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Chapter 5-1

Merchandising Operations and the Multiple-Step MultipleIncome Statement
Chapter 5-2

Financial Accounting, Fifth Edition

Study Objectives
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Chapter 5-3

Identify the differences between a service company and a merchandising company. Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system. Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system. Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. Determine cost of goods sold under a periodic system. Explain the factors affecting profitability. Identify a quality of earnings indicator.

Merchandising Operations

Merchandising Operations

Recording Purchases of Merchandise

Recording Sales of Merchandise

Income Statement Presentation

Evaluating Profitability

Operating cycles Flow of costscostsperpetual and periodic inventory systems.

Freight costs Purchase returns and allowances Purchase discounts Summary of purchasing transactions

Sales returns and allowances Sales discounts

Sales revenues Gross profit Operating expenses Nonoperating activities Determining cost of goods soldsold-periodic system

Gross profit rate Profit margin ratio

Chapter 5-4

Merchandising Operations Merchandising Companies Buy and Sell Goods

Wholesaler

Retailer

Consumer

The primary source of revenues is referred to as sales revenue or sales.
Chapter 5-5

SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

Merchandising Operations Income Measurement
Sales Revenue
Less

Not used in a Service business.

Illustration 5-1 Income measurement rocess for a merchandising company

Cost of Goods Sold

Equals

Gross Profit

Less

Cost of goods sold is the total cost of merchandise sold during the period.
Chapter 5-6

Operating Expenses

Equals

Net Income (Loss)

SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

Merchandising Operations
Illustration 5-2

Operating Cycles
The operating cycle of a merchandising company ordinarily is longer than that of a service company.
Chapter 5-7

SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

Merchandising Operations Flow of Costs
Illustration 5-3

Companies use either a perpetual inventory system or a periodic inventory system to account for inventory.
Chapter 5-8

SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

Merchandising Operations Flow of Costs
Perpetual System  Maintain detailed records of the cost of each
inventory purchase and sale. 

Records continuously show inventory that should be
on hand. 

Company determines cost of goods sold each time a
sale occurs.

Chapter 5-9

SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

Merchandising Operations Flow of Costs
Periodic System 
  
Do not keep detailed records of the goods on hand. Determine cost of goods sold only at end of accounting period. Physical inventory count to determine cost of goods on hand. Calculation of Cost of Goods Sold: Beginning inventory Add: Purchases, net Goods available for sale Less: Ending inventory Cost of goods sold
Chapter 5-10

$ 100,000 800,000 900,000 125,000 $ 775,000

SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

Merchandising Operations
Flow of Costs
Additional Consideration
Perpetual System: 
Traditionally used for merchandise with high unit values.  Provides better control over inventories.  Requires additional clerical work and additional cost to maintain inventory records.

Chapter 5-11

SO 1 Identify the differences between service and merchandising companies.

Chapter 5-12

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Made using cash or credit (on account). Normally recorded when goods are received. Purchase invoice should support each credit purchase.
Illustration 5-5

Chapter 5-13

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration 5-5

Illustration: Sauk Stereo (the buyer) uses as a purchase invoice the sales invoice prepared by PW Audio Supply, Inc. (the seller). Prepare the journal entry for Sauk Stereo for the invoice from PW Audio Supply.

May 4

Merchandise inventory Accounts payable

3,800 3,800

Chapter 5-14

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Freight Costs ² Terms of Sale
Illustration 5-6

Seller places goods Free On Board the carrier, and buyer pays freight costs.

Seller places goods Free On Board to the buyer·s place of business, and seller pays freight costs.

Chapter 5-15

Freight costs incurred by the seller are an operating expense.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume upon delivery of the goods on May 6, Sauk Stereo pays Haul-It Freight Company $150 for freight charges, the entry on Sauk Stereo·s books is: May 6 Merchandise inventory Cash 150 150

Assume the freight terms on the invoice in Illustration 5-5 had required PW Audio Supply to pay the freight charges, the entry by PW Audio Supply would have been: May 4
Chapter 5-16

Freight-out Cash

150 150

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Purchase Returns and Allowances
Purchaser may be dissatisfied because goods are damaged or defective, of inferior quality, or do not meet specifications. Purchase Return
Return goods for credit if the sale was made on credit, or for a cash refund if the purchase was for cash.
Chapter 5-17

Purchase Allowance
May choose to keep the merchandise if the seller will grant an allowance (deduction) from the purchase price.

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise

Question
In a perpetual inventory system, a return of defective merchandise by a purchaser is recorded by crediting: a. Purchases b. Purchase Returns c. Purchase Allowance d. Merchandise Inventory

Chapter 5-18

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume that on May 8 Sauk Stereo returned to PW Audio Supply goods costing $300. May 8 Accounts payable Merchandise inventory 300 300

Chapter 5-19

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Purchase Discounts
Credit terms may permit buyer to claim a cash discount for prompt payment. Advantages: Purchaser saves money. Seller shortens the operating cycle.
Example: Credit terms of 2/10, n/30, is read ´two-ten, net thirty.µ
2% cash discount if payment is made within 10 days. Otherwise, net amount due within 30 days.
Chapter 5-20

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Purchase Discounts - Terms
2/10, n/30 2% discount if paid within 10 days, otherwise net amount due within 30 days. 1/10 EOM 1% discount if paid within first 10 days of next month. n/10 EOM Net amount due within the first 10 days of the next month.

Chapter 5-21

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume Sauk Stereo pays the balance due of $3,500 (gross invoice price of $3,800 less purchase returns and allowances of $300) on May 14, the last day of the discount period. Prepare the journal entry Sauk makes to record its May 14 payment. May 14 Accounts payable Merchandise Inventory Cash
(Discount = $3,500 x 2% = $70)
Chapter 5-22

3,500 70 3,430

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration: If Sauk Stereo failed to take the discount, and instead made full payment of $3,500 on June 3, the journal entry would be: June 3 Accounts payable Cash 3,500 3,500

Chapter 5-23

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Purchase Discounts
Should discounts be taken when offered?
Discount of 2% on $3,500 $3,500 invested at 10% for 20 days Savings by taking the discount $ 70.00 19.18 $ 50.82

Passing up the discount offered equates to paying an interest rate of 2% on the use of $3,500 for 20 days. Example: 2% for 20 days = Annual rate of 36.5% (365/20 = 18.25 twenty-day periods x 2% = 36.5%)
Chapter 5-24

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Summary of Purchasing Transactions
Illustration

Mer h
Debit

ise

vent r
redit

4th - Purchase 6th ² Freight-in Balance

$3,500 150 $3,280

$300 70

8th - Return 14th - Discount

Chapter 5-25

SO 2 Explain the recording of purchases under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Sales of Merchandise
Made for cash or credit (on account). Normally recorded when earned, usually when goods transfer from seller to buyer. Sales invoice should support each credit sale.
Illustration 5-5

Chapter 5-26

SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Sales of Merchandise
Two Journal Entries to Record a Sale
#1

Cash or Accounts receivable Sales

XXX XXX

Selling Price

#2

Cost of goods sold Merchandise inventory

XXX XXX

Cost

Chapter 5-27

SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Sales of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume PW Audio Supply records its May 4 sale of $3,800 to Sauk Stereo on account (Illustration 5-5) as follows. Assume the merchandise cost PW Audio Supply $2,400. May 4 Accounts receivable Sales 4 Cost of goods sold Merchandise inventory 2,400 2,400 3,800 3,800

Chapter 5-28

SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Sales of Merchandise
Sales Returns and Allowances
´Flipsideµ of purchase returns and allowances. Contra-revenue account (debit). Sales not reduced (debited) because: 
would obscure importance of sales returns and

allowances as a percentage of sales. 
could distort comparisons between total sales

in different accounting periods.
Chapter 5-29

SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Sales of Merchandise
Illustration: Prepare the entry PW Audio Supply would make to record the credit for returned goods that had a $300 selling price (assume a $140 cost). Assume the goods were not defective. May 8 Sales returns and allowances Accounts receivable 8 Merchandise inventory Cost of goods sold 140 140 300 300

Chapter 5-30

SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Sales of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume the returned goods were defective and had a scrap value of $50, PW Audio would make the following entries: May 8 Sales returns and allowances Accounts receivable 8 Merchandise inventory Cost of goods sold 50 50 300 300

Chapter 5-31

SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Sales of Merchandise
Review Question
The cost of goods sold is determined and recorded each time a sale occurs in: a. periodic inventory system only. b. a perpetual inventory system only. c. both a periodic and perpetual inventory system. d. neither a periodic nor perpetual inventory system.

Chapter 5-32

SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

Chapter 5-33

Recording Sales of Merchandise
Sales Discount
Offered to customers to promote prompt payment. ´Flipsideµ of purchase discount. Contra-revenue account (debit).

Chapter 5-34

SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

Recording Sales of Merchandise
Illustration: Assume Sauk Stereo pays the balance due of $3,500 (gross invoice price of $3,800 less purchase returns and allowances of $300) on May 14, the last day of the discount period. Prepare the journal entry PW Audio Supply makes to record the receipt on May 14. May 14 Cash Sales discounts Accounts receivable 3,430 70
*

3,500

* [($3,800 ² $300) X 2%]
Chapter 5-35

SO 3 Explain the recording of sales revenues under a perpetual inventory system.

Income Statement Presentation
Single-Step Income Statement
Subtract total expenses from total revenues Two reasons for using the single-step format:
1) Company does not realize any type of profit until total revenues exceed total expenses. 2) Format is simpler and easier to read.

Chapter 5-36

SO 4 Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. singlemultiple-

Income Statement Presentation
SingleStep
Illustration 5-7

Chapter 5-37

SO 4 Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. singlemultiple-

Income Statement Presentation
Multiple-Step Income Statement
Considered more useful because it highlights the components of net income. Three important line items: 
gross profit,  income from operations, and  net income.

Chapter 5-38

SO 4 Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. singlemultiple-

Income Statement Presentation
MultipleStep
Illustration 5-8

Key Line Items

Chapter 5-39

SO 4 Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. singlemultiple-

Income Statement Presentation
Review Question
The multiple-step income statement for a merchandiser shows each of the following features except: a. gross profit. b. cost of goods sold. c. a sales revenue section. d. investing activities section.

Chapter 5-40

SO 4 Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. singlemultiple-

Income Statement Presentation
Sales Revenues
Illustration 5-9

Chapter 5-41

SO 4 Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. singlemultiple-

Income Statement Presentation
Gross Profit
Illustration 5-11

Comparisons with past amounts and rates and with those in the industry indicate the effectiveness of a company·s purchasing and pricing policies.
Chapter 5-42

SO 4 Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. singlemultiple-

Income Statement Presentation
Operating Expenses
Illustration 5-11

Chapter 5-43

Income Statement Presentation
Nonoperating Activities
Various revenues and expenses and gains and losses that are unrelated to the company·s main line of operations.
Illustration 5-10

Chapter 5-44

SO 4 Distinguish between a single-step and a multiple-step income statement. singlemultiple-

Illustration 5-11

Income Statement Presentation

Chapter 5-45

Chapter 5-46

Income Statement Presentation
Determining Cost of Goods Sold Under a Periodic System
No running account of changes in inventory. Ending inventory determined by physical count. Directly adjust Merchandise Inventory account for any transaction that affects inventory.

Chapter 5-47

SO 5 Determine cost of goods sold under a periodic system.

Income Statement Presentation
Determining Cost of Goods Sold Under a Periodic System
Illustration 5-13 Cost of goods sold for a merchandiser using a periodic inventory system

Chapter 5-48

SO 5 Determine cost of goods sold under a periodic system.

Evaluating Profitability
Gross Profit Rate
A company·s gross profit may be expressed as a percentage by dividing the amount of gross profit by net sales. A decline in the gross profit rate might have several causes. 
The company may have begun to sell products with a lower ´markup.µ  Increased competition may result in a lower selling price.  Company may be forced to pay higher prices to its suppliers without being able to pass these costs on to its customers.

Chapter 5-49

SO 6 Explain the factors affecting profitability.

Evaluating Profitability
Gross Profit Rate
Illustration 5-15

Why does Wal-Mart have a lower gross profit rate than Target and the industry average?
Chapter 5-50

SO 6 Explain the factors affecting profitability.

Evaluating Profitability
Profit Margin Ratio
Measures the percentage of each dollar of sales that results in net income. How do the gross profit rate and profit margin ratio differ? 
Gross profit rate - measures the margin by which selling price exceeds cost of goods sold.  Profit margin ratio - measures the extent by which selling price covers all expenses (including cost of goods sold).

Chapter 5-51

SO 6 Explain the factors affecting profitability.

Evaluating Profitability
Profit Margin Ratio
Illustration 5-17

How does Wal-Mart compare to its competitors? Keep in mind that an increasing percentage of Wal-Mart·s sales is from low-margin groceries.
Chapter 5-52

SO 6 Explain the factors affecting profitability.

Chapter 5-53

Evaluating Profitability
Earnings have high quality if they provide a full and transparent depiction of how a company performed. 

In general, a measure significantly less than 1 suggests that a company may be using more aggressive accounting techniques in order to accelerate income recognition.  A measure significantly greater than 1 suggests that a company is using conservative accounting techniques which cause it to delay the recognition of income.
Chapter 5-54

SO 7 Identify a quality of earnings indicator.

Periodic Inventory System
Recording Merchandise Transactions 
Record revenues when sales are made.  Do not record cost of merchandise sold on the date of sale.  Physical inventory count at the end of the period to
determine:
1. cost of merchandise on hand and 2. cost of goods sold during the period. 

Record purchases of merchandise in Purchases account.  Purchase returns and allowances, Purchase discounts, and
Freight costs are recorded in separate accounts.
Chapter 5-55

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Periodic Inventory System
Recording Purchases of Merchandise
Illustration: On the basis of the sales invoice (Illustration 5-5) and receipt of the merchandise ordered from PW Audio Supply, Sauk Stereo records the $3,800 purchase as follows. May 4 Purchases Accounts payable 3,800 3,800

Chapter 5-56

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Periodic Inventory System
Freight Costs
Illustration: If Sauk pays Haul-It Freight Company $150 for freight charges on its purchase from PW Audio Supply on May 6, the entry on Sauk·s books is: May 6 Freight-in (Transportation-in) Cash 150 150

Chapter 5-57

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Periodic Inventory System
Purchase Returns and Allowances
Illustration: Sauk Stereo returns $300 of goods to PW Audio Supply and prepares the following entry to recognize the return. May 8 Accounts payable 300 300

Purchase returns and allowances

Chapter 5-58

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Periodic Inventory System
Purchase Discounts
Illustration: On May 14 Sauk Stereo pays the balance due on account to PW Audio Supply, taking the 2% cash discount allowed by PW Audio for payment within 10 days. Sauk Stereo records the payment and discount as follows. May 14 Accounts payable Purchase discounts Cash 3,500 70 3,430

Chapter 5-59

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Periodic Inventory System
Recording Sales of Merchandise
Illustration: PW Audio Supply, records the sale of $3,800 of merchandise to Sauk Stereo on May 4 (sales invoice No. 731, Illustration 5-5) as follows. May 4 Accounts receivable Sales 3,800 3,800

No entry is recorded for cost of goods sold at the time of the sale under a periodic system.
Chapter 5-60

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Periodic Inventory System
Sales Returns and Allowances
Illustration: To record the returned goods received from Sauk Stereo on May 8, PW Audio Supply records the $300 sales return as follows. May 4 Sales returns and allowances Accounts receivable 300 300

Chapter 5-61

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Periodic Inventory System
Sales Discounts
Illustration: On May 14, PW Audio Supply receives payment of $3,430 on account from Sauk Stereo. PW Audio honors the 2% cash discount and records the payment of Sauk·s account receivable in full as follows. May 14 Cash Sales discounts Accounts receivable 3,430 70 3,500

Chapter 5-62

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Comparison of Entries²Perpetual Vs. Periodic Entries²

Chapter 5-63

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Comparison of Entries²Perpetual Vs. Periodic Entries²

Chapter 5-64

SO 8 Explain the recording of purchases and sales of inventory under a periodic inventory system.

Copyright
´Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in Section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the express written permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages, caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information contained herein.µ

Chapter 5-65

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