mm)
P-304 Stabilized base 6.00 inches (152 mm)
P-209 Subbase 6.00 inches (152 mm)
Total pavement thickness 29.25 inches (743 mm)
The required overlay thickness (as shown in figure 4-6) is 3.25 inches (83 mm), which will be rounded up to 3.5 inches
(89 mm). The required overlay thickness is 1 inch (25.4 mm) less than the example in (1), reflecting the fact that the
PCC is in better condition.

FIGURE 4-6. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENT WITH
SCI 100
(3) Previously Overlaid Rigid Pavement. The design of a hot mix asphalt overlay for a rigid
pavement that already has an existing hot mix asphalt overlay is slightly different. The designer should treat the problem
as if the existing hot mix asphalt overlay were not present, calculate the overlay thickness required, and then adjust the
calculated thickness to compensate for the existing overlay. If this procedure is not used, inconsistent results will often
be produced. The condition of the rigid pavement should be determined using engineering judgment.
(4) Limitations. For hot mix asphalt overlay thickness, the FAARFIELD program assumes the
existing rigid pavement will support load through flexural action. As the overlay thickness becomes greater, at some
point the existing rigid pavement will tend to act more like a high quality base material. As the overlay thickness
approaches the thickness of the rigid pavement, it may be more economical to treat the design as a new flexible
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pavement design on a high quality base material. For the new flexible case, the existing PCC should be considered as a
variable stabilized (flexible) base layer with the modulus determined by engineering judgment. Both cases (HMA on
rigid overlay, and new flexible on high quality base) should be tried, and the more economical design selected.
(5) Reflection Cracking In Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays. Reflection cracking is often a problem
in hot mix asphalt overlays particularly overlays of rigid pavement. The thickness generated by FAARFIELD does not
address reflection cracking. Numerous materials and techniques have been tried attempting to solve the problem with
varying degrees of success. The following methods have met with some success:
(i) Coarse Aggregate Binders. The use of coarse aggregate binder course is
recommended where economically feasible. Use of the largest practical size coarse aggregate in the hot mix asphalt
layer immediately above the existing pavement is recommended. This practice provides some measure of protection
against reflection cracking.
(ii) Rubblization of Existing PCC Pavement. If the condition of the existing rigid
pavement is very poor (i.e., extensive structural cracking, joint faulting, “D” cracking, etc.), consideration may be given
to using the rubblization technique. Subgrade support conditions must be considered, as weak subgrade support can
cause difficulties in rubblizing the existing pavement and cause premature failures in the completed pavement.
Rubblization involves purposely breaking the existing rigid pavement into small pieces and then rolling the broken
pieces to firmly seat them in the foundation. A hot mix asphalt layer is then placed over the pavement. This type of
section is designed as a flexible pavement, treating the broken rigid pavement as base course. Reflective cracking is
reduced or eliminated with this type of construction (See AAPTP Report 04-01, Development of Guidelines for
Rubblization, for additional information).
(iii) Engineering Fabrics. Research studies and field performance have shown that
fabric membranes may be effective in retarding reflection cracking. While fabrics will not eliminate reflection cracking
altogether, they do provide some degree of waterproofing beneath reflection cracks, thus protecting the existing
pavement and foundation. At present, the waterproofing capability of fabrics, assuming the capacity of the asphalt
impregnated fabric to resist rupture is not lost, appears to be the most significant contribution provided in a hot mix
asphalt overlay system. Existing pavements, whether flexible or rigid, that show evidence of excessive deflections,
substantial thermal stresses, and/or poor drainage, probably will exhibit no improvement by including a fabric in a
structural overlay. The following conditions are recommended for fabric usage:
(iv) Fabric Properties. The fabric should have a minimum tensile strength of at least 90
pounds (41 kg) when tested in accordance with ASTM D 4632 and a density in the range of 3 to 5.5 ounces per square
yard (70 to 130 grams per square meter).
(v) Tack Coat. The proper amount of tack coat applied to the fabric is critical.
Emulsified asphalt applied at a rate of from 0.15 to 0.30 gallons per square yard (0.7 to 1.4 liters per square meter) is
recommended. The optimum amount of tack coat will depend on the type of fabric and the surface on which the fabric
is placed.
(vi) Crack and Seat. The crack and seat process involves cracking a PCC layer into
pieces typically measuring 1.5 to 2 feet (0.46 m to 0.6 m) and firmly seating the pieces into the subgrade prior to
overlaying with asphalt concrete. It is an alternative method and should be evaluated by FAA Headquarters on a case-
by-case basis.
(vii) Asphalt Reinforcement. Destructive tensile stresses in asphalt pavements may be
reduced by incorporating a reinforcement material. Reinforcement materials are similar to fabric membranes except the
reinforcement is either a woven fabric or a grid-shaped material. These materials have very high tensile strength and
very low strain capacity. Products with a combination of fabric materials and reinforcement grids have been developed
and appear to be successful in retarding reflective cracking. Depending upon the material type and the intended purpose,
reinforcing materials may be applied across the full width of the pavement or may be limited to the immediate area
around joints and cracks. FAARFIELD does not address asphalt reinforcement in the thickness design.
d. Concrete Overlays of Existing Concrete Pavements. The design of a concrete overlay of an
existing rigid pavement is the most complex type of overlay to be designed. Deterioration of the concrete overlay and
existing rigid pavement must be considered as well as the degree of bond between the overlay and existing pavement.
FAARFIELD considers two degrees of bond and addresses each one separately for thickness design.
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(1) Fully Unbonded Concrete Overlay. An unbonded concrete overlay of an existing rigid
pavement is one in which steps are taken to intentionally eliminate bonding between the overlay and existing pavement.
Commonly, the bond is broken by applying a thin hot mix layer to the existing rigid pavement. The interface friction
coefficient between the overlay and existing pavement is set to reflect an unbonded condition. The interface coefficient
is fixed and cannot be changed by the user. As with hot mix asphalt overlays, an SCI is required to describe the
condition of the existing pavement. A trial overlay thickness is input and FAARFIELD iterates until a 20-year service
life is predicted. The thickness that yields a 20-year service life is the design thickness. However, the minimum
thickness for a fully unbonded concrete overlay is 5 inches (130 mm).
(i) Example. To illustrate the procedure of designing an unbonded concrete overlay,
assume an existing taxiway pavement composed of the following section: SCI is 40 for the existing PCC surface, the
subgrade k-value is 141 pci (38.4 MN/m3), corresponding to an E-modulus of 15,000 psi (103.42 MPa), the existing
PCC surface course is 14 inches (102 mm) thick, the base course is 6 inches (305 mm) thick, and the subbase course is 6
inches (152 mm). Frost action is negligible. Assume the existing pavement is to be strengthened to accommodate the
following airplane mix: DC10-10 weighing 458,000 pounds (207 745 kg) at an annual departure level of 2,263, B747-
200B Combi Mixed weighing 873,000 pounds (395 986 kg) at an annual departure level of 832, and B777-200 ER
weighing 634,500 pounds (207 804 kg) at an annual departure level of 425. Assume that the PCC strength is 700 psi for
both the overlay and the existing concrete. The overlay structure computed by FAARFIELD for these conditions is—
PCC unbonded overlay 13.52 inches (343 mm)
Debonding layer 1.00 inches (25 mm)¹
PCC Surface 14 inches (356 mm)
P-304 Stabilized base 6 inches (152 mm)
P-209 Subbase 6 inches (152 mm)
Total pavement thickness 39.52 inches (1 004 mm)
¹Note: FAARFIELD does not include the debonding layer in thickness calculations.

FIGURE 4-7. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF RIGID OVERLAY ON EXISTING FULLY UNBONDED RIGID
PAVEMENT
Figure 4-7 shows the required overlay thickness is 13.52 inches (343 mm), which will be rounded to the nearest 0.5
inches, or 13.5 inches (343 mm).
(2) Bonded Concrete Overlays. Concrete overlays bonded to existing rigid pavements are
sometimes used under certain conditions. By bonding the concrete overlay to the existing rigid pavement the new
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section behaves as a monolithic slab. In FAARFIELD, a bonded overlay can be designed as a new rigid pavement by
treating the existing concrete surface and the concrete overlay as a combined single layer. The flexural strength used in
the FAARFIELD computation should be the strength of the existing concrete. The thickness of the bonded overlay
required is computed by subtracting the thickness of the existing pavement from the total thickness of the required slab
as computed by FAARFIELD:
e c
h h h ÷ =
where:
h
c
= required thickness of concrete overlay
h = required slab thickness computed by FAARFIELD using the flexural strength of the existing concrete
h
e
= thickness of existing rigid pavement
Bonded overlays should be used only when the existing rigid pavement is in good to excellent condition. The minimum
thickness of concrete overlay that is bonded to an existing rigid pavement is 3 inches (75 mm). Defects in the existing
pavement are more likely to reflect through a bonded overlay than other types of concrete overlays. The major problem
likely to be encountered with bonded concrete overlays is achieving adequate bond. Elaborate surface preparation and
exacting construction techniques are required to ensure the bond.
(3) Jointing of Concrete Overlays. Where a rigid pavement is to receive the overlay, some
modification to jointing criteria may be necessary because of the design and joint arrangement of the existing pavement.
The following points may be used as guides in connection with the design and layout of joints in concrete overlays.
(i) Joint Types. Joints need not be of the same type as in the old pavement except for
some bonded overlay applications.
(ii) Isolation Joints. It is not necessary to provide an isolation joint for each isolation
joint in the old pavement; however, a saw cut or plane of weakness should be provided within 1 foot (0.3 m) of the
existing isolation joint.
(iii) Timing. The timing for sawing joints is extremely critical on concrete overlays to
minimize curling and warping stresses and prevent random cracking.
(iv) Contraction Joints. Contraction joints in unbonded overlays may be placed
directly over or within 1 foot (0.3 m) of existing expansion, construction, or contraction joints. Joints in bonded
overlays should be located within 0.5 inch (13 mm) of joints in the existing base pavement. Should spacing result in
slabs too long to control cracking, additional intermediate contraction joints may be necessary.
(v) Joint Pattern. If a concrete overlay with a leveling course is used, the joint pattern
in the overlay does not have to match the joint pattern in the existing pavement.
(vi) Reinforcement. Overlay slabs longer or wider than 20 feet (6.1 m) should contain
embedded steel regardless of overlay thickness.
406. THICKNESS DESIGN FOR RUBBLIZED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS. Rubblization of deteriorated
concrete pavements is becoming a popular method of pavement rehabilitation. The rubblization process destroys the
slab action by breaking the concrete slab into 1- to 3-inch pieces at the top and 3- to 15-inch pieces at the bottom. The
rubblized concrete layer behaves as a tightly keyed, interlocked, high-density non-stabilized base. The rubblized
concrete base prevents the formation of reflective cracks in the asphalt concrete overlay and provides a sound base
course.
The thickness design procedure for asphalt concrete overlay over a rubblized concrete base is similar to the asphalt
overlay on flexible pavement. A rubblized PCC layer is available in FAARFIELD. The recommended modulus values
for the Rubblized PCC layer range from 100,000-psi to 400,000-psi. Engineering judgment is required for the selection
of an appropriate modulus value. The following ranges are suggested for selecting a design modulus value of rubblized
PCC on airfields:
· For slabs 6 to 8 inches thick: Moduli from 100 to 135 ksi
· For slabs 8 to 14 inches thick: Moduli from 135 to 235 ksi
· For slabs >14 inches thick: Moduli from 235 to 400 ksi
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The selected value is influenced by considerations such as level of conservatism in the design, exact slab thickness
within the above ranges, pre-rubblized PCC modulus anticipated particle size, steel debonding conditions, and relevant
historical data. For further insight into selecting a design modulus of rubblized PCC, reference AAPTP 04-01 .
For a rigid overlay placed over rubblized PCC, the thickness design procedure is similar to that for a new rigid
pavement. Some engineering judgment is required for the selection of an appropriate modulus value for the rubblized
PCC layer.
407. PREPARATION OF THE EXISTING SURFACE FOR THE OVERLAY. Before proceeding with
construction of the overlay, steps should be taken to correct all defective areas in the existing surface, base, subbase, and
subgrade. Careful execution of this part of an overlay project is essential as a poorly prepared base pavement will result
in an unsatisfactory overlay. Deficiencies in the base pavement will often be reflected in the overlay.
a. Existing Flexible Pavements. Failures in flexible pavements may consist of pavement breakups,
potholes and surface irregularities, and depressions.
(1) Removal and Replacement. Localized areas of failed pavement will have to be removed
and replaced with new pavement. This type of failure is usually encountered where the pavement is deficient in
thickness, the subgrade consists of unstable material, or poor drainage has reduced the supporting power of the
subgrade. To correct this condition, the subgrade material should be replaced with a select subgrade soil or by
installation of proper drainage facilities; this is the first operation to be undertaken in repairing this type of failure.
Following the correction of the subgrade condition, the subbase, base, and surface courses of the required thickness
should be placed. Each layer comprising the total repair should be thoroughly compacted before the next layer is placed.
(2) Irregularities and Depressions. Surface irregularities and depressions, such as shoving,
rutting, scattered areas of settlement, and occasional “birdbaths” should be leveled by rolling or milling, where
practical, or by filling with suitable hot mix asphalt mixtures. If the “birdbaths” and settlements are found to exist over
extensive areas, a hot mix asphalt leveling course may be required as part of the overlay. The leveling course should
consist of high-quality hot mix asphalt concrete. Scattered areas requiring leveling or patching may be repaired with hot
mix asphalt patch mixtures.
When placing a concrete overlay on an existing asphalt pavement serious asphalt distresses such as subgrade failure,
potholes, shoving, and rutting in excess of 2 inches need to be addressed prior to the overlay. Less severe surface
irregularities and depressions may be corrected within the overlay. If the surface irregularity will cause the concrete
overlay thickness to be less than the design thickness then it must be corrected prior to the overlay.
(3) Bleeding Surface. A bleeding surface may detrimentally affect the stability of the overlay
and for this reason any excess hot mix asphalt material accumulated on the surface should be bladed or milled off, if
possible. In some instances, a light application of fine aggregates may blot up the excess material, or a combination of
the two processes may be necessary. Sweep after.
(4) Cracks and Joints. For cracks, and joints, 3/8 inch (10 mm) or more in width, old joint and
crack filler should be removed and, if vegetation is present, a sterilant applied. The cracks and joints should then be
filled with a lean mixture of sand and liquid bituminous material. This mixture should be well tamped in place, leveled
with the pavement surface, and any excess removed. The material should be allowed to dry to a hardened condition
prior to overlay placement. For concrete overlays on existing asphalt pavement, joints and cracks may be cleaned and
then filled as noted above or with a flowable fill material compatible with Item P-153, Controlled Low-Strength
Material.
(5) Potholes. Repair potholes prior to overlay. Repairs may require removal and replacement of
unstable subgrade materials. Complete repairs with a suitable mixture of bituminous material and compact in place.
(6) Grooves, Paint, Etc. It is not necessary to remove existing pavement grooves prior to an
asphalt or concrete overlay. Paint must be removed or scarifed prior to an asphalt overlay to assure bonding of the
overlay to the existing pavement. Paint does not require removal prior to a concrete overlay.
(7) Porous Friction Courses (PFC). Existing PFC’s must be removed prior to any overlay.
(8) Surface Contaminants. Surface contaminants that will prevent bonding of the surface
overlay, e.g. oil spills, must be removed prior to an asphalt overlay. The FAA recommends that excessive amounts of
rubber buildup be removed prior to an overlay; however, limited amounts of rubber may be tolerated.
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b. Existing Rigid Pavements. In rigid pavements, narrow transverse, longitudinal, and corner cracks
will need no special attention unless there is an appreciable amount of displacement and faulting between the separate
slabs. If the subgrade is stable and no pumping has occurred, the low areas can be taken care of as part of the overlay
and no other corrective measures are needed. On the other hand, if pumping has occurred at the slab ends or the slabs
are subject to rocking under the movement of airplanes, subgrade support should be improved by pumping cement grout
or specialized materials under the pavement to fill the voids that have developed. Pressure grouting requires
considerable skill to avoid cracking slabs or providing uneven support for the overlay.
(1) Slab Removal and Replacement. If the pavement slabs are badly broken and subject to
rocking because of uneven bearing on the subgrade, the rocking slabs can be broken into smaller slabs to obtain a more
firm seating. Badly broken slabs that do not rock will not require repairs since the criteria make adjustments for such a
condition in the pavement thickness. In some cases, it may be desirable to replace certain badly broken slabs with new
slabs before starting construction of the overlay. The decision in such cases will have to be made according to the merits
of the individual project.
(2) Leveling Course. Where the existing pavement is rough due to slab distortion, faulting, or
settlement, a provision should be made for a leveling course of hot mix asphalt concrete before the overlay is
commenced. Fractured slab techniques can also be used in these instances.
(3) Cracks and Joints. Cracks, and joints, 3/8 inch (10 mm) or more in width, should be filled
with a lean mixture of sand and liquid bituminous material. This mixture should be tamped firmly in place, leveled with
the pavement surface, and any excess removed.
(4) Surface Cleaning. After all repairs have been completed and prior to the placing of the
overlay, the surface should be swept clean of all dirt, dust, and foreign material. Any extruding joint-sealing material
should be trimmed from rigid pavements.
(5) Bonded Concrete Overlays. Bonded concrete overlays will require special attention to
insure bond with the existing pavement. Surface cleaning and preparation by shot peening or mechanical texturing by
cold milling are two techniques that have been used to provide a surface that will allow bonding. Adequate bond has
been achieved by placing the overlay directly on the dry prepared surface. In other instances, bond was achieved by
placing a neat cement grout on the prepared surface immediately ahead of the overlay placement. If a bonding agent is
used, care must be taken to apply it directly in front of the fresh concrete. If the bonding agent is allowed to cure before
concrete placement, the bond will be broken.
408. MATERIALS AND METHODS. With regard to quality of materials and mixes, control tests, methods of
construction, and workmanship, the overlay pavement components are governed by AC 150/5370-10, Standards for
Specifying Construction of Airports (see Appendix 4).
a. Tack Coat. If a hot mix asphalt overlay is specified, the existing pavement should receive a light tack
coat (Item P-603) or fog coat immediately after cleaning. The overlay should not extend to the edges of the pavement
but should be cut off approximately 3 inches (75 mm) from each edge.
b. Forms. Should the existing pavement require drilling to provide anchorage for the overlay pavement
forms, the size and number of holes should be the minimum necessary to accomplish that purpose. Holes should not be
located close to joints or cracks. Location of holes for form anchors should be such as to avoid causing additional
cracking or spalling.
409. NEW OVERLAY MATERIALS. In recent years, some new pavement overlay materials have been used with
varying degrees of success. These materials include fibrous concrete, roller compacted concrete, and rubberized asphalt.
Use of materials other than conventional Portland cement concrete (Item P-501) or Plant Mix Bituminous Surface (Item
P-401) require special approval on a case-by-case basis.
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CHAPTER 5. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRPLANES WEIGHING
LESS THAN 30,000 POUNDS
500. GENERAL. This chapter provides pavement design guidance for airfield pavements intended to serve only
airplanes with gross weights less than 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg). Airplanes of this size are usually engaged in
nonscheduled activities, such as agricultural, instructional, or recreational flying. Pavements designed to serve these
airplanes may be flexible or rigid-type pavements. The design of pavements serving airplanes of 30,000 pounds (13
608 kg) gross weight or more should be based on the criteria contained in Chapter 3 of this publication. Some areas
of airports serving light airplanes may not require paving. In these areas, the development of an aggregate-turf or
turf surface may be adequate for limited operations of these light airplanes. Aggregate-turf surfaces are constructed
by improving the stability of a soil with the addition of aggregate prior to development of the turf. Aggregate-turf
construction is covered in some detail in the latter part of this chapter. Information on stabilization of soils can be
found in Chapter 2 of this circular and in AC 150/5370-10, Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports.
501. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH. When designing pavements for light airplanes, summarize all
pavement designs on FAA Form 5100-1, Airport Pavement Design, which is considered part of the Engineer’s Design
Report. Submit the Engineer’s Design Report for FAA review and approval along with initial plans and specifications.
502. TYPICAL SECTIONS. Typical cross-sections for pavements serving light airplanes are shown in figure 5-1.
No distinction is made between critical and noncritical pavement sections for pavements serving light airplanes.
503. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT MATERIALS. Flexible pavements for light airplanes are composed of hot mix
asphalt surfacing, base course, subbase, and prepared subgrade. The function of these layers and applicable
specifications are discussed below.
a. Hot Mix Asphalt Surfacing. The function of the hot mix asphalt surface or wearing course is the
same as discussed earlier in Chapter 3. Specifications covering the composition and quality of hot mix asphalt mixtures
are given in Item P-401, Plant Mix Bituminous Mixtures or Item P-403, Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements (Base,
Leveling or Surface Course). In accordance with AC 150/5370-10, state highway specifications for hot mix asphalt
mixtures may be used for pavements intended to serve aircraft weighing 12,500 pounds (5 670 kg) or less.
b. Base Course. As in heavy loaded pavements, the base course is the primary load-carrying component
of a flexible pavement. Specifications covering materials suitable for use as base courses for light-load pavements are
as follows:
(1) Item P-208 – Aggregate Base Course
(2) Item P-209 – Crushed Aggregate Base Course
(3) Item P-210 – Caliche Base Course
(4) Item P-211 – Lime Rock Base Course
(5) Item P-212 – Shell Base Course
(6) Item P-213 – Sand-Clay Base Course
(7) Item P-219 – Recycled Concrete Aggregate Base Course
(8) Item P-301 – Soil-Cement Base Course
(9) Item P-304 – Cement-Treated Base Course
(10) Item P-306 – Econocrete Subbase Course
(11) Item P-401 – Plant Mix Bituminous Pavement
(12) Item P-403 – Plant Mix Bituminous Pavement (Base, Leveling or Surface Course)
Note: Use of some of the above materials in areas where frost penetrates into the base course may
result in some degree of frost heave and/or may require restricted loading during spring thaw.
c. Subbase Course. A subbase course is usually required in flexible pavement except those on
subgrades with CBR value of 20 or greater (usually GW or GP type soils). Materials conforming to specification Item
P-154, Subbase Course, may be used as subbase course. Also any items listed above in paragraph 502b may be used as
subbase course if economy and practicality dictate. Since the loads imposed on these pavements are much less than
those on pavements designed for heavier airplanes, compaction control for base and subbase layers should be based
upon ASTM D 698, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort
(12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)).
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d. Stabilized Base and Subbase. Stabilized base and subbase courses may be used in light-load
pavements. Reduced thicknesses of base and subbase may result. The discussions of stabilized materials are given in
Chapter 3.
e. Subgrade. Subgrade materials should be compacted in accordance with Item P-152 to the depths
shown on Table 5-1.
TABLE 5-1. SUBGRADE COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR LIGHT LOAD
FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS
Noncohesive Soils Depth of
Compaction (in.)
Cohesive Soils Depth of
Compaction (in.)
Airplane Gross
Weight (lbs.)
100% 95% 90% 85% 95% 90% 85% 80%
12,500 or less 6 6-9 9-18 18-24 4 4-8 8-12 12-15
12,501 or more 8 8-12 12-24 24-36 6 6-9 9-12 12-15
General Notes:
1. Noncohesive soils, for the purpose of determining compaction control, are those with a plasticity index of
less than 3.
2. Tabulated values denote depths below the finished subgrade above which densities should equal or exceed
the indicated percentage of the maximum dry density as specified in Item P- 152.
3. The subgrade in cut areas should have natural densities shown or should (a) be compacted from the surface
to achieve the required densities, (b) be removed and replaced at the densities shown, or (c) when economics
and grades permit, be covered with sufficient select or subbase material so that the uncompacted subgrade is
at a depth where the in-place densities are satisfactory.
4. For swelling soils refer to paragraph 313.
5. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 lb. = 0.454 kg
504. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN. Program FAARFIELD is used to determine the pavement thickness
requirements for airplanes weighing up to 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg) gross weight. The pavement thickness determined
by FAARFIELD should be used on all areas of the airport pavement. No reduction in thickness should be made for
“noncritical” areas of pavements. For very light load pavements, the design should also consider the weight of aircraft
rescue and firefighting vehicles, maintenance equipment and/or fueling equipment. It is possible that these types of
equipment may require a thicker pavement section than the airplanes.
a. Total Pavement Thickness. Use of the program FAARFIELD requires information on the CBR or
modulus E value for the subgrade, airplane mix, gross weights, and annual departures of all airplanes. For traffic
consisting of more than one airplane type, the entire mix should be entered, not equivalent departures of a “design
aircraft”. The preferred method of establishing the subgrade CBR is by testing. The testing procedures described in
Chapter 3 should also be applied to light load pavements.
b. Thickness of Surfacing and Base. FAARFIELD calculates the thickness of the base layer
automatically. Note that the minimum thickness of hot mix asphalt surfacing is 2 inches (50 mm) and the minimum base
layer thickness is 3 inches (75 mm). Additional base thickness may be required to obtain construction density
requirements.
c. Thin Lifts. The reason for the minimum surfacing thickness is that layers thinner than 2 inches (50
mm) are difficult to place and compact on granular bases. Hot mix asphalt surfacing thickness of less than 2 inches (50
mm) is permissible on stabilized base materials if proper laydown and compaction can be achieved. The base course
thicknesses range from 3 inches (75 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) while the subbase thicknesses vary from 0-14 inches (0-
356 mm). In some instances, difficulties may be encountered in compacting thin bases or subbases. In these cases the
base or subbase thicknesses may be increased to facilitate construction even though the additional thickness is not
needed for structural capacity.

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d. Example. As an example of the use of FAARFIELD, assume a pavement is to be designed for the
following mix of airplanes:
Airplane Name Gross Weight, lbs (tonnes) Annual Departures
Citation-V 16,500 (7.5) 480
Super King Air-300 14,100 (6.4) 1,000
Beech Jet-400 15,500 (7.0) 60
Learjet 35A/65 18,000 (8.2) 300
KingAir–B-100 11,500 (5.2) 1,200
Also assume that the subgrade CBR = 5. The pavement will be designed assuming an HMA surface layer of 2 inches
(51 mm). Figure 5-2 shows the airplane mix entered into the FAARFIELD Airplane Window.

FIGURE 5-2. FAARFIELD AIRPLANE WINDOW – LIGHT LOAD PAVEMENT DESIGN
After setting the HMA thickness to 2 inches, the subgrade CBR to 5, the base layer material to P-209 CrAg and the
subbase layer material to P-154 UnCrAg, click “Design Structure”.
As shown in figure 5-3, the section as designed by FAARFIELD consists of the 2 in (51 mm) of HMA surfacing, on
3.67 in (94 mm) of P-209 base, and 7.46 in (189 mm) of P-154 subbase. Since difficulties in compacting a base course
of less than 4 inches (102 mm) may be anticipated, the P-209 layer will be increased to 4 in (102 mm). Re-running the
FAARFIELD design with the 4 in (102 mm) P-209 layer (and disabling the automatic base design option) results in a
designed subbase thickness of 7.07 in (180 mm). The final thickness design consists of 2 in (51 mm) P-401 HMA
surface, 4 in (102 mm) P-209 base, and 7 in (178 mm) P-154 subbase.
e. Omission of Hot Mix Asphalt Surfacing. Under certain conditions, it may be desirable to utilize a
bituminous surface treatment on a prepared base course in lieu of hot mix asphalt. In such instances, the strength of the
pavement is furnished by the base, subbase, and subgrade. Additional base course thickness will be necessary to make
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up for the missing surface course. Additional base should be provided at a ratio of 1.2 to 1.6 inches (30 to 41 mm) of
base for each 1 inch (25.4 mm) of surfacing.
f. Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements. Pavements to serve light airplanes may be constructed of full-depth
asphalt using the criteria specified in paragraph 318. The Asphalt Institute has published guidance on the design of full
depth asphalt pavements for light airplanes in Information Series No. 154, Full Depth Asphalt Pavements for General
Aviation. Use of the Asphalt Institute method of design for full-depth asphalt pavements requires approval on a case-by-
case basis.
g. Local Materials. Since the base and subbase course materials discussed in Chapter 3 are more than
adequate for light airplanes, full consideration should be given to the use of locally available, less-expensive materials.
These locally available materials may be entirely satisfactory for light-load pavements. These materials may include
locally available granular materials, soil aggregate mixtures, or soils stabilized with Portland cement, bituminous
materials, or lime. The designer is cautioned, however, if the ultimate design of the pavement is greater than 30,000
pounds (13 608 kg), higher quality materials should be specified at the outset.

FIGURE 5-3. CALCULATION OF SUBBASE LAYER THICKNESS
505. RIGID PAVEMENT MATERIALS. Rigid pavements for light airplanes are composed of Portland cement
concrete surfacing, subbase, and prepared subgrade. The functions of these layers and applicable specifications are
discussed below:
a. Portland Cement Concrete. Specifications concerning the quality and placement of Portland cement
concrete should be in accordance with Item P-501, Portland Cement Concrete Pavement. Local state highway
specifications for paving quality concrete may be substituted for Item P-501 if desired.
b. Subbase. Rigid pavements designed to serve airplanes weighing between 12,500 pounds (5 670 kg)
and 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg) will require a minimum subbase thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) except as shown in
table 3-9 of Chapter 3. No subbase is required for designs intended to serve airplanes weighing 12,500 pounds (5 670
kg) or less, except when soil types OL, MH, CH, or OH are encountered. When the above soil types are present, a
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minimum 4-inch (102-mm) subbase should be provided. The materials suitable for subbase courses are covered in Item
P-154, Subbase Course.
c. Subgrade. Compact subgrade materials in accordance with Item P-152 to the following depths. For
cohesive soils used in fill sections, compact the entire fill to 90-percent maximum density. For cohesive soils in cut
sections, compacat the top 6 inches (152 mm) of the subgrade to 90-percent maximum density. For noncohesive soils
used in fill sections, compact the top 6 inches (152 mm) of fill to 100-percent maximum density, and the remainder of
the fill to 95-percent maximum density. For cut sections in noncohesive soils, compact the top 6 inches (152 mm) of
subgrade to 100-percent maximum density and the next 18 inches (457 mm) of subgrade to 95-percent maximum
density. For treatment of swelling soils refer to paragraph 313.
506. RIGID PAVEMENT THICKNESS. The use of FAARFIELD is not necessary for light-duty rigid pavement
design. Rigid pavements designed to serve airplanes weighing 12,500 pounds (5 670 kg) or less should be
5 inches (127 mm) thick or 6 inches (152 mm) thick if doweled joints are used. Those designed to serve airplanes
weighing between 12,501 pounds (5 670 kg) and 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg) should be 6 inches (152 mm) thick.
Jointing of Light Load Rigid Pavements. The maximum spacing of joints for light-load rigid pavements should be
12.5 feet (3.8 m) for longitudinal joints and 15 feet (4.6 m) for transverse joints. Jointing types are shown in figure 5-4
and jointing details are shown in figure 5-5 for light-load rigid pavements. Note that several differences exist between
light-load and heavy-load rigid pavement joints. For instance, butt-type construction joints are permitted when an
asphalt or cement stabilized subbase is provided. Odd-shaped slabs should be reinforced with 0.05 percent steel in both
directions. Odd-shaped slabs are defined as slabs that are not rectangular in shape or rectangular slabs with length-to-
width ratios that exceed 1.25. Two recommended joint layout patterns are shown in figures 5-6 and 5-7 for 60 foot (18
m) and for 50 foot (15 m) wide pavements. The concept behind the jointing patterns shown is the creation of a “tension
ring” around the perimeter of the pavement to hold joints within the interior of the paved area tightly closed. A tightly
closed joint will function better than an open joint. The last three contraction joints and longitudinal joints nearest the
free edge of the pavement are tied with #4 deformed bars, 20 inches (508 mm) long, spaced at 36 inches (914 mm)
center to center. At the ends of the pavement and in locations where airplanes or vehicular traffic would move onto or
off the pavement, a thickened edge should be constructed. The thickened edge should be 1.25 times the thickness of the
slab and should taper to the slab thickness over a distance of 3 feet (0.9 m). Note that if a type “F” butt construction
joint is used then a stabilized subbase is required as shown in figure 5-4. Alternatively, a type “E” doweled construction
joint can be used at the locations shown in figures 5-6 and 5-7. If doweled joints are used, the rigid pavement thickness
should be 6 inches (152 mm).
The intent of this paragraph is to allow the use of the tension ring design but limit it to pavements less than 60 feet (18
m) in width.
Pavements that do not use the tension ring design should be designed in a manner similar to Chapter 3. The general
recommendations of table 3-15 may be employed for Chapter 5 pavements not using the tension ring concept; however,
the designer should note that the joint designations and steel sizes and spacing discussed in Chapter 5 are different those
in Chapter 3.

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FIGURE 5-4. JOINTING TYPES FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT
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FIGURE 5-5. JOINTING DETAILS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT

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507. AGGREGATE TURF. Aggregate-turf differs from normal turf in that the stability of the underlying soil is
increased by the addition of granular materials prior to establishment of the turf. The objective of this type of
construction is to provide a landing area that will not soften appreciably during wet weather and yet has sufficient soil to
promote the growth of grass. Aggregate-turf should be considered only for areas designed to serve non jet airplanes
having gross weights of 12,500 pounds (5 670 kg) or less.
a. Materials. Construction details and material requirements are covered in Item P-217, Aggregate-Turf
Pavement. Typically, aggregate-turf construction will consist of a soil seedbed layer (soil or soil/aggregate combination)
over an aggregate stabilized base course. The aggregate stabilized base course consists of soil stabilized crushed stone,
soil-stabilized gravel or soil-stabilized sand conforming to the requirements of P-217.
b. Thickness. The thickness to be stabilized with the granular materials varies with the type of soil and
the drainage and climatic conditions. The minimum thickness of aggregate stabilized soil can be computed from
FAARFIELD using the CBR of the subgrade, as shown in the following example. The minimum thickness of the soil
seedbed is not determined by structural considerations, but is the thickness required to support the growth of grass.
c. Example. Assume that the airplane mix consists of the following: King Air B-100 (11,500 lbs, 1200
annual departures) and Citation 525 (10,500 lbs, 1200 annual departures). The subgrade CBR = 5. Figure 5-8 shows the
use of FAARFIELD for determining the thickness of the aggregate stabilized base course layer. A minimum thickness
of 2 inches (51 mm) is assigned to the turf seedbed, although the actual thickness of soil will be determined by growing
requirements. The turf seedbed is represented as an undefined layer, with a nominal E-modulus of 3,000 psi (21 MPa).
The design layer (aggregate stabilized base) is represented as P-154 uncrushed aggregate. In this example, the thickness
required for the aggregate stabilized base course is 11.3 inches (287 mm), which will be rounded to 11.5 inches (300
mm).

FIGURE 5-8. DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR AGGREGATE TURF PAVEMENT.
508. OVERLAYS. Overlays of pavements intended to serve light airplanes are designed in the same manner as
overlays for heavy airplanes.
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509. HELIPORT/VERTIPORT DESIGN. The guidance contained in paragraph 500 of this section is appropriate
for pavements designed to serve rotary-wing airplanes. Where direct thermal effects of jet blast is a concern (e.g., at
vertiports serving tiltrotor traffic), incorporation of unique pavement formulations specific to thermal resistance may be
required. Any pavement that is subjected to the direct thermal effects of high temperature exhaust gases can become
progressively damaged with repeated thermal cycles, resulting in surface spalling, a potential for foreign object damage
(FOD), as well as subsequent deterioration of the affected slab. An example formulation for thermal resistant pavement
can be found in TR-2079-SHR, Development of Mix Designs for F/A-18 Resistant Pavement Systems.
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CHAPTER 6. PAVEMENT EVALUATION
600. PURPOSES OF PAVEMENT EVALUATION. Airport pavement evaluations are necessary to assess the
ability of an existing pavement to support different types, weights, or volumes of airplane traffic. The load carrying
capacity of existing bridges, culverts, storm drains, and other structures should also be considered in these evaluations.
Evaluations may be also necessary to determine the condition of existing pavements for use in the planning or design of
improvements to the airport. Evaluation procedures are essentially the reverse of design procedures. This chapter covers
the evaluation of pavements for all weights of airplanes.
601. EVALUATION PROCESS. The evaluation of airport pavements should be a methodical step-by-step
process. The recommended steps in the evaluation process described below should be used regardless of the type of
pavement.
a. Records Research. A thorough review of construction data and history, design considerations,
specifications, testing methods and results, as-built drawings, and maintenance history should be performed. Weather
records and the most complete traffic history available are also parts of a usable records file.
b. Site Inspection. The site in question should be visited and the condition of the pavements noted by
visual inspection. This should include, in addition to the inspection of the pavements, an examination of the existing
drainage conditions and drainage structures at the site. Evidence of the adverse effects of frost action, swelling soils,
reactive aggregates, etc., should also be noted. The principles set forth in Chapter 2 of this circular and in AC 150/5320-
5, Surface Drainage Design, apply.
c. Sampling and Testing. The need for and scope of physical tests and materials analyses will be based
on the findings made from the site inspection, records research, and type of evaluation. A complete evaluation for
detailed design will require more sampling and testing than, for example, an evaluation intended for use in a master
plan. Sampling and testing is intended to provide information on the thickness, quality, and general condition of the
pavement elements.
(1) Direct Sampling Procedures. The basic evaluation procedure for planning and design will
be visual inspection and reference to the FAA design criteria, supplemented by the additional sampling, testing, and
research, which the evaluation processes may warrant. For relatively new pavement constructed to FAA standards and
without visible sign of wear or stress, strength may be based on inspection of the FAA Form 5100-1, Airport Pavement
Design, and the as-constructed sections, with modification for any material variations or deficiencies of record. Where
age or visible distress indicates the original strength no longer exists, further modification should be applied on the basis
of judgment or a combination of judgment and supplemental physical testing. For pavements that consist of sections not
readily comparable to FAA design standards, evaluation should be based on FAA standards after material comparison
and equivalencies have been applied.
(2) Nondestructive Testing. Several methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) of pavements are
available. For purposes of this discussion, NDT means observing pavement response to a controlled dynamic load, as in
the case of the falling-weight deflectometer (FWD), or other physical stimulus such as a mechanical wave. NDT
provides a means of evaluating pavements that tends to remove some of the subjective judgment needed in other
evaluation procedures. AC 150/5370-11, Use of Nondestructive Testing Devices in the Evaluation of Airport
Pavements, contains guidance on nondestructive testing. The major advantages of nondestructive testing are: the
pavement is tested in place under actual conditions of moisture, density, etc.; the disruption of traffic is minimal; and
the need for destructive tests is minimized. Research efforts are continuing in the area of nondestructive testing to
broaden its application. Several different NDT procedures are available in addition to that described in AC 150/5370-
11. These other procedures may be used when approved by the FAA. The common NDT tools available to assist the
evaluator include: FWD, ground penetrating radar (GPR), infrared thermography, etc.
(i) Falling Weight Deflectometer. Falling weight deflectometers impart an impulse
load to the pavement with a free-falling weight. The magnitude of the dynamic load depends on the mass of the weight
and the height from which it is dropped. The resulting deflections of the pavement surface are typically measured using
an array of sensors. The Heavy Falling Weight Deflectometer (HWD) uses a greater dynamic load than FWD and may
be more suitable for some airport applications. FWD and HWD can be used in conjunction with appropriate software to
estimate pavement layer properties. AC 150/5370-11 gives guidance for the use of FWD and HWD equipment.
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(ii) Ground Penetrating Radar. Ground penetrating radar can be useful in studying
subsurface conditions nondestructively. Ground penetrating radar depends on differences in dielectric constants to
discriminate between materials. The technique is sometimes used to locate voids or foreign objects, such as, abandoned
fuel tanks, tree stumps, etc. in embankments.
(iii) Infrared Thermography. Infrared thermography is a nondestructive testing
procedure whereby differences in infrared emissions are observed allowing certain physical properties of the pavement
to be determined. Infrared thermography is purportedly capable of detecting delaminations in bonded rigid overlay
pavements and in reinforced rigid pavements.
d. Pavement Condition Index. The determination of the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) is often a
useful tool in the evaluation of airport pavements. The PCI is a numerical rating of the surface condition of a pavement
and is a measure of functional performance with implications of structural performance. PCI values range from 100 for
a pavement with no defects to 0 for a pavement with no remaining functional life. The index is useful in describing
distress and comparing pavements on an equal basis. AC 150/5380-6, Guidelines and Procedures for Maintenance of
Airport Pavements, contains information on PCI surveys. The FAA recommends that airports follow ASTM D 5340,
Standard Test Method for Airport Pavement Condition Index Surveys.
e. Evaluation Report. The analyses, findings, and test results should be incorporated in an evaluation
report, which becomes a permanent record for future reference. While evaluation reports need not be in any particular
form, it is recommended that a drawing identifying limits of the evaluation be included. Analysis of information gained
in the above steps should culminate in the assignment of load carrying capacity to the pavement sections under
consideration. When soil, moisture, and weather conditions conductive to detrimental frost action exist, an adjustment to
the evaluation may be required.
602. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS. Evaluation of flexible pavements requires, as a minimum, the determination of
the thickness of the component layers, and the CBR of the subgrade.
a. Layer Thicknesses. The thickness of the various layers in the flexible pavement structure must be
known in order to evaluate the pavement. Thicknesses may be determined from borings or NDT. As-built drawings and
records can also be used to determine thicknesses if the records are sufficiently complete and accurate.
b. Subgrade CBR. Laboratory CBR tests should be performed on soaked specimens in accordance with
ASTM D 1883, Bearing Ratio of Laboratory-Compacted Soils. Field CBRs should be performed in accordance with the
procedure given in The Asphalt Institute Manual Series 10 (MS-10), Soils Manual. Field CBR tests on existing
pavements less than 3 years old may not be representative unless the subgrade moisture content has stabilized. The
evaluation process assumes a soaked CBR is and will not give reliable results if the subgrade moisture content has not
reached the ultimate in situ condition. In situations where it is impractical to perform laboratory or field CBR tests, a
back calculated subgrade elastic modulus value may be obtained from NDT test results. AC 150/5370-11 gives the
procedures for obtaining the back calculated modulus value. The FAARFIELD program assumes that CBR is related to
the subgrade modulus as E = 1500xCBR (E in psi), so that the back calculated modulus value can be input directly into
FAARFIELD without manually converting to CBR.
c. Layer Properties. As stated in paragraph 303, in FAARFIELD materials are designated by
corresponding FAA specifications. Where flexible pavements have been constructed to FAA standards, each layer
should be assigned a material type corresponding to the appropriate FAA specification. For example, where an existing
flexible pavement consists of an HMA surface on a high-quality crushed aggregate base meeting FAA Item P-209, the
base layer should be input as P-209 Crushed Aggregate in FAARFIELD. Where the quality of materials in a pavement
structure to be evaluated differ significantly from the assumptions for FAA standard materials as given in AC 150/5370-
10B, it may be necessary to use the “undefined” or “variable” layer types in FAARFIELD to input an appropriate
modulus value or use lower quality material to model structure (e.g., P-154 for P-209).
603. APPLICATION OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EVALUATION PROCEDURES. After all of the
evaluation parameters of the existing flexible pavement have been established using the guidance given in the above
paragraphs, the evaluation process is essentially the reverse of the design procedure. The FAARFIELD program can be
used to determine the structural life of the existing pavement for a given traffic mix, or alternatively, the allowable load
of an airplane on a pavement structure that will produce a 20-year life for a given number of annual departures.
Required inputs are the subgrade CBR or modulus value, thicknesses of surfacing, base and subbase courses and annual
departure levels for all airplanes using the pavement.
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a. Example 1. An existing taxiway pavement was constructed to FAA standards and consists of a 5 inch
(127 mm) HMA surface layer (Item P-401), 9 inch (229 mm) HMA stabilized base layer (Item P-403), and 24 inch (610
mm) crushed aggregate subbase layer (Item P-209). The subgrade was previously evaluated by field CBR
measurements and found to be CBR 7. The taxiway will serve the following mix of airplanes:
Airplane Name Gross Weight, lbs (tonnes) Annual Departures
DC10-10 458,000 (207.7) 2263
B747-200B Combi Mixed 873,000 (396.0) 832
B777-200 ER 634,500 (287.8) 425
B737-800 174,700 (79.2) 8000
A320-100 150,796 (68.4) 4380
FAARFIELD will be used to determine the available structural life based on the above traffic mixture. Both total
thickness and base thickness will be checked. The following steps are used:
(1) Enter the above airplane list using the Airplanes screen.
(2) In the Structure screen, enter the layer thickness and material type for each layer (figure 6-1).
(3) Click the “Life” button. The predicted life for the given structure and traffic is 155.2 years,
which exceeds the 20-year requirement.
Next, the adequacy of the stabilized base layer should be checked. This should be done by designing the P-401/P-403
stabilized base course for the required life in accordance with the procedures given in Chapter 3. For the load carrying
capacity to be met, the minimum base course thickness requirement should be less than the existing base course
thickness. In this example, the design procedure requires a stabilized base thickness of 6.25 (11/1.6) inches (159 mm)
for the 20-year life, which is less than the existing 9 inches (229 mm). Therefore, an overlay would not be required to
serve the anticipated traffic mix.

FIGURE 6-1. EXAMPLE OF A FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT STRUCTURE FOR EVALUATION

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b. Example 2. For the pavement in Example 1, but with a subgrade CBR = 3, FAARFIELD will be used
to determine the allowable gross weight of a B737-800 airplane for a 20-year life. Assume 10,000 annual departures of
the B737-800.
(1) In the Airplanes screen, remove all airplanes except the B737-800. For annual departures,
enter 10,000.In the Structure screen, enter the layer thickness and material type for each layer (figure 6-1).
(2) Click the “Life” button to compute the predicted Structural Life.
(3) Continue to modify the airplane gross weight until Structural Life = 20.0 years.
(4) In this example, the gross weight of the B737-800 producing the 20-year life is 152,950 lbs.
(69.4 tonnes).
(5) For this gross weight, check the adequacy of the base layer, using the stabilized base design
procedure given in Chapter 3. In this example, the design procedure requires a stabilized base thickness of 9.0 inches,
which agrees with the existing structure.

To support 10,000 annual departures of the B737-800 on the existing pavement structure, the gross weight should be
limited to 152,950 lbs. (69.4 tonnes). If the airplane is to be operated at higher weights, this may cause a reduction in the
structural life.
604. RIGID PAVEMENTS. Evaluation of rigid pavements requires, as a minimum, the determination of the
thickness of the component layers, the flexural strength of the concrete, and the subgrade modulus.
a. Layer Thicknesses. The thickness of the component layers is sometimes available from construction
records. Where information is not available or of questionable accuracy, thicknesses may be determined by borings or
test pits in the pavement.
b. Concrete Flexural Strength. The flexural strength of the concrete is most accurately determined
from test beams sawed from the existing pavement and tested in accordance with ASTM C 78. Quite often this method
is impractical as sawed beams are expensive to obtain and costs incurred in obtaining sufficient numbers of beams to
establish a representative sample is prohibitive. Construction records, if available, may be used as a source of concrete
flexural strength data. The construction data may require adjustment due to the age of the concrete.
Correlations between concrete flexural strength and other concrete strength tests are available. It should be noted that
correlations between flexural strength and other strength tests are approximate and considerable variations are likely.
An approximate relationship between concrete flexural strength and tensile splitting strength (ASTM C 496) exists and
can be computed by the following formula:
( ) 117 02 . 1 + = T R
where:
R = flexural strength, psi
T = tensile split strength, psi
Note: For conversions in metric units the above formula remains the same, except the + 117 psi constant should
be changed to + 0.81 MPa.
c. Subgrade Modulus. The modulus of subgrade reaction, k, is ideally determined by plate bearing tests
performed on the subgrade. These tests should be made in accordance with the procedures established in AASHTO T
222. An important part of the test procedure for determining the subgrade reaction modulus is the correction for soil
saturation, which is contained in the prescribed standard. The normal application utilizes a correction factor determined
by the consolidation testing of samples at in situ and saturated moisture content. For evaluation of older pavement,
where evidence exists that the subgrade moisture has stabilized or varies through a limited range, the correction for
saturation is not necessary. If a field plate bearing test is not practical, the modulus of subgrade reaction may be
estimated by the formula in paragraph 205a(4) of this circular. Alternatively, a backcalculated subgrade elastic modulus
value may be obtained from NDT test results. AC 150/5370-11 gives the procedures for obtaining the backcalculated
modulus value. The FAARFIELD program assumes that k is related to the subgrade modulus as E = 26 k
1.284
(E in psi),
so that the back calculated E modulus value can be input directly into FAARFIELD without manually converting to k.
d. Layer Properties. As stated in paragraph 303, in FAARFIELD materials are designated by
corresponding FAA specifications. Where rigid pavements have been constructed to FAA standards, each layer should
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


be assigned a material type corresponding to the appropriate FAA specification. For example, where an existing rigid
pavement consists of a PCC surface on a cement stabilized base meeting FAA Item P-304, the base layer should be
input as P-304 CTB in FAARFIELD. Where the quality of materials in a pavement structure to be evaluated differ
significantly from the assumptions for FAA standard materials as given in AC 150/5370-10, it may be necessary to use
the “undefined” or “variable” layer types in FAARFIELD to input an appropriate modulus value. In FAARFIELD, the
number of structural layers above the subgrade for a rigid pavement is limited to 4, including the PCC surface. If the
actual rigid pavement structure to be evaluated consists of more than 4 distinct layers, two or more of the lower layers
can be combined to reduce the total number of layers to 4 or fewer for analysis. Since rigid pavement evaluation is not
highly sensitive to modulus properties of lower layers above the subgrade, the life computation should not be
significantly affected.
605. APPLICATION OF RIGID PAVEMENT EVALUATION PROCEDURES. After all of the evaluation
parameters of the existing rigid pavement have been established using the guidance given in the above paragraphs, the
evaluation process is essentially the reverse of the design procedure. The FAARFIELD program can be used to
determine the structural life of the existing pavement for a given traffic mix, or alternatively, the allowable load of an
airplane on a pavement structure that will produce a 20-year life for a given number of annual departures. The
FAARFIELD program allows the back calculated E modulus value to be input directly.
a. Example. An existing taxiway was constructed to FAA standards and consists of a 16 inch (406 mm)
PCC surface layer (Item P-501), 8 inch (203 mm) stabilized base (Item P-304), and 10 inch (254 mm) granular subbase
(Item P-154). The current concrete flexural strength was estimated from compressive tests on cores as 700 psi (4.83
MPa). The subgrade was evaluated by NDT testing and found to have an E-modulus of approximately 13,000 psi (89.6
MPa). The anticipated traffic mix is the same as the example in paragraph 603. FAARFIELD is used to evaluate the
structural life as follows:
(1) Enter the airplane list, including gross weights and annual departures, using the Airplanes
screen.
(2) In the Structure screen, enter the layer thickness and material type for each layer (figure 6-2).
(3) Click the “Life” control button. The predicted life for the given structure and traffic is 28.2
years, which exceeds the 20-year requirement.


FIGURE 6-2. EXAMPLE OF A RIGID PAVEMENT STRUCTURE FOR EVALUATION
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

606. USE OF RESULTS. If the evaluation is being used for planning purposes and the existing pavement is found
to be deficient in accordance with the design standards given in Chapter 3 or 5, the sponsor should be notified as to the
deficiency and consideration should be given to corrective action. If the evaluation is being used a part of the design for
a project to reconstruct or upgrade the facility, the procedures given in Chapters 3,4, or 5 should be used to design the
reconstruction or overlay project. In this instance the main concern is not the load carrying capacity but rather the
difference between the existing pavement structure and the section that is needed to support forecast traffic.
607. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) developed
a standardized method of reporting airport pavement strength known as the Aircraft Classification Number/Pavement
Classification Number (ACN/PCN). This method of reporting is based on the concept of reporting strength in terms of a
standardized equivalent single wheel load. While FAARFIELD can be used to establish allowable airplane loads based
on a given structure and airplane departure level (see Example 2 in paragraph 603), it is recommended that PCN
calculations be based on the same method adopted by ICAO for calculating ACN. For this purpose, the FAA developed
a software program, COMFAA, which computes ACN following the procedures specified by ICAO. AC 150/5335-5,
Standardized Method of Reporting Airport Pavement Strength – PCN, provides guidance on reporting PCN using the
COMFAA software.
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


CHAPTER 7. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR
AIRFIELD SHOULDERS
700. PURPOSE. This chapter provides a design procedure for paved airfield shoulders.
701. APPLICATION. The design procedure for paved or surfaced shoulders applies to all airports that
accommodate Design Group III or higher airplanes.
702. BACKGROUND. The need for paved or surfaced shoulders is created due to erosion and generation of debris
from jet blast. As airplanes grew in size, so did the size of the airplane engines and their respective increase in jet thrust
or jet blast. Jet blast can cause problems with erosion of unprotected soil immediately adjacent to airfield pavements. To
mitigate this problem, the FAA recommends paved shoulders for runways, taxiway, and aprons that will accommodate
Group III and higher airplanes. In addition to providing protection from jet blast, the shoulder must be capable of safely
supporting “occasional” passage of the most demanding airplanes as well as emergency and maintenance vehicles.
703. PURPOSE OF DESIGN PROCEDURE. The procedure for shoulder pavement thickness design is intended
to provide a minimum pavement structure to support limited operations of airplanes. The design is intended to provide
sufficient support for unintentional or emergency operations of an airplane on the shoulder pavement. Use standard
airfield pavement design requirements to design all areas of pavement where airplanes regularly operate.
The minimum section provided by the shoulder pavement design procedure will not perform in the same fashion as full
strength airfield pavements. The shoulder pavement is intended to allow safe operation of the airplanes across the paved
area without damage to the airplanes. Flexible shoulder pavement sections may experience noticeable vertical
movements with each passage of an airplane and may require inspection and/or limited repair after each operation.
Rigid shoulder pavement sections may experience cracking with each operation.
704. REPORTING PAVED SHOULDER DESIGN. Summarize all paved shoulder designs on FAA Form 5100-
1, Airport Pavement Design, which is considered par of the Engineer’s Design Report. Submit the Engineer’s Design
Report for FAA review and approval along with initial plans and specifications.
705. DESIGN PROCEDURE. The design procedure is based upon the FAA pavement design software
(FAARFIELD) and utilizes a modified design procedure to determine the most demanding airplane (MDA) for shoulder
pavement design purposes. Several of the procedural assumptions in the standard pavement design (traffic distribution,
pass-to-coverage ratios, etc.) are not valid and are not used for the shoulder pavement design procedure. The procedure
determines the minimum pavement section required for the MDA, assuming a total of 10 departures. A composite
traffic mixture is not considered for the shoulder design.
The shoulder pavement design procedure determines the MDA by calculating pavement thickness requirements for all
airplanes utilizing or expected to utilize the airport. The airplane requiring the thickest pavement section is considered
the MDA. The following steps are used to complete the design procedure:
a. Use the FAARFIELD software to create a new job file and proposed pavement section for the
shoulder design. Include all desired pavement layers, e.g. surface course, base course, stabilized course, subbase
course, etc. Adjust layer thickness to observe minimum thickness requirements for shoulder design.
NOTE: Due to minimum pavement layer requirements in the formal airfield pavement design procedure, it may be
necessary to use the “undefined” pavement layer to represent the proposed shoulder pavement cross-section.
b. Input one airplane from the traffic mixture for analysis.
(1) Adjust airplane operating weights as appropriate.
(2) Change annual departures to 1.0 departure.
c. Return to the Structure screen and confirm that the design period is 10 years.
NOTE: The intent of this design procedure is to design a pavement for 10 total departures of the most demanding
airplane. By setting annual departures to 1 and the design period to 10, the total departures are 10.
d. Confirm the composition and thickness of pavement layers and that the correct layer is designated for
thickness iteration. The iteration layer will be shown with a small arrow along the left side. Drainage from the adjacent
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

90
airfield pavement should be considered in the total thickness of the shoulder pavement section to avoid trapping water
under the airfield pavement. A thicker shoulder section or sub-drain may be appropriate.
e. Click on the “Design Structure” button to establish the minimum pavement section for the individual
airplane.
f. Repeat steps 1 through 5 for all airplanes in the traffic mixture. The pavement section with the
greatest thickness requirement is the design for the shoulder pavement.
EVALUATION AID: To reduce the list of individual airplanes requiring evaluation, include all airplanes from the
airport traffic mixture and set annual departures of all airplanes to 1,200 annual departures. Create the proposed
shoulder pavement section in the structure screen, then click the “Life” button instead of the “Design Structure” button.
Return to the airplane mixture, and scroll over to the column labeled “CDF Max for Airplanes”. The airplane with the
highest CDF Max value will be the most demanding airplane in most instances and will control the shoulder design.
However, the top few airplanes with the highest CDF Max values should be evaluated because the thickness of the
pavement section being evaluated will influence which airplane is the most demanding.
706. PAVEMENT LAYER THICKNESS AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
a. Asphalt Surface Course Materials. The minimum recommended thickness for asphalt surfacing
material is 3 inches (76 mm). The material should be of high quality, similar to FAA Item P-401, and compacted to an
average target density of 93 percent of maximum theoretical density. Material produced for use with high traffic volume
highway pavement is acceptable provided the compaction specified for the highway application is obtained.
b. Portland Cement Concrete Surface Course Materials. The minimum recommended thickness for
rigid pavement design is 6 inches. Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) must be a high quality, durable material capable of
resisting deterioration due to environmental factors. The PCC should be similar to FAA Item P-501, with a minimum
design flexural strength of 600 psi (4.14 MPa). Material produced for use with high traffic volume highway pavement is
acceptable provided that environmental durability is addressed.
c. Base Course Materials. Base course materials must be high quality crushed stone or stabilized
materials similar to FAA Items P-208, P-209, P-301, or P-304. Materials produced for use with high traffic volume
highway pavement may be acceptable provided they possess qualities similar to the FAA specification items. Crushed
stone material must possess a minimum CBR value of 80. The recommended minimum thickness of the base course
material is 6 inches. The minimum base course thickness may be reduced to 4 inches (102 mm) by increasing the
minimum asphalt thickness by 1 inch (25.4 mm). Place base course material in accordance with the appropriate standard
from AC 150/5370-10 or in accordance with the applicable State Highway standard. Additional consideration should be
given to frost heave susceptibility of the material when used in frost-susceptible zones.
d. Subbase Course Materials. Subbase course material must provide a minimum CBR value of 20.
Materials produced by State Highway standards are acceptable provided the minimum CBR value is obtained. Place
subbase course material in accordance with AC 150/5370-10, Item P-154, or in accordance with the applicable State
Highway standard. Additional consideration should be given to frost heave susceptibility of the material when used in
frost susceptible zones. The minimum recommended thickness is 4 inches (102 mm). See paragraph 707 below.
e. Subgrade Materials. Preparation of subgrade materials should be in accordance with
AC 150/5370-10, Item P-152.
707. EMERGENCY AND MAINTENANCE VEHICLE CONSIDERATIONS. In most cases, the pavement
design selected by the shoulder design procedure should provide sufficient strength for unlimited operations of
maintenance and emergency vehicles. If high operations of these vehicles are anticipated, the shoulder design should be
verified for all anticipated service other than airplane usage.
708. AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FROST HEAVE. In areas prone to frost heave, it may be necessary to increase
the thickness of the shoulder pavement to avoid differential frost heave. Additional thickness of the pavement beyond
that necessary for structural design may be achieved with any material suitable for pavement construction. The material
should possess a CBR value higher than the subgrade and have non-frost susceptible properties. Place the additional
layer immediately on the subgrade surface below all base and subbase layers. The FAA recommends limited subgrade
frost protection in accordance with paragraph 307a(2).

9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


APPENDIX 1. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS

1. BACKGROUND. The information presented in this appendix was developed from research report DOT/FAA-
RD-81/078. The cost data used are probably not current. However, the principles and procedures are applicable. An
example is given for illustrative purposes.
2. ANALYSIS METHOD.
a. Present worth or present value economic analyses are considered the best methods for evaluating
airport pavement design or rehabilitation alternatives. A discount rate of 4 percent is suggested together with an analysis
period of 20 years. Residual salvage values should be calculated on the straight-line depreciated value of the alternative
at the end of the analysis period. The initial cost and life expectancy of the various alternatives should be based on the
engineer’s experience with consideration given to local materials, environmental factors, and contractor capability.
b. The basic equation for determining present worth is shown below:
z n
m
i
i
r
S
r
M C
i
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ |
.
|

\
|
+
+ =
¯
=
1
1
1
1
PW
1

where:
PW = Present Worth
C = Present Cost of initial design or rehabilitation activity
m = Number of maintenance or rehabilitation activities
M
i
= Cost of the i
th
maintenance or rehabilitation alternative in terms of present costs, i.e., constant dollars
r = Discount rate (four percent suggested)
n
i
= Number of years from the present of the i
th
maintenance or rehabilitation activity
S = Salvage value at the end of the analysis period
Z = Length of analysis period in years. The official FAA design period is 20 years. Design periods other than
20 years must be approved by the FAA.
The term
n
r
|
.
|

\
|
+ 1
1

is commonly called the single payment present worth factor in most engineering economic textbooks. From a practical
standpoint, if the difference in the present worth of costs between two design or rehabilitation alternatives is 10 percent
or less, it is normally assumed to be insignificant and the present worth of the two alternatives can be assumed to be the
same.
3. STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE. The information presented in this appendix is intended to demonstrate how
to calculate cost comparisons for airport pavement alternatives using the present worth method. The following is a step
by step procedure illustrating the analysis method.
a. Identify and record key project descriptions, such as—
(1) Project Number and Location
(2) Type of Facility
(3) Design Aircraft
(4) Annual Departure of Design Aircraft
(5) Subgrade Strength
b. If appropriate, determine the condition of existing pavement and record data, such as—
(1) Existing Pavement Layers (thicknesses, etc.)
(2) Condition of Pavement (description of distress, pavement condition index, PCI, see AC
150/5380-6, etc.)
(3) Skid Resistance
(4) Required Thickness of New Pavement
c. Identify what feasible alternatives are available.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

d. Determine costs associated with each feasible alternative in terms of present day costs.
(1) Initial Cost
(2) Maintenance
(3) Future Rehabilitation
e. Calculate life-cycle cost for each alternative to be evaluated.
f. Summarize life-cycle costs, length of time required to perform and the chance for success for each
alternative.
g. Evaluated the most promising alternatives based on costs, time required, operational constraints,
chance for success, etc.
h. If the selection cannot be narrowed to one alternative in the evaluation process, the most promising
alternatives should each be bid and the selection made on the basis of the lowest bid.
4. EXAMPLE PROBLEM – LIGHT-LOAD GENERAL AVIATION AIRPORT. An example problem is
discussed below that illustrates the use of the present worth life-cycle costing techniques described above.
a. A general aviation airport runway is in need of rehabilitation. The existing pavement contains
alligator, transverse: and longitudinal cracking. The design aircraft for the facility has a gross weight of 24,000 pounds
(10 890 kg). Using the procedures in Chapter 5 of this circular, a 3 inch (76 mm) thick bituminous overlay is required to
rehabilitate the pavement. Pertinent data are presented in the Project Summary.
PROJECT SUMMARY
Location Muddville, TX
Design Aircraft 24,000 lbs. (10 890 kg)
Number - A.I.P 12-34-567
Annual Departures of Design Aircraft: 3,000
Type of Facility General Aviation
Runway Subgrade Strength CBR = 4
Runway length 3,200 ft (75 m)
Runway Width 75 ft (23 m)
Existing Pavement:
Layer and Type Thickness Condition
AC Surface 4 in. (102 mm) Poor
Untreated Base 10 in (254 mm) Good
Condition of Existing Pavement
Condition Survey
Alligator cracking, moderate 15% of area
Trans. cracking, moderate, 350’/station
Long. cracking, moderate, 400’/station
PCI = 35

Skid Resistance Good
Required Thickness New Pavement
Total Thickness Required 18 in. (487 mm)
Surface Layer 2 in. (51 mm)
Base Layer 5 in. (127 mm)
Subbase Layer 11 in. (279 mm)
b. Seven rehabilitation alternatives, including surface, in-place, and hot-mix recycling, are considered
feasible. The alternatives under consideration are—
(1) Asphalt-rubber chip seal to delay overlay
(2) Full width 3-inch (76 mm) direct overlay
(3) Surface recycle l-inch (25 mm) deep + 2-inch (5 1 mm) overlay
(4) Asphalt-rubber interlayer + 3-inch (76 mm) overlay
(5) Fabric interlayer + 3-inch (76 mm) overlay
(6) Cold recycle with asphalt emulsion 6-inch (152 mm) deep + 2-inch (51 mm) overlay
(7) Hot recycle and re-work base
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c. The present day costs of various activities associated with these alternatives are estimated as shown in
table 1.
TABLE 1. COSTS OF REHABILITATION ACTIVITIES
Cost
Rehabilitation Activity
$/yd $/m
2

Asphalt-Rubber Chip Seal 1.25 (1.50)
Asphalt-Rubber Interlayer 1.25 (1.50)
Fabric Interlayer 1.20 (1.44)
Surface Recycling 0.90 (1.08)
Asphaltic Concrete - 1 in. (25 mm) 1.65 (1.97)
Cold Recycle + 2 in. (5 1 mm) Overlay 6.60 (7.89)
Hot Recycle + Rework Base 8.10 (9.69)
d. The life-cycle costs for each alternative are calculated. This example shows the calculations for only
one alternative, the asphalt-rubber chip seal. The calculations are shown in table 2. Some of the important aspects of this
analysis are discussed further below.
TABLE 2. PRESENT WORTH LIFE-CYCLE COSTING
EXAMPLE 1. ALTERNATIVE 1. ASPHALT-RUBBER CHIP SEAL
Year Cost $/yd
2
Present Worth Factor 4% Present Worth Dollars
0 A-R Chip Seal 1.25 1.0000 1.25
1 0.9615
2 0.9246
3 Maintenance 0.25 0.8890 0.22
4 3” Overlay 4.95 0.8548 4.23
5 0.8219
6 0.7903
7 0.7599
8 0.7307
9 0.7026
10 Maintenance 0.10 0.6756 0.07
11 Maintenance 0.10 0.6496 0.06
12 Maintenance 0.10 0.6246 0.06
13 Maintenance 0.10 0.6006 0.06
14 Maintenance 0.25 0.5775 0.14
15 1-1/2″ Overlay 2.48 0.5553 1.38
16 0.5339
17 0.5134
18 0.4936
19 Maintenance 0.10 0.4746 0.05
20 Maintenance 0.15 0.4564 0.07
Sub Total 9.83
Salvage Value -0.71 0.4564 -0.32
Total 9.12 7.3
Note: To convert from $/yd
2
to $/m
2
, divide by 0.8361
(1) The asphalt-rubber chip seal is estimated to delay the need for an overlay for 4 years. In the
third year, the asphalt-rubber chip seal will need maintenance costing $0.25/yd
2
($0.29/m
2
).
(2) In the fourth year, a 3-inch (76 mm) overlay will be required. This overlay will require
maintenance starting in the 10th year and will require progressively more maintenance as time goes on. In the 14th year
maintenance will reach $0.25/yd
2
($0.29/m
2
).
(3) In the 15th year, a l.5-inch (38mm) leveling course will be required. This leveling course will
not require maintenance until the 19th year. Maintenance costs begin to escalate again as time goes on.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

(4) The 20th year marks the end of the analysis period. The salvage value of the leveling course
is: the ratio of the life remaining/to how long it will last; multiplied by its costs. The leveling course, constructed in the
15th year, is expected to have a life of 7 years. It was used for only 5 years during the analysis period. Thus, the leveling
course had 2 years of life remaining at the end of the analysis period. The salvage value is 2/7 x $2.48 = $0.71.
Discounting the salvage value to the 20th year yields a salvage value of $0.32. Since the salvage value is an asset rather
than a cost, it is shown as a negative cost in table 2. All other activities are assumed to have no salvage value since their
useful lives have been exhausted during the analysis period. In this example, a discount rate of 4 percent was assumed.
The present worth calculations for the other six alternatives should be calculated in a similar fashion.
e. A final summary of all alternatives considered in this example is shown in table 3. This summary
shows initial costs, life-cycle costs, construction times, and the probability for success in percent. This final summary is
a convenient method of presenting all alternatives for evaluation. In this example a discount rate of 4 percent was used
in all calculations. Maintenance and need for rehabilitation in future years are the engineer’s estimates.
TABLE 3. SUMMARY OF ALTERNATIVES

Note: To convert from $/yd
2
to $/m
2
, divide by 0.8361
Alternatives
First Cost
$/yd
2

Present
Worth Life
Cycle $/yd
2
Time
Chance
for
Success %
#1 Asphalt-Rubber Chip Seal 1.25 7.30 2 days 90
#2 Asphalt-Rubber Interlayer 4.95 7.29 5 days 95
#3 Fabric Interlayer 4.20 6.22 4 days 97
#4 Surface Recycling 6.20 7.39 4 days 97
#5 Asphaltic Concrete - 1 in. (25 mm) 6.15 7.74 4 days 97
#6 Cold Recycle + 2 in. (5 1 mm) Overlay 6.60 7.41 6 days 97
#7 Hot Recycle + Rework Base 8.10 8.46 6 days 99
a. Comparing and ranking the various alternatives shown in table 3 yields the following results:
TABLE 4. COMPARATIVE RANKING OF ALTERNATIVES
First Cost Life-Cycle Cost Time Chance for Success
#1 #3 #1 #7
#3 #2 #3 #3
#2 #1 #4 #4
#5 #4 #5 #5
#4 #6 #2 #6
#6 #5 #6 #2
#7 #7 #7 #1
The average life-cycle cost of all 7 alternatives is $7.40/yd
2
($8.85/m
2
). Adding and subtracting 10 percent to the
average lifecycle cost yields a range of $6.66/yd
2
to $8.14/yd
2
($7.97/m
2
to $9.74/m
2
). Alternative #3, surface recycling
with an overlay, is lowest in life-cycle costs. Life-cycle costs for alternatives #1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 are within the 10 percent
range of the average cost. Alternative #7 is the most costly and exceeds 10 percent of the average cots. Alternative #3
appears to be the most promising as it ranks high in three of the four categories considered. The decision to select
alternative #3 must consider the availability of contractors capable of performing surface recycling and the time
required for completion.
5. SUMMARY. This appendix presents an economic procedure for evaluating a wide variety of airport pavement
design strategies. While the design example addresses a rehabilitation project, the principles are applicable to designs of
new pavements as well. Cost data used in the example are out of date and should be updated with more current local
costs before individual evaluations leading to strategy selection are undertaken. Whenever possible, local costs should
be used in all alternative analyses as local conditions sometimes vary considerably from broad overall averages.
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


APPENDIX 2. ORDER 5300.7



Effective Date:
October 6, 2005
SUBJ: Standard Naming Convention for Aircraft Landing Gear Configurations

1. Purpose of This Order. This Order establishes a standard convention for naming and characterizing aircraft landing
gear configurations. Although this order is primarily directed at fixed wing airplanes, it is applicable to any aircraft using
wheels for landing purposes.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION


ORDER
5300.7
2. Who This Order Affects. This Order impacts divisions in the Offices of Planning and Programming, Airport Safety
and Standards, Air Traffic, Airway Facilities, and Flight Standards Services; the regional Airports, Air Traffic, Airway
Facilities, and Flight Standards Divisions; and Airport District and Field Offices. It will also affect organizations and
individuals external to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). A standardized naming convention will allow
uniformity and consistency among Federal agencies and external entities when naming aircraft gear configurations.
Pilots and airport operators will no longer need to learn multiple naming systems and will be able to use common
aircraft landing gear names at all military and commercial facilities.
3. Background of This Order. Landing gear configuration and aircraft gross weight are an integral part of airfield
pavement design and are often used to characterize pavement strength. Historically, most aircraft used relatively simple
gear geometries such as a single wheel per strut or two wheels side by side on a landing strut. As aircraft became larger
and heavier, they required additional wheels to prevent individual wheel loads from introducing excessively high
stresses into the pavement structure. For economy and efficiency reasons, aircraft manufacturers added more wheels
per landing strut whenever possible. This often led to groups of wheels placed side-by-side and in tandem
configurations.
a. Typical Gear Configurations. Up until the late 1980s, the majority of civilian and military aircraft used three
basic gear configurations: the “single wheel” (one wheel per strut), the “dual wheel” (two wheels side by side on a strut), and
the “dual tandem” (two wheels side by side followed by two additional side-by-side wheels). As aircraft continued to
increase in gross weight, manufacturers attempted to limit the damage imparted to pavements by increasing the total number
of wheels. This was typically done by adding additional landing struts to the aircraft. For example, McDonnell Douglas
originally manufactured the DC-10 with two landing struts using the dual tandem gear configuration. When the company
produced the heavier DC-10-30 variation of the aircraft, it added an additional landing strut, using a dual wheel
configuration, to the center of the aircraft. Another example is the Boeing 747 aircraft. To reduce the impact to airfield
pavements, Boeing used four landing struts with dual tandem configurations on the B-747.
b. Complex Gear Configurations. The increasingly complex gear arrangements quickly outgrew the simple
single, dual, and dual tandem descriptions. Additionally, other aircraft were developed with gear configurations that
used numerous wheels in arrangements that could not be described by the three simple gear configurations. As the
number and complexity of gear arrangements increased and with no coordinated effort to provide a uniform naming
convention, the FAA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy developed different naming systems that were not easily cross-
referenced.
4. Definitions Used in This Order.
a. Main Gear. “Main gear” means the primary landing gear that is symmetrical on either side of an aircraft. When
multiple landing gears are present and are not in line with each other, the outer most gear pair is considered the main gear.
Multiples of the main gear exist when a gear is in line with other gears along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

b. Body/Belly Gear. “Body/belly gear” refers to an additional landing gear or gears in the center portion of the
aircraft between the main gears. Body/belly gears may be of a different type than the main gear and may be
nonsymmetrical.
5. Intended areas of use. The naming convention shown in Figure 1 is intended for use in all civilian and military
applications. All FAA pavement design guidance and FAA databases and database publications, e.g. 5010 Master
Record, Airport/Facilities Directory, etc., will hereafter use the described aircraft gear naming convention. The Air
Force and Navy will also adopt this system in their pavement guidance and facilities databases.
6. Aircraft Gear Geometry Naming Convention.
a. Basic Name for Aircraft Gear Geometry. Under the naming convention, abbreviated aircraft gear
designations may include up to three variables: the main gear configuration, the body/belly gear configuration if
body/belly gears are present, and an optional tire pressure code described below. Figure 1 illustrates the two primary
variables.
b. Basic Gear Type. Gear type for an individual landing strut is determined by the number of wheels across a
given axle (or axle line) and whether wheels are repeated in tandem. There may exist, however, instances in which
multiple struts are in close proximity and are best treated as a single gear, e.g. Antonov AN-124 (see Figure 14). If
body/belly gears are not present, the second portion of the name is omitted. For aircraft with multiple gears, such as the
B-747 and the A380, the outer gear pair is treated as the main gear.
c. Basic Gear Codes. This naming convention uses the following codes for gear designation purposes (see
Figure 2):
S Single
D Dual
T Triple
Q Quadruple
d. Use of Historical Tandem Designation. Although the verbal description continues to use the term “tandem”
to describe tandem gear configurations, the tandem designation “T” no longer appears in the gear name. “T” now
indicates triple wheels.




# X # / # X #







Number of gear types in tandem
Gear type, e.g. S, D, T, or Q
Number of gear types in tandem
Gear type, e.g. S, D, T, or Q
Main Gear Designation
Number of main gears in line on one
side of the airplanes
Total number of body/belly gears
Body/Belly Gear Designation
Figure 1. Aircraft Gear Naming Convention
e. Main Gear Portion of Gear Designation. The first portion of the aircraft gear name comprises the main gear
designation. This portion may consist of up to three characters. The first character indicates the number of tandem sets
or wheels in tandem, e.g. 3D = three dual gears in tandem. (If a tandem configuration is not present, the leading value
of “1” is omitted.) Typical names are S = Single, 2D = two dual wheels in Tandem, 5D = five dual wheels in tandem,
and 2T = two triple wheels in tandem.
(1) The second character of the gear designation indicates the gear code, e.g. S, D, T, or Q.
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


(2) The third character of the gear designation is a numeric value that indicates multiples of gears. For the
main gear, the gear designation assumes that the gear is present on both sides (symmetrical) of the aircraft and that the
reported value indicates the number of gears on one side of the aircraft. A value of 1 is used for aircraft with one gear
on each side of the airplane. For simplicity, a value of 1 is assumed and is omitted from the main gear designation.
Aircraft with more than one main gear on each side of the aircraft and where the gears are in line will use a value
indicating the number of gears in line. For example, the Ilyushin IL-76 has two gears containing quadruple wheels on
each side of the aircraft and is designated as a Q2 (see Figure 20).
f. Body/Belly Gear Portion of Gear Designation. The second portion of the aircraft gear name is used when
body/belly gears are present. If body/belly gears are present, the main gear designation is followed by a forward slash
(/), then the body/belly gear designation. For example, the B-747 aircraft has a two dual wheels in tandem main gear
and two dual wheels in tandem body/belly gears. The full gear designation for this aircraft is 2D/2D2. The body/belly
gear designation is similar to the main gear designation except that the trailing numeric value denotes the total number
of body/belly gears present, e.g. 2D1 = one dual tandem body/belly gear; 2D2 = two dual tandem body/belly gears.
Because body/belly gear arrangement may not be symmetrical, the gear code must identify the total number of gears
present, and a value of 1 is not omitted if only one gear exists.
g. Extension of Naming Convention. Future aircraft might require additional body/belly gears that are
nonsymmetrical and/or nonuniform. In these instances, the body/belly gear designation will contain a hyphen to
indicate the nonuniform gear geometry. For demonstration purposes, consider adding one dual wheel body/belly gear to
the existing 2D/2D2 gear configuration. The resulting gear name would be 2D/2D2-D.
h. Unique Gear Configurations. The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy has a unique gear type and is difficult to name
using the proposed method. This aircraft will not be classified using the new naming convention and will continue to be
referred to directly as the C5. Gear configurations such as those on the Boeing C-17, Antonov AN-124, and Ilusyin IL-
76 might also cause some confusion; see Figures 8, 14, and 20, respectively. In these cases, it is important to observe
the number of landing struts and the proximity of the struts. In the case of the AN-124, it is more advantageous to
address the multiple landing struts as one gear, i.e. 5D or five duals in tandem, rather than use D5 or dual wheel gears
with five sets per side of the aircraft. Due to wheel proximity, the C-17 gear is more appropriately called a 2T as it
appears to have triple wheels in tandem. In contrast, the IL-76 has considerable spacing between the struts and should
be designated as a Q2.
i. Examples of Gear Geometry Naming Convention. Figure 2 provides examples of generic gear types in
individual and multiple tandem configurations. Figures 3 through 20 provide examples of known gear configurations.
j. Comparison of Naming Convention to Historical Procedures. Table 3 demonstrates the proposed naming
convention and references the historic FAA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy methods. The historic Air Force
methodology also addresses the configuration of the aircraft nose gear. Due to the insignificance of the pavement load
imposed by the nose gear, the proposed method does not address nose gear configuration.
k. Inclusion of Tire Pressure Information. In addition to specifying gear geometry, the aircraft gear
designation can also indicate the tire pressures at which the aircraft operates. Although tire pressure effects on airfield
pavements are secondary to aircraft load and wheel spacing, they can have a significant impact on the ability of the
pavement to accommodate a specific aircraft.
(1) The Aircraft Classification Number (ACN) and the Pavement Classification Number (PCN) system
created by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has defined and categorized aircraft tire pressures into
four groups for reporting purposes. Table 1 lists these groups and their assigned codes.
Table 1. Standard Tire Pressure Categories
Range
Category psi MPa Code Designation
High No limit No Limit W
Medium 146 - 217 1.01 - 1.5 X
Low 74 - 145 0.51 - 1.0 Y
Very Low 0 - 73 0.0 - 0.5 Z
(2) To allow for the reporting of tire pressure, the gear naming convention includes a third variable. Using the
codes identified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the tire pressure can be included in
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009

parentheses after the standard gear nomenclature. Table 2 provides sample gear names with and without the additional
tire pressure code.
Table 2. Sample Gear Names With and Without Tire Pressure Codes
Gear Name Without Tire
Pressure
Gear Name With Tire
Pressure
S S(W)
2S 2S(X)
2D/2D1 2D/2D1(Z)
Q2 Q2(Y)
2D/3D2 2D/3D2(Z)

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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


99
Table 3. Proposed Naming Convention with Historical FAA, U.S. Air Force, and U.S. Navy Nomenclatures

AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


Dual
D
Triple
T
Quadruple
Q
2 Duals in
Tandem
2D
2 Singles in
Tandem
2S
2 Quadruples
in Tandem
2Q
2 Triples in
Tandem
2T
3 Singles in
Tandem
3S
3 Duals in
Tandem
3D
3 Triples in
Tandem
3 Quadruples
in Tandem
Single
S

Figure 2. Generic Gear Configurations. Increase numeric value for additional tandem axles.
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


101





Figure 3. S - Single Wheel Main Gear with Single
Wheel Nose Gear
Figure 4. S - Single Wheel Main Gear with Dual
Wheel Nose Gear








Figure 5. D - Dual Wheel Main Gear with Single
Wheel Nose Gear
Figure 6. D - Dual Wheel Main Gear with Dual Wheel
Nose Gear






Figure 7. 2S - Two Single Wheels in Tandem Main
Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear, Lockheed C-130
Figure 8. 2T - Two Triple wheels in Tandem Main
Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear, Boeing C-17
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009




Figure 9. 2D - Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main
Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear




Figure 11. 2D/2D1 Two Dual Wheels in Tandem
Main Gear/Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear
with Dual Wheel Nose Gear, Airbus A340-600




Figure 13. 3D - Three Dual Wheels in Tandem Main
Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear, Boeing B-777



Figure 10. 2D/D1 - Two Dual Wheels in Tandem
Main Gear/Dual Wheel Body Gear with Dual Wheel
Nose Gear, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, Lockheed L-
1011




Figure 12. 2D/2D2 - Two Dual Wheels in Tandem
Main Gear/Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear
with Dual Wheel Nose Gear, Boeing B-747
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E





Figure 14. 5D - Five Dual Wheels in Tandem Main
Gear with Quadruple Nose Gear, Antonov AN-124




Figure 16. 2D/3D2 - Two Dual Wheels in Tandem
Main Gear/Three Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear
with Dual wheel Nose Gear, Airbus A380



Figure 15. 7D - Seven Dual Wheels in Tandem Main
Gear with Quadruple Nose Gear, Antonov AN-225




Figure 17. C5 - Complex Gear Comprised of Dual
Wheel and Quadruple Wheel Combination with
Quadruple Wheel Nose Gear, Lockheed C5 Galaxy



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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


104




Figure 18. D2 - Dual Wheel Gear Two Struts per Side
Main Gear with No Separate Nose Gear (note that
single wheel outriggers are ignored), Boeing B-52
Bomber

Figure 20. Q2 - Quadruple Wheels Two Struts per
Side with Quadruple Nose Gear, Ilyushin IL-76





David L. Bennett
Director of Airport Safety and Standards


9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


APPENDIX 3. DESIGN OF STRUCTURES FOR HEAVY
AIRPLANES

1. BACKGROUND. Airport structures such as culverts and bridges are usually designed to last for the foreseeable
future of the airport. Information concerning the landing gear arrangement of future heavy airplanes is speculative. It
may be assumed with sufficient confidence that strengthening of pavements to accommodate future airplanes can be
performed without undue problems. Strengthening of structures, however, may prove to be extremely difficult, costly,
and time-consuming. Point loadings on some structures may be increased; while on overpasses, the entire airplanes
weight may be imposed on a deck span, pier, or footing.
2. RECOMMENDED DESIGN PARAMETERS.
a. Structural Considerations. For many structures the design is highly dependent upon the airplane landing
gear configuration. Our assessment indicates that three basic configurations, shown in figure 1, will, if all are
considered in the design of the bridge components, provide sufficient support for any airplane which may be
forthcoming. These consist of two areas enclosing eight wheels each, or 16 wheels per airplane comprising the main
gear. Nose gears, as such, are not considered, except as they occur in the static load. The “area” dimensions are 6 to 8
feet by 20 feet (2-3 m by 6 m) each supporting half of the airplane gross weight. Wheel prints are uniformly spaced
within their respective areas.
b. Foundation Design. Foundation design will vary with soil type and depth. No departure from accepted
methodology is anticipated; except that for shallow structures, such as inlets and culverts, the concentrated loads may
require heavier and wider spread footings than those presently provided by the structural standards in current use. For
buried structures, such as culverts, the following guidance from AASHTO is recommended.
(1) When the depth of fill is less than 2 feet, the wheel loads will be treated as concentrate loads.
(2) When the depth of fill is 2 feet or more, wheel loads will be considered as uniformly distributed over a
square with sides equal to l-3/4 times the depth of the fill. When such areas from several concentrations overlap, the
total load will be uniformly distributed over the area defined by the outside limits of the individual areas, but the total
width of distribution will not exceed the total width of the supporting slab.
c. Loads. It should be noted that all loads discussed herein are to be considered as dead load plus live loads. The
design of structures subject to direct wheel loads should also anticipate braking loads as high as 0.7 G (for no-slip
brakes).
d. Direct Loading. Decks and covers subject to direct heavy airplane loadings such as manhole covers, inlet
grates, utility tunnel roofs, bridges, etc., should be designed for the following loadings:
(1) Manhole covers for 100,000 lb. (45 000 kg) wheel loads with 250 psi (1.72 MPa) tire pressure.
(2) For spans of 2 feet (0.6 m) or less in the least direction, a uniform live load of 250 psi (1.72 MPa).
(3) For spans of 2 feet (0.6 m) or greater in the least direction, the design will be based on the number of
wheels which will fit the span. Wheel loads of 50,000 to 75,000 pounds (22 700 to 34 000 kg) should be considered.
(4) Special consideration will be given to structures that will be required to support both in-line and diagonal
traffic lanes, such as diagonal taxiways or apron taxi routes. If structures require expansion joints, load transfer may
not be possible.
105
AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009




FIGURE 1. TYPICAL GEAR CONFIGURATION FOR DESIGN OF STRUCTURES

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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


APPENDIX 4. RELATED READING MATERIAL

Electronic copies of the latest versions of the following FAA publications are available on the FAA website. Printed
copies can be requested from the Department of Transportation, Subsequent Distribution Office, Ardmore East
Business Center, 3341 Q 75th Ave, Landover, MD 20785. The Department of Transportation, however, will charge a
fee for some of these documents.
The following advisory circulars and orders are available for download on the FAA website (http://www.faa.gov):
1. AC 150/5300-9, Predesign, Prebid, and Preconstruction Conferences for Airport Grant Projects.
2. AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design.
3. AC 150/5320-5, Surface Drainage Design.
4. AC 150/5320-12, Measurement, Construction and Maintenance of Skid Resistance Airport Pavement
Surfaces.
5. AC 150/5320-17, Airfield Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating Manual.
6. AC 150/5335-5, Standardized Method of Reporting Airport Pavement Strength-PCN.
7. AC 150/5340-30, Design and Installation Details for Airport Visual Aids.
8. AC 150/5370-10, Standard for Specifying Construction of Airports.
9. AC 150/5370-11, Use of Nondestructive Testing Devices in the Evaluation of Airport Pavement.
10. AC 150/5370-14, Hot Mix Asphalt Paving Handbook.
11. AC 150/5380-6, Guidelines and Procedures for Maintenance of Airport Pavements.
12. Order 5300.7, Standard Naming Convention for Aircraft Landing Gear Configurations.
Copies of the following technical reports may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port
Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161 (http://www.ntis.gov):
13. DOT/FAA/AR-04/46, Operational Life of Airport Pavements, by Garg, Guo, and McQueen, December 2004.
14. FAA-RD-73-169, Review of Soil Classification Systems Applicable to Airport Pavement Design, by Yoder,
May 1974; AD-783-190.
15. FAA-RD-73-198, Vol. 1, Comparative Performance of Structural Layers in Pavement Systems. Volume I.
Design, Construction, and Behavior under Traffic of Pavement Test Sections, by Burns, Rone, Brabston , and
Ulery, June 1974; AD-0785-024.
16. FAA-RD-73-198, Vol. 3, Comparative Performance of Structural Layers in Pavement Systems, Volume III:
Design and Construction of MESL, by Hammitt, December 1974; ADA-005-893.
17. FAA-RD-74-030, Design of Civil Airfield Pavement for Seasonal Frost and Permafrost Conditions, by Berg,
October 1974; ADA-006-284.
18. FAA-RD-74-033, Vol. 3, Continuously Reinforced Concrete Airfield Pavement. Volume III. Design Manual
for Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement, by Treybig, McCullough, and Hudson, May 1974; AD-
0780-512.
19. FAA-RD-74-036, Field Survey and Analysis of Aircraft Distribution on Airport Pavements, by Ho Sang,
February 1975; ADA-011-488.
20. FAA-RD-74-039, Pavement Response to Aircraft Dynamic Loads. Volume II. Presentation and Analysis of
Data, by Ledbetter, September 1975, ADA-022-806.
21. FAA-RD-74-199, Development of a Structural Design Procedure for Flexible Airport Pavements, by Barker,
and Brabston, September 1975; ADA-019-205.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


22. FAA-RD-75-110, Vol. 2, Methodology for Determining, Isolating, and Correcting Runway Roughness, by
Seeman, and Nielsen, June 1977; ADA-044-328.
23. FAA-RD-76-066, Design and Construction of Airport Pavements on Expansive Soils, by McKeen, June 1976;
ADA-028-094.
24. FAA-RD-76-179, Structural Design of Pavements for Light Aircraft, by Ladd, Parker, and Pereira, December
1976; ADA-041-300.
25. FAA-RD-77-81, Development of a Structural Design Procedure for Rigid Airport Pavements, by Parker,
Barker, Gunkel, and Odom, April 1979; ADA-069-548.
26. FAA-RD-81-078, Economic Analysis of Airport Pavement Rehabilitation Alternatives – An Engineering
Manual, by Epps, and Wootan, October 1981; ADA-112-550.
27. FAA-PM-84/14, Performance of airport pavements under high traffic intensities.
28. DOT/FAA/PM-85115, Validation of Procedures for Pavement Design on Expansive Soils, by McKeen, July
1985; ADA-160-739.
29. FAA-PM-87/19, Design of Overlays for Rigid Airport Pavements, by Rollings, April 1988, ADA-194-331.
Copies of ASTM standards may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor
Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, 19428-2959 (http://www.astm.org/):
30. ASTM D420, Standard Guide to Site Characterization for Engineering Design Construction Purposes.
31. ASTM D421,Standard Practice for Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and
Determination of Soil Constants.
32. ASTM D422, Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils.
33. ASTM D427, Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Soils by the Mercury Method.
34. ASTM D698, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard
Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft
3
(600 kN-m/m
3
)).
35. ASTM D1557, Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified
Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft
3
(2,700 kN-m/m
3
)).
36. ASTM D1587, Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes.
37. ASTM D1883, Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils.
38. ASTM D2434, Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head).
39. ASTM D2487, Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil
Classification System).
40. ASTM D2488, Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure).
41. ASTM D2573, Standard Test Method for Field Vane Shear Test in Cohesive Soil
42. ASTM D3080, Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions.
43. ASTM D4318, Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit, Plastic Limit, and Plasticity Index of Soils.
44. ASTM D4429, Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Soils in Place.
45. ASTM D4632, Standard Test Method for Grab Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles.
46. ASTM D5340, Standard Test Method for Airport Pavement Condition Index Surveys.
47. ASTM C39/C39M, Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.
48. ASTM C78, Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point
Loading).
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


49. ASTM C496/C496M, Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete
Specimens.
50. ASTM A185/A185M-06e1 Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Plain, for Concrete
51. ASTM A615/A615M-07, Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon Steel Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement-AASHTO No. M 31
52. ASTM A996/A996M-06a Standard Specification for Rail-Steel and Axle-Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete
Reinforcement
53. ASTM A497/A497M-06e1 Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement, Deformed, for
Concrete
Copies of AASHTO standards may be obtained from the American Association of State Highway & Transportation
Officials, 444 North Capitol Street N.W., Suite 249, Washington, DC 20001 (http://www.transportation.org/):
54. AASHTO T 194, Standard Method of Test for Determination of Organic Matter in Soils by Wet Combustion.
55. AASHTO T 222, Standard Method of Test for Nonrepetitive Static Plate Load Test of Soils and Flexible
Pavement Components for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and Highway Pavements.
Copies of Unified Facility Criteria (UFC) may be obtained from the US Department of Defense website
(http://65.204.17.188//report/doc_ufc.html):
56. UFC 3-260-02, Pavement Design for Airfields, Unified Facility Criteria (UFC), June 2001 (Superseding U.S.
Army and Air Force, Pavement design for seasonal frost conditions, U.S. Army and Air Force, TM 5-818-2,
AFM 88-6 Chapter 4, U.S. Army, Air Force and NAVFAC TM 5-825-2/AFM 88-6 Chapter 2/DM 21.3,
Flexible Pavement Design for Airfields, U.S. Army and Air Force, Technical Manual TM 5-824-3/AFM 88-6
Chapter 3, Rigid Pavements for Airfields Other than Army.
Copies of the following publications are available from Asphalt Institute, 2696 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY
40511-8480 (http://www.asphaltinstitute.org/):
57. MS-11, Thickness Design – Airports.
58. MS-10, Soils Manual.
59. MS-19, Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual.
60. IS-154, Thickness Design-Asphalt Pavements for General Aviation.
61. SW-1 Asphalt Pavement Thickness Design Software.
Miscellaneous
62. Soil Cement Construction Handbook, Portland Cement Association, 5420 Old Orchard Road, Skokie, Illinois
60077, 1995.
63. NIKE3D - A Nonlinear, Implicit, Three-Dimensional Finite Element Code for Solid and Structural Mechanics
– User’s Manual, by Maker, B., Ferencz, R.M., and Hallquist, J.O., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,
Livermore, California, Report No. UCRL-MA-105268 Rev.1, April 1995.
64. FHWA-HI-95-038, Geosynthetic Design and Construction Guidelines, 1995.
65. Berggren, W.P., Prediction of temperature distribution in frozen soils, Transactions of the American
Geophysical Union, 24 (3), 71-77, 1943.
66. Development of Guidelines for Rubblization, Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology Program (AAPTP)
Report 04-01, by Buncher, M. (Principal Investigator), Fitts, G., Scullion, T., and McQueen, R., Draft Report,
November 2007.
67. Best Practices for Airport Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction (Rigid Airport Pavement),
Innovative Pavement Research Foundation (IPRF), Report IPRF-01-G-002-1, by Kohn, S. and Tayabji, S.
(Principal Investigators), April 2003.
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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


APPENDIX 5. AIRFIELD PAVEMENT DESIGN SOFTWARE

1. BACKGROUND. This appendix announces software to aid in the design of airfield pavements in accordance
with the new design procedure presented in Chapters 3, 4 and 5 of this AC. The software is called FAARFIELD and
incorporates two subprograms LEAF, implemented as a Microsoft Windows
TM
dynamic link library written in Visual
Basic
TM
2005, which performs Layered Elastic Analysis (LEA) computations and NIKE3D_FAA, a three-dimensional
finite element computational program implemented as a dynamic link library written in FORTRAN. NIKE3D_FAA is
a modification of the NIKE3D software program originally developed by the US Department of Energy, Lawrence
Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California. NIKE3D and INGRID (3D mesh generation software
for NIKE3D) are distributed in compiled form under the terms of a software sharing agreement between the FAA and
LLNL.
The remainder of the FAARFIELD program is written in Visual Basic
TM
2005 and operates under Microsoft
Windows
TM
. Software for the previous design method as described in AC 150/5320-6D is also presented in this
appendix and uses Microsoft Excel
TM
as a platform with Visual Basic
TM
for Applications (VBA) Macros to facilitate
the design process.
2. AVAILABLE SOFTWARE AND SUPPORT MATERIAL.
FAARFIELD implements both layered elastic-based and three-dimensional finite element-based design procedures for
new and overlay designs of flexible and rigid pavements, respectively. For flexible pavement design, FAARFIELD
uses the maximum vertical strain at the top of the subgrade, and the maximum horizontal strain at the bottom of the
asphalt surface layer, as the predictors of pavement structural life. For rigid pavement design, FAARFIELD uses the
maximum horizontal stress at the bottom edge of the PCC slab as the predictor of pavement structural life.
The design method to determine pavement thickness as described in AC 150/5320-6D uses two programs
(spreadsheets). Program F805FAA.XLS determines pavement thickness requirements for flexible pavement sections
and bituminous overlays on existing flexible pavement sections. Program R805FAA.XLS determines pavement
thickness requirements for rigid pavement sections and bituminous or Portland cement concrete overlays on existing
rigid or flexible pavement sections. Reference manuals, which guide users through each step, are available for both
programs. Pavement designs developed using the Frost Design feature of the spreadsheets are consistent with the
Reduced Subgrade Strength method described in Chapter 3. The spreadsheets will produce thickness designs
consistent with the nomographs used in AC 150/5320-6D.
3. ACCESS TO SOFTWARE. Design software and user manuals may be downloaded directly from the FAA
Office of Airport Safety and Standards website (http://www.faa.gov/airports/engineering/design_software/). Updates
or additions to the design software and manuals will be posted online, as well.
4. USE OF SOFTWARE. Numerical results from the programs may be used to complete FAA Form 5100-1,
Airport Pavement Design. When used to develop the pavement design, the printed results of the software should be
attached to Form 5100-1. Results from the program design summary and the airplane mixture data provide sufficient
information to reproduce and review the pavement thickness design. Additional design information is required to
complete Form 5100-1.
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9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E


APPENDIX 6. FAARFIELD INTERNAL AIRPLANE LIBRARY


AIRPLANE LISTING BY GROUP

TABLE 1. GENERIC AIRPLANE GROUP

Airplane Name
Gross Taxi
Weight (lbs)
Gear Designation
1 SWL-50 50,000 S
2 Sngl Whl-3 3,000 S
3 Sngl Whl-5 5,000 S
4 Sngl Whl-10 10,000 S
5 Sngl Whl-12.5 12,500 S
6 Sngl Whl-15 15,000 S
7 Sngl Whl-20 20,000 S
8 Sngl Whl-30 30,000 S
9 Sngl Whl-45 45,000 S
10 Sngl Whl-60 60,000 S
11 Sngl Whl-75 75,000 S
12 Dual Whl-10 10,000 D
13 Dual Whl-20 20,000 D
14 Dual Whl-30 30,000 D
15 Dual Whl-45 45,000 D
16 Dual Whl-50 50,000 D
17 Dual Whl-60 60,000 D
18 Dual Whl-75 75,000 D
19 Dual Whl-100 100,000 D
20 Dual Whl-150 150,000 D
21 Dual Whl-200 200,000 D
22 Dual Tan-100 100,000 2D
23 Dual Tan-150 150,000 2D
24 Dual Tan-200 200,000 2D
25 Dual Tan-300 300,000 2D
26 Dual Tan-400 400,000 2D

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AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009


TABLE 2. AIRBUS GROUP

Airplane Name
Gross Taxi
Weight (lbs)
Gear Designation
1 A300-B2 SB 315,041 2D
2 A300-B2 std 315,041 2D
3 A300-B4 std 365,747 2D
4 A300-B4 LB 365,747 2D
5 A300-600 std 380,518 2D
6 A300-600 LB 380,518 2D
7 A310-200 315,041 2D
8 A310-300 315,041 2D
9 A318-100 std 124,341 D
10 A318-100 opt 150,796 D
11 A319-100 std 141,978 D
12 A319-100 opt 150,796 D
13 A320-100 150,796 D
14 A320-200 Twin std 162,922 D
15 A320-200 Twin opt 172,842 D
16 A320 Bogie 162,922 2D
17 A321-100 std 183,866 D
18 A321-100 opt 188,275 D
19 A321-200 std 197,093 D
20 A321-200 opt 207,014 D
21 A330-200 std 509,047 2D
22 A330-200 opt 515,661 2D
23 A330-300 std 509,047 2D
24 A330-300 opt 515,661 2D
25 A340-200 std 568,563 2D/D1
26 A340-200 opt 575,176 2D/D1
27 A340-300 std 608,245 2D/D1
28 A340-300 opt 611,552 2D/D1
29 A340-500 std 813,947 2D/2D1
30 A340-500 opt 840,402 2D/2D1
31 A340-600 std 805,128 2D/2D1
32 A340-600 opt 840,402 2D/2D1
33 A380-800 1,239,000 2D/3D2
34 A380-800F 1,305,125 2D/3D2

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TABLE 3. BOEING GROUP

Airplane Name
Gross Taxi
Weight (lbs)
Gear Designation
1 B707-320C 336,000 2D
2 B720B 235,000 2D
3 B717-200 HGW 122,000 D
4 B727-100C Alternate 170,000 D
5
Adv. B727-200C
Basic
185,200 D
6 Adv. B727-200 Option 210,000 D
7 B737-100 111,000 D
8 Adv. B737-200 128,600 D
9 Adv. B737-200 LP 117,500 D
10 B737-300 140,000 D
11 B737-400 150,500 D
12 B737-500 134,000 D
13 B737-600 145,000 D
14 B737-700 155,000 D
15 B737-800 174,700 D
16 B737-900 ER 188,200 D
17 B737 BBJ2 174,700 D
18 B747-100 SF 738,000 2D/2D2
19
B747-200B Combi
Mixd
836,000 2D/2D2
20
B747-300 Combi
Mixed
836,000 2D/2D2
21 B747-400 877,000 2D/2D2
22 B747-400ER 913,000 2D/2D2
23 B747-SP 703,000 2D/2D2
24 B757-200 256,000 2D
25 B757-300 271,000 2D
26 B767-200 317,000 2D
27 B767-200 ER 396,000 2D
28 B767-300 ER 413,000 2D
29 B767-400 ER 451,000 2D
30 B777-200 Baseline 537,000 3D
31 B777-200 ER 657,000 3D
32 B777-200LR 768,800 3D
33 B777-300 Baseline 662,000 3D
34 B777-300 ER 777,000 3D
35 B787-8 478,000 2D
36 B787-9 542,000 2D


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TABLE 4. OTHER COMMERCIAL AIRPLANES GROUP

Airplane Name
Gross Taxi
Weight (lbs)
Gear Designation
1 An-124 877,430 5D
2 An-225 1,322,750 7D
3 BAe 146 95,000 D
4 Concorde 410,000 2D
5 DC3 25,199 S
6 DC4 73,002 D
7 DC8-43 318,000 2D
8 DC8-63/73 358,000 2D
9 DC9-32 109,000 D
10 DC9-51 122,000 D
11 DC10-10 458,000 2D
12 DC10-30/40 583,000 2D/D1
13 Fokker F100 101,000 D
14 IL62 358,472 2D
15 IL76T 376,990 3Q
16 IL86 466,278 2D/2D1
17 L-1011 498,000 2D
18 MD11ER 633,000 2D/D1
19 MD83 161,000 D
20 MD90-30 ER 168,500 D
21 TU134A 108,027 2D
22 TU154B 216,053 3D

TABLE 5. GENERAL AVIATION GROUP

Airplane Name
Gross Taxi
Weight (lbs)
Gear Designation
1 Aztec-D 5,200 S
2 Baron-E-55 5,424 S
3 BeechJet-400 15,500 S
4 BeechJet-400A 16,300 S
5 Bonanza-F-33A 3,412 S
6 Canadair-CL-215 33,000 S
7 Centurion-210 4,100 S
8 Challenger-CL-604 48,200 D
9 Chancellor-414 6,200 S
10 Chk.Arrow-PA-28-200 2,500 S
11 Chk.Six-PA-32 3,400 S
12 Citation-525 10,500 S
13 Citation-550B 15,000 S
14 Citation-V 16,500 S
15 Citation-VI/VII 23,200 D
16 Citation-X 36,000 D
17 Conquest-441 9,925 S

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TABLE 5. GENERAL AVIATION GROUP (cont.)

Airplane Name
Gross Taxi
Weight (lbs)
Gear Designation
17 Conquest-441 9,925 S
18 DC-3 26,900 S
19 Falcon-50 38,800 D
20 Falcon-900 45,500 D
21 Falcon-2000 35,000 D
22 Fokker-F-28-1000 66,500 D
23 Fokker-F-28-2000 65,000 D
24 Fokker-F-28-4000 73,000 D
25 GrnCaravan-CE-208B 8,750 S
26 Gulfstream-G-II 66,000 D
27 Gulfstream-G-III 70,200 D
28 Gulfstream-G-IV 75,000 D
29 Gulfstream-G-V 90,900 D
30 Hawker-800 27,520 D
31 Hawker-800XP 28,120 D
32 KingAir-B-100 11,500 D
33 KingAir-C-90 9,710 S
34 Learjet-35A/65A 18,000 D
35 Learjet-55 21,500 D
36 Malibu-PA-46-350P 4,118 S
37 Navajo-C 6,536 S
38 RegionalJet-200 47,450 D
39 RegionalJet-700 72,500 D
40 Sabreliner-40 19,035 S
41 Sabreliner-60 20,372 S
42 Sabreliner-65 24,000 S
43 Sabreliner-80 23,500 D
44 Sarat.PA-32R-301 3,616 S
45 Seneca-II 4,570 S
46 Shorts-330-200 22,900 S
47 Shorts-360 27,200 S
48 Skyhawk-172 2,558 S
49 Skylane-1-82 3,110 S
50 Stationair-206 3,612 S
51 SuperKingAir-300 14,100 D
52 SuperKingAir-350 15,100 D
53 SuperKingAir-B200 12,590 D






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116
TABLE 6. MILITARY GROUP

Airplane
Name
Gross Taxi
Weight (lbs)
Gear Designation
1 C-5 769,000 Complex
2 C-17A 585,000 2T
3 C-123 60,000 S
4 C-130 155,000 2S
5 C-141 345,000 2D
6 F-15C 68,000 S
7 F-16C 42,300 S
8 F/A-18C 56,000 S
9 KC-10 583,000 2D/D1
10 P-3 142,000 D

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ii

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AC 150/5320-6E

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES FOREWORD CHAPTER 1. AIRPORT PAVEMENTS— THEIR FUNCTION AND PURPOSES 100. 101. 102. 103. GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS STAGED CONSTRUCTION OF AIRPORT PAVEMENTS iii vi vii viii 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 4 5 6 9 10 10 11 13 13 13 13 13 13 13 14 20 20 21 24 24 24 24 24 25 27 27 28 30 32 32 32

CHAPTER 2. SOIL INVESTIGATIONS AND EVALUATION 200. 201. 202. 203. 204. 205. 206. 207. 208. GENERAL SOIL INVESTIGATIONS SURVEYING AND SAMPLING SOIL TESTS UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SOIL STRENGTH TESTS SUBGRADE STABILIZATION SEASONAL FROST PERMAFROST

CHAPTER 3. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRPLANES WEIGHING MORE THAN 30,000 POUNDS SECTION 1. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 300. SCOPE 301. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY 302. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH 303. BACKGROUND 304. PAVEMENT DESIGN USING FAARFIELD 305. TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION 306. TYPICAL SECTIONS 307. FROST AND PERMAFROST DESIGN SECTION 2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN 308. GENERAL 309. HOT MIX ASPHALT SURFACING 310. BASE COURSE 311. SUBBASE 312. SUBGRADE 313. SWELLING SOILS 314. SELECTION OF DESIGN CBR VALUE 315. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN 316. DESIGN EXAMPLE 317. STABILIZED BASE AND SUBBASE 318. FULL-DEPTH ASPHALT PAVEMENTS 319. FROST EFFECTS

iii

CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT 344. CRCP TERMINAL TREATMENT 346. JOINTING OF EMBEDDED STEEL CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 343. 504. SUBBASE 323. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PAVEMENT CHAPTER 4. GENERAL CONDITION OF EXISTING PAVEMENT MATERIAL SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS OVERLAY DESIGN OVERLAYS OF EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS OVERLAYS OF EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENTS THICKNESS DESIGN FOR RUBBLIZED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS PREPARATION OF THE EXISTING SURFACE FOR THE OVERLAY MATERIALS AND METHODS NEW OVERLAY MATERIALS 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 38 42 43 44 44 44 44 46 46 47 48 48 51 51 54 55 57 57 57 57 57 59 61 68 69 70 70 71 71 71 71 71 72 75 76 81 81 82 CHAPTER 5. SPECIAL JOINTING CONSIDERATIONS FOR POSSIBLE FUTURE EXPANSION 334. 401. CRCP JOINTING 345. CONCRETE PAVEMENT CONTAINING EMBEDDED STEEL FOR CRACK CONTROL 338. 405. 506. 501. 509.000 POUNDS 500. AMOUNT OF EMBEDDED STEEL. 409. 403. 505. 508. JOINT SEALANTS AND FILLERS 336. GENERAL REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH TYPICAL SECTIONS FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT MATERIALS FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN RIGID PAVEMENT MATERIALS RIGID PAVEMENT THICKNESS AGGREGATE TURF OVERLAYS HELIPORT/VERTIPORT DESIGN iv . 406. WELDED WIRE FABRIC 342. CRITICAL AND NONCRITICAL AREAS 330. SUBGRADE 326. DETERMINATION OF CONCRETE SLAB THICKNESS 328. 408. RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN 320. DESIGN EXAMPLE 331. FROST EFFECTS 332. 340. CONCRETE PAVEMENT 322. STABILIZED SUBBASE. GENERAL 321. JOINT LAYOUT 337. 502. 402. JOINTING STEEL 335. TYPE AND SPACING OF EMBEDDED STEEL BARS 339. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRPLANES WEIGHING LESS THAN 30. CRCP DESIGN EXAMPLE 347.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 SECTION 3. 503. DETERMINATION OF MODULUS (E VALUE) FOR RIGID PAVEMENT SUBGRADE 327. 407. 507. DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS OF EMBEDDED STEEL 341. 404. JOINTING OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 333. 325. AIRPORT PAVEMENT OVERLAYS AND RECONSTRUCTION 400. SUBBASE QUALITY 324. USE OF FAARFIELD FOR NEW RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN 329.

601. DESIGN OF STRUCTURES FOR HEAVY AIRPLANES APPENDIX 4. 701. ORDER 5300. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRFIELD SHOULDERS 700. RELATED READING MATERIAL APPENDIX 5. 606. 603.7 APPENDIX 3. 605. 704. 607. 703. 602. 708. 706. 702. 707. 705. PURPOSE APPLICATION BACKGROUND PURPOSE OF DESIGN PROCEDURE REPORTING PAVED SHOULDER DESIGN DESIGN PROCEDURE PAVEMENT LAYER THICKNESS AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS EMERGENCY AND MAINTENANCE VEHICLE CONSIDERATIONS AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FROST HEAVE APPENDIX 1. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS APPENDIX 2.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E CHAPTER 6. PURPOSES OF PAVEMENT EVALUATION EVALUATION PROCESS FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS APPLICATION OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EVALUATION PROCEDURES RIGID PAVEMENTS APPLICATION OF RIGID PAVEMENT EVALUATION PROCEDURES USE OF RESULTS REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH 83 83 83 84 84 86 87 88 88 89 89 89 89 89 89 89 90 90 90 91 95 105 107 110 111 CHAPTER 7. AIRFIELD PAVEMENT DESIGN SOFTWARE APPENDIX 6. 604. FAARFIELD INTERNAL AIRPLANE LIBRARY v . PAVEMENT EVALUATION 600.

RECOMMENDED TREATMENT OF SWELLING SOILS TABLE 3-8. RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM JOINT SPACINGS . AIRPLANE MIX DATA FOR CRCP DESIGN EXAMPLE TABLE 4-1. PAVEMENT REMAINING LIFE BASED ON CDF VALUE TABLE 3-3. REDUCED SUBGRADE STRENGTH RATINGS TABLE 3-4. SUBGRADE COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR LIGHT LOAD FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS 4 8 11 15 16 18 21 26 26 27 27 28 30 31 31 32 36 36 41 41 44 46 47 47 54 61 72 vi . SCI TABLE 5-1. ADDITIONAL AIRPLANE INFORMATION FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE TABLE 3-13. AIRPLANE MIXTURE INPUT DATA TABLE 3-14. TYPICAL SUBSURFACE BORING SPACING AND DEPTH FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION SOIL CHARACTERISTICS PERTINENT TO PAVEMENT FOUNDATIONS SOIL FROST GROUPS STANDARD NAMING CONVENTION FOR COMMON AIRPLANE GEAR CONFIGURATIONS TABLE 3-1. PAVEMENT JOINT TYPES TABLE 3-16. YIELD STRENGTHS OF VARIOUS GRADES OF REINFORCING STEEL TABLE 3-19. SECTIONAL AREAS OF WELDED FABRIC TABLE 3-21. STANDARD NAMING CONVENTION FOR COMMON AIRPLANE GEAR CONFIGURATIONS (CONTINUED) TABLE 3-2. TABLE 3-1. AIRPLANE TRAFFIC MIX EXAMPLE TABLE 3-11. DENSITIES FOR SUBGRADE IN EXAMPLE TABLE 3-6.RIGID PAVEMENT WITH OR WITHOUT STABILIZED SUBBASE TABLE 3-17. PAVEMENT STRUCTURE INFORMATION FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE TABLE 3-12. TABLE 2-2. COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXAMPLE TABLE 3-7. MINIMUM AGGREGATE BASE COURSE THICKNESS TABLE 3-10. SUBGRADE COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS TABLE 3-5. TABLE 2-3.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2-1. DIMENSIONS AND SPACING OF STEEL DOWELS TABLE 3-18. PAVEMENT LAYER INPUT DATA TABLE 3-15. LAYER TYPES IN FAARFIELD TABLE 3-9. DIMENSIONS AND UNIT WEIGHTS OF DEFORMED STEEL REINFORCING BARS NOMINAL DIMENSIONS TABLE 3-20. RIGID PAVEMENT DISTRESS TYPES USED TO CALCULATE THE STRUCTURAL CONDITION INDEX.

JOINTING LAYOUT PATTERNS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT – 50 FEET WIDE FIGURE 5-8. EXAMPLE OF A RIGID PAVEMENT STRUCTURE FOR EVALUATION 7 12 19 19 20 23 31 37 37 39 40 45 50 51 52 53 54 58 59 61 63 64 65 67 73 74 75 77 78 79 80 81 85 87 vii . STRUCTURE WINDOW IN FAARFIELD FIGURE 3-7. DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR AGGREGATE TURF PAVEMENT.NO OVERLAP FIGURE 3-2. EXAMPLE OF CDF CONTRIBUTION FOR AIRPLANE MIX FIGURE 3-4. AIRPLANE WINDOW IN FAARFIELD FIGURE 3-8. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT FIGURE 4-3. TYPICAL PLAN AND CROSS SECTION FOR RUNWAY PAVEMENT FIGURE 3-5. CRCP EXAMPLE FIGURE 4-1. EXAMPLE OF A FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT STRUCTURE FOR EVALUATION FIGURE 6-2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AIR THAWING INDEX AND THAW PENETRATION INTO GRANULAR. TYPICAL JOINT LAYOUT PATTERN FOR RUNWAY. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – JOINT DETAILS FIGURE 3-14. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF RIGID OVERLAY ON EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT FIGURE 4-4. CDFU COMPUTATION USING FAARFIELD FIGURE 4-5. RIGID PAVEMENT JOINT TYPE DETAILS FIGURE 3-10. FAARFIELD AIRPLANE WINDOW – LIGHT LOAD PAVEMENT DESIGN FIGURE 5-3. FIGURE 6-1. TWO EFFECTIVE TIRE WIDTHS . DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENT WITH SCI 70 FIGURE 4-6. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF RIGID OVERLAY ON EXISTING FULLY UNBONDED RIGID PAVEMENT FIGURE 5-1. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENT WITH SCI 100 FIGURE 4-7. NON-FROST SUSCEPTABLE SUBGRADE SOIL FIGURE 3-1. TYPICAL SECTIONS FOR PAVEMENTS SERVING LIGHT AIRPLANES FIGURE 5-2. TYPICAL BORING LOG FIGURE 2-2. ONE EFFECTIVE TIRE WIDTH – OVERLAP FIGURE 3-3. COMPUTED SLAB THICKNESS. CALCULATION OF SUBBASE LAYER THICKNESS FIGURE 5-4. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – WIDE FLANGE BEAM TERMINAL JOINT FIGURE 3-15. JOINTING LAYOUT PATTERNS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT – 60 FEET WIDE FIGURE 5-7. PARALLEL TAXIWAY. AND CONNECTOR FIGURE 3-11. JOINTING TYPES FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT FIGURE 5-5. TYPICAL OVERLAY PAVEMENTS FIGURE 4-2. RIGID PAVEMENT JOINT TYPES AND DETAILS FIGURE 3-9. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – JOINT DETAILS FIGURE 3-13. JOINTING IN RIGID PAVEMENT WITH EMBEDDED STEEL FIGURE 3-12. FAARFIELD SCREENSHOT SHOWING FINAL PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN FIGURE 3-6. JOINTING DETAILS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT FIGURE 5-6.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 2-1.

manufacturers were able to conform to the policy by increasing the number and spacing of landing gear wheels. were better adapted for this challenge The pavement design guidance presented in this AC implements layered elastic theory for flexible pavement design and three-dimensional finite element theory for rigid pavement design. such as the layered elastic and finite element procedures discussed in Chapter 3.000-pound (158 757 kg) airplane. the FAA adopted a policy of limiting maximum Federal participation in airport pavements to a pavement section designed to serve a 350. The intent of the policy was to ensure that future airplanes were equipped with landing gears that would not stress pavements more than the referenced 350. whenever possible. an evaluation of an existing pavement using the new methodology could result in incompatible results. on the same methodology as was used for the design. airfield pavements must be designed to withstand increased loading conditions.000-pound (158 757 kg) airplane with a DC-8-50 series landing gear configuration. airport operators should base the evaluation.000 pounds (158 757 kg). this AC does not dictate any facet of landing gear design. In these instances. Since a new pavement design methodology might produce different pavement thicknesses. adding extra wheels and landing gears does not contribute to efficiency. airplane manufacturers accepted and followed the 1958 policy and designed airplane landing gears that conformed to it—even though airplane gross weights have long exceeded 350. A slight change in pavement thickness can have a dramatic effect on the payload or range of an airplane. Although it may have been possible to adjust these methods to address new gear configurations and increased pavement loading. Unfortunately. when adding a new airplane with a unique gear configuration to the traffic mixture at a facility. In 1958. An airplane operator could be penalized unfairly if an existing facility was evaluated using a method different from that employed in the original design. The FAA adopted these methodologies to address the impact of new landing gear configurations and increased pavement load conditions. it may be impossible to assess the impact of the new airplane using the original design procedures. it may not be possible to evaluate the pavement with the original design procedure. it is necessary to evaluate the pavement with a design procedure capable of addressing the new traffic mixture. newer design procedures. Although airplane landing gears play a role in airport pavement design and evaluation. Historical pavement design guidance presented in previous versions of this AC was based on methods of analysis that resulted from empirical research and field performance. These procedures are robust and can address future gear configurations without modifying their underlying design procedures. and airplane manufacturers are focusing on designing airplane gear configurations to optimize the efficiency of the airplanes. Despite increases in airplane weights.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 FOREWORD This AC provides guidance on the structural design and evaluation of airport pavements. For example. Chapter 6 presents the pavement evaluation portion of this AC. With this change in philosophy and increasing airplane weights. Throughout the 20th century. Where new airplanes are added to the traffic mix at an existing facility. To avoid this situation. viii .

some designs may be more economical than others and can still provide satisfactory performance. the pavement must be of such quality and thickness that it will not fail under the load imposed. and Maintenance of Skid Resistant Airport Pavement Surfaces. The design and evaluation guidance in this circular can be adapted to any pavement type. Airport Design. A treated base normally consists of a crushed or uncrushed aggregate mixed with a stabilizer such as cement. Various combinations of pavement types and stabilized layers result in complex pavements classified between flexible and rigid. Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports. AC 150/5320-12. b. AC 150/5300-13. and other issues can override economic factors in the design selection. GENERAL. and Preconstruction Conferences for Airport Grant Projects). Appendix 1 demonstrates an example of a life-cycle cost analysis of alternatives for pavement rehabilitation. a. and slopes. groundwater conditions. SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS. Airport pavements should provide a skid resistant surface that will provide 102. (3) stabilized soil. or a 1 . Prebid. Economic Analysis and Design Selection. a stabilized granular material. AIRPORT PAVEMENTS— THEIR FUNCTION AND PURPOSES 100.) can provide a satisfactory pavement for any civil airplane. widths. presents information on skid resistant surfaces. Construction. To produce such pavements requires a coordination of many factors of design. flexible. Economic Analysis of Airport Pavement Rehabilitation Alternatives – An Engineering Manual. (4) Geosynthetics. Measurement. grades. The engineer is required to provide a rationale for the selected design in the engineer’s report (see AC 150/5300-9. it must possess sufficient inherent stability to withstand. all-year. The synthetic nature of the materials in these products makes them suitable for use in the ground where high levels of durability are required. hot mix asphalt (HMA). Pavement Courses. In addition. Specifications. Operational constraints. c. geomembranes and geocomposites.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E CHAPTER 1. treated and untreated. stable. and sprayed bituminous surface treatments. An untreated base consists of crushed or uncrushed aggregates. any pavement type (rigid. Economic factors do not always control the design selection. Subbase. Predesign. Airport pavements are constructed to provide adequate support for the loads imposed by airplanes and to produce a firm. However. presents geometric standards for pavement lengths. The term is generally understood to encompass four main products: geotextiles. Research report FAA-RD-81/078. composite. Many new developments in construction have evolved. good traction during any weather conditions. rigid. The need for geosynthetics within a pavement section is dependent upon subgrade soil conditions. Subbase courses consist of a granular material. a. Surface courses include Portland cement concrete (PCC). Reference is made by Item Number throughout the text to construction material specifications contained in AC 150/5370-10. These products have a wide range of applications. Engineers often base this rationale on economic factors derived from evaluating several design alternatives. Alternate construction bids are appropriate in instances where no clear cost advantage is established in the design process. that can significantly affect pavement costs. etc. etc. without damage. provides more details on life-cycle cost analysis. Pavements discussed in this circular are flexible. (1) Surface. Geometric Standards. and the type of overlying pavement aggregate. hot mix asphalt overlays. adverse weather conditions. sand-bituminous mixture. bitumen. Types of Pavement. including use as a separation between subbase aggregate layers and the underlying subgrade. and other deteriorating influences. The engineer’s report should address these considerations. funding limitations. With proper design and construction. the abrasive action of traffic. Base courses consist of a variety of different materials. smooth. which generally fall into two (2) main classes. Base. all-weather surface free of debris or other particles that may be blown or picked up by propeller wash or jet blast. Use life-cycle cost analysis if the design selection is based on least cost. construction. 101. b. and rigid overlays. In order to satisfactorily fulfill these requirements. such as recycling. geonets/geogrids. and inspection to assure the best possible combination of available materials and a high standard of workmanship. future expansion. The term geosynthetics describes a range of manufactured synthetic products used to address geotechnical problems. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS.

as the underlying layers will not be readily accessible for upgrading in the future. 2 . i. Adequacy of Each Stage. In some instances. Providing the proper foundation and drainage facilities in the first stage is mandatory. The planning of a stage-constructed pavement should recognize a number of considerations. Lateral staging. a. layer by layer.. that is. construct the airport pavement in stages.e. is sometimes advantageous to accommodate larger airplanes. constructed in stages to the standards required for the final cross-section. planning for future widening of pavements. to build up the pavement profile. Design and construct the underlying layers and drainage facilities of a pavement b. Drainage. the need for sound planning cannot be overemphasized. Design each stage to adequately accommodate the traffic that will use the pavement until the next stage is constructed. It is important to design the complete pavement prior to the start of any stage and to assure that each stage provides an operational surface. If stage construction is to be undertaken. it may be necessary to 103.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 STAGED CONSTRUCTION OF AIRPORT PAVEMENTS. as the traffic using the facility increases in weight and number.

provides basic planning material essential to the logical and effective development of the airport. that the more unstable the subgrade soil. To provide essential information on the various types of soils. For engineering purposes. moisture content. This information combined with data on site topography and area climatic records. texture. Although it is impossible to explore the entire field of soil mechanics in a publication such as this. The pavement serves to distribute the imposed load to the subgrade over an area greater than that of the tire contact area. the greater is the area over which the load on the subgrade is distributed. soil includes all natural deposits that can be moved with earth moving equipment. This method is based entirely on the soil profile. and frost penetration. The soils having the best engineering characteristics encountered in the grading and excavating operations should be incorporated in the upper layers of the subgrade by selective grading. An investigation of soil conditions at an airport site will include— (1) Subsurface Soil Profile. (See AC 150/5320-5. Collection of representative samples of the layers of soil. Distribution and Properties.) 201. chemical composition. 3 . A review to determine the availability of materials for use in construction of the subgrade and pavement. c. Surface Drainage Design. Harder materials are considered to be rock. b. is commonly used to identify soils by such characteristics as color. and. compactness. and particularly as it applies to airports. It should be remembered that the subgrade soil ultimately provides support for the pavement and the imposed loads. (3) Profile. investigations should be made to determine their distribution and physical properties. consistency. each of which possesses different physical properties from the adjacent layer. In addition to the relationship that soil conditions bear to grading and paving operations. SOIL INVESTIGATIONS. Procedures. they determine the necessity for underdrains and materially influence the amount of surface runoff. b. SOIL INVESTIGATIONS AND EVALUATION 200. Testing. certain terms employed are defined below: (1) SOIL Definition. Subgrade soil is the soil that forms the foundation for the pavement. Thus. a. The greater the thickness of pavement. structure. Field properties of the soil include the density. the greater is the required area of load distribution and consequently the required thickness of pavement is greater. is most frequently used. therefore. and the field properties of the soil. Standard Guide to Site Characterization for Engineering Design and Construction Purposes. Subgrade Support. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D 420. ASTM D 2488. (2) Sampling. a. Classification System. It is the soil directly beneath the pavement structure. to varying degrees. without requiring blasting under unfrozen conditions. It follows. cementation. Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedures). In the field. (2) Conditions and Properties. Drainage. the presence of water bearing strata. With respect to sampling and surveying procedures and techniques. The importance of accurate identification and evaluation of pavement foundations cannot be overemphasized. Soil conditions include such items as the elevation of the water table. (4) Subgrade. The soil profile is the vertical arrangement soil layers. Use the Unified Soil Classification (USC) system in engineering matters concerning civil airport pavements. they have a resulting effect on the size and extent of other drainage structures and facilities. (4) Availability. Testing of samples to determine the physical properties of the various soil materials (3) with respect to in-place density and subgrade support. An investigation of subsurface soil properties to determine the arrangement of different layers of the soil with relation to the proposed subgrade elevation. the following text will highlight those aspects that are particularly important to the airport paving engineer.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E CHAPTER 2. To avoid misunderstanding. GENERAL.

The initial step in an investigation of subsurface conditions is a soil survey to determine the quantity and extent of the different types of soil. additional investigations are warranted. Subsurface Borings. Suggested criteria for the location. can be used for computing subgrade strength and to locate soil borings and sampling locations for evaluation of existing pavements. These profile borings are usually obtained with a soil auger or similar device. The intent of the borings is to determine the soil or rock profile and its lateral extent. The graphic log should include— (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Location Date performed Type of exploration Surface elevation Depth of materials 4 . and Depths. c. development costs. location. and soil patterns may be determined from the photographs. data so obtained are extremely useful to the agronomist in connection with the development of turf areas on airports and to the engineer concerned with preliminary investigations of site selection. which summarizes the results of the soil explorations.10' (3 m) Below Finished Grade foot (60 m) Intervals Fill Areas . It is recommended that the graphic log be developed. Obviously. more or deeper borings may be required in order to determine the proper design. does not treat soil as an engineering or construction material. drainage. Use of Nondestructive Testing Devices in the Evaluation of Airport Pavement.10' (3 m) Below Finished Grade (930 sq m) of Area Fill Areas . Relief. Washed borings are not recommended due to inaccuracies of depth determinations.10' (3 m) Below Existing Ground1 Borrow Areas Sufficient Tests to Clearly Define To Depth of Borrow Excavation the Borrow Material 1 For deep fills.10' (3 m) Below Existing Ground1 Other Areas of Pavement 1 Boring per 10. the arrangement of soil layers. The practice of determining data on soils with aerial photographs is established and commonly acceptable. Number of Borings. where uniform soil conditions are encountered. determined from these maps. and construction procedures. Conversely. Although the pedological classification. A typical graphic log is included as figure 2-1. the spacing of borings cannot always be definitely specified by rule or preconceived plan. United States Geodetic Survey (USGS) (1) geologic maps. Wide variations in these criteria can be expected due to local conditions. as described in AC 150/5370-11. and numbers of borings must be such that all important soil variations can be determined and mapped. 202. boring depths must be sufficient to determine the extent of consolidation and/or slippage the fill may cause. if in the opinion of the engineer. By employing this method of investigation. and USGS engineering geology maps can prove valuable aids in the study of soils at and in the vicinity of the airport. Department of Agriculture soils maps. depths.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 Maps. Locations. Boring Log. A graphic log of soil conditions can be of great value in assessing subgrade conditions. (2) Aerial Photography. boring logs from original construction and prior evaluations can be used. depth. the locations. and alignment. Also. TYPICAL SUBSURFACE BORING SPACING AND DEPTH FOR NEW CONSTRUCTION AREA Runways and Taxiways SPACING DEPTH Random Across Pavement at 200Cut Areas . and the depth of any subsurface water. Whenever past experience at the location in question has indicated that settlement or stability in deep fill areas may be a problem or. fewer borings may be acceptable. and number of borings for new construction are given in table 2-1. and an experienced photo interpreter can define differences in characteristics of soils. b. a. TABLE 2-1. it is possible to expedite soil studies and reduce the amount of effort required to gather data. SURVEYING AND SAMPLING. Inasmuch as each location presents its particular problems and variations.000 Square Feet Cut Areas . Nondestructive testing (NDT).

This type of supplemental soil investigation is recommended for situations that warrant a high degree of accuracy or when in-situ conditions are complex and require extensive investigation. construction/stabilization characteristics. A number of field and laboratory tests have been developed and standardized. the limits may be used to estimate engineering properties or behavior of soils such as shrink/swell potential. open cuts. This analysis (2) provides a quantitative determination of the distribution of particle sizes in soils.9/30/2009 (6) (7) (8) (9) Sample identification numbers Classification Water table Standard penetration test (SPT) AC 150/5320-6E d. The dry method should be used only for clean. Soil Survey Areas.000 pounds (27 216 kg) or more. SOIL TESTS. Physical Soil Properties. The soil survey is not confined to soils encountered in grading or necessarily to the area within the boundaries of the airport site. For pavements designed to serve airplanes weighing 60. use ASTM Method D 1557. 203. Undisturbed Samples. Because the results of a test can only be as good as the sampling. Samples representative of the different layers of the various soils encountered and various construction materials discovered should be obtained and tested in the laboratory to determine their physical and engineering properties. cohesion-less granular materials. tests to determine the moisture-density relations of the different types of soils should be performed. f. charting variable soil strata. natural moisture content. consolidation characteristics. Pits. it is necessary to conduct certain soil tests. Inplace Testing. and plasticity index of soils are used in engineering classification in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System (ASTM D 2487). and Plasticity Index of Soils (ASTM D 4318). It indicates the range in moisture content over which a soil remains in a plastic state prior to changing into a liquid. etc.700 kN-m/m3)). and other soil properties or conditions. In-situ properties such as in-place density.000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2. a. liquid limit. consolidation characteristics. may necessitate obtaining “undisturbed” core samples. permeability. shear strength. Plastic Limit. it is of utmost importance that each sample be representative of a particular type of soil material and not be a careless and indiscriminate mixture of several materials. Soil tests are usually identified by terms indicating the soil characteristics that the tests will reveal. respectively. and strength characteristics. Detailed methods of performing soil tests are completely covered in publications of the ASTM. (3) Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit. For purposes of compaction control during (4) construction. describes a method of obtaining “undisturbed” soil samples. (i) Heavy Load Pavements. To determine the physical properties of a soil and to provide an estimate of its behavior under various conditions. The plastic limit. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56. Moisture-Density Relations of Soils . Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils (ASTM D 422). The plastic and liquid limits of soil define in a standard manner the lowest moisture content at which a soil will change from a semisolid to a plastic state and at which a solid passes from a plastic to a liquid state. b. taking undisturbed samples. 5 . In conjunction with particle size analysis. etc. Standard Practice for Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes. Terms that identify the tests considered to be the minimum or basic requirement for airport pavement. ASTM D 1587. Possible sources of locally available material that may be used as borrow areas or aggregate sources should be investigated. Testing Requirements. with their ASTM designations and brief explanations. follow: (1) Standard Practice for Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants (ASTM D 421). e. or both may be required for making in-place bearing tests. The plasticity index is the numerical difference between the plastic limit and the liquid limit.

Table 2-2 provides general soil characteristics pertinent to pavements. This list should not be considered all-inclusive. This test is used to determine the modulus of soil reaction. This test is used to assign a CBR (California Bearing Ratio) value to subgrade soils for use in the design of flexible pavements. 204. In many cases. Field bearing tests can be performed when the on site conditions satisfy density and moisture conditions that will exist under the pavement being designed. (2) Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head) (ASTM D 2434). This test may be needed to assist in the design of subsurface drainage. The method is also described in Manual Series No.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 Light Load Pavements. (3) Determination of Organic Material in Soils by Wet Combustion (AASHTO T-194). (4) Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Soils in Place (ASTM D4429-04). For pavements designed to serve airplanes weighing less than 60. use ASTM Method D 698. (1) Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Soils by the Mercury Method (ASTM D 427). commonly called the Unified System. however. The standard method of classifying soils for engineering purposes is ASTM D 2487. 10. It is not possible to cover all the additional tests that may be required. (ii) (5) Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils (ASTM D 1883). 6 . This test may be required in areas where swelling soils might be encountered. for use in the design of rigid pavements. UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ftlbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)). This test may be needed in areas where deep pockets of organic material are encountered or suspected. a few examples are presented below. (6) Modulus of Soil Reaction (AASHTO T 222). additional soil tests will be required over those listed in paragraph 203b above. Supplemental Tests. k.000 pounds (27 216 kg). Soils Manual (The Asphalt Institute). c.

TYPICAL BORING LOG 7 .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E FIGURE 2-1.

SOIL CHARACTERISTICS PERTINENT TO PAVEMENT FOUNDATIONS AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 .8 TABLE 2-2.

A saturated CBR test is used to simulate the conditions likely to occur in a pavement that has been in service for some time. The following formula can be used to convert CBR to k value for the subgrade. the plate bearing test measures the bearing capacity of the pavement foundation. Some areas of the country use the lime rock bearing ratio (LBR) to express soil strength. Specimens are soaked for 4 days to allow the material to reach saturation.284 a. the subgrade should be improved through stabilization or other means to raise the design CBR value. As a rule. (1) Laboratory.000 psi (345 MPa) (CBR=33. a design CBR value of 3 is the lowest practical value that should be assigned. An example of this condition is a fill that has been constructed and surcharged for a long period of time prior to pavement construction. Each of these tests is discussed in greater detail below. multiply LBR by 0. k value.8. Field CBR tests should be conducted in accordance with the ASTM D 4429. The force required to produce a given penetration in the material under test is compared to the force required to produce the same penetration in a standard crushed limestone. has the units of pounds per cubic inch (Mega-Newton per cubic meter). The materials should have been in place for a sufficient time to allow for the moisture to reach an equilibrium condition. This indication of behavior is. Bearing Ratio of Laboratory-Compacted Soils. 9 . Standard Test Method for Bearing Ratio of Soils in Place. The result is expressed as a ratio of the two forces. Field CBR tests can provide valuable information on foundations that have been in place for several years. however. However. this is only an approximate relationship and it is the recommended appropriate testing to establish design values. To convert LBR to CBR. (3) Gravelly Materials. The design CBR value should be conservatively selected. etc. California Bearing Ratio. can be envisioned as the pressure required to produce a unit deflection of the pavement foundation. Pavement foundations tend to reach nearly complete saturation after about 3 years. Plate bearing tests should be performed in accordance with the procedures contained in AASHTO T 222. Laboratory CBR tests are conducted on materials that have been obtained from the site and remolded to the density that will be obtained during construction. degree of saturation. Plate Bearing Test. Resilient modulus is used for rigid pavement design because of the variable stress states. Laboratory CBR tests on gravel often yield CBR results that are too high due to the confining effects of the mold.7788 . CBR tests on gravelly materials are difficult to interpret. k value. Thus a material with a CBR value of 15 means the material in question offers 15 percent of the resistance to penetration that the standard crushed stone offers. b. (2) Field. The plate bearing test result. 1500  CBR  k  26   0. The assignment of CBR values to gravelly subgrade materials may be based on judgment and experience.3) for use in design. The strength of materials intended for use in flexible pavement structures is measured by the CBR tests. As the name indicates. Seasonal moisture changes also dictate the use of a saturated CBR design value since traffic must be supported during periods of high moisture such as spring seasons. The CBR test is basically a penetration test conducted at a uniform rate of strain. approximate.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E 205. SOIL STRENGTH TESTS. The result. As an approximate “rule of thumb”. (k in pci) (5) Lime Rock Bearing Ratio. three CBR tests on each different major soil type should be considered. height of overburden. Materials intended for use in rigid pavement structures are tested by the plate bearing method. Soil classification for engineering purposes provides an indication of the probable behavior of the soil as a pavement subgrade. The FAA pavement design procedure recommends a maximum subgrade E value of 50. Variability of the soil conditions encountered at the site will have the greatest influence on the number of tests needed. In instances where the subgrade strength is lower than CBR equals 3. Elastic modulus is estimated from CBR and k using the correlations E = 1500  CBR and E = 26  k1. Laboratory CBR tests should be performed in accordance with ASTM D 1883. Performance different from that expected can occur due to a variety of reasons such as degree of compaction. The possibility of incorrectly predicting subgrade behavior can be largely eliminated by measuring soil strength. The preliminary soil survey will reveal how many different soil types will be encountered. The number of CBR tests needed to properly establish a design value cannot be simply stated. (4) Number of Tests. Common paving engineering practice is to select a value that is one standard deviation below the mean.

or need for a stable working platform. The depth of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the pavement and soil mass. c. c. The higher the frost group number. the more susceptible the soil. Mechanical Stabilization. Geosynthetics will also function as a separation material to limit long-term weakening of pavement aggregate associated with contamination of the aggregate with underlying fine-grained soils. The underlying soils may be so soft that stabilized materials cannot be mixed and compacted over the underlying soils without failing the soft soils. Different soil types require different stabilizing agents for best results. The design of pavements in areas subject to seasonal frost action requires special consideration. second. Where stability of the underlying section is questionable. provides more information about construction over soft soils using geosynthetics (see Appendix 4). Subgrade stabilization should be considered if one or more of the following conditions exist: poor drainage. soils in FG-4 are more frost susceptible than soils in frost groups 1. Generally only two or three tests can be performed for each pavement feature. the surface temperature. Subgrade stabilization can be accomplished through the addition of chemical agents or by mechanical methods. Frost Susceptibility. FHWA-HI-95-038. additional soil strength tests may be necessary. Thick layers of lean. Detrimental frost action requires that three conditions be met simultaneously: first. SUBGRADE STABILIZATION. A correction to the k value for saturation is required to simulate the moisture conditions likely to be encountered by the in-service pavement. a. Extremely soft soils may require bridging in order to construct the pavement section.02 mm by weight. b. third. Free Water. Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual (see Appendix 4). FG-3. porous concrete have also been used to bridge extremely soft soils. development of pavement roughness. subgrades cannot be adequately stabilized through the use of chemical additives. The rigid pavement design presented in this circular is based on the elastic modulus (E) or k value. The availability of free water in the soil mass to freeze and form ice lenses is the third consideration that must be present for detrimental frost action to occur. and The Asphalt Institute Manual Series MS-19. Soil Cement Construction Handbook. Plate bearing tests must be conducted in the field and are best performed on test sections that are constructed to the design compaction and moisture conditions. Geosynthetics should be considered as mechanical stabilization over soft. is generally the best guide to frost penetration depth. (2) Number of Tests. Empirical relationships have been developed correlating the degree of frost susceptibility with the soil classification and the amount of material finer than 0. FG-2. Bridging can be accomplished with the use of thick layers of shot rock or cobbles. 2. The following publications are recommended to determine the appropriate type and amount of chemical stabilization for subgrade soils: Unified Facilities Criteria (UFC) Manual Pavement Design for Airfields. or 3.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 (1) Test Conditions. Water can be drawn from considerable depths 10 . frost. Depth of Frost Penetration. SEASONAL FROST. Geosynthetic Design and Construction Guidelines. Direct shear tests (ASTM D 3080) or field vane tests (ASTM D 2573) may be required to adequately design the pavement structure. fine-grained soils. Soils are categorized into four groups for frost design purposes: Frost Group 1 (FG-l). The design k value should be conservatively selected. The detrimental effects of frost action may be manifested by non-uniform heave and in loss of soil strength during frost melting.. b. i. Geosynthetics can facilitate site access over soft soils and aid in reducing subgrade soil disturbance due to construction traffic.e. the soil must be frost susceptible. The frost susceptibility of soils is dependent to a large extent on the size and distribution of voids in the soil mass. Chemical Stabilization. In some instances. and the temperature of the pavement and soil mass at the start of the freezing season. 206. primary consideration should be given to local engineering experience. UFC 3-260-02. Residential construction practice. The k value can be determined by a static plate load test using a 30-inch (762 mm) diameter plate. (3) Plate Size. Additional Soil Strength Tests. Portland Cement Association. and cracking and deterioration of the pavement surface. including the experience of local building departments. 207. Other related detrimental effects include possible loss of compaction. adverse surface drainage. Table 2-3 defines the frost groups. and FG-4. Plate bearing tests are relatively expensive to perform and thus the number of tests that can be conducted to establish a design value is limited. Voids must be of a certain critical size for the development of ice lenses. freezing temperatures must penetrate into the frost susceptible soil. restriction of drainage. a. In determining the frost penetration depth. Use of a plate of smaller diameter will result in a higher k value than is represented in the design and evaluation curves. free moisture must be available in sufficient quantities to form ice lenses.

In arctic regions. SM 208. there are currently no software programs available to do this. 11 . average wind speed during the thaw period. SW-SM. GW-GM. These thicknesses are based on experience and it should be anticipated that differential settlement will occur and considerable maintenance will be required to maintain a smooth surface. Muskeg is sometimes encountered in arctic areas. Further information on permafrost can be found in Research Report No. Use of figure 2-2 requires inputs of air thawing index. PI above 12 Very fine silty sands All Silts Clays. except very fine silty sands Clays. CH SM ML. GW-GM. frost heave will probably occur. If the thickness of muskeg is too great to warrant removal and replacement. In areas with continuous high-ice-content permafrost at shallow depths. satisfactory pavements are best ensured by restricting seasonal thawing to the pavement and to a non-frost susceptible base course. GP. If construction in areas of muskeg is unavoidable and the soil survey shows the thickness of muskeg is less than 5 feet (1. or by condensation of atmospheric water vapor. SW. PI = 12 or less Varved Clays and other fine grained banded sediments PERCENTAGE FINER THAN 0. For all practical purposes. Appendix 4) can theoretically be used with local climatic data to approximate the depth of thawing in permafrost. However. by infiltration from the surface or sides. a. FAA-RD-74030. Although the Modified Berggren equation (see reference 18. TABLE 2-3. Frost Design. The air thawing index is expressed in degree days and is the difference between average daily temperature and 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius) multiplied by the number of days the temperature exceeds freezing. Use of a geosynthetic between the muskeg surface and the bottom of granular fill is recommended to prevent migration of the muskeg up into the granular till. and density of the permafrost layer. If 30-year records are not available. The frost susceptibility of soils in permafrost areas is classified the same as given above in paragraph 207. c. Muskeg is a highly organic soil deposit that is essentially a swamp. The thawing index used for design (design thawing index) should be based on the three warmest summers in the last 30 years of record.02 mm BY WEIGHT 3 to 10 10 to 20 3 to 5 Over 20 Over 15 Over 15 - SOIL CLASSIFICATION GW. Generally speaking. ML. Additional information on the design and construction of geosynthetics performing the separation function within pavement sections is provided in FHWA-HI-95-038 (see Appendix 4). Permafrost Design. Every effort should be made to avoid pavement construction on this material. a 5-foot (1. SP-SM GM. SC CL. pavement type. Seasonal thawing and refreezing of the upper layer of permafrost can lead to severe loss of bearing capacity and/or differential heave. the depth to which thawing temperatures penetrate into permafrost may be estimated using figure 2-2. MH CL. the designer should assume that sufficient water to cause detrimental frost action will be present. soils are often frozen at considerable depths year round. A more detailed and rigorous discussion of frost action and its effects can be found in Research Report No. GP-GM. Susceptibility. FAA-RD-74-030 (see Appendix 4). SP. CL-ML CL. CH. PERMAFROST. SOIL FROST GROUPS FROST GROUP FG-1 FG-2 FG-3 FG-4 KIND OF SOIL Gravelly Soils Gravelly Soils Sands Gravelly Soils Sands. In this application. b. the geosynthetic is considered to perform the function of separation. Pavement design for permafrost areas must consider the depth of seasonal thaw penetration. if the degree of saturation of the soil is 70 percent or greater. Muskeg. Depth of Thaw Penetration. The design of pavements to offset seasonal frost effects is presented in Chapter 3. GP-GM GM. SM. Design of pavements in areas of permafrost is discussed in Chapter 3. GC SM. d. This approach is intended to prevent degradation (thawing) of the permafrost layer.5 m) granular fill should be placed over the muskeg. data from the warmest summer in the latest 10-year period may be used. the muskeg should be removed and replaced with granular fill.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E by capillary action. d. Design of Civil Airfield Pavement for Seasonal Frost and Permafrost Conditions (see Appendix 4).5 m).

12 AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 FIGURE 2-2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AIR THAWING INDEX AND THAW PENETRATION INTO GRANULAR. NON-FROST SUSCEPTABLE SUBGRADE SOIL .

9/30/2009

AC 150/5320-6E

CHAPTER 3. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRPLANES WEIGHING MORE THAN 30,000 POUNDS
SECTION 1. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS.
300. SCOPE. This chapter provides pavement design guidance for airfield pavements intended to serve airplanes with gross weights in excess of 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg). Chapter 5 discusses the design of pavements serving lighter airplanes with gross weights under 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg). 301. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY. The foreword of this AC describes the FAA policy of treating the design of airplane landing gear and the design and evaluation of airport pavements as three separate entities. The design of airport pavements is a complex engineering problem that involves a large number of interacting variables. This chapter presents pavement mechanistic design procedures that are implemented in the FAA Rigid and Flexible Iterative Elastic Layer Design (FAARFIELD) program. FAARFIELD implements both layered elastic-based and three-dimensional finite element-based design procedures for new and overlay designs of flexible and rigid pavements, respectively.

Because of thickness variations, the evaluation of existing pavements should be performed using the same method employed for design. Chapter 6 describes in detail procedures to use when evaluating pavements. Details on the development of the FAA method of design are as follows:
a. Flexible Pavements. For flexible pavement design, FAARFIELD uses the maximum vertical strain at the top of the subgrade and the maximum horizontal strain at the bottom of the asphalt surface layer as the predictors of pavement structural life. FAARFIELD provides the required thickness for all individual layers of flexible pavement (surface, base, and subbase) needed to support a given airplane traffic mix over a particular subgrade. b. Rigid Pavements. For rigid pavement design, FAARFIELD uses the maximum horizontal stress at the bottom edge of the PCC slab as the predictor of pavement structural life. The maximum horizontal stress for design is determined using an edge loading condition. FAARFIELD provides the required thickness of the rigid pavement slab needed to support a given airplane traffic mix over a particular subgrade/subbase. 302. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH. When designing new pavements, summarize all pavement designs on FAA Form 5100-1, Airport Pavement Design, which is considered part of the Engineer’s Design Report. Submit the Engineer’s Design Report for FAA review and approval along with initial plans and specifications. 303. BACKGROUND. An airfield pavement and the airplanes that operate on it represent an interactive system that must be addressed in the pavement design process. Design considerations associated with both the airplanes and the pavement must be recognized in order to produce a satisfactory design. Producing a pavement that will achieve the intended design life will require careful construction control and some degree of maintenance. Pavements are designed to provide a finite life and fatigue limits are anticipated. Poor construction and a lack of preventative maintenance will shorten the service life of even the best-designed pavement. a. Variables. The determination of pavement thickness requirements is a complex engineering problem. Pavements are subject to a wide variety of loading and climatic effects. The design process involves a large number of interacting variables, which are often difficult to quantify. Despite considerable research on this subject, it has been impossible to arrive at a direct solution for thickness requirements. For this reason, pavement engineers must base pavement thickness on a theoretical analysis of load distribution through pavements and soils, the analysis of experimental pavement data, and a study of the performance of pavements under actual service conditions. The FAA developed the FAARFIELD program using failure models based on full-scale tests conducted from the 1940s until the present. Pavements designed and constructed in accordance with FAA standards are intended to provide a minimum structural life of 20 years that is free of major maintenance if no major changes in forecast traffic are encountered. Rehabilitation of surface grades and renewal of skid-resistant properties may be needed before 20 years because of destructive climatic effects and the deteriorating effects of normal usage. b. Structural Design. The structural design of airport pavements consists of determining both the overall pavement thickness and the thickness of the component parts of the pavement. There are a number of factors that influence the thickness of pavement required to provide satisfactory service. These include the magnitude and character of the airplane loads to be supported, the volume of traffic, the concentration of traffic in certain areas, and the strength of the subgrade soil and quality of materials that make up the pavement structure.

13

AC 150/5320-6E

9/30/2009

304.

PAVEMENT DESIGN USING FAARFIELD.

a. Purpose. The design procedure presented in this chapter provides a method of design based on layered elastic and three-dimensional finite element-based structural analysis developed to calculate design thicknesses for airfield pavements. Layered elastic and three-dimensional finite element-based design theories were adopted to address the impact of new complex gear and wheel arrangements. The design method is computationally intense, so the FAA developed a computer program called FAARFIELD to help pavement engineers implement it. b. Application. The procedures and design software identified in this chapter are intended to provide pavement thickness design standards for all airfield pavements. To aid in the design review, the summary information from the design software should be printed and included with the pavement design submittal. The summary information can be printed from the FAARFIELD Notes Window by clicking the ‘Save XML’ button. FAARFIELD then saves the information into an Extensible Markup Language (XML) format file for future import into FAA Form 5100-1.

FAARFIELD is based on the cumulative damage factor (CDF) concept, in which the contribution of each airplane in a given traffic mix to total damage is separately analyzed. Therefore, the FAARFIELD program should not be used to compare individual airplane pavement thickness requirements with the design methods contained in previous versions of the AC that are based on the “design aircraft” concept. Likewise, due care should be used when using FAARFIELD to evaluate pavement structures originally designed with the thickness design curves in previous versions of this AC. Any comparison between FAARFIELD and the design curve methodology from previous versions of this AC must be performed using the entire traffic mix.
c. Computer Program. The structural computations are performed by two subprograms within FAARFIELD. These subprograms are called LEAF and NIKE3D_FAA. LEAF is a layered elastic computational program implemented as a Microsoft WindowsTM dynamic link library written in Visual BasicTM 2005. NIKE3D_FAA is a three-dimensional finite element computational program implemented as a dynamic link library written in FORTRAN. NIKE3D_FAA is a modification of the NIKE3D program originally developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) of the U.S. Department of Energy and is distributed in compiled form under a software sharing agreement between LLNL and the FAA. (1) Airplane Considerations. A wide variety of airplanes with pertinent pavement design characteristics are stored in the program library. The FAARFIELD internal airplane library is divided into six airplane groups: Generic, Airbus, Boeing, Other Commercial, General Aviation, and Military. The designer has considerable latitude in selecting and adjusting airplane weights and frequencies. (i) Load. The pavement design method is based on the gross weight of the airplane. The pavement should be designed for the maximum anticipated takeoff weight of the airplane at the anticipated facility. The design procedure assumes 95 percent of the gross weight is carried by the main landing gears and 5 percent is carried by the nose gear. FAARFIELD provides manufacturer-recommended gross operating weights for many civil and military airplanes. The FAA recommends using the maximum anticipated takeoff weight, which provides some degree of conservatism in the design. This will allow for changes in operational use and forecast traffic. The conservatism is offset somewhat by ignoring arriving traffic. (ii) Landing Gear Type and Geometry. Gear type and configuration dictate how airplane weight is distributed to a pavement and how the pavement will respond to airplane loadings. Table 3-1 shows typical gear configurations and new gear designations in accordance with FAA Order 5300.7, Standard Naming Convention for Aircraft Landing Gear Configurations (Appendix 2). (iii) Tire Pressure. Tire pressure varies depending on gear configuration, gross weight, and tire size. Tire pressure has significantly more influence on strains in the asphalt surface layer than at the subgrade. Tire pressures in excess of 221 psi (1.5 MPa) may be safely exceeded if the pavement surface course and base course meet the minimum design requirements for pavement loading along with a high stability asphalt surface. (iv) Traffic Volume. Forecasts of annual departures by airplane type are needed for pavement design. Information on airplane operations is available from Airport Master Plans, Terminal Area Forecasts, the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems, Airport Activity Statistics, and FAA Air Traffic Activity Reports. Pavement engineers should consult these publications when developing forecasts of annual departures by airplane type.

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AC 150/5320-6E

TABLE 3-1. STANDARD NAMING CONVENTION FOR COMMON AIRPLANE GEAR CONFIGURATIONS

Gear Designation

Gear Designation

Airplane Example

S Single

Sngl Whl-45

D Dual

B737-100

2S

C-130

2 Singles in Tandem

2D

B767-200

2 Duals in Tandem

3D

B777-200

3 Duals in Tandem

2T

C-17A

Two Triple Wheels in Tandem

15

STANDARD NAMING CONVENTION FOR COMMON AIRPLANE GEAR CONFIGURATIONS (CONTINUED) Gear Designation Gear Designation Airplane Example 2D/D1 Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Dual Wheel Body Gear DC10-30/40 2D/2D1 2D/2D1 Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear A340-600 std 2D/2D2 B747-400 Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear 2D/3D2 A380-800 Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Three Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear 5D An-124 Five Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear 16 .AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 TABLE 3-1.

are discussed below. In calculating the P/C ratio. The FAA design standard for pavements is based on a 20-year design life. It is easy to observe the number of passes an airplane may make on a given pavement. As noted in 303c(5). By definition. for the failure mode of shear in the subgrade layer. This warning is intended to alert the user that the program was intended for use with a mixture of different airplane types. (4) Related Reference Material. the effective tire width is defined at the top of the subgrade. Field Survey and Analysis of Aircraft Distribution on Airport Pavements). it analyzes the damage to the pavement for each airplane and determines a final thickness for the total cumulative damage. The design procedures in previous versions of this AC required the traffic mixture to be converted into a single design aircraft and all annual departures converted to equivalent annual departures of the design aircraft. Solution times are a function of the number of airplanes in the mix. If a single airplane is used for design.0.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E Units. For rigid pavements. This lateral movement is known as airplane wander and is modeled by a statistically normal distribution. For flexible pavements. the effective tire width is defined at the surface of the pavement and is equal to a nominal tire contact patch width. FAARFIELD considers the placement of each airplane’s main gear in relationship to the pavement centerline. customary or metric dimensions. but the use of a design life other than 20 years constitutes a deviation from FAA standards. The FAARFIELD design procedure deals with mixed traffic differently than did previous design methods. FAARFIELD can be downloaded from the Office of Airport Safety and Standards website (http://www. but the number of coverages must be mathematically derived based upon the established P/C ratio for each airplane. a warning will appear in the Airplane Window indicating a non-standard airplane list is used in the design. There are distinct differences between the previous FAA design methodology and the methodology contained in FAARFIELD. The ratio of the number of passes required to apply one full load application to a unit area of the pavement is expressed by the passto-coverage (P/C) ratio. along with some common design assumptions between the two methods.faa. the FAARFIELD design program does not convert the traffic mixture to equivalent departures of a design aircraft. Instead. The manual also contains additional technical references for specific details of the FAARFIELD design procedure. (1) Design Life. Determination of a design aircraft is not required to operate FAARFIELD. Development of a Structural Design Procedure for Rigid Airport Pavements). d. 17 . It also allows the pavement damage associated with a particular airplane to be completely isolated from one or more of the other airplanes in the traffic mixture. (5) Airplane Traffic Mixture. Instead. as illustrated in figures 3-1 and 3-2. (2) (3) Availability. the design conditions have been satisfied. the program calculates the damaging effects of each airplane in the traffic mix. the number and spacing of wheels on the airplane main landing gear. one coverage occurs when a unit area of the pavement experiences the maximum response (stress for rigid pavement. it may take several trips or passes along the pavement for a specific point on the pavement to receive a full-load application. Tires are considered to be either separate or combined. The design aircraft was determined by selecting the most damaging airplane based on the anticipated gross weight and the number of departures for each airplane. FAA-RD-77-81. “Response lines” are drawn at a 1:2 slope from the edges of the contact patches to the top of the subgrade. As an airplane moves along a pavement section it seldom travels in a perfectly straight path or along the exact same path as before. The internal help file for FAARFIELD contains a user’s manual. The computer program is capable of considering other design life time frames. Coverages resulting from operations of a particular airplane type are a function of the number of airplane passes. (3) Pass-to-Coverage Ratio. The damaging effects of all airplanes are summed in accordance with Miner’s law. FAARFIELD was developed and calibrated specifically to produce pavement thickness designs consistent with previous methods based on a mixture of different airplanes rather than an individual airplane. FAARFIELD uses the concept of effective tire width. the width of the tire-contact area. FAA-RD-74-036.S. For rigid pavements. When the cumulative damage factor (CDF) sums to a value of 1. strain for flexible pavement) induced by a given airplane. coverages are a measure of the number of repetitions of the maximum strain occurring at the top of subgrade. coverages are a measure of repetitions of the maximum stress occurring at the bottom of the PCC layer (see Report No.gov/airports/). Pavement Design Considerations. which provides detailed information on proper execution of the program. As an airplane moves along a taxiway or runway. These differences. For flexible pavements. (2) Traffic Mix. and the lateral distribution of the wheel-paths relative to the pavement centerline or guideline markings (see Report No. The program may be operated with U. Nearly any traffic mix can be developed from the airplanes in the program library.

To determine annual departures for pavement design purposes multiply the number of departing airplanes by the P/TC. CDF is expressed as— CDF  number of applied load repetition s number of allowable repetition s to failure or CDF  annual departures   life in years   pass   coverages to failure   coverage ratio    or CDF  applied coverages coverages to failure Table 3-2 describes pavement condition for different values of CDF. The FAA has defined a standard traffic cycle (TC) as one takeoff and one landing of the same airplane. the “design aircraft” concept has been replaced by design for fatigue failure expressed in terms of a cumulative damage factor (CDF) using Miner’s rule. For this scenario a P/TC ratio of 2 would be used (assuming that the airplane obtains fuel at the airport). and the value of CDF gives the fraction of the life used. In FAARFIELD. “Standardized Method of Reporting Airport Pavement Strength – PCN. The pavement has some life remaining. This is because in most cases airplanes arrive at an airport at a significantly lower weight than at takeoff due to fuel consumption. PAVEMENT REMAINING LIFE BASED ON CDF VALUE CDF value 1 <1 >1 Pavement Remaining Life The pavement has used up all of its fatigue life. CDF is the amount of the structural fatigue life of a pavement that has been used up. one traffic cycle produces one pass of the airplane which results in a pass-to-traffic cycle ratio (P/TC ) of 1. (4) Annual Departures and Traffic Cycles. Figures 3-1 and 3-2 are shown for information only. In the program implementation. TABLE 3-2. in the case of a runway with a central taxiway configuration the airplane is required to traffic a large part of the runway during the taxi movement. Airport pavement design using FAARFIELD considers only departures and ignores the arrival traffic when determining the number of airplane passes. (5) Cumulative Damage Factor. it may be appropriate to adjust the number of annual departures used for thickness design to reflect a different pass-to-traffic cycle (P/TC) ratio. and the number of annual departures used for design should accordingly be increased by a factor of 2. The pavement has exceeded its fatigue life. For a single airplane and constant annual departures. CDF is calculated for each 10-inch (254 mm) wide strip along the pavement over a total width of 820 inches (20 828 mm). In the situation described above.” Appendix 1. In cases where the landing weight is not significantly less than the take off weight or in a case where the airplane must travel along the pavement more than once. Pass-to-coverage ratio is computed for each strip based on a normally distributed 18 . During touchdown impact. For most airport pavement design purposes. For example. remaining lift on the wings further alleviates the dynamic vertical force that is actually transmitted to the pavement through the landing gears.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 depending on whether the response lines overlap. It is expressed as the ratio of applied load repetitions to allowable load repetitions to failure. All effective tire width and P/C ratio calculations are performed internally within the FAARFIELD program. Additional definitions and guidance on determining the P/TC ratio may be found in AC 150/5335-5. a P/TC of 1 may be used. In this case the airplane must travel along the same portion of the runway pavement two times during the take off operation.

depending on how close the gear tracks are to each other and the number of departures. therefore.435 inches (773 mm) (equivalent to airplane operation on a taxiway) and used in the above equation for Miner’s rule. ONE EFFECTIVE TIRE WIDTH – OVERLAP 19 . The CDF for design is taken to be the maximum over all 82 strips. TWO EFFECTIVE TIRE WIDTHS . FIGURE 3-1. Even with the same gear geometry. airplanes with different main gear track widths will have different pass-to-coverage ratios in each of the 10-inch (254 mm) strips and may show little cumulative effect on the maximum CDF.NO OVERLAP FIGURE 3-2.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E airplane wander pattern with standard deviation of 30. Removing the airplanes with the lowest stress or strain may then have little effect on the design thickness.

a warning will appear in the Structure Window stating that a non-standard material has been selected and its use in the structure will require FAA approval. FAA Report No.2 inches (386 mm) thick. crushed stone base course is identified as Item P-209. Typical plan and section drawings for transversely variable section runway pavements are shown in figure 3-4. subject to minimum thickness requirements. the P-306 econocrete base course is 6 inches (152 mm) thick.000 pounds (298 010 kg) at an annual departure level of 1. 306. Materials are identified by their corresponding FAA specification designations. it is recommended that the user consult the applicable paragraphs of this AC for design of new flexible.000 pounds (162 386 kg) at an annual departure level of 1. The same layer properties are used in layered elastic and finite element analysis mode. FIGURE 3-3.200. 305. new rigid. Deviations from these typical sections will be common due to the change inherent in staged construction projects where runways are extended and the location of 20 . Research studies have shown that airplane traffic is distributed laterally on runways and taxiways according to statistically normal (bell-shaped) distribution.000 psi (103. pavement layers are assigned a thickness. Poisson’s ratio for all materials is fixed. If an undefined layer is used. Elastic moduli are either fixed or variable. In addition to the lateral distribution of traffic across pavements. When used in accordance with the user’s manual. The CDF contributions for each individual airplane and the cumulative CDF across the pavement section are shown on figure 3-3. The pavement is designed for the following airplane mix: B747-200B Combi Mixed weighing 836. it also considers traffic distribution and the nature of loadings for aprons and high-speed turnoffs. an existing taxiway pavement composed of the following section was assumed: the subgrade k-value is 141 pci (38. for example. The permissible range of variability for elastic moduli is fixed to ensure reasonable values. full-width sections. EXAMPLE OF CDF CONTRIBUTION FOR AIRPLANE MIX (6) Materials.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 Example: To illustrate the results of CDF calculations. elastic modulus. The additional construction costs may negate any savings realized from reduced material quantities. (7) Minimum Layer Thickness. and overlaid pavements to assure that the minimum thickness requirements are obtained. In the FAARFIELD design procedure.200. The list of materials contains an undefined layer with variable properties. However. B777-200 ER weighing 657.4 MN/m3). if practical or economically feasible. Values of individual airplane contributions depend on several factors of which the most important are annual departure level and airplane gross weight. FAARFIELD will automatically establish the minimum layer thickness for each layer. Layer thicknesses can be varied. Runways may be constructed with a transversely variable section.42 MPa).200. However. equivalent to an E modulus of 15. TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION. The design procedures presented in this AC incorporate the statistically normal distribution in the departure levels. as required. and the P-209 crushed aggregate subbase course is 6 inches (152 mm). Airport pavements are generally constructed in uniform. and Poisson’s ratio. A variable section permits a reduction in the quantity of materials required for the upper paving layers of the runway.000 pounds (379 203 kg) at an annual departure level of 1. FAA-RD-74-036 contains research information on traffic distribution. the PCC surface course is 15. TYPICAL SECTIONS. and DC8-63/73 weighing 358. depending on the material. more complex construction operations are associated with variable sections and are usually more costly.

Due to economic considerations. The second approach provides for the loss of load carrying capacity due to frost melting but ignores the effects of frost heave. Three design procedures that encompass the above approaches have been developed and are discussed below. b. (3) Reduced Subgrade Strength. the depth of frost penetration is determined by local experience or engineering analysis following the procedure given in Chapter 2. Complete frost protection is accomplished by providing a sufficient thickness of pavement and non-frost-susceptible material to totally contain frost penetration. Complete frost protection is the most positive. Use of the reduced subgrade strength method involves assigning a subgrade strength rating to the pavement for the frost melting period. sufficient combined thickness of pavement and non-frost-susceptible material must be provided to eliminate. Sixty-five percent of the depth of frost penetration is made up with non-frost-susceptible material. The protection of pavements from the adverse effects of seasonal frost and permafrost effects are considered in the design of airport pavements as discussed below. The adverse effects of seasonal frost are discussed in Chapter 2. Additional frost protection is required if the thickness of the structural section is less than 65 percent of the frost penetration. REDUCED SUBGRADE STRENGTH RATINGS Frost Group FG-1 FG-2 FG-3 FG-4 Flexible Pavement CBR Value Rigid Pavement k-value 9 50 7 40 4 25 Reduced Subgrade Strength Method Does Not Apply The required pavement thicknesses are determined using FAARFIELD. 307. The design of pavements in seasonal frost areas may be based on either of two approaches. using the reduced subgrade strength value from table 3-3 in lieu of the nominal subgrade CBR or k-value determined by testing. or limit to an acceptable amount. Note that the full-strength keel section is 50 feet (15 m) on the basis of the research study discussed in paragraph 305. method of providing frost protection. To use the complete protection method. pavement thickness designed using arrivals weight and estimated frequency where traffic will be arrivals such as high speed turnoffs. a. (2) Limited Subgrade Frost Penetration. This method does not consider the effects of frost heave. The various soil frost groups. Use of the method is similar to the complete protection method. The recommended applications of the three methods of frost protection discussed above are as follows. frost penetration into the subgrade and its adverse effects. The limited subgrade frost penetration method is based on holding frost heave to a tolerable level. This method is intended to prevent underlying frost susceptible materials from freezing.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E taxiways is uncertain. FROST AND PERMAFROST DESIGN. The thickness of pavement required for structural support is compared with the depth of frost penetration computed. Pavement thicknesses thus established reflect the requirements for the subgrade in its weakened condition due to frost melting. The limited subgrade frost penetration method allows a tolerable (based on experience) amount of frost heave. As a general rule-of-thumb the designer should specify full pavement thickness where departing traffic will be using the pavement. The difference between the pavement thickness required for structural support and the computed depth of frost penetration is made up with non-frost susceptible material. The design of an airport pavement must consider the climatic conditions that will act on the pavement during its construction and service life. The first approach is based on the control of pavement deformations resulting from frost action. (1) Complete Frost Protection. The second approach is based on providing adequate pavement load carrying capacity during the critical frost melting period. Applications. Under this approach. Depending on grades and other considerations. provision for complete protection may involve removal and replacement of a considerable amount of subgrade material. The reduced subgrade strength method is based on the concept of providing a pavement with adequate load carrying capacity during the frost melting period. 21 . and is usually the most costly. In addition to these recommended applications. local experience should be given strong consideration when designing for frost conditions. the maximum practical depth of frost protection that should be provided is normally 72 inches (1 829 mm). and pavement thickness designed using departure weight and 1 percent of estimated frequency where pavement is required but traffic is unlikely such as along the extreme outer edges of the runway. Frost is allowed to penetrate a limited amount into the underlying frost susceptible subgrade. Seasonal Frost. as defined in Chapter 2. should be assigned strength ratings as shown below: TABLE 3-3.

These pavements often exhibit considerable distortion but are rather easily regraded. see (1) above. Pavements using this technique must be very carefully constructed and may be subject to load limitations because of the need to guard against crushing the insulating panels. (1) Complete Protection Method. This method is analogous to the complete frost protection method of design for seasonal frost. Changes in the subsurface thermal regime may cause degradation of the permafrost table. (3) Reduced Subgrade Strength. The reduced subgrade strength method is recommended for FG-1. FG-2. FG-2. Consideration should be given to using transition sections where horizontal variability of frost heave potential permits. This method should provide a pavement with sufficient structural support during the seasonal permafrost thaw period but will likely result in differential heaving. (2) Limited Subgrade Frost Penetration. The difference between the depth of seasonal thaw and the thickness needed for structural support is the amount of non-frost-susceptible material that must be provided to fully contain the depth of seasonal thaw. and abrupt changes in frost heave potential. soils except where the conditions require complete protection. (3) Insulating Panels. (2) Reduced Subgrade Strength Method. If some heaving can be tolerated. should be considered. The depth of seasonal thaw is then computed as described in Chapter 2 or using information based on local experience. This method can lead to problems if the insulating panels are crushed by the weight of the overburden or by the live loads. Normally. These soil deposits are characterized by very large. which are uniform in horizontal extent or where the functional requirements of the pavement will permit some degree of frost heave. Since the FAA has no standards or design criteria for the use of insulating panels. is the use of insulating panels beneath the pavement structure to protect against degradation of the permafrost. The objective of the complete protection method is to ensure that the underlying permafrost remains frozen year-round. and FG-3 when the functional requirements of the pavement permit a minor amount of frost heave.8 m). This design method should be used for FG-4. The complete frost protection method applies only to FG-3 and FG-4 soils. The use of this method for permafrost design is identical to that presented in paragraph 307b(3) above. The use of relatively high moisture retaining soils. Gravel surfaced pavements are rather common in permafrost areas and generally will provide satisfactory service.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 (1) Complete Frost Protection. If conditions are such that the complete protection method of design is not practical. c. The variability is such that the use of transition sections is not practical. but also the effects of construction on the existing thermal equilibrium. The method may also be used for variable FG-1 through FG-3 subgrades for less sensitive pavements. resulting in severe differential settlements and drastic reduction of pavement load carrying capacity. The thickness of pavement required for structural support is first determined. and FG-3 subgrades. If FG-1 or FG-2 soils are used. the FAA must approve their use on federally funded construction on a case-by-case basis. A third approach. which is not as common. Crushing of the cell structure of the insulation results in loss of insulating properties and failure to serve its intended purpose. The design of pavements in permafrost regions must consider not only the effects of seasonal thawing and refreezing. Seasonal thawing is restricted to non-frost-susceptible materials. economic considerations will limit the depth of treatment to a maximum of 6 feet (1. 22 . Three design methods for asphaltic or concrete surfaced pavements are discussed below. which are extremely variable in horizontal extent. it may be advisable to delay paving for 2 or 3 years to allow the embankment to reach equilibrium. A significant change in the weight of using airplanes may fail the insulating panels. the design may be based on the reduced subgrade strength method. such as uniformly graded sands. The absence of a waterproof surface is not a great problem because these areas usually have low precipitation. the use of frost-susceptible soils in the FG-1 or FG-2 groups may also be considered. The method also applies to soils in frost groups FG-1. they must be placed so as to be as uniform as possible. If practical. frequent. which are subject to slow speed traffic and heave can be tolerated. Permafrost.

TYPICAL PLAN AND CROSS SECTION FOR RUNWAY PAVEMENT 23 .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E FIGURE 3-4.

AC 150/5320-6E

9/30/2009

SECTION 2. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN
308. GENERAL. Flexible pavements consist of a hot mix asphalt wearing surface placed on a base course and, when required by subgrade conditions, a subbase. The entire flexible pavement structure is ultimately supported by the subgrade. Definitions of the function of the various components are given in the following paragraphs. 309. HOT MIX ASPHALT SURFACING. The hot mix asphalt surface or wearing course must prevent the penetration of surface water to the base course; provide a smooth, well-bonded surface free from loose particles which might endanger airplanes or persons; resist the shearing stresses induced by airplane wheel loads; and furnish a texture of nonskid qualities, yet not cause undue wear on tires. To successfully fulfill these requirements, the surface must be composed of mixtures of aggregates and bituminous binders which will produce a uniform surface of suitable texture possessing maximum stability and durability. Since control of the mixture is of paramount importance, these requirements can best be achieved by use of a central mixing plant where proper control can be most readily obtained. A dense-graded hot mix asphalt concrete such as Item P-401 produced in a central mixing plant will most satisfactorily meet all the above requirements. Whenever a hot mix asphalt surface is subject to spillage of fuel, hydraulic fluid, or other solvents, such as at airplane fueling positions and maintenance areas, protection should be provided by a solvent resistant surface. 310. BASE COURSE. The base course is the principal structural component of the flexible pavement. It has the major function of distributing the imposed wheel loadings to the pavement foundation, the subbase and/or subgrade. The base course must be of such quality and thickness to prevent failure in the subgrade, withstand the stresses produced in the base itself, resist vertical pressures tending to produce consolidation and resulting in distortion of the surface course, and resist volume changes caused by fluctuations in its moisture content. The quality of the base course depends upon composition, physical properties and compaction. Many materials and combinations thereof have proved satisfactory as base courses. They are composed of select, hard, and durable aggregates. Specifications covering the quality of components, gradation, manipulation control, and preparation of various base materials for use on airports for airplane design loads of 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg) or more are as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)

Item P-208 – Aggregate Base Course¹ Item P-209 – Crushed Aggregate Base Course2 Item P-211 – Lime Rock Base Course Item P-219 – Recycled Concrete Aggregate Base Course Item P-304 – Cement Treated Base Course Item P-306 – Econocrete Subbase Course Item P-401 – Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements Item P-403 – HMA Base Course

¹The use of Item P-208, Aggregate Base Course, as base course is limited to pavements designed for gross loads of 60,000 lb (27 216 kg) or less. When Item P-208 is used as base course the minimum thickness of the hot mix asphalt surfacing should be 5 inches (127 mm).
2

The use of item P-209, Crushed Aggregate Base Course, as a base course is limited to pavements serving airplanes having gross loads of 100,000 lbs (45 359 kg) or less except as noted in paragraph 317.

Rubblized Portland cement concrete can also be used as a base course for flexible pavement. Depending on their composition, these materials have been divided into two major types: stabilized (P-211, P-304, P306, P-401, and P-403) and unstabilized (P-208, P-209, P-219, and rubblized Portland cement concrete) base courses. Details on these materials are described in paragraph 315d.
311. SUBBASE. A subbase is included as an integral part of the flexible pavement structure in all pavements except those on subgrades with a CBR value of 20 or greater (usually GW or GP type soils). The function of the subbase is similar to that of the base course. However, since it is further removed from the surface and is subjected to lower loading intensities, the material requirements are not as strict as for the base course. In the development of pavement thickness requirements the CBR value of the subbase course is a variable.

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AC 150/5320-6E

a. Quality. Specifications covering the quality of components, gradations, manipulation control, and preparation of various types of subbase courses for use on airports for airplane design loads of 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg) or more are as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Item P-154 – Subbase Course Item P-210 – Caliche Base Course Item P-212 – Shell Base Course Item P-213 – Sand Clay Base Course¹ Item P-301 – Soil Cement Base Course¹

¹ Use of Items P-213 and P-301 as subbase course is not recommended where frost penetration into the subbase is anticipated. Any material suitable for use as base course can also be used on subbase if economy and practicality dictate.
b. Sandwich Construction. Pavements should not be configured such that a pervious granular layer is located between two impervious layers. This type of section is often called sandwich construction. Problems are often encountered in sandwich construction when water becomes trapped in the granular layer causing a dramatic loss of strength and results in poor performance. A rubblized concrete layer over a stabilized base layer is not considered as sandwich construction. 312. SUBGRADE. The subgrade soils are subjected to lower stresses than the surface, base, and subbase courses. Subgrade stresses attenuate with depth, and the controlling subgrade stress is usually at the top of the subgrade, unless unusual conditions exist. Unusual conditions such as a layered subgrade or sharply varying water contents or densities can change the location of the controlling stress. The ability of a particular soil to resist shear and deformation vary with its density and moisture content. Such unusual conditions should be revealed during the soils investigation. Specification Item P-152, Excavation and Embankment, covers the construction and density control of subgrade soils. Table 3-4 shows depths below the subgrade surface to which compaction controls apply. To use table 3-4, consider the mix of the airplanes that will be using the pavement feature under consideration. The airplane in the mix that should be used to determine compaction requirements is the airplane requiring the maximum compaction depth from table 3-4, regardless of the anticipated number of operations. a. Contamination. A loss of structural capacity can result from contamination of base or subbase elements with fines from underlying subgrade soils. This contamination occurs during pavement construction and during pavement loading. Aggregate contamination results in a reduced ability of the aggregate to distribute and reduce stresses applied to the subgrade. Fine grained soils are most likely to contaminate pavement aggregate. This process is not limited to soft subgrade conditions. Problematic soils may be cohesive or noncohesive and usually exhibit poor drainage properties. Chemical and mechanical stabilization of the subbase or subgrade can be effectively used to reduce aggregate contamination (refer to paragraph 206). Geosynthetics are effective at providing separation between finegrained soils and overlying pavement aggregates (FHWA-HI-95-038) (see Appendix 4). In this application, the geosynthetic is not considered to act as a structural element within the pavement. For separation applications the geosynthetic is designed based on survivability properties. Refer to FHWA-HI-95-038 (see Appendix 4) for additional information about design and construction using separation geosynthetics. b. Example. An apron extension is to be built to accommodate the following airplane mix: B767-200 (340,000 lbs./154 221 kg), B757-200 (256,000 lbs./116 1200 kg), and A310-200 (315,041 lbs./142 900 kg). A soils investigation has shown the subgrade will be noncohesive. In-place densities of the soils have been determined at even foot increments below the ground surface. Design calculations indicate that the top of subgrade in this area will be approximately 10 inches (254 mm) below the existing grade. Depths and densities may be tabulated as follows in table 3-5.

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TABLE 3-4. SUBGRADE COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS

GEAR TYPE S D (incls. 2S)

2D (incls. B757, B767, A-300, DC10-10, L1011)

2D/D1, 2D/2D1 (incls. MD11, A340, DC10-30/40) 2D/2D2 (incls. B747 series) 3D (incls. B777 series)

GROSS WEIGHT Lb. 30,000 50,000 75,000 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 – 600,000 500,000 – 800,000 800,000 975,000 550,000 650,000 750,000 1,250,000 1,350,000

NON-COHESIVE SOILS Depth of Compaction, inch 100% 95% 90% 85% 8 8-18 18-32 32-44 10 10-24 24-36 36-48 12 12-30 30-40 40-52 12 12-28 28-38 38-50 17 17-30 30-42 42-55 19 19-32 32-46 46-60 21 21-37 37-53 53-69 14 14-26 26-38 38-49 17 17-30 30-43 43-56 20 20-34 34-48 48-63 23 23-41 41-59 59-76 23 23-41 41-59 59-76

COHESIVE SOILS Depth of Compaction, inch 95% 90% 85% 80% 6 6-9 9-12 12-17 6 6-9 9-16 16-20 6 6-12 12-19 19-25 6 6-10 10-17 17-22 6 6-12 12-19 19-25 7 7-14 14-21 21-28 9 9-16 16-24 24-32 5 6-10 10-17 17-22 5 6-12 12-18 18-26 7 7-14 14-22 22-29 9 9-18 18-27 27-36 9 9-18 18-27 27-36

2D/3D2 (incls. A380 series) Notes: 1. Noncohesive soils, for the purpose of determining compaction control, are those with a plasticity index of less than 3. 2. Tabulated values denote depths below the finished subgrade above which densities should equal or exceed the indicated percentage of the maximum dry density as specified in Item P-152. 3. The subgrade in cut areas should have natural densities shown or should (a) be compacted from the surface to achieve the required densities, (b) be removed and replaced at the densities shown, or (c) when economics and grades permit, be covered with sufficient select or subbase material so that the uncompacted subgrade is at a depth where the in-place densities are satisfactory. 4. For intermediate airplane weights, use linear interpolation. 5. For swelling soils, refer to paragraph 313. 6. 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound. = 0.454 kg
TABLE 3-5. DENSITIES FOR SUBGRADE IN EXAMPLE

23 24 20 22 24 24 25

23-41 24-44 20-36 22-39 24-42 24-42 25-44

41-59 44-62 36-52 39-56 42-57 42-61 44-64

59-76 62-78 52-67 56-70 57-71 61-78 64-81

9 10 6 7 8 9 10

9-18 10-20 6-14 7-16 8-17 9-18 10-20

18-27 20-28 14-21 16-22 17-23 18-27 20-29

27-36 28-37 21-29 22-30 23-30 27-36 29-38

Depth Below Existing Grade 1′ (0.3 m) 2′ (0.6 m) 3′ (0.9 m) 4′ (1.2 m) 5′ (1.5 m)

Depth Below Finished Grade 2″ (50 mm) 14″ (0.36 m) 26″ (0.66 m) 38″ (0.97 m) 50″ (1.27 m)

In-Place Density 70% 84% 86% 90% 93%

For this example, the B767-200 gives the maximum required compaction values from table 3-4. Using table 3-4 for non-cohesive soils and applying linear interpolation, obtain the following compaction requirements as shown in table 36.

26

Swelling soils are clayey soils that exhibit significant volume changes brought on by moisture variations. Additional information on identifying and handling swelling soils is presented in FAA Reports No. and DOT/FAA/PM-85115. Stabilize soil to a depth of at least 6 in. Local experience and judgment should be applied in dealing with swelling soils to achieve the best results.. SELECTION OF DESIGN CBR VALUE. illite. The potential for volumetric change of a soil due to moisture variation is a function of the type of soil and the likelihood of moisture fluctuation. FAA-RD-76-066. Recommended treatments for swelling soils are shown in table 3-7. Soils that exhibit a swell of greater than 3 percent when tested for the CBR (California Bearing Ratio). ASTM D 1883. likelihood of variations in water table. (900 mm) below pavement section or remove and replace with nonswelling soil. (300 mm) For uniform soils. SWELLING SOILS. Only clayey soils containing a significant amount of particular clay minerals are prone to swelling. The design of pavements in areas of swelling soils should incorporate methods that prevent or reduce the effects of soil volume changes.03 m) at 95 percent. (150 mm) Stabilize soil to a depth of at least 12 in. Treatment. 313. require treatment.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E TABLE 3-6. Identification. i. being 90 percent within the required 90 percent zone. It will be necessary to compact an additional 1 inch (0.97 m). are: smectite.e. 314. Notes: 1 Potential for moisture fluctuation is a judgmental determination and should consider proximity of water table. d. Treatment of swelling soils consists of removal and replacement. These soils usually have liquid limits above 40 and plasticity indexes above 25. the design subgrade strength should be based on the higher moisture content and reduced density.53 m) of subgrade at 100 percent density and the 21 to 38 inches at 95 percent density. Validation of Procedures for Pavement Design on Expansive Soils. compact the top 21 inches (0. c. Therefore. For variable soil deposits depth of treatment should be increased to 60 in. (300 mm) Stabilize soil to a depth of at least 12 in. (900 mm) or raise grade to bury swelling soil at least 36 in. modified compaction efforts and careful control of compaction moisture. in descending order of swelling activity. redeposited clays. (1 500 mm). 2 When control of swelling is attempted by compacting on the wet side of optimum and reduced density. Design and Construction of Airport Pavements on Expansive Soils. Care should be taken to minimize water flow along the contact plane between the stabilized / nonstabilized material. Provisions for adequate drainage are of paramount importance when dealing with swelling soils. stabilization. (300 mm) Stabilize soil to a depth of at least 12 in. and kaolinite. b. Soil Type. Additional Information. and thickness of the swelling soil layer. Experience with soils in certain locales is often used to determine when treatment is required. as well as other sources of moisture. The clay minerals that cause swelling. a. RECOMMENDED TREATMENT OF SWELLING SOILS Swell Potential (Based on Experience) Low Medium High Percent Swell Measured (ASTM D 1883) 3-5 6-10 Over 10 Potential for Moisture Fluctuation1 Low High Low High Low High Treatment Compact soil on wet side of optimum (+2% to +3%) to not greater than 90% of appropriate maximum density2. stabilize soil to a depth of at least 36 in. TABLE 3-7. Subgrade soils are usually rather variable and the selection of a design CBR value requires some judgment. The design CBR value should be equal to or less than 85 percent of all the 27 . Airport pavements constructed on these soils are subject to differential movements causing surface roughness and cracking. COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXAMPLE 100% 0-21 95% 21-37 90% 37-52 85% 52-68 Comparison of the tabulations show that for this example in-place density is satisfactory at a depth of 38 inches (0.

It may be more economical to remove and replace a weak layer than to design for it. classified as stabilized (flexible) and stabilized (rigid). FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN. In some cases subgrade soils that are significantly different in strength occur in different layers. The word flexible is used to indicate that these bases have a higher Poisson’s ratio (0. but they are considered a deviation from FAA standards. Two types of asphalt surface layers are available in FAARFIELD: asphalt surface and asphalt overlay. The properties of the various stabilized base layer types used in FAARFIELD are summarized in table 3-8.000 to 400. the user has the option of enabling the asphalt strain computation by deselecting the “No AC CDF” checkbox in the FAARFIELD options screen. The variable stabilized flexible base can be used to characterize a stabilized base. psi (MPa) 150. A fixed modulus value for hot mix surfacing is set in the program at 200.000 (1 035) 400. LAYER TYPES IN FAARFIELD Base Layer Stabilized (flexible) Variable Minimum Variable Maximum P-401/403 Asphalt Stabilized (rigid) Variable Minimum Variable Maximum P-304 Cement Treated Base P-306 Econocrete Subbase Modulus. This corresponds to a design value of one standard deviation below the mean.20 The above minimum and maximum modulus values were determined on the basis of producing thickness designs comparable with the CBR design procedures. See paragraph 304c(5). TABLE 3-8. This modulus value was conservatively chosen and corresponds to a pavement temperature of approximately 90 ºF (32ºC). and it is good engineering practice to do so. FAARFIELD computes only the vertical subgrade strain for flexible pavement thickness design. Variable modulus types are provided as well as fixed modulus types corresponding to standard material items. Limiting vertical strain in the subgrade is intended to preclude failure by subgrade rutting.000 psi (1 380 MPa). In most cases the thickness design is governed by the subgrade strain criterion. P-304. typical laboratory test data for stabilized materials should not 28 . Stabilized (rigid) bases. The standard FAA bituminous base is P-401/P-403.35). The asphalt overlay type can be placed over asphalt surface or PCC surface types. circumstances may be such that designing for the weakest layer is more economical. The FAA design standards for airport pavements use the 20 year structural design life criteria as a policy. The user has the option of performing the asphalt strain check for the final design.000 psi (2 760 MPa).000 (3 450) 700. On the other hand.000 psi (1 035 to 2 760 MPa). In these instances several designs should be examined to determine the most economical pavement section. Therefore. Two types of base courses are defined: stabilized and unstabilized (aggregate). A minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) of hot mix surfacing is required. act as flexible layers as opposed to rigid layers.000 (4 830) 500.35. However. Design Life.000 (2 760) 250.000 psi (1 380 MPa) and Poisson’s ratio fixed at 0. A stabilized base course may be required as described in paragraph 317. b. d. By default. is not acceptable for use as a stabilized base course for flexible pavements. (1) Stabilized Base Course. Traffic Mix. Item P-301. It has a variable modulus ranging from 150. Limiting horizontal strain at the bottom of the asphalt surfacing layer guards against pavement failure initiated by cracking of the asphalt surface layer. Both have the same properties. The asphalt surface type can only be placed on the top of a structure. 315. Input the complete air traffic mix into FAARFIELD. The design process for flexible pavement considers two modes of failure for flexible pavement: vertical strain in the subgrade and horizontal strain in the asphalt layer.000 (4 830) Poisson’s Ratio 0. which has a fixed modulus of 400. FAARFIELD includes two types of stabilized layers. The two stabilized flexible base options are designated P-401/P-403 and Variable. which does not conform to the properties of P-401/P-403. Hot Mix Asphalt Surfacing. Hot mix asphalt surfacing should meet the requirements of FAA Item P-401. and P-306 may also be used as base courses in flexible pavements. Local conditions will dictate which approach should be used. and are not likely to crack. with modulus fixed at 200. or under an asphalt overlay. a. Soil Cement Base. Base Course.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 subgrade CBR values.000 (2 760) 400.000 (1 720) 700. FAARFIELD is capable of considering design life timeframes other than the 20 year life criteria.35 0. c.

computes the structural thickness required for the base course. the required thickness of the stabilized base is obtained by dividing by 1. the structural base course thickness is computed as the thickness required to protect a subgrade of CBR 20. When a variable modulus layer is first created.2 and the maximum value of 400. and the larger of the two values is selected as the design stabilized base course thickness. The following additional restrictions also apply:  Only one crushed layer and one uncrushed layer may be present in a structure. the crushed layer must be above the uncrushed layer (to be compatible with the “Modulus” procedure).6 previously used in CBR method. one of each type. This is for compatibility with the “Modulus” procedure. (Sublayering by the “Modulus” procedure accounts for thick layers. The required stabilized base thickness thus obtained is compared with the 5 inch (127 mm) minimum requirement. and multiple layers of a single aggregate type are not necessary.) The maximum number of aggregate layers that may be present in a structure is therefore two. the “Modulus” procedure developed by the U. To compute the modulus of non-stablized layers. P-209 Crushed Aggregate corresponds to the standard material.000 psi (1 034 MPa) corresponds to a base course equivalency factor of 1.S. When a stabilized base is used. The modulus of aggregate layers is computed automatically and cannot be changed manually. Uncrushed Aggregate. For traffic mixtures with airplanes exceeding 100. (2) Unstabilized (Aggregate) Base Course. The minimum stabilized base thickness is 5 inches (127 mm). the modulus is automatically set to the minimum value. a stabilized base course is required as described in paragraph 317. FAARFIELD. The standard aggregate base course for flexible pavement design is Item P-209.000 pounds (45 400 kg). Step 2 Compare the base thickness computed in step 1 against the minimum base thickness requirements in table 3-9. the automatic base thickness design procedure in FAARFIELD consists of two steps: Step 1 Compute the aggregate base thickness structurally required to protect an assumed CBR 20 subgrade. 29 . when used as a base course is subject to the restrictions in paragraph 310. is not suitable as a base course material. in which case the modulus values of 75. The only exception is for newly created layers. The equivalency factor represents the ratio of the thickness of a standard aggregate base layer (Item P-208) to a base layer of higher quality in the CBR method. When an aggregate base course is used. Item P-208. (3) Minimum Base Course Thickness. The modulus value displayed in the structure table for an aggregate layer is the average value of the sublayer modulus values. In FAARFIELD. Crushed Aggregate Base Course.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E be used in preparing input data for FAARFIELD designs. the minimum modulus value of 150. The modulus values of the sublayers decrease with increasing depth of a sublayer within the aggregate layer and are also dependent on the modulus of the layer below the aggregate layer. an additional step is added to the automated base thickness design procedure. Select the thicker of the two values as the design base course thickness. If it is necessary to establish a modulus for a variable base layer the following guidance should be used: For flexible pavement design. by default. After the thickness of the aggregate base structurally required to protect a CBR 20 subgrade is computed (step 1 above). Aggregate layers can be placed anywhere in the pavement structure except at the surface or subgrade.000 psi (517 MPa) and 40. Since it is assumed that the subbase layer provides the equivalent bearing capacity of a CBR 20 subgrade.  If crushed and uncrushed layers are adjacent. The choice of base course modulus value can have a significant effect on total thickness of a flexible pavement. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station is followed with sublayering performed automatically (maximum sublayer thicknesses are 8 inches (203 mm) for uncrushed aggregate and 10 inches (254 mm) for crushed aggregate).000 psi (276 MPa) are displayed for crushed and uncrushed respectively. Item P-208.6.000 psi (2 758 MPa) corresponds to a base course equivalency factor of 1. These default modulus values are never used in calculations.

000 .000 (13 600 – 22 700) 4 (100) 50.000 . Acceptable aggregate and stabilized materials are defined in paragraphs 309. The procedure that will be applicable in most cases is to use available CBR values and substitute in the relationship: E  1500  CBR .000 . assume a flexible pavement is to be designed for the airplane traffic mix in table 3-10.000 pounds (45 359 kg) or more.000* (90 700 – 181 000) 6 (150) 2D or 2D/D1 (DC10.400 (257 640 – 381 200) 10 (250) 2S (C130) 75. any material suitable for use as a base course can also be used as a subbase course with a stabilized base layer. DESIGN EXAMPLE.000 . and 311. Additional thickness might be required for practical construction limitations.75.000 – 840.000 . Seasonal frost and permafrost effects should be considered by applying the techniques in Chapter 2 and section 306. e.000 .000 . Subbases may be aggregate or stabilized materials. Acceptable materials for use as subbase with a stabilized base layer are: P-208 – Aggregate Base Course P-209 – Crushed Aggregate Base Course In addition. Use of Item P301 is limited to locations not subject to freeze-thaw cycles.175.000* (113 400 – 181 000) 8 (200) 2D (B757. direct input of CBR values is also acceptable. The subgrade is assumed to be infinite in thickness and is characterized by either a modulus or CBR value.125. i.305.. The subgrade CBR is 8 (E=12. B767) 200.400.600.000* (56 700 – 79 400) 6 (150) 3D (B777) 537.000* (243 500 – 352 440) 10 (250) 3D (A380) 1.600.000 – 1.000 – 777. When a stabilized base course is required.400. However.239. it is recommended that a higher quality material be used for the subbase. Subgrade.000 (22 700 – 34 000) 6 (150) D 50.000 . The minimum thickness of subbase for structural purposes is 4 inches (102 mm).000 pounds (45 359 kg). More than one layer of subbase material may be used. when the traffic mixture contains airplanes exceeding 100.000 . P-209 over a layer of P-154.250. f. For traffic mixtures with airplanes exceeding 100. MINIMUM AGGREGATE BASE COURSE THICKNESS Minimum Base Course (P-209) Thickness lbs (kg) in.000 (34 000 – 56 700) 4 (100) 125. Subgrade modulus values for flexible pavement design can be determined in a number of ways. Since the traffic mix includes jet airplanes weighing 100.000* (272 000 – 385 600) 8 (200) 2D/D1 or 2D/2D1(A340) 568.000* (181 000 – 272 000) 6 (150) 600.000 .50. Although FAARFIELD requires input of the material elastic modulus. (45 400 kg) gross weight. Gear Type Design Load Range d.100. As an example of the use of the FAARFIELD.200. Layering must be done so as not to produce a sandwich (granular layer between two stabilized layers) section and to assure that material quality increases toward the top of the pavement section.850. 316. Seasonal Frost and Permafrost. L1011) 400.e. 30 . The pavement layer thicknesses obtained from the design software FAARFIELD are listed in table 3-11.000* (45 400 – 90 700) 8 (200) 2D 100.000 . Subbase Course. a stabilized base course is required as described in paragraph 317.000 (22 700 – 45 400) 6 (150) 100.000* (181 000 – 272 000) 8 (150) 2D/2D2 (B747) 400. 310. a stabilized base is required.000* (45 400 – 113 400) 6 (150) 250. (mm) S 30.000 psi).000 . an asphalt stabilized base will be used. (E in psi) This method will provide designs compatible with the previous FAA design procedure based on the CBR equation.000 lbs.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 TABLE 3-9.125* (562 000 – 592 000) 9 (230) *Values are listed for reference.

35 0.000 400.000 600 Modulus. % 0.00 0. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 No.00 11.06 18.000 Annual Growth.35 0.000 913.000 777.00 0.000 271. PAVEMENT STRUCTURE INFORMATION FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE The screenshot from the design software showing final thickness design is shown below: FIGURE 3-5.200 800 1.000 400 300 1.00 0.35 0.00 Poisson’s Ratio 0.700 877.000 1.000 Thickness.000 300 2. in 5. AIRPLANE TRAFFIC MIX EXAMPLE No. 1 2 3 4 Name A320-100 A340-600 std A340-600 std Belly A380-800 B737-800 B747-400 B747-400ER B757-300 B767-400 ER B777-300 ER B787-8 Type P-401/ P-403 AC Surface P-401/ P-403 St (flex) P-209 Cr Ag Subgrade Gross Weight.000 451.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E TABLE 3-10.128 805.00 0.000 51.796 805.00 0.440 12.78 0.00 0.35 TABLE 3-11.00 0. lb 150.000 478.128 1.00 0.00 0. psi 200. FAARFIELD SCREENSHOT SHOWING FINAL PAVEMENT THICKNESS DESIGN 31 .239.00 0.00 Annual Departures 600 1.000 174.

04 0. whether or not these occur at the critical offset.03 0. These materials should exhibit a remolded soaked CBR minimum of 100 for base and 35 for subbase.42 1.000 pounds (45 359 kg) or more.73 0. ADDITIONAL AIRPLANE INFORMATION FOR DESIGN EXAMPLE No.60 0. Note that two fields are provided for CDF information.21 0.86 0.” TABLE 3-12.57 Table 3-12 shows that the pavement thickness design in this example is controlled primarily by the B777-300 ER. paragraph 207. Other exceptions to the policy requiring stabilized base and subbase should be based on proven performance of a granular material such as lime rock in the state of Florida. Each field contains different information. 318. “CDF Contribution” lists the contribution of the airplanes to the total CDF calculated at the critical offset.00 0. For the given example.03 CDF Max for Airplanes 0.86 0. the additional airplane information is listed in table 3-12. which contributes 86 percent of the CDF.05 0.00 0. Frost protection should be provided in areas where conditions conducive to detrimental frost action exist.00 0.00.00 0. This history of satisfactory performance should be under airplane loadings and climatic conditions comparable to those anticipated. FULL-DEPTH ASPHALT PAVEMENTS. Levels of frost protection are given in paragraph 307 of this document.02 0.00 0. The sum of the values in this column should be greater than or equal to 1.57 0.22 0. 317. such as 100 percent crushed. In areas subject to frost penetration.01 0.04 0. closely graded stone.57 0.01 0. Full-depth asphalt pavements contain asphaltic cement in all components above the prepared subgrade.00 0.00 0.40 0. 32 .01 0. the materials should meet permeability and nonfrost susceptibility tests in addition to the CBR requirements. STABILIZED BASE AND SUBBASE. Proven performance in this instance means a history of satisfactory airport pavements using the materials. although due to rounding error and internal tolerances the sum may be slightly greater than or less than 1.57 0. FROST EFFECTS.00 for a completed design. Exceptions to the policy requiring stabilized base and subbase may be made on the basis of superior materials being available.05 0. “CDF Max for Airplanes” lists the maximum CDF over all offsets calculated for the airplanes.01 0. Details are given in Chapter 2. Stabilized base and subbase courses are necessary for new pavements designed to accommodate jet airplanes weighing 100. This column should sum to 1. hard.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 The pavement thickness design software also provides information on the damage caused by individual airplanes.01 0.00 for a completed design. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Name A320-100 A340-600 std A340-600 std Belly A380-800 B737-800 B747-400 B747-400ER B757-300 B767-400 ER B777-300 ER B787-8 CDF Contribution 0. 319. Frost considerations may result in thicker subbase courses than the thicknesses needed for structural support. Alternate design procedures can be used to design full-depth asphalt pavements when approved by the FAA.03 P/C Ratio 1. This additional information is provided in the Notes and Airplanes Windows.59 0.

Acceptable stabilized materials are P-304 (Cement Treated Base Course). 323. The following materials are acceptable for use as subbase under rigid pavements: Item P-154 – Subbase Course Item P-208 – Aggregate Base Course Item P-209 – Crushed Aggregate Base Course Item P-211 – Lime Rock Base Course Item P-301 – Soil Cement Base Item P-304 – Cement Treated Base Course Item P-306 – Econocrete Subbase Course Item P-401 – Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements Item P-403 – HMA Base Course Rubblized Portland cement concrete can also be used as a subbase for rigid pavements. paragraph 332. The three dimensional finite element model has the advantage of considering the critical stresses for slab design. In some instances. i. and also employs similar concepts for new rigid pavement design and rigid overlay design. 33 . 324. Applications. Rigid overlay design is covered in Chapter 4. GENERAL. FAARFIELD iterates on the concrete layer thickness until the CDF reaches a value of 1. A minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) of subbase is required under all rigid pavements.. b. SUBBASE QUALITY. a. prevent the infiltration of surface water into the subgrade. Seasonal Frost and Permafrost. Subbase Course. which normally occur at slab edges. The quality of the concrete. Stabilized materials are required for subbase under rigid pavements serving airplanes weighing 100. P-306 over a layer of P-209. 321. STABILIZED SUBBASE.e. Materials of higher quality than P-154 and/or greater thicknesses of subbase are considered in the design program FAARFIELD. Once a CDF of 1. More than one layer of subbase may be used. the section satisfies the design conditions. CONCRETE PAVEMENT. P-306 (Econocrete Subbase Course). cracking of the concrete slab. Jointing Details. Seasonal frost and permafrost effects should be considered by applying the techniques in Chapter 2. SUBBASE. The concrete surface must provide a texture of nonskid qualities. and quality of workmanship are covered in Item P-501. it may be desirable to use higher-quality materials or thicknesses of P-154 greater than 4 inches (102 mm). Layering must be done so as not to produce a sandwich (granular layer between two stabilized layers) section. Structure. Failure of subbase and subgrade layers is not considered. Refer to paragraph 304b. The design process considers one mode of failure for rigid pavement.000 pounds (45 359 kg) or more.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E SECTION 3. methods of construction and handling. RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN 320. acceptance and control tests. The standard FAA subbase for rigid pavements is 4 inches (100 mm) of Item P-154. c. e. Portland Cement Concrete Pavement. and provide structural support to the airplanes. High-quality materials meeting state highway specifications can be substituted. Rigid pavements for airports are composed of Portland cement concrete placed on a granular or treated subbase course that is supported on a compacted subgrade. A three-dimensional finite element model is used to compute the stresses in concrete slabs. and P-401 and P-403 (Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements). The minimum thickness of subbase is 4 inches (102 mm).0. The costs of providing the additional thickness or higher-quality subbase should be weighed against the savings in concrete thickness. 322. The purpose of a subbase under a rigid pavement is to provide uniform stable support for the pavement slabs.0 is achieved. d. The cracking of the surface layer is controlled by limiting the horizontal stress at bottom of PCC slab. Exceptions to the policy of using stabilized subbase are the same as those given in paragraph 317. Modeling. Jointing details for rigid pavements are presented in this chapter.

is taken as the design stress for determining the slab thickness. the strength of the concrete is characterized by the flexural strength. The gear load is located either tangent or perpendicular to the slab edge. i. If the subgrade is accessible then the k-value can be determined directly by plate-load testing. the determination of the foundation modulus is required for rigid pavement design. 326. Thicknesses of other layers of the rigid pavement structure must be selected by the user. Specification Item P-152. or is otherwise available. Chemical and mechanical stabilization of the subbase or subgrade can effectively reduce aggregate contamination (see paragraph 206).7788 327.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 325. The preferred method of determining the subgrade modulus is by testing a limited section of representative subgrade.e. For FAA design 34 . Additional information about design and construction using separation geosynthetics can be found in FHWA-HI-95-038. Subgrade materials under a rigid pavement must be compacted in accordance with table 3-4. The program computes only the thickness of the concrete layer. in psi = Foundation modulus of the subgrade. FAARFIELD designs the slab thickness based on the assumption of edge loading. a. This mixing can create voids below the pavement in which moisture can accumulate causing pumping to occur. subgrade modulus. In this application. The plate bearing test procedures are given in AASHTO T 222. If the construction and testing of a test section of embankment is impractical. the layer below all structural layers. Concrete Flexural Strength. reduced by 25 percent to account for load transfer through the joint. If the k-modulus can be determined by plate load testing. the modulus of the base or subbase is not increased when a geosynthetic is used for stabilization. and airplane mixture information. DETERMINATION OF MODULUS (E VALUE) FOR RIGID PAVEMENT SUBGRADE. The foundation modulus should be assigned to the subgrade layer. Use of the design program FAARFIELD requires five groups of design input data: concrete flexural strength. For separation applications. for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and Highway Pavements. covers the construction and density control of subgrade soils. then the k-value should be input directly into the FAARFIELD program without first converting to E modulus. and the larger of the two stresses. In rigid pavement systems repeated loading might cause intermixing of soft subgrade soils and aggregate base or subbase. Nonrepetitive Static Plate Load Test of Soils and Flexible Pavement Components. DETERMINATION OF CONCRETE SLAB THICKNESS. since the primary action and failure mode of a concrete pavement is in flexure. all structural computations are performed using the elastic modulus E. Geosynthetics should be considered for separation between fine-grained soils and overlying pavement aggregates. (k in pci) k  26   The designer is cautioned that the obtained values are approximate and engineering judgment should be used in selecting a design value. Excavation and Embankment. which has been constructed to the required specifications. design life in years. Geosynthetics have been found to be effective at providing separation between fine-grained subgrade soils and pavement aggregates (FHWA-HI-95-038).284 where: ESG k = Resilient modulus of the subgrade. For pavement design. structural layer data. Therefore. 0. the geosynthetic is designed based on survivability properties. the geosynthetic is not considered to act as a structural element within the pavement. the conversion from CBR to k-value for the subgrade can be achieved using the following formula: 1500  CBR  . SUBGRADE. The minimum slab thickness is six inches.. The required thickness of concrete pavement is related to the strength of the concrete used for construction of the pavement. The foundation modulus can be expressed as the modulus of subgrade reaction k or as the elastic (Young’s) modulus E and can be input into the program directly in either form. If the foundation modulus is input as a k-value it is automatically converted to the equivalent E value using the following equation: E SG  26k 1. In addition to the soils survey and analysis and classification of subgrade conditions. Contamination. in pci For existing pavements the E modulus can be determined in the field from non-destructive testing (NDT) such as falling-weight deflectometer (FWD) tests and this may be necessary if direct testing of the subgrade is impractical. a. Paragraph 313 contains guidance on the identification and treatment of swelling soils. Swelling soils require special considerations. However.

USE OF FAARFIELD FOR NEW RIGID PAVEMENT DESIGN. If an undefined layer is used. The FAARFIELD computer program is capable of considering other design life timeframes. less than 28 days).000 psi (27 580 MPa). Lower strength requirements allow balancing the components of the concrete mixture for performance but may result in slightly thicker pavement requirements. which can affect concrete durability Whether early opening requirements necessitate using a lower strength than 28-day The FAA recommends a design flexural strength of 600 to 700 psi (4. c.000 pounds (13 608 kg). The user inputs specific information for each airplane in the mix. The subgrade modulus can be input as either a k-value or an E-value. 328. b. Item P-501 typically uses a 28-day strength as a practical construction measure. b. Use of a design life other than 20 years constitutes a deviation from FAA standards. Design Life. The standard design life for pavement thickness design is 20 years. cement content data from prior projects at the airport The need to avoid high cement contents. Up to three base/subbase layers can be added to the pavement structure in FAARFIELD for new rigid design. Concrete pavement surfacing should meet the requirements of Item P-501. However. However. To establish the flexural strength for the thickness design the designer needs to consider several factors. A fixed modulus value for concrete is set in the program at 4. for example. As noted in paragraph 315a.14 to 4. Design Life. The number of subbase layers is limited because experience shows that above three layers the effect on designed slab thickness is small and does not justify the additional computation time that would be required. Materials. The manual also contains additional technical references for specific details of the FAARFIELD design procedure. Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete. Traffic Mix. the modulus and Poisson’s ratio are internally set and cannot be changed by the user. However. and provide increased performance with respect to fatigue. test method. Although the flexural strength required for the pavement design is related to the flexural strength required by the P-501 specification. The layer thickness must be entered for each base/subbase layer. and percentage of annual growth. The strength used for thickness design should be reduced by 5 percent when stating the P-501 specification requirements for the 28-day flexural strength. but they are considered a deviation from FAA standards. The internal help file for the FAARFIELD program contains a user’s manual.g. Elastic moduli are either fixed or variable depending on the material and layer position. The minimum concrete surfacing thickness is 6 inches (152 mm) for pavements intended to serve airplanes with gross weights above 30. minimize curling and warping stresses. including airplane type. There are distinct differences between the design methodology in FAARFIELD and the design methodology contained in previous versions of this AC. c. such as variable stabilized rigid and 35 .000.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E purposes. these conditions reduce the risk of early cracking. Materials are identified by their corresponding FAA specification designations. which provides detailed information on proper execution of the computer program. crushed stone base course is identified as Item P-209. the variable stabilized and undefined layers allow the user to directly input a modulus value. such as:     Capability of the industry in a particular area to produce concrete at a particular strength Flexural strength vs. For standard base/subbase materials. See paragraph 304c(5). The list of materials contains an undefined layer with variable properties. This design procedure for airport concrete pavements is based on the computer program FAARFIELD. Airplane Mixture Information. e. The computer program FAARFIELD is capable of considering other design life timeframes. the strengths used for the pavement design and the P-501 specification are not necessarily the same. Unless expedited construction requires early opening of the pavement to airplane traffic (e. gross weight. Material Properties for Subbase Layers. This modulus value was chosen to produce results that closely matched thickness requirements for pavements designed with the Westergaard-based design curves for rigid pavement used in previous versions of this AC. These differences along with some common design assumptions between the two methods are discussed below.. number of annual departures. a. Input the complete air traffic mix into FAARFIELD. the long-term strength achieved by the concrete is normally expected to be at least 5 percent more than the strength measured at 28 days. Subgrade Modulus. as described in paragraph 326. concrete flexural strength is measured in accordance with the ASTM C78. the FAA design standard for pavements is a 20-year design life. d.83 MPa) for most airfield applications.

AIRPLANE MIXTURE INPUT DATA Airplane Name Adv. The determination of the depth of frost protection required is given in paragraph 307b. the resulting FAARFIELD PCC thickness is 17. 324 for stabilized subbase. The user’s manual is available by mouse clicking on “Help” from any screen in FAARFIELD.000) Variable 15.000 (k = 141. 331. It is recommended that the user consult paragraphs 322 for granular subbase. PAVEMENT LAYER INPUT DATA Flexural Strength.000 877. d. psi Fixed (4. For comparison. Frost protection considerations for rigid pavements are similar to those for flexible pavements. the subbase thickness must be adjusted as necessary to provide surface drainage from the entire subgrade surface. FAARFIELD produces a PCC thickness of 16. a warning will appear in the Structure Window stating that a non-standard material has been selected and its use in the structure will require FAA approval. which is rounded to the nearest 0. As with flexible pavements. See paragraph 306 for pavement thickness determination for noncritical areas. The change in thickness for the transitions should be accomplished over an entire slab length or width. the reduction applies to the concrete slab thickness.4 pci) Using the above data.15 inches. CRITICAL AND NONCRITICAL AREAS. As an example of the use of FAARFIELD. Pavement thicknesses should be rounded to nearest 0.000. 330. B727-200 Option B747-400 B777-200 ER Layer Material PCC Surface P-306 Econocrete P-209 Crushed Aggregate Subgrade Gross Taxi Weight. 329. and 327 for concrete surface layer to assure the minimum thickness requirements are met.5 inches. Screen shots showing the designed section and the airplane traffic are presented in figures 3-6 and 3-7.0 0. or 16 inches. TABLE 3-13. psi 700 N/A N/A N/A Modulus. lb 210. In areas of variable slab thickness.000 Thickness.000 657. The program FAARFIELD is used to determine the concrete slab thickness for the critical pavement areas shown in figure 3-4. if the subgrade modulus used is 80 pci rather than 141 pci.47 inches. Minimum Layer Thickness.0 TABLE 3-14. rounded to 17.000) in FAARFIELD Fixed (700. 36 . Local experience may be used to refine the calculations. For the variable thickness section of the thinned edge and transition section.5 inch or 1 cm. Detailed steps for using the FAARFIELD program can be found in the user’s manual. in. FAARFIELD will not design the thickness of pavement layers other than the PCC slab in rigid pavement structures.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 variable stabilized flexible layer. FROST EFFECTS.0 0. but will enforce the minimum thickness requirements for subbase layers as specified elsewhere in this AC. (Calculate) 6 6 Infinite Annual Departures 1200 800 1200 Annual Growth. frost protection should be provided for rigid pavements in areas where conditions conducive to detrimental frost action exist. % 0. DESIGN EXAMPLE. assume that the input data listed in tables 313 and 3-14 are to be used to design a new rigid pavement.5 inches.

STRUCTURE WINDOW IN FAARFIELD FIGURE 3-7. AIRPLANE WINDOW IN FAARFIELD 37 .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E FIGURE 3-6.

regardless of type. C. D).AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 332. (2) Contraction Joints (Types B. A-1). contraction. Type A is used when conditions preclude the use of load transfer devices that span across the joint. Pavement joint details are shown in figures 3-8 and 3-9 and are summarized in table 3-15. JOINTING OF CONCRETE PAVEMENTS. These various joints are described as follows: (1) Isolation Joints (Types A. In order to reduce the detrimental effects of these stresses and to minimize random cracking. Variations in temperature and moisture content can cause volume changes and slab warping resulting in significant stresses. The categories are isolation. Details for construction joints are shown as Types E in figure 3-8. a. C. Construction joints are required when two abutting slabs are placed at different times. These slabs should be as nearly square as possible when no embedded steel is used. Pavement joints are categorized according to the function that the joint is intended to perform. it is necessary to divide the pavement into a series of slabs of predetermined dimension by means of joints. and construction joints. Details for contraction joints are shown as Types B. These joints are formed by increasing the thickness of the pavement along the edge of the slab. Joint Categories. Contraction joints also decrease stresses caused by slab warping. No dowel bars are provided. and D in figure 3-8. All joints. The function of isolation joints is to isolate intersecting pavements and to isolate structures from the pavement. The function of contraction joints is to provide controlled cracking of the pavement when the pavement contracts due to decrease in moisture content or a temperature drop. should be finished in a manner that permits the joint to be sealed. such as at the end of a day’s placement or between paving lanes. Type A-1 joints may be used as an alternate in cases where thickened edge joints are undesirable. 38 . such as where the pavement abuts a structure or where horizontal differences in movement of the pavements may occur. (3) Construction Joints (Type E).

9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E FIGURE 3-8. RIGID PAVEMENT JOINT TYPES AND DETAILS 39 .

RIGID PAVEMENT JOINT TYPE DETAILS 40 .AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 FIGURE 3-9.

where the joint is placed 20 feet (6 m) or less from the pavement edge. For all contraction joints in taxiway slabs < 9 inches (230 mm) thick. D E Dummy Contraction Joint Doweled Construction Joint b. Use at free edge of pavements where future expansion.5-16 343-406 17. For all other contraction joints in slabs < 9 inches (230 mm) thick. or.25 in nonreinforced pavements. where L is the joint spacing and t is the slab thickness. B Hinged Contraction Joint TRANSVERSE Use at pavement feature intersections when the respective longitudinal axis intersects at an angle. Joint Spacing. C Doweled Contraction Joint May be considered for general use.52 5. without Stabilized Subbase Slab Thickness Joint Spacing1 Inches Millimeters Feet Meters 6 152 12.5 3.5-9 165-229 15 4. Not used.1 Part II. PAVEMENT JOINT TYPES TYPE A DESCRIPTION Thickened Edge Isolation Joint LONGITUDINAL Use at intersections where dowels are not suitable and where pavements abut structures.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E TABLE 3-15. RECOMMENDED MAXIMUM JOINT SPACINGS RIGID PAVEMENT WITH OR WITHOUT STABILIZED SUBBASE Part I.1 41 . A maximum spacing of 20 feet (6. with Stabilized Subbase Slab Thickness Joint Spacing1 Inches Millimeters Feet Meters 8–10 203-254 12.32 >16 >406 20 6. using the same pavement thickness is expected. Table 3-16 shows the recommended maximum joint spacings. L  24t (valid for any unit system).5 3. May be considered for general use. For all other contraction joints in pavement.6 13.5-13 267-330 15 4.8 10. Use on the last three joints from a free edge. where the joint is placed 20 feet (6m) or less from the pavement edge.8 6.6 >9 >229 20 6. Consider for use in contraction joints in slabs > 9 inches (230 mm) thick. Shorter spacings may be more convenient in some instances and may be required to provide minimum clearance between pavement joints and in-pavement obstructions such as light bases.1 m) is recommended. Consider at locations along a pavement edge where future expansion is possible. and for three joints on either side of isolation joints. For all other contraction joints in pavement. All construction joints excluding isolation joints. A rule-of-thumb for joint spacing given by the Portland Cement Association is applicable for rigid pavements without stabilized subbase: As a rough guide. the joint spacing should not greatly exceed twenty four times the slab thickness. Use for construction joints at all locations separating successive paving operations (“headers”). (1) Without Stabilized Subbase. The ratio of the longest side of a slab to the shortest side of a slab at two intersecting sides should not exceed 1. TABLE 3-16.

75 in.71/0.” uncheck the “No Out Files” box.5 inches (394 mm). Transverse and longitudinal joint spacing. (4) For the maximum stress found in step 3. Steel reinforcement is not required at the top of the slab for structural capacity. the maximum (working) free edge stress for the concrete section design is calculated as 357. but if embedded steel is placed at the top of the slab for crack control.3  12 in. calculate the free edge stress by dividing the PCC slab horizontal stress by 0. it should conform to the requirements of paragraph 337.75. A new rigid pavement will be constructed for the following mix of airplanes: DC10-10. c 7.555 lb.out. When a runway or taxiway is likely to be extended at some future date. (5. 6. thickened edge joints may create the potential to trap water beneath the pavement. Smaller joint spacings should be used if indicated by past experience 5. Rigid pavements supported on stabilized subbase are subject to higher warping and curling stresses than those supported on unstabilized foundations.75 ft. for the B777-200ER.out was found to be 357.5 kip-ft. where:  edge is the maximum edge stress based on FAARFIELD. obtain the computed PCC slab horizontal (tensile) stress from the output file NikePCC.75 = 476. The maximum stress to be used for the joint design is determined using FAARFIELD as follows: (1) In the Options window. 3. with an appropriate load factor applied. The dead load will be neglected. Because of the potential for trapped water.7. (2) For the design section.75 is necessary because the FAARFIELD stress has already been reduced by 25% to account for assumed joint load transfer. For typical runway and taxiway geometries. SPECIAL JOINTING CONSIDERATIONS FOR POSSIBLE FUTURE EXPANSION.1 m) is recommended for slabs equal to or thicker than 16 inches (406 mm). = 32. calculate the ultimate bending moment Mu as:  15. A separate computation should be performed for each airplane.7 m). 4. 42 . Assume that the concrete compressive strength f c = 4. the engineer may consider using a reinforced isolation joint (Type A-1 in figure 3-8) as an alternative to a thickened edge joint. run a “Life” computation.5 in. Pavements subject to extreme seasonal temperature differentials or extreme temperature differentials during placement may require shorter joint spacings. (3) For each airplane. The ratio of the longest side of a slab to the shortest side of a slab at two intersecting sides should not exceed 1. a thickened edge should be provided at the appropriate edge. B747-200B Combi Mixed. 2.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 Notes: 1. B777-200ER. 333.-in. the corresponding longitudinal joint spacing is 18. Ig = the gross moment of inertia calculated for a 1- foot strip of the concrete slab. See Chapter 5 for light-load rigid pavement jointing.7   1. the maximum PCC horizontal stress from the output file NikePCC. In lieu of historical performance records. Joint spacings shown in this table are maximum values that may be acceptable under ideal conditions. The recommended maximum joint spacings are listed in part II. and c = the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fiber.000 psi. under “General Options. it is recommended that a thickened edge joint (Type A in figure 3-8) be provided at that end of the runway or taxiway.   476. Using FAARFIELD. if any pavement will require an isolation joint in the future.9 psi.7  = 389. Likewise. (2) With Stabilized Subbase.9 psi     12  edge  I g   M u  1. and for each airplane in the traffic mix. Sufficient steel reinforcement should be provided at the bottom of the slab for the reinforced concrete section to resist the maximum bending moment caused by the critical aircraft loading the free edge of the slab. An isolation joint will be provided at the location of planned future expansion. a maximum spacing of 20 feet (6.71 psi. in the FAARFIELD working directory. Reinforced Isolation Joint (Type A-1) Design Example. Assuming a live load factor of 1. assumed to be one-half of the slab thickness. table 3-16.25 in non reinforced pavements. a. The reinforced concrete section will be designed using the ultimate strength method. In pavements with drainable bases. The amount of steel at the slab edge should be justified by structural calculations. Therefore. (Dividing by 0. a reinforced isolation joint is selected. the PCC design thickness for a 20-year life was determined to be 15.) For this design example. In such cases.

Table 3-17 indicates the dowel dimensions and spacing for various pavement thicknesses. Provision for load transfer by dowels is provided as described in table 3-15. Do not use tie-bars such that areas of pavement with continuous tied joints greater than 75 feet (23 m) exist.0033.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E Assume the edge reinforcement will consist of No. hence the minimum steel ratio criterion is satisfied. it is advisable to place plastic concrete directly on the dowel assembly immediately prior to passage of the paver to prevent displacement of the assembly by the paving equipment. From the above values. Since M U  M n . Dowels for contraction joints should be provided at least three joints from a free edge.44 = 0. Tie bars are used across certain longitudinal contraction joints to hold the slab faces in close contact.5 kip-ft. d = 12. where fy is in psi. (2) Size Length and Spacing. 6 bars.0060 > fy  min  0. Dowels. For the final design. Using the above values M n is calculated as 45. A check should also be performed for minimum and maximum steel ratio. Dowels should be sized such that they will resist the shearing and bending stresses produced by the loads on the pavement. Dowels are used at joints to provide for transfer of load across the joint and to prevent relative vertical displacement of adjacent slab ends. The tie bars themselves do not act as load transfer devices. as shown in igure 3-8. b. provide four (4) no. JOINTING STEEL.0213. Dowels permit longitudinal movement of adjacent slabs. The maximum steel ratio is determined from the equation:  f  87000   max  0. usually a wire cage or basket firmly anchored to the subbase. An alternate procedure for placing dowels in the transverse joint is to use a paving machine equipped with an automated dowel bar inserter.2 mm) clear cover on No.0033. 334. The minimum steel ratio is given by: 200 .13 in. width fy = steel yield stress (assume fy = 60.  1 = 0.85 (for f c = 4000 psi) and fy is in psi. M n  As f y d 1  0.85   1 c   0. They should be of such length and spacing that the bearing stresses exerted on the concrete will not cause failure of the concrete slab. By preventing wide opening of the joint. During the concrete placement operations. a. load transfer is provided by aggregate interlock in the crack below the groove-type joint. (76. Since the calculated steel ratio   0. (3) Dowel Positioning. The bars should be 5/8 inch (16 mm) in diameter and 30 inches (762 mm) on center spacing. Transverse dowels will require the use of a fixture. 43 . (308 mm).0213 f y 87000  f y     where:  b is the balanced steel ratio. The alignment and elevation of dowels is extremely important in obtaining a satisfactory joint. obtain  min = 0. Supports on the baskets do not need to be cut. 6 bars spaced at 6 inches (152 mm). Tie Bars. the design is adequate for flexure. 6 bars spaced at 6 inches at the bottom of the slab.88 in2 for 1-ft.90 for flexure without axial loading) As = steel area = 2 x 0. Calculate the flexural design strength using the following equation:    where:  = stress reduction factor (= 0. the maximum steel ratio criterion is also satisfied. The calculated steel ratio   0. Tie bars should be deformed bars conforming to the specifications given in Item P-501.0060 < 0. to hold the dowels in position.59     f y   f c   For the minimum 3 in.000 psi) f c = concrete compressive strength d = depth to steel centroid A  = steel ratio  s bd b = section width = 12 in.75   b  0. (1) Where Used.75  0.

thus the cost benefits associated with fewer joints must be considered in the decision to use plain or embedded steel concrete pavement. High-strength pipe dowels must be plugged on each end with a tight-fitting plastic cap or mortar mix. it is more economical to keep the number of passes of the paving train to a minimum while maintaining proper joint function. In instances where odd-shaped slabs cannot be avoided. it keeps the cracks that form tightly closed so that the interlock of the irregular faces provides structural integrity and usually maintains pavement performance. Isolation can best be accomplished by using a Type A isolation joint between the two pavements. Joint sealants are applied above the filler in isolation joints to prevent infiltration of water and foreign material.5-20 in (419-58 mm) 1 ½ in1 (40 mm) 20 in (510 mm) 18 in (460 m) 20. Pavement joint layout is a matter of selecting the proper joint types and dimensions so that the joints can perform their intended function. Premolded compressible filler are used in isolation joints to accommodate expansion of the slabs. Cracks tend to form in odd-shaped slabs. Isolation Joints. The embedded steel should be placed in accordance with the recommendations given in paragraph 338. JOINT SEALANTS AND FILLERS. full dimensions and painting out the unused portion of the slab. Figure 3-10 shows a typical jointing plan for a runway end. By holding the cracks tightly closed. Two intersecting pavements.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 TABLE 3-17. One isolation joint is normally sufficient to allow independent movement. Concrete slabs may contain embedded steel reinforcing bars or welded wire mats for crack control. 335.050 percent steel in both directions in slabs where the length-towidth ratio exceeds 1. 337. transverse members should be spaced not less than 4 inches (100 mm) nor more than 24 inches (610 mm) apart. End and side clearances should be a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm) and a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) to allow for nearly complete embedded steel and yet achieve adequate concrete cover. fuel-resistant sealants should be used. The embedded steel should consist of 0. should be isolated to allow the pavements to move independently.25 or in slabs that are not rectangular in shape. 44 . and connector. Joints should be placed with respect to light fixtures in accordance with AC 150/5340-30B. it is good practice to maintain sections that are nearly square or rectangular in shape. End laps should be a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) but not less than 30 times the diameter of the longitudinal wire or bar. Pavement intersections that involve fillets are difficult to design without a few odd-shaped slabs. b. Two important considerations in designing joint layouts for intersections are isolation joints and odd-shaped slabs. The thickness requirements for reinforced concrete pavements are the same as plain concrete and are determined by the program FAARFIELD. Embedded steel may be either welded wire fabric or bar mats installed with end and side laps to provide complete embedded steel throughout the slab. therefore. although it does not prevent cracking. 336. Paving lane widths will often dictate how the pavement should be jointed.5-24 in (521-610 mm) 2 in1 (50 mm) 24 in (610 mm) 18 in (460 mm) 1 Dowels noted may be solid bar or high-strength pipe. It is impossible to illustrate all of the variations that can occur at pavement intersections. In-pavement light fixtures may also affect joint spacing. Fillets may also be defined by constructing slabs to the normal. the steel minimizes the infiltration of debris into the cracks. Side laps should be a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) but not less than 20 times the diameter of the transverse wire or bar. Generally speaking. Construction considerations are also vitally important in determining the joint layout pattern. Longitudinal members should be spaced not less than 4 inches (100 mm) nor more than 12 inches (305 mm) apart. JOINT LAYOUT. The main benefit of embedded steel is that. embedded steel is recommended. DIMENSIONS AND SPACING OF STEEL DOWELS Thickness of Slab Diameter Length Spacing 6-7 in (152-178 mm) ¾ in1 (20 mm) 18 in (460 mm) 12 in (305 mm) 7. 338.5-16 in (318-406 mm) 1 ¼ in1 (30 mm) 20 in (510 mm) 15 in (380 mm) 16. In areas subject to fuel spillage. The isolation joint should be positioned such that the two pavements can expand and contract independently. Embedded steel allows longer joint spacing. Odd-Shaped Slabs. More discussion on these follows: a. parallel taxiway. Specifications for joint sealants are given in Item P605. CONCRETE PAVEMENT CONTAINING EMBEDDED STEEL FOR CRACK CONTROL. TYPE AND SPACING OF EMBEDDED STEEL BARS. normally this can be accomplished by using a Type A isolation joint where the two pavements abut. Sealants are used in all joints to prevent the ingress of water and foreign material in the joint. Design and Installation Details for Airport Visual Aids.5-12 in (191-305 mm) 1 in1 (25 mm) 19 in (480 mm) 12 in (305 mm) 12. such as a taxiway and runway.

TYPICAL JOINT LAYOUT PATTERN FOR RUNWAY.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E FIGURE 3-10. PARALLEL TAXIWAY. AND CONNECTOR 45 .

000 psi (186 MPa).000 (300) 47. b. 46 . diameters.1.000 (190) 33. The resultant formula is expressed as follows: AS  3 . As will then be in terms of square centimeters per meter.000 (420) 65. YIELD STRENGTHS OF VARIOUS GRADES OF REINFORCING STEEL ASTM Designation A 615 A 616 A 616 A 615 A 185 A 497 Type & Grade of Steel Deformed Billet Steel.5. per inch of thickness (23.05 percent. areas. The costs associated with providing an embedded steel pavement must be compared with the savings realized in eliminating some of the transverse contraction joints to determine the most economical steel percentage. psi NOTE: To determine the area of steel in metric units: L should be expressed in meters t should be expressed in millimeters f s should be expressed in mega newtons per square meter The constant 3. c.64. Dimensions and unit weights of standard deformed reinforcing bars are given in table 3-19. They are also smaller than the minimum required steel percentage for CRCP (0. a. The minimum percentage of steel considered the least amount of steel that can be economically placed is 0.05. Grade 50 Deformed Rail Steel. The allowable tensile stress in steel will vary with the type and grade of steel. the maximum allowable slab length regardless of steel percentage is 75 feet (23 m) for normal concrete slabs containing embedded steel.000 (490) fs. psi (MN/m2) 40.000 (350) 60. inches allowable tensile stress in steel. In this formula the slab weight is assumed to be 12.000 (280) 40.6 MN/m2). It is recommended that allowable tensile stress be taken as two-thirds of the yield strength of the steel. Based on current specifications the yield strengths and corresponding design stresses (fs) are as listed in table 3-18.5 pounds per square foot. DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS OF EMBEDDED STEEL. psi (MN/m2) 27. and wire size number. AMOUNT OF EMBEDDED STEEL.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 339. the required steel percentage would be 0. Embedded steel allows larger slab sizes and thus decreases the number of transverse contraction joints. Both satisfy the minimum required percentage 0. square inches length or width of slab.000 (280) 43. Grade 60 Deformed Billet Steel. The steel area required for an embedded steel concrete pavement is determined from the subgrade drag formula and the coefficient of friction formula combined.23 %. For safety reasons. the required steel percentage would be 0. 8  L L t  fS For a 75 ft (23 m) long slab with 10 inch (254 mm) thickness and using fs = 27. Grade 40 Deformed Rail Steel.05 percent.7 should be changed to 0.7 L fS Lt where: As L t fs = = = = area of steel per foot of width or length.000 (280) 50.000 (230) 40. and weights of wires used in welded wire fabric are given in table 3-20. The minimum percentage of embedded steel should be 0. For the 75 ft (23 m) long slab with 20 inch (508 mm) thickness and using fs = 47000 psi (324 MPa).000(330) 340.000 (420) 60. by the area of concrete per unit of length (or width) and multiplying by 100. The equation in (a) may be reorganized to obtain the relationship between the percentage of steel and the required slab length: PS %   30 . TABLE 3-18. feet thickness of slab. The percentage of steel is computed by dividing the area of steel. Grade 60 Cold Drawn Welded Steel Wire Fabric Cold Drawn Welded Deformed Steel Wire Yield Strength. As. see item 342).000 (460) 70.

618 1. The choice should be based on the difference in allowable design stresses.09 .165 .276 .264 .72 . The minimum transverse wire should be no smaller than W4 or D4.375 9.553 .15 . which satisfies the requirement for pavements up to 20 inches (508 mm) thick.168 .07 TABLE 3-20.24 .178 3.020 W28 D28 0. Sizing of individual sheets of welded wire fabric is also important in providing an economical design.390 .07 .097 .095 .31 2.36 . the size and spacing of the steel members (bars or wire) should be determined on the premise that the minimum area should not be less than 0.20 1. This percentage applies in the case of steel having yield strength of 65.255 W7 D7 .348 . spaced 10 inches (255 mm) apart.12 square inches (77 mm2).56 .875 22.5 kg/m 341.28 . WELDED WIRE FABRIC.18 .12 .30 .44 2.12 .20 .21 .05 percent.252 .5 .065 .18 .748 W20 D20 0.934 W24 D24 0.338 .216 .187 W5 D5 .0 1.075 . in.612 W16 D16 0.9 0.376 0.668 1.5 .264 .42 .24 .288 .15 . should calculated area of longitudinal steel be less than 0.40 .075 .04 W31 D31 0.078 .312 .16 .072 .39 .93 .571 4.067 .42 .0 Unit Weight.502 2.09 .12 6 .374 W10.28 .963 5.366 .90 .000 psi (480 MN/m2).06 .195 .45 .84 .126 .096 .11 0.08 8 .136 Note: 1 inch = 2.7 0.192 .372 .1 0.29 0.680 W18 D18 0.102 .21 .544 WI4 D14 0.144 .06 10 .105 .114 .357 WI0 D10 0.323 W9 D9 .57 1.05 percent of the crosssectional area of slab.11 .06 .48 .127 .112 .082 .54 cm.00 0.15 .36 . lb/linear ft Perimeter.465 .19 . in2 (mm2) 0.30 .18 .575 .272 W7.204 W5.478 .60 .27 .628 1.16 .285 . The use of welded wire fabric requires some special design considerations to achieve the most economical design.309 .33 .18 .00 1.10 . Not all fabricators supply all wire sizes in all 47 .085 .33 .952 W26 D26 0.2 Number Deformed Area.240 .0 1.045 . SECTIONAL AREAS OF WELDED FABRIC Wire Size Smooth Area of Steel When Center-to-Center Spacing is (in inches) 4 .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E TABLE 3-19.17 .289 W8 D8 . (mm) 0.157 .132 . (cm) 1.10 .62 .24 .153 W4 D4 .09 .5 .084 .319 . the availability of the desired sizes (smooth wire fabric is available in a wider range of sizes). 3 4 5 6 7 Diameter. In addition.27 .14 .225 .22 .30 .340 W9.31 .26 2.374 .749 7.54 . It is recommended that the minimum size of longitudinal wire be W5 or D5. in.054 .0 2.135 .32 .500 12.597 . table 3-20 shows that W10 wires.298 .13 .78 .255 .5 0.24 .108 .329 .356 6.750 19.451 . For example. If lower grades are used. and the costs associated with each style of fabric. 1 lb/linear ft = 1.22 .048 12 .11 .221 W6 D6 .44 .043 1. the percentage should be revised proportionately upward.142 .336 .5 .36 .09 .20 .86 Nominal Diameter Inches Nominal Weight.84 0.165 .529 .60 3.0 2.504 .52 .422 .60 .066 .225 . furnish an area of 0.5 .5 0.66 .36 .71 0.14 .5 .56 0.044 3.12 .135 .288 .26 .105 .05 .12 .315 .356 .170 W4.238 W6.476 W12 D12 0.08 .625 15.21 .054 W30 D30 0.055 .24 .408 W11 D11 0. lb/ft (kg/m) 0.48 . DIMENSIONS AND UNIT WEIGHTS OF DEFORMED STEEL REINFORCING BARS NOMINAL DIMENSIONS No. The use of smooth welded wire fabric or deformed welded wire fabric is the option of the designer.816 W22 D22 0.306 W8.

AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 spacings. A high degree of shear transfer across the cracks can be achieved because the cracks are held tightly closed. 342. and are often a source of maintenance problems. and all joints should be provided with load transfer devices as shown in figure 3-11. The recommended friction factor for stabilized subbase is 1. The longitudinal embedded steel required to resist the forces generated by the frictional restraint between the CRCP and the subbase should be determined by using the following formula: PS %   1. Design inputs are the same for concrete flexural strength. it is generally more economical to specify a standard production configuration. a good uniform foundation support must still be provided for satisfactory performance. which are costly to construct. The embankment and subbase requirements given earlier in this chapter for plain concrete pavements. The resultant pavement is composed of a series of articulated short slabs held tightly together by the longitudinal reinforcing steel.6 to 3 m) intervals. The thickness requirements for CRCP are the same as plain concrete pavement. a. A continuously reinforced concrete pavement (CRCP) is a Portland cement concrete pavement with continuous longitudinal embedded steel and no intermediate transverse isolation or contraction joints. also apply to CRCP.5 percent. JOINTING OF EMBEDDED STEEL CONCRETE PAVEMENTS. The tensile strength of concrete may be estimated as 67 percent of the flexural strength. While nearly any fabric style can be produced on special order. The recommended working stress for steel is 75 percent of the specified minimum yield strength. In no case should the longitudinal steel percentage be less than 0. 343. Thickness Design.0 and 1.5 respectively. While not recommended as subbase for CRCP. The joints must be sealed carefully to accommodate the larger movements at the joints.4 m) can result in higher shipping costs. (1) Steel to Resist Subgrade Restraint. The maximum steel percentage determined by any of the three following requirements should be selected as the design value. The reinforcing steel in a CRCP provides continuity of load transfer. Longitudinal Steel Design.8. The longer joint spacing allowed with pavements containing embedded steel will result in larger joint openings.5 to 1.0 percent longitudinal embedded steel. this figure presents other embedded steel details such as clearance at joints and edges of pavement and depth below the surface. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT. c. friction factors for nonstabilized fine-grained soils and coarse-grained soils are usually assumed to be 1. require periodic resealing. Foundation Support. Crack widths must be small to provide a high degree of shear transfer across the crack and to prevent the ingress of water through the crack. The design of embedded steel for CRCP is critical to providing a satisfactory pavement. Continuously reinforced concrete pavements usually provide a very smooth riding surface. Sheet and roll widths in excess of 8 feet (2. However. The main advantage of continuously reinforced concrete pavement is the elimination of transverse joints. The design of longitudinal embedded steel must satisfy three conditions.2 F  ft fS where: Ps ft F fs = = = = embedded steel in percent tensile strength of concrete. Also. material properties for subbase layers and airplane mixture information. (2) Steel to Resist Temperature Effects. Contraction joints in concrete pavements containing embedded steel meeting the requirements of paragraphs 338 – 340 may be spaced up to 75 feet (23 m) apart.3  0. tensile strength of concrete and a friction factor for the subbase. subgrade modulus. The following formula is used to compute the temperature embedded steel requirements. b. A properly designed CRCP will develop random transverse cracks at 2 to 10 feet (0. in psi friction factor of subgrade allowable working stress in steel. The steel percentage must be properly selected to provide optimum crack spacing and crack width. PS  50 f t f s  195T 48 . The longitudinal embedded steel must be capable of withstanding the forces generated by the expansion and contraction of the pavement due to temperature changes. Continuously reinforced concrete pavements normally contain from 0. in psi Use of the above formula requires three parameters: allowable working stress for steel.

75 of yield strength recommended e. All deformed reinforcing steel bars should conform to ASTM A615 or A996. PS  100 f t fy where: Ps = embedded steel in percent ft = tensile strength of concrete fy = minimum yield strength of steel d. Deformed welded wire fabric should conform to ASTM A497. in psi. Longitudinal steel spacing should be 6 to 12 inches (152 to 305 mm). A minimum concrete cover of 3 inches (76 mm) should be maintained over all embedded steel. whichever is greater. 49 . The recommended overlap for splicing of reinforcing bars is 25 diameters or 16 inches (406 mm). (3) Concrete to Steel Strength Ratio. When splicing longitudinal steel bar reinforcing it is recommended that the lap splices be made on a 60 degree skew from centerline or staggered such that not more than one-third of the bars are spliced on the same transverse plane. Steel Detailing. The recommended overlap for splicing deformed welded wire fabric is 32 diameters or 16 inches (406 mm). The following formula is used for determining transverse steel requirements: PS %  where: Ps Ws F fs WS F 100 2 fS = embedded steel in percent = width of slab. 0. which sometimes form. Longitudinal embedded steel should be located at mid-depth of the slab or slightly above. whichever is greater. Transverse steel may be located either above or below the longitudinal steel. Transverse Steel Design. Transverse embedded steel is recommended for CRCP airport pavements to control “chance” longitudinal cracks. It is also aids in construction by supporting and maintaining longitudinal embedded steel spacing. in feet = friction factor of subgrade = allowable working stress in steel. 67% of the flexural strength is recommended working stress for steel usually taken as 75% of specified minimum yield strength maximum seasonal temperature differential for pavement in degrees Fahrenheit Reinforcing steel should be specified on the basis of minimum yield strength. Transverse steel should be spaced at 12 inches (305 mm) or greater.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E where: Ps ft fs T = = = = embedded steel in percent tensile strength of concrete. The steel percentage is obtained by multiplying the ratio of the concrete strength to the yield strength of steel by 100. The third consideration in selecting the amount of longitudinal embedded steel is the ratio of concrete tensile strength to the specified minimum yield strength of steel.

AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 FIGURE 3-11. JOINTING IN RIGID PAVEMENT WITH EMBEDDED STEEL 50 .

Transverse steel is carried through the joint to provide continuity and positive aggregate interlock across the joint. Rather large end movements. A sketch of the wide flange beam joint is shown on figure 3-14. The wide flange beam type joint is recommended due to its relatively lower costs. Construction Joints. Typical warping joint details are shown in figures 3-12 and 3-13. A transverse construction joint must be provided where paving ends and begins. Warping joints or hinged joints are needed when the paving lane width exceeds the recommended maximum longitudinal joint spacings shown in table 3-16. the maximum width of tied pavement should not exceed 75 feet (23 m). More favorable results are achieved where end movement is accommodated rather than restrained.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E 344. End movement is normally not a problem except where CRCP abuts another pavement or structure. provisions must be made to either restrain or accommodate end movements wherever the CRCP abuts other pavements or structures. Warping Joints. CRCP TERMINAL TREATMENT. Even though transverse contraction joints can be eliminated with CRCP. Since carrying the steel through the joint eliminates any expansion or contraction capacity. a longitudinal construction joint is required between lanes. some joints will be needed to accommodate construction and to control warping stresses. Joints designed to accommodate large movements are required where CRCP intersects other pavements or abuts another structures. Wide flange beam type joints or finger type joints can accommodate the movements. up to 2 inches (51 mm). FIGURE 3-12. Failure to do so may result in damage to the CRCP. b. The two types of joints are discussed below: a. Since long slabs of CRCP are constructed with no transverse joints. such as at the finish of a day’s paving and the start of the next day’s paving. 51 . are experienced with CRCP due to thermal expansion and contraction. see paragraph 334a. Two types of construction joints are necessary for CRCP. Experience with highway CRCP shows that attempts to restrain end movement have not been too successful. Typical construction joint details are shown in figure 3-12. CRCP JOINTING. pavement or other structure. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – JOINT DETAILS 345. Because pavements are constructed in multiple lanes.

AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 FIGURE 3-13. CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – JOINT DETAILS 52 .

CONTINUOUSLY REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENT – WIDE FLANGE BEAM TERMINAL JOINT 53 .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E 10ft (3 m) FIGURE 3-14.

CRCP DESIGN EXAMPLE.61 inches) is shown in figure 3-15.000 psi (172 MPa) The lower (aggregate) subbase is P-154. 8 inches (203 mm) thick. COMPUTED SLAB THICKNESS. 6 inches (152 mm) thick. The calculated slab thickness (15. d. Round this thickness to the closest 0.5 MPa) Minimum Specified Yield Strength of Steel .AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 346. The longitudinal reinforcing steel would be determined as described in (i) Subgrade Restraint. f.100°F (38C) (1) Slab Thickness. An example design for CRCP is given below. Gross Weight.000 Annual Departures 10. g. The following mix of airplanes is assumed: TABLE 3-21.650 psi (4. AIRPLANE MIX DATA FOR CRCP DESIGN EXAMPLE Airplane B737-800 A320-100 B777-200 ER b. c. Enter the input data listed in (a) to (d) in program FAARFIELD. Using the formula in paragraph 342c(1) with the following paragraph 343c: inputs: Working stress = 75%  60.000 psi (414 MPa) (Longitudinal and Transverse) Paving Lane Width . e. lb 174. Assume a CRCP is to be designed to serve the following conditions: a.000 psi (414 MPa) = 45.000 750 8760 % Annual Growth 0 0 0 Subgrade E value is 25.6 m) Cement Stabilized Subbase Seasonal Temperature Differential . and the upper (stabilized) subbase is P-306. FIGURE 3-15.25 feet (7.5 inch to obtain or 15.000 psi (310 MPa) 54 .700 150. Concrete Flexural Strength .60. CRCP EXAMPLE (2) Steel Design.796 657.5 inches (394 mm).

The strength ratio between the concrete and steel is computed by the procedure given in paragraph 343c(3).8 Tensile strength of concrete = 67% of 650 psi (4. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE PAVEMENT.000 (iv) Transverse Steel. 347.8  436  100  0. The steel required to withstand the forces generated by seasonal temperature changes is computed using the formula given in paragraph 343c(2). 55 . Volume II. The final design would be a 15.05 2  45.000 using the formula in 342d: This will yield a transverse steel requirement of 0. The transverse reinforcing steel percentage would be determined PS  25  1. Prestressed concrete pavements have been used in airport applications in Europe and to a limited extent in the United States. the value of 0.91% 45.0 MPa) The longitudinal steel required to withstand the forces generated by subgrade restraint is: PS  1.91 percent would be selected for design. or continuously reinforced concrete pavements yet provide high load carrying capacity. The transverse steel requirement is 0. Slab lengths on the order of 400 to 500 feet (120 to 152 m) are generally used.05 percent. PS  50  436  0.05 percent (v) Final Design. Use of prestressed concrete airport pavements on federally assisted projects will require FAA approval on a case by case basis. The longitudinal steel requirement can be satisfied by using #7 reinforcing bars spaced at 4 inches (102 mm). The transverse steel requirement can be met by using #4 bars on 24 inch (610 mm) centers. A design procedure for prestressed airport pavements was developed under an FAA research effort and is reported in Research Report Number FAA-RD-74-34. Since the steel percentage necessary to satisfy the subgrade restraint condition is the largest steel percentage for longitudinal embedded steel. PS  100  436  0.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E Friction factor = 1.5 inch (394 cm) thick concrete slab.2  1.000  195  100 (iii) Concrete to Steel Strength Ratio.73% 60. Prestressed concrete airport pavements are usually post-tensioned with high strength steel strands. These pavements are usually considerably thinner than plain.8  100  0.86% 45.000 (ii) Temperature Effects. jointed reinforced.3  0.5 MPa) = 436 psi (3.

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a. ingress of ground or capillary water. In some instances. and some estimate of foundation strength (CBR or subgrade modulus). However. Hot mix asphalt pavement placed on an existing pavement. Typical overlay pavement cross sections are shown in figure 4-l. The trapped water drastically reduces the stability of the overlay. and strength of each layer. Airport pavement overlays or reconstruction may be required for a variety of reasons. Definitions applicable to overlay pavements are as follows: (1) Overlay Pavement. Measurement of the properties of the existing pavement should include the thickness. Criteria are presented in this circular for both hot mix asphalt and concrete reconstruction or overlays. to assist with calculating PCN. The remainder of this chapter is devoted to the design of overlay pavements. at best. They are not allowed because the granular separation course usually becomes saturated with water and provides poor or. The selection of the material type should be made after careful consideration of many factors. Sandwich Pavements. Problems such as alkali-silica reactivity in existing rigid pavements should be addressed. MATERIAL SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS. Techniques and equipment are now available to recycle old pavement materials into reconstructed sections. (2) Hot Mix Asphalt Overlay. 402. GENERAL. (3) Concrete Overlay. Appendix 4). and to assess areas of localized weakness. Overlaying an existing pavement without correcting poor subsurface drainage will usually result in poor overlay performance. Portland cement concrete pavement placed on an existing pavement. where an existing concrete surface layer over a stabilized 57 . b. a pavement in good condition may require strengthening to serve heavier airplanes than those for which the pavement was originally designed. In any event. A pavement may require an overlay or reconstruction because the original pavement has served its design life and it is simply “worn out. Other considerations such as allowable downtime of the pavement and availability of alternate pavements to use during construction will have a significant impact on the material selected. OVERLAY DESIGN. Saturation of the separation course can be caused by the infiltration of surface water. Assessment of the condition of the existing pavement is one of the most important and difficult steps in design of a reconstruction or overlay project. (4) Sandwich Pavement. The designer should consider the total life cycle cost of the reconstructed or overlay pavement (see DOT-FAA-RD-81/078. Similarly. Typical Overlay Cross Sections and Definitions. CONDITION OF EXISTING PAVEMENT. FAA criteria do not permit the construction of sandwich overlay pavements. NDT can be used to estimate foundation strength. Pavements that are severely distressed in the center portions can sometimes be economically rehabilitated by reconstructing the keel section. Overlay pavement sections containing granular separation courses between the old and new impervious surfaces are called sandwich pavements. Subsurface drainage conditions should be assessed carefully and corrected if found to be deficient. prior to overlay. The overlay design procedures in this AC assume that the overlay is to be placed on a base pavement with significant structural integrity. Regardless of the type of overlay. the subgrade soil classification. measure joint load transfer. A pavement may have been damaged by overloading in such a way that it cannot be economically maintained at a serviceable level. subsurface drainage corrections are best performed through reconstruction. The reconstruction method can consider using recycled materials. A valuable technique for assessing the structural condition of the existing pavement is nondestructive pavement testing (NDT) (see AC 150/5370-11. and possibly detect voids in existing pavements.” A pavement may also require an overlay or rehabilitation due to surface conditions or materialrelated distresses. unpredictable performance. 403. Generally. As previously mentioned. the water in the separation course usually cannot be adequately drained. condition. NDT can also be used to determine structural capacity. and if necessary mitigated. 401.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E CHAPTER 4. Appendix 4). AIRPORT PAVEMENT OVERLAYS AND RECONSTRUCTION 400. or the condensation of water from the atmosphere. airport pavement overlays consist of either Portland cement concrete or hot mix asphalt concrete. Use of Nondestructive Testing Devices in the Evaluation of Airport Pavement. Life cycle costs should include initial construction and maintenance costs over the design life of the pavement. Severely distressed areas in the existing pavement should be carefully studied to determine the cause of the distresses and to determine potential mitigation. An assessment of the structural integrity of the existing pavement is necessary. Pavement that is constructed on top of an existing pavement. the design of reconstructed pavements is essentially the same as for new construction.

the overlaid structure should not be considered sandwich construction. TYPICAL OVERLAY PAVEMENTS 58 . FIGURE 4-1.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 subbase is rubblized prior to placement of a HMA or PCC overlay.

(E is 15. B747-200B Combi Mixed weighing 873. Hot Mix Overlay of an Existing Flexible Pavement. However. a B777-200 ER weighing 634. the standard base course (P-209) is 10 inches (254 mm) thick.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E c. A qualified engineer should be consulted to characterize the existing pavement layers. The 20-year life thickness is defined as the design thickness.0 is reached. Frost action is negligible. The design of an overlay for an existing flexible pavement is essentially the same as designing a new pavement. FAARFIELD calculates the thickness of overlay required to provide a 20-year life. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT (1) Example. OVERLAYS OF EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS.000 pounds (395 986 kg) at an annual departure level of 832. The existing flexible pavement is characterized by assigning the appropriate thicknesses and moduli of the existing layers. The flexible pavement thickness required based on FAARFIELD for these conditions is— 59 .500 pounds (287 804 kg) at an annual departure level of 425. Report DOT-FAA-PM-87/19. A trial thickness of overlay is selected and the program iterates until a CDF of 1.0 is the design thickness. Design of Overlays for Rigid Airport Pavements (see Appendix 4).000 psi (103. To illustrate the procedure of designing HMA overlay. Assume the existing pavement is to be strengthened to accommodate the following airplane mix: DC10-10 weighing 458. assume an existing taxiway pavement composed of the following section: the subgrade CBR is 10.263. the minimum hot mix overlay of an existing flexible pavement is 2 inches (50 mm). FAARFIELD Overlay Design. a.000 pounds (207 745 kg) at an annual departure level of 2. The layered elastic and three-dimensional finite element methods as implemented in the FAARFIELD program allow a direct approach for overlay design.42 MPa)). describes the developed through an FAA-funded research effort design method for overlays of rigid pavement. Overlay pavements are grouped into four different types as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) Hot Mix Asphalt Overlay of Existing Flexible Pavement Concrete Overlay of Existing Flexible Pavement Hot Mix Asphalt Overlay of Existing Rigid Pavement Concrete Overlay of Existing Rigid Pavement 404. which satisfies the layered elastic failure criteria for limiting stress or strain. the HMA surface course is 4 inches (102 mm) thick. FIGURE 4-2. and the subbase (P-154) is 6 inches (152 mm) thick. The overlay thickness required to achieve a CDF of 1.

improve rideability.00 inches (152 mm) 27.41 inches (392 mm) 4. Procedures for calculating properties from nondestructive tests are contained in AC 150/5370-11.0 is the design thickness. and the base course is 12 inches (305 mm) thick. The design of a concrete overlay on an existing flexible pavement is essentially the same as designing a new rigid pavement.4 MN/m3) using the conversion formulas from paragraph 326). Normally. Frost action is negligible. The subgrade and subbase must be at the equilibrium moisture content when field tests are conducted. Frost protection must be provided by stabilized material. B747-200B Combi Mixed weighing 873. or 15.5 inches (381 mm). The lack of stabilized base is compensated by designing thicker asphalt overlay than it would be required in case of stabilized base in place. c. Subgrade and subbase properties can be measured by conducting NDT.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 P-401 asphalt overlay P-401 asphalt surface P-209 standard base P-154 standard subbase Total pavement thickness 7. correcting crown and grade.41 inches (789 mm) Figure 4-3 shows the required concrete overlay thickness is 15. Isolating and Correcting Runway Roughness (see Appendix 4).78 inches (706 mm) The required overlay thickness of 7. which is rounded up to the nearest 0. etc.263. etc.00 inches (102 mm) 10. Concrete Overlay of an Existing Flexible Pavement. The overlay thickness required to achieve a CDF of 1.0 is reached. the characterization of the existing pavement layers requires judgment by a qualified engineer.4 MPa) or k = 141 pci (38. assume an existing taxiway pavement composed of the following section: the subgrade CBR = 10 (equivalent to E = 15.000 pounds (207 745 kg) at an annual departure level of 2.5 inch. The concrete overlay required based on FAARFIELD for these conditions is: PCC overlay on flexible P-401 asphalt surface P-209 base Total pavement thickness 15.00 inches (102 mm) 12. A trial thickness of overlay is selected and the program iterates until a CDF of 1. the HMA surface course is 4 inches (102 mm) thick. FAARD-75-110. (1) Example. The existing flexible pavement is characterized by assigning the appropriate thicknesses and moduli of the existing layers. The program assumes the interface between the concrete overlay and the existing flexible surface is frictionless. and B777-200 ER weighing 634. The most difficult part of designing hot mix asphalt overlays for flexible pavements is the determination of the properties of the existing pavement. as thickness is controlled by other design considerations or minimum practical overlay thickness. Structurally.78 inches (198 mm) will be rounded up to 8 inches (203 mm) as shown in figure 42.78 inches (198 mm) 4. 60 .000 pounds. provision of drainage. meeting grade of other adjacent pavements and structures. Assume the existing pavement is to be strengthened to accommodate the following airplane mix: DC10-10 weighing 458. Geometric requirements include.00 inches (305 mm) 31. In this example the existing pavement structure does not require a stabilized base to accommodate airplanes weighting more than 100.500 pounds (207 804 kg) at an annual departure level of 425. In some instances overlays are required to correct nonstructural problems such as restoration of crown. To illustrate the procedure of designing a concrete overlay. The overlay thickness calculated from structural considerations should be compared with that required to satisfy geometric requirements. an 8 inch (203 mm) thick overlay should satisfy the design conditions. Information concerning runway roughness correction can be found in FAA Report No. however. When frost conditions require additional thickness. the use of nonstabilized material below the rigid pavement overlay is not allowed. Methodology for Determining.000 psi (103. Thickness calculations are not required in these situations. The minimum thickness for a concrete overlay of an existing flexible pavement should be 5 inches (130 mm).000 pounds (395 986 kg) at an annual departure level of 832. The design process is relatively simple. a pavement that has been in place for at least 3 years will be in equilibrium. as this would result in a sandwich pavement.41 inches (392 mm). for example. (2) Summary. Nonstructural Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays. Although the overlay in this case is not necessary for structural requirements it may be included when computing pavement strength (PCN). b.00 inches (254 mm) 6.

15 different types of distresses are considered in measuring the PCI. The PCI is measured following ASTM D 5340. and is consistent with 50 percent of slabs in the traffic area exhibiting a structural crack. destructive methods or engineering judgment. The SCI is derived from the pavement condition index (PCI) and it is the summation of structural components from PCI. provided the distresses listed in table 4-1 are used to define the SCI. SCI Distress Severity Level Corner Break Low. These distress types all reduce the PCI of a pavement. High Spalling–Corner Low. For rigid pavements. High Shattered Slab Low. The SCI does not include conventional shrinkage cracks due to curing or other non load-related problems. TABLE 4-1. Not all distress types are indicative of structural distress. OVERLAYS OF EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENTS. Structural Condition Index (SCI). Medium. The SCI can be computed automatically with computer programs such as MicroPAVER. Standard Test Method for Airport Pavement Condition Index Survey (see Appendix 4). RIGID PAVEMENT DISTRESS TYPES USED TO CALCULATE THE STRUCTURAL CONDITION INDEX. The condition of the existing rigid pavement prior to overlay is important and is expressed in terms of the structural condition index (SCI) (see DOT-FAA-PM-87/19. a. Cb and Cr. The scale ranges from a high of 100 to a low of 0. Medium. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF RIGID OVERLAY ON EXISTING FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT 405. Appendix 4). High Shrinkage Cracks (cracking partial width of slab)a Low Spalling–Joint Low. Medium. The PCI is a numerical rating indicating the operational condition of an airport pavement based on a visual survey.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E FIGURE 4-3. Medium. Medium. The SCI allows a more precise and reproducible rating of a pavement’s condition than the previous FAA condition factor ratings. High Longitudinal/Transverse/Diagonal Cracking Low. with 100 representing a pavement in excellent condition and 0 representing complete failure. Table 4-1 lists these six distress types. The flexural strength of the existing rigid pavement can be determined using non-destructive testing (NDT). High a Used only to describe a load-induced crack that extends only part of the way across a slab. An SCI of 80 is the FAA definition of structural failure of a rigid pavement. 61 . Additional guidance on deriving an SCI is provided in the FAARFIELD user’s manual. The design of overlays for an existing rigid pavement is complex because deterioration of the underlying pavement as well as deterioration of the overlay must be considered. depending on their severity and relative effect on performance. Report DOT-FAA-PM-87/19 identifies six distress types that are indicative of the structural condition of the pavement.

where actual design life is typically the 20 year design period. the simple relationship given above is not valid for such structures. a good estimate of CDFU can be obtained from:  f(T . which defines the amount of life that has been used by the existing pavement up to the time of the overlay. b. the percent CDFU is computed and displayed when the Life button is clicked in the STRUCTURE window. the condition of existing pavement is described by the cumulative damage factor used (CDFU).75 LD 0.. Estimate the traffic that has been applied to the pavement and enter it into the airplane design Set “Design Life” to the number of years the pavement will have been in operation up to the Run Life. Values of percent CDFU greater than 100 indicate that the procedure predicts that the SCI of the pavement should be less than 100. For aggregate base layers. (4) The percent CDFU will be displayed when the computation is completed.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 SCI can be calculated by the following equation: SCI  100  a  where: a = adjustment factor (see ASTM D 5340) ms = total number of distress type related to the pavement structural failure = total number of severity levels for the ith distress nj f(Ti.e.75 LD 1 when LU  0. list. since the computation of percent CDFU will be based on estimated structure properties and traffic. However. S i i 1 j 1 mS nj j .Sj. percent CDFU should be increased from the computed value. Cumulative Damage Factor Used (CDFU). In FAARFIELD. existing at density Dij. The procedure for computing percent CDFU for a rigid pavement with SCI = 100 follows: (1) (2) Set up the structure based on the original design assumptions. no visible distresses contributing to a reduction in SCI). Then repeat the steps given above and use the new value of percent CDFU. 62 . A value of 100 should then be entered for percent CDFU as input data for the overlay design. (3) time of overlay.75 LD number of years of operation of the existing pavement until overlay design life of the existing pavement in years This equation was derived from the empirical relationship between traffic coverages and SCI given in Report No. This modification essentially increases the percent of design life remaining after the SCI starts to drop from 100 if the base and subbase layers are of higher quality than an 8-inch (203 mm) aggregate subbase (aggregate base thicker than 8 inches (203 mm) or stabilized base thicker than 4 inches (102 mm)). If it is suspected that the pavement has been subjected to more or heavier traffic than assumed in the Life computation. and assuming that traffic on the pavement has been constant over time. Dij ) CDFU   where: LU = LD = LU when LU  0. An alternative procedure is to run Design Structure for the original structure with design life set to the actual design life. at the severity level Sj. However. Hence. the value is likely to be unreliable. DOTFAA-PM-87/19 and applies to pavements on conventional (aggregate) base.Dij) = deduct value for distress type Ti. Setting percent CDFU to 100 will give the most conservative design. FAARFIELD implements a modification of this empirical relationship for higher quality base materials to account for the observed performance of rigid pavements on stabilized bases. In the case when the SCI of the existing pavement is 100 (i.

63 . the value CDFU = 40 percent would be used.3 inch (388 mm) thick PCC surface course. Item P-209 Crushed Aggregate. This computation is done automatically within FAARFIELD. and 200 annual departures of the B777. (2) Estimate the traffic applied to the pavement and enter it into the airplane design list. The existing pavement was designed to accommodate the following airplane mix: 2263 annual departures of the DC10-10 (gross taxi weight 458. The following steps illustrate the procedure for calculating CDFU: FIGURE 4-4.08. DOT-FAA-PM-87/19. For the above case. at the lower left of the pavement section. For overlay design. Figure 4-4 shows that the design life has been adjusted to 12 years. The design life was 20 years. and 425 annual departures of the B777-200 ER (gross taxi weight 634. The subgrade k-value is 141 pci (38. In the “Structure” window. The calculated percent CDFU will appear on the Structure screen.4 MPa). (4) Run Life. 832 annual departures of the B747-200B Combi Mixed (gross taxi weight 833. 300 annual departures of the B747.500 lbs (287 800 kg)).000 psi (103. Assume that the annual traffic levels actually applied to the pavement were: 1200 annual departures of the DC10-10. Assume an existing taxiway pavement composed of: 15.000 lbs (377 800 kg)).4 MN/m3). the modulus of the base pavement varies as a function of the SCI of the base pavement when the SCI is less than 100. Item P-306 Econocrete. Example. 6 inch (152 mm) thick subbase course. FAARFIELD calculates percent CDFU equal to 40. 6 inch (152 mm) thick stabilized base course.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E For fully unbonded concrete overlay. click on “Design Life” and change to 12 years. (3) Set “Design Life” to the number of years the pavement will have been in operation up to the time of the overlay.000 lbs (207 700 kg)). (See figure 4-4). Assume that at the time of the overlay the taxiway will have been in operation for 12 years. The equations for the modulus reduction as a function of the SCI are given in Report No. equivalent to an E-modulus of 15. CDFU COMPUTATION USING FAARFIELD (1) Set up the structure based on the original design assumptions.

29 inches (109 mm) and will be rounded up to 4. (1) Structural Condition Index Less Than 100.42 MPa). FIGURE 4-5. The most likely situation is one in which the existing pavement is exhibiting some structural distress.e. Additional guidance on reflection cracking is provided in paragraph 405c(5). FAARFIELD assumes an initial overlay thickness and iterates on the overlay thickness until a 20-year life is predicted. the percent CDFU computed by FAARFIELD would increase to 87. the stabilized base course is 6 inches (152 mm) thick. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENT WITH SCI 70 64 . To illustrate the procedure of designing a HMA overlay. B747-200B Combi Mixed weighing 873. In this example. if the higher traffic levels used in the original design had actually been applied to the pavement.500 pounds (207 804 kg) at an annual departure level of 425. If the SCI is less than 100. and the subbase course is 6 inches (152 mm).29 inches (770 mm) The required overlay thickness is 4.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 Higher traffic levels. the SCI is less than 100.4 MN/m3).29 inches (109 mm) 14 inches (356 mm) 6 inches (152 mm) 6 inches (152 mm) 30. Based on a visual survey.21. (2) SCI equal to 100. The design process for hot mix overlays of rigid pavements considers two conditions for the existing rigid pavement to be overlaid: (1) SCI of the existing pavement less than 100. Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays of Existing Rigid Pavements. Frost action is negligible.000 pounds (207 745 kg) at an annual departure level of 2. or a longer “design life” will result in a higher calculated value of %CDFU.000 psi (103.. equivalent to an E modulus of 15. The flexible pavement overlay required based on FAARFIELD for these conditions is: P-401 AC overlay PCC Surface P-304 Stabilized base P-209 Subbase Total pavement thickness 4.5 inches (114 mm) (See figure 4-5). the PCC surface course is 14 inches (356 mm) thick.263. The thickness generated by FAARFIELD does not address reflection cracking. heavier airplanes. the existing pavement is assigned an SCI of 70. A 20-year predicted life satisfies the design requirements. c. i. assume an existing taxiway pavement composed of the following section: the subgrade k-value is 141 pci (38. (i) Example. the overlay and base pavement deteriorate at a given rate until failure is reached. and B777-200 ER weighing 634.000 pounds (395 986 kg) at an annual departure level of 832. Assume the existing pavement is to be strengthened to accommodate the following airplane mix: DC10-10 weighing 458.

As the overlay thickness becomes greater.00 inches (152 mm) 6. The design of a hot mix asphalt overlay for a rigid pavement that already has an existing hot mix asphalt overlay is slightly different. the FAARFIELD program assumes the existing rigid pavement will support load through flexural action. FIGURE 4-6. calculate the overlay thickness required.00 inches (356 mm) 6. An existing pavement with an SCI of 100 might require an overlay to strengthen the pavement in order to accept heavier airplanes.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E (2) Structural Condition Index Equal to 100. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF FLEXIBLE OVERLAY ON EXISTING RIGID PAVEMENT WITH SCI 100 (3) Previously Overlaid Rigid Pavement. reflecting the fact that the PCC is in better condition. As with case (1). If the SCI of the base pavement is equal to 100. the percent CDFU.25 inches (743 mm) The required overlay thickness (as shown in figure 4-6) is 3. but based on an analysis of the traffic that has been applied by the pavement to date. The condition of the rigid pavement should be determined using engineering judgment.5 inches (89 mm). To illustrate the procedure of designing an HMA overlay. For hot mix asphalt overlay thickness. FAARFIELD assumes the base pavement will deteriorate at one rate while the SCI is equal to 100 and at a different rate after the SCI drops below 100. a trial overlay thickness is input. The SCI is 100 (there are no visible structural distresses). it may be more economical to treat the design as a new flexible 65 .00 inches (152 mm) 29. which will be rounded up to 3. and the program iterates on that thickness until a 20-year life is predicted. If this procedure is not used. As the overlay thickness approaches the thickness of the rigid pavement. and then adjust the calculated thickness to compensate for the existing overlay.25 inches (83 mm) 14. (i) Example. an additional input is required.4 mm) less than the example in (1). Frost action is negligible. The flexible pavement overlay required based on FAARFIELD for these conditions is: P-401 AC overlay PCC Surface P-304 Stabilized base P-209 Subbase Total pavement thickness 3. The required overlay thickness is 1 inch (25. the % CDFU is estimated to be 50 percent. The designer should treat the problem as if the existing hot mix asphalt overlay were not present. at some point the existing rigid pavement will tend to act more like a high quality base material. inconsistent results will often be produced.25 inches (83 mm). The existing pavement section and airplane mix is the same as the example in (1) above. (4) Limitations. assume an existing rigid taxiway pavement. The design thickness is the thickness that provides a 20-year predicted life.

as weak subgrade support can cause difficulties in rubblizing the existing pavement and cause premature failures in the completed pavement. The following conditions are recommended for fabric usage: (iv) Fabric Properties. (vi) Crack and Seat. joint faulting. Research studies and field performance have shown that fabric membranes may be effective in retarding reflection cracking. and/or poor drainage. Reflective cracking is reduced or eliminated with this type of construction (See AAPTP Report 04-01. (5) Reflection Cracking In Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays. Depending upon the material type and the intended purpose. whether flexible or rigid. (v) Tack Coat. Both cases (HMA on rigid overlay. thus protecting the existing pavement and foundation. This practice provides some measure of protection against reflection cracking. FAARFIELD does not address asphalt reinforcement in the thickness design.6 m) and firmly seating the pieces into the subgrade prior to overlaying with asphalt concrete. Numerous materials and techniques have been tried attempting to solve the problem with varying degrees of success. they do provide some degree of waterproofing beneath reflection cracks.5 ounces per square yard (70 to 130 grams per square meter). for additional information). Reinforcement materials are similar to fabric membranes except the reinforcement is either a woven fabric or a grid-shaped material. The use of coarse aggregate binder course is recommended where economically feasible. FAARFIELD considers two degrees of bond and addresses each one separately for thickness design.5 to 2 feet (0. reinforcing materials may be applied across the full width of the pavement or may be limited to the immediate area around joints and cracks. A hot mix asphalt layer is then placed over the pavement.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 pavement design on a high quality base material. At present. The thickness generated by FAARFIELD does not address reflection cracking.30 gallons per square yard (0. These materials have very high tensile strength and very low strain capacity. 66 . While fabrics will not eliminate reflection cracking altogether. the existing PCC should be considered as a variable stabilized (flexible) base layer with the modulus determined by engineering judgment.e.).7 to 1. Rubblization involves purposely breaking the existing rigid pavement into small pieces and then rolling the broken pieces to firmly seat them in the foundation. (ii) Rubblization of Existing PCC Pavement. (iii) Engineering Fabrics. and new flexible on high quality base) should be tried. Concrete Overlays of Existing Concrete Pavements. treating the broken rigid pavement as base course. The crack and seat process involves cracking a PCC layer into pieces typically measuring 1.46 m to 0. etc. (vii) Asphalt Reinforcement. Development of Guidelines for Rubblization. Emulsified asphalt applied at a rate of from 0. that show evidence of excessive deflections. Existing pavements. The design of a concrete overlay of an existing rigid pavement is the most complex type of overlay to be designed. appears to be the most significant contribution provided in a hot mix asphalt overlay system. “D” cracking. probably will exhibit no improvement by including a fabric in a structural overlay. The following methods have met with some success: (i) Coarse Aggregate Binders. extensive structural cracking. Subgrade support conditions must be considered. It is an alternative method and should be evaluated by FAA Headquarters on a caseby-case basis. Reflection cracking is often a problem in hot mix asphalt overlays particularly overlays of rigid pavement. substantial thermal stresses.4 liters per square meter) is recommended. d.. If the condition of the existing rigid pavement is very poor (i. consideration may be given to using the rubblization technique. assuming the capacity of the asphalt impregnated fabric to resist rupture is not lost. and the more economical design selected. The optimum amount of tack coat will depend on the type of fabric and the surface on which the fabric is placed. For the new flexible case. This type of section is designed as a flexible pavement. Deterioration of the concrete overlay and existing rigid pavement must be considered as well as the degree of bond between the overlay and existing pavement.15 to 0. Destructive tensile stresses in asphalt pavements may be reduced by incorporating a reinforcement material. The proper amount of tack coat applied to the fabric is critical. Products with a combination of fabric materials and reinforcement grids have been developed and appear to be successful in retarding reflective cracking. the waterproofing capability of fabrics. The fabric should have a minimum tensile strength of at least 90 pounds (41 kg) when tested in accordance with ASTM D 4632 and a density in the range of 3 to 5. Use of the largest practical size coarse aggregate in the hot mix asphalt layer immediately above the existing pavement is recommended.

the minimum thickness for a fully unbonded concrete overlay is 5 inches (130 mm). Concrete overlays bonded to existing rigid pavements are sometimes used under certain conditions.000 pounds (395 986 kg) at an annual departure level of 832.52 inches (343 mm). or 13. Assume the existing pavement is to be strengthened to accommodate the following airplane mix: DC10-10 weighing 458.52 inches (1 004 mm) ¹Note: FAARFIELD does not include the debonding layer in thickness calculations. Commonly. (2) Bonded Concrete Overlays. and the subbase course is 6 inches (152 mm). As with hot mix asphalt overlays. The interface coefficient is fixed and cannot be changed by the user.52 inches (343 mm) 1. assume an existing taxiway pavement composed of the following section: SCI is 40 for the existing PCC surface. the base course is 6 inches (305 mm) thick.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E (1) Fully Unbonded Concrete Overlay. A trial overlay thickness is input and FAARFIELD iterates until a 20-year service life is predicted. corresponding to an E-modulus of 15.263. However. FIGURE 4-7.00 inches (25 mm)¹ 14 inches (356 mm) 6 inches (152 mm) 6 inches (152 mm) 39.5 inches (343 mm). The overlay structure computed by FAARFIELD for these conditions is— PCC unbonded overlay Debonding layer PCC Surface P-304 Stabilized base P-209 Subbase Total pavement thickness 13. and B777-200 ER weighing 634. (i) Example.000 pounds (207 745 kg) at an annual departure level of 2. Assume that the PCC strength is 700 psi for both the overlay and the existing concrete. An unbonded concrete overlay of an existing rigid pavement is one in which steps are taken to intentionally eliminate bonding between the overlay and existing pavement. The thickness that yields a 20-year service life is the design thickness.42 MPa). B747200B Combi Mixed weighing 873.500 pounds (207 804 kg) at an annual departure level of 425.000 psi (103. DESIGN EXAMPLE OF RIGID OVERLAY ON EXISTING FULLY UNBONDED RIGID PAVEMENT Figure 4-7 shows the required overlay thickness is 13. an SCI is required to describe the condition of the existing pavement. The interface friction coefficient between the overlay and existing pavement is set to reflect an unbonded condition. which will be rounded to the nearest 0. By bonding the concrete overlay to the existing rigid pavement the new 67 . Frost action is negligible. the existing PCC surface course is 14 inches (102 mm) thick. the bond is broken by applying a thin hot mix layer to the existing rigid pavement. To illustrate the procedure of designing an unbonded concrete overlay. the subgrade k-value is 141 pci (38.5 inches.4 MN/m3).

construction. (i) Joint Types. Defects in the existing pavement are more likely to reflect through a bonded overlay than other types of concrete overlays. The rubblized concrete layer behaves as a tightly keyed. THICKNESS DESIGN FOR RUBBLIZED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 section behaves as a monolithic slab. The rubblization process destroys the slab action by breaking the concrete slab into 1. Rubblization of deteriorated concrete pavements is becoming a popular method of pavement rehabilitation. Joints need not be of the same type as in the old pavement except for some bonded overlay applications. The minimum thickness of concrete overlay that is bonded to an existing rigid pavement is 3 inches (75 mm). It is not necessary to provide an isolation joint for each isolation joint in the old pavement. The flexural strength used in the FAARFIELD computation should be the strength of the existing concrete.3 m) of existing expansion. a saw cut or plane of weakness should be provided within 1 foot (0. high-density non-stabilized base. (3) Jointing of Concrete Overlays. or contraction joints. The timing for sawing joints is extremely critical on concrete overlays to minimize curling and warping stresses and prevent random cracking. Overlay slabs longer or wider than 20 feet (6. The following ranges are suggested for selecting a design modulus value of rubblized PCC on airfields: · · · For slabs 6 to 8 inches thick: Moduli from 100 to 135 ksi For slabs 8 to 14 inches thick: Moduli from 135 to 235 ksi For slabs >14 inches thick: Moduli from 235 to 400 ksi 68 . The thickness design procedure for asphalt concrete overlay over a rubblized concrete base is similar to the asphalt overlay on flexible pavement. In FAARFIELD. The rubblized concrete base prevents the formation of reflective cracks in the asphalt concrete overlay and provides a sound base course.5 inch (13 mm) of joints in the existing base pavement. If a concrete overlay with a leveling course is used. Engineering judgment is required for the selection of an appropriate modulus value. Joints in bonded overlays should be located within 0. Contraction joints in unbonded overlays may be placed directly over or within 1 foot (0. Should spacing result in slabs too long to control cracking.000-psi. Where a rigid pavement is to receive the overlay. interlocked. (v) Joint Pattern.000-psi to 400. (ii) Isolation Joints.to 15-inch pieces at the bottom. some modification to jointing criteria may be necessary because of the design and joint arrangement of the existing pavement. a bonded overlay can be designed as a new rigid pavement by treating the existing concrete surface and the concrete overlay as a combined single layer. The following points may be used as guides in connection with the design and layout of joints in concrete overlays. additional intermediate contraction joints may be necessary. however. 406. The recommended modulus values for the Rubblized PCC layer range from 100.3 m) of the existing isolation joint. Elaborate surface preparation and exacting construction techniques are required to ensure the bond.1 m) should contain embedded steel regardless of overlay thickness.to 3-inch pieces at the top and 3. The thickness of the bonded overlay required is computed by subtracting the thickness of the existing pavement from the total thickness of the required slab as computed by FAARFIELD: hc  h  he where: hc = h = he = required thickness of concrete overlay required slab thickness computed by FAARFIELD using the flexural strength of the existing concrete thickness of existing rigid pavement Bonded overlays should be used only when the existing rigid pavement is in good to excellent condition. The major problem likely to be encountered with bonded concrete overlays is achieving adequate bond. the joint pattern in the overlay does not have to match the joint pattern in the existing pavement. A rubblized PCC layer is available in FAARFIELD. (iii) Timing. (iv) Contraction Joints. (vi) Reinforcement.

Failures in flexible pavements may consist of pavement breakups. For concrete overlays on existing asphalt pavement. Paint does not require removal prior to a concrete overlay. limited amounts of rubber may be tolerated. (8) Surface Contaminants. When placing a concrete overlay on an existing asphalt pavement serious asphalt distresses such as subgrade failure. e. If the surface irregularity will cause the concrete overlay thickness to be less than the design thickness then it must be corrected prior to the overlay. the subbase. The leveling course should consist of high-quality hot mix asphalt concrete. old joint and crack filler should be removed and. This type of failure is usually encountered where the pavement is deficient in thickness. Controlled Low-Strength Material.g. Each layer comprising the total repair should be thoroughly compacted before the next layer is placed. shoving. base. Sweep after. Existing Flexible Pavements. the subgrade material should be replaced with a select subgrade soil or by installation of proper drainage facilities. 3/8 inch (10 mm) or more in width. such as shoving. a light application of fine aggregates may blot up the excess material. must be removed prior to an asphalt overlay. If the “birdbaths” and settlements are found to exist over extensive areas. Repairs may require removal and replacement of unstable subgrade materials. Paint. subbase. (5) Potholes. however. (2) Irregularities and Depressions. steel debonding conditions. Following the correction of the subgrade condition. (1) Removal and Replacement. Existing PFC’s must be removed prior to any overlay. 69 . (3) Bleeding Surface. Etc. where practical. (4) Cracks and Joints. Some engineering judgment is required for the selection of an appropriate modulus value for the rubblized PCC layer. the thickness design procedure is similar to that for a new rigid pavement. Surface contaminants that will prevent bonding of the surface overlay. pre-rubblized PCC modulus anticipated particle size. or poor drainage has reduced the supporting power of the subgrade. and surface courses of the required thickness should be placed. Scattered areas requiring leveling or patching may be repaired with hot mix asphalt patch mixtures. and rutting in excess of 2 inches need to be addressed prior to the overlay. The FAA recommends that excessive amounts of rubber buildup be removed prior to an overlay. if vegetation is present. This mixture should be well tamped in place. and subgrade. if possible. (6) Grooves. For a rigid overlay placed over rubblized PCC. Deficiencies in the base pavement will often be reflected in the overlay. the subgrade consists of unstable material. It is not necessary to remove existing pavement grooves prior to an asphalt or concrete overlay. Complete repairs with a suitable mixture of bituminous material and compact in place. this is the first operation to be undertaken in repairing this type of failure. (7) Porous Friction Courses (PFC). a. Less severe surface irregularities and depressions may be corrected within the overlay. Before proceeding with construction of the overlay. In some instances. scattered areas of settlement. For cracks. exact slab thickness within the above ranges. To correct this condition. PREPARATION OF THE EXISTING SURFACE FOR THE OVERLAY. oil spills.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E The selected value is influenced by considerations such as level of conservatism in the design. or by filling with suitable hot mix asphalt mixtures. potholes and surface irregularities. Paint must be removed or scarifed prior to an asphalt overlay to assure bonding of the overlay to the existing pavement. a hot mix asphalt leveling course may be required as part of the overlay. rutting. leveled with the pavement surface. or a combination of the two processes may be necessary. reference AAPTP 04-01 . and joints. and occasional “birdbaths” should be leveled by rolling or milling. and any excess removed. a sterilant applied. For further insight into selecting a design modulus of rubblized PCC. A bleeding surface may detrimentally affect the stability of the overlay and for this reason any excess hot mix asphalt material accumulated on the surface should be bladed or milled off. Localized areas of failed pavement will have to be removed and replaced with new pavement. 407. and depressions. steps should be taken to correct all defective areas in the existing surface. and relevant historical data. joints and cracks may be cleaned and then filled as noted above or with a flowable fill material compatible with Item P-153. The cracks and joints should then be filled with a lean mixture of sand and liquid bituminous material. base. The material should be allowed to dry to a hardened condition prior to overlay placement. Careful execution of this part of an overlay project is essential as a poorly prepared base pavement will result in an unsatisfactory overlay. Repair potholes prior to overlay. potholes. Surface irregularities and depressions.

On the other hand. the bond will be broken. (4) Surface Cleaning. If the pavement slabs are badly broken and subject to rocking because of uneven bearing on the subgrade. dust. some new pavement overlay materials have been used with varying degrees of success. methods of construction. Use of materials other than conventional Portland cement concrete (Item P-501) or Plant Mix Bituminous Surface (Item P-401) require special approval on a case-by-case basis. Cracks. Holes should not be located close to joints or cracks. If a hot mix asphalt overlay is specified. leveled with the pavement surface. Fractured slab techniques can also be used in these instances. (3) Cracks and Joints. and any excess removed. and rubberized asphalt. The overlay should not extend to the edges of the pavement but should be cut off approximately 3 inches (75 mm) from each edge. 3/8 inch (10 mm) or more in width. Location of holes for form anchors should be such as to avoid causing additional cracking or spalling. 408. it may be desirable to replace certain badly broken slabs with new slabs before starting construction of the overlay. the low areas can be taken care of as part of the overlay and no other corrective measures are needed. Forms. NEW OVERLAY MATERIALS. the surface should be swept clean of all dirt. In recent years. Surface cleaning and preparation by shot peening or mechanical texturing by cold milling are two techniques that have been used to provide a surface that will allow bonding. (1) Slab Removal and Replacement. Any extruding joint-sealing material should be trimmed from rigid pavements. the size and number of holes should be the minimum necessary to accomplish that purpose. 409. faulting. Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports (see Appendix 4). longitudinal. a. Badly broken slabs that do not rock will not require repairs since the criteria make adjustments for such a condition in the pavement thickness. Bonded concrete overlays will require special attention to insure bond with the existing pavement.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 b. In rigid pavements. Existing Rigid Pavements. This mixture should be tamped firmly in place. Adequate bond has been achieved by placing the overlay directly on the dry prepared surface. Tack Coat. subgrade support should be improved by pumping cement grout or specialized materials under the pavement to fill the voids that have developed. and corner cracks will need no special attention unless there is an appreciable amount of displacement and faulting between the separate slabs. a provision should be made for a leveling course of hot mix asphalt concrete before the overlay is commenced. After all repairs have been completed and prior to the placing of the overlay. b. or settlement. the existing pavement should receive a light tack coat (Item P-603) or fog coat immediately after cleaning. In some cases. In other instances. the rocking slabs can be broken into smaller slabs to obtain a more firm seating. care must be taken to apply it directly in front of the fresh concrete. Pressure grouting requires considerable skill to avoid cracking slabs or providing uneven support for the overlay. With regard to quality of materials and mixes. These materials include fibrous concrete. and foreign material. If the bonding agent is allowed to cure before concrete placement. (5) Bonded Concrete Overlays. if pumping has occurred at the slab ends or the slabs are subject to rocking under the movement of airplanes. Should the existing pavement require drilling to provide anchorage for the overlay pavement forms. narrow transverse. should be filled with a lean mixture of sand and liquid bituminous material. control tests. and joints. Where the existing pavement is rough due to slab distortion. If the subgrade is stable and no pumping has occurred. If a bonding agent is used. the overlay pavement components are governed by AC 150/5370-10. roller compacted concrete. The decision in such cases will have to be made according to the merits of the individual project. (2) Leveling Course. and workmanship. MATERIALS AND METHODS. bond was achieved by placing a neat cement grout on the prepared surface immediately ahead of the overlay placement. 70 .

which is considered part of the Engineer’s Design Report. the base course is the primary load-carrying component of a flexible pavement. a. the development of an aggregate-turf or turf surface may be adequate for limited operations of these light airplanes. 501. Aggregate-turf construction is covered in some detail in the latter part of this chapter. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT MATERIALS. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRPLANES WEIGHING LESS THAN 30. This chapter provides pavement design guidance for airfield pavements intended to serve only airplanes with gross weights less than 30. summarize all pavement designs on FAA Form 5100-1. Information on stabilization of soils can be found in Chapter 2 of this circular and in AC 150/5370-10. Some areas of airports serving light airplanes may not require paving.000 POUNDS 500. 503.000 pounds (13 608 kg). Leveling or Surface Course). subbase. Specifications covering the composition and quality of hot mix asphalt mixtures are given in Item P-401. A subbase course is usually required in flexible pavement except those on subgrades with CBR value of 20 or greater (usually GW or GP type soils).000 pounds (13 608 kg) gross weight or more should be based on the criteria contained in Chapter 3 of this publication. compaction control for base and subbase layers should be based upon ASTM D 698. base course. Base Course. Airport Pavement Design. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH. When designing pavements for light airplanes. 71 . Since the loads imposed on these pavements are much less than those on pavements designed for heavier airplanes. Aggregate-turf surfaces are constructed by improving the stability of a soil with the addition of aggregate prior to development of the turf. may be used as subbase course. Submit the Engineer’s Design Report for FAA review and approval along with initial plans and specifications. In these areas. Flexible pavements for light airplanes are composed of hot mix asphalt surfacing. instructional. b. The design of pavements serving airplanes of 30. The function of the hot mix asphalt surface or wearing course is the same as discussed earlier in Chapter 3. As in heavy loaded pavements.500 pounds (5 670 kg) or less. Materials conforming to specification Item P-154. Also any items listed above in paragraph 502b may be used as subbase course if economy and practicality dictate. GENERAL. Plant Mix Bituminous Mixtures or Item P-403. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12 400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)). Leveling or Surface Course) Note: Use of some of the above materials in areas where frost penetrates into the base course may result in some degree of frost heave and/or may require restricted loading during spring thaw. Plant Mix Bituminous Pavements (Base. Specifications covering materials suitable for use as base courses for light-load pavements are as follows: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Item P-208 – Aggregate Base Course Item P-209 – Crushed Aggregate Base Course Item P-210 – Caliche Base Course Item P-211 – Lime Rock Base Course Item P-212 – Shell Base Course Item P-213 – Sand-Clay Base Course Item P-219 – Recycled Concrete Aggregate Base Course Item P-301 – Soil-Cement Base Course Item P-304 – Cement-Treated Base Course Item P-306 – Econocrete Subbase Course Item P-401 – Plant Mix Bituminous Pavement Item P-403 – Plant Mix Bituminous Pavement (Base. and prepared subgrade. or recreational flying. In accordance with AC 150/5370-10. TYPICAL SECTIONS. Hot Mix Asphalt Surfacing. Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports. Airplanes of this size are usually engaged in nonscheduled activities. state highway specifications for hot mix asphalt mixtures may be used for pavements intended to serve aircraft weighing 12. No distinction is made between critical and noncritical pavement sections for pavements serving light airplanes. Subbase Course. c. such as agricultural.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E CHAPTER 5. 502. Typical cross-sections for pavements serving light airplanes are shown in figure 5-1. Pavements designed to serve these airplanes may be flexible or rigid-type pavements. Subbase Course. The function of these layers and applicable specifications are discussed below.

b. Tabulated values denote depths below the finished subgrade above which densities should equal or exceed the indicated percentage of the maximum dry density as specified in Item P. airplane mix. The base course thicknesses range from 3 inches (75 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) while the subbase thicknesses vary from 0-14 inches (0356 mm). Note that the minimum thickness of hot mix asphalt surfacing is 2 inches (50 mm) and the minimum base layer thickness is 3 inches (75 mm). Additional base thickness may be required to obtain construction density requirements. difficulties may be encountered in compacting thin bases or subbases. 3. Program FAARFIELD is used to determine the pavement thickness requirements for airplanes weighing up to 30. Noncohesive soils. The testing procedures described in Chapter 3 should also be applied to light load pavements.152. the design should also consider the weight of aircraft rescue and firefighting vehicles. For traffic consisting of more than one airplane type.) 95% 90% 85% 4 4-8 8-12 6 6-9 9-12 72 .) Noncohesive Soils Depth of Compaction (in. maintenance equipment and/or fueling equipment. 1 lb. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN. For swelling soils refer to paragraph 313.4 mm. FAARFIELD calculates the thickness of the base layer automatically. a. Stabilized Base and Subbase. 4. = 0. The reason for the minimum surfacing thickness is that layers thinner than 2 inches (50 mm) are difficult to place and compact on granular bases. Thin Lifts. Hot mix asphalt surfacing thickness of less than 2 inches (50 mm) is permissible on stabilized base materials if proper laydown and compaction can be achieved. are those with a plasticity index of less than 3. Stabilized base and subbase courses may be used in light-load pavements. 2. for the purpose of determining compaction control.) 100% 95% 90% 85% 6 6-9 9-18 18-24 8 8-12 12-24 24-36 Cohesive Soils Depth of Compaction (in. The preferred method of establishing the subgrade CBR is by testing. not equivalent departures of a “design aircraft”. be covered with sufficient select or subbase material so that the uncompacted subgrade is at a depth where the in-place densities are satisfactory. SUBGRADE COMPACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR LIGHT LOAD FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS 80% 12.500 or less 12-15 12. Use of the program FAARFIELD requires information on the CBR or modulus E value for the subgrade. The subgrade in cut areas should have natural densities shown or should (a) be compacted from the surface to achieve the required densities. The pavement thickness determined by FAARFIELD should be used on all areas of the airport pavement. For very light load pavements. Thickness of Surfacing and Base. Subgrade materials should be compacted in accordance with Item P-152 to the depths shown on Table 5-1. the entire mix should be entered. and annual departures of all airplanes. 1 inch = 25.000 pounds (13 608 kg) gross weight. In some instances. It is possible that these types of equipment may require a thicker pavement section than the airplanes. Reduced thicknesses of base and subbase may result. or (c) when economics and grades permit.454 kg 504. gross weights. In these cases the base or subbase thicknesses may be increased to facilitate construction even though the additional thickness is not needed for structural capacity. (b) be removed and replaced at the densities shown. TABLE 5-1. Total Pavement Thickness. 5. e.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 d. Airplane Gross Weight (lbs. The discussions of stabilized materials are given in Chapter 3. No reduction in thickness should be made for “noncritical” areas of pavements.501 or more 12-15 General Notes: 1. c. Subgrade.

TYPICAL SECTIONS FOR PAVEMENTS SERVING LIGHT AIRPLANES 73 .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E FIGURE 5-1.

AC 150/5320-6E

9/30/2009

d. Example. As an example of the use of FAARFIELD, assume a pavement is to be designed for the following mix of airplanes:

Airplane Name Citation-V Super King Air-300 Beech Jet-400 Learjet 35A/65 KingAir–B-100

Gross Weight, lbs (tonnes) 16,500 (7.5) 14,100 (6.4) 15,500 (7.0) 18,000 (8.2) 11,500 (5.2)

Annual Departures 480 1,000 60 300 1,200

Also assume that the subgrade CBR = 5. The pavement will be designed assuming an HMA surface layer of 2 inches (51 mm). Figure 5-2 shows the airplane mix entered into the FAARFIELD Airplane Window.

FIGURE 5-2. FAARFIELD AIRPLANE WINDOW – LIGHT LOAD PAVEMENT DESIGN

After setting the HMA thickness to 2 inches, the subgrade CBR to 5, the base layer material to P-209 CrAg and the subbase layer material to P-154 UnCrAg, click “Design Structure”. As shown in figure 5-3, the section as designed by FAARFIELD consists of the 2 in (51 mm) of HMA surfacing, on 3.67 in (94 mm) of P-209 base, and 7.46 in (189 mm) of P-154 subbase. Since difficulties in compacting a base course of less than 4 inches (102 mm) may be anticipated, the P-209 layer will be increased to 4 in (102 mm). Re-running the FAARFIELD design with the 4 in (102 mm) P-209 layer (and disabling the automatic base design option) results in a designed subbase thickness of 7.07 in (180 mm). The final thickness design consists of 2 in (51 mm) P-401 HMA surface, 4 in (102 mm) P-209 base, and 7 in (178 mm) P-154 subbase.
e. Omission of Hot Mix Asphalt Surfacing. Under certain conditions, it may be desirable to utilize a bituminous surface treatment on a prepared base course in lieu of hot mix asphalt. In such instances, the strength of the pavement is furnished by the base, subbase, and subgrade. Additional base course thickness will be necessary to make

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up for the missing surface course. Additional base should be provided at a ratio of 1.2 to 1.6 inches (30 to 41 mm) of base for each 1 inch (25.4 mm) of surfacing.
f. Full-Depth Asphalt Pavements. Pavements to serve light airplanes may be constructed of full-depth asphalt using the criteria specified in paragraph 318. The Asphalt Institute has published guidance on the design of full depth asphalt pavements for light airplanes in Information Series No. 154, Full Depth Asphalt Pavements for General Aviation. Use of the Asphalt Institute method of design for full-depth asphalt pavements requires approval on a case-bycase basis. g. Local Materials. Since the base and subbase course materials discussed in Chapter 3 are more than adequate for light airplanes, full consideration should be given to the use of locally available, less-expensive materials. These locally available materials may be entirely satisfactory for light-load pavements. These materials may include locally available granular materials, soil aggregate mixtures, or soils stabilized with Portland cement, bituminous materials, or lime. The designer is cautioned, however, if the ultimate design of the pavement is greater than 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg), higher quality materials should be specified at the outset.

FIGURE 5-3. CALCULATION OF SUBBASE LAYER THICKNESS 505. RIGID PAVEMENT MATERIALS. Rigid pavements for light airplanes are composed of Portland cement concrete surfacing, subbase, and prepared subgrade. The functions of these layers and applicable specifications are discussed below: a. Portland Cement Concrete. Specifications concerning the quality and placement of Portland cement concrete should be in accordance with Item P-501, Portland Cement Concrete Pavement. Local state highway specifications for paving quality concrete may be substituted for Item P-501 if desired. b. Subbase. Rigid pavements designed to serve airplanes weighing between 12,500 pounds (5 670 kg) and 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg) will require a minimum subbase thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) except as shown in table 3-9 of Chapter 3. No subbase is required for designs intended to serve airplanes weighing 12,500 pounds (5 670 kg) or less, except when soil types OL, MH, CH, or OH are encountered. When the above soil types are present, a

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minimum 4-inch (102-mm) subbase should be provided. The materials suitable for subbase courses are covered in Item P-154, Subbase Course.
c. Subgrade. Compact subgrade materials in accordance with Item P-152 to the following depths. For cohesive soils used in fill sections, compact the entire fill to 90-percent maximum density. For cohesive soils in cut sections, compacat the top 6 inches (152 mm) of the subgrade to 90-percent maximum density. For noncohesive soils used in fill sections, compact the top 6 inches (152 mm) of fill to 100-percent maximum density, and the remainder of the fill to 95-percent maximum density. For cut sections in noncohesive soils, compact the top 6 inches (152 mm) of subgrade to 100-percent maximum density and the next 18 inches (457 mm) of subgrade to 95-percent maximum density. For treatment of swelling soils refer to paragraph 313. 506. RIGID PAVEMENT THICKNESS. The use of FAARFIELD is not necessary for light-duty rigid pavement design. Rigid pavements designed to serve airplanes weighing 12,500 pounds (5 670 kg) or less should be 5 inches (127 mm) thick or 6 inches (152 mm) thick if doweled joints are used. Those designed to serve airplanes weighing between 12,501 pounds (5 670 kg) and 30,000 pounds (13 608 kg) should be 6 inches (152 mm) thick. Jointing of Light Load Rigid Pavements. The maximum spacing of joints for light-load rigid pavements should be 12.5 feet (3.8 m) for longitudinal joints and 15 feet (4.6 m) for transverse joints. Jointing types are shown in figure 5-4 and jointing details are shown in figure 5-5 for light-load rigid pavements. Note that several differences exist between light-load and heavy-load rigid pavement joints. For instance, butt-type construction joints are permitted when an asphalt or cement stabilized subbase is provided. Odd-shaped slabs should be reinforced with 0.05 percent steel in both directions. Odd-shaped slabs are defined as slabs that are not rectangular in shape or rectangular slabs with length-towidth ratios that exceed 1.25. Two recommended joint layout patterns are shown in figures 5-6 and 5-7 for 60 foot (18 m) and for 50 foot (15 m) wide pavements. The concept behind the jointing patterns shown is the creation of a “tension ring” around the perimeter of the pavement to hold joints within the interior of the paved area tightly closed. A tightly closed joint will function better than an open joint. The last three contraction joints and longitudinal joints nearest the free edge of the pavement are tied with #4 deformed bars, 20 inches (508 mm) long, spaced at 36 inches (914 mm) center to center. At the ends of the pavement and in locations where airplanes or vehicular traffic would move onto or off the pavement, a thickened edge should be constructed. The thickened edge should be 1.25 times the thickness of the slab and should taper to the slab thickness over a distance of 3 feet (0.9 m). Note that if a type “F” butt construction joint is used then a stabilized subbase is required as shown in figure 5-4. Alternatively, a type “E” doweled construction joint can be used at the locations shown in figures 5-6 and 5-7. If doweled joints are used, the rigid pavement thickness should be 6 inches (152 mm).

The intent of this paragraph is to allow the use of the tension ring design but limit it to pavements less than 60 feet (18 m) in width. Pavements that do not use the tension ring design should be designed in a manner similar to Chapter 3. The general recommendations of table 3-15 may be employed for Chapter 5 pavements not using the tension ring concept; however, the designer should note that the joint designations and steel sizes and spacing discussed in Chapter 5 are different those in Chapter 3.

76

JOINTING TYPES FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT 77 .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E FIGURE 5-4.

JOINTING DETAILS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT 78 .AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 FIGURE 5-5.

JOINTING LAYOUT PATTERNS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT – 60 FEET WIDE 79 .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E FIGURE 5-6.

80 AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 FIGURE 5-7. JOINTING LAYOUT PATTERNS FOR LIGHT-LOAD RIGID PAVEMENT – 50 FEET WIDE .

5 inches (300 mm).500 lbs. which will be rounded to 11. Thickness. Overlays of pavements intended to serve light airplanes are designed in the same manner as overlays for heavy airplanes. FIGURE 5-8. Aggregate-Turf Pavement.500 pounds (5 670 kg) or less. The turf seedbed is represented as an undefined layer. Typically. A minimum thickness of 2 inches (51 mm) is assigned to the turf seedbed. but is the thickness required to support the growth of grass. DESIGN EXAMPLE FOR AGGREGATE TURF PAVEMENT. Aggregate-turf should be considered only for areas designed to serve non jet airplanes having gross weights of 12.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E 507. 81 . Construction details and material requirements are covered in Item P-217. as shown in the following example. The subgrade CBR = 5. 1200 annual departures) and Citation 525 (10. OVERLAYS. although the actual thickness of soil will be determined by growing requirements. The thickness to be stabilized with the granular materials varies with the type of soil and the drainage and climatic conditions. Assume that the airplane mix consists of the following: King Air B-100 (11.000 psi (21 MPa). The objective of this type of construction is to provide a landing area that will not soften appreciably during wet weather and yet has sufficient soil to promote the growth of grass. aggregate-turf construction will consist of a soil seedbed layer (soil or soil/aggregate combination) over an aggregate stabilized base course. The minimum thickness of aggregate stabilized soil can be computed from FAARFIELD using the CBR of the subgrade. b. Example. c. Materials. The minimum thickness of the soil seedbed is not determined by structural considerations. The aggregate stabilized base course consists of soil stabilized crushed stone. soil-stabilized gravel or soil-stabilized sand conforming to the requirements of P-217. with a nominal E-modulus of 3. 1200 annual departures). Figure 5-8 shows the use of FAARFIELD for determining the thickness of the aggregate stabilized base course layer. 508. The design layer (aggregate stabilized base) is represented as P-154 uncrushed aggregate. Aggregate-turf differs from normal turf in that the stability of the underlying soil is increased by the addition of granular materials prior to establishment of the turf. the thickness required for the aggregate stabilized base course is 11. a.3 inches (287 mm). AGGREGATE TURF. In this example.500 lbs.

An example formulation for thermal resistant pavement can be found in TR-2079-SHR.. Where direct thermal effects of jet blast is a concern (e. as well as subsequent deterioration of the affected slab. incorporation of unique pavement formulations specific to thermal resistance may be required. resulting in surface spalling.g. The guidance contained in paragraph 500 of this section is appropriate for pavements designed to serve rotary-wing airplanes. a potential for foreign object damage (FOD). at vertiports serving tiltrotor traffic). Any pavement that is subjected to the direct thermal effects of high temperature exhaust gases can become progressively damaged with repeated thermal cycles. Development of Mix Designs for F/A-18 Resistant Pavement Systems.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 509. HELIPORT/VERTIPORT DESIGN. 82 .

Where age or visible distress indicates the original strength no longer exists. The resulting deflections of the pavement surface are typically measured using an array of sensors. Evaluation procedures are essentially the reverse of design procedures. 601. or other physical stimulus such as a mechanical wave. For pavements that consist of sections not readily comparable to FAA design standards. PURPOSES OF PAVEMENT EVALUATION. etc. Use of Nondestructive Testing Devices in the Evaluation of Airport Pavements. The principles set forth in Chapter 2 of this circular and in AC 150/53205. Airport pavement evaluations are necessary to assess the ability of an existing pavement to support different types. Falling weight deflectometers impart an impulse load to the pavement with a free-falling weight. and the need for destructive tests is minimized. The load carrying capacity of existing bridges. FWD and HWD can be used in conjunction with appropriate software to estimate pavement layer properties. weights.. and research. etc. a. or volumes of airplane traffic. AC 150/5370-11 gives guidance for the use of FWD and HWD equipment. should also be noted. (1) Direct Sampling Procedures. as-built drawings. (2) Nondestructive Testing. for example. ground penetrating radar (GPR). 83 . Sampling and Testing. (i) Falling Weight Deflectometer. c. density. The site in question should be visited and the condition of the pavements noted by visual inspection. an evaluation intended for use in a master plan. storm drains. For purposes of this discussion. Site Inspection.. The Heavy Falling Weight Deflectometer (HWD) uses a greater dynamic load than FWD and may be more suitable for some airport applications. the disruption of traffic is minimal. and maintenance history should be performed. NDT provides a means of evaluating pavements that tends to remove some of the subjective judgment needed in other evaluation procedures. EVALUATION PROCESS. records research. etc. an examination of the existing drainage conditions and drainage structures at the site. Research efforts are continuing in the area of nondestructive testing to broaden its application. Airport Pavement Design. The common NDT tools available to assist the evaluator include: FWD. reactive aggregates. in addition to the inspection of the pavements. further modification should be applied on the basis of judgment or a combination of judgment and supplemental physical testing. strength may be based on inspection of the FAA Form 5100-1. and other structures should also be considered in these evaluations. testing. with modification for any material variations or deficiencies of record. The magnitude of the dynamic load depends on the mass of the weight and the height from which it is dropped. quality. The need for and scope of physical tests and materials analyses will be based on the findings made from the site inspection. Evidence of the adverse effects of frost action. testing methods and results. and general condition of the pavement elements. NDT means observing pavement response to a controlled dynamic load. PAVEMENT EVALUATION 600. Sampling and testing is intended to provide information on the thickness. culverts. Evaluations may be also necessary to determine the condition of existing pavements for use in the planning or design of improvements to the airport. The evaluation of airport pavements should be a methodical step-by-step process. Several different NDT procedures are available in addition to that described in AC 150/537011. b. swelling soils. AC 150/5370-11. contains guidance on nondestructive testing. and the as-constructed sections. as in the case of the falling-weight deflectometer (FWD). which the evaluation processes may warrant. Records Research. design considerations. For relatively new pavement constructed to FAA standards and without visible sign of wear or stress. infrared thermography. The major advantages of nondestructive testing are: the pavement is tested in place under actual conditions of moisture. The recommended steps in the evaluation process described below should be used regardless of the type of pavement. and type of evaluation. specifications. Several methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) of pavements are available. evaluation should be based on FAA standards after material comparison and equivalencies have been applied. Surface Drainage Design. A thorough review of construction data and history. This chapter covers the evaluation of pavements for all weights of airplanes. This should include. Weather records and the most complete traffic history available are also parts of a usable records file.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E CHAPTER 6. A complete evaluation for detailed design will require more sampling and testing than. apply. These other procedures may be used when approved by the FAA. The basic evaluation procedure for planning and design will be visual inspection and reference to the FAA design criteria. supplemented by the additional sampling.

The thickness of the various layers in the flexible pavement structure must be known in order to evaluate the pavement. base and subbase courses and annual departure levels for all airplanes using the pavement. d. c. While evaluation reports need not be in any particular form. Where the quality of materials in a pavement structure to be evaluated differ significantly from the assumptions for FAA standard materials as given in AC 150/537010B. The determination of the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) is often a useful tool in the evaluation of airport pavements. abandoned fuel tanks. In situations where it is impractical to perform laboratory or field CBR tests. a back calculated subgrade elastic modulus value may be obtained from NDT test results. As-built drawings and records can also be used to determine thicknesses if the records are sufficiently complete and accurate. The technique is sometimes used to locate voids or foreign objects. PCI values range from 100 for a pavement with no defects to 0 for a pavement with no remaining functional life. The analyses. The FAARFIELD program assumes that CBR is related to the subgrade modulus as E = 1500xCBR (E in psi). such as. The PCI is a numerical rating of the surface condition of a pavement and is a measure of functional performance with implications of structural performance. AC 150/5380-6. tree stumps. As stated in paragraph 303. so that the back calculated modulus value can be input directly into FAARFIELD without manually converting to CBR. e. it is recommended that a drawing identifying limits of the evaluation be included. After all of the evaluation parameters of the existing flexible pavement have been established using the guidance given in the above paragraphs. The FAA recommends that airports follow ASTM D 5340. Layer Thicknesses. in embankments. 84 . the allowable load of an airplane on a pavement structure that will produce a 20-year life for a given number of annual departures. Field CBRs should be performed in accordance with the procedure given in The Asphalt Institute Manual Series 10 (MS-10). The FAARFIELD program can be used to determine the structural life of the existing pavement for a given traffic mix. Guidelines and Procedures for Maintenance of Airport Pavements. Pavement Condition Index. the base layer should be input as P-209 Crushed Aggregate in FAARFIELD. moisture. Analysis of information gained in the above steps should culminate in the assignment of load carrying capacity to the pavement sections under consideration. or alternatively. Standard Test Method for Airport Pavement Condition Index Surveys. Ground penetrating radar can be useful in studying subsurface conditions nondestructively. and test results should be incorporated in an evaluation report. as a minimum. findings. b. each layer should be assigned a material type corresponding to the appropriate FAA specification. the evaluation process is essentially the reverse of the design procedure. APPLICATION OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT EVALUATION PROCEDURES. Where flexible pavements have been constructed to FAA standards. where an existing flexible pavement consists of an HMA surface on a high-quality crushed aggregate base meeting FAA Item P-209. The index is useful in describing distress and comparing pavements on an equal basis. the determination of the thickness of the component layers. in FAARFIELD materials are designated by corresponding FAA specifications. For example. Required inputs are the subgrade CBR or modulus value. Ground penetrating radar depends on differences in dielectric constants to discriminate between materials.. FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS. which becomes a permanent record for future reference. Infrared thermography is a nondestructive testing procedure whereby differences in infrared emissions are observed allowing certain physical properties of the pavement to be determined. an adjustment to the evaluation may be required.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 (ii) Ground Penetrating Radar. Infrared thermography is purportedly capable of detecting delaminations in bonded rigid overlay pavements and in reinforced rigid pavements. Subgrade CBR. 602. (iii) Infrared Thermography. Evaluation Report. Bearing Ratio of Laboratory-Compacted Soils. Laboratory CBR tests should be performed on soaked specimens in accordance with ASTM D 1883. it may be necessary to use the “undefined” or “variable” layer types in FAARFIELD to input an appropriate modulus value or use lower quality material to model structure (e. P-154 for P-209). When soil. Evaluation of flexible pavements requires. contains information on PCI surveys. and weather conditions conductive to detrimental frost action exist.g. Field CBR tests on existing pavements less than 3 years old may not be representative unless the subgrade moisture content has stabilized. and the CBR of the subgrade. AC 150/5370-11 gives the procedures for obtaining the back calculated modulus value. thicknesses of surfacing. Thicknesses may be determined from borings or NDT. The evaluation process assumes a soaked CBR is and will not give reliable results if the subgrade moisture content has not reached the ultimate in situ condition. 603. etc. a. Soils Manual. Layer Properties.

EXAMPLE OF A FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT STRUCTURE FOR EVALUATION 85 .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E a. The taxiway will serve the following mix of airplanes: Airplane Name DC10-10 B747-200B Combi Mixed B777-200 ER B737-800 A320-100 Gross Weight. An existing taxiway pavement was constructed to FAA standards and consists of a 5 inch (127 mm) HMA surface layer (Item P-401). Next.2 years. For the load carrying capacity to be met.25 (11/1. lbs (tonnes) 458. (3) Click the “Life” button.000 (207.4) Annual Departures 2263 832 425 8000 4380 FAARFIELD will be used to determine the available structural life based on the above traffic mixture. the design procedure requires a stabilized base thickness of 6.7) 873. In this example. Example 1. Both total thickness and base thickness will be checked. the adequacy of the stabilized base layer should be checked.8) 174.0) 634. and 24 inch (610 mm) crushed aggregate subbase layer (Item P-209).2) 150. (2) In the Structure screen. enter the layer thickness and material type for each layer (figure 6-1). which is less than the existing 9 inches (229 mm). FIGURE 6-1. Therefore.000 (396.700 (79. The following steps are used: (1) Enter the above airplane list using the Airplanes screen. the minimum base course thickness requirement should be less than the existing base course thickness. an overlay would not be required to serve the anticipated traffic mix. which exceeds the 20-year requirement. The predicted life for the given structure and traffic is 155. 9 inch (229 mm) HMA stabilized base layer (Item P-403).796 (68. The subgrade was previously evaluated by field CBR measurements and found to be CBR 7. This should be done by designing the P-401/P-403 stabilized base course for the required life in accordance with the procedures given in Chapter 3.6) inches (159 mm) for the 20-year life.500 (287.

AC 150/5370-11 gives the procedures for obtaining the backcalculated modulus value. the flexural strength of the concrete. (69. The FAARFIELD program assumes that k is related to the subgrade modulus as E = 26 k1.81 MPa.In the Structure screen. Layer Properties. Where rigid pavements have been constructed to FAA standards. check the adequacy of the base layer. The thickness of the component layers is sometimes available from construction records.000 annual departures of the B737-800. Evaluation of rigid pavements requires.950 lbs. Subgrade Modulus. An approximate relationship between concrete flexural strength and tensile splitting strength (ASTM C 496) exists and can be computed by the following formula: R  1. The modulus of subgrade reaction. psi tensile split strength. Alternatively. which agrees with the existing structure.4 tonnes). so that the back calculated E modulus value can be input directly into FAARFIELD without manually converting to k. the determination of the thickness of the component layers. using the stabilized base design procedure given in Chapter 3.950 lbs. (5) For this gross weight. thicknesses may be determined by borings or test pits in the pavement. Construction records.0 inches. The construction data may require adjustment due to the age of the concrete.0 years. RIGID PAVEMENTS.4 tonnes). (69. in FAARFIELD materials are designated by corresponding FAA specifications. remove all airplanes except the B737-800. Quite often this method is impractical as sawed beams are expensive to obtain and costs incurred in obtaining sufficient numbers of beams to establish a representative sample is prohibitive. The flexural strength of the concrete is most accurately determined from test beams sawed from the existing pavement and tested in accordance with ASTM C 78.000 annual departures of the B737-800 on the existing pavement structure. may be used as a source of concrete flexural strength data. Correlations between concrete flexural strength and other concrete strength tests are available. enter the layer thickness and material type for each layer (figure 6-1). An important part of the test procedure for determining the subgrade reaction modulus is the correction for soil saturation. (3) Continue to modify the airplane gross weight until Structural Life = 20. c. each layer should 86 . enter 10. For evaluation of older pavement. Where information is not available or of questionable accuracy. It should be noted that correlations between flexural strength and other strength tests are approximate and considerable variations are likely.02T   117 where: R T = = flexural strength. The normal application utilizes a correction factor determined by the consolidation testing of samples at in situ and saturated moisture content. (2) Click the “Life” button to compute the predicted Structural Life.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 b. For annual departures. If a field plate bearing test is not practical. the gross weight should be limited to 152. except the + 117 psi constant should be changed to + 0. the correction for saturation is not necessary. the gross weight of the B737-800 producing the 20-year life is 152.284 (E in psi). a backcalculated subgrade elastic modulus value may be obtained from NDT test results.000. the design procedure requires a stabilized base thickness of 9. as a minimum. if available. is ideally determined by plate bearing tests performed on the subgrade. Layer Thicknesses. As stated in paragraph 303. In this example. FAARFIELD will be used to determine the allowable gross weight of a B737-800 airplane for a 20-year life. this may cause a reduction in the structural life. If the airplane is to be operated at higher weights. psi Note: For conversions in metric units the above formula remains the same. To support 10. Assume 10. where evidence exists that the subgrade moisture has stabilized or varies through a limited range. the modulus of subgrade reaction may be estimated by the formula in paragraph 205a(4) of this circular. d. Example 2. which is contained in the prescribed standard. k. a. (4) In this example. (1) In the Airplanes screen. These tests should be made in accordance with the procedures established in AASHTO T 222. 604. Concrete Flexural Strength. and the subgrade modulus. but with a subgrade CBR = 3. For the pavement in Example 1. b.

the allowable load of an airplane on a pavement structure that will produce a 20-year life for a given number of annual departures.83 MPa). which exceeds the 20-year requirement.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E be assigned a material type corresponding to the appropriate FAA specification.2 years. including the PCC surface. it may be necessary to use the “undefined” or “variable” layer types in FAARFIELD to input an appropriate modulus value. Example. FAARFIELD is used to evaluate the structural life as follows: (1) Enter the airplane list. FIGURE 6-2. Since rigid pavement evaluation is not highly sensitive to modulus properties of lower layers above the subgrade. the number of structural layers above the subgrade for a rigid pavement is limited to 4. a. the base layer should be input as P-304 CTB in FAARFIELD. 605.6 MPa). The anticipated traffic mix is the same as the example in paragraph 603. the evaluation process is essentially the reverse of the design procedure. If the actual rigid pavement structure to be evaluated consists of more than 4 distinct layers. EXAMPLE OF A RIGID PAVEMENT STRUCTURE FOR EVALUATION 87 .000 psi (89. 8 inch (203 mm) stabilized base (Item P-304). enter the layer thickness and material type for each layer (figure 6-2). or alternatively. two or more of the lower layers can be combined to reduce the total number of layers to 4 or fewer for analysis. After all of the evaluation parameters of the existing rigid pavement have been established using the guidance given in the above paragraphs. including gross weights and annual departures. and 10 inch (254 mm) granular subbase (Item P-154). using the Airplanes screen. The predicted life for the given structure and traffic is 28. the life computation should not be significantly affected. where an existing rigid pavement consists of a PCC surface on a cement stabilized base meeting FAA Item P-304. The current concrete flexural strength was estimated from compressive tests on cores as 700 psi (4. The subgrade was evaluated by NDT testing and found to have an E-modulus of approximately 13. In FAARFIELD. Where the quality of materials in a pavement structure to be evaluated differ significantly from the assumptions for FAA standard materials as given in AC 150/5370-10. (2) In the Structure screen. The FAARFIELD program allows the back calculated E modulus value to be input directly. APPLICATION OF RIGID PAVEMENT EVALUATION PROCEDURES. (3) Click the “Life” control button. An existing taxiway was constructed to FAA standards and consists of a 16 inch (406 mm) PCC surface layer (Item P-501). For example. The FAARFIELD program can be used to determine the structural life of the existing pavement for a given traffic mix.

provides guidance on reporting PCN using the COMFAA software. the procedures given in Chapters 3.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 606. If the evaluation is being used for planning purposes and the existing pavement is found to be deficient in accordance with the design standards given in Chapter 3 or 5. For this purpose. If the evaluation is being used a part of the design for a project to reconstruct or upgrade the facility. This method of reporting is based on the concept of reporting strength in terms of a standardized equivalent single wheel load. COMFAA. AC 150/5335-5. it is recommended that PCN calculations be based on the same method adopted by ICAO for calculating ACN. the FAA developed a software program. or 5 should be used to design the reconstruction or overlay project. USE OF RESULTS. While FAARFIELD can be used to establish allowable airplane loads based on a given structure and airplane departure level (see Example 2 in paragraph 603). 607. 88 .4. which computes ACN following the procedures specified by ICAO. In this instance the main concern is not the load carrying capacity but rather the difference between the existing pavement structure and the section that is needed to support forecast traffic. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) developed a standardized method of reporting airport pavement strength known as the Aircraft Classification Number/Pavement Classification Number (ACN/PCN). the sponsor should be notified as to the deficiency and consideration should be given to corrective action. Standardized Method of Reporting Airport Pavement Strength – PCN. REPORTING PAVEMENT STRENGTH.

A composite traffic mixture is not considered for the shoulder design. Several of the procedural assumptions in the standard pavement design (traffic distribution. Summarize all paved shoulder designs on FAA Form 51001. Include all desired pavement layers. etc. Change annual departures to 1. Use the FAARFIELD software to create a new job file and proposed pavement section for the shoulder design. The shoulder pavement design procedure determines the MDA by calculating pavement thickness requirements for all airplanes utilizing or expected to utilize the airport. PAVEMENT DESIGN FOR AIRFIELD SHOULDERS 700. The design procedure is based upon the FAA pavement design software (FAARFIELD) and utilizes a modified design procedure to determine the most demanding airplane (MDA) for shoulder pavement design purposes. Adjust layer thickness to observe minimum thickness requirements for shoulder design. The shoulder pavement is intended to allow safe operation of the airplanes across the paved area without damage to the airplanes. Airport Pavement Design. which is considered par of the Engineer’s Design Report. BACKGROUND. Jet blast can cause problems with erosion of unprotected soil immediately adjacent to airfield pavements. pass-to-coverage ratios. By setting annual departures to 1 and the design period to 10. d.g. The need for paved or surfaced shoulders is created due to erosion and generation of debris from jet blast. taxiway. and aprons that will accommodate Group III and higher airplanes. base course. To mitigate this problem. (1) (2) Adjust airplane operating weights as appropriate. c. Return to the Structure screen and confirm that the design period is 10 years. the shoulder must be capable of safely supporting “occasional” passage of the most demanding airplanes as well as emergency and maintenance vehicles. e. Rigid shoulder pavement sections may experience cracking with each operation. 704. The airplane requiring the thickest pavement section is considered the MDA. Use standard airfield pavement design requirements to design all areas of pavement where airplanes regularly operate. Flexible shoulder pavement sections may experience noticeable vertical movements with each passage of an airplane and may require inspection and/or limited repair after each operation.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E CHAPTER 7. PURPOSE OF DESIGN PROCEDURE. APPLICATION. Confirm the composition and thickness of pavement layers and that the correct layer is designated for thickness iteration. The design procedure for paved or surfaced shoulders applies to all airports that accommodate Design Group III or higher airplanes. etc.) are not valid and are not used for the shoulder pavement design procedure. b. 705. Input one airplane from the traffic mixture for analysis. The following steps are used to complete the design procedure: a. 703. The iteration layer will be shown with a small arrow along the left side. 701. REPORTING PAVED SHOULDER DESIGN. the FAA recommends paved shoulders for runways. The minimum section provided by the shoulder pavement design procedure will not perform in the same fashion as full strength airfield pavements. NOTE: Due to minimum pavement layer requirements in the formal airfield pavement design procedure. The procedure for shoulder pavement thickness design is intended to provide a minimum pavement structure to support limited operations of airplanes. Submit the Engineer’s Design Report for FAA review and approval along with initial plans and specifications. As airplanes grew in size. This chapter provides a design procedure for paved airfield shoulders. surface course. it may be necessary to use the “undefined” pavement layer to represent the proposed shoulder pavement cross-section. In addition to providing protection from jet blast. 702. Drainage from the adjacent 89 . The procedure determines the minimum pavement section required for the MDA. DESIGN PROCEDURE. The design is intended to provide sufficient support for unintentional or emergency operations of an airplane on the shoulder pavement. NOTE: The intent of this design procedure is to design a pavement for 10 total departures of the most demanding airplane. subbase course. PURPOSE. so did the size of the airplane engines and their respective increase in jet thrust or jet blast. assuming a total of 10 departures.0 departure. stabilized course. the total departures are 10.

Preparation of subgrade materials should be in accordance with AC 150/5370-10. The material should possess a CBR value higher than the subgrade and have non-frost susceptible properties. Item P-154. PAVEMENT LAYER THICKNESS AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS. Asphalt Surface Course Materials. Additional consideration should be given to frost heave susceptibility of the material when used in frost susceptible zones. Additional consideration should be given to frost heave susceptibility of the material when used in frost-susceptible zones. P-301. or P-304. A thicker shoulder section or sub-drain may be appropriate. e. The PCC should be similar to FAA Item P-501. Subgrade Materials.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 airfield pavement should be considered in the total thickness of the shoulder pavement section to avoid trapping water under the airfield pavement. The material should be of high quality.14 MPa). Item P-152. Place the additional layer immediately on the subgrade surface below all base and subbase layers. e. and scroll over to the column labeled “CDF Max for Airplanes”. include all airplanes from the airport traffic mixture and set annual departures of all airplanes to 1. The minimum recommended thickness for rigid pavement design is 6 inches. Place base course material in accordance with the appropriate standard from AC 150/5370-10 or in accordance with the applicable State Highway standard. The airplane with the highest CDF Max value will be the most demanding airplane in most instances and will control the shoulder design. or in accordance with the applicable State Highway standard. The minimum recommended thickness for asphalt surfacing material is 3 inches (76 mm). b. In areas prone to frost heave. Base Course Materials. 707. Return to the airplane mixture. Subbase Course Materials. durable material capable of resisting deterioration due to environmental factors. The recommended minimum thickness of the base course material is 6 inches. and compacted to an average target density of 93 percent of maximum theoretical density.4 mm). d. Subbase course material must provide a minimum CBR value of 20. 706. then click the “Life” button instead of the “Design Structure” button. Material produced for use with high traffic volume highway pavement is acceptable provided that environmental durability is addressed. The pavement section with the greatest thickness requirement is the design for the shoulder pavement. Base course materials must be high quality crushed stone or stabilized materials similar to FAA Items P-208. Materials produced by State Highway standards are acceptable provided the minimum CBR value is obtained. Portland Cement Concrete Surface Course Materials. However. similar to FAA Item P-401. If high operations of these vehicles are anticipated. Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) must be a high quality. The minimum base course thickness may be reduced to 4 inches (102 mm) by increasing the minimum asphalt thickness by 1 inch (25. 90 . Click on the “Design Structure” button to establish the minimum pavement section for the individual airplane. the top few airplanes with the highest CDF Max values should be evaluated because the thickness of the pavement section being evaluated will influence which airplane is the most demanding. the pavement design selected by the shoulder design procedure should provide sufficient strength for unlimited operations of maintenance and emergency vehicles. Additional thickness of the pavement beyond that necessary for structural design may be achieved with any material suitable for pavement construction. EVALUATION AID: To reduce the list of individual airplanes requiring evaluation.200 annual departures. a. EMERGENCY AND MAINTENANCE VEHICLE CONSIDERATIONS. with a minimum design flexural strength of 600 psi (4. AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FROST HEAVE. the shoulder design should be verified for all anticipated service other than airplane usage. See paragraph 707 below. In most cases. c. The minimum recommended thickness is 4 inches (102 mm). Materials produced for use with high traffic volume highway pavement may be acceptable provided they possess qualities similar to the FAA specification items. 708. The FAA recommends limited subgrade frost protection in accordance with paragraph 307a(2). f. Crushed stone material must possess a minimum CBR value of 80. Create the proposed shoulder pavement section in the structure screen. Place subbase course material in accordance with AC 150/5370-10. it may be necessary to increase the thickness of the shoulder pavement to avoid differential frost heave. P-209. Repeat steps 1 through 5 for all airplanes in the traffic mixture. Material produced for use with high traffic volume highway pavement is acceptable provided the compaction specified for the highway application is obtained.

Identify and record key project descriptions. The information presented in this appendix was developed from research report DOT/FAARD-81/078. Present worth or present value economic analyses are considered the best methods for evaluating airport pavement design or rehabilitation alternatives.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E APPENDIX 1. i. The initial cost and life expectancy of the various alternatives should be based on the engineer’s experience with consideration given to local materials. The basic equation for determining present worth is shown below: i m  1   1  PW  C   M i     S 1 r  1 r  i 1 n z where: PW = Present Worth C = Present Cost of initial design or rehabilitation activity m = Number of maintenance or rehabilitation activities Mi = Cost of the ith maintenance or rehabilitation alternative in terms of present costs. The information presented in this appendix is intended to demonstrate how to calculate cost comparisons for airport pavement alternatives using the present worth method. The cost data used are probably not current. 2. The following is a step by step procedure illustrating the analysis method. 91 . Design periods other than 20 years must be approved by the FAA.. An example is given for illustrative purposes. it is normally assumed to be insignificant and the present worth of the two alternatives can be assumed to be the same. pavement condition index. Residual salvage values should be calculated on the straight-line depreciated value of the alternative at the end of the analysis period. etc. The official FAA design period is 20 years. such as— (1) (2) 150/5380-6. a. see AC Skid Resistance Required Thickness of New Pavement b.) (3) (4) c. BACKGROUND. However. b. If appropriate. A discount rate of 4 percent is suggested together with an analysis period of 20 years. PCI. if the difference in the present worth of costs between two design or rehabilitation alternatives is 10 percent or less. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS 1.) Condition of Pavement (description of distress. 3. Identify what feasible alternatives are available. and contractor capability. STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE. From a practical standpoint. the principles and procedures are applicable. ANALYSIS METHOD. a. environmental factors.e. constant dollars r = Discount rate (four percent suggested) ni = Number of years from the present of the ith maintenance or rehabilitation activity S = Salvage value at the end of the analysis period Z = Length of analysis period in years. such as— (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Project Number and Location Type of Facility Design Aircraft Annual Departure of Design Aircraft Subgrade Strength Existing Pavement Layers (thicknesses. determine the condition of existing pavement and record data. The term  1    1 r  n is commonly called the single payment present worth factor in most engineering economic textbooks. etc.

EXAMPLE PROBLEM – LIGHT-LOAD GENERAL AVIATION AIRPORT. f. Using the procedures in Chapter 5 of this circular. (102 mm) Untreated Base 10 in (254 mm) Condition of Existing Pavement Alligator cracking. PROJECT SUMMARY Location Design Aircraft Number .I. time required. The design aircraft for the facility has a gross weight of 24. transverse: and longitudinal cracking. operational constraints. If the selection cannot be narrowed to one alternative in the evaluation process. moderate 15% of area Condition Survey Trans. etc. An example problem is discussed below that illustrates the use of the present worth life-cycle costing techniques described above.200 ft (75 m) 75 ft (23 m) Existing Pavement: Layer and Type Thickness AC Surface 4 in. Seven rehabilitation alternatives. chance for success. the most promising alternatives should each be bid and the selection made on the basis of the lowest bid.000 lbs. moderate. 350’/station Long. A general aviation airport runway is in need of rehabilitation. The existing pavement contains alligator.000 General Aviation CBR = 4 3. (51 mm) Base Layer 5 in. cracking.000 pounds (10 890 kg). (10 890 kg) 12-34-567 3. (279 mm) Condition Poor Good b. TX 24. moderate. a 3 inch (76 mm) thick bituminous overlay is required to rehabilitate the pavement. length of time required to perform and the chance for success for each g. including surface. Determine costs associated with each feasible alternative in terms of present day costs. are considered feasible. a. Calculate life-cycle cost for each alternative to be evaluated. (127 mm) Subbase Layer 11 in. h. 400’/station PCI = 35 Skid Resistance Good Required Thickness New Pavement Total Thickness Required 18 in. in-place. (1) (2) (3) Initial Cost Maintenance Future Rehabilitation e.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 d. 4. (487 mm) Surface Layer 2 in.P Annual Departures of Design Aircraft: Type of Facility Runway Subgrade Strength Runway length Runway Width Muddville. Summarize life-cycle costs. Evaluated the most promising alternatives based on costs. alternative. The alternatives under consideration are— (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Asphalt-rubber chip seal to delay overlay Full width 3-inch (76 mm) direct overlay Surface recycle l-inch (25 mm) deep + 2-inch (5 1 mm) overlay Asphalt-rubber interlayer + 3-inch (76 mm) overlay Fabric interlayer + 3-inch (76 mm) overlay Cold recycle with asphalt emulsion 6-inch (152 mm) deep + 2-inch (51 mm) overlay Hot recycle and re-work base 92 . Pertinent data are presented in the Project Summary.A. cracking. and hot-mix recycling.

5339 17 0.07 11 Maintenance 0.25 1. the asphalt-rubber chip seal will need maintenance costing $0. In the 14th year maintenance will reach $0. the asphalt-rubber chip seal.44) (1. TABLE 1.7903 7 0. The present day costs of various activities associated with these alternatives are estimated as shown in table 1. (3) In the 15th year.20 0.14 15 1-1/2″ Overlay 2.65 6.5553 1.10 0.25 1. ALTERNATIVE 1.4564 -0.5134 18 0.25 0.06 14 Maintenance 0. divide by 0.5775 0.89) (9.97) (7.9615 2 0. Maintenance costs begin to escalate again as time goes on.6006 0. This overlay will require maintenance starting in the 10th year and will require progressively more maintenance as time goes on.29/m2).9246 3 Maintenance 0.1 in.3 Note: To convert from $/yd2 to $/m2.10 Cost $/m2 (1.23 5 0.7599 8 0. COSTS OF REHABILITATION ACTIVITIES Rehabilitation Activity Asphalt-Rubber Chip Seal Asphalt-Rubber Interlayer Fabric Interlayer Surface Recycling Asphaltic Concrete . This example shows the calculations for only one alternative.25 1. (5 1 mm) Overlay Hot Recycle + Rework Base $/yd 1.10 0.25/yd2 ($0.06 13 Maintenance 0. ASPHALT-RUBBER CHIP SEAL Year Cost $/yd2 Present Worth Factor 4% Present Worth Dollars 0 A-R Chip Seal 1. (2) In the fourth year.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E c. This leveling course will not require maintenance until the 19th year.8361 (1) The asphalt-rubber chip seal is estimated to delay the need for an overlay for 4 years.48 0.6756 0.95 0.50) (1. a l.07 Sub Total 9. The life-cycle costs for each alternative are calculated.10 0. Some of the important aspects of this analysis are discussed further below. 93 .0000 1.38 16 0.90 1.8219 6 0. TABLE 2.8890 0.10 0.4936 19 Maintenance 0.06 12 Maintenance 0.8548 4.10 0.83 Salvage Value -0.15 0. a 3-inch (76 mm) overlay will be required.25/yd2 ($0.4746 0. The calculations are shown in table 2.7026 10 Maintenance 0.25 0.32 Total 9.29/m2).71 0.4564 0. In the third year.05 20 Maintenance 0.50) (1.6246 0.25 1 0.5-inch (38mm) leveling course will be required.08) (1. (25 mm) Cold Recycle + 2 in.60 8. PRESENT WORTH LIFE-CYCLE COSTING EXAMPLE 1.69) d.7307 9 0.6496 0.12 7.22 4 3” Overlay 4.

local costs should be used in all alternative analyses as local conditions sometimes vary considerably from broad overall averages. and 6 are within the 10 percent range of the average cost. surface recycling with an overlay. constructed in the 15th year. This final summary is a convenient method of presenting all alternatives for evaluation. Alternative #7 is the most costly and exceeds 10 percent of the average cots.97/m2 to $9.10 Note: To convert from $/yd2 to $/m2. The salvage value is 2/7 x $2. The decision to select alternative #3 must consider the availability of contractors capable of performing surface recycling and the time required for completion.32.29 6. divide by 0.30 7. Alternative #3 appears to be the most promising as it ranks high in three of the four categories considered. A final summary of all alternatives considered in this example is shown in table 3. It was used for only 5 years during the analysis period. The salvage value of the leveling course is: the ratio of the life remaining/to how long it will last. Alternative #3.20 #5 Asphaltic Concrete . The leveling course. the principles are applicable to designs of new pavements as well. Adding and subtracting 10 percent to the average lifecycle cost yields a range of $6. is expected to have a life of 7 years. COMPARATIVE RANKING OF ALTERNATIVES First Cost #1 #3 #2 #5 #4 #6 #7 Life-Cycle Cost #3 #2 #1 #4 #6 #5 #7 Time #1 #3 #4 #5 #2 #6 #7 Chance for Success #7 #3 #4 #5 #6 #2 #1 The average life-cycle cost of all 7 alternatives is $7.60 #7 Hot Recycle + Rework Base 8.66/yd2 to $8. 94 . Life-cycle costs for alternatives #1. Discounting the salvage value to the 20th year yields a salvage value of $0. the leveling course had 2 years of life remaining at the end of the analysis period.74 7. In this example. SUMMARY OF ALTERNATIVES Alternatives First Cost $/yd2 #1 Asphalt-Rubber Chip Seal 1.14/yd2 ($7. While the design example addresses a rehabilitation project. In this example a discount rate of 4 percent was used in all calculations.41 8. and the probability for success in percent.8361 a. The present worth calculations for the other six alternatives should be calculated in a similar fashion. is lowest in life-cycle costs.71.20 #4 Surface Recycling 6. 5.1 in. 4.25 #2 Asphalt-Rubber Interlayer 4. it is shown as a negative cost in table 2. multiplied by its costs. life-cycle costs. e. SUMMARY.95 #3 Fabric Interlayer 4. Thus. (25 mm) 6. This summary shows initial costs. TABLE 3.22 7. Cost data used in the example are out of date and should be updated with more current local costs before individual evaluations leading to strategy selection are undertaken. (5 1 mm) Overlay 6. construction times.48 = $0.39 7.46 Time 2 days 5 days 4 days 4 days 4 days 6 days 6 days Chance for Success % 90 95 97 97 97 97 99 Comparing and ranking the various alternatives shown in table 3 yields the following results: TABLE 4.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 (4) The 20th year marks the end of the analysis period. All other activities are assumed to have no salvage value since their useful lives have been exhausted during the analysis period. 5. Maintenance and need for rehabilitation in future years are the engineer’s estimates.74/m2). Present Worth Life Cycle $/yd2 7. This appendix presents an economic procedure for evaluating a wide variety of airport pavement design strategies. a discount rate of 4 percent was assumed.40/yd2 ($8. Since the salvage value is an asset rather than a cost. 3. Whenever possible.15 #6 Cold Recycle + 2 in.85/m2).

Typical Gear Configurations. a.S. ORDER 5300. a. Purpose of This Order. manufacturers attempted to limit the damage imparted to pavements by increasing the total number of wheels. Complex Gear Configurations. Up until the late 1980s. and U. most aircraft used relatively simple gear geometries such as a single wheel per strut or two wheels side by side on a landing strut. As the number and complexity of gear arrangements increased and with no coordinated effort to provide a uniform naming convention. It will also affect organizations and individuals external to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This often led to groups of wheels placed side-by-side and in tandem configurations. When the company produced the heavier DC-10-30 variation of the aircraft. the regional Airports. Navy developed different naming systems that were not easily crossreferenced. it added an additional landing strut. they required additional wheels to prevent individual wheel loads from introducing excessively high stresses into the pavement structure. aircraft manufacturers added more wheels per landing strut whenever possible. and the “dual tandem” (two wheels side by side followed by two additional side-by-side wheels). To reduce the impact to airfield pavements. b. the “dual wheel” (two wheels side by side on a strut). “Main gear” means the primary landing gear that is symmetrical on either side of an aircraft. This Order impacts divisions in the Offices of Planning and Programming. and dual tandem descriptions. Airport Safety and Standards. Airway Facilities. Who This Order Affects. Background of This Order. the majority of civilian and military aircraft used three basic gear configurations: the “single wheel” (one wheel per strut). U. Boeing used four landing struts with dual tandem configurations on the B-747. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION ORDER 5300. the outer most gear pair is considered the main gear. Multiples of the main gear exist when a gear is in line with other gears along the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Historically. and Flight Standards Services. McDonnell Douglas originally manufactured the DC-10 with two landing struts using the dual tandem gear configuration. As aircraft continued to increase in gross weight. 2005 SUBJ: Standard Naming Convention for Aircraft Landing Gear Configurations 1. Air Force. using a dual wheel configuration. to the center of the aircraft.7 Effective Date: October 6. The increasingly complex gear arrangements quickly outgrew the simple single. This Order establishes a standard convention for naming and characterizing aircraft landing gear configurations. As aircraft became larger and heavier. and Flight Standards Divisions. For economy and efficiency reasons. Air Traffic. Another example is the Boeing 747 aircraft. When multiple landing gears are present and are not in line with each other. Airway Facilities. 2.S. Air Traffic. Additionally. 3. This was typically done by adding additional landing struts to the aircraft. Although this order is primarily directed at fixed wing airplanes. it is applicable to any aircraft using wheels for landing purposes. 4. Definitions Used in This Order. 95 . Pilots and airport operators will no longer need to learn multiple naming systems and will be able to use common aircraft landing gear names at all military and commercial facilities. Landing gear configuration and aircraft gross weight are an integral part of airfield pavement design and are often used to characterize pavement strength. other aircraft were developed with gear configurations that used numerous wheels in arrangements that could not be described by the three simple gear configurations. For example.7 U. dual. A standardized naming convention will allow uniformity and consistency among Federal agencies and external entities when naming aircraft gear configurations.S.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E APPENDIX 2. the FAA. Main Gear. and Airport District and Field Offices.

The naming convention shown in Figure 1 is intended for use in all civilian and military applications. D. or Q Number of gear types in tandem Figure 1. T. 5. will hereafter use the described aircraft gear naming convention. The Air Force and Navy will also adopt this system in their pavement guidance and facilities databases. Under the naming convention. and an optional tire pressure code described below. Basic Gear Type. Aircraft Gear Naming Convention e. D. T.g. c. the tandem designation “T” no longer appears in the gear name. 5D = five dual wheels in tandem. (1) The second character of the gear designation indicates the gear code. and 2T = two triple wheels in tandem. such as the B-747 and the A380. Antonov AN-124 (see Figure 14). 3D = three dual gears in tandem. however. instances in which multiple struts are in close proximity and are best treated as a single gear.g. b. the outer gear pair is treated as the main gear. Aircraft Gear Geometry Naming Convention. Body/belly gears may be of a different type than the main gear and may be nonsymmetrical. a. This naming convention uses the following codes for gear designation purposes (see Figure 2): S D T Q Single Dual Triple Quadruple d. The first character indicates the number of tandem sets or wheels in tandem.g. The first portion of the aircraft gear name comprises the main gear designation. e. or Q Number of main gears in line on one side of the airplanes Total number of body/belly gears Gear type. S. e. T.g. abbreviated aircraft gear designations may include up to three variables: the main gear configuration. D. Main Gear Portion of Gear Designation. e. “T” now indicates triple wheels. For aircraft with multiple gears. Figure 1 illustrates the two primary variables.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 b. or Q. e. If body/belly gears are not present. Intended areas of use. the body/belly gear configuration if body/belly gears are present. Although the verbal description continues to use the term “tandem” to describe tandem gear configurations. Use of Historical Tandem Designation. Gear type for an individual landing strut is determined by the number of wheels across a given axle (or axle line) and whether wheels are repeated in tandem. the leading value of “1” is omitted. etc.g. Airport/Facilities Directory. Body/Belly Gear. 5010 Master Record. 96 . Main Gear Designation Body/Belly Gear Designation #X#/#X# Number of gear types in tandem Gear type. All FAA pavement design guidance and FAA databases and database publications. There may exist. Basic Name for Aircraft Gear Geometry. e.g. This portion may consist of up to three characters.. (If a tandem configuration is not present. S. S. 2D = two dual wheels in Tandem. the second portion of the name is omitted. e. Basic Gear Codes. “Body/belly gear” refers to an additional landing gear or gears in the center portion of the aircraft between the main gears. 6.) Typical names are S = Single.

Due to wheel proximity. For simplicity. it is more advantageous to address the multiple landing struts as one gear. j. Extension of Naming Convention. h. The Lockheed C-5 Galaxy has a unique gear type and is difficult to name using the proposed method. the IL-76 has considerable spacing between the struts and should be designated as a Q2. the B-747 aircraft has a two dual wheels in tandem main gear and two dual wheels in tandem body/belly gears. Table 1. i.0. Future aircraft might require additional body/belly gears that are nonsymmetrical and/or nonuniform. Body/Belly Gear Portion of Gear Designation. the tire pressure can be included in 97 . Figure 2 provides examples of generic gear types in individual and multiple tandem configurations.217 74 . and a value of 1 is not omitted if only one gear exists.1. the gear naming convention includes a third variable. respectively. and Ilusyin IL76 might also cause some confusion. 14.e. This aircraft will not be classified using the new naming convention and will continue to be referred to directly as the C5. Comparison of Naming Convention to Historical Procedures.0 0. In these cases. Table 3 demonstrates the proposed naming convention and references the historic FAA. Table 1 lists these groups and their assigned codes. The body/belly gear designation is similar to the main gear designation except that the trailing numeric value denotes the total number of body/belly gears present. Inclusion of Tire Pressure Information.g. The resulting gear name would be 2D/2D2-D. In the case of the AN-124. and 20. Because body/belly gear arrangement may not be symmetrical. Figures 3 through 20 provide examples of known gear configurations. they can have a significant impact on the ability of the pavement to accommodate a specific aircraft. the Ilyushin IL-76 has two gears containing quadruple wheels on each side of the aircraft and is designated as a Q2 (see Figure 20). f.73 MPa No Limit 1. Unique Gear Configurations.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E (2) The third character of the gear designation is a numeric value that indicates multiples of gears. and U. rather than use D5 or dual wheel gears with five sets per side of the aircraft. the body/belly gear designation will contain a hyphen to indicate the nonuniform gear geometry.01 . a value of 1 is assumed and is omitted from the main gear designation.0 . Gear configurations such as those on the Boeing C-17. Aircraft with more than one main gear on each side of the aircraft and where the gears are in line will use a value indicating the number of gears in line. e. The second portion of the aircraft gear name is used when body/belly gears are present.145 0 . 2D2 = two dual tandem body/belly gears.5 0. The full gear designation for this aircraft is 2D/2D2. 2D1 = one dual tandem body/belly gear. In contrast. If body/belly gears are present. k. consider adding one dual wheel body/belly gear to the existing 2D/2D2 gear configuration. Antonov AN-124. Using the codes identified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Navy methods.S. Standard Tire Pressure Categories Range Category High Medium Low Very Low psi No limit 146 . 5D or five duals in tandem. A value of 1 is used for aircraft with one gear on each side of the airplane.1. The historic Air Force methodology also addresses the configuration of the aircraft nose gear. the C-17 gear is more appropriately called a 2T as it appears to have triple wheels in tandem. the gear designation assumes that the gear is present on both sides (symmetrical) of the aircraft and that the reported value indicates the number of gears on one side of the aircraft. In these instances. Although tire pressure effects on airfield pavements are secondary to aircraft load and wheel spacing. For demonstration purposes. the gear code must identify the total number of gears present. see Figures 8. U. the proposed method does not address nose gear configuration. i. For example. For example. In addition to specifying gear geometry. then the body/belly gear designation.S. Due to the insignificance of the pavement load imposed by the nose gear. Air Force. it is important to observe the number of landing struts and the proximity of the struts. the main gear designation is followed by a forward slash (/). Examples of Gear Geometry Naming Convention.51 . the aircraft gear designation can also indicate the tire pressures at which the aircraft operates. For the main gear.5 Code Designation W X Y Z (2) To allow for the reporting of tire pressure. (1) The Aircraft Classification Number (ACN) and the Pavement Classification Number (PCN) system created by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) has defined and categorized aircraft tire pressures into four groups for reporting purposes. g.

AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 parentheses after the standard gear nomenclature. Sample Gear Names With and Without Tire Pressure Codes Gear Name Without Tire Pressure S 2S 2D/2D1 Q2 2D/3D2 Gear Name With Tire Pressure S(W) 2S(X) 2D/2D1(Z) Q2(Y) 2D/3D2(Z) 98 . Table 2. Table 2 provides sample gear names with and without the additional tire pressure code.

9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E Table 3. U. and U.S.S. Air Force. Navy Nomenclatures 99 . Proposed Naming Convention with Historical FAA.

Generic Gear Configurations.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 Single S Dual D Triple T Quadruple Q 2 Singles in Tandem 2S 2 Duals in Tandem 2D 2 Triples in Tandem 2T 2 Quadruples in Tandem 2Q 3 Singles in Tandem 3S 3 Duals in Tandem 3D 3 Triples in Tandem 3 Quadruples in Tandem Figure 2. 100 . Increase numeric value for additional tandem axles.

S . 2S . 2T .Two Single Wheels in Tandem Main Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear.Single Wheel Main Gear with Single Wheel Nose Gear Figure 4. D . S .Two Triple wheels in Tandem Main Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear.Single Wheel Main Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear Figure 5. Boeing C-17 101 . D .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E Figure 3.Dual Wheel Main Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear Figure 7.Dual Wheel Main Gear with Single Wheel Nose Gear Figure 6. Lockheed C-130 Figure 8.

Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Dual Wheel Body Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear. Boeing B-747 Figure 13. Lockheed L1011 Figure 11. 2D/2D1 Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear. 2D/D1 . 2D . 3D . 2D/2D2 . Boeing B-777 102 . Airbus A340-600 Figure 12.Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear Figure 10. McDonnell Douglas DC-10.Three Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear.Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear with Dual Wheel Nose Gear.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 Figure 9.

Lockheed C5 Galaxy 103 . 2D/3D2 . C5 . Airbus A380 Figure 17.Seven Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear with Quadruple Nose Gear.Two Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear/Three Dual Wheels in Tandem Body Gear with Dual wheel Nose Gear. Antonov AN-225 Figure 16. Antonov AN-124 Figure 15.Five Dual Wheels in Tandem Main Gear with Quadruple Nose Gear. 7D .9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E Figure 14. 5D .Complex Gear Comprised of Dual Wheel and Quadruple Wheel Combination with Quadruple Wheel Nose Gear.

D2 . Boeing B-52 Bomber Figure 20.Quadruple Wheels Two Struts per Side with Quadruple Nose Gear. Bennett Director of Airport Safety and Standards 104 .Dual Wheel Gear Two Struts per Side Main Gear with No Separate Nose Gear (note that single wheel outriggers are ignored). Q2 . Ilyushin IL-76 David L.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 Figure 18.

Our assessment indicates that three basic configurations. provide sufficient support for any airplane which may be forthcoming. or footing. and time-consuming.000 pounds (22 700 to 34 000 kg) should be considered. The “area” dimensions are 6 to 8 feet by 20 feet (2-3 m by 6 m) each supporting half of the airplane gross weight.7 G (for no-slip brakes). load transfer may not be possible. 105 . except that for shallow structures. the total load will be uniformly distributed over the area defined by the outside limits of the individual areas. Loads. BACKGROUND.. Foundation Design. If structures require expansion joints. (1) When the depth of fill is less than 2 feet.72 MPa). Point loadings on some structures may be increased. The design of structures subject to direct wheel loads should also anticipate braking loads as high as 0. a uniform live load of 250 psi (1. the concentrated loads may require heavier and wider spread footings than those presently provided by the structural standards in current use. may prove to be extremely difficult.72 MPa) tire pressure. Structural Considerations. inlet grates. It may be assumed with sufficient confidence that strengthening of pavements to accommodate future airplanes can be performed without undue problems. such as culverts. Strengthening of structures. Wheel prints are uniformly spaced within their respective areas. No departure from accepted methodology is anticipated. RECOMMENDED DESIGN PARAMETERS. such as diagonal taxiways or apron taxi routes. Direct Loading. shown in figure 1. d. c. (3) For spans of 2 feet (0. if all are considered in the design of the bridge components. wheel loads will be considered as uniformly distributed over a square with sides equal to l-3/4 times the depth of the fill. Foundation design will vary with soil type and depth. or 16 wheels per airplane comprising the main gear. Wheel loads of 50. Information concerning the landing gear arrangement of future heavy airplanes is speculative. (4) Special consideration will be given to structures that will be required to support both in-line and diagonal traffic lanes. DESIGN OF STRUCTURES FOR HEAVY AIRPLANES 1. except as they occur in the static load. Nose gears. the following guidance from AASHTO is recommended. 2. Airport structures such as culverts and bridges are usually designed to last for the foreseeable future of the airport. For many structures the design is highly dependent upon the airplane landing gear configuration. however. utility tunnel roofs. while on overpasses. For buried structures. the design will be based on the number of wheels which will fit the span. It should be noted that all loads discussed herein are to be considered as dead load plus live loads. When such areas from several concentrations overlap. costly. should be designed for the following loadings: (1) Manhole covers for 100.000 to 75.000 lb.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E APPENDIX 3. Decks and covers subject to direct heavy airplane loadings such as manhole covers. but the total width of distribution will not exceed the total width of the supporting slab. as such. bridges. etc.6 m) or less in the least direction. (2) For spans of 2 feet (0. will. such as inlets and culverts. (45 000 kg) wheel loads with 250 psi (1. a. the wheel loads will be treated as concentrate loads. These consist of two areas enclosing eight wheels each. the entire airplanes weight may be imposed on a deck span.6 m) or greater in the least direction. (2) When the depth of fill is 2 feet or more. are not considered. pier. b.

TYPICAL GEAR CONFIGURATION FOR DESIGN OF STRUCTURES 106 .AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 FIGURE 1.

Construction. and Behavior under Traffic of Pavement Test Sections. FAA-RD-74-199. AC 150/5320-5. 6. Operational Life of Airport Pavements. AC 150/5370-10. by Garg. 2. 9. Volume III.faa. 3. 3. Design. Springfield. Rone. 8. Vol. FAA-RD-74-036. FAA-RD-73-169. Brabston . MD 20785. Design Manual for Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement. Vol. AC 150/5320-17. 21. Guidelines and Procedures for Maintenance of Airport Pavements. AC 150/5300-9. Landover. by Treybig. FAA-RD-73-198. Field Survey and Analysis of Aircraft Distribution on Airport Pavements. Standardized Method of Reporting Airport Pavement Strength-PCN. Predesign. FAA-RD-73-198. Guo. and Hudson.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E APPENDIX 4. Ardmore East Business Center. 10. and Preconstruction Conferences for Airport Grant Projects. December 1974. VA 22161 (http://www. ADA-005-893. FAA-RD-74-033. AD-783-190. Volume II. by Barker. Hot Mix Asphalt Paving Handbook. FAA-RD-74-039. and McQueen. Volume I. AD-0785-024. 7. Standard for Specifying Construction of Airports. ADA-011-488. AD0780-512. by Burns. however. by Yoder.gov): 13.gov): 1. will charge a fee for some of these documents. 11.7. AC 150/5320-12. September 1975. AC 150/5300-13. Vol. 17. September 1975. Volume III: Design and Construction of MESL. Review of Soil Classification Systems Applicable to Airport Pavement Design. by Ledbetter. 4. ADA-019-205. 14. 12. February 1975. 1. June 1974. ADA-022-806. Presentation and Analysis of Data. Measurement. 3. by Ho Sang. AC 150/5370-11. Airfield Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating Manual. by Hammitt. The following advisory circulars and orders are available for download on the FAA website (http://www. Comparative Performance of Structural Layers in Pavement Systems. Comparative Performance of Structural Layers in Pavement Systems. 5. Surface Drainage Design. by Berg. Development of a Structural Design Procedure for Flexible Airport Pavements. AC 150/5340-30. Printed copies can be requested from the Department of Transportation. Design and Installation Details for Airport Visual Aids. Use of Nondestructive Testing Devices in the Evaluation of Airport Pavement. Copies of the following technical reports may be obtained from the National Technical Information Service. Airport Design. FAA-RD-74-030. Prebid. May 1974. DOT/FAA/AR-04/46. 18. 15. 5285 Port Royal Road. Pavement Response to Aircraft Dynamic Loads. McCullough. Order 5300. and Ulery. Design of Civil Airfield Pavement for Seasonal Frost and Permafrost Conditions. Continuously Reinforced Concrete Airfield Pavement. ADA-006-284. 16. The Department of Transportation. Construction and Maintenance of Skid Resistance Airport Pavement Surfaces. Standard Naming Convention for Aircraft Landing Gear Configurations.ntis. October 1974. RELATED READING MATERIAL Electronic copies of the latest versions of the following FAA publications are available on the FAA website. December 2004. May 1974. 20. AC 150/5370-14. 107 . 3341 Q 75th Ave. AC 150/5380-6. and Brabston. 19. AC 150/5335-5. Subsequent Distribution Office.

ADA-028-094. by McKeen. ADA-160-739. and Pereira. and Correcting Runway Roughness.astm. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56. ASTM D422. Standard Guide to Site Characterization for Engineering Design Construction Purposes. Economic Analysis of Airport Pavement Rehabilitation Alternatives – An Engineering Manual. ASTM C39/C39M. ASTM D2487. FAA-PM-87/19. ADA-044-328. FAA-RD-76-066. PO Box C700. 36. Isolating. 2. Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Soils in Place. June 1976. ASTM D3080. 41. Standard Test Method for Field Vane Shear Test in Cohesive Soil 42. ASTM D2434. ASTM D1883. 48. Gunkel. Design of Overlays for Rigid Airport Pavements. Vol. 39. 37. FAA-RD-81-078. ASTM D427.400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3)). Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens. FAA-PM-84/14. 34. FAA-RD-75-110. 27. Design and Construction of Airport Pavements on Expansive Soils. Development of a Structural Design Procedure for Rigid Airport Pavements. Copies of ASTM standards may be obtained from the American Society for Testing and Materials. 47. ASTM D4632.700 kN-m/m3)). ADA-112-550. Parker. 28. Standard Test Method for Flexural Strength of Concrete (Using Simple Beam with Third-Point Loading). 46. ASTM D1587. 38. Standard Test Method for Direct Shear Test of Soils Under Consolidated Drained Conditions. ASTM D2573. October 1981. and Plasticity Index of Soils. Standard Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soils (Constant Head). ASTM D421. ADA-041-300. 108 . and Nielsen. ASTM D5340. by McKeen. 44.000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2. Standard Practice for Classification of Soils for Engineering Purposes (Unified Soil Classification System). April 1979. 29. June 1977. Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Soils by the Mercury Method.Standard Practice for Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants. 33. and Odom. DOT/FAA/PM-85115. Standard Test Method for CBR (California Bearing Ratio) of Laboratory-Compacted Soils. FAA-RD-77-81. 31. 25. West Conshohocken. Plastic Limit. April 1988. ASTM D4429. 45.org/): 30. by Ladd. 40. 24.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 22. 19428-2959 (http://www. Pennsylvania. Methodology for Determining. Standard Test Method for Grab Breaking Load and Elongation of Geotextiles. Standard Practice for Description and Identification of Soils (Visual-Manual Procedure). ASTM D698. Barker. 23. Validation of Procedures for Pavement Design on Expansive Soils. Performance of airport pavements under high traffic intensities. Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12. ASTM D2488. ASTM D420. Standard Test Method for Airport Pavement Condition Index Surveys. Standard Test Methods for Liquid Limit. Structural Design of Pavements for Light Aircraft. 100 Barr Harbor Drive. 26. by Seeman. by Rollings. ADA-069-548. Thin-Walled Tube Sampling of Soils for Geotechnical Purposes. ASTM D4318. FAA-RD-76-179. Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils. by Parker. 35. July 1985. and Wootan. by Epps. 32. ASTM C78. December 1976. 43. ADA-194-331. ASTM D1557.

Fitts. Geosynthetic Design and Construction Guidelines. by Buncher. 67. 444 North Capitol Street N. Three-Dimensional Finite Element Code for Solid and Structural Mechanics – User’s Manual.P.S. Innovative Pavement Research Foundation (IPRF). Pavement design for seasonal frost conditions. Copies of Unified Facility Criteria (UFC) may be obtained from the US Department of Defense website (http://65.A Nonlinear. April 2003. Draft Report. Standard Method of Test for Nonrepetitive Static Plate Load Test of Soils and Flexible Pavement Components for Use in Evaluation and Design of Airport and Highway Pavements. Soil Cement Construction Handbook.. and McQueen. for Concrete 51. Deformed.asphaltinstitute. M 31 52. 63.transportation. 60.. 1995. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. for Concrete Copies of AASHTO standards may be obtained from the American Association of State Highway & Transportation Officials. ASTM C496/C496M. November 2007. 1995. Flexible Pavement Design for Airfields. Thickness Design-Asphalt Pavements for General Aviation. ASTM A615/A615M-07.188//report/doc_ufc. NIKE3D . Pavement Design for Airfields. (Principal Investigators). DC 20001 (http://www. G. Washington. Ferencz. 65. TM 5-818-2. U. Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology Program (AAPTP) Report 04-01. Livermore. S. UCRL-MA-105268 Rev. R. Unified Facility Criteria (UFC). Portland Cement Association... Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. MS-11. Army and Air Force. Implicit. by Kohn. U. Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Carbon Steel Bars for Concrete Reinforcement-AASHTO No. FHWA-HI-95-038. Copies of the following publications are available from Asphalt Institute.. Berggren. R.17.. ASTM A497/A497M-06e1 Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement. 1943. April 1995. AFM 88-6 Chapter 4. 66. SW-1 Asphalt Pavement Thickness Design Software. AASHTO T 194.html): 56.S. June 2001 (Superseding U.. T. Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual. Development of Guidelines for Rubblization. Soils Manual. Prediction of temperature distribution in frozen soils. IS-154. 109 .S. 64. 2696 Research Park Drive.W. Illinois 60077. Standard Method of Test for Determination of Organic Matter in Soils by Wet Combustion. U. S. J. Standard Test Method for Splitting Tensile Strength of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens.org/): 57. 50. Skokie. Thickness Design – Airports. Lexington.S. M. ASTM A185/A185M-06e1 Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Reinforcement. by Maker.O. Technical Manual TM 5-824-3/AFM 88-6 Chapter 3. and Hallquist.1. 5420 Old Orchard Road. 71-77. UFC 3-260-02. (Principal Investigator). Air Force and NAVFAC TM 5-825-2/AFM 88-6 Chapter 2/DM 21. and Tayabji. Report No.204. Best Practices for Airport Portland Cement Concrete Pavement Construction (Rigid Airport Pavement). Army and Air Force. MS-10. B. AASHTO T 222. Suite 249. KY 40511-8480 (http://www..org/): 54.M. 58. 24 (3). Miscellaneous 62. Army. ASTM A996/A996M-06a Standard Specification for Rail-Steel and Axle-Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete Reinforcement 53.3. Report IPRF-01-G-002-1. 59. 61. Plain.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E 49. MS-19. Rigid Pavements for Airfields Other than Army. W. Army and Air Force. Scullion. California. 55.

Updates or additions to the design software and manuals will be posted online. Additional design information is required to complete Form 5100-1. ACCESS TO SOFTWARE. 4. which guide users through each step.XLS determines pavement thickness requirements for rigid pavement sections and bituminous or Portland cement concrete overlays on existing rigid or flexible pavement sections. NIKE3D and INGRID (3D mesh generation software for NIKE3D) are distributed in compiled form under the terms of a software sharing agreement between the FAA and LLNL. For flexible pavement design. Livermore.gov/airports/engineering/design_software/). AIRFIELD PAVEMENT DESIGN SOFTWARE 1. which performs Layered Elastic Analysis (LEA) computations and NIKE3D_FAA. The remainder of the FAARFIELD program is written in Visual BasicTM 2005 and operates under Microsoft WindowsTM. Design software and user manuals may be downloaded directly from the FAA Office of Airport Safety and Standards website (http://www. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). 110 . This appendix announces software to aid in the design of airfield pavements in accordance with the new design procedure presented in Chapters 3. Airport Pavement Design. The software is called FAARFIELD and incorporates two subprograms LEAF. FAARFIELD uses the maximum horizontal stress at the bottom edge of the PCC slab as the predictor of pavement structural life. Program F805FAA. FAARFIELD implements both layered elastic-based and three-dimensional finite element-based design procedures for new and overlay designs of flexible and rigid pavements. 3. California.faa. implemented as a Microsoft WindowsTM dynamic link library written in Visual BasicTM 2005. USE OF SOFTWARE. BACKGROUND. a three-dimensional finite element computational program implemented as a dynamic link library written in FORTRAN. For rigid pavement design. FAARFIELD uses the maximum vertical strain at the top of the subgrade. The design method to determine pavement thickness as described in AC 150/5320-6D uses two programs (spreadsheets). Pavement designs developed using the Frost Design feature of the spreadsheets are consistent with the Reduced Subgrade Strength method described in Chapter 3. 2. are available for both programs. Program R805FAA. and the maximum horizontal strain at the bottom of the asphalt surface layer. The spreadsheets will produce thickness designs consistent with the nomographs used in AC 150/5320-6D. Software for the previous design method as described in AC 150/5320-6D is also presented in this appendix and uses Microsoft Excel TM as a platform with Visual Basic TM for Applications (VBA) Macros to facilitate the design process. Results from the program design summary and the airplane mixture data provide sufficient information to reproduce and review the pavement thickness design. as well. NIKE3D_FAA is a modification of the NIKE3D software program originally developed by the US Department of Energy. When used to develop the pavement design. respectively. Reference manuals. the printed results of the software should be attached to Form 5100-1.XLS determines pavement thickness requirements for flexible pavement sections and bituminous overlays on existing flexible pavement sections. 4 and 5 of this AC. as the predictors of pavement structural life.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 APPENDIX 5. AVAILABLE SOFTWARE AND SUPPORT MATERIAL. Numerical results from the programs may be used to complete FAA Form 5100-1.

000 60.000 20.000 12.000 200.000 75.000 20.000 10.000 100.000 100. FAARFIELD INTERNAL AIRPLANE LIBRARY AIRPLANE LISTING BY GROUP TABLE 1. GENERIC AIRPLANE GROUP Airplane Name Gross Taxi Weight (lbs) 50.000 60.000 75.000 150.000 5.500 15.000 Gear Designation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 SWL-50 Sngl Whl-3 Sngl Whl-5 Sngl Whl-10 Sngl Whl-12.5 Sngl Whl-15 Sngl Whl-20 Sngl Whl-30 Sngl Whl-45 Sngl Whl-60 Sngl Whl-75 Dual Whl-10 Dual Whl-20 Dual Whl-30 Dual Whl-45 Dual Whl-50 Dual Whl-60 Dual Whl-75 Dual Whl-100 Dual Whl-150 Dual Whl-200 Dual Tan-100 Dual Tan-150 Dual Tan-200 Dual Tan-300 Dual Tan-400 S S S S S S S S S S S D D D D D D D D D D 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D 111 .000 3.000 400.000 30.000 45.000 30.000 10.000 300.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E APPENDIX 6.000 150.000 45.000 200.000 50.

047 515.125 Gear Designation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 A300-B2 SB A300-B2 std A300-B4 std A300-B4 LB A300-600 std A300-600 LB A310-200 A310-300 A318-100 std A318-100 opt A319-100 std A319-100 opt A320-100 A320-200 Twin std A320-200 Twin opt A320 Bogie A321-100 std A321-100 opt A321-200 std A321-200 opt A330-200 std A330-200 opt A330-300 std A330-300 opt A340-200 std A340-200 opt A340-300 std A340-300 opt A340-500 std A340-500 opt A340-600 std A340-600 opt A380-800 A380-800F 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D D D D D D D D 2D D D D D 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D/D1 2D/D1 2D/D1 2D/D1 2D/2D1 2D/2D1 2D/2D1 2D/2D1 2D/3D2 2D/3D2 112 .922 183.305.978 150.747 380.842 162.041 315.747 365.128 840.661 568.341 150.518 380.176 608.661 509.239.796 162.047 515.041 315.947 840.041 365.552 813.402 1.093 207.866 188.275 197.796 141.518 315.014 509.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 TABLE 2.041 124.402 805.000 1.563 575.796 150.922 172.245 611. AIRBUS GROUP Airplane Name Gross Taxi Weight (lbs) 315.

000 150.000 174.200 174.000 396.000 155.000 113 .000 413.000 122.000 317.000 256. B737-200 LP B737-300 B737-400 B737-500 B737-600 B737-700 B737-800 B737-900 ER B737 BBJ2 B747-100 SF B747-200B Combi Mixd B747-300 Combi Mixed B747-400 B747-400ER B747-SP B757-200 B757-300 B767-200 B767-200 ER B767-300 ER B767-400 ER B777-200 Baseline B777-200 ER B777-200LR B777-300 Baseline B777-300 ER B787-8 B787-9 2D 2D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D 2D/2D2 2D/2D2 2D/2D2 2D/2D2 2D/2D2 2D/2D2 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D 2D 3D 3D 3D 3D 3D 2D 2D 185.000 Gear Designation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 B707-320C B720B B717-200 HGW B727-100C Alternate Adv.000 478.000 111.000 542.000 836.600 117.000 836. B737-200 Adv.000 768.000 170.800 662.000 271.000 777.500 140.700 188.000 145.000 657.000 913.000 235.000 703.000 537.700 738. B727-200C Basic Adv.000 128.000 451.500 134.200 210. B727-200 Option B737-100 Adv.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E TABLE 3. BOEING GROUP Airplane Name Gross Taxi Weight (lbs) 336.000 877.

000 9.000 25.000 16.000 458.278 498.200 5.Arrow-PA-28-200 Chk.500 16.430 1.750 95.000 358.000 101.400 10.027 216.199 73.000 358.424 15.412 33.500 15.100 48.000 4.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 TABLE 4.053 Gear Designation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 An-124 An-225 BAe 146 Concorde DC3 DC4 DC8-43 DC8-63/73 DC9-32 DC9-51 DC10-10 DC10-30/40 Fokker F100 IL62 IL76T IL86 L-1011 MD11ER MD83 MD90-30 ER TU134A TU154B 5D 7D D 2D S D 2D 2D D D 2D 2D/D1 D 2D 3Q 2D/2D1 2D 2D/D1 D D 2D 3D TABLE 5.200 6.500 23.200 2.000 161.925 Gear Designation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Aztec-D Baron-E-55 BeechJet-400 BeechJet-400A Bonanza-F-33A Canadair-CL-215 Centurion-210 Challenger-CL-604 Chancellor-414 Chk.000 410.500 3.000 583.322.472 376.990 466.000 168.000 633.200 36. GENERAL AVIATION GROUP Airplane Name Gross Taxi Weight (lbs) 5.500 108.002 318.000 122.Six-PA-32 Citation-525 Citation-550B Citation-V Citation-VI/VII Citation-X Conquest-441 S S S S S S S D S S S S S S D D S 114 .000 109. OTHER COMMERCIAL AIRPLANES GROUP Airplane Name Gross Taxi Weight (lbs) 877.300 3.

110 3.500 19.500 3.500 35.000 8.) Airplane Name Gross Taxi Weight (lbs) 9.000 90.200 75.558 3.900 38.200 2.500 9.925 26.000 21.450 72.500 65.710 18.900 27.536 47.000 23.372 24.035 20. GENERAL AVIATION GROUP (cont.616 4.000 66.570 22.900 27.800 45.PA-32R-301 Seneca-II Shorts-330-200 Shorts-360 Skyhawk-172 Skylane-1-82 Stationair-206 SuperKingAir-300 SuperKingAir-350 SuperKingAir-B200 S S D D D D D D S D D D D D D D S D D S S D D S S S D S S S S S S S D D D 115 .590 Gear Designation 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Conquest-441 DC-3 Falcon-50 Falcon-900 Falcon-2000 Fokker-F-28-1000 Fokker-F-28-2000 Fokker-F-28-4000 GrnCaravan-CE-208B Gulfstream-G-II Gulfstream-G-III Gulfstream-G-IV Gulfstream-G-V Hawker-800 Hawker-800XP KingAir-B-100 KingAir-C-90 Learjet-35A/65A Learjet-55 Malibu-PA-46-350P Navajo-C RegionalJet-200 RegionalJet-700 Sabreliner-40 Sabreliner-60 Sabreliner-65 Sabreliner-80 Sarat.612 14.000 70.500 4.120 11.100 12.9/30/2009 AC 150/5320-6E TABLE 5.520 28.000 73.118 6.100 15.750 66.

MILITARY GROUP Airplane Name Gross Taxi Weight (lbs) 769.000 583.000 Gear Designation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 C-5 C-17A C-123 C-130 C-141 F-15C F-16C F/A-18C KC-10 P-3 Complex 2T S 2S 2D S S S 2D/D1 D 116 .000 42.AC 150/5320-6E 9/30/2009 TABLE 6.000 68.000 142.000 155.000 345.000 585.000 60.300 56.

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