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environmental science

environmental science

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Published by Ahmer Majeed

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Published by: Ahmer Majeed on Apr 12, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology
and geography. This will help the student to get the knowledge about
different types of rocks and minerals, the processes of their formation,
different earth processes like mountain buildings, earthquakes, weathering
and erosion. The students will also be introduced to work with different type
of maps and GPS system.

Course Outlines

Introduction and scope of geology and geography, its importance and
relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment. Earth
as a member of solar system; its origin, age, composition and its internal
structure. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. Introduction to
rocks and minerals. Introduction to sedimentary, igneous and metamorphic
rocks; plate tectonics, mountain building, earthquakes and volcanoes.
Introduction to folds, faults, joints, cleavages, foliation, lineation and
unconformities. Weathering, erosion and related landforms. Fossils and their
significance. Geological time scale and life through geological ages.


Lab Work

Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and
thematic maps.Identification of rocks and minerals. Use of brunton compass
and GPS. Field Study tour.

Recommended Books:

1. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology,

Tarbuck, E. J., Lutgens, F.

K., and Tasa, D., 9th

Edition, Prentice Hall; 2007

2. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time,

Wicander, R., and Monroe, J., 5th Edition, Brooks/Cole, 2007
3. Earth Science, Tarbuck, E. J., Lutgens, F. K., and Tasa, D., 11th
Edition, Prentice

Hall, 2005.
4. Foundations of Structural Biology. Park. R. G. 3rd

Edition, Routledge,


5. How Does Earth Work; Physical Geology and Process of Science.

Smith, G. and Pun, A., Prentice Hall: 2006.



3 (2-1)


This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. It describes the
origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special
reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation.

Course Outlines

Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources. Evolution of biosphere:
Origin of life, protocell formation, unicellularity, multicellularity. Origin of
taxonomy: Origin of species, taxonomic categories and modern criteria of
classification, different classification systems. Life in sea, invasion of life on
land, Geological time chart with biodiversity. Evolution as a force in diversity
of life: Overview of earlier theories, Lamarckism, Darwinism, modern
concepts. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis, crucial for
organisms’ sustainability, environmental changes and the basis of
homeostasis in organisms; examples of adjustments in varied environment,
interactions among diversified life. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity,
molecular basis of biodiversity, measuring biodiversity, Geographical aspects
of biodiversity. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation, causes of
extinction, population loss and decline, biodiversity crises, consequences of
losing biodiversity.

Lab Work

Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants, animals).
Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to
their habitat. Biodiversity of canal, river / stream bank and microscopic
biodiversity of its water. Biodiversity of hilly areas. Biodiversity of deserts.


Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum

Recommended Books:


The Biosphere, Bradbury, I. K., John Wiley and Sons. Inc. UK,



Biology, a Human Emphasis. Starr, C. 5th

Edition. Wadsworth

Group. USA, 2003.


Biodiversity (An Introduction). Gaston, K. J. and Spicer, J. I, 2nd
Edition. Blackwell Science Ltd. UK, 2000.

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