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environmental science

environmental science

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Sections

  • DEGREE PROGRAMMES
  • A. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME
  • SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE
  • FIRST YEAR
  • SECOND YEAR
  • Semester – 3
  • Semester – 4
  • THIRD YEAR
  • Semester – 5
  • Semester – 6
  • FOURTH YEAR
  • Semester – 7
  • Semester – 8
  • SEMESTER 1
  • COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0)
  • COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY 3(2-1)
  • COURSE 4 Mathematics-I 3(3-0)
  • COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) 3(3-0) Annexure - A
  • Pakistan Studies (Compulsory)
  • SEMESTER 2
  • COURSE 9 STATISTICS 3 (3-0) Annexure - E
  • COURSE 10 ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY 3 (3-0)
  • COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) 3(3-0) Annexure - A
  • COURSE 12 ISLAMIC STUDIES 2 (2-0) (Compulsory)
  • Annexure - C
  • SEMESTER 3
  • COURSE 13 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER 3(3-0)
  • COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY 3(3-0)
  • COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0)
  • SEMESTER 4
  • COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY 3 (3-0)
  • Recommended Books
  • COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY 3(2-1)
  • COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 3 (3-0)
  • SEMESTER 5
  • COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY 3 (2-1)
  • COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN 3(3-0)
  • COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS 3(3-0)
  • ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2)
  • ELECTIVE-I
  • SEMESTER 6
  • COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY 3(2-1)
  • GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1)
  • COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 3(2-1)
  • COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION 3(3-0)
  • COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING 3(3-0)
  • ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7
  • Course Outlines
  • COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT 3(3-0)
  • COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT 3(3-0)
  • COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE 3 (3-0)
  • ELECTIVE –III
  • ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8
  • COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES 3 (3-0) Objectives
  • COURSE 45 POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY 3 (3-0)
  • E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY 3(3-0)
  • E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 3(2-1)
  • E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT 3(3-0)
  • E-4 Urban Environments 3(3-0)
  • E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT 3 (2-1)
  • E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT 3 (3-0)
  • E-9 Energy and Environment 3(3-0)
  • E-10 Agro-Ecology 3(2-1)
  • Seminar
  • ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE
  • ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
  • ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
  • FURTHER READINGS
  • PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT
  • OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT
  • ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
  • ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT
  • CLIMATE CHANGE
  • ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY
  • BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION
  • WILDLIFE, FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT
  • ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
  • Recommended Books:
  • Recommended books:
  • English II (Communication Skills)
  • English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills)
  • Books Recommended
  • ISLAMIC STUDIES 2 (2-0) (Compulsory)
  • 1. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA)
  • 2. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS)
  • Course Outline:
  • Contents :
  • Books Recommended:
  • 5. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY
  • 6. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS
  • INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

CURRICULUM OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

For BS MS
(Revised 2009)

HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISSION ISLAMABAD

CURRICULUM DIVISION, HEC
Dr. Syed Sohail H. Naqvi Prof. Dr. Altaf Ali G. Shaikh Miss Ghayyur Fatima Mr. M. Tahir Ali Shah Mr. Shafiullah Executive Director Member (Academics) Director (Curri) Deputy Director (Curri) Deputy Director

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CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

Introduction ……………………………………….. Scheme of Studies for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Details of Courses for BS (4-YEAR) in Environmental Science …………………………. Scheme of Studies for MS …………………….. Detail of Courses for MS ……………………….
Details of Compulsory Courses Annexures A, B, C, D & E…………………………………

6 12 14 50 51
58

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50% will consist of compulsory courses and general courses offered through other departments. Lahore. 2007 at HEC Regional Center. comprising of senior teachers nominated by universities. 2009 at the HEC Regional Center. The revised draft curriculum is being circulated for implementation in the concerned institutions. imperative to update our curricula regularly by introducing the recent developments in the relevant fields of knowledge. D773/76-JEA (cur. The National Curriculum Revision Committee for Environmental Science in a meeting held on April 28-30. SHAIKH Member Academics August 2009 4 . R&D organizations. appointed the University Grants Commission as the competent authority to look after the curriculum revision work beyond class XII at the bachelor level and onwards to all degrees. the curriculum of a subject must be reviewed after every 3 years. The world has turned into a global village. In pursuance of the above decisions and directives. therefore. and will require the completion of 130-136 credit hours. DR. new ideas and information are pouring in like a stream.PREFACE Curriculum of a subject is said to be the throbbing pulse of a nation. degree awarding institutions. By looking at the curriculum one can judge the state of intellectual development and the state of progress of the nation. The new Bachelor (BS) degree shall be of 4 years duration. and 36. respective accreditation councils and stake holders. Applied Social Sciences and Engineering disciplines met in April 2007 and developed a unified template to standardize degree programs in the country to bring the national curriculum at par with international standards. 63. In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Federal Supervision of Curricula Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act 1976. PROF. For the purpose of curriculum revision various committees are constituted at the national level. A committee of experts comprising of conveners from the National Curriculum Revision of HEC in Basic. It also aimed to give a basic.). universities and other institutions of higher education. Karachi in continuation of its earlier meeting held on November 16-17. dated December 4th 1976. It is. certificates and diplomas awarded by degree colleges. and to fulfill the needs of the local industries. revised the curriculum in light of the unified template. For those social sciences and basic sciences degrees. the Higher Education Commission (HEC) is continually performing curriculum revision in collaboration with universities.50% of the curriculum will consist of discipline specific courses. the Federal Government vide notification No. According to the decision of the special meeting of ViceChancellor’s Committee. broad based knowledge to the students to ensure the quality of education.ALTAF ALI G.

EXP. QUESTIONNAIRE CONS. UNDER CONSIDERATION CURRI. OF FINAL CURRI. PREP. INDUSTRY & COUNCILS APPRAISAL OF 1ST DRAFT BY EXP PREP. OF NCRC. LI R&D HEC Vice-Chancellor’s Committee Experts Colleges Universities Recommendations Learning Innovation Research & Development Organization Higher Education Commission ORIENTATION COURSES BY LI. IN DRAFT STAGE FINAL STAGE FOLLOW UP COLLECTION OF EXP NOMINATION UNI. Preparation 5 . R&D. FINALIZATION OF DRAFT BY NCRC COMMENTS PRINTING OF CURRI. National Curriculum Revision Committee VCC. REC. UNI. Abbreviations Used: NCRC. HEC BACK TO STAGE-I PREP. OF CURRI. OF DRAFT BY NCRC REVIEW IMPLE. COL.CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT STAGE-I STAGE-II STAGE-III STAGE-IV CURRI.

Karachi from 28-30. Lahore Member 6. Dr. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Head.Introduction The final meeting of the National Curriculum Revision Committee of Higher Education Commission in Environmental science was held at HEC Regional Centre. Member 4. Kauser Jamal Cheema Dean. Muhammad Irfan Khan Professor and Head Department of Environmental sciences International Islamic University Islamabad Dr. Sheikh Saeed Ahmad Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Fatima Jinnah Women University The Mall. Azeem Khalid Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences PMAS Arid Agricultural University. Syed Shahid Ali Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Earth & Environmental Science Bahria University Islamaabad Convener 2. Dr. Member 6 . Dr. Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University. Anjum Zia Assistant Professor Department of Chemistry &Bio-chemistry University of Agriculture Faisalabad Prof. Rawalpindi Dr. Member 5. Rawalpindi Dr. April 2009 to finalize the draft curriculum for under-graduate and graduate degree programs in the discipline. 7. Moazzam Jamil Member Principal University College of Agriculture & Environmental Sciences The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur Dr. Member 3. Following attended the meeting:1.

Khursheed Ahmed Member Department of Environmental Management National College of Business Administration & Economics Lahore. Arjumand Zaidi Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Abbotabad Dr. Member 11. Dr. 7 . Member 15. Karachi Member 12. Centre for Environmental Science University of Sindh Jamshoro Prof. Dr. Member 16. Zahir Ahmed Zahir Associate Professor Institute of Soil & Environmental Sciences University of Agriculture Faisalabad Ms. Prof. Dr. Amir Haider Malik Member Foreign Professor (HEC) Department of Environmental Sciences COMSATS Institute of Informational Technology Abbotabad Prof. Dr. Basir Ahmad Arain Professor. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Science University of Karachi. Said Rahman Manager SPAS SUPARCO Head Quarters Karachi. Dr. Member 10. Member 14. 13. Mozzam Ali Khan Director Institute of Environmental Sciences University of Karachi Karachi Dr. Dr.8. Arifa Tahir Assistant Professor Department of Environmental Science Lahore College for Women University Lahore Member 9. Prof.

The meeting was opened by Mr. The participants reviewed he current curriculum and proposed suggestions to revise the current curriculum. Chairman. compatible with national needs and useful for the industry and society. Javed Ali Khan Director General (Environment) Ministry of Environment Islamabad Dr. 8 . 1. Mr. He welcomed the participants and opened the meeting. Dr. Mr. the committee reviewed the draft curriculum and discussed at length the proposed contents of revised courses. Muhammad Ishaq Ghaznavi Member Technical Balochistan Environmental Protection Tribunal Quetta Mr. These groups reviewed the existing courses and suggested appropriate changes in them. Department of Environmental Science could not attend the final meeting due to his pre-engagement. Khalid Farooq Akbar of GC University Faisalabad acted as Convener and Secretary of the Committee respectively. At first. Muhammad Rafiq Rai. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah.17. Deputy Director (Curriculum) of Higher Education Commission Islamabad circulated the copies of draft curriculum of Environmental Science and HEC framework template for the development of curriculum in basic and applied science. Muhammad Irfan Khan of International Islamic University Islamabad and Dr. Director of HEC Regional Center. Sardar Khan Associate Professor Department of Environmental Science University of Peshawar Peshawar Dr. Member 20. Dr. 2. Shafiq-ur-Rehman. He briefed the members of the committee about the review and revision of the curricula regularly at specific intervals to bring the quality of higher education with international standards. Faisalabad Member 18. Member 19. Karachi. Khalid Farooq Akbar Associate Professor Department of Environmental Sciences GC University. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah Assistant Director (curriculum) Higher Education Commission. The participants were divided into different groups according to their expertise to review the courses. Islamabad coordinated the meeting. Secretary Dr.

Then the committee reviewed the existing MS curriculum and proposed some new core courses and elective courses.3. well equipped and highly skilled man power to tackle the growing environmental and developmental problems and changes arising from the transition to a sustainable society. climate change and depletion of resources and loss of biodiversity. Muhammad Tahir Ali Shah and the staff HEC regional centre. In last few centuries. The committee expressed its concern that there was no participation from the major universities. Karachi for providing logistic facilities to the participants. the world has witnessed a rapid but uneven economic development. Environmental Science includes programmes with multidisciplinary scope in which the graduates will learn to address the challenges of maintenance of environmental integrity for sustainable development in relation to human activities. 3. The Environmental matters are at the center of the political and economic areas and at the top of the developmental agenda of every country in the world. This is the outcome of a rising global concern about the protection of our environment. The Aim The principal aim of graduate and post-graduate level degree programs in the discipline of Environmental Science is to train and develop. Teaching Objectives The teaching objectives of the degree programmes in Environmental Science are to enable its graduates with following key skills: • Learn how to analyze and assess environmental problems • Carry out independent scientific and technical research on environmental issues 9 . The Scope Being an interdisciplinary field of knowledge. The unsustainable economic development has resulted in disastrous environmental crises such as environmental pollution. The committee thanked Mr. 6. 5. These groups also proposed contents/reading materials for newly introduced courses. 4. 1. environmental deterioration and unsustainable economic development. comprehensive approach involving social and technological changes in all sectors of human life and its environment. a harmonious collaboration between human development efforts and environment concerns are urgently needed to achieve the ultimate goal of sustainable development. The target of sustainable development can only be achieved through an integrated. The world is faced with the challenge of devising innovative development strategies to deal with the complexities of environmental deterioration and economic development. In order to cope with the challenges of increasing population. 2.

This requires a new frame of mind and new set of values. as well as a sense of ethical responsibility. Formulate and implement solutions to problems of sustainable development.• Propose sustainable solutions for environmental problems. professional judgment and skills in mitigation of environmental problems iii. in its preliminary meeting. Learning Objectives The degree programs are expected to equip the graduates with an ability to understand the linkages between various bio-physical and socio-economic components of environment and with an expertise to: i. the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan appointed a National Curriculum Revision Committee in Environmental Science. discussed the structure and composition of the existing graduate and post graduate degree programmes in the discipline of Environmental Science and suggested appropriate changes to keep the 10 . ii. 5. This committee. Apply theoretical understanding. The development of interdisciplinary curriculum is one way of developing capacity in Environmental Science for the achievement of ultimate goals of sustainable development Keeping in view the above objectives in the local. Understand the intricate linkages within and between biophysical and socioeconomic systems. RATIONALE Finding a sustainable way of life is one of the greatest socially. Make meaningful contributions to improving legal and administrative structures and processes relevant to sustainable development and environmental management 5. through the use of analytical skill and theoretical knowledge iv. Education at all levels especially university education should aim at achieving sustainable development and foster environmentally sound attitudes. skills and behaviour patterns. economically and environmentally challenges facing humanity today. regional and global contexts. Education is critical for promoting such values and improving people’s capacities to address environmental and developmental issues. This can be achieved if Environmental Science is made part of the education embracing both the scientific and social aspects of the human life. our proper place in it and how it can deal with the issues of socio-economic development on the basis of the principles derived from various disciplines of natural sciences. and appreciate the principles and requirements that would facilitate the transition to sustainability within these systems. The discipline of Environmental Science is perceived as the systematic study of the world around us.

that: 1. UNDER GRADUATE PROGRAMME BS Environmental Science Before drawing the outlines and contents of the courses the committee unanimously agreed on the following principles. 4. Courses from disciplines of social sciences should also be included in the curriculum of Environmental Science along with the courses from disciplines of natural sciences in order to integrate the socio-economic aspects of the environment. with consensus. 3. The medium of instruction. The degree programmes in Environmental Science should be comprehensive in their coverage of the contents 2. pre-medical and preengineering or equivalent qualification The following courses were identified by the Committee to be included in the curriculum of four-year BS Environmental Science Degree programme. Sc. 1. assessment and evaluation will be English for degree programmes in Environmental Science. as guiding principles for the development of the programmes. Integrating natural sciences.e.. The nomenclature for this four-year degree programme will be BS Environmental Science consisting minimum of 124 and Maximum of 136 credit hours including compulsory courses of English. The 11 . 6. To maintain the equivalence of duration of study at international level. The eligibility for admission to Bachelors of Environmental Science degree will be F. DEGREE PROGRAMMES Before drawing the structure of the graduate and post-graduate programmes in Environmental Science following principles were agreed by the Committee. The structure of the programmes should be in accordance with international system of higher education in terms of equivalence of credit hours and duration. the Bachelors degree programme (BS) will be of four years i. 5. Islamic studies and Pakistan studies 3. In order to support efficient research in the discipline of Environmental Science. A. skills oriented courses in information and communication technologies must be included in the degree programmes.graduate abreast with new developments in Environmental Science and prepared a revised curriculum draft. 2. Environmental Science is an emerging science as a discipline which is highly inter and multi-disciplinary in nature. social sciences and humanities in a holistic study of the world around us is required to achieve goals. eight semesters in the semester system.

Environmental Chemistry 15. Environmental Microbiology 21. English-III 18. Basic Chemistry* 4. Biology –II* 9.proposed workload is maximum in the first year and minimum in the final year for the purpose of giving relief for research work and career-oriented activities. SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR BS (4-YEARS) IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE FIRST YEAR Course Titles Semester – 1 1. Environmental Physics 16. Fundamentals of Ecology 20. Math/Stat (Statistics) University Optional 10. Sociology/Anthropology* 11. Introduction to Earth Science 8. English-II 12. Math/Stat-1 (Mathematics) 5. Philosophy* Total Credit Hours 3 (1-2) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 12 Semester – 4 19. Climatology* 23. Environmental Pollution 22. Introduction to Environmental Science 2. Introductory Economics* 17. English-I 6. Psychology* . The Committee also proposed a semester wise distribution of courses in a basic to applied order. Pakistan Studies Total Credit Hours Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 Semester – 2 7. Biology –I* 3. Islamic Studies/Ethics Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 2 (2-0) 17 SECOND YEAR Semester – 3 13. Introduction to Computer 14.

24. Environmental Economics 29. Environmental Impact Assessment 39. ELECTIVE-III 42. 44. Applied Ecology 26. Biodiversity & Conservation 35. Environmental Laws & policies Health and Environment Pollution control Technologies Research project/ Internship 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3-6 12-15 124-136 13 Total Credit Hours Total Degree Credit Hours . Research Methods in Environmental Science 41. Environmental Profile of Pakistan 28. Opt. Environmental Biotechnology 32. Analytical techniques in Environmental Science 30. ELECTIVE-II Total Credit Hours FOURTH YEAR Semester – 7 37. English-IV/ Univ. ELECTIVE-I Total Credit Hours 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (1-2) 3 (3-0) 18 3 (2-1) 4 (2-2) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 3 (3-0) 19 Semester – 6 31. 45. Environmental toxicology 27. 46. Natural Resource Management 40. Environmental Management Systems 34. Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 18 THIRD YEAR Semester – 5 25. GIS & Remote Sensing 33. Environmental Monitoring 36. ELECTIVE –IV Total Credit Hours 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 3 (3-0) 18 Semester – 8 43. Climate Change 38.

• Universities can choose from the list provided under general category 14 .• Four Credit Hour Course must include Lab/Practical.

& Yonavjak. biological and social.. G. Pearson Educational. M. and their relationships with various environmental factors. Wright. urbanization. Miller. 2007. B.B & Keller.T. Environmental challenges for sustainable development: current and future trends in population growth. 4. 4th Ed. R. John Wiley & Sons. COURSE 2 BIOLOGY . ecological. D. McKinney. Major components of environment: physico-chemical. history. poverty and resource depletion. Environmental Science: systems and solutions. The course will impart knowledge about enzymes and phenomenon of hereditary transformation in living organisms. nature and scope of Environmental Science and its contribution to society. 10th Ed. development in industry and agriculture. 2007. Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future. lipids. Schoch. and national environmental challenges for sustainable development.DETAILS OF COURSES FOR BS (4-YEAR) ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE SEMESTER 1 COURSE 1 INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3 (3-0) Objectives To introduce the students with basic concepts and the history of development of Environmental Science as an academic discipline. proteins and nucleic acids. Particular emphasis is on chemical basis of life and polymerization in carbohydrates. environmental pollution. 6th Ed. 2002. 2.M. socio-economic.L. current global..J. & Nebel. Botkin. regional.A. Different aspects of environment: physical.I Objectives 3 (2-1) The course provides wide range coverage to principles of life. Human environment and its problems: global. 2007 3. 15 . national. R. Course Outlines Introduction: basic concepts. ethical. its importance in human life. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. philosophical. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet. Environmental Science: working with the Earth. E. L. Thomson Learning. its interdisciplinary nature and provide students with an understanding of the relationships between different components of environment. Recommended Books: 1.

4. Lewis. N. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. and Whitelaw. Cell division. R. Holes’s Human Anatomy and Physiology. Course Outlines Chemical Bonding. but also allows the rigorous development of experimental schemes and analysis methods. Australia . A. 5. carbonyls. covalent.Hill International Edition. USA. USA. Wadsworth Group. Lab Work Identification of the chemical nature of different animal and plant materials. polypeptides in protein diversity. Canada. Molecular Biology through Questions. 2. Study of mitosis in onion root tip.. Shier. J. B. 5th Edetion. Biochemical tests for carbohydrates and proteins. The course not only provides excellent practice in basic chemistry. Cassimeris. Structure and the basis of function. USA. 1. Study of meiosis in Grasshopper testis. Self Assessment and Revie. Introduction to cell biology. Crossley. Nucleic acids. protobionts. Gram staining of bacteria and study of fungus. Radioactivity and its environmental hazards. M. Protein digestion by enzyme pepsin. proteins. Biology: a Human Emphasis. origin of metabolism. G. esters. periodic tables with emphasis on heavy metals. enzymes as molecular tools in chemical transformations. coordinate covalent bond.. amines). 2007. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis in blood cells. Lingappa. Cytochemical demonstration of DNA and RNA in Avian blood and Protozoa. chemical diversity. 16 . 2003. Aromatic compounds. carbohydrates. lipids. The Benjamin / Cummings Publishing Company Inc. V. General chemistry of functional groups of organic compounds (alcohols. carboxylic acids. lipids. McGraw –Hill Book Company Pvt.. C. 3. Origin of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. L. Bulter. Ionic.Course Outlines Introduction: Definition and concept of life. chemical basis of life. relying on physical chemistry and analytical reasoning. E. 2008. Starr.. 2007. overview of structure and function of cell organelles.. COURSE 3 BASIC CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(2-1) The main objective of this course is to provide a basic knowledge and understanding of chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. Recommended Books: Biology’ Campbell. Ltd. Cells. Plopper. Origin of life: chemical evolution. R. 1996. D. the molecule of genetic information and replication. McGraw. phospholipids in membrane systems. 8th Ed. functional groups in functional diversity: Molecules of life and Polymerization. and Lewis. New York.

.. molal.H. 2005. 6th Edition.C.S. Recommended Books: 1. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Binomial theorem (Simple applications). Harris. Trigonometry: Radian and degree measure of angles. Column chromatography. Matrices and Determinants: Matrix. 4. Jones and Barlett. radicals. graphs. double angle formulas. 2004. Algebra of matrices. COURSE 4 Mathematics-I Objectives 3(3-0) The course provides foundation of mathematics for the degree programme in Environmental Sciences.. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. values of trigonometric functions. UK. UK. D. Paper Chromatography (one and two dimensional). Surface chemistry. 2nd Edition. J.. expansion of determinants. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry. 8th Edition. USA.J. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.E. Hill. and Reid. real line. 17 . Lab Work Preparation of molar. They will be equipped with the knowledge of basic principles of Algebra. simultaneous equations and their solutions. EC and TDS in waste water. Girard. Thin layer chromatography. 3. 2004. J.D. 2004.. W. series and means. Photochemical reactions. USA. Andrews. angle-sum formula. Freeman and Company. Understanding Environmental Pollution. increment in variable and distance between two points in plane. Sequence and series: Arithmetic. Thermodynamics and chemical kinetics. equations of lines (linear equations). 5. Canada.E. determinants.J. Use of spectrophotometric techniques.. Colloids chemistry.M. geometric and harmonic sequence. Jickells. 2003. minor and cofactor of a matrix.. Liss. D. M. Equations and their solutions: Quadratic equations and their solutions by factorizat completing squares and quadratic formula. The students will be able to understand and apply basic principles in practical field. 2.A. straight line and related concepts. 1st Ed.. Arithmetic and Trigonometry Course Outlines Elementary Concepts: Real numbers and subsets of real numbers.. Thomson and Brooks.ions.Special Products (Binomial Expression). Measurement of pH. law of Cosines. normal solutions/buffers. Brimblecombe. F. D.K. P. basic trigonometric formulas (without derivations). Cambridge University Press. P. Use of titrimetric and gravimetric analysis. Solution chemistry. concepts of six basic trigonometric functions. Osmosis and Dialysis. Blackwell Science. 2nd Edition. B. Skoog. and Holler. coordinate Geometry: Elementary concepts of Cartesian coordinates in the plane. West. T.

Jr. its origin. Chatterjee. earthquakes and volcanoes. Pacific Grove. 1999. joints. erosion and related landforms. faults. Analytical Geometry of Two Dimension. 10th Ed. 2. derivative of six basic trigonometric functions. Calculus and Analytical Geometry. Geological time scale and life through geological ages.A COURSE 6 3(3-0) Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Annexure . the processes of their formation. 3. California. different earth processes like mountain buildings. Introduction to rocks and minerals. J. Scott Foresman and Company. Narosa Publishing House. Integration: Formulas of integration. Chain rule. age. theorems on differentiation (sum. Smith. Introduction to folds. Weathering. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.B. foliation.Wesley. L. irreducible quadratic factors. Recommended Books: 1. Differentiation: Basic formulas of differentiations. product and quotient rules without derivations). R. COURSE 5 English-I (Functional English) Annexure . earthquakes.B SEMESTER 2 COURSE 7 INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCES Objectives 3(2-1) This course aims to provide knowledge about the basic concepts of geology and geography. 4. Addission. G. and Finney. 18 . mountain building. nonrepeated linear factors. Analytical Geometry. This will help the student to get the knowledge about different types of rocks and minerals. difference. Introduction to sedimentary. lineation and unconformities. Abraham. composition and its internal structure. D. S. 4th Ed.. weathering and erosion. Course Outlines Introduction and scope of geology and geography. its importance and relationship with other sciences with special reference to environment.Cramer’s Rule. Earth as a member of solar system. Fossils and their significance. Partial Fractions: Repeated linear factors.. cleavages. New Delhi. The students will also be introduced to work with different type of maps and GPS system. Trignometry for College students. theorem of integration. Basic principles of stratigraphy and sedimentation. by parts integration (simple applications). K. Thomas. plate tectonics. igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Geographical aspects of biodiversity. Prentice Hall: 2006. R. Routledge. Biodiversity: Elements of biodiversity. Lab Work Biodiversity studies in botanical and zoological gardens (plants. Prentice Hall. Biodiversity of deserts. J. molecular basis of biodiversity. 3rd Edition. 19 . Origin of taxonomy: Origin of species. Life in sea... Geological time chart with biodiversity. Evolution as a force in diversity of life: Overview of earlier theories.. How Does Earth Work. Lutgens. Tarbuck. D. Studies on structural diversity in plants and animals and their adaptation to their habitat. invasion of life on land. Park. multicellularity. unicellularity. E. K. Diversity of life and ecological factors: Homeostasis. Physical Geology and Process of Science.Identification of rocks and minerals. crucial for organisms’ sustainability. Lamarckism. D. causes of extinction. F. A. Brooks/Cole. 9th Edition. population loss and decline. 4. and Tasa.. Darwinism. and Pun. measuring biodiversity.. F. E. Field Study tour. 2007 3. animals). examples of adjustments in varied environment. Use of brunton compass and GPS.Lab Work Study of earth relief features with the help of topographical models and thematic maps. Wicander. Recommended Books: 1. K. protocell formation. G. Course Outlines Introduction: Biosphere and biological resources.. biodiversity crises. and Tasa. J. Lutgens. Extinction: Ecological extinction and extirpation. 5. Tarbuck..II Objectives 3 (2-1) This course aims to introduce the biosphere and its evolution. Evolution of biosphere: Origin of life. Prentice Hall. R. river / stream bank and microscopic biodiversity of its water.. Earth Science. 5th Edition. different classification systems. Historical geology: Evolution of Earth and Life Through Time. 11th Edition. 2004. interactions among diversified life. Biodiversity of hilly areas. J. and Monroe. consequences of losing biodiversity. modern concepts. Biodiversity of canal. It describes the origin of taxonomic categories and explains biodiversity with special reference to decline and extinction of species and conservation. environmental changes and the basis of homeostasis in organisms. Smith. Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology. G. taxonomic categories and modern criteria of classification. 2007 2.. Foundations of Structural Biology. COURSE 8 BIOLOGY . 2005.

2nd Edition. 2009. CA: AltaMira Press. 5th Edition. C. Starr. Conceptualizing environment. I. R. Inc. and Spicer. Environmental Risks and the Media. globalization and environmental issues. IL:WavelandPress. a Human Emphasis. Goals and expectations. K. Science and the globalization of environmental discourse. Biology. Perspective of human-environment evolution. Walnut Creek. Ecotourism’s impact on the environment. Scope and application.. 2. USA. Chronological. 20 . UK.Classification and general survey of animal and plant kingdom (Museum studies) Recommended Books: 1. The Biosphere.E ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY Objectives Environmental Anthropology is the study of applied action and/or advocacy research to address practical environmental problems. Bradbury. power & hegemony. and Sustainable Living. P. Wadsworth Group. New Directions in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections. 3 (3-0) Course Outlines Relationship between environment. The Environment in Anthropology: A Reader in Ecology. Environmental Anthropology: From Pigs to Policies. The Ecology of global consumer culture. The course will emphasize how anthropologists work and the students will also learn the use of anthropology in handling some of these issues and therefore application will frame much of our class discussions. and concerns. Use of environment for vested interest. 3. Consumption. New York: New York University Press. COURSE 9 STATISTICS COURSE 10 3 (3-0) Annexure . Inc. Recommended Books: 1. Blackwell Science Ltd. Understanding the environment-human relationship. culture and society. (editor). 3. Townsend. Biodiversity (An Introduction). L.K. J. 2006. K. C. UK. Prospect Heights. 4.. Hannen. 2005. (editors). Nora and Wilk. 2. Tripartite nature of environment. Contemporary environment issues and debate. UK. J. 2009. Culture. 2001. Contemporary environmental status. Crumley. 2003. Routledge. 2000. Allan & Carter. I. John Wiley and Sons. Gaston. Adam.

software packages.C SEMESTER 3 COURSE 13 2 (2-0) INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER Objectives 3(3-0) This course will introduce the students to the basics of computer science including computer components. 6. Ms-Power Point. Course Outlines Definition. After reviewing basic chemical concepts of environmental chemistry.. physiochemical and biological treatment of pollutants and green chemistry. Recommended Books: 1. Configurations. Rutledge. Fundamentals of computer. e-mail. Long l. Kluwer Academic Publishers. COURSE 11 English-11 (Communication Skills) Annexure .1999.H. Introduction to MS-Word. The chemistry of processes of the atmosphere. Courter. Local Area Network.Microsoft office 2000. 2.A COURSE 12 3(3-0) ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Annexure . processing hardware.. Marquis A.BPB publication COURSE 14 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to extend the fundamental knowledge of various pollutants and its interactions with environment. it can have more advanced and contemporary applications including ozone depletion. Long N.5. Environmentalism and anthropology: Exploring the role of anthropology in environmental discourse. Ms-Excel. 2003. computer programs and basic applications. Types and classification of computers.London 1996. Storage hardware. 21 . Ed. Nature across cultures: Views of nature and the environment in nonwestern cultures.6th Ed. Hardware: Input Hardware. internet. G. K. lithosphere and hydrosphere are covered in detail and the effects of pollutants on each of these chemical processes are extensively considered. Operating system (Windows). as are their effects on the biosphere. Selin. system software. Ms-Access. Milton. Software: Application software. output hardware.

Miller. T. their sources and toxic actions. Samir. Energy conversion. Thomson-Brooks. Heat radiation and heat transfer.. Conversion of mass. Environmental Science. its causes and adverse effects on environment.. Liquids and Gasses. Particle physics. Green house effect and its effects on biological systems. Recommended Books: 1. J. Environmental Chemistry. and Singh. photosynthesis.E. Germany. Reducing the transmission of sound.. Ozone chemistry. Sound and Noise. Fundamentals of aquatic. B. Fate of pollutants in environment. Gaussian plumes in the air. Springer. 2. Principles of Environmental Chemistry. Acid rain and chemistry of stone cancer. atmospheric and soil chemistry. Environmental impact of various industries. Isotopes and radioactive decay. Ibanez.. M.S. G. Diffusion. and Reid. J. 1st Edition. Jones and Barlett.. Radioactivity and nuclear physics. India. Jickells.. Energy. Turbulence. Lab Work Study of the spectrum of light. Banerji Prentice Hall of India. Chemical reactions. DoriaSerrano. P. 2nd Edition. Hernandez-Esparza. Electromagnetic radiation. Equations of fluid dynamics.. 2005.M.. Turbulent jets and plumes. kinetics and mechanism concerning to organic and inorganic pollutants. 2004. 4. Ozone and UV light. Solids. 2004. Blackwell Science. Scientific notations and mathematical hints for basic concepts.. Liss. USA.D.G. Turbulent diffusion. Human perceptions and noise criteria.T. Fregoso-Infante. J. 2008. Active control of sound.Course Outlines Concept and scope of environmental chemistry..J. COURSE 15 ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSICS Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will provide an introduction to the physical principles that underlie environmental issues and their relationship with different types of interactions with energy and matter.E. Andrews. Environmental Chemistry. Structure and function of spectrophotometer for absorption and transmission of light. P. A. Brimblecombe. Solar spectrum. Canada. 3. Basic acoustics. UK. M. Entropy. Measurement and comparison of the 22 . trophic level. Global climate and climatic change.. Nuclear energy. Course Outlines Introduction to environmental physics. 1999. C. Transport of pollutants. An Introduction to Environmental Chemistry. Girard. K. 5. interaction of light with matter.

Smith. H. World Bank Publications. 2001. Seinfeld. P. UK. Producer behavior. USA. concepts and measurement. S. economic welfare and difference among all. Recommended Books: 1. Wesely Publishers. Todaro. The World Bank's annual World Development Report. 2001. economic growth. It discusses the impacts of economic activity on environment and sustainable development. Routledge. 2. Economic management and environmental quality. John Wiley and Sons Inc. and Pandis. Praxis publishing. 2. Growth and Environment. Yusuf. C. USA. Sustainable development in developed and developing countries. 2006. New York.Economic development. economic progress. Optimum utilization of resources from consumer. producer and community point of view. Kentucky USA. Collection of particulate matter and its measurements by gravimetric methods. J.. Field visit. R. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics: From Air Pollution to Climate Change. Environmental economics. 4. M. Introductory Environmental Physics. Recommended Books: 1. USA. Environmental Physics. John Wiley and Sons Inc. COURSE 16 INTRODUCTORY ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) The course aims to introduce the fundamental concepts of economics and provide understanding about economic development and economic growth. Physics of the Environment and Climate. economic growth and its measurement. interaction between ecology and economic management. Guyot.1998. Man environmental relationship. Measurement the noise level at different location to assess the noise pollution using sound level meter. 2008. and Resource allocation. Economic Development. population and environmental quality. Measures for sustainable development. 3. Impact of economic activity on environment. USA. Boeker. E. Economic functions of environment. N. Pakistan economic context: National income. S. 2008.light intensity at different locations and times using lux meter. G. 23 . Growth and development. 7th Ed. Sustainable development. Natural resources and the economy. poverty. Development Economics through the Decades: A Critical Look at 30 Years of the World Development Repor. and Van Grondelle. scope and fundamental concepts of Economics: Consumer behavior. Course Outlines Introduction to economics.

Environmental Critics of agriculture.. Frodeman. USA. First Lessons on Natural Philosophy. B.A COURS 18 PHILOSOPHY Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the philosophy related to environment includes Basic concepts and uses of philosophical approaches for solution of environmental problems. Ecosystem and its types. role of light.A. SEMESTER 4 COURSE 19 FUNDAMENALS OF ECOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) To develop an understanding in the about ecology. LLC. 2008.. Palgrave Macmillan. concepts and approaches. Economics. Touchstone Books. 2008. C. B. COURSE 17 English – III (Technical Writing & Presentation Skills) 3 (3-0) Annexure . M. Course Outlines Introduction. England. water. Environmental philosophy and ethics. D. and White. J. Kessinger Publishing. biogeography. Farmington Hills. Natural philosophy. Portland 1967. Recommended Books: 1. community and ecosystem. London. description of population. Hanley. Introduction to ethical theory. Swift. branches of ecology. J. community. 3. N. species. Encyclopedia of environmental ethics and philosophy. USA. WCIV7AA. & Pierce. B. International Thomson Publishing. Environmental philosophy and study of environment and environmental resources. ethics and ecology. the ethics of soil. temperature. 2002. and systems ecology. Shogren. 2. World Development Report 2009: Reshaping Economic Geography. 2007.3..V. DeVeer. soil. A History of Western Philosophy. Ecology. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book: Philosophy.. R. 24 . 4. World Bank Publications. MI: Macmillan Reference USA/Gale. population. Callicott. 4. Environmental Economics in Theory and Practice. 2009. levels of ecological organization. its fundamental concepts. Ancient and modern philosophy an overview. Russell. Course Outlines Definition of philosophy.

plant geography and animal distribution. N. J. Fundamentals of Ecology. J. productivity of different ecosystems. 1999 4.L and Reiss. Ecology (concepts and applications. King’s College London. with special emphasis on their environmental impact. habitat and niche. After completion of this course. G. New Delhi. 2000. Ecology (principles and applications). aero-microbiology and food microbiology. M. Fundamentals of Ecology. bacteria and eukarya. Chapman. Ecological production: primary and secondary productivity. Course Outlines Introduction and historical perspective of environmental microbiology.) Moles. and Barett. agricultural and industrial ecosystems.W. Introduction and general characteristics of archaea. M C J 1st ed. 2001 5. 2004. 5th Ed. community dynamics. Microbiology of terrestrial environments. C. and S. landscape ecology. aquatic microbiology. Tata McGraw-Hill. 1992. New York. carrying capacity and environmental resistance Community: organization. COURSE 20 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide an awareness and understanding to the students about the role of microorganisms in the environment. 2. Populations. various concepts of community. Cambridge University Press. ecological modeling. 3. WCB/McGraw-Hill.topography and air as ecological factors. Recommended Books 1. characteristics of urban. 6th Ed. students will be able to understand the significance. Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in Pakistan. Concepts of Limiting factors. Thomson Brooks/Cole. UK. M J. C. 1st Ed.Cox. Lab Work 25 . energy flow and material cycling within ecosystem. P. Population distribution and abundance. distribution limits. E P. Biomes of the world. B. biotic factors. Biodegradation and bioremediation of organic and inorganic pollutants. Biogeochemical cycles of C. and More. Odum. their distribution and potential threats to these ecosystems. UK. Microbial metabolism. Systems ecology. Biogeography (an ecological and evolutionary approach). population dynamics. Ecosystem: structure and function. Dash. role and application of microorganisms in the environment. landscape changes and their importance.

2002. J. Knudsen. Fate of Environmental Pollutants.P. its sources and their effects. 26 . USA. 2009. New Jersey.M.A. Harley. R.M. London. 2. Soil. purification and preservation. Cambridge UK. UK. L. Enumeration of coliform bacteria from drinking water. Characteristics of Domestic & Industrial effluents.. I. Dilution plate technique. peppor.. 3. USA. Sylvia. and Zuberer. Environmental Laws: Pollutants Guidelines. Manual of Environmental Microbiology. Treatment Technologies for Pollutants: Industrial & Domestic. 2005. Washington DC.and Brendecke. D. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental pollution. J.A. D. Crawford. Recommended Books: 1. transportation & treatments. Types of Environmental pollution: Air. Environmental Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual. 3. Recommended Books 1. Hazardous Waste Management & Disposal.Introduction to basic techniques for sterilization/disinfection.. Monitoring of Environmental Pollution.. 2007. G.L. Butterworth-Heinemann. Hurrst. Case Studies.W. 2nd Edition. 2005. 4th Edition. A. C. Weiner.L.Gerba.J.D. USA. W..A..L.M.R. Understanding Environmental Pollution.. International Protocols (BASAL Convention). Principles and Applications of Soil Microbiology. Chemistry of Environmental Pollution. McInernery.B.J. nd COURSE 21 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Objectives 3 (3-0) The course is focused on introducing environmental pollution. Pepper. Pollution Control Strategies.J.P. L.1998. 5.. Maier. 4. Cambridge University Press. and Jeffery. (Elsevier) USA. Microbiology. Effects of Pollutants. M. Hill. USA. Fuhrmann. 2005.C.J.J. Academic Press. Water. D. J. isolation. P. Marine & Industrial pollution. USA.K.F. American Society for Microbiology.. 1995. McGraw Hill Inc. Human & other living organisms.G.P.. Environmental Pollution and Control. Hartel. M. 2 Edition. Peiece. F. Mean plate count. and Gerba.and Vesilaind. Academic Press... and Klein.V. Environmental Contaminants: Assessment & Control Dairel. It will also cover the existing laws related to pollutants in Pakistan and the conventions ratified internationally. 2. Prentice Hall. P. Noise. Environmental Microbiology. and Stetzenbach..I. Prescott. R. C. Collection. Solid Waste generation. Academic Press.

3. Tarbuck. The Hydrologic cycle. A. processes and the relationships between the atmosphere and climate. Cloud Classification. The Atmosphere. 2. 6th Edition. 2002. 27 . Four Spheres of the Earth. Course Outlines Introduction to psychology.W. Sadder. air pressure. Lawrance K. Solar radiations. The Physics of Atmospheres.E. Royal book company. climatic zones of Pakistan.. Environmental psychology. Weather and Climate. Spyros. The climate of Pakistan. Pandis. 1988. condensation and cloud Formation. Factors affecting air Pressure.K. Houghton J. The Meteorology of Pakistan: The climate and weathers of Pakistan.M. global circulation. Cambridge University Press.From Air Pollution to Climate Change Seinfeld. Lutgens. Handbook of Industrial Waste Treatment. Marcel Dekkar. Concepts of climate of Pakistan will also be provided. Radiation and climate. 1992. Climatology. Methods of psychology. Course outlines Introduction to Climatology and a brief History. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Austin Miller. N. Use and application of psychology in the world today (with special reference to Pakistan). Clouds and vertical motion in the atmosphere. Mechanism of heat transfer. COURSE 23 PSYCHOLOGY Objective 3(3-0) This course will give the basic knowledge to students about psychology and its applications and uses in the field of environmental sciences. concept of Seasons in the classification of climate. John Wiley and Sons.J. 9th Edition SHUBHI Publications. John H. Karachi. A brief historical background and schools of psychology.. Heat and the Earth's atmosphere.F. Shamshad. 5. Recommended Books: 1. American Public Health Association (APHA). Surface winds. local winds.2nd Editions. . 4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics . Vertical structure of the Atmosphere. 2003. COURSE 22 CLIMATOLOGY Objectives 3 (3-0) The objective of this course is to provide know-how regarding Earth's climate and weather systems. 2006 5.. K..4.

Routledge. threats and mitigation. Sustainable agricultural practices. Environmental Psychology. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. energy and carbon balance. Psychological theories about disasters and primary and secondary victims and impacts. solar radiation and primary production. T. M. Water resources of the world and Pakistan. Environmental perception and cognition. Course Outline Introduction. concepts. Pollution control through Ecology. Pyto-remediation and bio-remediation. forests and ecosystems affected by invasive species.. Fisher J. conservation of resources in ecological perspectives.. limitation of irrigated agriculture. 1992. London. Application of ecological knowledge in solving different environmental issues. Greene. 2. 2001. soil erosion and conservation. Water and distribution of species. Taylor and Francis Group Publisher. CRC Press.W. Future water scenario of Pakistan. soil resources of Pakistan. Theories of behaviors and behaviors relationship. Environmental psychological concerns related to weather and climate change. techniques and methods of restoration. carbon dioxide and global climate change. soil salinity and water logging. Background and scope. their management and ecological restoration. 5th Edition. P. COURSE 24 ENGLISH-IV/ (University Optional ) SEMESTER 5 COURSE 25 APPLIED ECOLOGY Objectives 3(3-0) This course will make the students aware of the concepts of applied ecology and understand some major environmental issues such as global climate change. London. basic concepts about pollutant transfer in plant and animals. and Baum A. wetlands etc) with special emphasis on Pakistan. 28 . Ecology of food production. High population density and psychological impacts. Fundamental of Psychology.D.C.A. Ecological restoration. rivers. Conservation and management of forests and rangelands in Pakistan. Restoration of derelict lands. Routledge. Management of aquatic ecosystems (marine. Effect of increased carbon dioxide concentration on agriculture. Water as an ecological resource. sustainable agriculture. CRC Press. Sustainable livestock management practices. Bell. Eysenck. Recommended Books: 1. Soil as a natural resource.characteristics and research methods. species response to pollutants.

terminologies: Poisons. Organ system and effects of toxicants on Organ system.. G. Dose-response relationship: developing a D/R Curves for chemicals in ling organisms. J. Foundations of Restoration Ecology. 1996. USA. toxicological agents and their types based on chemical structures. Toxicant metabolism and accumulation in body organs and pathways.Recommended Books: 1. biological effects. 29 . D. B. Blackwell Scientific Publications. Bioaccumulation and biomagnifications. 2004. Response of the body systems to toxicological agents. Chemical interactions and their types. 2nd ed. Determination of chemicals in biological samples. 3.. long-term (Chronic) & short-term (Acute) effects. Organs. toxicology of chemicals. and Memon.P. J. Soil Science. 2000 2. toxins & toxicants. 1989. A. dose and dose response relationship: Threshold limit for chemicals. P.W. Margaret A. Falk.A. Determination of Interaction of chemicals. Fundamentals of Ecology. Mumtaz. soil and air samples. Toxicological Testing: Acute & Chronic Toxicity Testing. Anthropogenic chemicals as toxicants. University of Peshawar. Oxford. Zedler.I. Peshawar. Odum E. Classification of environmental toxicants: Natural & anthropogenic.. their containment and control strategies. and Hobbs. Toxicity: Types and its measurement. in vivo & in vitro assays. toxicity screening using microbial systems. A. The course is focused on providing knowledge related to toxic chemicals in air. K and Habib. Toxicological testing techniques: in vitro & in vivo techniques. R. COURSE 26 ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY Objectives 3 (2-1) The course will introduce the concepts of adverse toxic effects of environmental chemicals.. 4. and Barett. Synergism. Risks and their characterization: risk assessment and management Laboratory Work Determination of chemicals in water. Immunological considerations in toxicology.1998. Islamabad. Island Press. Lahore. Course Outlines Introduction to Toxicology: History. from natural and anthropogenic sources. 5. dose response relationship in living organisms. Israr-ud-Din. Rashid. on human and other living organisms. Newman.S. toxins vs toxicants. Pakistan’s Environment. E. Studies in Pakistan Geography. 5th Edition. water and soil. short term (acute) and long-term (chronic) effects on organ system. Shirkat Gah. Potentiation and Addition. K. Thomson Brooks/Cole. Applied Ecology and Environmental Management.National Book Foundation. 2006.

health. people. B. 2005 2. the environmental aspects of different international economic agreements. First and Second law of Thermodynamics. Macmillan Press Ltd. 1989 COURSE 28 ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS Objectives 3(3-0) This course is expected to educate the students the role of economics in achieving sustainable development. COURSE 27 ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE OF PAKISTAN Objectives 3(3-0) To provide students with a comprehensive knowledge about the environmental resource base of Pakistan in order to learn its efficient utilization for sustainable development. culture. USA. 1st Edition. clean development mechanism. Environmental Profile of Pakistan. Recommended Books 1. 3. the economy and the environment. the economic benefits of different environmental resources. Ecological: ecological zones.M. economic aspects of different environmental problems. measuring environmental benefits. CRC Press Llc. 1993. major ecosystems.. education. urbanization and pollution.D. estimation of economic losses due to pollution and their abatement. Recommended Books: 30 . 1st Edition. Essentials of Environmental Toxicology. Environmental Toxicants (Human exposure and their Health Effects) Lippmann. Klassen. industry. Casarrett & Doull’s Toxicology. 1992. W. 1996. T and Turner. McGrawhill. M. Hughes. land. topographic zones. (ed. international trade and the environment. Vol. Ballantyne. USA. Economic: agriculture. USA. 3.).1 & 2. Government of Pakistan. water resources. economic development and the environment. State of the Environment-Pakistan . Course Outlines Introduction.Science of Poisons . geography. General and Applied Toxicology.Recommended Books 1. Course Outlines Introduction to history. W. Williams.2005 2. 5th Edition. valuing the environment and cost-benefit analysis. P. Van Nostrand and Reinhold New York. pollution control-a general model.

. Purposes and designs of environmental sampling. USA. Kolstad.A. Gravimetery. units.I. Field. COURSE 29 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 3(1-2) Objectives The course will educate the students about different types of solutions. Course Outlines Quality assurance in an Environmental Science laboratory.1. 3. water and plant analysis. Johns Hopkins University Press. C. precision and accuracy.2002. Analytical techniques for soil. D. Reuter. Thomson and Brooks. and F. Peverill.. 6th Edition. 3. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Determination of chemical characteristics of water and waste water (pH. Qualitative Chemical Analysis.L. 3rd Edition McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Recommended Books: 1. L. Preparation of Standard solutions and Standard curve. salinity & sodicity). K. M. Data interpretation for quality control. M.UK. D. Environmental economics: An elementary introduction. Titrimetery. D. 8th Edition. Sample collection. 2005. New York.and Field. B. C. 31 . 2000. Conductivitymetry. Conductivitymetry.. I.2004. Sample preservation methods.R. Instrumentations: principles and procedure for Potentiometery. handling. Fluoride. Harris. Collingwood. 2003. 2.W.D. and derived S. BOD. soil (NPK and organic matter contents. Oxford. A Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.. instruments & analytical procedures and their skills about practical aspects of environmental science will become more productive. All Solids. Sparrow and D. A.K. Standard solutions and standard curves.C. Australia. Lab Work S. Turner. D. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water & Wastewater. Holler.J. NO3–N & NH4-N). Skoog. CSIRO Publ. Freeman & Co.I. J.. 2. Pearce. and Batemen. 4. Use of Potentiometery. Environmental Economics. Titrimetery. Oxford University Press. 1993. Environmental Economics: An Introduction. Spectroscopy and Chromatography for the analysis of environmental samples. 1999. Gravimetery.K. Biomarkers in environmental assessment.. West. Spectroscopy and Chromatography. preparation and storage. COD.

2. purification and preservation of DNA. Basic Molecular biology: Essential techniques. 2nd Ed. Lab Work Introduction to basic molecular techniques. Key elements and components of biosafety regulatory systems. J.W. and Josef. Isolation. Sambrook. Environmental Biotechnology. J. D. bioremediation and phytoremediation of contaminated environment. PCR.. Germany. After completion of this course. 3. USA. Wiley-VCH Verlag. 2005. A. and Russel. 2005. New York. USA. Recombinant DNA technology. 5th Ed.living organisms and biomolecules as sensor of environmental pollution. Biomarkers. Biotechnology and biosafety issue/global concerns. Tools in environmental biotechnology. Scragg. New York.). 2001. Introduction to microbial kinetics. USA. Oxford University Press. JohnWiley and Sons Ltd. Ethic and legal problems in creations and use of transgenic plants. Possible influence of transgenic crops on non-target organisms. W. Cambridge University Press. (ed.E.D. Smith. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 2009. Chichoster. Course Outlines Introduction. Hans- Joachim. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. National Biosafety Guidelines. Government of Pakistan. 4.P.. Environmental Biotechnology: Concepts and Applications. England. Derbre. Transgenic safety protocols and field testing procedures.1999. National Biotechnology Commission. J. Biosensor. Biotechnology.COURSE 30 ELECTIVE-I SEMESTER 6 COURSE 31 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHN OLOGY Objectives 3(2-1) This course will provide sound technical foundation for using biotechnology in solving environmental issues and cleanup of the polluted environments. and application of biotechnology in the environment. COURSE 32 GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM& REMOTE SENSING 3(2-1) 32 . 2007. Recommended Books 1. Bioreactors. students will be able to understand the significance.

Using and reading GPS in field. Introduction to Photogrammetry. Inc. Harvey. Fishery and wildlife. F. Agriculture. analysis and output. Inc. Energy Sources. Active and Passive remote sensing. V. Iontegration with other technologies and its importance. Data entry and output. Types of data used in GIS. 2. The attempts of a digital description of that world create a computerized GIS which is usually a partial description of the world in relation with some feature tasks. Satellite Imageries. energy matter interaction in the atmosphere. John Wiley and Sons. A. Forestry. K and L. 4. Dynamic Earth Environmental Remote Sensing Observations from shuttle Mission. 1999. Aerial photography. Preparation of thematic maps. 2000. Campbell. GIS applications in: Environmental protection and resource conservation. advantages and limitations of process. Introduction to relevant Pakistani Institutions working in GIS. Different types of maps. map projection and coordinate systems. Z. Cartography. Pearsons Education. Remote Sensing of the environment: An Earth perspective. 3. John Wiley and Sons. Interpretation. Introduction to GIS.Objectives The main objectives of the GIS/RS are to maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning. Inc. Reading maps (Maps characteristics) Recommended Books: 1. Remote Sensing for the Earth Sciences. Lab Work Introduction to ArcView. Fundamental of Geographic Information System(GIS). A Primer of GIS-fundamentals Geographic and Cartographic Concepts. eradication of the duplicated data. R. Dessinov. 2008. Image Processing. Geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) had been one of the key subprojects envisaged in the National Information System. Guilfoud press New York. Course Outlines Fundamentals of Remote Sensing. COURSE 33 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives 3(2-1) 33 . 2000. Jensen. Mc Graw Hill Education. History and data collection. Data acquisition. provide efficient means for data distribution and handling. history and platforms. Environmental Impact Assessment(EIA). Lulla. Rancez. 2009. integration of information from many sources. Remote sensing of vegetation and landscape. 5.

eco-design. 2005. philosophical. 2006. ecological. Methods of environmental protection. COURSE 34 BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION Objectives 3(3-0) The objective of this course is to familiarize the students with different forms of biodiversity. WWF Pakistan. Lab Work Industrial Field Trip Recommended Books: 1. 1998. tools of sustainable consumption and production (eco label. Environmental Economy. Environmental Management Systems Principles. 34 . hot spots of biodiversity. A. Conservation of biodiversity. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Certification of EMS. Environmental/social Auditing procedures and reporting processes. and Qasim. M. M..3rd Edition . Environment and sustainable development. F. plant. American Society for Quality. Sheldon. Environmental Management Systems: An Implementation Guide for Small and Medium-Sized Organizations: NSF International Ann Arbor.). animal and microbial resources of world and Pakistan. Michigan. social and ethical values of biodiversity. EMAS Environmental Management and Auditing Systems: A Practical Guide for the Development and Implementation of an Effective Environmental Management System. Course Outlines Introduction. principles of Cleaner production. Systems and Support Techniques. B. Related Environmental legislation. 2. alpha and beta diversity.. and will help to learn waste minimization methods and principles of cleaner production. types of biodiversity. American Society for Quality.C. and Yoxon.This course will educate students about the Environmental Management Systems and how they lead environmental benefits. Introduction of ISO 14000 series of standards and their role in environmental management.2nd Ed. 2001. 3. Course Outline Introduction to Environmental Management Systems (EMS). International Organization for Standardization. Environmental Management Systems: General Guidelines on Principles. need and approach.. economic. standards and guidelines. Environmental Management Systems: A step-by-step Guide to Implementation and Maintenance. Environmental aspects and impacts. Environmental Management tools. threats to biodiversity. threats to biodiversity and its conservation. Khan. etc. 4. cleaner technologies.

Legal protection of species. Z. in-situ and ex-situ conservation. and Morre. 3.R. Considerations. Sunderland. Determination of concentration and distribution of a specific pollutant environment sampling techniques. A Primer for Conservation Biology. management.. design and types of samples. their categories. soil and living organisms. Planning analytic protocols quality assurance programmes. the indicators for ecological monitoring in the field for fauna and flora. EIA requirement. Publ.. P. protected areas. Report on monitoring of municipal waste in the city. objectives of sampling and monitoring programme. quality control sampling. quality assessment.B. Quality assurance and quality control. national and international laws and regulations. conservation in man-made ecosystems. air. 2000. Saad Printers. plants. water and soil) for physical and chemical monitoring. role of traditional knowledge in conservation. Recommended Books: 1. ecotourism. Illustrated Handbook of Biodiversity of Pakistan. London. laboratory custody. NOC for plant operation. conservation and livelihood. habitats. community and ecosystem level. Rawalpindi.. 2ndEd. Field visit/ study tour to water testing laboratory/local water authority and report writing. forests. Study the indicators for biological monitoring of the river and canal water. presampling requirements/information. chemical addition. sampling and design purposes. C. 35 . Use of various instrumental techniques for analysis of samples. Associates Inc. 1998.B. role of protected areas and ecological corridors in conservation. refrigeration and freezing methods. Visit to EPD for the study of air and water monitoring procedures. 2000.D. Mirza. 2. field custody. Sinauer. population. Lahore). Lab Work Sampling techniques (air. National Conservation Strategy of Pakistan. international agreements. Biological indicators for environmental monitoring. Conservation of wildlife. regulatory purposes for NEQS compliance. Kings College. water. croplands. role of biomarkers in environmental assessment.conservation at species. Visit to GIS laboratory (WWF-Pakistan. Cox.B. Course Outlines Introduction. Preservation methods including pH control. cities. COURSE 35 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives 3(3-0) This course aims to provide information of techniques used in environmental monitoring and evaluation of different standards of environmental factors i. Biogeography. P.e. conservation strategies.

E. COURSE 36 ELECTIVE-II SEMESTER 7 COURSE 37 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives 3 (3-0) The objectives of this course are to provide introduction to climate change. Keith. A Guide for the technical Evaluation of Environmental Data. 2000.1996. S.) McGraw-Hill. 2002. Patterns in Winds and Pressure. and social factors contributing to climate and global change. N. Ozone depletion. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 2002.USA. Moisture in the Atmosphere. The course will help in understanding the scientific evidence supporting each topic and how it fits into the local. Knowledge about the gases and process responsible for climate change will be given in this course. The Measurement of Climate Change. D. 8. Manahan. Remote Sensing Note. It will also discuss a variety of intriguing issues in Climate and Science that brings change due to human intervention. S. F. and the interactions between climate and the global environment. I. Environmental Chemistry. Murai. (eds. 2008.. Technomic Publishing Company Inc.1999. regional. Recent Climate Change Indicators. Forstner U. 7. 2008. Regional droughts and 36 . Predicted changes to the physical world: Predicted changes to the biological world: range shifts. D. USA. Burden. Animal Biomarker as pollution indicators: Ecotoxicology Series 1. 5. H. L. agriculture. E. Japan Association on Remote Sensing. Environmental Sampling and Analysis: A Practical Guide. Environmental Monitoring Handbook.Recommended Books: 1. Lewis Publisher London. Earth Observation of Global Change. Precipitation. 3. phenological changes. Korte. Energy and Temperature. and Guethner. McKlivie. . The Causes of Climate Change: Global warming and greenhouse effect. New York. Climate classifications: Köppen Global Climate.. Course Outlines Introduction to the earth's climate: climate change. human health. USA. Tokyo. 2nd Edition. Human responses to potential climate change. USA. extinctions. Chuviero. 2. and worldwide perspectives in terms of Climate Change. 1992. altered community structure. 6. its causes and effects. chemical. Physical. R. biological. Chapman and Hall. (ed) Springer. Electromagnetic Radiation and the Global Energy Budget. Peakall. UK. Global Climate Change: Causes & Consequences: Natural & Anthropogenic sources.

(ed).. and the public is informed about the project proposal Course Outlines Introduction. Handbook of Environmental Impact Assessment (vol 1 & 2). Future Climates and the Consequences: Ground and Satellite Based Measurements Solutions & Alternates to man-made problems. and Solutions. Climate Change . J.Causes. Keith. Houghton. J.O. Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment. 37 . Cost and benefits of EIA. project implementation and follow up. and noise. 2004. Sringer. London.. National Book Foundation.. 2. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. liquid.. public involvement. 2005. 2005. principles and purposes of IEE and EIA and its significance to the society. (ed. possible adverse environmental impacts are identified and avoided or minimized. law. 1st Edition. screening.).T. 2.Causes. R. COURSE 38 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives 3(3-0) The aim of this course is to ensure that environmental factors are considered in the decision-making process of a development project.. impact analysis. A. J. overview. Environmental Impact Assessment in Practice. scoping. D. review of EIA quality. Role of Energy Production in climate change: Fossil fuels. J. role of quality assurance and quality control in environmental analysis. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University. Petts. Glasson. 2003. 1986. 2003. EIA Regulations 2000 of Pakistan. T. reporting. policy and institutional arrangements for EIA systems. National Environmental Quality Standards for air. and Chadwick.. 6. & Nixon. J. social impact assessment (SIA). John Wiley & Sons. Harrop. 4. Hardy. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 1999.cataclysmic climate change. EIA project management. Ministry of Housing and Works. John Wiley & Sons. 3. Climate Change .. Global Change and the earth system. Types & Resources to produce Energy. Islamabad. Islamabad. solids. Routledge. 3. Recommended Books: 1. 1994. Recommended Books: 1. Hardy. 4. Therivel. 2005. 5.A. Global Warming and Climate Change. Effects. London. Main stages in EIA process. A. Environmental impact assessment: Guidelines by the Government of Pakistan. Blackwell. 2000. decision-making to implement the project. mitigation and impact management. Oxford. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Effects. and Solutions. Hydrocarbons & their byproducts. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach.

M. Carpenter. causes and methods for its improvement. Recommended Books: 1. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries in Asia. wind power and nuclear power. COURSE 39 NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(3-0) To train students on the identification. Land use Planning and Management: evolution of land use planning. methodologies. 1997. their pros and cons. forest types and its existing management. Water Resources Management: Available waters resources. H. R. Goldsmith. existing situation reason for decline and its potential in the national economy. Conservation in Progress. threats. Fisheries Management: Types of fishes in Pakistan... best available option for future. existing management approaches.. B.. EIA Manual: Training Resource Manual. Asian Development Bank. USA. importance. national example. J. B. field visit to develop a land use plan for selected area. (ed. Use of interdisciplinary approach for sustainable management of the natural resources. 2nd Edition. management options. Course Outlines Introduction: Non-renewable and renewable resources. Ludwig. A. and existing situation in world in general while in Pakistan particularly. & McCabe. agriculture products and their share in GDP. F. Evans. 6. R. Rangeland Management: existing status. occurrence and distribution of natural resources. wildlife census. threat and its causes. Sadler. reasons for its decline and its possible remedies. national and provincial legislation.. United Nations Environment Programme. 38 .5. solar power. New York. Development of Management Plan: needs. national agriculture policy. agriculture chemicals. Energy and Mineral Resources Management: present situation at national level. management options. limitation in the future. problem in agriculture. S. Watershed management: Importance basic principles.B and Warren. John Willey & Sons. effective management.. 2002. requirement. their current status and threats.. Wildlife: Management existing situation at national level. review of land use plans developed by the various organizations. Types. sustainable/trophy hunting projects and its role in local and national development.). Agricultural Resources Management: Existing situation of agriculture sector in Pakistan. Everitt. and Tu. 1993. process and contents of the management plan. Lohani.

New York. 1984. Case Studies. 39 . Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research. 3. Techniques & Pre-requisites for Scientific Research. Objectives. John Wiley & Sons. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). London. Research Presentation Techniques – Data presentation Recommended Books: 1. & Plano Clark. to introduce students to research design..L. It will help: to develop research abilities in the activities of research design and practice.E. Experimental Research. Review of Literature. W.E. S. Methodology. P. research methods.Amsterdam. Research Proposal: its importance . Search Engines. Bibliography. Critical Thinking and Developing the Research Question: Defining the Research Problem. Scientific Research: Science. USA. 2007. Hansen. population and sampling frames. and the process of doing research and reporting the results Course Contents Introduction to Research. Questionnaire.F.A pre-requisite for Research. Sage CA. Elsevier. Data Collection: Techniques in data collection: Quantitative & Qualitative Data. Research Proposal Writing Techniques: Importance of Research Design. Introduction to Environmental management development in Environmental modeling.2. Inference based on findings. R. Literature Search: Database. Pearce & Turner Harvester Wheatsheaf. Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment. Review of Literature. Dasmann. 1990. V. Research Design & Research Methods. Scientific Methods. Creswell.1991 COURSE 40 RESEARCH METHODS IN ENVIRONMENT SCIENCE Objectives 3 (3-0) The course will provide participants with an introduction to the knowledge and skills necessary to develop a research proposal and subsequently to conduct a research study. types of sampling design/. J. Material Methods. Sampling: the logic of sampling. Thousand Oaks. 4. Analytical tools in research: qualitative and quantitative methods. Surveys. and Jorqensen. 1992. GOP and IUCN. 5. Environmental Conservation. concepts and terminologies. Data Analysis: Data Interpretation: Current data interpretation with comparative studies (Inter-laboratory comparison). to develop skills in reading research papers and in writing reviews with critical thinking skills & to evaluate a range of specific literature via the ability to reason clearly and think critically. Islamabad. How to put things together? Introduction. Interviews. Selecting the Research Method.

Pakistan Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the rules.. Conservation Strategies and Action Plans. 2001.. National Environmental Policy 4. Univ. Law Books House. 1997.. Moriarty. Writing Science Through Critical Thinking. Babbie. Chichester. Case Study Research: Design and Methods. 6. regulations made there under. Recommended Books: 1. 3. Belmont California. Course Outlines National Environmental Policy of Pakistan and its implementation.. of Chicago Press. R. USA. 2. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act. 2000. 2003. E. The Craft of Research by Wayne C. SNBP Local Government Ordinance. 1989.h. Robert Yin. National Conservation Strategy 5. Wadsworth Publishing Company. G. Environmental Laws and their implementation in Pakistan.S. and Arhonditsis. Survey Research Methods. COURSE 44 HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT 3 (3-0) 40 . 2003. 5.2. 2008. M. 4. Sage Publishers.USA. Environmental provisions in the constitution of Pakistan.Batty. USA. John and sons Ltd. Government of Pakistan 3. COURSE 41 ELECTIVE –III COURSE 42 ELECTIVE –IV SEMESTER 8 COURSE 43 ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS & POLICIES Objectives 3 (3-0) To give an understanding of the role of state and its instruments in the governance of environment in order to learn responsibilities of state and rights of its citizens for environmentally sustainable development. S. environmental provisions in the Local Government Ordinance. Booth. 2001 and the rules of business made there under. Marilyn F. 2nd Edition. 3rd Edition.Harrad. Diamon. England. Qadar. Students project in Environmental Science. 1st Edition Jones and Bartlett Publishers. 1997.

Objectives
This course is designed to introduce participants to various environmental factors affecting human health. The course contents emphasize on the environmental health core issues of air, land and water pollution; and public and community health. The prevention of morbidity and mortality in human populations through the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards in the environment will be presented using the tools of epidemiology, toxicology, law, and risk assessment and communication techniques.

Course Outline
Introduction: concept, basic requirements for a healthy environment; Communicable & Non-communicable diseases; Environmental Exposure: Measuring environmental quality; Human exposure and health Impact: Impact of environmental factors on health, Role of environmental health professional; Nature of environmental hazards, Risk assessment, Risk management, Air, Water and sanitation, Food and agriculture, Health and disease; Human settlement and urbanization, Health and energy use. Health and development, Health indicators, Industrial pollution and chemical safety; Trans-boundary and global health concerns, Action to protect health and the environment; Epidemiology of infectious diseases, Communicable diseases, Non-communicable diseases; Introduction to Immunology, Pathology, Epidemiology; Occupational Health Safety devices; Laws and Regulations

Recommended Books:
1. Basic Environmental Health. Yassi, A., Kjelllström, T., de Kok, T. and Guidotti, T. L., 1st Edition . Oxford University Press New York, USA, 2001. 2. Environmental Science (The Way the World Works) Nebel, B. J. and Wright, R. T., 8th Edition. Prentice Hall International Inc. London, UK, 2004. 3. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). Lippmann, M. V. N. and Reinhold, J . 1st Ed. New York, USA, 1992. 4. Park’s Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine, Park, K., 2nd Edition. M/s Banarsid. 2002. 5. Medical Microbiolog, Khan, A.M., 1st Edition. Time Publishers, Karachi, 2001. COURSE 45

POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
Objectives

3 (3-0)

The course objectives are: to provides an overview of types and sources of pollution; to determine the effects of soil , water and air pollution; meteorology as related to dispersion of pollutants in air, water, and soil; to discuss various techniques in pollution control and the regulatory environment facing sources of environmental pollution.

Course Outlines
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Environmental Pollution and Pollutants: An introduction; Pollution and Environmental Ethics: Roots of our problem, Environmental ethics as public health, conservation and preservation, Ethics for non-human nature; Environmental Risk Analysis: Risk, Risk Assessment, Risk Management; Pollution Concept: Types of Pollution, Air, water and soil pollution – Causes and Consequences; Control technologies for Air, Water and Soil Pollution; Municipal and Solid Waste (MSW) Management: minimization techniques, controls and 3-Rs: reuse, recycling & recovery; Energy Recovery from organic MSW; Landfill sites and their potential for recycling waste; Waste water treatment technologies: estimates, treatments and utilization; Membrane Technology; Reuse, Recycling and Recovery; Hazardous Waste Management: segregation of healthcare and municipal waste; Radioactive waste: Sources, health effects, waste management; Noise pollution & its Effects: Control technologies for its containment; Other Pollution Controls: Biotechnology for environment: bioremediation for Industrial pollution control, oil spills and pesticides; Occupational Health Safety devices: Laws & Regulations regarding waste

Recommended Books:
1. Environmental Pollution & Control. and Peiece, J.J., Weiner, R.F., and Vesilaind, P.A. 4th Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (Elsevier) USA,1998. 2. Understanding Environmental Pollution Hill, M.K., 2nd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2005. 4. Air Pollution Control Engineering, Nevers, N D, McGraw-Hill. USA, 1995. 5. Industrial Water Pollution Control , Felder, E., 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill, USA, 1989. 6. Biotechnology for Waste and Wastewater Treatment, Cheremisinoff, N. P., Prentice Hall, India, 1996. 5. Industrial Pollution Prevention Handbook, Freeman and Harry, M, McGraw-Hill, USA, 1995. COURSE 46

RESEARCH PROJECT/ INTERNSHIP

42

ELECTIVE COURSES
E-I INTRODUCTION TO BIOCHEMISTRY
Objective
To provide the students with basis knowledge of biochemistry and its application in environment. 3(3-0)

Course Outlines
Introduction: Scope and importance of biochemistry in Environmental Sciences. Cells; biochemical aspects of constituents and functions of cell organelles. General Phenomena: Law of mass action, dissociation of water and pH value, buffers, diffusion, transport mechanisms across biomembranes and osmosis. Carbohydrates. Classification, structures and isomerism. Metabolism of carbohydrates; glycolysis, Kreb cycle and photosynthesis. Proteins: Classification of proteins, biochemical functions, amino acids; structure and classification, essential and non-essential amino acids, peptide linkage and polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins. Hydrolysis of protein and reactions of amino acids in the body, Urea cycle. Effect of environmental pollution at protein level. Enzymes: Characteristics, classification, specificity and inhibition, prosthetic groups, coenzymes and compounds related to nucleic acids, NAD+, NADP, + ATP, FMN and FAD. Role of enzymes in environmental issues. Application of enzyme immobilization to control various types of pollution. Toxicant detoxification through enzyme action. Lipids: Classification, characteristics. Structures and classification of fatty acids and triglycerides. Hydrolysis of fats, B-oxidation of fatty acids. Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA; their functional and structural differences in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Effect of pollution on DNA.

Recommended Books:
1. Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox. Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry,

5th Edition. Worth Publishers, USA. 2008. 2. Text Book of Medical Biochemistry, Chatterjee, M.N and R. Shinde.. 6th Ed. Jaypee Publishers, India. 2008. 3. Harper’s Biochemistry, Mortin, D.W., P.A. Mayes, V.W. Rodwell and D.K. Granner. 2006. 27th Ed. Appleton and Lange, USA. 4. Rahman, K. Basic Concepts in Biochemistry. Vol. 1. 2nd Ed. A l -U mar P ubl i s her, P ak i s t an. 2004.

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groundwater exploitation. Pakistan. Ahmed. Lahore. fisheries management.Lahore. A. climate change and its impacts on our future water resources. with drinking water facilities like springs.. N. Lab Work One to two day study tour(s) to visit water supply & waste water treatment plant. Asia Printer. K. Groundwater Resources of Pakistan.E-2 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT Objectives 3(2-1) The aim of this course is to educate students about the Water Resources Management with reference to Pakistan. Islamabad. hydrological cycle. watershed/catchment. Cheema. (eds. like solid waste and waste water disposal into the natural streams etc. water quality and quantity aspects.Varis. flood and droughts.. P. 2003. Mirajuddin Publication . (ed.. Bengali. J. Biswas. 6. it’s over-mining and pollution and urbanization aspects.. Course Outlines Water resource and its management. 2006. Recommended Books: 1. recycling and re-use of wastewater.). 5. Briscoe. water relevant intuitions and authorities in Pakistan. and Qamar. tubewells. precipitation distribution in Pakistan. R. Khan. water resources management and future challenges in Pakistan.K. water conservation and rain water harvesting in urban and rural environment. 3. 2. how to minimize their wastage and how to increase its efficiency especially in irrigation sector. The Politics of Managing Water. and Malik. integrated water resources management (IWRM). Integrated Water Resources Management in South and Southeast Asia. Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization. A. I. Indus Water Accord 1991. Oxford University Press Karachi... wetlands resources management.). improving water productivity/irrigation water efficiency. Mirajuddin Publication . flood and drought management. Revised & enlarged edition. 1993. pollution aspects. A.1993. N. SDPI Oxford University Press. 2005. Oxford University Press New Delhi. Problems and Politics of Water Sharing and Management in Pakistan. Pakistan . virtual water. water supply and demand management measures. O. Islamabad. and Tortajada. 44 .. Ahmed. R. C. 2006. Indus Water Treaty 1960 (IWT). U. Pakistan’s Water Economy Running Dry. 4.

C. the salient features of urban environments. E. Hillel. Soils in Our Environment. Definition. Academic Press.R. Environmental impact of agricultural and Industrial wastes. Urban ecology: atmospheric processes. soils. Miller. Factors and processes of soil formation. Course Outlines Introduction. PrenticeHall. R. hydrological processes. Prentice Hall. future of urban centers.. urban political ecology. Course Outlines Introduction. residential mobility and the neighborhood change. San Diego.. Urban ecosystem. N. 1. 11th Edition.T.E-3 SOIL AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives 3(3-0) This course will provide students with the knowledge of the basic properties and significance of soil and its care for sustainable environment. and Bantel. Soil forming minerals. 2007. Forms of urbanization. Brady. E-4 Urban Environments Objectives 3(3-0) This course is aimed at providing students information about the different aspects of ever-increasing urbanization. R. NJ. 2008. urbanization in Pakistan. Gardiner. Urbanization. Soil buffering capacity and its importance. transport. Islamabad. and Weil. 45 . D. Soil Science. Cation and anion exchange. urban landscapes characteristics. R. Recommended Books: The Nature and Properties of Soils. Pakistan. NJ. 1996. Soil degradation. management and green productivity. Bashir. humans as components of urban ecosystems. urban patterns and ecosystem functions. Soil as a natural sink for pollutants. National Book Foundation. Environmental implications of fertilizers and agrochemicals. urban settlements. Causes of urbanization. After completion of this course. Types and properties of parent materials. Physical and chemical processes of weathering. Physical and chemical properties of soil. environmental problems of urban life and their possible solutions. students will be better equipped with the information about the ways and means for better and efficient management of soils for healthy environment for future generations. Soil in the Environment: Crucible of Terrestrial Life. USA. 2007. USA. CA. D. Process and outcome. urban flora and fauna. USA. Upper Saddle River.W. Upper Saddle River.

UK.and Kowaril. Kate. D.and Maser. SAGE Publications Ltd.. UR. M.. Sukopp. S. I. The Works: Anatomy of a City. 2. Planning and Urban Change. 2004. Alberti. 46 . Surveys and Study of unplanned areas in a city to assess the impacts on environment.. Land use planning theories. 2009. The Ecology of Urban Habitats. Springer. Recommended Books: 1. S. Ward.. Elements of urban planning. nd 2 Edition. C. Aims and Objectives of planning. A. Chapman and Hall. New York. M. 2007. Planning theories and concepts. Urban Ecology: Plants and Plant Communities in Urban Environments. Types of Urban Plans. H. Routledge.. City Design for Sustainable Development. nature and purpose of urban planning. UK. 3. Principles of planning. Smith. Levels of planning. 2000. 4. Survey and field work in industrial states around city to assess the impacts of industrialization on land degradation. Justification for planning for city management. Hough. Scope. London. 1. To study impacts of urban sprawl and urbanization on energy and water resources of the area. Penguin Group. Lab Work Surveys and Study of planned areas in a city to assess the urban management plans. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. It describes different theories and planning system of different cities in Pakistan and some countries in Asia and Europe. Preparation of Urban and environmental management plan for a selected city or part of a city. Hague. USA. CRC Press LLC. Routledge. 2004. UK. SBS academic publishing.Recommended Books: Urban Ecology.S. USA. J. London. 2. Silberstein. 1989. Gilbert. Hejny.L. New trends in planning and city management. V. Advances in Urban Ecology: Integrating Humans and Ecological Processes in Urban Ecosystems. 5. E-6 URBAN PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (2-1) The course aims to provide basic concepts of urban planning and its relation with environmental management at different administrative levels. The planning process. Planning and its relationship with other professions. Course Outline Introduction to Urban Planning and Management. Applications of urban planning concepts to address the environmental issues at local level. O.1990. Cities and Natural Process: A Basis for Sustainability. 2006. Introduction to planning system in Pakistan.

Indirect and long-term consequences of catastrophies. Disaster Management Trainings and Policies. R. Chapman & Hall.. The impact of natural disasters: Direct and shortterm impact of disasters. New York. Techniques and methods to assess hazard. and White G. 2. Clara. Flooding. UK. Flood Management: Organizational Role. Earthquake Management. 4. 47 . Government of Pakistan. E&UA Div. P.W. E-7 DISASTER MANAGEMENT Objectives 3 (3-0) This course will provide know how in dealing with natural calamities and their management by encompassing the field of hazard and disaster studies. Disaster as an opportunity for development. D. Islamabad. Disaster its types: Natural vs Man-made. Natural Disasters Alexander. 1986. New York. 1993. Disaster Management: Components of management. i. ADB. Different approaches and Indicators.3. 1989. It discusses a wide range of aspects.J. Recommended Books: 1..e.. 1993. Westview Press. H. assessment of factors which put societies in vulnerable situations to the disaster management continuum. 2nd Edition. 1993.. Hazards.. Natural cycles and their role. 4.UNESCO. G. Socio-economic factors. Risk and Vulnerability: Definitions and characterization. Disaster Management: A Disaster Manager’s Handbook Carter N. 3. Paris. Introducing Town Planning. Political factors. Hazard and vulnerability reduction and Mitigation: hard and soft measures.W.. International phenomenon.. vulnerability and risk: Qualitative and Quantitative approaches.. Manila. Boulder . Cultural factors.B. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. Kates. The Environment as Hazard Burton I. Role of Media in Disaster Management. Landslide.F. M. this course also aims to make an assessment of the consequences of ‘natural’ catastrophic at both short and long terms. Role of Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Ministry of Housing and Works. and Woodrow. Rising from the Ashes: Development Strategies in Time of Disaster Anderson. It finally tends to provide the students with basic knowledge on hazard reduction and vulnerability mitigation. Course Outlines Natural hazards and disasters: The need for hazard and disaster studies. Physical factors. Factors of vulnerability: Demographic factors. Prediction. 1991. To underline the importance of disasters in socio-economic development. The Guilford Press. Historical background on Hazard and Disaster research. Earthquake. Longman Group.

A. E. uses. and Mushkatel. energy resources. Disasters and Development Cuny. types. John Wiley and Sons. Raunkiaer’s standard frequency model in plant biodiversity. E-9 Energy and Environment Objectives 3(3-0) This course is designed to create understanding of the significance of energy in our daily life. Recommended Books: Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. 1. 1984.. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. 2007. L. its supply position and merits and demerits of different energy resources. McKinney.H. Biotic structure. Disaster Management: Warning Response and Community Relocation.. Agro-biodiversity and ecosystem.C. 48 . Botkin. Westport. Farming practices for pests and weeds control. 2001. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. sustainable energy management.A. 2007. Schoch. 6. Consumer and producer relationship.M. 3. and Yonavjak. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. Course Outlines Introduction to agro-ecosystem. Effect of pollutants on plants and animals. E-10 Agro-Ecology Objectives 3(2-1) The course will give better understanding about significance of agriculture in environment. Agroecology. Sustainable livestock management. Ecological concept in crop and food production.5.B and Keller. merits and demerits of wind. alternate energy resources. solar. decomposers. efficiency in production and utilization of existing resources. USA. principles and strategies for designing sustainable farming systems. consumers. Quorum Books. F. Perry R. Oxford University Press / Oxfam America.W. New York. It will improve the management skills of the students in interacting ultimate producers and consumers.L. Phytoremediation and bioremediation. hydropower. 2. OECD/IEA. local. Deforestation for agricultural purposes. 1983.. D. Paris. energy resources of Pakistan. R. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. 4th Edition. biomass resources. environmental and economic advantages and disadvantages of different energy resources. 6th Edition. M. Course Outlines Energy-development and environment. primary producers. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.

M. Yandermeer J. India. P. Study of indices of similarity and dissimilarity.H.R. 3. Determination of canopy cover and basal area of plant species. Study of index of diversity. Determination of importance value index (IVI) of plant species. McGraw Hill Publishing Company. Altreri. 1990. E-11 Seminar 49 . Experimental Plant Ecology.G.A. 2000. 2. Corol. USA.P.Determination of density and abundance of plant species. New York. Agroecology: Science of Sustainable Agriculture. USA. and Sudha. M.. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 1995. Westview Press. Kapur. Study of stratification and profile diagram. R. Agrocology. C. Study of primary productivity of plants and methods of measuring primary productivity. New Delhi.Lab Work Determination of frequency of plant species and its comparison with Raunkiaer’s standard frequency diagram. Recommended Books: 1. and Rossel. Boulder.

The committee also recommended that the pre-requisite for MS Environmental Science must be BS Environmental Science and no other specialization. 5. 2. it was suggested that they should opt for courses of at least 12 credit hours from the list of elective subjects in consultation with the supervisor. the Committee agreed on the following principles. The Masters Degree Programme will be of two years duration after four years Bachelors Degree in Environmental Science. 4. 3. availability of the faculty and other facilities. 50 . To support the students in their specialized areas of research work. The areas of specialization may be offered according to the geographic location of the institutions. The Masters degree will be based on course work of 24 credit hours along with a mandatory research thesis of 6 credit hours as per HEC policy guidelines. that: 1. The committee proposed the following courses as Core Courses for the degree of Masters in Environmental Science.POST GRADUATE PROGRAMME MS in Environmental Science Regarding MS Degree Programme. The nomenclature of the Degree will be “MS in Environmental Science”.

transport and industrial production Industrial Ecology Sustainable Development 51 . 10. 20. 8. 18. 12. Environmental Chemistry Applied Environmental Microbiology Freshwater Ecology (Limnology) Environmental Sociology Environmental Geology Marine Pollution Epidemiology Environmental Biotechnology Wildlife. 17. 2. 10. 9. 19. The Committee proposed the following elective courses for MS programme. 7. 13. 11. 22.SCHEME OF STUDIES FOR MS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES Course Titles 1. 4. 3. Credit Hours 3 3 Environmental Governance Environmental Analytical Techniques 3 Environmental Impact Assessment Project Development and Management 3 Occupational Safety and Environment 3 Environmental Management Systems 3 Energy and Environment 3 Climate Change 3 Advances in Plant Ecology 3 Biological Conservation 3 Wildlife. 5. 9. Forestry and Wetland Conservation and Management 3 Advanced Urban Ecology and Management 3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1. 5. 24. 16. 7. 25. 14. 2. 3. 21. 15. 6. 11. Forestry and Wetland Management Watershed Management Environmental Auditing Vegetation Ecology Alternative energy sources Cleaner Production Technologies Solid and Hazardous Waste Management Environmental Economics Remote Sensing & GIS Applications in Environment Environmental Risk Assessment Environmental auditing Principles and applications of bioremediation Environmental Engineering Sustainable urban planning and management Natural resource conservation Sustainable agriculture. 8. 23. 12. 6. 4. 26.

Environmental Issues – The Global Consequences. Environmental control Policies. 2nd Edition. The World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future. Mackenzie. Khan K..1994. London. 3. NCS. and Jorqensen. D. Carrying capacity and sustainable development. Conventions and Protocols in Global. 3.E. Regional and International Environmental Issues. Oxford University Press. London Black Stone Press Ltd. Englewood Cliffs Prentice Hall. Conservation Strategies. Provincial and Local Strategies. GOP and IUCN. Money. Islamabad. Elsevier.. Karachi. 52 . Draft National Environmental Policy. Ball. Treaties. WCS.T.A.E. Hansen. Environment People and Economy. Aquatic and Atmospheric Ecosystems. Hodder and Stoughton. Organizational and Institutional Framework for Environmental Protection and Management: Scope and Status in Pakistan. FURTHER READINGS 1. status of Terrestrial.DETAILS OF M. P. Man-Environment Interaction in time and space. 2. Environmental Law – The Law and Policy relating to the Protection of the Environment.F. 1992. 1991. Instruments and methods. 1987. Oxford University Press. Our Changing Planet – An Introduction to Earth System Science and Global Environmental Change. Legislation and Environmental Protection with particular reference to Pakistan. F. S.1991. S. and Bell. 4. Mackenzie J. COURSES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE CORE COURSES COURSE 1 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE Objectives Meaning and Scope of Environmental Planning and Management. Amsterdam..S.1994. technology and resource use. Recommended Books: 1. A detailed study of Environmental Problems of Pakistan.1995. development of concepts. The Pakistan National Conservation Strategy (PNCS). Geography of Pakistan.. Role of Public awareness and community participation in environmental conservation and management. Relationship of culture. 2. Introduction to Environmental Management – Development in Environmental Modeling.. S.

ecological impact assessment. Demographic impact assessment. COURSE 3 ENVIROMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Objectives Introduction to principles and process of Environmental impact Assessment. Sectoral Guidelines of Environmental Impact Assessment. chemical and microbiological analysis of environmental pollutants. History. Cost benefit analysis of projects. Gas Chromatography etc. D. process. Instrumental Techniques using Atomic Absorption and Emission Analysis Spectrophotometery. DC. Recommended Books: 1. A one Publishers Lahore. Environmental Chemical Analysis. England. Wood. opportunities and issues. K. Government of Pakistan. social impact assessment. classical methods: volumetric and gravimetric analysis. John Wiley & Sons. sampling rules. role and importance. Public involvement in environmental assessment: requirements. Wastewater. A. F & Bronstein. Environmental Impact Assessment (A Comparative Review). Assessment and Interpretation of Results using Statistical Tools. 2. economic impact assessment. Environmental and Social Impact assessment. 2. ed. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Chichester. 1995. Ahmed. 1995. Recommended Books: 1.Vanclay. WB.A. sample collection and preservation. Principles of physical. Sectoral guidelines for EIA.COURSE 2 ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES Objectives Introduction. Environmental Engineering Laboratory (latest edition). World Bank. 53 . Sampling Procedure for the examination of Water. Laboratory Techniques and Field Monitoring for parameters of importance causing environmental pollution. Washington. Longman Scientific and Technical. Case Studies and review. Longman House. Environmental auditing. Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. Environment Department. Ministry of Environment. Harlow Essex. Burnt Hill. Air and Solid Waste. 3. C. Assessment of environmental impacts. Greenberg (American Public Health Association). Ed. UK. 1993. procedures and methods of EIA.. FURTHER READINGS 1.

work breakdown structure. Van Nostrand and Reinhold. 54 ... Public health concept. B. A Guide to Project Management. Accident prevention and safety plans. Inc. Resource Mobilization. prevention and control. USA. L. MS Project Recommended Books: 1. 2002. J. 2001. T. Logical Framework: Explanation of Vertical Logic. 2nd Ed. indicators. 1998. Oxford University Press New York. communicable and non-communicable diseases water borne. 1992. outputs. food borne and sanitation related diseases and control measures. Explanation of Horizontal Logic. Park. Writing Project Proposal. Environmental Toxicants (Human Exposure and their Health Effects). specific objectives. 1993. A. 3. Nebel. Wiley Interscience. 2. Text book of Preventive and Social Medicine.COURSE 4 PROJECT DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction: What is a Project. feasibility study. Environmental Health Engineering. and Guidotti. means of verification. Prentice Hall International Inc. 1st Ed. Yassi. Reasons for Project success or failure. 1st Ed. Kjelllström. R. London. Recommended Books: 1. T. inputs. 1st ed. Ergonomic and Safety. 1997. Government Policies and Programs. Mantel s. M. Stakeholders Analysis and Participation. activities. R. Planning Commission Performas. Primary health care services. M/S Banarsid. assumptions.. New York. Meredith J. 4. development objectives. COURSE 5 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Definition and Concept of Environment related Human health problems.. Project Management: A Managerial Approach. safety techniques. Project Initiation. Project Planning and Approval Processes. economic evaluation. Occupational Health: problems and issues. K. de Kok. S. UK. Project Planning. T... Environmental Science (The Way the World Works). John Wiley and Sons.. Lippmann. Need identification. 2. Project Management Institute. principles and practices. Project Life Cycle.. J.2000. Caeneross. and Wright. T. air borne. Basic Environmental Health. Defining Project objectives. USA.. Participatory project monitoring and evaluation. Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide. 5.

Sources of data. Michigan-January 2001. L. energy resources of Pakistan. bio-energy resources.. merits and demerits of development and use of energy resources (coal. Paris. OECD/IEA.COURSE 6 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Objectives Introduction to Environmental Management System. UNEP/IE (Industry and Environment). USA. Recommended Books: 1. regional and global impacts of the use of different energy resources. Sayre. Botkin. Schoch. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). 1997 COURSE 7 ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Objectives Energy and its forms. Environmental Science: Earth as a Living Planet.B and Keller. 3. D. types. merits and demerits of wind. ISO 14000 – Meet the whole family. principles and elements of the process of EMS. patterns of energy consumption in Pakistan. R. nuclear) local. M. Inside ISO 14000: The Competitive Advantage of Environmental Management. Environmental Auditing.M. Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions. non-renewable and renewable. E. Introduction of ISO14000 series of standards and its role in environmental management. 2007. industry and domestic sectors. 1998. 55 .L.A. John Wiley and Sons. 1990b. uses. gas. Principles of cleaner production. data collection and interpretation. Environmental auditing. EMS — an implementation Guide for Small and Medium sized Organizations NSF International Ann Arbor. Towards a Sustainable Energy Future. Switzerland. 3. Recommended Books: 1. ISO Central Secretariat. solar. 2007. 2. McKinney. hydropower. 2. Application of environmental management principles and tools of environmental management. 4th Edition. Paris. D. Future energy scenario of world and Pakistan. 2001. 4. energy resources. petroleum. Related Environmental regulations. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. sustainable energy management for agriculture. alternate energy resources. St Luise Press. transport. 6th Edition. and Yonavjak.

climate change and its effects on Pakistan’s agriculture. Warrick. global aspects of plant ecology. 2005. Springer.D. Species richness. (3rd edition) Cambridge University Press. Life history strategies of plants.Causes. The Green House Effect. Recommended Books: 1. B & Jager. 2005. Vegetation Ecology Ed. J. Climate Change and Ecosystems. 2003. 1st Edition.COURSE 8 CLIMATE CHANGE Objectives Introduction. 5. Global Warming -The Complete Briefing by John T. 2004. Houghton. management and restoration. Earthscan Publication Ltd. Blackwell Publishing.T. Effects. 56 . Hardy.. 3. Effects of climate change on atmosphere and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. ED. 3. John Wiley & Sons. Blackwell Publishing. Inter-specific and intra-specific interactions in plants. Hardy. John Wiley & Sons. Silvertown. Maarel. Shulze. survival and extinction. Plant population dynamics. D. Oxford. and Solutions. Climate Change . UK 1991. J. plant invasions.. forests. plant conservation. vegetation dynamics. etc. Climate change and food production. E. Beck. ECOPE 29. UK. 1. & Charlesworth. competition and coexistence. K. human activities and vegetation dynamics. Chichester. (Ed. Recommended Books: 1. COURSE 9 ADVANCES IN PLANT ECOLOGY Objectives Environmental conditions. and Solutions.Causes. types and their climatic effects. Berlin. geographical and temporal patterns. types of climate change models. 4. Introduction to Plant Population Biology. 2. Climate Change . fine-scale to large-scale dynamics. London. 2005. E & Muller-Hohenstein. Plant Ecology. Oxford UK. Modeling of climate change. 2. 2003. John Wiley & Sons. water resources. Climate Impact and Adaptation Assessment A Guide to the IPCC Approach. resources and plants.). Green House Gases. 2005. J. Effects. T. D.

& Ripley. USA. Conserving Living Natural Resources. Participatory forest management. In-situ and Ex-situ conservation. Protection and restoration of species. Roberts. Oxford. Recommended Books: 1. Sustainable forest management. Cambridge. S. Publishers Sunderland. types. distribution. Inc. Conservation of biodiversity in Pakistan.B. laws and regulations for wildlife protection in Pakistan. Wildlife Ecology and Management. Oxford. Weddell. Principles of Wildlife Management. Recommended Books: 1. Roberts.) Gaston. 2002. Blackwell Publsihing. Essentials of Conservation Biology. Forests. UK. problems and solutions. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 5. W. distribution. J. Establishment and management of protected areas. Cambridge University Press. London.(2nd Ed. their importance.A. 3. Forest plantations. their types and role in conservation. 2004. Global and national biodiversity. Primack. Sinauer Assocaites. 2002. Oxford University Press.J. Mcmillan. kinds. Oxford University Press. I). Rangeland management. Ecological and economic values of biodiversity. Oxford. management. Wetlands. And Bolen. S. Handbook of Birds of India and Pakistan Ali. 57 . UK. 2.D. 1992. T. Cambridge. The Birds of Pakistan (Vol. 1973 2. Protected areas. Bailey. status.L. & Spicer. habitats and ecosystems. non-consumptive uses of biodiversity. threats and conservation. Biodiversity: An introduction.G. J. FORESTRY AND WETLAND CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Philosophy and conservation of wildlife conservation. deforestation and its control. distribution and management. 1998.J. 3. Threatened animals and plants. Loss of biodiversity. Consumptive. Wildlife of Pakistan. T. National and international agencies concerned with wildlife conservation. B. COURSE 11 WILDLIFE. ecological factors affecting forest growth and management. Extinction of species. Robinson. types. its causes. Oxford University Press. Protected areas in Pakistan. K. 1986. II). their ecological and economic importance.COURSE 10 BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION Objectives Introduction.J. R. 4. E. Status of forests in Pakistan. John Wiley And Sons. biological diversity.J. 1984.

Penguin Group. 1986. SAGE Publications Ltd. V. 4. 2007.. 2004. J. UK. drinking water and solid waste in cities. H.. urbanization in Pakistan. 2000. Government of Pakistan. 1993. Clara.COURSE 12 ADVANCED URBAN ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT Objectives Introduction. National Reference Manual on Planning and Infrastructure Standards. The Works: Anatomy of a City. Urban planning and management in Pakistan. UK. 58 .. G. USA. various means of urban transport: their advantages and disadvantages.and Maser. sanitation. Islamabad. New York. Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development. 2. Recommended Books: 1. Ward. C. A. USA. E&UA Div. Environmental problems of urban life. Planning and Urban Change. Longman Group. Sustainable cities. Urban land use planning and management. S. Kate. Silberstein. Introducing Town Planning. management of transport.. urban political ecology. urban landscape characteristics. Forms of urbanization. London. Ministry of Housing and Works. urban systems and their characteristics. CRC Press LLC. future of urban centers. 3.

1997. Martinet. Thomson and A. clause and sentence structure Transitive and intransitive verbs Punctuation and spelling Comprehension Answers to questions on a given text Discussion General topics and every-day conversation (topics for discussion to be at the discretion of the teacher keeping in view the level of students) Listening To be improved by showing documentaries/films carefully selected by subject teachers Translation skills Urdu to English Paragraph writing Topics to be chosen at the discretion of the teacher Presentation skills Introduction Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: 1.J. Exercises 1. Third edition. Course Contents Basics of Grammar Parts of speech and use of articles Sentence structure. Oxford University Press.V. ISBN 0194313492 59 . a) Functional English Grammar 1.Annexure . Practical English Grammar by A. active and passive voice Practice in unified sentence Analysis of phrase.A COMPULSORY COURSES COMPULSORY COURSES IN ENGLISH FOR BS (4 YEAR) IN BASIC & SOCIAL SCIENCES English I (Functional English) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking.

Fourth Impression 1993. Speaking c) d) English II (Communication Skills) Objectives: Enable the students to meet their real life communication needs. Course Contents Paragraph writing Practice in writing a good.2. summary and précis writing and comprehension Academic skills Letter/memo writing. style and pronunciation) Note: documentaries to be shown for discussion and review Recommended books: a) Communication Skills Grammar 60 . and speed reading. Intermediate by Marie-Christine Boutin. Upper Intermediate. intensive and extensive. minutes of meetings. Exercises 2. Brain Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Writing. b) Practical English Grammar by A. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Reading/Comprehension 1. use of library and internet Presentation skills Personality development (emphasis on content. ISBN 0 19 435405 7 Pages 20-27 and 35-41. Reading. 1997. Third edition. ISBN 0194313506 Writing 1. Oxford Supplementary Skills.V. Martinet. Oxford University Press. Third Impression 1992.J. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Thomson and A. unified and coherent paragraph Essay writing Introduction CV and job application Translation skills Urdu to English Study skills Skimming and scanning. ISBN 0 19 453402 2.

Practical English Grammar by A. Writing. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Study Skills by Riachard Yorky. content. ISBN 0 19 431350 6. Third Impression 1992. Martinet. Third Impression 1991. Oxford Supplementary Skills. Oxford Supplementary Skills. introduction to presentations. Exercises 2. language. argumentative Academic writing How to write a proposal for research paper/term paper How to write a research paper/term paper (emphasis on style. Fourth Impression 1993. Reading. discursive. b) Writing 1. narrative.1. 2. form. consistency) Technical Report writing Progress report writing Note: Extensive reading is required for vocabulary building Recommended books: Technical Writing and Presentation Skills a) Essay Writing and Academic Writing 1. ISBN 0 19 435406 5 (particularly good for writing memos. Fourth Impression 1992. Writing. Upper-Intermediate by Rob Nolasco. Writing. 2. Oxford Supplementary Skills. ISBN 019 435405 7 Pages 45-53 (note taking). descriptive and argumentative writing). ISBN 0 19 435407 3 61 . c) English III (Technical Writing and Presentation Skills) Objectives: Enhance language skills and develop critical thinking Course Contents Presentation skills Essay writing Descriptive. Reading and Study Skills by John Langan 3. Suzanne Brinand and Francoise Grellet. Intermediate by Marie-Chrisitine Boutin. Advanced by Ron White. Third edition.J. Reading 1. Oxford University Press 1986. ISBN 0 19 453403 0. Advanced. clarity.V. Brian Tomlinson and Rod Ellis. Thomson and A.

Stephen Ruffus and Maurice Scharton. 2004. descriptive. Kathleen Shine Cain. General Editiors: Janice Neulib. 3. Mandell. without taxing the taste of engineering students). Martin’s Press. A Custom Publication. Compiled by norther Illinois University. (A reader which will give students exposure to the best of twentieth century literature.(particularly suitable for discursive. Kirszner and Stephen R. College Writing Skills by John Langan. argumentative and report writing). 2. 62 . Patterns of College Writing (4th edition) by Laurie G. St. b) c) Presentation Skills Reading The Mercury Reader. Mc=Graw-Hill Higher Education.

b. Safdar. S. Historical Perspective a. Akbar. 1993. Society and social structure c. 1988-99 f. Indus Civilization ii. The Macmillan Press Ltd 1980. 1958-71 c. Mehmood. Zaidi. ideological background of Pakistan. 1999 onward 3. Economic institutions and issues b. . Pakistan’s Foreign policy: An Historical analysis. issues arising in the modern age and posing challenges to Pakistan. Study the process of governance. 3. Course Outline 1. Futuristic outlook of Pakistan Burki. Pakistan Political Roots & Development. 1977-88 e. Ethnicity d. 1994. Foreign policy of Pakistan and challenges e. 1947-58 b. Lahore. Ideological rationale with special reference to Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. People and Land i. contemporary Pakistan. State & Society in Pakistan.B Pakistan Studies (Compulsory) Introduction/Objectives • • Develop vision of historical perspective. 63 Books Recommended 1.M. Karachi: Oxford University Press. S. government. 2000. Location and geo-physical features. Government and Politics in Pakistan Political and constitutional phases: a. Factors leading to Muslim separatism c. Burke and Lawrence Ziring. 2. Shahid Javed. Allama Muhammad Iqbal and Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Issue in Pakistan’s Economy. 4. politics. 1971-77 d. Muslim advent iii. Karachi: Oxford University Press.Annexure . national development. 2. Contemporary Pakistan a.

Zahid. Lahore: Vanguard. Karachi: Royal Book Company. Political Parties in Pakistan. 14. Washington: American Enterprise. Lahore: Idarae-Saqafat-e-Islamia. 13. Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and cultural Research. Vol. Khalid Bin. 7. 1976. Islamabad: Institute of Policy Studies. 1998. Islamabad. nd. Wayne. Amin. Afzal.K. 8. Making of Pakistan: The Military Perspective. Pakistan Under Martial Law. The Political System of Pakistan. II & III.The Emergence of Banglades. 6. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research.National Movement in Pakistan. 1993. I. 10. 1980. Sayeed. 1980.. Ethno .5. 64 . 11. 12. Noor ul. Lawrence. 1972. Tahir. Aziz. 9. Party. Ansar. 1967. M. K. Haq. Club Road. Wilcox. Rafique. Islamabad: National Commission on Historical and Cultural Research. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Muhammad Waseem. Ziring. Pakistan Kayyun Toota. Safdar. Institute of Public Policy Research. Enigma of Political Development. Politics in Pakistan. History & Culture of Sindh. Kent England: WmDawson & sons Ltd. 1987. Mehmood.

) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hashar (18.57.63-77) 5) Verses of Surah Al-Inam Related to Ihkam(Verse No-152-154) Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Ihzab Related to Adab al-Nabi (Verse No.Annexure .40.19.6.W) in Madina 2) Important Events of Life Holy Prophet in Madina 65 .20) Related to thinking.A.56. 2 (2-0) Course Outlines Introduction to Quranic Studies 1) 2) 3) Basic Concepts of Quran History of Quran Uloom-ul -Quran Study of Selected Text of Holly Quran 1) Verses of Surah Al-Baqra Related to Faith(Verse No-284-286) 2) Verses of Surah Al-Hujrat Related to Adab Al-Nabi (Verse No-1-18) 3) Verses of Surah Al-Mumanoon Related to Characteristics of faithful (Verse No-1-11) 4) Verses of Surah al-Furqan Related to Social Ethics (Verse No.W) in Makkah 3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Makkah Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.W) I 1) Life of Muhammad Bin Abdullah ( Before Prophet Hood) 2) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.58.Tadabar (Verse No1.14) Seerat of Holy Prophet (S.21. Day of Judgment 3) Verses of Surah Al-Saf Related to Tafakar.W) II 1) Life of Holy Prophet (S.A.A.C ISLAMIC STUDIES (Compulsory) Objectives: This course is aimed at: 1 To provide Basic information about Islamic Studies 2 To enhance understanding of the students regarding Islamic Civilization 3 To improve Students skill to perform prayers and other worships 4 To enhance the skill of the students for understanding of issues related to faith and religious life.

3) Important Lessons Derived from the life of Holy Prophet in Madina Introduction To Sunnah 1) Basic Concepts of Hadith 2) History of Hadith 3) Kinds of Hadith 4) Uloom –ul-Hadith 5) Sunnah & Hadith 6) Legal Position of Sunnah Selected Study from Text of Hadith Introduction To Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 2) History & Importance of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 3) Sources of Islamic Law & Jurisprudence 4) Nature of Differences in Islamic Law 5) Islam and Sectarianism Islamic Culture & Civilization 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Culture & Civilization 2) Historical Development of Islamic Culture & Civilization 3) Characteristics of Islamic Culture & Civilization 4) Islamic Culture & Civilization and Contemporary Issues Islam & Science 1) Basic Concepts of Islam & Science 2) Contributions of Muslims in the Development of Science 3) Quranic & Science Islamic Economic System 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Economic System 2) Means of Distribution of wealth in Islamic Economics 3) Islamic Concept of Riba 4) Islamic Ways of Trade & Commerce Political System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Islamic Political System 2) Islamic Concept of Sovereignty 3) Basic Institutions of Govt. in Islam Islamic History 1) Period of Khlaft-E-Rashida 2) Period of Ummayyads 3) Period of Abbasids Social System of Islam 1) Basic Concepts of Social System of Islam 2) Elements of Family 66 .

IRI. Islamabad (2001) 67 . ‘Introduction to Islam Mulana Muhammad Yousaf Islahi. Religion and Society” Deep & Deep Publications New Delhi (1989) Dr. Islamabad (1993) Mir Waliullah. Islamabad Hameed ullah Muhammad. “An Introduction to the Study of Islamic Law” leaf Publication Islamabad. Ahmad Hasan. International Islamic University.” Hussain Hamid Hassan. “Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence” Islamic Research Institute. Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq. Pakistan. “Introduction to Al Sharia Al Islamia” Allama Iqbal Open University. Bhatia. “Studies in Islamic Law.3) Ethical Values of Islam Reference Books: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Conduct of State” Hameed ullah Muhammad. “Muslim Jrisprudence and the Quranic Law of Crimes” Islamic Book Service (1982) H. “Emergence of Islam” .S.

system of linear equations. Quadratic Equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Algebra 2 and Trigonometry. Houghton & Mifflin. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Cramer’s rule. qualitative analysis of roots of a quadratic equations. COMPULSORY MATHEMATICS COURSES FOR BS (4 YEAR) (FOR STUDENTS NOT MAJORING IN MATHEMATICS) 1. Boston (suggested text) Kaufmann JE. determinants. 1986. complex numbers. types. College Algebra and Trigonometry. Beckenback EF. not majoring in mathematics. types of functions. PWS-Kent Company. trigonometric identities. geometric progression. Sequences and Series: Arithmetic progression. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). Boston 68 . Boston Swokowski EW. 1987.D Note: One course will be selected from the following six courses of Mathematics. with the essential tools of algebra to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. PWS-Kent Company. functions. matrix inverse. Wooton W. relation between roots and coefficients of quadratic equations. 1978. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to mathematical induction. Sharron S.Annexure . cube roots of unity. introduction to sets. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number system. MATHEMATICS I (ALGEBRA) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics at secondary level Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. Recommended Books: Dolciani MP. binomial theorem with rational and irrational indices. set operations. harmonic progression.

Limits and Continuity: Limit of a function. rational and transcendental functions. Reading. Finney AR. not majoring in mathematics. Addison-Wesley. Calculus (11th edition). with the essential tools of calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Derivatives and their Applications: Differentiable functions. Integration and Definite Integrals: Techniques of evaluating indefinite integrals. Brooks/Cole (suggested text) Swokowski EW. angle between two lines. PWS-Kent Company. inequalities. continuity. John Wiley. solution of equations involving absolute values. not majoring in mathematics. Bevens I. 2005. parallel and perpendicular lines. 1995. MATHEMATICS II (CALCULUS) Prerequisite(s): Mathematics I (Algebra) Credit Hours: 3+0 Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. New York Stewart J. Boston Thomas GB. distance between two points. Davis S. 2005. MATHEMATICS III (GEOMETRY) 3+0 Prerequisite(s): Mathematics II (Calculus) Credit Hours: Specific Objectives of the Course: To prepare the students. left-hand and right-hand limits. continuous functions. various forms of equation of a line. slope of a line. integration by parts. equation of a line. 69 . integration by substitution. 1983. Calculus (3rd edition). derivatives. differentiation of polynomial. functions and their graphs.2. Ma. Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real-number line. Calculus and Analytic Geometry. USA 3. change of variables in indefinite integrals. Recommended Books: Anton H. Course Outline: Geometry in Two Dimensions: Cartesian-coördinate mesh. Calculus: A New Horizon (8th edition). intersection of two lines. with the essential tools of geometry to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. distance between a point and a line.

• Contents 1. • Apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. PWS-Kent Company. PWS-Kent Company. equations reducible to quadratic equations. Matrices: Introduction to matrices. ellipse. Boston Swokowski EW. the general-second-degree equation Recommended Books: Abraham S. inverse of matrices. COURSE FOR NON-MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN SOCIAL SCIENCES : : : : : : MATHEMATICS BS (Social Sciences). 1986. Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry (6th edition). types of functions. Quadratic equations: Solution of quadratic equations. Scott. Introduction to sets.Circle: Equation of a circle. types of matrices. Boston 4. hyperbola. functions. system of linear equations. : Algebra : Preliminaries: Real and complex numbers. 1969 Kaufmann JE. : After completion of this course the student should be able to: Understand the use of the essential tools of basic mathematics. Conic Sections: Parabola. Cramer’s rule. 70 . Sequence and Series: Arithmetic. Freshman and Company. 1987. Analytic Geometry. set operations. College Algebra and Trigonometry. SSC (Metric) level Mathematics 03 + 00 40 written examination. determinants. 2008 and onward Title of subject: Discipline Pre-requisites Credit Hours Minimum Contact Hours Assessment Effective Aims : Objectives To give the basic knowledge of Mathematics and prepare the students not majoring in mathematics. circles determined by various conditions. • Model the effects non-isothermal problems through different domains. locus of a point in various conditions. intersection of lines and circles. nature of roots of quadratic equations.

Measures of dispersion: Range. Measures of central tendency: Mean medium and modes.. Prentice Hall. Latest Edition. ‘Fundamentals of Algebra and Trigonometry’. ungrouped and grouped data. graphic presentation of the frequency distribution. E. ‘Statistics for The Social Sciences’. Books Recommended: 1. Walpole. relationship of statistics with social science. Wilcox. deciles and percentiles. Boston. E. Latest Edition. 71 . 2. 2.. Statistics : Introduction: Meaning and definition of statistics. moments. W. standard deviation. PWS-Kent Company. array. trigonometric identities. R. ‘College Algebra and Trigonometry’.. R. R. variance. Graphs: Graph of straight line.. frequency polygon. Permutation and combinations: Introduction to permutation and combinations. 5. Swokowski. ‘Introduction of Statistics’. quartiles.geometric and harmonic progressions. Trigonometry: Fundamentals of trigonometry. cumulative frequency curve. individual. skewness and kurtosis. 4. types of frequency series. characteristics of statistics. tally sheet method. limitations of statistics and main division of statistics. Frequency distribution: Organisation of data. 3. MATHEMATICS FOR CHEMISTRY 3 Mathematics at Secondary level Credit Hours: Prerequisites: Specific Objectives of Course: To prepare the students not majoring in mathematics with the essential tools of Calculus to apply the concepts and the techniques in their respective disciplines. Kaufmann. discrete and continuous series. Binomial Theorem: Introduction to binomial theorem. circle and trigonometric functions. E. inter quartile deviation mean deviation. bar frequency diagram histogram. J. Latest Edition.

John Wiley & Sons. Continuity. integration by inspection. applications of integration. 1983. products. John H. 5. Slope of a Line.Course Outline: Preliminaries: Real Numbers and the Real Line. et al. Rational and Transcendental Functions. • Integration Integration from first principles. Inequalities. Inc. Bevens. McCallum. 2002. Leibnitz’ theorem. infinite and improper integrals. Second Edition 1992. integration by parts. the inverse of differentiation. plane polar coordinates. Jhon Willey & Sons. Recommended Books: 1. Extreme Values of Functions. substitution method. Least-Squares Line. Limits and Continuity: Limit of a Function. Trigonometric Functions. 8th edition. Prentice-Hall. Inc. Equation of a Line. logarithmic integration. Hughes-Hallett. Calculus Single and Multivariable. Change of Variables in Indefinite Integrals. 11th Edition. Anton. Rational Functions. Boston. the chain rule. H. 2005. I. logarithmic differentiation. 3. Calculus and Analytic Geometry PWS Publishers. Solution of equations involving absolute values.Jr. Numerical Methods for Mathematics Science and Engineering. Frank A. Calculus. Functions and their graphs: Polynomial Functions. theorems of differentiation. S. Derivatives and its Applications: Differentiation of Polynomial. Addison Wesley publishing company. 4. Continuous Functions. and Transcendental Functions. Complex numbers and hyperbolic functions • The need for complex numbers • Manipulation of complex numbers 72 . Integration and Indefinite Integrals: Integration by Substitution. Calculus. Elliott Mendelson. quotients. Mathews. • Differentiation Differentiation from first principles. integration using partial fractions. Left Hand and Right Hand Limits. reduction formulae. special points of a function. Thomas. 3rd Edition. Davis. 2. sinusoidal function. Swokowski. Calculus. implicit differentiation. Integration by Parts. Schaum’s Outline Series. 1999. 2005. 6. E. 4th edition. 6. 2. integral inequalities. W. Contents 1. MATHEMATICS FOR PHYSICS Preliminary calculus. Gleason.

approximation errors in Taylor series. Partial differentiation • • • • • • • • • Definition of the partial derivative The total differential and total derivative Exact and inexact differentials Useful theorems of partial differentiation The chain rule Change of variables Taylor’s theorem for many-variable functions Stationary values of many-variable functions Stationary values under constraints 73 . geometric series. calculus of hyperbolic functions 3. alternating series test • Operations with series • Power series Convergence of power series. solving polynomial equations • Complex logarithms and complex powers • Applications to differentiation and integration • Hyperbolic functions Definitions. the difference method. multiplication. operations with power series • Taylor series Taylor’s theorem. Series and limits • Series • Summation of series Arithmetic series. convergence of a series containing only real positive terms. complex conjugate. hyperbolic-trigonometric analogies. solving hyperbolic equations. modulus and argument.Additions and subtraction. arithmetico-geometric series. series involving natural numbers. standard Maclaurin series • Evaluation of limits 4. inverses of hyperbolic functions. finding the nth roots of unity. identities of hyperbolic functions. division • Polar representation of complex numbers Multiplication and division in polar form • de Moivre’s theorem Trigonometrical identities. transformation of series • Convergence of infinite series Absolute and conditional convergence.

of a unitary matrix. Multiple integrals • Double integrals • Triple integrals • Applications of multiple integrals Areas and volumes. orthogonal. Matrices and vector spaces • Vectors spaces Basic vectors. scalar triple product. unitary normal • Eigen vectors and eigen values Of a normal matrix. centers of mass and centroids. line to plane • Reciprocal vectors 7. some useful inequalities • Matrices • The complex and Hermitian conjugates of a matrix • The determinant of a matrix Properties of determinants • The inverse of a matrix • The rank of a matrix • Simultaneous linear equations N simultaneous linear equations in N unknowns • Special square matrices Diagonal. 6. point to plane. equation of a plane • Using vectors to find distances Point to line. of Hermitian and anti-Hermitian matrices. of a general square matrix • Determination of eigen values and eigen vectors Degenerate eigen values 74 . masses. symmetric and antisymmetric. vector triple product • Equations of lines and planes Equation of a line. vector product. Pappus’ theorems. moments of inertia.5. Vector algebra • • • • • • Scalars and vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors Multiplication by a scalar Basis vectors and components Magnitude of a vectors Multiplication of vectors Scalar product. line to line. Hermitian. mean values of functions • Change of variables in multiple integrals Change of variables in double integrals. the inner product.

curl of a vector field • Vector operator formulae Vector operators acting on sums and products. div and curl • Cylindrical and spherical polar coordinates Cylindrical polar coordinates. Vector calculus • Differentiation of vectors Composite vector expressions.8. divergence of a vector field. differential of a vector • Integration of vectors • Space curves • Vector functions of several arguments • Surfaces • Scalar and vector fields • Vector operators Gradient of a scalar field. combinations of grad. spherical polar coordinates 75 .

Unit 2. Change of origin and scale. Bar charts. probability and non-probability sampling. Histogram. level of significance. Relative and Cumulative frequency distribution. general procedure for testing of hypothesis. Interpretation of the standard Deviation. Relative Merits and Demerits of various Averages. acceptance and rejection regions. bias.E INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS Credit hrs: 3(3-0) Unit 1. Observations. Test statistics. Properties of variance and standard Deviation. Moments and Moments ratios. Median and mode. Errors of measurement. Cumulative Frequency Polygon or Ogive. Standardized variables. Type-I and Type-II errors. Graphs and their Construction. Rounding of a Number. definition of outliers and their detection. Quantiles. Exercises. Unit 4. Constructing of a frequency distribution. What is Statistics? Definition of Statistics.Annexure . sampling and non sampling errors. Empirical Relation between Mean. Sampling distributions for single mean and proportion. Sources. Exercises. Measures of Central Tendency Introduction. sampling with and without replacement. Frequency polygon and Frequency curve. Collection of primary and secondary data. Exercises. Types of frequency curves. Hypothesis Testing Introduction. Presentation of Data Introduction. Ogive for Discrete Variable. Historigram. Exercises. Range. Different types of Averages. Exercises. Significant digits. Box and Whisker Plot. Coefficient of variation. The Variance and standard deviation. Unit 5. Exercises Unit 6. Discrete and continuous distributions: Binomial. Exercises. The Mean Deviation. properties of Good Average. Stem and Leaf Display. Diagrams. Unit 3. Discrete and continuous variables. Population. Poisson and Normal Distribution. Pie chart. Measures of Dispersion Introduction. basic principles of classification and Tabulation. 76 . Unit 7. Difference of means and proportions. Editing of Data. The semi-Interquartile Range. Data. null and alternative hypothesis. The Mode. Statistical problem. sample Descriptive and inferential Statistics. Absolute and relative measures. sample design and sampling frame. Probability and Probability Distributions. Sampling and Sampling Distributions Introduction.

r and R2. Testing of hypothesis and confidence intervals about the difference of population means and proportions for small and large samples. R. Testing of hypothesis and confidence interval about the population mean and proportion for small and large samples. Analysis of Variance and ANOVA Table. Regression and Correlation Introduction.Single Population Introduction.Testing of Hypotheses-Two or more Populations Introduction. Note: General Courses from other Departments Details of courses may be developed by the concerned universities according to their Selection of Courses as recommended by their Board of Studies. Unit 11. Testing of hypothesis about the Independence of attributes. 2005. 77 .. E. “Introduction to Statistics”. Coefficient of linear correlation. Exercises Unit 10. F. Macmillan Publishing Co. Multiple regression and interpretation of its parameters. its estimation and interpretation. cause and effect relationships. 2 Muhammad. Exercises. Examples Recommended Books 1 Walpole. Testing of Hypothesis-Independece of Attributes Introduction. Testing of Hypothesis. Inc. “Statistical Methods and Data Analysis”. Kitab Markaz. 3rd Ed. Contingency Tables.. Exercises Unit 9. simple linear regression. 1982. examples. Bhawana Bazar Faisalabad. estimation of parameters and their interpretation. Correlation. New York.Unit 8.

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