This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

### Publishers

Scribd Selects Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Scribd Selects Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

P. 1

Basics of Fluid Mechanics|Views: 119|Likes: 2

Published by Willard Szeto

See more

See less

https://www.scribd.com/doc/52883416/Basics-of-Fluid-Mechanics

06/07/2011

text

original

- Introduction
- 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics?
- 1.2 Brief History
- 1.3 Kinds of Fluids
- 1.5 Viscosity
- 1.5.1 General
- 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids
- 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity
- 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity
- 1.5.5 Bulk Modulus
- 1.6.1 Wetting of Surfaces
- Review of Thermodynamics
- 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions
- Review of Mechanics
- 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body
- 3.2 Center of Mass
- 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass
- 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area
- 3.3 Moment of Inertia
- 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass
- Moment of Inertia
- 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area
- 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia
- 3.3.4 Product of Inertia
- 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia
- 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion
- 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque
- 3.5.1 Tables of geometries
- Fluids Statics
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 59
- 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field
- 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field
- 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement
- 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field
- 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations
- 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density
- 4.3.6 Liquid Phase
- 4.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System
- 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System
- 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density
- 4.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces
- 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces
- 4.5.2 Force on Curved Surfaces
- 4.6.1 Stability
- 4.6.2 Surface Tension
- 4.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability
- Integral Analysis
- 5.1 Introduction
- 5.2 Control Volume
- 5.3 Continuity Equation
- 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume
- 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids
- 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem
- 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation
- 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship
- 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation
- Momentum Conservation for
- 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation
- 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous
- 6.1.2 External Forces
- 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation
- 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System
- 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow
- 6.2 Momentum Equation Application
- 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow
- 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State
- 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum
- 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation
- 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions
- Energy Conservation
- 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics
- 7.2. LIMITATION OF INTEGRAL APPROACH 181
- 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach
- 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation
- 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State
- 7.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State
- 7.4. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM 185
- 7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System
- 7.4.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate
- 7.4.2 Linear Accelerated System
- 7.4.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System
- 7.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow
- Diﬀerential Analysis
- 8.1 Introduction
- 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples
- 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation
- 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity
- 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations
- 8.3.2 Examples of Generalized of Quantities
- 8.4 Momentum Conservation
- 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation
- 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces
- 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories
- 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes)
- Multi–Phase Flow
- 9.1 Introduction
- 9.2 History
- 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter
- 9.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow
- 9.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes
- 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow
- 9.6. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 239
- 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions
- 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions
- 9.7 Homogeneous Models
- 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components
- 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model
- 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow
- 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS >ρL
- 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS <ρ and With Gravity
- 9.9 Counter–Current Flow
- 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow
- 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow
- 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion
- A.1 Vectors
- A.1.1 Vector Algebra
- A.1.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors
- A.1.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations
- A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE)
- A.2.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations
- A.2.2 Variables Separation or Segregation
- A.2.3 Non–Linear Equations
- A.2.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations
- A.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations
- A.2.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation
- A.2.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE
- A.2.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation
- A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations
- A.3.1 First-order equations
- A.4 Trigonometry
- Subjects Index
- Authors Index

Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:barmeir at gmail.com

Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.2.9.1 October 11, 2010)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

xv xxi xxii xxiii xxiii xxiv xxvi xxvi xxvii xxvii xxvii xxvii xxviii xxix xxix xxix xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxi xli xli xli

iii

iv

CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlvii Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlvii

1 Introduction 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.5.5 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.6 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 20 22 24 33 33 41 41 43 43 44 44 44 45 47 51 52 53 53 54 57 57 57 59 59 60 64 67 71

2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density .

CONTENTS 4.4 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . 4.5.2 Force on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v . 73 . 74 . 74 . 76 . 78 . 78 . 88 . 94 . 102 . 112 . 112

4.5

4.6

4.7

I

Integral Analysis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

119

121 121 122 123 125 125 132 134 140 143 145 145 145 146 147 147 148 152 155 156 163 164 167 169 169 181 182 183

5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .

6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi 7.4 7.3.2 Energy 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4

CONTENTS Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State . Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . . Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . . Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . 183 185 185 186 186 188

II

Diﬀerential Analysis

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

189

191 191 192 195 197 202 202 203 204 208 218 218 222 231 231 231 232 233 234 235 239 240 243 244 246 247 248 250 251 253 254 261

8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Generalized of Quantities . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A. . . . . .1 Vector Algebra . A. . . . . . . . . . .2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations . . .3. . . . . vii 263 263 264 266 268 274 274 275 277 280 282 285 287 289 289 290 291 Index 293 Subjects Index . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . .1. .7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . . . .2. . . A. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . . . . . . A. . A. . . . . . . . . .1 First-order equations . . . . . . 296 . A. . . . . . . . . .2. . A. . A. . . . . . . . . .6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . . . A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . . . .2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. .1. A. . . . .1 Vectors .3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . . . . . .2.4 Trigonometry . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A. . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Authors Index . . . . . . . .

viii CONTENTS .

. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress. .4 3. . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . . . . .8 1. . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . . . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 3. . .5 1. 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 22 24 25 26 29 29 42 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 ix . . . . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . .6 1. . . . . . . .2 1. . . .15 1. . . . . . . . . . . . The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . Description of liquid surface. . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . . . . . . .1 3. . .17 1. . . . Forces in Contact angle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics. . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . . .16 1. . . .3 3. . .14 1. . . . . .7 3. .11 1. . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 1. . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. . The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . . . Description of the extinguish nozzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. .5 3. . . . . . . . . .3 1. . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The schematic that explains the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radius. . . . . . . . . . .8 Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. . .12 1. . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . . . . . . The raising height as a function of the radii. .4 1. . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . Surface tension control volume analysis. . . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.LIST OF FIGURES 1. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 4. . . . . . .19 4. . . . . . . . . . .36 4. Stability of two triangles put tougher. . . . . .10 4. . . . . .35 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .12 3. .9 3. . . . . . . . . . . .x 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Polynomial shape dam description. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. . . . . . . area .5 .15 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 4. .28 4. .7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 4. . . . . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. . . . . . . center of . . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. . . . .38 The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . . .9 4. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of submerged area. . . . . . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body. The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder. Dam is a part of a circular shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density. . . . . .moment of inertia and Triangle for example 3. Moment on arc element around Point “O. . . . . . . .4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular area under pressure. . . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces. . . . . Product of inertia for triangle .13 4.2 4. .29 4. .24 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 4. . .11 3. . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle. . . . . . . . .5 4. . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. . . . . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube.” . . . . . . . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device. . . . . . . . . . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart. . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. . . . . . . . . .26 4. . .13 4. 48 49 49 50 52 57 59 60 61 62 66 69 71 75 75 76 76 77 78 80 80 82 83 86 88 88 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 96 102 102 102 104 105 105 106 108 Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . .3 4. . . . Moment of inertia for rectangular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. . . . . . .11 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 4. . LIST OF FIGURES . . . . A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . .7 . . .31 4.18 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The forces on curved area. . . . Description of parabola . . . . . . . . . .27 4. . . . . Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long. . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure. . . A cart slide on inclined plane.12 4. . . . . . . .34 4. . . . . . . . . .17 4. . . . . . .33 4. . .1 4. . . . . . . . . .6 4. . .21 4. . . .30 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. . .32 4. . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on submerged area.22 4.37 4. . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi 109 110 112 113 114 116 117 121 122 123 124 127 130 135 140 141 142 143 144 146 149 151 153 154 155 158 159 163 165 168 170 172 173 182 192 194 196 197 205 206 208 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity Flow in an oscillating manometer . . . . . .44 4. . . . .9 5. . .4 8. . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. . . . .7 6. . . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Piston control volume . . . . . . . . . . . .6 6. . . . . . . . .12 6. . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7.40 4. . . . . .45 5. . . . . . . . . . .4 5.42 4. . Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux . . . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes . . . . .10 6.3 8. . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . . . . . . . Flow out of un symmetrical tank . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . . . . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . . . . . . . . .7 5. . . . . . . . . . .4 . .3 5. . . . . . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet . Height of the liquid for example 5.43 4. . . . . . . . . . .8 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The work on the control volume . . . .9 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boat for example 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion . . .14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . .39 4. . . . . . . . . . . . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . .10 5. . . . .6 8.6 5. . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow in coating process . . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape . . . . . . . . Control volume and system in motion . . .8 5.4 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . .7 Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. . . . . . . . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 4. . . . . . . . . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . Discharge from a Large Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . . . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . . . . . . . . . . . . . Velocity for a circular shape . . . . . . . .2 8. . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A new control volume to ﬁnd the velocity in discharge tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 7. . . . .4 6. . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . . . . Description of depression to explain the instability.2 6. . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . .11 5. . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Flow between two plates top moving . .9 9. . . . . . . . . . .17 The control volume in pipe ﬂow . . . . . . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . . . . . . . . 210 211 213 213 213 214 219 221 222 222 224 225 228 233 235 236 236 237 238 239 249 250 251 252 252 253 254 254 260 263 264 270 271 272 273 291 Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Counter–current ﬂow in a can. . .5 9. . . . .2 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. . . . . . Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry. 8. . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . . . . .12 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . .6 9. . . . . . . . The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . . . . .2 9. . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . Flood in vertical pipe. . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 A. . . . . . . . .10 9. . 8. . . .15 9. . . .1 A. . . . . The right hand rule . (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . . . . . 8. . . . .10 Deformations of diﬀerent rectangles . . . . .11 9. . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . . . . . . 8. . . 8. . . . . .14 9. . . . . . .11 Linear strain of the element . . . .12 1–Dimensional free surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii LIST OF FIGURES 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Image of counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . . . . . . . . . . . .7 .16 One dimensional ﬂow with shear between plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . .13 Flow driven by surface tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 A. 8. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation 8. . .18 Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . . .7 9. . . . . . Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. . . . . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . . . .14 Flow in kerosene lamp . . . . . . . .5 A. . . . . . . . .9 Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. . .3 A. . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . Spherical Coordinate System . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 9. . . . . . . . . . .13 9. . . . . . . . . . .6 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . .7 2. . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . . . . .7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . The surface tension for selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 xiii . .3 1. . . . . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . .1 3. . Viscosity of selected liquids . . . . 13 13 14 15 20 25 31 32 38 55 56 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . .1 1. Moments of Inertia full shape. Viscosity of selected gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . continue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . . . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . . . . xxxviii Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . .

xiv LIST OF TABLES .

v.9). page 88 The acceleration of object or system. Cp Cv EU Eu Angular Momentum.11). see equation (2.3). see equation (2. page 35 subscribe for control volume. page 12 External forces by non–ﬂuids means.26)..6). see equation (1. see equation (2. page 147 The velocity taken with the direction. page 57 Body force.38). see equation (6. see equation (5.NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant.43).22).1). see equation (9. page 34 Internal Energy per unit mass. page 145 Martinelli parameter. page 146 Units length.1).0). see equation (1. page 37 The shear stress Tenser. see equation (6. page 163 viscosity at input temperature T. page 33 M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c. see equation (6. page 37 Internal energy.7). see equation (2. see equation (6. page 122 Speciﬁc pressure heat. page 37 Speciﬁc volume heat.117). see equation (2. see equation (2.17). page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature.23). page 34 xv .17). see equation (4. see equation (4.0). Ti0 . see equation (2. page 247 The area of surface.

40). page 38 Entropy of the system.14). see equation (3. page 12 Torque. see equation (4. page 34 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2. page 34 the coordinate in z direction.1. see equation (2. page 37 Fluid thermal conductivity.18). page 36 Speciﬁc enthalpy. page 122 . page 170 Angular momentum.62).2). see equation (5.13). page 36 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. page 72 general Body force. page 36 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. page 53 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure.17).0). see equation (7. see equation (2.18). see equation (2. page 34 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2. see equation (4. see equation (2. see equation (4.85). page 54 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (1. see equation (2.17).6).xvi Ei G gG H h k kT L System energy at state i.2). see equation (2. page 34 The gravitation constant. see equation (1. page 57 Enthalpy.0).6).17). see equation (1. page 80 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass. page 59 Subscribe says.42). see equation (2. see equation (2.24).3). page 34 Speciﬁc gas constant.27). see equation (2.4). see equation (3. see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (4. page 12 velocity . page 34 Work per unit mass.2).

3 M 338 pages) Initial release of the diﬀerential equations chapter.2. 2010 (3.The Book Change Log Version 0. Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille ﬂow. Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny.9 M 280 pages) add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected. xvii .9.1 Oct 11. Version 0.9 Sep 20. Add to the appendix the diﬀerentiation of vector operations. Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation. Version 0.2. Add example. Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan).3 M 344 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder ﬁgure.2. 2010 (3. 2010 (2.6 March 10.

Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0. 2010 (2. 2009 (2. English corrections.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released. Add the macro protect to insert ﬁgure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www. Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www. Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter. Some additions to momentum conservation chapter.artofproblemsolving Add example about the the third component of the velocity.2. English corrections.8 M 241 pages) The momentum conservation chapter was released. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation.2.1. Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations.9 Dec 01.com. Two open questions were released.artofproblemsolving.9 M 280 pages) The energy conservation chapter was released.4 March 01. Add the open question concept.3 Jan 01. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir . 2010 (2.artofproblemsolving. Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra. Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www. English corrections.xviii LIST OF TABLES Version 0. Corrections to Static Chapter.

(thanks to Tousher).6 M 183 pages) Fixing some long titles issues. Add an example to mechanics chapter. Add some examples to static chapter. Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters.6 Jun 30. Improve the dwarﬁng macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title.1.3 M 151 pages) Fix the English in the introduction chapter. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.1. 2008 (1.1.8 Aug 6. Version 0.1.1 Sep 17. Version 0. Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet). 2009 (2. 2009 (2.5 Nov 01.5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation. Improve the Index (thanks to Irene).8a July 5.1. Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. Version 0.8.8. Version 0.4 M 189 pages) Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene).5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues. Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter. . 2008 (2. 2009 (2.LIST OF TABLES xix Version 0.

1 M 111 pages) Major English corrections for the three chapters. 2008 The Thermodynamics chapter was released.1.4 M 149 pages) Add the introduction. 2008 (1. Version 0.1a April 23. 2008 (1.1 May 8.4 M 155 pages) Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter. .xx LIST OF TABLES Version 0. Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter. Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter.1a April 23. viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid. Version 0. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter).1. Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter.5a Jun 11.5 Jun 5. Minor corrections for all three chapters.1. 2008 (1. 2008 Version 0. Version 0. The mechanics chapter was released.

GNU Free Documentation License The modiﬁcation is that under section 3 “copying in quantity” should be add in the end. this License preserves for the author and xxi . with or without modifying it. November 2002 Copyright ©2000.2. The Potto Project License doesn’t long apply to this document and associated docoments. Inc. ”If you print more than 200 copies. Boston.” Version 1. textbook. Preamble The purpose of this License is to make a manual. but changing it is not allowed. Secondarily. either commercially or noncommercially. you are required to furnish the author with two (2) copies of the printed book. 51 Franklin St. The change of the license is to prevent from situations that the author has to buy his own book. MA 02110-1301 USA Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies of this license document.2001. or other functional and useful document ”free” in the sense of freedom: to assure everyone the eﬀective freedom to copy and redistribute it.Notice of Copyright For This Document: This document is published under modiﬁed FDL.2002 Free Software Foundation. Fifth Floor.

The ”Invariant Sections” are certain Secondary Sections whose titles are designated. commercial. The Document may contain zero Invariant Sections.xxii LIST OF TABLES publisher a way to get credit for their work. The ”Cover Texts” are certain short passages of text that are listed. or with modiﬁcations and/or translated into another language. But this License is not limited to software manuals. refers to any such manual or work. and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words. or of legal. It complements the GNU General Public License. This License is a kind of ”copyleft”. either copied verbatim. which means that derivative works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. in any medium. modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission under copyright law. a Secondary Section may not explain any mathematics. We recommend this License principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference. A ”Transparent” copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy. philosophical. unlimited in duration. while not being considered responsible for modiﬁcations made by others. if the Document is in part a textbook of mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical connection with the subject or with related matters. regardless of subject matter or whether it is published as a printed book. (Thus. A ”Modiﬁed Version” of the Document means any work containing the Document or a portion of it. to use that work under the conditions stated herein. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words. below. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS This License applies to any manual or other work. Any member of the public is a licensee. Such a notice grants a world-wide. royalty-free license. ethical or political position regarding them. that contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be distributed under the terms of this License. represented in a format whose speciﬁcation is available to the general public. in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. in the notice that says that the Document is released under this License. A ”Secondary Section” is a named appendix or a front-matter section of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the publishers or authors of the Document to the Document’s overall subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall directly within that overall subject. If a section does not ﬁt the above deﬁnition of Secondary then it is not allowed to be designated as Invariant. The ”Document”. because free software needs free documentation: a free program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the software does. We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free software. and is addressed as ”you”. 1. it can be used for any textual work. as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts. as being those of Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant Sections then there are none. You accept the license if you copy. which is a copyleft license designed for free software. that is suitable for revising the document straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for .

Examples of transparent image formats include PNG. and standard-conforming simple HTML.GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE xxiii images composed of pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available drawing editor. (Here XYZ stands for a speciﬁc section name mentioned below. the title page itself. or absence of markup. under the same conditions stated above. and you may publicly display copies. SGML or XML using a publicly available DTD. A copy that is not ”Transparent” is called ”Opaque”. For works in formats which do not have any title page as such. plus such following pages as are needed to hold. has been arranged to thwart or discourage subsequent modiﬁcation by readers is not Transparent. or ”History”. The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which states that this License applies to the Document. such as ”Acknowledgements”. but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has no eﬀect on the meaning of this License. legibly. ”Dedications”. However. ”Endorsements”. You may also lend copies. provided that this License. An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount of text. You may not use technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute. Texinfo input format. and the license notice saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced in all copies. PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for output purposes only. and that you add no other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. PostScript or PDF designed for human modiﬁcation. 3. Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by proprietary word processors. for a printed book. XCF and JPG. the material this License requires to appear in the title page. If you distribute a large enough number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3. the copyright notices. VERBATIM COPYING You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium.) To ”Preserve the Title” of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a section ”Entitled XYZ” according to this deﬁnition. preceding the beginning of the body of the text. and the machine-generated HTML. SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are not generally available. These Warranty Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this License. and that is suitable for input to text formatters or for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input to text formatters. you may accept compensation in exchange for copies. ”Title Page” means the text near the most prominent appearance of the work’s title. The ”Title Page” means. 2. either commercially or noncommercially. COPYING IN QUANTITY . Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain ASCII without markup. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent ﬁle format whose markup. A section ”Entitled XYZ” means a named subunit of the Document whose title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following text that translates XYZ in another language. LaTeX input format.

clearly and legibly. as long as they preserve the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions. if there were any. If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering more than 100. In addition. If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to ﬁt legibly. you must either include a machine-readable Transparent copy along with each Opaque copy. free of added material. to give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document. and continue the rest onto adjacent pages. . you should put the ﬁrst ones listed (as many as ﬁt reasonably) on the actual cover. with the Modiﬁed Version ﬁlling the role of the Document. you must do these things in the Modiﬁed Version: A. B. or state in or with each Opaque copy a computer-network location from which the general network-using public has access to download using public-standard network protocols a complete Transparent copy of the Document. that you contact the authors of the Document well before redistributing any large number of copies. Copying with changes limited to the covers. as the publisher. You may add other material on the covers in addition. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the Modiﬁed Version. be listed in the History section of the Document). and from those of previous versions (which should. when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity. numbering more than 100. but not required. one or more persons or entities responsible for authorship of the modiﬁcations in the Modiﬁed Version. C. as authors. if any) a title distinct from that of the Document. The front cover must present the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and visible. can be treated as verbatim copying in other respects. if it has fewer than ﬁve). Use in the Title Page (and on the covers. thus licensing distribution and modiﬁcation of the Modiﬁed Version to whoever possesses a copy of it. If you use the latter option. 4. and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. together with at least ﬁve of the principal authors of the Document (all of its principal authors. provided that you release the Modiﬁed Version under precisely this License. all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover. unless they release you from this requirement. you must take reasonably prudent steps. and the Document’s license notice requires Cover Texts. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify you as the publisher of these copies. MODIFICATIONS You may copy and distribute a Modiﬁed Version of the Document under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above. It is requested. List on the Title Page. to ensure that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that edition to the public.xxiv LIST OF TABLES If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have printed covers) of the Document. You may use the same title as a previous version if the original publisher of that version gives permission. you must enclose the copies in covers that carry.

O. given in the Document for public access to a Transparent copy of the Document. immediately after the copyright notices. and preserve in the section all the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or dedications given therein. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers. you may at your option designate some or all of these sections as invariant. new authors. Preserve its Title. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections and required Cover Texts given in the Document’s license notice. and publisher of the Document as given on its Title Page.GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE D. . K. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ”Endorsements” or to conﬂict in title with any Invariant Section. and add to it an item stating at least the title. To do this. You may omit a network location for a work that was published at least four years before the Document itself. H. These may be placed in the ”History” section. Delete any section Entitled ”Endorsements”. authors. I. unaltered in their text and in their titles. year. L. create one stating the title. F. If there is no section Entitled ”History” in the Document. These titles must be distinct from any other section titles. G. Preserve the section Entitled ”History”. J. then add an item describing the Modiﬁed Version as stated in the previous sentence. if any. add their titles to the list of Invariant Sections in the Modiﬁed Version’s license notice. Section numbers or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles. Such a section may not be included in the Modiﬁed Version. If the Modiﬁed Version includes new front-matter sections or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material copied from the Document. Preserve the network location. Include. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document. N. year. a license notice giving the public permission to use the Modiﬁed Version under the terms of this License. and publisher of the Modiﬁed Version as given on the Title Page. Preserve the Title of the section. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document. Include an unaltered copy of this License. and likewise the network locations given in the Document for previous versions it was based on. M. in the form shown in the Addendum below. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modiﬁcations adjacent to the other copyright notices. For any section Entitled ”Acknowledgements” or ”Dedications”. xxv E. or if the original publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.

the name of the original author or publisher of that section if known. provided it contains nothing but endorsements of your Modiﬁed Version by various parties–for example. provided that you include in the combination all of the Invariant Sections of all of the original documents. 5. and list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its license notice. You may add a passage of up to ﬁve words as a Front-Cover Text. or else a unique number. . COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents released under this License. You must delete all sections Entitled ”Endorsements”. and any sections Entitled ”Dedications”. in parentheses. you may not add another. forming one section Entitled ”History”. and distribute it individually under this License. The combined work need only contain one copy of this License. If the Document already includes a cover text for the same cover. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but diﬀerent contents. and multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single copy. previously added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of.xxvi LIST OF TABLES You may add a section Entitled ”Endorsements”. under the terms deﬁned in section 4 above for modiﬁed versions. COMBINING DOCUMENTS You may combine the Document with other documents released under this License. The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any Modiﬁed Version. you must combine any sections Entitled ”History” in the various original documents. In the combination. Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work. and replace the individual copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in the collection. provided you insert a copy of this License into the extracted document. make the title of each such section unique by adding at the end of it. provided that you follow the rules of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects. statements of peer review or that the text has been approved by an organization as the authoritative deﬁnition of a standard. and a passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text. You may extract a single document from such a collection. unmodiﬁed. to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Modiﬁed Version. and follow this License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document. 6. likewise combine any sections Entitled ”Acknowledgements”. on explicit permission from the previous publisher that added the old one. Only one passage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through arrangements made by) any one entity. and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers. but you may replace the old one.

this License does not apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves derivative works of the Document.GNU FREE DOCUMENTATION LICENSE xxvii 7. If the Document speciﬁes that a particular numbered version of this License ”or any later . but may diﬀer in detail to address new problems or concerns. so you may distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4. and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.gnu. the original version will prevail. In case of a disagreement between the translation and the original version of this License or a notice or disclaimer. modify. and any Warranty Disclaimers. modify. Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special permission from their copyright holders. 10. revised versions of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these copies of the Document. However. 9. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate and independent documents or works. the Document’s Cover Texts may be placed on covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate. You may include a translation of this License. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version.org/copyleft/. TRANSLATION Translation is considered a kind of modiﬁcation. Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number. When the Document is included in an aggregate. TERMINATION You may not copy. sublicense or distribute the Document is void. 8. but you may include translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the original versions of these Invariant Sections. and all the license notices in the Document. or ”History”. or the electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form. from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties remain in full compliance. If a section in the Document is Entitled ”Acknowledgements”. Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole aggregate. sublicense. or rights. or distribute the Document except as expressly provided for under this License. provided that you also include the original English version of this License and the original versions of those notices and disclaimers. parties who have received copies. then if the Document is less than one half of the entire aggregate. is called an ”aggregate” if the copyright resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights of the compilation’s users beyond what the individual works permit. Any other attempt to copy. ”Dedications”. See http://www. in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE The Free Software Foundation may publish new. the requirement (section 4) to Preserve its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual title.

2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation.Texts. Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts. to permit their use in free software. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU Free Documentation License”. If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts.. include a copy of the License in the document and put the following copyright and license notices just after the title page: Copyright ©YEAR YOUR NAME. and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. you may choose any version ever published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. .xxviii LIST OF TABLES version” applies to it.. If the Document does not specify a version number of this License. If you have Invariant Sections. If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code. no Front-Cover Texts. with no Invariant Sections. or some other combination of the three. Permission is granted to copy. replace the ”with. Version 1. and no BackCover Texts.” line with this: with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES. with the FrontCover Texts being LIST. you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that speciﬁed version or of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. such as the GNU General Public License. ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents To use this License in a document you have written. distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. we recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of free software license. merge those two alternatives to suit the situation.

Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. just smaller in the sense of less text changed. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due. contact info. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005. Minor contributions (typo corrections.com Steven from artofproblemsolving. time. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author. 2009 xxix . Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. date. Dec. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). Contact at: barmeir at gmail. etc. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. etc. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work.

Dan H. describing how you contributed to the book. Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here. Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Eliezer Bar-Meir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009. Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum.xxx LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms. Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have diﬀerent counter for example. Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. Dec 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter.net . Contact at: my email@provider.

CREDITS xxxi Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R.38) by Michal Zadrozny. Gupta. (Nov 2010) . Tousher Yang April 2008. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues). review of statics and thermo chapters. January 2008. (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan. Corretion to equation (2.

xxxii LIST OF TABLES .

in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. Now. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. For example. Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. As the change in the view occurred. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. in GM.E. All the models have practical applicability. and Canada. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). In his early part of his professional life. xxxiii . this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). the author’s models were used in numerical works. Currently.About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). In the area of compressible ﬂow. R. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. Moreover. British industry.D. Dr. books and software. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists.G. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. Eckert. Spain.

practically from scratch. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. The author lives with his wife and three children. A past project of his was building a four stories house. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. .xxxiv LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry. All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. Bar-Meir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. the author just know to learn quickly. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores.

org/wiki/Main Page). The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. On one hand. xxxv . The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. one of this author’s sages.harvard. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand.law. As individuals we have to obey the law. As R. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States). like an open source. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation.wikipedia. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. This project is to increase wisdom and humility. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice.edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. is a new idea3 . 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders. Kook. Hence. There is always someone who can add to the book. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system. the creation of the POTTO Project. However. one should increase wisdom. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work.

77:139. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. For others. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. Thus. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. It is not just for experts to contribute. Nigel R. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. but also students who happened to be doing their homework.uk/bugclub/raiders. In a way. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. 1989 (see for information http://www..xxxvi LIST OF TABLES related problems. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. While one can be as creative as possible.ex. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises. For example. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 . Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. Whatever the reasons. one also begins to better understand the material. Thus. the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. For some contributors/authors. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession. In these cases. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds. For some authors. The answer varies from individual to individual. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence.ac. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. The social function can have at least two components.html) . the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed.” American Scientist.

graphs and etc.CREDITS xxxvii process. Unlike a regular book. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. Nevertheless. other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. Even if not complete. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. many algorithms for calculating Fanno ﬂow parameters which are not found in any other book. while in other cases only the gate keeper. Potto books on compressible ﬂow and ﬂuid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. NASA Langley Research Center.” In this process. Thus. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. Gas Dynamics Calculator (Potto-GDC). For example. Additionally. Thus. . etc. Every month people from about 110 diﬀerent countries download these books. The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20.000 copies a month. This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). Farassat. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible ﬂow tables collection in the world). The books are used in more than 165 diﬀerent countries around the world. These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. the chapters on Fanno ﬂow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. The book on compressible ﬂow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. some errors are possible and expected. In addition. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. But more than that. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. These data (tables. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)). It is hoped that the books will be error-free.

and special cases.1.0 0. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section. and all of the examples and data (tables.0 0. LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0.0. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion.1 0.0.0. and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi ﬂow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY ﬁrst chapter 0.xxxviii Table -1.2 0.0.) are already presented.1 0.8. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept.0.0 0. Books under development in Potto project. a process in which books .0. However. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written.3 0.0. etc.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form.0. but it has roots in the way science progresses. ﬁgures. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage. other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s).01 TelAviv’notes 0.0. advanced topics.4.0 0.

Again. especially LTEX. However. only LTEX.e. 6 Originally authored by Dr. Schlichting. The text processes. writing examples. and Microsoft Word software. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings.. because of the open nature of this project. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. Further. are not appropriate for these projects. Abiword. But more A than that. A new version is created every several years. which include the actual writing of the text. such as OpenOﬃce. . pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books. creating diagrams and ﬁgures. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects.CREDITS xxxix have a new version every a few years. i. many of whom volunteered to help. Word processors. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. who passed way some years ago. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. and perhaps troﬀ. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals.

xl LIST OF TABLES .

Prologue For This Book Version 0. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea.8 August 6. chemical engineering. This author was bothered by this explanation.6M When this author was an undergraduate student. 2008 pages 151 size 1. in this version. the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. Version 0. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering.1.3M The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering. While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students. it is very satisfying for the author. Even in this early development stage.1 April 22. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xli . and electrical engineering. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. In fact. and civil engineering. so much energy). 2008 pages 189 size 2. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book. aerospace engineering. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. Now. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality.

show me what is wrong”. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. Indeed. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc). and their colleagues. Today. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). Clearly. Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. In this book it is hoped to insert. this is the only reply. When the Static Chapter was written. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work.G. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics. Eckert. For example. anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing. As traditional texts in this ﬁeld. wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. will be presented next (again under construction). This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. he just doesn’t know from where and what. Ernst Schmidt. With all the above. deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. must be taught in engineering classes. The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow. the previous book. Up to Egret’s book. not a traditional topic. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong. some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. met its opposition. Eckert. The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. However.xlii LIST OF TABLES previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. however. dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction). One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow. on compressible ﬂow. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. The book is organized into several chapters which.R. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. aside from his research activity. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E. The next topic is statics. At this stage. there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. as a traditional textbook. multiphase is an advance topic. .

and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. xliii . There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content.” Later. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation. The spell checking was done by ispell. Otherwise. issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. The structure of Hansen. and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell. In writing this book. The chapters are not written in order. The ﬁgures were done by gle. The approach adapted in this book is practical. and more hands–on approach. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). and is copyleft by him. Of course. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. this book avoids this kind of issues.How This Book Was Written This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book. Streeter and Wylie. This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. The graphics were done by TGIF. So. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow.

xliv LIST OF TABLES .

naturally. increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics. Nevertheless. and emptiness was upon the face and files. and there were words. the present. physics. the POTTO project was and void. there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization." 8 . the book is not well organized. this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook. say. if you need information about. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. statics’ equations. Moreover. However. you can read just chapter (4). Let This book. And the Author there be words. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence.9 Reading everything will. For example. This book contains many worked examples.Preface "In the beginning. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are. which can be very useful for many. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. etc. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. of the bits moved upon said. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. the power and glory of the mighty God. This book is only to explain his power. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. 9 At 8 To xlv . Basics of Fluid Mechanics. without form. I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. Like all volunteer work. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. marked with a Mata mark. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others.

editing. directly or indirectly. it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. Several people have helped me with this book. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. graphic ability. this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail. 10 Dr. ignore them please.com”. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices. I am interested in it all. more mathematics (or less mathematics). While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. Incorrect language. If you want to be involved in the editing. ideas. isn’t it?). . but those are solely for the author’s purposes. I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. or proofreading. Naturally. I would like to especially thank to my adviser. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. errors. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. This material never went through a close content review. rewritten sections. literature review is always good. LTEX knowledge. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. However. Dr.com”. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 .xlvi LIST OF TABLES Furthermore. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. In practice. this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). ideas for new areas to cover. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. graphic design. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. whose work was the inspiration for this book. E. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction. and assistance. If you have Internet e-mail access. There are also notes in the margin. Eckert. G. R. please drop me a line. more fundamental material. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement.

At this stage. These omissions.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed. Nevertheless. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. Material can be further illuminate. there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. illustration or photo of experiment. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. question. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand. xlvii . mistakes. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. many chapters are missing. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement. Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet. Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem.

xlviii LIST OF TABLES .

). the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1. motions.CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). and statical conditions in continuous material. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part. or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise). Furthermore. ﬂuid statics. glass appears as a solid material. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations. For example. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time. almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. etc. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics) 1 . the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. In fact. ﬂow in enclose bodies. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces. ﬂow stability.

Moreover. -1.2 CHAPTER 1. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example.1. For example. http://ekkinc.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a . engineers in software company (EKK Inc. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation. Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. INTRODUCTION Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. air with dust particle). Or. isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected.

boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model. After his initial work. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. conﬂicts with the reality. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply.2. Later. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. As in thermodynamics. Euler. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. 1. Torricelli. For example. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. Newton. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. At some point. aqueducts were constructed. Naturally. When cities increased to a larger size.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. etc. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo.1. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. Thus. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. to be followed by stability. For example. there isn’t a clear winner. and continue with Empirical Analysis. He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. Before dealing with the boundaries.) on the principles of buoyancy. Bernoulli family. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created.C. and D’Alembert. turbulence. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be- . Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. Yet. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance.

resistance by Darcy. and Manning. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. The experimentalists. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. Dubuat. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. there are many . Bossut. At the end of the twenty century. The Navier-Stokes equations. Rayleigh. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. INTRODUCTION lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. and Aeronautics. and Poisseuille. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. Stanton. and many others. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much. Weisbach. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). Ganguillet. On the “experimental” side. and Kelvin. von Karman. Thus. Chezy. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. But. Thus. Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. Meyer. Dupuit. Hagen. Fanning. Prandtl and his students Blasius. Hydraulics. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. Bhuckingham. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. the way how it was calculated changed. This problem led to two consequences. The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. Fabre. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. Gas Dynamics. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. d’Aubisson. were Brahms. mainly in pipes and open channels area. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). In the middle of the nineteen century. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. Taylor. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems.4 CHAPTER 1. Therefore. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. Rose. However. Rankine. Kirchhoﬀ. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. for example. Helmhoitz. people cannot relinquish control. Coulomb. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. La Grange. On the theoretical side. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. considerable contribution were made by Euler. after World War Two. as in thermodynamics.

This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor.3. But below the critical point. This diﬀerence can be. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an addtional meaning. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. then the change of volume is at best 5%. Later. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. For example. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). In gaseous phase. EKK. The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. In the best scenario. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. Thus. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. the emphasis is on the physics. The pressure component in the area . Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. Hence.1. So. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. no shear stress is applied. The traditional quantity. The area is measured in [m2 ]. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. under certain limits. For the discussion here. Inc). one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area.1). these programs are as good as the input provided. 1. if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. For example. for most practical purposes considered. e. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. It must be remember that force is a vector. and it is referred to the direction of the area. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. the discussion on the mathematic meaning will be presented (later version). which is force per area has a new meaning. the pressure has three components. In this book. Thus. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. The unit used to measure is [N].g it has a direction. The second quantity discussed here is the area.

Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A.6 CHAPTER 1. that is.3). the F denotes the force. isn’t it?). the velocity of the plate increases also. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. (1. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. Figure 1. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. 1. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. here it will be treated as a separate issue.3. When this assumption is broken. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. Diﬀerent from solid. U0x F However. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. the density remains constant. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. the density is deﬁned as Fig. Thus. INTRODUCTION direction is called pressure (great way to confuse.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics. h is the distance between the plates.2) Where A is the area. -1. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. it was shown that when the force per area increases. In this discussion. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. h) (1. F. then. After certain sample size. -1. .2. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. (1. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force). From solid mechanics study. In solid mechanics.2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density).

10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity).8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1.1.9) with equation (1. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time.5) From equations (1.11) . d = U δt = h δβ (1. -1.8) From equation (1. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1. then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1. the regular approximation provides Fig.4.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.3) (1.7) From Figure 1.5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress.4) (1. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.4) and (1. In steady state.4. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear.9) Combining equation (1.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1. Hence. δt is d = U δt (1.

the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement. Solution . this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. Assume steady state conditions. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ]. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerine. water etc.5 m/sec.8 CHAPTER 1.069 × 0.5 A µU ∼ = 53.6)) F = 1 × 1.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transfered into the y direction. INTRODUCTION Materials which obey equation (1. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize. is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules.1 [m].45[N ] h 0. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction.1[m] diameters with height of 0. the following can be written (see equation (1.2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus.2[m] and 0.01 End Solution Example 1. Equation (1. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. Thus.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant. when the outer cylinder remains stationary. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equiledistance from each other and steady state is achived instanly. Example 1. In fact. The property of viscosity.

4 ¡ M= ∼ .5 Viscosity 1. However. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature.5. thus.1.5. and it resists the ﬂow. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0. The same way as in example (1. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature. In liquids.5. as pl do ne Ne r-P wt ic eu ct ei pe re ho ps R on ia n hi lip tic po ff di la ta n t .13 h 0. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second. the Fig.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. Thus.1 × 12/60 = 0.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature. The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics.1). Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids familys.986 0. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. Thus. while in the dU liquids. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature. in gases. exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow. In gases. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. -1. VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0.

1.10 CHAPTER 1.5). -1. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines. From the physical point of view. It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow. Not all the materials obey this relationship. It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless.5. -1.6. INTRODUCTION Fig.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity. Well above the critical point. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure.13) The new coeﬃcients (n.7. Figure 1. The viscosity coeﬃcient is . On the liquid side below the critical point. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig. both materials are only a function of the temperature. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn . Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. K) in equation (1.13) are constant. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes.

0026 0.002 0.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature. Mindess and J. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1. The kinematic vis. However. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 .0014 0. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids.000025 0.003 0. -1. the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic. However. Skalny. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials.0004 0. In the simple case. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid. When n. 1 C.1. F.8.0028 0.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.e-05 0.of the temperature.5). S. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity.5. Martys.0012 0. 1. cosity is deﬁned as 0. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus.0016 0. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms). Ferraris. VISCOSITY 11 always positive. Materials Science of Concrete VI. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.0018 0.14) dUx =0 dy if |τyx | < τ0 (1.0008 0. This fact explains Fig.0006 0. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity. [m2 /sec].000015 0.0024 0. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1.0022 0. de Larrard and N. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice. For example. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid.e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.. the liquid is dilettante.0002 5. for most practical purposes. eds. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress. is above one. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids.7. The liquids which satisfy equation (1.5.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. When n is below one.

4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.555 × 524. .1 Example 1.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature. Solution Appallying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0. -1. End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement.07 + 120 µ = 0.001 0. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0.002 0. T T0 3 2 (1. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.12 CHAPTER 1.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.9. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation. Water viscosity as a func1.710−5 .07 3 2 ∼ 2.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%. have expressions that provide an estimate.1. Use the data provide in Table 1. For many gases.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth .00001827 × × 0. INTRODUCTION 1.8 and Fig.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0.5. 2008 0.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.9. For isothermal ﬂow.

0000146 0.05 528.99 526. The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.0001781 0.93 540.0000076 0.1.67 518.1. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.0000109 0.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.67 528. Viscosity of selected gases.00001827 0.00001480 0.00001720 0.0000876 0.07 527.2.0000203 0.00000982 0. . Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.67 524.0002018 0.0001254 Table -1.5.

14 CHAPTER 1.6 0.098 0.000245 0.069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table -1. Viscosity of selected liquids.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.072 0.084 0.001194 0.05 0.01915 0. .000946 0.3.15-0.986 5-20 0.200 0.54 1.001547 0. INTRODUCTION Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.000647 0.

096 K Pc [Bar] 12.6 26.5.40685 22. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties). The second way. Furthermore.8 132 304. Tr . this graph also shows the trends.3 28.0 18. other points can be estimated.01 32.C.04 Tc [K] 33. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart.0 0.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.4 305. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature.97 44. Liquid Metal viscosity 2.7685 36. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”). The lines of constant relative pressure.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.183 39.2 154.8823 73. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways.4 190.4 or similar information. Vol. 19.0 21. Furthermore. cation (mushy zone).00 30.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook.865925 50.3 19. In Figure 1.4 49. -1.289945 27.3 5. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2. if one point is well documented.9 15 Table -1. Government Printing Oﬃce.7 647.Fig. In this graph. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.S. Even when there is a solidiﬁ. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition.0 15.5 2. Washington D. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit.636 58.83865 46. Figure 1. 258.9696 2.5 1. May 1995 p.4.54 15.5 151 289.358525 48. then the critical .0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications. ∼ 1[bar].944 131.26 44.256425 48.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3.47 2.003 20.07 16. for practical purpose.10.1.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.016 4. The lower pressure is.

26 No.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 . In this book.11 obtain the reduced viscosity. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. Example 1. INTRODUCTION µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1. Rev. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1.16 viscosity is obtained as given CHAPTER 1. 2 1956. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50.11 (1. .4 50. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar].18) The third way. when none is available. Makita.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.15 ∼ 2. For most 3 Kyama. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity.41 154.35 373. Even for homogeneous mixture.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen.35[Bar] Tc = 154.2 = 21.

VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components. -1. xi is the mole fraction of component i.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. 2008 Fig. and µi is the viscosity of component i. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j. The subscript i should be used for the j index.22) Here.1. .2 Pr=0. cases.5.11.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture.

12.00001754 .0000203 0. 2008 Fig. Example 1.2 0. µ 0. Mole Fraction. 28.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 -1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2.1 Tr=1.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixutre (air) made of 20% oxygen.8 Tr=1 Tr=1.18 6 CHAPTER 1. x 0.4 Tr=1. INTRODUCTION 5 Tr=0. -1. M 32. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight. O2 and 80% netrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C.8 Viscosity. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.2 Tr=1.

1.2 × 1.2 × 0. in theory. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied.8 × 1.0215 N sec .0 µi /µj 1.143 0. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0.0 1.5.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1. m2 m2 and τs = 0. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0.157 .0 1.2 × 0.0000203 0.8 × 1. µ0 = 0.0000181 0. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress. It this method the following is deﬁned as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1.0024 0.24) n Tc mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1.996 + 0.0000182 .8 × 0.0 + 0.0000073 kN . The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress.875 1. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0.86 1.0024 0. m2 Figure 1. This equation (1.25) . VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1.0 19 µmix ∼ 0. An example for values for this formula. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0.001 kN . the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid.0 Φij 1.0 1. End Solution In very low pressure.00105 N sec .996 1.

62 1.03-4.064 [MPa] .096 K Pc 57.60 1.5 [Bar] 172.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.32 1. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591.27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4.49 0.5 0. Table -1.97 2.28 2.20 1.10 1.5.49 [MPa] 6.5.2-28.34 1.109 [MPa] na 22.15-2.09 1.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.3 4. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.20 and n CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1. It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.174 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.5 2.3 [Mpa] nf 7.52 26.80 1.00 [MPa] Est 78. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.74 [MPa] 4.5 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law).06 1.26) 1.79 K na 647.5.

29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant. dP = 0.32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1.34) T Equation (1.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant). v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1.33) From equation (1. VISCOSITY 21 In the literature. additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned.35) The last equation (1. the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away. In contrast. and therefore equation (1. The thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer.32) On constant pressure lines.1. These deﬁnitions are related to each other. . This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.33) follows that dv dT ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v =− P =const v (1.35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus.5.

Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v v 5 ∂P ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285. and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. INTRODUCTION Example 1. The R2 dℓ1 surface tension is force per length x and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End Solution 1.00035 End Solution Example 1.15 109 . Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoint phases or ma. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to R1 many drops (atomization).01 = 2.cribing preincipls radii. Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2. -1.22 CHAPTER 1.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar].714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0. surface tension.7: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent.13. This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s .6 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the 2dβ1 liquid at the free surface edge. There is a common mis. In many (physics. conception for the source of the surface tension.Fig. Surface tension control volume analysis disterials.6: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0. y Surface tension is also responsi2dβ2 ble for the creation of the drops dℓ2 and bubbles.

Thus.39) R Where R is the radius of the sphere. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1. The forces in the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1. The second with two equal radii. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity.37) Equation (1.36) For a very small area. The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. inner and outer. SURFACE TENSION 23 second law (see example ?). it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi . the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β).8: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid.37) is reduced to 2σ ∆P = (1. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . Furthermore. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1. A soap bubble is made of two layers. The relationship between the surface tension and the pressure on the two sides of the surface is based on geometry. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume.36) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1. Consider a small element of surface.1. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward.38) Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1.37) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1. the horizontal forces cancel each other because symmetry.6. In the vertical direction. The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1.41) .37) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius. which contains n bubbles with equal radii. When the surface tension is constant. the equation (1. This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found. Thus. r.40) Example 1.

the masses of the solid. INTRODUCTION The minimum work will be for a reversible process.43) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1.14. It is worth noting that for very slow process.44) (1. For example. liquid.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that Fig. The reversible process requires very slow compression.43). consider the point where three phases became in contact. Forces in Contact angle. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage. In Figure 1. This contact point occurs due to free surface G reaching a solid boundary.6. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . Hence the work is ∆P rf dv rf r0 w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1.43) For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. End Solution 1.44) into equation (1. It can be noticed that the work is negative. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1.42) Where. . forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1.24 CHAPTER 1. the solid reaction force must be zero. Thus.45) (1.14. that is the work is done on the system. and gas can be ignored.39) for reversible process. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) S L and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and the solid phase. Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines. The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1. -1.

E.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle π/3.7 π/4. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials. G. The contact angle is determined by fluid Wetting whether the surface tension between the gas fluid solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry. thus. thus depend on the locale structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. On the other hand. Description of wetting and isn’t straight.83 π/4. Siegel. -1. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting. So. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. This statement is correct in most cases. The surface tension is a molec. a contact angle is created to balNonWetting ance it.15).1. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble .7 π/6 to π/4.non–wetting ﬂuids.6.6. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface.4 π/3. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. however.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R. Table -1. The contact angle for air. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. distiled water with selected materials to demonstrat the inconconsitency. chemical component Steel Steel. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid. For example. gas medium and the solid surface. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries.5 π/3.83 π/3.76 to π/3. if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1. SURFACE TENSION 25 The surface tension forces must be balanced. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting). ular phenomenon.15. It must be noted that the solid boundary Fig. And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting.74 π/4.74 to π/3. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid.

The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4).. 11-17 1(7) In Russian.517. and Westwater. J. To solve the shape of the liquid surface. Heat Transfer. H. K. 56. 4 Arefeva E. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. pages 1465-1470. 8 Wang. R. K. and Dhir. Y. Description of liquid surface.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. 7 Gaetner. and Ostrovsky. Pages 509 . and Dhir.. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . Prog.16.” J. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii..N. on the gas side. (1993). (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4..T. A. I. No 1. N. No 12. Energetika I transport.46) . ρ = σ R(x) (1. 5 Labuntsov D. 1975 2 Bergles A. Heat Transfer 115. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. M. INTRODUCTION dynamics in saturated water. V. ASME. Eng. the Figure 1. This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in Fig. and Rohsenow W. Ser.16 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension. R.. Symp. Vol.I.38) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields 0 0 0 g h(x). (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. 9.I. F. is the atmospheric pressure. Warrier. W.” Chem. papes 717 -728. C. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1. Appalling equation (1. Aladev O.16).. pp.372. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. 6 Basu. E.. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. 124.16. In Figure 1.26 CHAPTER 1.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. G. -1. V. the P h pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of P P free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension.... 3 Tolubinsky.. vol 1 pp 365 . J. Vol. The pressure. V.38) is applicable to it.

6. h = h(x).51) into 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1.52) After the integration equation (1.53) .46) yields σ g h(x) ρ = (1.47) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x.50) dh (1.48) 2 3/2 ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points). h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1.1. Substituting equation (1.51) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is refered to as Laplace’s capillarity constant.50) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 2 3/2 ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 (1. Using dummy variable and the ˙ ¨ ˙ identys h = ξ and hence. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared.48) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as ghρ dh d2 h (1. SURFACE TENSION The radius of any continuous function.47) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x.49) 1+ − 2 =0 σ dx dx ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (sym˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations.47) into equation (1.48) is ghρ = Integrating equation (1. x+dx. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 27 (1.52) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. metry) and the derivative at hx An alternative presentation of equation (1. The diﬀerential dh is h. Equation (1.

58) Equation (1. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 .1 4 This Capillarity p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant. the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence. Furthermore.57) = dx −1 (1.56) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1. . 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. 1.59) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0. This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension.1. constant = −1 . therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited.54) Equation (1.58) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp - (1. Equation (1.6.54) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 (1. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?. This book is introductory. Shamefully. INTRODUCTION At inﬁnity.54) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation4 .28 CHAPTER 1.55) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp −1 (1. this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations.

the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed.17. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1.61) Figure 1. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle.6 0.4 0.7 Radii [cm] May 29.17.60) becomes Fig.6. there are information about the contact angle. otherwise it will not be there. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed. (1.2 1. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting.61) is shown in Figure 1. However.60) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1.5 1.1.3 0.6 0. equation (1.61). For large radii equation (1. However. 2008 hmax 2σ = g ∆ρ r function of the radius.0 0. The height based on equation (1.61) with a minus sign. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. SURFACE TENSION The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume).0 { Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0. h is similar to equation (1. Equation (1. in reality there is no readily information for contact angle5 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads. On the other hand. For a small tube radius. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is 2 σ cos β h= g ∆ρ r (1.6. for extremely small radii equation (1.49) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical shaper (small gravity eﬀect). The acutal dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm].0 0.9 1. gas density and r is the radius of tube. But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the Capilary Height contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given.61) indicates that the high height which indicates a negative pressure.2 0.18.4 2. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are 5 Actially.49) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect. -1. The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1. In that case equation (1. Furthermore.18 exhibits the height as a function of the radius of the tube.8 2. The raising height as a Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the function of the radii.17 as blue line. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is avaible see Table 1. However. .1 2. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.8 Height [cm] 0. The actual height is shown in the red line.61) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.2 1. The raising height as a 1.” The depression height. -1.60) h 29 Theory actual 0 working range R Fig.

30

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

presented in Figure 1.18. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.7. In conclusion, the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates. Example 1.9: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ]. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1.39). D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0.0728 = ∼ 2.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000

End Solution

Example 1.10: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0.02 cm. Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.0[N/m2 ] r 0.0002

End Solution

Example 1.11: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C. Neglect the weight of the ring. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown. However, the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. Therefore, F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.04 × 0.0728 ∼ .0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.

End Solution

1.6. SURFACE TENSION

◦

31

Table -1.7. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20 C when not mentioned.

chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane

**Surface Tension 27.6 25.20 43.4 28.88 39.00 45.95 36.50 36.50 41.50 28.10 32.30 43.12 33.60 27.50 24.95 34.40 32.70 26.8 32.30 23.10 22.3 22.10 29.20 24.20 47.70 58.20 ∼ 21 64.0 0.12 425-465.0 22.70 38.60 22.6 5.15 43.90 43.0-48.0 12.85 11.91
**

mN m

T 20◦ C 22◦ C 25◦ C −269◦ C −247◦ C -

correction

mN mK

n/a -0.1120 -0.1085 -0.1291 -0.0920 -0.1066 -0.1160 -0.1160 -0.1308 -0.1037 -0.1484 -0.1063 -0.1191 -0.1295 -0.1211 -0.0966 -0.1011 n/a -0.1484 -0.1117 n/a -0.0832 -0.1094 -0.1159 -0.0890 -0.0842 n/a -0.0598 n/a -0.2049 -0.0773 -0.1118 n/a n/a -0.1177 -0.067 -0.0972 -0.0935

32

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Table -1.7. The surface tension for selected materials (continue)

chemical component Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene

Surface Tension

mN m

T 25◦ C -

correction

mN mK

14.00 41.50 23.70 38.00 36.60 n/a 54-69 28.4 27 72.80 30.10 28.90

-0.0902 -0.1172 -0.0777 -0.1372 -0.1100 n/a n/a -0.1189 n/a -0.1514 -0.1101 -0.1104

**CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics
**

In this chapter, a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material.

2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions

The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. Work In mechanics, the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2.1)

This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed, that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. Two, there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter. The dimensions of this material can be changed. In this deﬁnition, it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. So, the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation.

33

34

CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Our system can receive energy, work, etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems, the conservation is applied to all systems. The statement describing the law is the following. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2.2)

The system energy is a state property. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2.3)

Interesting results of equation (2.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results. There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy, potential energy (gravity), chemical potential, and electrical energy, etc. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. A common body force is the gravity. For such body force, the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration), m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. The kinetic energy is K.E. = mU 2 2 (2.4)

Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2.5) is transformed into Spesiﬁc Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2.6)

2

(2.5)

where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. The “new” internal energy, Eu , is the internal energy per unit mass.

2.1. BASIC DEFINITIONS

35

Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points, choosing any point in time will make it correct. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2.7)

In the same manner, the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass, the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2.9) (2.8)

For the case were the body force, Bf , is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2.10)

The time derivative operator, D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2.11)

The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. If there is no lost, it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. δQ =0 T (2.12)

The last integral can go though several states. These states are independent of the path the system goes through. Hence, the integral is independent of the path. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2.13)

20) (2. equation (2.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2.17) is reduced to dH = V dP . Furthermore. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process.16) into (2. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties. it still remail valid for all situations. The equation (2. For reversible process equation (2. Thus. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as.21) ρ .18) For isentropic process.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2.36 CHAPTER 2. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process.16) (2. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property. isn’t correct.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0. Thus.18) the (2.15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy. the enthalpy of the system.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2. Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2. h.17) (2. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2.15) (2.19) (2.

26) . Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Spesiﬁc Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume.2.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8. Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2.3145 kj kmol K (2. 37 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions. Normally the relationship of temperature. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables. k. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2. The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as.25) Application of Avogadro’s law.24) For solid.22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as Spesiﬁc Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. pressure.1. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases.

14304 0.948 58.4897 1.6385 0.016 16.7662 1.054 4.5203 1.1.29) (2.07703 4.6179 0.6618 1.28700 0.1156 10.7448 1.7354 0.0299 1.25983 0.29637 2.126 1.7165 0. Table -2.667 1.5482 5. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.28) .12418 0.400 1.51835 0.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.2091 2.003 2.38 CHAPTER 2. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.393 1.013 114.27) The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.4108 1.48152 1.999 44.0416 1.29683 0.01 28.18892 0.970 39.0413 1.186 1.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0.07 28.667 1.230 31.18855 0.0035 0.7113 0.3122 1.29680 0.289 1.41195 0.400 1.9216 1.299 1.667 1.27650 0.327 From equation (2.400 1.7164 0.044 1.01 30.4909 1.1.04 20.2518 3.8723 0.07279 0.0849 1.6529 0.237 1.409 1. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.124 44.183 28.5734 0.091 1.20813 0.8418 1.2537 1.097 18.1926 14.7445 1.6794 1.

33) The speciﬁc heat ratio. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 39 (2.31) Cp to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2. k value ranges from unity to about 1. The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2. of Classical thermodynamics.2.32) (2.30) Utilizing equation (2. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process.38) .” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.28) and subsisting into equation (2.1).30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2. ∆s = 0.36) (2.667.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2.1.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2. These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.

This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2.39) . The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.40 CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas.

These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed. R . change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3. 3.2) Example 3. This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics).1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the ﬁre in a building as depicted in Figure 41 . t in a location. The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results. It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time.CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth.1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3.

I.e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3.f) (3. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3.c) b= and equation (3. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b.I.e) into (3.11 .c) can be solved explicitly.I. There there are three unknowns. t and three equations.I.I.I. The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ.b) and (3.a) and substituting into equations (3. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components.I. (3.d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3. θ. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.1.42 CHAPTER 3.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3.I. Isolating t from (3.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3.a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3. To simplify the calculations.a). U . it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window.c) These nonlinear equations (3.b) and (3. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed.I. For given velocity.I. and time. -3.I. . at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window.I.I. Calculate what is the veFig.I.d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics.I. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window. dow.

It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations.2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribu. Also. 3. In same is calculated. the dV element has ﬁnite dimendV sions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. center of the mass and two. The density. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction. m is the total mass of the object. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). x. the center of mass is required to make the calculations. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass).3) z Here. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). CENTER OF MASS 43 3. etc. y or z. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept. the center will be deﬁned as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass. In x coordinate.2. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. the x mass. Here. rho) as a function of the location. -3.1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. the body will not rotate. fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3. moment of inertia. In other words. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry. Note. ﬁrst.2. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions.3. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. Thus.2.4) where xi is the direction of either.Fig. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass. .2. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity.

3. Furthermore. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability. schematic. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3. are constant and can be canceled.44 CHAPTER 3.2.3. 3.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area.3 which has density. ρ.3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3.8) .5) Fig. ρ and the thickness. Thin body center of mass/area The density.7) If the density is constant then equation (3.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume. Thus.3. equation (3. the body was a three dimensional shape. -3.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. t.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3. Thus equation (3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies.

15) mation of moment of inertia.3.3.3.2 3.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3.11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 45 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation. .14) ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig.12) x= y2 + z2 (3.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3.10) 3.13) y’ C z Thus. The schematic that explains the sum- (3.9) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3.3. rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3. -3. equation (3.4.2. but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.

Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3.20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.5 and therefore.21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3.18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero. -3.2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis.3. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3.22) . the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3.5. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.46 CHAPTER 3.16) 3.18) The ﬁrst term in equation (3. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.17) equation (3.2.19) Hence.

The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia.2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia. -3.3. End Solution Fig.14) as following 0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A 2 2 y +z dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples. For example.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3.6. as shown in Figure 3. -3. Fig. .3.7.7 around x coordinate. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate.3. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3. r0 .3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. dr r 3. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3.6. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle. MOMENT OF INERTIA h 47 Equation (3. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area.

25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3.24) to write as t/2 Fig. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness. x can be done as following Ixx b a3 12 (3. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3. February 28.26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1.9. The results are present in Figure 3. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name.8.48 CHAPTER 3.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero. -3. 2 This . a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 . This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number. Ad. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis. A square element for the calculations of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3.23) dz dIx x m b a3 = ρdy + z2 12 2 r r A 2 ba A a b (3. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption. -3.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness.Fig.9. The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio two-dimensional to three–dimensional. b has no eﬀect on the error.

3. Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia. depicted in Figure 3. Hint. Use this area to calculate moment of inertia.V. calculate the area ﬁrst.a) The second integration ( no need to use (3. Solution dx dy y r x 49 2b 2a Fig.11. y = αx2 . There are several ways to approach the calculation (diﬀerent inﬁnitesimal area). The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3.V. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 .20).b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3. -3.3.11. b/α.5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page).c) Example 3.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola.10 is a r2 d Izz |dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3. Using this method calculate the entire rectangular. Rectangular Moment of inertia. Hint. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one.V. MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3.10. -3.

Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig.12.7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right. .50 CHAPTER 3. The center of every 2 element is at. Triangle for example 3. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0.6). What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.27) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3. -3.20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3.27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3. Assume that base is a and the height is h. Utilizing equation (3.7.

3. the product of inertia is commonly used. The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3. MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 51 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3.29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3. End Solution a3 h 2 3.30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia. Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3.31) A .3.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction.3.30) expanding equation (3. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem.28) For example. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.

13. -3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3. Product of inertia for triangle.35) System which creates equation (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3.3. . The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig. End Solution 3. Example 3.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3.52 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part.35) referred as principle system. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero.34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle.34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3.

˙ 3. r × ω. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur .37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure.41) . Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume.36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. Yet. it can be treated as the regular derivative.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. dm. Two.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one.3. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3.4. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. F= ρ rdV V (3.40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3. thus. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. ω×(r × ω). These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal. stresses). is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3. The same as in the dynamic class.39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin. Coriolis. the system acceleration called the internal forces. 2 (Ur × ω). Angular.38) The velocity.36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 53 3. Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time.

44) To understand these equations a bit better. . it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3.42) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3.43) m It can be noticed (well.40) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. consider a particle moving in x–y plane. The force can be written.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3.42) where Tτ is the torque. 3. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j.54 CHAPTER 3.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained. in the same fashion. (3. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3.5.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3.1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane.

3. yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a . ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 55 Table -3.1. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc .5. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α .

56 CHAPTER 3. yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 . REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3.2. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc .

Later. y. However. In these derivations. where n is the steepest 57 . -4. several assumptions must be made. that pressure can increase and later decrease. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system. Furthermore. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). gG (x. with acceleration.g. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4. z).1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or queasy rest.1. 4.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function.1) erated system under body forces.1. a = 0. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. The system is in a body force ﬁeld. here this topic will be more vigorously examined. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel- Equation (4. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration. Fig. a as shown in Figure 4. dy.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC.

if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation the dot product results in ∂P (4.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient. P . Even though. The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero in • gradP = F= total surface F+ body F (4. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is. it has a direction). as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. For example.5) ∂n where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). the dot product of the following is ˆ • gradP = ∂P i ∂x (4. a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations. the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in ∂P dydx ˆ i dF = − (4.2) ∂x In the same fashion. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or gradP = ρ geﬀ (4. . This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ k i+ j+ ∂x ∂y ∂y (4.4) In general.6) Hence. FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length. If the pressure. This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here. now. the pressure is treated. First.8) as the Fluid Static Equation. However.7) Some refer to equation (4.8) (4. As before.58 CHAPTER 4.

12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4.10) can be integrated to yield P (x. (4. For example. -4. ρ. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4. y) = constant (4. and temperature. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4. .14) a Fig.11) and therefore P (x. Figure 4. A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure. it will be used. pressure.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 59 4. P .2 describes the constant 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) It is evident from equation (4.3. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant.9) Utilizing equation (4. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4.3.10) and constant in equation (4.9) and substituting it into equation (4.11) (4.12) (4.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section. 4. y. Traditionally. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 .1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density.13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y.4. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. There are ﬁelds where x or y are ρgh designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point.

15) In the literature. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is . Consider a situation described in Figure 4.2. pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force. Example 4.76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury.82[m/sec]. Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density.60 CHAPTER 4.2. The reason that a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes. the right hand side of the equation (4.2 4. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state. -4.3. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).3.14) becomes P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4.1: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C.1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure. 4.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure.3. The high of the Mercury is 0. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4.

82 × 0. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane.39[P a] ∼ 1. The ratio of the Fig. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 61 0. P valve 2 1 Example 4. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore.3. Equation (4. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. h . -4. The description of the height is given in Figure 4.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example. L. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0. For smaller width.85[kg/m3 ].000179264[kPa].4. Locate the liquids surfaces. U tube is L. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 The mass conservation results in Ha + Hb = L + h1 + h2 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory.76 ∼ 101095. Pa = 13545.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results.16) The main reason the mercury is used because its of large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.85 × 9.4. Gas The pressure. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury. Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . The mercury density is 13545. End Solution (4. Hence. The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube.2: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube.3.

Thus.4). This way. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected. the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side.62 CHAPTER 4. the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min.Fig. -4.17) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured.2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement can be exρ1 ρ1 tended to measure the pressure gas chambers.2. Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to be ρ1 measured (see Figure 4. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure.5. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube). The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 4. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb . FLUIDS STATICS Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube. Schematic of sensitive measurement device.3. The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. .

2.18) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 .18) the gas density was neglected. .4. it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 . Additional parameter.3. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height. The two sides of the densities are very close to each other so the height became large.23) Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4.21) For the small value of the area ratio. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4. With the equation for height (4. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause signiﬁcant complications. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. ρ2 .20) equation (4. In the previous technique. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid). the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4.3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement 63 For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small. But this ratio easily can be inserted into the derivations.18) becomes P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4. Here. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4.23) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density. in writing equation (4. if the volumes in two containers is equal then h2 A2 (4.5 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. A2 /A1 << 1. For example.20) −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device.19) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known. In steady state. Additionally. will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence. Figure 4. This technique utilizes the opposite range.22) A2 A1 (4. the volume ratio. Thus.22) becomes h2 = (4.20). The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. then equation (4.3.

27) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially. 4. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus.3.28) h2 + ··· 6 (4.64 CHAPTER 4. density and location. Equation (4.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure. Thus equation (4. These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure.3. liquids and other.25) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4. FLUIDS STATICS 4.24) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in dP g dz =− P RT Equation (4.26) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4. In the gas phase.26) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4.3.29) . the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas).3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases. As ﬁrst approximation.11) becomes ∂P gP =− ∂z RT (4.27) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be P ρ0 g h − =1+ P0 P0 correction factor 2 (4.25) (4. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density.

Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ).28). The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h. These deviations have a limited practical purpose. So. In these cases. Z.32) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4. a numerical integration must be carried out. In general. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant.39). The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4. For these cases. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst. . can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4.3. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 65 Equation (4.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average).32) The variables for equation (4. only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation.3.31) Without going through the mathematics.27) and (4.28).30) (4. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc . 4. the value of the compressibility factor.34) 3 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person.33) The integration of equation (4. here. the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.33) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1.4.29) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use3 . they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue. there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2. However. Fortunately. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties.3.

37) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4.40) BT The solution is presented in equation (4. Sometimes.39) and is plotted in Figure 4.39) March 11. BT /g ρ0 . with units of length.34) can be represented in a more convenient form as ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.35) in equation (4.38) e P −P0 BT −1 =z (4. Hydrostatic pressure when there is P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4. Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction). −1 = (4.36) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4.35) Equation (4.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4.66 CHAPTER 4. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = This constant.37) has units of length.6. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure).36) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. The solution becomes BT g ρ0 BT g ρ0 (4. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4. Utilizing equation (4.6. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point. The integration constant. -4. the solution is presented as P −P0 BT e Fig. is a typical length of the problem.41) . 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form g ρ0 z BT z g ρ0 compressibility in the liquid phase.35) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase.

a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4. Additionally. For h = 0.40) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. For example.4. 4. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height.44) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 67 An approximation of equation (4. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4. Here. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform.46) (4.3.45) with (4. For the atmosphere.3.42) It can be noticed that equation (4.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects. P/BT is small (<< 1). the temperature is T0 and using it leads to T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric pressure BT (P − P0 ) + 2 corrections P − P0 BT 2 3 BT + 6 P − P0 BT + · · · = z g ρ 0 (4.). Hence.43) where h here referred to height or distance.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.45) . Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure. in the atmosphere the temperature is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions.4 4. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter.42) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio.3.4.

50) It can be noticed that equation (4. 5 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio.50) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas.51) P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − −. negative direction). It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor (4. However. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance. If you feel that it is too simple. h.50) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one.47) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4.e.46) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4. Equation (4..G. I am grateful to my adviser E. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease.47) Deﬁning a new variable4 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh. Using these deﬁnitions results in g dξ dP = P RCx ξ (4.48) After integration of equation (4. . The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights. 4 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students.51) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient.49) Or in a more convenient form as g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 P = P0 (4..68 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS Separating the variables in equation (4. please. T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 Equation (4. just ignore it. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter5 . Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas.R. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added.

7) What could happen? There are two Fig. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. Cx . The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces). For engineering purposes. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). Suppose that h for some reason. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab. Under equilibrium. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim h 1− Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx 69 = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − .4.7. h. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces.50) represents only the pressure ratio. It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer.45). This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height.3.2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions. The simplest assumption to combine these equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. (4. It has to be noted that these equations (4. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. That is.. Equation (4. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density.3.4. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio.52) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient).50) is stable and if so under what conditions. Thus.25).. Clearly. equation (2. higher heights). the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition.52) Equation (4. -4.52) are not properly represented without the characteristic height.53) Advance material can be skipped 4.50) and (4. inﬂuences at only large values of height. main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further.51) and (4. If .

The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound). The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h)..59) .54) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4..53) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T (4.70 CHAPTER 4. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process. the pressure process is about thousands times faster then the thermal process. The process.51) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.56) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4.58) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time). The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion.57) in taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − . The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4.55) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest. under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations.57) Expanding equation (4. That is.54) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh.57) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4. However. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is. FLUIDS STATICS ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec].50) but can be approximated by equation (4. In reality. this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem). The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2.

One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation. However.59) and (4. At ﬁrst glance. the unstable situation is continuously unstable. rb the density.3.60) After rearrangement of the inequality (4. -4.60) and using the ideal gas identity.4. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body.3.61) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. it is said that situation is neutral. Thus. . This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality. 4. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged. density and pressure. around this value additional analysis is needed 6 .11) has two terms on the right hand side. 6 The same issue of the ﬂoating ice. it transformed to (k − 1) g ρ Cx > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as gρ g ρ Cx > − Pk P T (4. one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. while the gravity Fig. The varying gravity eﬀects on force source in liquid can be the liquid itself. Thus.8. Equation r P b ρb (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 71 The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid. g.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid. The body g ∝ r2 force was assumed until now to be constant. ρ and the body force. From a mathematical point of view.58) provides the conditions to determine the stability.

1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity In physics.5. equation (4. 4. The integration of equation (4.3.5.. .2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility.63) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough.65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. Z.11) can be used (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4. 4. The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 . It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb . Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. Again. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero. 2 ρb Pb RT 2 rb (R T ) (4.72 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS Thus. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4. numerical integration is a possible solution.65) can be expanded in taylor series as standard correction f actor 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) ρ P G (r − rb ) = =1− − + . is employed. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body.63) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4.64) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4. equation (4.3.66) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning).. As before.65) Equation (4.will not be introduced here. the discussion is separated into two different issues.62) where here G denotes the general gravity constant.

35) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.70) e 4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Thus. one can obtain ρ P = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4. there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used.5.69) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one.4.3. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .6 Liquid Phase P0 −P BT = Constant − (4.68) Equation (4. While for most practical purposes. 4.70) is e P −P0 BT G r2 BT g ρ0 r (4. As before taylor series for equation (4. 2 ρb Pb Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4.. Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are 1 d r2 dr r2 dP ρ dr + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4.3.. if applicable.67) With the same process as before for ideal gas case.71) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11.000 [m]. equation (4.63) is transformed into P Pb 73 dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4.72) .65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.65) is standard correction f actor 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) P G (r − rb ) ρ − = =1− + . it is left for the reader to apply according to problem. If the liquid “equation of state” (4.3.

Equation (4. Thus. for the eﬀective gravity (4. Example 4.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage.74 Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ CHAPTER 4. 4.74) where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4.4. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation.73) 4. However. the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity. The general.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity. body forces were considered as one-dimensional. the previous derivations can be easily extended. in a two dimensional system.75) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. As before. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one. FLUIDS STATICS • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations.76) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples. . Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i For example.3: What is the angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution This question is one of the traditional question the ﬂuid static and is straight forward.

77) Fig. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart.9. F (a ) β The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicular to the slope.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9. Calculate the shape of the surface. -4.10. A cart slide on inclined plane.10. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 27.812 = 11.015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4.1 a 75 m 5 sec g geﬀ Fig. -4. If there is a resistance what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found.4: Cart partially is ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4.4.01◦ g 9. . This angle/direction can be found using the following tan−1 β = tan−1 a 5 = ∼ 27. Thus. This requires to ﬁnd the angle of the eﬀective body force. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface.4. If there is no resistance.

76

End Solution

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

(b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart. In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− The angle of the surface, α < β, is now tan α =

net g − Fm g cosβ

Fnet m

(4.78)

(4.79)

(c) In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. So, the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure.

r su ce fa

th wi

t ic fr

n io

α

a

β g sin β − Fnet m

β g

geﬀ

4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density

Fig. -4.11. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane.

For simpliﬁcation reasons, the ﬁrst case to deal with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity. That is the eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4.81) (4.80)

z r

unit mass

ω2 r g

geﬀ

center of circulation

Equation (4.81) can be integrated as ω 2 r2 z − z0 = 2g (4.82)

Fig. -4.12. Schematic to explain the angular angle.

4.4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM

77

Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . The constant pressure will be along P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + To illustrate this point, example 4.5 is provided.

Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center

ns ta re lin e

ω 2 r2 2g

(4.83)

pr

es

su

S

ω

L

co

xL

Fig. -4.13. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.5.

Example 4.5: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. The center of rotation is a distance, L from the “left” hand side. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4.13. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. Solution It ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption). The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. Thus, equation (4.82) represent the pressure line. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g

Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g

**It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity.
**

End Solution

nt

78

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

Example 4.6: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution In Figure 4.13 shown the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry.

End Solution

Example 4.7: In the U tube in example 4.5 is rotating with upper part height of . At what rotating velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center, what happen the rotation approach very large value?

**4.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces
**

The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes. This section deals with these calculations. These calculations are divided into two categories, straight surfaces and curved surfaces.

4.5.1

Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces

A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. Initially, a simple case will be examined. Later, how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown. Example 4.8: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4.14. Calculate the minimum forces, F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is

dF

"0"

β = 50◦

h

A-A

ξ

ℓ = 5[m]

ξ

A-A

a[m]

dξ

dM = P a dξ ( + ξ)

dA

F2

F1

b[m]

Fig. -4.14. Rectangular area under pressure.

4.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The pressure, P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ The liquid total moment on the gate is

b

79

M=

0

g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ)

**The integral can be simpliﬁed as
**

b

M = g a ρ sin β

0

( + ξ)2 dξ

(4.84)

The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3

This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. Additional equation is needed. It is the total force, which is

b

Ftotal =

0

g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ

**The total force integration provides
**

b

Ftotal = g ρ a sin β

0

( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β

2 b + b2 2

The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2

Additionally, the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6

End Solution

3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3

80

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. Looking at the above calculations, it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4.84) and also a center of area. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3. Several represented areas for which moment of inertia and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4.15. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated. First, the force is

"O"

β ξ

ξ

ℓ0 dξ ℓ1

ξ

**Fig. -4.15. Schematic of submerged area to explain the center forces and moments.
**

h(ξ)

1

F =

A

P dA =

**(Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg (4.85)
**

0

(ξ +

0 ) sin β

dA

In this case, the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.85) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area. The integral in equation (4.85) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β

0 xc A

1

(4.86)

A+

0

ξdA

In a ﬁnal form as Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is

ξ1 0

+ xc )]

y ξ0 β a F1 b F2

"O"

(4.87)

My =

ξ0

P (ξ)ξdA

(4.88)

ξ1

Fig. -4.16. The general forces acting on submerged area.

4.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES

81

ξ1

ξ sin β

My =

ξ0

(Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA

(4.89)

**Or separating the parts as
**

xc A ξ1 Ix ξ1

x

My = Patmos

ξ0

ξdA +g ρ sin β

ξ0

ξ 2 dA

(4.90)

The moment of inertia, Ix x , is about the axis through point “O” into the page. Equation (4.90) can be written in more compact form as My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx (4.91)

x

Example 4.8 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4.16 which has two forces that balance the body. Equations (4.87) and (4.91) can be combined the moment and force acting on the general area. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix

x x 0

+ xc )]

(4.92)

(4.93)

ρ sin β −

Patmos gb

xc +

0

ρ sin β + g (b − a)

Patmos g

b A−, Ix

x

ρ sin β

(4.94)

ρ sin β −

ρ sin β −

Patmos ga

xc +

0

ρ sin β +

Patmos g

aA

g (b − a)

(4.95)

In the solution, the forces can be negative or positive, and the distance a or b can be positive or negative. Additionally, the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. However, in non–symmetrical area there two diﬀerent moments and

two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided.96) can be written as A yc Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My (4.96) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4.97) The integral in equation (4. -4.17. These equations (4.9: Calculate the forces that are required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.100) Fig. (4. .87). This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4.18.99) y ξ dA y x Example 4. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. additional equation is required.87).82 CHAPTER 4. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4.96) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.101) (4. There are many combinations of problems (e. y (4. Example to illustrate the use of these equations is provided. Thus.91) and the total force is given by (4.91) and (4.17).98) The compact form can be written as Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix The product of inertia was presented in Chapter 3.99) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniform density. FLUIDS STATICS therefor three forces are required.g.

(4.18) for triangle 1 and 2). It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 .99).87). -4.91) and (4. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) and its width b and thus.4. moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( 1 − 0 )3 /36. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4. the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration. The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] 3 − and its width b and thus. 2 a b2 1 +2 a b 2 Ixy = 0 b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = 24 0 +a 2 b2 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 . .18. b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x + 0 +a Fig.102) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4.5. 1 −14 a)− 0 F2 ab 3 « « 12 2 g ρ sin β −27 + a 0 « 0 =− „„ 72 « 48 24 1 a −24 + a 72 − Patmos . FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The moment around y axis is F1 1 83 + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3.

5. Thus.84 F3 ab 3 „„ 15 a− a « 1 + „„ „ 12 27− a 0 CHAPTER 4.” Thus. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4.17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4.1. The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4.99).105) according to equation (3. FLUIDS STATICS « « 12 2 1 + a0 g ρ sin β « 0 = + 72 « 24 1 48 a +24 + a 72 End Solution Patmos 4. pressure centers are commonly deﬁned.91) and equation (4. In fact. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections.1. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4.103) In the same way. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4. Consider straight/ﬂat body that .1 Pressure Center In the literature.107) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero.5. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar. the density was assumed to be constant.104) To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties.106) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4. 4. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center.

Moreover. but constant in segments. the reasonable average can be used. In cases where density is non–continuous.113) 7 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function. If density can be represented by average density. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4.110) ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An ξ dA Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 85 is under liquid with a varying density7 . ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer. However. the following can be written Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 x c 1 A1 xc 2 A2 xc n An (4.112) After similar separation of the total integral. . if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. 8 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here. the integral has be carried out.4. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area.5. the force that is acting on the body is Ftotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4.108) In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably8 . The moment around axis y.109) As before for single density.111) where the density.

5[m]. Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids.114) and (4. h2 = 2[m]. FLUIDS STATICS If the atmospheric pressure also enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difference to be zero). as can be noticed that instead of using the regular atmospheric Fig.19. The heights are: h1 = 1[m]. The forces distances are a1 = 1. Equation ρ4 (4. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . which are (4. pressure the new “atmospheric” forces. -4. and b1 = 4. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ]. pressure can be used as ρ1 ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 β h1 a2 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” . Solution y "O" Since there are only two unknowns.5[m].111). The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ].19. Example 4. h3 = 3[m].and h4 = 4[m].115) To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ].86 CHAPTER 4.114) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ].114) can be used by modifying it.75[m]. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur. a2 = 1.10: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. only two equations are h4 needed.

215 Ix x 2 = 44.114) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 P3 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 2 g sin β ρi+1 Ix x i Patmos F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution isn’t provided in the complete long form since it makes things messy.2892 xc2 = 3. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES rectangular.696 A2 = 3.4. The geometries of each areas are „ «3 87 xc 1 = xc 2 = xc3 = h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 h2 sin β −a2 36 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.5355 xc3 = 4. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai The second equation is (4.9497 A1 = 2.535 A3 = 3.79[N ] and F2 = 958923.5.535 Ix x 1 = 14. The intermediate results in SI units ([m]. It is simpler to compute the terms separately.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809.92[N ] End Solution .292 Ix x 3 = 86. the following equations are obtained Thus. [m2 ].

At this stage. FLUIDS STATICS 4. -4.119) x The same can be said for the x direction. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4.2 Force on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption). The force in the z direction Fig. for example. The forces on curved area. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body.117) The result of the integral is a vector.121) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx (4.5. -4. is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4. if the y component of the force is needed.118) z From this analysis (equation (4.88 CHAPTER 4. So.20.118)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area.21. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as Fy = A dAy dAx dA y dAz P dAy (4.122) Fig. outward as positive. . the pressure is treated as a scalar function. dA. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A P n dA ˆ (4.120) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure.116) Here.

124) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). “y z” is tan θzy = Fz Fy (4. Equation (4. Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dame is b = 4[m]. b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page). the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P . FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES and the angle in the other plane.).4. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density). The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ End Solution .22)). direct and indirect. However. Thus. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. The gravity is 9. For example.11: Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body. Solution The force in the x direction is dAx Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4.120) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it.123) 89 The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. The diﬀerential area that will be used is.21 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous. Example 4. Inside the slot. Figure 4.5.

Dam is a part of a circular shape.23.22.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4. The arc center (see Figure 4. FLUIDS STATICS δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x dirction A θ Ax Ay Fig.23) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes. tract triangle.23) as r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 2 2 Ax xc CHAPTER 4. Area above the dam arc subthe y direction is the area times width. The force in Fig. clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL9 ). just a demonstration! .8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.90 The integration results in ρ g b r2 Fx = 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Another way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area. V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 Fy = − − b g ρ ∼ 22375. -4. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. Ax (see Figure 4. -4.24) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 9 Well. why? The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Fx = 1000 × 9.0[N ] 2 Aarc = r θ r2 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1). Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are diﬀerent.

24. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle 91 4 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 3θ θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos − Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1.65174 ∼ 0.2 ∼ 7792. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center. -4.65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is Fig.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment is done as following θ0 dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ .1 and 3.2.21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191.4.348 × 22375. yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.5.31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx 3 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) Ixx r cosθ0 5 r cos θ0 36 xp = xc + = + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3.348[m] The moment is Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.

FLUIDS STATICS dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is M= 0 θ0 θ 2 cos θ 2 dM θ 2 θ 2 or M= 0 θ0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin cos dθ The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4 O θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin The vertical force can be obtained by θ0 Fv = 0 P dAv P dAv θ 2 π 2 or θ0 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ dF θ/2 g r2 ρ 2 Point “O. -4. and thus. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst.12: For the liquid shown in Figure 4. there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces.92 and element moment is CHAPTER 4. It is much simpler now to use the second method. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series. consider a more general case of a polynomial function. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. and the direct approach was presented second. Example 4.” Fv = 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here. Moment on arc element around .26 . In fact. The function of the dam shape is y = n i i=1 ai x and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat). To demonstrate this point further.25. Solution Fig.

in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 O y dy dx ℓ dF b = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 y θ The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n x x 0= i=1 ai x i − b To evaluate the moment. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4.26.26) in this case is P h dA y= n i=1 93 a i xi b dA dy dx y x dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 Fig. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. Polynomial shape dam descrip- The size of the diﬀerential area is the square tion for the moment around point “O” and root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. From mathematics. The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx . -4.27.26). The element force (see Figure 4. It force calculations.o 4. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. -4. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 The right side can be evaluated for any given function. For example.5.27). The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 Fig. can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth.

trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m ]. The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2x 6 5 b6 ρ g dx = ρ g 7 7 In going over these calculations. However. In this case. End Solution 4. FLUIDS STATICS To make this example less abstract. In fact. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 5 is measured in meters. The distance is = The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan−1 The total moment is √ 6 b 6 (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 b − 2x 6 b 2 −x M= 0 (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have analytical solution.94 CHAPTER 4. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out. This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. The derivative at x is and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number).6 Buoyancy and Stability . consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . This omission saves considerable time. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate.

127) 10 This topic was the author’s class name in high school. Another way to look at this point is by approximation. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. All the horizontal forces are canceled. Archimedes principle is related to question of density and volume. It was taught by people like these. more advance mathematics will be used. -4.28. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. Rearranging equation (4. On the other hand. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding10 . The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY r0 h0 95 a One of the oldest known scientiﬁc research on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carb ried by Archimedes. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other.29. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4. If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder.4. The force per area (see Figure 4. ship builders who know how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles θ behind it. on the vertical direction. . the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume.28. h0 as shown in Figure 4. While Archimedes did not know Fig.28. any shape is made of many small rectangles. 150 years r ago and more. In illustration of this concept.6. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School.125) represents a depth (into the page). because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. Thus. The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2).29) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ (4. To understand this issue. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides. For any two rectangle bodies.126) V The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed in liquid and center in a depth of. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). -4. The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder.125) to F = ρg (4. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4. the horizontal forces are canceling each other. Fig. Here. The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. However. those will cancel each other. he was able to capture the essence. much about integrals.

ﬂoating body. ρl . While the horizontal force is 2π Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4. The container diameter is w. h1 t w hin h Example 4. t. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h).130) The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies.96 CHAPTER 4.129) The solution of equation (4.30.129) is F = −π r2 ρ g (4. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. In the case where thickness is half the maximum.13: A cylindrical body. as a Fig. FLUIDS STATICS The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. ρs liquid density. calculate the pressure inside the container.is ﬂoating in liquid with density. these examples are a must.127) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4. T1 for the body to ﬂoat. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. shown in Figure 4.127) 2π F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4.128) Rearranging equation (4. Since there are no better examples. -4.30 . Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs . Express the maximum wall thickness.131) Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid.

Example 4.14: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. the height.6. Note that for the maximum thickness. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + + ··· 2 − ρl g Patmos Patmos Patmos 3 .4. it can be inserted into the above equation. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 97 The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and hin = Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. Thus. so that the last solution is the only physical solution. h1 has to be zero.

It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container. the air. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. FLUIDS STATICS This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense.98 CHAPTER 4. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w 2 h i . the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − ” “ √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature. Thus. the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously. Thus.

4. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. which is π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution Patmos R T1 g Example 4. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= 2 hα g(1 − α) . The body’s density is α ρl .15: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance.6. h0 and left at rest. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Thickness Below The Maximum 99 For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to ρl g hin + Patmos = h Patmos hin + h1 atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. but the liquid displacement is still unknown. The thickness is known. where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1). Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus.

This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling.100 If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ 2 g h α2 3 + 2g 3 CHAPTER 4. Consider the force that acts on a half sphere. it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. The element force is dAx h 2 dA dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! £ (ρL $$ 3 π 2 $$− ρS ) r¡ $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 Thus the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 .16: In some situations. End Solution Example 4. Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the sphere. FLUIDS STATICS √ 2 g h α2 5 + 8g 5 √ 2 g h α2 + ··· 16 g 7 From the above equation.

In the same vein. Thus. What will be location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. x1 . it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. There situations where density is a function of the depth. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. End Solution . x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body. A is canceled on both sides. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂating between the two liquids. they have to accounted for. However. if body is small compare the zone of variation. After rearrangement it became ρc − ρh α= ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl ρc h = For linear relationship the the following results can be obtained. Develp the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 101 Example 4.4. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. the calculations can be carried out under assumption sharp change. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is x 2 ρ(x) = ρh − (ρh − ρl ) h Thus the equilibration will be achieved. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical). the body can be separated into two which one in ﬁrst liquid and second in the second liquid.17: In the introduction to this section. Solution In discussion to this section it was shown that met force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. Body with density between the two liquids.6.

the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position.31c. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable.102 CHAPTER 4. A wooden cubic (made of pine. the body is in situation like in 4. These points are raised from the buoyant G dA force analysis. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. Stability analysis of ﬂoating body.31 shows a body made of center hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod. -4.31c . Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. FLUIDS STATICS 4. the immersed part of the B B’ body center changes to a new location. in any of these six positions. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. -4. If this arrangec a ment is inserted into liquid and it will b be ﬂoating. This arrangement has mass centroid close to the middle of the sphere. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic.32). In fact. the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. However. B’ Fig.33. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). That is. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation.1 Stability Empty buoyancy Figure 4. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally. Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. gravity center The buoyant center is below the midFull dle of the balloon. the cubic results in returning to the original position. for example) is inserted into water.31b). -4.31. ing the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. the body is “stable” in some β M δF ∆F points more than others in their vicinity. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 . When the body is tilted at δF ∆F GM a small angle.31c. Small amount of tilting of Fig. So.32. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. This B situation is similar to Figure 4. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. . β.6. TiltFig.

134) The integral in the right side of equation (4. move to a new buoyant center. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 103 as shown in Figure 4. shown in Figure 4. The distance. However. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces are creating.134) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. when given a tilted position. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used.). B. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. and. BB can be written from equation (4. W referred to the weight of the body. The stability of the body is divided into three categories. BB . The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change.33. the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. should to be calculated.134) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4. For small angle.133) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4.4. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that the couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4. .33 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change11 so the total immersed section is constant. The body.6. So the perpendicular distance. it is referred to as the neutral stable.132) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes).33. β. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume. B’. BB W = M (4. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. when the body is not symmetrical.135) 11 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical.33 as ∆F . BB is the distance between points B and point B’. This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid.

The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4. Solution Equation (4. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.104 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point. Looking at Figure 4. L.1 and is Ixx = La .135) with (4.18: A solid block of wood of uniform density. M. Example 4. is insigniﬁcant for this analysis.137) (4. The distance BG obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed V volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl . Where L is the length into 12 the page. -4.139) L a To understand these principles consider the following examples. Show that the block’s length.136) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) sin β ∼1 β→0 β lim It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle.138) h h1 GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width.139) requires that several quantities should be expressed.136) And combining equations (4. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ (4. The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3.34. Fig.33.

BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Thus. The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio.0 1.4 α = 0.5 1.3 1.2 -0.2 0.4 April 16.8 1.0 0.5 2.4 0.0 a h April 16.0 0.36.6 1.5 0.1 1.2 1.3 0.0 This kind of analysis can be carried for different shapes and the results are shown for Fig.5 -0.35.32) h1 Stability of Square Block 3. Thus.9 1.7 0.7 0. -4. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 Fig.5 0.0 α = 0.0 1− ρs ρl -0.2 1. these two shapes in Figure 4.5 0.0 0.8 0.1 1.0 0.5 α = 0. Principle Main Axises .2 0. In cylindrical shape equivalent equation to equation (4. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular shape body.1 GM h h ρs 1 h h = BG = − 2 ρl 2 2 Ixx ρs 1− ρl (4.142) End Solution One of the interesting point that the above analysis was that there is a point above which the ratio of the height to the body width is not stable any more.1 0. For cylinder (circle) the moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.6 α = 0.140)).140) 2.0 1. 1 − (1 − α) (4. -4.4 1.8 0.5 0.141) 2 where α is the density ratio.0 -0.36.4.0 0.142) can be expressed. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.8 L 3 a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V 0.7 0.3 1.3 0.6 0.0 0.9 1.2 105 2. 2008 α 0.0 square circle And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α 1. L.6.4 α = 0.0 2.1 0. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable any more as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.8 2.5 α = 0.9 0. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.6 0.2 α = 0. The distance BG is the same as for the square shape (cubic) (see above (4. the equation is Stability of Solid Blocks GM g = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 a h 3. the distance BG is (see Figure 4.

139) have to found. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). For each of these axises there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia. With the exception of the circular shape. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port.106 CHAPTER 4. For example. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia.37. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable. In commercial ships. This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur. Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). Thus. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triage (see for . every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4.37. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4. For stability analysis. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. -4. So. ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. This is not a hypothetical question. but rather practical. Example 4. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height. FLUIDS STATICS Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. tougher. the fuel is stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 ∼ 0.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises.19: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ.

Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs .6. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY explanation in example (3.6.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 a h3 2 107 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 .1. After the about manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4.4.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid .

A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. in this analysis. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water.38). here.38. the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined. This quantity. However. -4.108 CHAPTER 4.the GM . furniture. the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid. nored. The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations. Exact analysis requires taking into account these shifting mass speeds. X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ (4. G1 G1 . The eﬀects of liquid movement on for stability analysis. Fig.146) . it is used as a limit for the stability analysis. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the outside. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body. FLUIDS STATICS Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liqM uid or have a load which changes the mass location during tilting of the ﬂoatGc ing body. For practical purposes. For example. it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixx bi Vb i (4. the slow reaction of the load. is enough to be ig. Moreover.143) Note that Ixx B isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface. and/or liquid) B′ does not occur in the same speed as the body itself or the displaced outside liquid. a ship that carries G G′ wheat grains where the cargo is not properly secured to the ship.145) ¡ For more than one tank.38. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. The movement of B the load (grains.144) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry. Sometimes. At the same time. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is g ρl¨βIxx B Ixx B G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B = ρl¨ g VB ¨B VB ¡ Inside liquid weight (4.144) Equation (4. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxxB (4. alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships). There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme.

θ.2 Metacentric Height. The engineer could design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed.147) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4. is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body. Wtotal . Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. This control of the stability.6.39.6. -4. Where. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia. GM . T a distance. Moving the weight.152) .4. GM .151) (4.149) One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liquid is done by substituting a single tank with several tanks. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line form G . is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4.148) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid. The moment of inertial of the combine two tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body.1. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. G Gc = GG sin β (4. the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4. of the ship. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 109 A new point can be deﬁned as Gc . The angle. 4. GM .150) T d h G Fig.

4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. it must be taken into account.153) with equation (4. This analysis is out of the scape of this book (for now). For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). Thus. There are two situations that can occur. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or un-symmetrical body.153) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth. The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight. then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs.40. Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree. 4.6.152) provides the solution.40. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. is when b = 3 a. Fig.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lay between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density. the mass centroid must be below the buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition. -4. However.110 CHAPTER 4. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4.152) results in GM a ctual = GM new mtotal T −h mship mship (4.1. FLUIDS STATICS If the change in the GM can be neglected.6.154) (4. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer. After the tilting. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies. 4. Generally. equation (4. When the ﬂoating object is immersed in the two layers.1. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. For the case of b < 3 a .40). In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly.

the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid.6. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring). BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 111 the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. The center of the moment is needed be found. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body.1. The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body).4.157) In general. . The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before. However. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated.6. 4. If the ﬂoating body is used for transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smother.156) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid. The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4. Thus.158) V ρs GM Ibody (4. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is.155) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4.

FLUIDS STATICS 4.112 CHAPTER 4. After certain diameter. the body should be accelerate. For example in die casting. the common explanation is wrong.20: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension.41. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. I. Taylor. it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. the liquid is not in motion. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted. -4. End Solution Fig. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. . There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer. coating. Thus. In this section. Thus. However. In poor designs or other situations.21: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. Example 4. However. Example 4.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force.6. Solution Under Construction End Solution 4. in this case. etc. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. the needle cannot be held by the liquid.

the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. In that case. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid). if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable. Thus.159) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression. Thus. For example. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation.7. If the surface will disturbed. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. and the buoyancy forces.47). The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4. -4. This condition is determined by competing forces. x. the situation is Fig. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. or water over air(gas–liquid). ρG . Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations. Thus. On the other hand. equation . This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. Any continues function can be expanded in serious of cosines. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 113 This instability deals with a dense. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. above lower ﬂuid with lower density.42. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient.42). This analysis asks the question what happen when a small amount of liquid from above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. For perfectly straight interface. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal.3. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. the surface density. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid.4. example of a cosine function will be examined. ρL .3. For example a heavy ﬂuid density.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. some of heavy liquid moves down. Thus. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4.

The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other.43. they are not part of the control volume.43.162) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax Comparing equations (4. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored. This acts Fig.163) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled.160) (4. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place.163) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 (4. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. -4.114 (1. the force is ρ g h × A. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location. FLUIDS STATICS (4.43.161) According to equation (1. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it.47) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (4. . considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4.43. At the cylinder bottom.164) (4.165) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here.162) and (4. To analyze it. Consider the situation described in Figure 4.159) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 CHAPTER 4. At the top. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it.38) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down. Description of depression to explain σ σ the instability. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area.

Thus. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder.171) The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container. For the cylindrical geometry.44).16) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere. the error is not signiﬁcant.43. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmintube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4. At the bottom. Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same.166) The force that hold this column is the surface tension. At that case. the force at the bottom is Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then Fbottom ∼ π r2 πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. As shown in Figure 4.170) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion. In reality.172) . θ = π/2. the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 115 against the gravity force which make the cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. the speciﬁc radius is limited. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone. the force is the integral around the depression. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. Thus.4. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4.169) (4. Additionally when the depression occurs.168) The maximum surface tension is when the angle.7.167) πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 (4. For the depression.

The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down. In equation (4.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient.172. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. Example 4. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 .44. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. this angle is never obtained.22: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K].81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4. -4.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate.” The actual radius will be much larger.44. The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function.4 2400 × 9. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter. In Figure 4. For example. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same. Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. The cross section of the interface.116 CHAPTER 4. . FLUIDS STATICS Fig.171) can be used. σ r∼ 8 π 0. However.172) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees.the depression is larger for square area. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics).

4. Open Question by April 15.45.23: A canister shown in Figure 4. the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. You can assume that the process is isothermal. Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. -4. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. Is there a diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible.7. You the ideal gas model. Is there diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so what is the diﬀerence? . Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases.45 has three layer of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities. Example 4. ω. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY End Solution 117 Z L3 L2 L1 Fig.S. for known geometries of the ﬂuids.

118 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS .

Part I Integral Analysis 119 .

.

Ad. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. L. 121 . -5. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion. This method applied and used in very few cases.1. This name is in honored J. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state.motion. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used. Even though this system looks reasonable. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. These differential equations will be used in Fig. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach.

piston with in and out ﬂow. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. momentum. Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). trol volume. The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). entropy etc. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes. -5. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally.122 CHAPTER 5. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure ??. After a certain time. Fig. 5. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is non-deformable con. The green lines in Figure ?? represent the system. The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. The red dotted lines are the control volume. the control volume is a system.2. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5. non–deformable and deformable. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. mass. energy. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. . the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure ??. At the same time.2.

Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5.3). The interface of the control volume can move.v. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5. + ma − mc (5. Thus.3.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc. is made of msys = mc. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. (5.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface. the mass conservation will be discussed.5. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume.3). -5. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5.v.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters.v. according Figure ??. In this chapter.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc.v. CONTINUITY EQUATION 123 5.1) The system mass after some time.7) . The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume. The change with time (time derivative of equation (5.3.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig.

The next example is provided to illustrate this concept. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral.124 CHAPTER 5. The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system. Example 5.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5. t) = 1− cos . In the same manner. taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d mb d ma − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.4.8) and (5. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume.3) results in d dt ρs dV = − c. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc.9) applying negative value to keep the convention.1: The density changes in a pipe. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s. Substituting equation (5. X dx L Fig. -5.v.1. due to temperature variation and other reasons.v.10) is essentially accounting of the mass. ρ0 L t0 .9) into equation (5. Scv ρ Urn dA (5.10) Equation (5. Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x. (5.7) are similar and can be combined.

and time. r and angle. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d dt which results in A ρdV = π R2 c.10) become conservation of the volume.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence. the derivative in equation (5. End Solution 5. Using equation (5. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe.v. and is the change of the mass in the control volume. CONTINUITY EQUATION 125 The conduit shown in Figure 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5. d dt ρ0 1 − c. ρ0 c.v. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out.10). and the mass in the conduit as function of time. 5. (5. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc.10).3.v.5.4 length is L and its area is A.11) Equation (5.11) is simpler than equation (5. L.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time.v.v. x L 2 cos t t0 dx Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length. the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c. t.v. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius.3.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx. . Vc.

2.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc.v. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero.v.v. (5.15) The meaning of the equation (5. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the liquid boundary in bucket. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc. Ubn dA = Sc.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus.3.5. c.2 illustrates this point.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity. Urn dA (5. Hence. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.1 CHAPTER 5. Example 5.12) Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5. Sc.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out.3. the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal. Physically.126 5.v. Ubn dA (5. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant. Example 5.v. Sc.v. 5.7 Ap .2. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0. Find the height as a function of the other parameters.v. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with .2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5.

this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. However. Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c. Second. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. the air eﬀects are negligible.5. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. ﬂow in = c. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary. First.v.5.v. some inﬂuence of momentum equation). there are no evaporation or condensation processes.2. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity.v. Third. Fourth. In reality. several assumptions must be made. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5. c. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. In this analysis.v. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid.3. -5. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. CONTINUITY EQUATION 127 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. (Uj + Ub ) dA . The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time.

128

CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5.II.a)

To ﬁnd the jet velocity, Uj , the second control volume around the jet is used as the following

ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change

Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub

(5.II.b)

The above two equations (5.II.a) and (5.II.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. Substituting the ﬁrst equation, (5.II.a) into (5.II.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0.7 Ap Ub (5.II.c) The solution of equation (5.II.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0.7 Ap

It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. When examining solution there are two limits. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface), e.g. the side, the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket.

End Solution

Example 5.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate, mi . Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA =

c.v. c.v.

Urn dA

The entrance is ﬁxed, thus the relative velocity, Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else

5.3. CONTINUITY EQUATION

129

Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving, thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. The right side of equation (5.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ

Sc.v. Sc.v.

(Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ

Sc.v.

(Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ

The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ

Sc.v.

**Substituting into the general equation yields
**

A

ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence, Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2

The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2

It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity.

End Solution

5.3.2.3

One–Dimensional Control Volume

Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate . This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1

dV

ρ(x) A(x) dx

V (x)

(5.16)

130

CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

**When the density can be considered constant equation (5.16) is reduced to U2 dA −
**

A2 A1

U1 dA =

d dt

A(x)dx

(5.17)

For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA =

A2 A1

ρ1 U1 dA

(5.18)

For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5.19)

For incompressible ﬂow (constant density), continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5.20)

The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5.16).

min

h

Fig. -5.6. Height of the liquid for example 5.4.

Example 5.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h. For the ﬁrst case, determine the height, h as function of the time. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 . What happen if the h0 = 0?

5.3. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution

131

The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution

homogeneous solution

b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter). b t − ρ1L

e

e

h b1 = m1

e

− ρ1L

b

t

+c

e

b1 t ρL

With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1

e

− ρ1L

b

t

+ 1−

h0 b1 mi

e

b1 t ρL

0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number. However, negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. If the reverse case appeared, the height will increase. Essentially, the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height. For second case, the governing equation (5.16) is

ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL

132

CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader.

End Solution

**5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem
**

It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy, speciﬁc enthalpy. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV =

sys

d dt

f ρdV +

c.v. c.v

f ρ Urn dA

(5.21)

This theorem named after Reynolds, Osborne, (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 . To make the previous derivation clearer, the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy

x2 (y) x2 (y)

f (x, y) dx =

x1 (y) x1 (y)

dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 , y) − f (x1 , y) ∂y dy dy

(5.22)

Initially, a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following

x

G(x, y) =

f (α, y) dα

(5.23)

Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . For its derivative of equation (5.23) is f (x, y) = ∂G ∂x (5.24)

diﬀerentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is

1 2 3 4

**d [G(x2 , y) − G(x1 , y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 , y) − − (x1 , y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y
**

1 These 2 This

(5.25)

papers can be read on-line at http://www.archive.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof. This is engineering book and thus, the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. Nevertheless, if there will be a demand for such, it will be provided.

5.4. REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM

133

**The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5.25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a diﬀerent variable)
**

x2 (y) x1 (y)

∂ f (x, y) dx ∂y

(5.26)

The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 , y) ∂x2 dy dy (5.27)

The same can be said for the third term (3). Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. The intensive property, f is investigated or the accumulative property, F . The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property, F , with time. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV

sys

(5.28)

**For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx
**

sys

(5.29)

If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system, the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be a system. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential), the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary at x1 , Urn = U1 − Ub . The same can be said for the other side. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in, F , is then

F1

dx1 dt

**Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out, F , is then
**

F2

dx2 dt

(5.30)

Fout = f2 ρ Urn

(5.31)

**The change with time of the accumulative property, F , between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA
**

c.v.

(5.32)

5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax . Additionally. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided.V. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius. After magical mixing. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used.a) The integration of the equation (5. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter. Since the time variable.v Sc.v. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration).V. D DT d dt f ρdV = sys f ρ dV + c.b) (5. Example 5.V.33) 5. This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule. The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule.V. t. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5. the velocity became uniform.5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5.a) is R2 = Uave π R2 6 The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Umax π Uave = Umax 6 (5. f ρ Urn dA (5. Thus.c) End Solution .134 CHAPTER 5.13).

5.7.7. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 135 U0 o ge Ed fB r nd ou yL ay er L Fig. the left.6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5. No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary). A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem.5. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. right. Solution Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross. In this case. -5. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5.” The integral simply multiply by negative one. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume. Boundary Layer control mass. and upper. Example 5. The above integrals on the .

Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? .1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5.1 kg/sec.1 ) 5.136 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow.13) is used. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5. Thus. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate. 7 hours. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. Example 5.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0.1 kg/sec = = 1. and 8 hours. However sometime. The tank is 3/4 fulls.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec.02kg/m3 AU 0.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours.

ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 .v. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity. in or out ﬂow rate = Sc. End Solution Example 5. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law.5. Thus. The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec].v. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. For simplicity. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 137 Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided. assume that the process is isothermal. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour.v boundary velocity + Sc.5.

Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters.v Vc. mi . When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V . MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius. 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule. Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate. . A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc.v. Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law.138 CHAPTER 5.

EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 139 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc. .5.v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc.5.v. ρUrn dA Vc. The density change is Ub dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5 Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary.v.v.10. Sc.

140

**CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION
**

End Solution

Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15, 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.S. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. Example 5.11: Solve example 5.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 . What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem?

**5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship
**

The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose. However, there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to ﬁnd the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume. There is no general way to provide these quantities. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. -5.8. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach. local averaged velocity in three coordinates. Consider a container ﬁlled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid ﬂows out as shown in Figure 5.8. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumumption that ﬂow is uniform and the surface is straight5 . The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components. To relate the velocity in the z direction with the ﬂow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. A similar control volume construction to ﬁnd the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the ﬂow. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA +

A A

Urn ρ dA = 0

(5.34)

V

5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. However, under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem.

5.6. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0

A

141

(5.35)

In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5.36)

It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a diﬀerent control volume. Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5.9. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the ﬂow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5.9. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is −

A

Ue

Ae

Ubn ρ dA +

A

Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.37)

Fig. -5.9. Control volume and system before and after the motion.

Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction. Substituting into (5.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0

Ayz

(5.38)

Ax

−

Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5.9 under the blow line. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A

Ayz

(5.39)

Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary. It can be notice that the velocity, Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has two diﬀerent directions. One zone is right to the exit with ﬂow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero.

6 The

point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the ﬂow in term.

142

CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

Example 5.12: Calculate the velocity, Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r

2

Ax− Y(x)

(r − x) x α

y

r

(5.XII.a)

Ue

Ae

This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5.XII.b)

Fig. -5.10. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux and various cross sections.

Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5.XII.c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity, Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5.XII.e) (5.XII.f) 1 α − , sin(2α) r2 2 (5.XII.d)

Ux = Averaged velocity is deﬁned as

Ux =

U dS

S

(5.XII.g)

Where here S represent some length. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations. The value dS is r cos α. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle, α provides the averaged velocity. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r

π 0

**Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h
**

End Solution

(5.XII.h)

(5.XII.i)

Example 5.13:

5.7. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity, Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example. Solution

X(y)

x

143

y

r (r − x)

Ay − Ue Ae

Fig. -5.11. y velocity for a circular shape

The ﬂow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons. That is the ﬂow ﬁeld is a mirror images. Thus, every point has diﬀerent velocity with the same value in the opposite direction. The ﬂow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5.12. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the ﬂow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side. Thus, equation (5.39) modiﬁed to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h

End Solution

Ayz

(5.40)

1 2r

π/2 0

Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α

(5.XIII.a)

(5.XIII.b)

**5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation
**

Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many ﬂuid mechanics exams is the following. Example 5.14:

144 CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that ﬂows at a speed of 5m/s. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0.05 m2 . The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec, what Fig. -5.12. Schematic of the are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat for example 5.14 boat and the pumping rate?

Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec]

Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant. However, the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume ﬂow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0.05 = 1.75m3 /sec The ﬂow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus, Urin = Aout 0.05 Urout = 35 = 8.75m/sec Ain 0.2

End Solution

**CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume
**

6.1 Momentum Governing Equation

6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous

In the previous chapter, the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude). This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector. The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume. Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6.1)

It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction. For several bodies (n), Newton’s law becomes

n n

Fi =

i=1 i=1

U d(mU )i dt

(6.2)

The ﬂuid can be broken into inﬁnitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6.2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in

n

Fi =

i=1

D Dt

element mass U ρ dV

sys

(6.3)

145

The surface “force”. -6. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. Sn . are the body forces.7) Fig.146 CHAPTER 6. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6. After inﬁnitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume.1. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. is made out of two components. The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6.). the main body force is the gravity. Sn . g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations. Again.6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. In this chapter.2 External Forces First. Where the surface “force”.v.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth. 6. hence. it can be written as Fs = c. τ dA (6. Here for simplicity. and τ are the shear stresses. or the forces. have to be discussed. one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the ﬂuid pressure.4) In this book (at least in this discussion). excluding the external forces.1. The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side. is in the surface direction. the terms on the left hand side.1. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body.v. The gravity acts on all the system elements. . The forces. Thus.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity. Thus. Sn dA + c.

v.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c. c.6. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c. t = dt c.v.v. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference. U .v.1.v. Thus.v.11) ρ U dV + c.1. for example in the x coordinate.v. etc. ducts. g · ˆ ρ dV i c.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system.v.v. Fext . 6. friction (non-ﬂuid). Equation (6. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. (6.v.v.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c.v. c. These external forces are commonly associated with pipe.v.3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side.13) . c. ρ U U rn dA (6. With external forces equation (6. τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6.v. c. supporting solid structures. P cos θx dA + c.11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components.v. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 147 6. t dt c. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). In Cartesian coordinate.v. (6. the components are Fx + c. the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–ﬂuid elements.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c. c.v. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i).9) The liquid velocity.1. the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. c.

1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simpliﬁcation deals with ﬂow under approximation of the frictionless ﬂow and uniform pressure. the mass ﬂow rate in and out are equal.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6.1.15) 6.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity proﬁle by the following integral U = 2 (6. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change.v.148 CHAPTER 6.v.18) is applicable to any velocity proﬁle and any geometrical shape. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero. . a acc ρ dV (6.6. equation (??) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6. in these situations.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6. g ρ dV − c.3. it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface. τ dA = c. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c.v. Additionally.1. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions. Thus.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations.v. In this situation. P dA + c.5.v.18) Equation (6. ﬂow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume. ρ U Urn dA (6. 6. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4.

Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle eﬀects.a) Substituting equation (6.a) into equation (6.I. Neglect the friction.I. Example 6. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6. What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .2.I. Fig.2.1. Uo θ Ui F Fig b.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6.6.I. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 149 Example 6.2).c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a. Solution The velocity proﬁle is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6. -6. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6.1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity proﬁle for a circular pipe.

a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction. The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force.3 with a mass .II. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6. End Solution Example 6. the mass ﬂow rate remains constant. Hence Fx |max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0. because it is a steady state.II. Fx occurs when cos θ = π.a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates. to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6.150 Solution CHAPTER 6. Equation (6. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of ﬂow around thin wings. It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution.11) can be reduced.3: Liquid ﬂows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.

III. First. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c.v.III. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION ﬂow rate of 0. =0 liquid surface Fz + c. Hence.6.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c.v. the velocity has to be found.3. -6. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0.b) c.0001[cm2 ]. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces.0001 Equation (6. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 151 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec]. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement. This situation is a steady state for constant density.v. The entrance area is 0.v.v.v. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6.v.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0.3.0015 [m3 ]. The exit pressure is 1[Bar].v. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0.v. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6.01 [gk/sec]. The exit velocity is uniform but unknown. τ z dA = (6.3. c. c. =0 c. τ z dA = c. ρ U z · U rn dA .v.1.

ˆ g · k ρ dV + c.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c. . The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the diﬃculty in understanding the velocity ﬁeld.v.v.d) 6.8 × 1000× End Solution (6.v.v. Combining all transform equation (6.v.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c.4.v.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the ﬂuid momentum. In the Figure 6. Improvements can be made to this analysis. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the ﬂuid outside changes only the ﬂow direction. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes.III.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A|2 − P A|1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9. Here. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move ﬂuids as a pump.4 the ﬂuid ﬂows from the left to the right. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours. Either it is assumed that some of the ﬂuid enters into the container and ﬂuid outside is not aﬀected by the propeller.152 CHAPTER 6. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A|1 − P A|2 The last term in equation (6. P cos θz dA = c. this analysis is used for academic purposes. Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool. This surface is called slip surface.v. fan etc.III. ρ U z · U rn dA (6.III.III.

Furthermore. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6.4: A sled toy shown in Figure ?? is pushed by liquid jet. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As ﬁrst approximation. Essentially. a very limited discussion related to the steady state is oﬀered. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. a major obstacle in the past. the pressure around control volume is the same. Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust.6. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the ﬂow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insigniﬁcant.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. pressure drops from the calculation. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6. The inlet area and exit area are diﬀerent for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6. -6.20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller. the thermal energy is converted to thrust. Hence. Calculate the friction force on the .2. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities. Here. this direct conversion can be. In Jet propulsion. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible ﬂow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound. in many case more eﬃcient. Thus. Notice that Example 6. The diﬀerence between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied.19) 153 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig. and is.4. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased.

v. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity.v. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig. 2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c. U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy. -6. Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reﬂecting jet is vertical. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c. U0 . P dA + c.v.5. ρ U U rn dV (6. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c. The velocity of the jet is uniform. namics friction is µd . τ dA = c. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6. Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force.4. the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms.IV.v.a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume.v.154 CHAPTER 6. g ρ dV − c. U 0 .v. . The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c.v.

155 (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized.v.10). End Solution 6.IV.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating. A rocket with a moving control volume.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity.b) into equation (6.IV.6.b) The substituting (6. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity.6. . -6.IV. This method is cumbersome in many cases.IV. The momentum ﬂux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here. A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6.2.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6. Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body. FR mf mR UR Ug Fig.

g ρ dV + c.23) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume.v. ρUy Urn dA (6. d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6. it can be neglected.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket. The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected.v. c.v. d dt ρUy dV = Vc.25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6. the ﬁrst term FR . However.v. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR . Yet.v. vanishes. The oxidant and fuel ﬂow outside. This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6. However.156 CHAPTER 6.v. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the diﬀerence can be neglected.24) Clearly. This mechanism is useful for speciﬁc locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6.2. P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it. c. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c. This change is minimal and for this analysis.26) . The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term.22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus. (6. the derivative with respect to time. inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel.v. The diﬀerence is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. dU /dt = 0 is not zero. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero.

6. it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR . This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to ﬁnd method of approximation for not given velocity proﬁles1 Example 6. As ﬁrst approx˙ imation.30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem. is a function of the several parameters such the duration.27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space.26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6. Integrating equation (6.29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 157 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR .28) Before integrating equation (6. For which he noticed this “constant velocity.28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6. the speed (the Reynolds number). material that surface made and the medium it ﬂow in altitude. in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in conﬁguration leads to a constant x velocity. Thus it is assume that FR = 0.” .27) Separating the variables equation (6.5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature.2. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem. gas ﬂow out is constant as well. Thus. for constant constant gas consumption equation (6. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry. However. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant).28).

7. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere. Equation (6.V. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is ﬁlled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6.158 CHAPTER 6.v. the ﬂuid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid ﬂows out with an uniform velocity proﬁle. The control volume is shown in Figure 6. U0 = B h (6. Solution Uo FR Fig.b) Where m0 is mass ﬂow rate out.V.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation.d) into equation (6. -6.31) The relationship between the height and the ﬂow now can be used.e) . Furthermore. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases. The frame of reference is moving with the tank. ρdA = 0 (6. Substituting equation (6.v. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6.V.V.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist.a) Equation (6.V. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6. The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc.V. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight.V.V.7.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6.V. Sc. linear function of the height.d) Where B is the coeﬃcient that has the right units to mach equation (6. the source of the propulsion is the potential energy.a) can be transferred to dmc.7.12) for two dimensions is used.v.V. mt .

-6.8.V. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 159 Equation (6.V.V.h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x.V. The mass con.V. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6. h.2. Using this function.V. .g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank. y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6. is not relevant.V. it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time. it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?).j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction.V.f) into (6. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn .2.V. the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A (6. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6.5.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6.11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6. Using a similar control volume2 .f) UT To ﬁnd the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used.Fig.k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface. A new control volume to ﬁnd the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A. Perhaps surprising. F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0 B − ¨ ¨ A = x A0 B (6.6.8. h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6. In fact. Substituting (6. The tank depth.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height.e) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 .

v. The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6.v. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc. Here this eﬀect is neglected.160 CHAPTER 6. The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change. This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ).V. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity proﬁle is not given inside the control volume.V.32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6.v. mf and mt are the mass of the ﬂuid and the mass of tank respectively.v. a Vc. = mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ). This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average. The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels). It . hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc. The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a.m) There is no mass ﬂow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction. This eﬀect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters. The momentum ﬂow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative ﬂuid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement). (6. and the resistance due to air is negligible.v. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction.v. mc.

p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6.v. if it is the opposite the toy start to move. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc.q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move. Ux Vf Thus.V.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc.d) the mass ﬂow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6.V.V. dt dt dt (6.V.v.p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6.6.2. However. d Ux Ux + mc.r) .V.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the ﬂow out in equation (6.v. The ﬁrst component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x). From equation (6. Ux = mc. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 161 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components. d d Ux Ux + mc.v. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction. if the diﬀerence between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc.V.V.v.V.v. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6.

This correction factor can be calculated by ﬁnding the relation between the two cases. For these cases a correction factor can be used.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction. For example. Substituting equations (6.V.v.35) . For example. End Solution Average Velocity Estimates In example 6. The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc.34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c.162 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6.q) transforms it to a diﬀerential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant.V.V.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented.V.V. Here.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0. ρ Ux dV (6. Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed m f t A0 B − A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time. There are situations where actual velocity proﬁle is not known but is function can be approximated. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6.r) and (6. the velocity proﬁle can be estimated using the ideal ﬂuid theory but the actual values are not known. For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6.s) into equation (6. the ﬂow proﬁle in example 6. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented.v U dV (6. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6.v U = ρ V c.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis.V.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching.

v.3. if the density is not constant. The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad. the coeﬃcient is not equal to one. To demonstrate this idea.9 commonly used in industry. Sc. 6. the following discussion is provided. -6.39) to uniform and steady state ﬂow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum. ρ Ux dV (6. applying equation (6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6.36) If the density is constant then the coeﬃcient is one (C ≡ 1). A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6. C ρV c.40) . The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6.v.9.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc. ditionally increase of velocity occur.v 163 U dV = c.6. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment. The impeller increases the velocity of the ﬂuid by increasing the radius of the particles.Fig. The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit.39) The angular momentum equation. However. The ﬂow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6. CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus.v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6.

41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence. one the tangential velocity. Notice that tangential liquid velocity.p. The exit liquid velocity. Un2 . U2 has two components. 6.40[m].7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure .43) The diﬀerence between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the eﬃciency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary. Example 6. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 . The angular velocity is 1200 r. and h. M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6. r.41) results in Um2 (6. Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 . The thickness of the impeller. Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ . Ut2 and radial component.m. h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0. Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 . The height of the impeller is h.164 CHAPTER 6.42) (6. Here it is assumed that ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = constant). ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6.6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour]. It is assumed that required torque is function U2 .

Develop exFig. the initial take oﬀ is requires a larger pressure. Additionally. The cross section of the liquid is constant. No resistance to the rocket (can be added).10. The upper part of the rocket tank is ﬁlled with compressed gas. The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6. What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls).2. .a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0.4. Liquid ﬁlls the lower part of the rocket tank. The gas obeys the ideal gas law.7 What are the parameters that eﬀect the problem.VII. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion. The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind. hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed. Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. -6. The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible. No gas leaves the rocket. forces for example 6. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity. The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process). Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution.3) without a solution.6. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 165 6.10. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to ﬁnd the rocket Liquid acceleration. The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket.

Using the above deﬁnition.166 CHAPTER 6.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6.g) (6.VII.VII.VII.VII. Furthermore.VII. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6.VII.VII.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg .e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase). The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height.VII.a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6. The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6.j) .VII. it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass ﬂow out. equation (6. The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.VII.d) mg R T V0g (6.h) (6.VII.

9: In Example 6. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units.8: A rocket is ﬁlled with only compressed gas. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket ﬂy. Example 6.l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement.4.6.VII.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components. Develop an expression for the rocket velocity.VII.4.VII.11: . MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6. 6.VII. What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected.10: For each following ﬁgures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to . The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6.k) According to the assumption the ﬂow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus.m) Example 6. End Solution (6.1 Qualitative Questions Example 6.a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 167 (6. At a speciﬁc moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to ﬂy. What are the parameters that eﬀect the rocket velocity. Example 6.

168 Situations CHAPTER 6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front. Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value. -6. consider the unsteady eﬀects.11. What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is ﬁlled with liquid. Fig.11 . Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6.

169 . which were assumed in the previous chapters. here it will be derived.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics1 . as all phases and materials.1) Equation (7. is included on the right hand side. obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked ﬂow. For example.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the eﬀects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented.3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . which is external force. Moreover. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions. However. The ﬂuid. the relationship between height and ﬂow rate was assumed previously. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school.10) for a system is D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. 2 Some view the right hand side as external eﬀects while the left side of the equation represents the internal eﬀects. the above view is wrong when the heat convection. Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here.2) (7. For example. this law allows to solve problems. during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build.2) is similar to equation (6. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2.

-7. The work on the control volume is are divided into two categories: one per. 3 There 4 When (7.v.6) S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t (7. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction. . There are three modes of heat transfer. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings.1) is F dF dV S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an inﬁnitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is U (7. convection4 and radiation. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out. the surface forces Fig. As in the previous chapter.3) Where dq is heat transfer to an inﬁnitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coeﬃcient.170 CHAPTER 7. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side. the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction.done by two diﬀerent mechanisms pendicular to the surface and one with the surface direction. the radiation is minimal. actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the deﬁnition of system. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume. In most problems. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction. Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7. conduction.1. dealing with convection.4) System at t Sn The work done on the system is dℓ more complicated to express than the heat transfer.7) are other methods such as magnetic ﬁelds (like microwave) which are not part of this book. Hence. The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7.5) dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =− Ac. The ﬁrst kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force. The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q= Acv k dT dA dn τ (7.

In the last term in equation (7.8) and thus yields kT Acv dT dA+ dn Energy Equation ˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt + Acv Acv (7.2) for system is kT Asys 171 dT dA+ dn S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt Asys ρ Vsys EU + m U2 + g z dV 2 (7.12) .1.8) for more details).9) the velocity appears twice.8) Equation (7.7.10) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the ﬂow work and is Urn P n · U dA = ˆ S S P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ S P Ubn dA (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7. Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary. As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6.11) Equation (7.8) does not apply any restrictions on the system.9) ρ Vcv Eu + m Eu + m U2 +gz 2 U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations which deals with the control volume. Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7. The system can contain solid parts as well several diﬀerent kinds of ﬂuids. The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is ﬂow work ˙ = W ∼ S P n · U dA − ˆ S τ · U n dA ˆ (7.11) can be further manipulated to become work due to the ﬂow work due to boundaries movement P n · U dA = ˆ S S P ρ Urn dA + ρ P Ubn dA S (7.

so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 .172 CHAPTER 7. Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book.13) Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 P U Eu + + + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA ρ 2 S S (7. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter.15).15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates. assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension eﬀects zero. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density.2. ENERGY CONSERVATION The second term is referred to as the shear work and is deﬁned as ˙ Wshear = − S τ · U dA (7.14) The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy.15) Equation (7. surface tension eﬀects are negligible and the liquid surface is straight6 . The example of ﬂow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7. Additionally. h. The ﬂow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. Eu is referred to as the enthalpy. the gas density is very small compared to Fig. Discharge from a Large Container liquid density. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis. small. which was discussed on page 36. 6 This 5 Later .14) transformed ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Simpliﬁed Energy Equation d U2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 U + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA h+ 2 S S (7. With these deﬁnitions equation (7. the temperature is assumed to constant. -7. and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. a discussion about the height opening eﬀects will be discussed. the ﬂow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height.

The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish.19) The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5.3.3. However. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with Bar-Meir’s instability. -7.16) which also can be written (because = 0) as Urn dA = 0 A Ubn dA + A (7. .17) Equation (7.7. 7 For the mass conservation analysis. Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done Ue to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical. the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries. How to compensate and estimate the kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero. for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero. However. the change of the kinetic Uy 1 Uy 1 energy due to the change in the velocity 2 2 ﬁeld isn’t zero.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7.21) Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 173 The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe.20) In this analysis. Hence it requires that velocity proﬁle in x y to be parabolic. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side Fig. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part Uy = 0 as shown in Figure 7. in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction.18) Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity. this quantity will be used.1. However. The conservation of the mass is d dt V ρ dV + ¡ dρ dt A ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡ (7. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the ﬂow is symmetrical7 . is suﬃcient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7. for simplicity.

the shear stresses at the exit are normal to the ﬂow direction hence the shear work is vanished. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number. The temperature is constant8 .22) The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0 (7. the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ = hin − hout = 0 Q= dt (7. Furthermore. Yet.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe A A Ue dA − Pa A Ub dA (7. Ec which is very small. The pressure terms in equation (7. Clearly.26) The governing equation (7.15) which is applicable to this case. Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 . the internal shear work is assumed negligible. Combining all these information results in energy ﬂow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work d dt V U + g z ρ dV + 2 2 A Pe Ue + ρ 2 2 Ue ρ dA − A Pa Ub dA = 0 (7. ˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7. why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here. the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component. In this case. E. this change is a function of Eckert number.R. .23) Now the energy equation deals with no “external” eﬀects. Additionally. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser. In this light.24) Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity. 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier. Note that the exit velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0. A discussion about this eﬀect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter.G. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7.174 CHAPTER 7. Eckert.27) V A 8 This approach is a common approximation.25) A It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence =0 Pa A Ue dA − A Ub dA =0 (7. 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure.

29) yields d gρ dt V h2 d h dh dA = g ρ hA = g ρAh 2 dt 2 dt (7. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt d U2 + g z ρdV = 2 dt U2 d dV + 2 dt g z ρ dV V (7.29) V Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit.31) A The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity proﬁle.30) Substituting the results of equation (7. Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 175 The minus sign is because the ﬂow is out of the control volume.30) into equation (7. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coeﬃcient.28) V V The second integral (in the r. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average. The inside integral can be evaluated as h zdz = 0 h2 2 (7.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt h A 0 dV z dz dA (7. The ﬁrst integral can be estimated by examining the velocity proﬁle eﬀects. Furthermore.s) of equation (7.7. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity.1.h.33) .32) The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V 2 2 U dV V V =ρ V U dV (7. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV V (7.

. it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container. ENERGY CONSERVATION The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as 2 ρ U dV CF = V ρ U 2 dV V ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡ V 2 (7. The diﬀerence between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for diﬀerent directions while in the momentum case.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV V V = Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯ 2 = dV 3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3 (7. a good guess number is about 1.36) into equation (7. 11 Laminar ﬂow is not necessarily implies that the ﬂow velocity proﬁle is parabolic. The ﬂow is parabolic only when the ﬂow is driven by pressure or gravity. the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible ﬂuid. The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity.36) It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 .37) The correction factor for many other velocity proﬁles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value.32) which yields 1/2.35) V V This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity proﬁle.176 CHAPTER 7. A large family of velocity proﬁles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional ﬂow)11 . More about this issue in the Diﬀerential Analysis Chapter. In this case. Substituting equation (7. diﬀerent directions cancel each other out. The correction factor for a constant density ﬂuid is 2 2 ρ U dV CF = V = ρ U 2 dV ρ ¡ ρ ¡ U dV V = U 2 dV Uave 2 V U 2 dV V (7. CF is the correction coeﬃcient. for simplicity reason. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter. For circular shape. the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7. Uave is obtained by using equation (7. For a pipe geometry.34) Here. Note.1.

some other eﬀects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape.7. the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7. However. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept.40) Ue = A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt (7. But in the same vain. .38) The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by deﬁnition) is Ub = dh dt (7.44) It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse.42) 2 U ∼ = (π − 2) r dh 8h dt 2 + (π − 1) r dh 4h dt 2 + dh dt 2 (7. It must be remembered that is eﬀect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank. 13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5.43) f (G) dh U∼ = dt (π − 2) r 8h 2 + (π − 1) r 4h 2 + 12 (7.39) Therefore.1.41) Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as 2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz = (7. it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume. the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this eﬀect is assumed neglected and the function to be constant. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this eﬀect of the height. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form 2 U2 d U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2 177 V hA (7. 14 The solution not the derivation is about one page. However.

s. results in d U gh + dt 2 2 2 (7.45) Combining all the terms into equation (7.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7.47) can be rearranged and simpliﬁed and combined with mass conservation 15 .50) f (G)2 h 15 This d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.51) part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”.49) Further rearranging to eliminate the “ﬂow rate” transforms to 1 U dh 1 A B ¨ gh dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2 e Ae U 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.40) A Ae A Ue d U gh + dt 2 2 2 hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2 2 dh 1 A − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 $ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7.27) results in V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of ﬁrst term on l.48) Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus f (G) Ub U dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.178 The last term is CHAPTER 7. Advance material can be skipped Dividing equation (7.h.46) hA + U gh + 2 2 2 A dh 1 − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 Ue Ae = 0 (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION A Ue 2 Ue 2 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2 dh A dt Ae 2 Ue ρ Ae (7. .47) Equation (7.

52) Deﬁning a new tank emptying parameter. Dividing equation (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 179 End Advance material Combining the gh terms into one yields f (G)2 h d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2 dh dt 2 f (G)2 − A Ae 2 =0 (7.53) This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process. as Te = A f (G) Ae 2 (7.1. equation (7. . Thus deﬁne function of the height as dh f (h) = − (7.7.52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 [1 − Te ] = 0 (7.54) The solution can either of these equations16 dh − = t + k2 (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) or - (7. Te .52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter.55) dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) = t + k2 (7.56) The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time.57) (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) 16 A discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix.

60) The complication of the above solution suggest a simpliﬁcation in which d2 h g Ae 2 << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7. The ﬁrst condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of ﬁrst order Ordinary Diﬀerential Equation that they allow only one initial condition.63) While equation (7.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 (7.64) It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation. . the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt 2 = 2gh −1 + A Ae 2 (7.59) (7.61) (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 The initial boundary velocity is dh =0 dt (7. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec.180 CHAPTER 7. And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7. if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct. Thus for a very short time.58) This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored. The initial velocity 17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account. However. the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid.62) [1 − Te ] = 0 (7.63) is still non linear equation.

LIMITATION OF INTEGRAL APPROACH 181 ﬁeld was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term). Equation (7. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei.70) 7. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle.67) dh A Ue = = dt Ae If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then 2gh A Ae (7. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. 1608 October 25.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations. The experimental coeﬃcient can be added to account for the dissipation and other eﬀects such dh ∼ =C dt 2gh (7. Today the exact reference to his work is lost only “sketches” of his lecture elude work. this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae 2 h h0 dh √ = 2gh t dt 0 (7. 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician.7.66) The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √ 2 h − h0 √ =t 2gh A = 2 Ae √ 2gh Ae 2 A (7.68) 1− 1− U∼ = 2gh (7.2. Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation). It is correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r. In the calculations 18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15. .2 Limitation of Integral Approach Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank. Yet.69) Equation (7.

the problems can be solved. Flow in an oscillating manometer. The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity ﬁeld. . the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods. The ﬁrst type is the prediction of the velocities proﬁle (or the concentration proﬁle). A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. H For example. The following sections provides further explanation. the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or eﬀects the energy equation. These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ﬁcient tool to analyze the issue at hand. The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total ﬁeld is diﬀerent from the averaged of diﬀerent zooms. the knowledge of whether the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from diﬀerent techniques. It turn out that these simpliﬁcations can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work. In cases that dissipation play major air air role. Hence diﬀerent techniques are required. Furthermore. -7. the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. Additionally. In fact.182 CHAPTER 7. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. the integral methods is Fig.4. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind. too crude to handle issues of free interface. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored. ENERGY CONSERVATION of the exit velocity of a tank. 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simpliﬁcations that were carried. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. two such corrections were presented. In the case of the tank. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suﬀers from no ability to exact ﬂow ﬁeld and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example.

72) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7. the pressure is different. For a stationary ﬁx control volume the energy equation. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 183 7. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero.72) for non-deformable control volume does not vanished.3.2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the ﬂow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations. The reason is that while the velocity is constant. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason.7.3. Equation (2.73) Dividing equation the mass ﬂow rate provides Steady State Equation.71) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7.75) .74) in 7. equation (7.71) If the ﬂow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv (7. under this simpliﬁcation transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 + g z Urn ρAin h+ 2 (7.3. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7.1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity. This imaginary ﬂuid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book.

83) in Subtracting equation (7.80) can be simpliﬁed for uniform ﬂow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.74) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.76) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.75) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.83) from equation (7.81) As before equation (7.78) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7.76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.84) .184 CHAPTER 7.79) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.77) P ρ − v dP (7.80) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.82) in (7.79) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.

1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is deﬁned as P. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration. the mathematical treatment is somewhat diﬀerent which is the reason for the separation. linear and rotational. The only acceptation to the above statement. r and m are the distance and mass respectively. These accelerations will be translated to potential energy. In many cases. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force. The gravity potential is then F =− r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7. . The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration. 7. There is no conceptional diﬀerence between these two accelerations. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest. However. The gravity force for ﬂuid element in small distance then is g dz dm.4. = − ref F ·d (7.86) 7. For example.89) The reference was set to inﬁnity.85) reduced to 0= U2 2 − U1 2 P2 − P1 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7. for the gravity force is GM m (7. The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7.4.7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation (7. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential.85) For no shaft work equation (7.84) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 185 (7.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far.88) r2 Where G is the gravity coeﬃcient and M is the mass of the Earth.87) In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates.E.90) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass.

The Force due to the acceleration of the ﬁeld can be broken into three coordinates.186 CHAPTER 7.94) Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7. y = 0. There are two kinds of acceleration due this rotation one is the . and z = 0. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x. Thus. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7.91) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7. The same can be done for the other two coordinates. The “potential” of moving the mass in the ﬁeld provides the energy.95) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around ﬁx axis creates similar conservative potential as the linear system. The potential of unit material is P Ea total = (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV sys (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.96) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction.93) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force.4.92) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0.4.

100) The ﬁrst term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 263 for vector explanation).98) (7. To understand it better.97) (7. Hence. the ﬂux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity. θ. The net change of the potential energy due the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values.101) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U .103) P Ubn dA .102) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv ω2 r2 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA h+ 2 2 Eu + + cv (7. and k are units vector in the coordinates r. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7. The cross product is zero of U ×ω×U =U ×ω×ω = 0 because the ﬁrst multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication. consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system.7. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential. From physical point of view. However.4. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM 187 centrifugal and second the Coriolis force. The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7. the most important direction is the direction of the velocity. The forces acting on particles are centrifugal Coriolis F = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω dm ˆ The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7.99) ˆ where r. θ and z respectively.

4. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7. .188 CHAPTER 7.103) is to assume uniform ﬂow.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7.

Part II Diﬀerential Analysis 189 .

.

Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book).g. In diﬀerential analysis. which leads to a diﬀerent approach of differential analysis. Navier-Stokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity eﬀects. This analysis leads to partial diﬀerential equations which are referred to as the Navier-Stokes equations. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability. the solution is not unique. 191 . As usual Simon-Denis Poisson independently.1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between ﬂuid layers. as he done to many other equations or conditions. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable. First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827.CHAPTER 8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. The equations without the viscosity eﬀects are referred to as the ideal ﬂow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. The concepts of Add Mass and 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. The diﬀerential analysis allows the investigation of the ﬂow ﬁeld in greater detail. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. the emphasis is on inﬁnitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 .

The connection between these two ideas or ﬁelds was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed in a separate chapter. (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Add Force. on one hand.1.1. The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume.2 Mass Conservation Fluid ﬂows into and from a three dimensional inﬁnitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8. leads to approximations and consequently to ideal ﬂow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier–Stokes equations. Historically.192 CHAPTER 8.2) and hence dρ dt dV dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 (8.2) For a constant control volume the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A. At a speciﬁc time this control volume can be viewed as a system. It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the ﬂuid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked ﬂow). Sometimes. This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter. which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored. 8. there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked ﬂow). -8. the complexity of the equations. Even for simple situations. the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Bar– Meir’s instability. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter.1) x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). The choked ﬂow is associated with single phase ﬂow (even the double choked ﬂow) while the Bar-Meir’s instability associated with the Multi–Phase ﬂow. These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters. The mass conservation for this inﬁnitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 (8.3) . the following can be written D Dt ρdV = d dt ρdV + Urn ρ dA = 0 Fig.1.

2. the operation.7) Combining the ﬁrst term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates. .2. produces additional dx thus a inﬁnitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = dy dz (ρ Ux )|x − (ρ Ux )|x+dx + dAxz dAxz (8. in the x coordinate.9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx . The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simpliﬁed by using the deﬁnition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.3) for the inﬁnitesimal volume is expressed. It also can be noticed that.4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates.8) dv (8. for example. in the control volume is ∂ρ dr dz r dθ dm = ˙ ∂t 2 Note (8. The net mass change. neglecting higher order derivatives.5) dx dz (ρ Uy )|y − (ρ Uy )|y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )|z − (ρ Uz )|z+dz The diﬀerence between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )|x+dx = (ρ Ux )|x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8.8. MASS CONSERVATION 193 The ﬁrst term in equation (8. as ∼0 dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d ρ dt2 2 + ··· (8. as depicted in Figure 8.

the r is “trapped” in the derivative.14) 3 The mass ﬂow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point. This change creates a diﬀerent diﬀerential equation with additional complications.2.10) The net ﬂux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net ﬂux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. The mass ﬂow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dz|r + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · .13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8. Hence. -8.194 ρ U r z CHAPTER 8.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r. The change is ﬂux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz| r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure.11)–(8. In a similar fashion the net ﬂux in the z coordinate be written as net ﬂux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net ﬂux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8. e. r . The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates.13) and dividing by inﬁnitesimal control volume.12) Combining equations (8. dr r dθ dz results in total net ﬂux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8. the change of r with r.g. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r) dz dθ dr ∂z ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ ) dθ dr dz + ∂θ dz ρ Uz r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+ dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig. The net mass ﬂow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates.

Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation.2. For academic purposes.15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates. t0 .16) The continuity equations (8.8).16) can be expressed in diﬀerent coordinates. MASS CONSERVATION 195 Combining equation (8. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8.14) with the change in the control volume (8.15) and (8. .17) + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates. the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8.9) divided by inﬁnitesimal control volume. the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 . (8. dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ Uz ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8. However. 8.18) Compare to equation (8.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 .2 page 266). the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ (8.8). At time. this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way. It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A. The index notation really does not add much to the scientiﬁc understanding.8. several examples are constructed here. End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations).1. There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit.2. Hence.

f) . H0(t) The density is a function of the temperT0 y ature according to ρ 1 0 T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8.I.I. Assume that the velocity is only a diﬀerence for example 8. Substituting the density.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model). as a function of time into the governing equation (8. Calculates the velocity of the liquid.I.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the ﬁnal temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8.1 function of the y coordinate.196 CHAPTER 8.I. For this question.I.I.I. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.e) =0 e−β t + ∂y Equation (8.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8.3.a) T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8. -8. Mass ﬂow due to temperature tom.e) is ﬁrst order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8. ρ.3. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Assume that the actual temperature is ρ T1 exponentially approaches to a linear temperature proﬁle as depicted in Figure 8.I. it is treated as a constant.I.I. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time.

from the extraction point.19) If the ﬂuid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case. MASS CONSERVATION 197 Uy is a function of the time but not y. Assume that the ﬁlm temFig. For this example.2.20) the time can be treated as constant for y integration. The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the ﬁlm.h) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y. Calculate the ﬁlm velocity ﬁeld if the density is a function of the temperature. Mass ﬂow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8. Hence.2.g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as T − T∞ ρ − ρ∞ =α (8.II.I. Example 8. Equation (8.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer.f) as a constant4 .2. -8.f) holds for any time and thus. it can be treated for the solution of equation (8.I.4.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation A simpliﬁed equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as · (ρ U ) = 0 (8.4. End Solution 8.I.2: In many coating processes a thin ﬁlm is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8. the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8. .I.8. 4 Since (8.

Higbie suggested this idea which was rejected by the scientiﬁc establishment. One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him. See the resembles to equation (8.15 . Hence equation (8.e) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS.II.198 Solution CHAPTER 8. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending only to suicide. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8.b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At ﬁrst.b) can be written as Ux ∂ (ρ Uy ) ∂ρ =− ∂x ∂y (8.f) (8. however it can be considered as steady state.II. 6 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range. this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation.1 for the general function T = F (x).g) 5 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems.II.II. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity.II.c) Where Ux is the belt velocity.II.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x (8. . the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8.d) into the governing equation results in α ∂F (x) ∂Uy ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x The density is expressed by equation (8. On personal note. At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8. However. This assumption is consistent with the ﬁrst solution (no stability issues). DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8.II.b).d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8. ∂ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8.I.II. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction6 .II.

III.c) is an ODE with constant coeﬃcients.g) is ﬁrst order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix).c) (8.a) Equation (8. Thus. assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8.III.III. Notice the symmetry of the situation.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.III. Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8.h) ∂y .d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x.g) ∂y a Equation (8. For the second part equation (8.III.e) Taking the derivative of the ﬁrst term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8.2.8.III. Solution The ﬂow ﬁeld must comply with the mass conservation (8.3: The velocity in a two dimensional ﬁeld is assumed to be in a steady state. Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component. Calculate the velocity ﬁeld in this case.III.20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8. MASS CONSERVATION 199 Example 8.III. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next.III. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate.f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8.b) (8.III.III. The velocity. Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component.

4: Can the following velocities co-exist.200 CHAPTER 8.III. if it exist.IV.V.a) Is the ﬂow is incompressible? Is the ﬂow in a steady state condition? Solution To check whether the solution is in a steady state. Thus.c) The divergence isn’t zero thus this ﬂow.h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix).III.b) Or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 . The private solution is Uy |private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution for (8. this ﬂow ﬁeld is not steady state.IV. must be compressible ﬂow.i) End Solution Example 8. it can be observed that the velocity contains time component.III.a) Mathematically speaking. In this problem these physical . However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions. this kind of presentation is possible.IV.j) (8. ∂Ux ∂x = t2 z ∂Uy ∂y =t ∂Uz ∂z =t (8. Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance. Hence. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8. Check if the ﬂow is incompressible for this continuity equation should be used for constant density. Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8.5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional ﬂow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)). This ﬂow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded. End Solution Example 8.

e) The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + (8.f) (8. must be zero and thus the constant.V.V.b) into equation (8.V.h) Equation (8.c) can be separated to yield 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8.h) is constant coeﬃcients ﬁrst order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix. ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8. is substituted.V.b) Substituting equation (8.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8.V. c3 .V.V. ρ.V.d) (8.V. MASS CONSERVATION 201 components are ignored for academic reasons. real value.V.2. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8.8. and independent of x thus ρx + ∂ρ c1 = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e (8.V.V.c) Possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant.a) and noticing that the density.g) The term e5 α y is always positive. Equation (8.V.V. Ux . Hence.j) .V.a) is ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equation which can be converted to ordinary diﬀerential equation when the velocity component.V. is a function of x results in ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8.h) is given by impossible solution ρ=e −x 2 2 √ π i c3 erf √ c − 2 ix √ 2 (8. The solution of (8.i) which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant.

23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix7 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively.33)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system has a volume V and a surface area of A which are a function of time. are presented. scalar. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8.f) is ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α End Solution (8.3 Conservation of General Quantity 8. Basically the divergence theorem relates the ﬂow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume.V.202 CHAPTER 8.g.24) into equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution is the multiplication of equation (8.22) Using RTT to change the system to control volume (see equation (5.j) by (8. c2 is arbitrary function of the y coordinate.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent.V. . t). 8. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.3.24) Substituting equation (8. A change with time is DΦ D = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8. vector or tensor.26) 7 These integrals are related to RTT. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x.k) Where the constant.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e. y. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integral on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. z.V.

Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to ﬁnd the particles acceleration of the ﬂuid.32) .29) Equation (8. it can be written that U (x.30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8.21) LHS can be change to simply to derivative of Φ. x.2. z.3. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative.28) dx dy dz = 0 + · ρ 1 U dt - The integral is over arbitrary volume which mean that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8. t) j + Uz (x. t) = Ux (x. Therefore.1 Examples of Generalized of Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative For example. For an inﬁnitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8.2 8. for the last derivations using φ = 1 which is the same for mass conservation.8. t) i + Uy (x.31) Equation (8. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY 203 By the deﬁnition of equation (8. In that case D Φ = D ρ and hence equal to zero as Dt Dt φ d dV 1 ρ φ (8. The integral is carried over arbitrary system. z. t) k (8. y.3. y. A ﬂuid particle velocity is a function of the location and time.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8. y. z.27) 8.3.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. y. The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the ﬂuid.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the ﬂow ﬁeld.

DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS U dU d Ux d Uy d Uz = i+ j+ k dt dt dt dt The velocity components are a function of four variables and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz (8.33) ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z d Ux = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as ∂ Ux ∂ Ux d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8.36) ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. 8.4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established.37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which disappear when the ﬂow is steady state. The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division. The stress is relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector). So it can be written that F τ = f (F . The ﬂow in a nozzle is an example to ﬂow at steady state but yet has acceleration which ﬂow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic ﬂow. This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book).39) .34) (8.204 The acceleration will be CHAPTER 8.38) It was shown that in static case (or in better words.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates and when combined to be (in a vector form) ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t or in more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration )U (8. A ) (8. While the ﬂow is in a steady state there is acceleration of the ﬂow. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8.

tetrahedron in the z direction.8. these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation.5.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction. The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it.44) . Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can be written in matrix forms τxx τxy τxz τ = τyx τyy τyz (8.4. and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction.43) and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface. δAx is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the x diFig. It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components. A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction.5. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron rection and δAz is the surface area of the shape. However. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8. matrix is then · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn Where here ℵ. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 205 It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous.41) τzx τzy τzz Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8. -8. If Y τn ℵ τnℓ X τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y τyz (8.42) T0 Z τnn where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction. similarly for τxz . The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface. The transformation n·i n·j n·k ·i ·j ·k ℵ·i ℵ·j ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and a diﬀerence is related to the ﬁrst derivative.

for cases that body force. . The shear stress at point x is τxy . dx For simplicity and generality. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS the ﬁrst derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τzℵℵ · i (8.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. The τxy τxx dy τ normal body force (gravity) acts through τxx xy the cubic center of gravity and can be neglected (the changes are insigniﬁcant).47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction. Hence. The cubical rotation can involve two parts one distortion and one rotation. The clarity of this analysis can y τyx be improved if additional terms are taken but the results will be the same. -8. the rotation of the inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body.5 for moment of inertia. it is assumed x that the external body force exert a torque GT per unit volume at the speciﬁc location. The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes and here only one will be discussed. The momentum can be accessed by the shear stresses that act on it. The body force can exert torque is Fig. A ﬁnite angular distortion of inﬁnitesimal cube requires requires an inﬁnite shear. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy |x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8. However. Diagram to analysis the shear stress due to the fact that the body force is not tensor. Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8. Advance material can be skipped 8 See for derivation in Example 3.6. This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms.45) The same can be done for y and z directions. such yy as the magnetic ﬁelds. These relationships provide the transformation for the diﬀerent orientations which depends only angles of the orientations.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 8 is the moment of inertia around that center. can create torque. τyx τ However. uniform and hence act not through the mass center.206 CHAPTER 8. The areas are related to each other through angles.

This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of inﬁnitesimal length.50) isn’t zero (non symmetrical function around the center of integration). For example.4. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx |y + dτxx dy η y (8. but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure does not. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 207 The torque due to the shear stress in the surface direction results in a change due to the shear stress9 .54) 9 This point bother this author in the completeness of the proof.50) The integral of (8.48) into (8. End Advance material The net torque in the z-direction around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8. .52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8. It can be ignored.8.51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components that contribute to the moment are =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and mostly used between y < η < y + dy.49) results y+dy y τxx |y + dτxx dy η y η− dy 2 dη (8. The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8. The reason that this term neglected because the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction.53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8.49) Substituting (8.

However. z and the j is any of the other x.208 CHAPTER 8.55) 8. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is signiﬁcant and has to be included in the calculations. Equation (6. For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces. can be neglected11 .11) is also applicable for the small inﬁnitesimal cubic. Previously it was shown that equation (6. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added. However. gravitation forces. z 10 . -8. y. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress tensor. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS where i is one of x.56) 10 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book. It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. .11) is equivalent to Newton second law for ﬂuids. If the body forces eﬀect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system τij = τji (i = j) (8. The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces.” 11 In the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this eﬀect hopefully will be presented. The body force that acting on inﬁnitesimal cubic is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8. Later it will be used and generalized.7.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τxz + τxy + τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig. For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor become symmetrical. for almost all practical purposes. One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure ??). this change. and internal forces. y.

Hence. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the diﬀerent coordinates.59) where i in this case is x. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 209 Where B is in the body force direction and f B is the body force per unit mass.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8.5.63) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix |i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8.8.58) becomes internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ& & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz & & + fG x ρ & & (8. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx |x+dx × dy dz − τxx |x × dy dz The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy (8. The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8.64) . y.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8. The dot product yields the force in the directing of x. the total net force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8.58) The same can be written for z direction.61) equation (8.62) The same can be obtained for the z component and generally it is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8. Equation (8.57) and (8.63) Advance material can be skipped Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates.57) fxy = τyx |y+dy × dx dz − τyx |y × dx dz (8. or z.

In contrast.8 (by the blue color). the control volume is at a square shape and location as depicted in Figure 8. and c.65) or (8. the result is a continuous deformation. or z. The control volume moves to a new location. reduction of the shear stress does not return the material to its original state as in solids. when applying the shear stress in ﬂuids. Additionally.210 where here CHAPTER 8.65) End Advance material Equations (8. b. The rotation is the second movement that referred to change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ 45◦ . a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed to be linearly related. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in ﬂuids yields larger deformations. there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero). Furthermore. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic ﬂuid). At time t + dt the control volume undergoes three diﬀerent changes. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure (8. Thus this “solid” model is a tions: = y B + + ∂Uy U + dt y ∂y D @ t + dt Uy dt A A @t Uxdt Uy + ∂Uy dt ∂x C x y’ linear relationship with three main assump- Fig. At time t. -8.8)). In solid material the shear stress yields a ﬁx amount of deformation.64) requires that stress tensor be deﬁned. y.8. Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation. the simplest model is assumed which referred as the solid continuum model. the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity ﬁeld. Notice the three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. a. As engineers do in general. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x. The relationship between the stress tensor and deformation depends on the classes of materials the stresses acts on. The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi (8.

68) where.69) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x y’ τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz (8.68) can be written as τij = µ where i = j and i = x or y or z. The third change is the misconﬁguration or control volume deformation. It can be noticed at this stage. The only missing thing. Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ and for the directions of y z as 45◦ (8. µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coeﬃcient which the linear coeﬃcient of proportionality the shear and it is assumed to be a property of the ﬂuid. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz = µ Dγxz =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8. In general equation (8. 12 While 13 The Fig.66) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8.71) not marked as important equation this equation is is source of the derivation. However. is the diagonal component which dealt below.67) In these derivatives.9. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations.5.8. ﬁrst assumption is mentioned above. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8. -8. This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity. at this stage. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally. the relationship between the two of stress tensor are found. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume. . DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 211 volume. The deformation of the control volume has several components.70) Note that the viscosity coeﬃcient (the linear coeﬃcient13 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. For the assumption of linear ﬂuid12 τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner.

75) relates the diﬀerence between the normal shear stress and the shear stresses in x’ . It can be noticed that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces.212 CHAPTER 8.73) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8. The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change. The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8.75) (8. c. y’ ) frame.74) from (8. The rate of strain in the x direction is c (8. In addition. The relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8. The angular strain rate in the (x.8) in the control volume move to the new locations. Figure 8. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x.76) (8.75) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’ y’ ) 2 ’’ (8. The small deformations a . The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8.10(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and t + dt. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains.72) dividing by dx and some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’ x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’ y’ 2 Subtracting (8. z) appears in shear matrix diagonal. y.9. y coordinates). on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface. To ﬁnd the main (on the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ . the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter.77) d x= dx . b. For example. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’ . √ shear the stresses are acting in this direction. The dx is construct so it equals to dy. The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which are rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Normal Stress The normal stress.x.74) (8. The forces acting in the direction of x ’ are combination several terms.73) Equation (8. τii (where i is either .

The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. and (8. The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) . in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles.81) . x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction. Thus. The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8. Deformation of the diﬀerent triangles for the calculations of the normal stess.10.10(b). the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8.79) Here.79)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8.80) Equation (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION b 213 b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular. Fig.10(b)). -8.78) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as ﬁrst approximation to change. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are inﬁnitesimally small.77).5. The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx. (8. and d y is its linear strain in the y-direction.80) can be interpreted as (using equations (8.8. The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8. Hence. The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8.78).

83) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS In the same fashion the strain in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8.90) .11. The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8.82) Combining equation (8. (8.89) Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plains.87) y’ (8. ∂Uy’ D y’ = Dt ∂y’ (8. For example in y’ –z’ plain one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ∂x’ ∂z’ (8.214 CHAPTER 8. (8. Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location diﬀerential transform equation (8. -8. The linear deformation is the diﬀerence between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8.85) From equation (8.11 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.75) τxy be substituted and equation (8.83) Equation (8.83) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle.85) can be continue and replaced as D x’ D y’ 1 − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8.87) and (8.84) From (8. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change.68) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ.86) Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy dt ∂y ’ Uy’dt The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate.81) with equation (8.87) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.82) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.88) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig.88) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx dt ∂x ’ x’ Equation (8.

93) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8.96) Advance material can be skipped 14 It 15 G. It can be shown that this two deﬁnitions are “identical” in the limits15 . In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous ﬂows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress.71).89) and (8.91) rearranging equation (8. identical only in the limits not in mechanical measurements. This pressure is a true scalar value of the ﬂow ﬁeld since the propriety is averaged or almost14 invariant to the coordinate transformation. Commonality engineers like to combined the two diﬀerence expressions into one as 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.93) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8.90) results in 2 4 215 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION Adding equations (8.95) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8. With this deﬁnition and noticing that the coordinate system x’ –y’ has no special signiﬁcance and hence equation (8.141. The mechanical pressure can be deﬁned as averaging of the normal stress acting on a inﬁnitesimal sphere. .5.93) The “mechanical” pressure is the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’ –y’ –z’ . Batchelor. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. K.94) Where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is deﬁned as Pm = − τxx + τyy + τzz 3 (8. p.91) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. 1967. Cambridge University Press.8.92) The further rearranging the results by dividing by 3 so that “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ ∂Ux’ 2 +2 µ − µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.

λ.99) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P . To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8. This coeﬃcient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coeﬃcient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established. Using the coordinates transformation. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8. With God help.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted. The linkage was established between the stress int he rotated coordinates to the deformation.2. First. it will be provide before version 0. connection between τxy and the deformation was built. The dimension of the bulk viscosity.100) 16 Since the publishing the version 0. this association was established. The expansion rate of change and the ﬂuid molecular structure through λ control the diﬀerence. According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive.3 . it does not add any additional information.99) ·U (8.216 or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 CHAPTER 8.9.98) The value of λ is obtained experimentally. Equation (8. While this expression has the advantage of compact writing. an additional correction will be needed. The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change. This expression suggests a new deﬁnition of the thermodynamical pressure is 2 P = Pm + µ 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation16 . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.97) End Advance material where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise. However. Second Viscosity Coeﬃcient The coeﬃcient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity. are similar to the viscosity µ. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed. as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.0 several people ask me to summarize conceptually the issues. if the derivations before were to include additional terms.

for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equaiton is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress.105) or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ 2 U +fB (8.102) For the total eﬀect. the total eﬀect of the dilation on the ﬂow is very small. this coeﬃcient or the whole eﬀect is vanished17 .100) into equation (8.104) ∂Uy ∂y (8. is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y (8.101) To explain equation (8. In material such as water.8. In fact this eﬀect is so insigniﬁcant that there is diﬃculty in to construct experiments so this eﬀect can be measured. λ is large (3 times µ) but the net eﬀect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. In most cases. . Thus. Only in micro ﬂuids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this eﬀect has some signiﬁcance.101).106) Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8.107) 17 The reason that the eﬀect vanish is because · U = 0. For example. τxy . For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes.61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+ 2 3µ −λ ∂x ·U +µ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 f +f B x (8.5. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 217 The signiﬁcance of the diﬀerence between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with ﬂuid dilation which connected by · U . For complex liquids this coeﬃcient. Clearly for incompressible ﬂow. The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change. it can be written for spesiﬁc coordinates. can be over 100 times larger than µ.103) ∂Ux ∂x (8. λ. substitute equation (8. neglecting this eﬀect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.

These conditions can be categorized by the velocity. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS · U vanishes thus Thus equation (8. or in more general condition as shear stress conditions at the interface.106) reduced 2 U DU =− P + Dt U +fB (8. For this discussion the shear sensor will be separated into two categories.112) + ρgz 8.218 For incompressible ﬂow the term to ρ or in the index notation ρ CHAPTER 8. A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity.111) in z coordinate is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂ Uz ∂ Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂P +µ + + − ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8. The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces 8. pressure (in the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area). These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated conditions. pressure.108) ∂P D Ui ∂ 2U =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8.1 Boundary Conditions Categories The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions. This condition referred as the “no slip” condition.6. In situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is .109) The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂P ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8.110) + ρgx in y coordinate is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 2 ∂P ∂ v ∂ v ∂ v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z Ux (8.

For example. the surt n face can be moving. it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point U( ) = U (8. The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct ﬂuids. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and t The (free) moving boundary can b. The condition (8. -8.113) can be mathematiflow cally represented in another way for free surface conditions. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 219 relatively very small. Fig. r be given as f (r . The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8.114) Note. The diﬀerence between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale.8. y). the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal ﬂuid (“inviscid ﬂows”) because this kind of ﬂow normally deals with large scales. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is written as U n · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 (8. Another condition that aﬀects the slip condition is the transportability of the condition. x. the slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist.12.113) where n referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area). In this book. The slip condition is dealing with a diﬀerent velocity between the solid (or other material) the ﬂuid media.116) The solution of this condition sometime is extremely hard to handle because the location is not given but the derivative on unknown location. To direction make sure that all the material is accounted in the control volume x (does not cross the free surface) the relative perpendicular velocb ity at the interface must be zero. free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t.115) This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition. For a ﬂow with a large time ﬂuctuation the slip condition cannot be ignored in same regions.113) is given in a vector form. In reality the interface between these two ﬂuids is not a sharp transition . this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written).6. As oppose to given velocity at particular point. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore f (x) y Df =0 Dt on the surface f = 0 (8. t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface. While this condition (8.

In these cases the assumptions are that transition occurs in a sharp line.117) where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area). In same instances. . The shear stress diﬀerence is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower surface surface (8.118) is written18 as 1 1 + R1 R2 τij nj + σ ni (1) = τij nj (2) (8. This condition is expressed mathematically equating the shear stress diﬀerence to the forces results due the surface tension. The jump in the density (between the two ﬂuids) creates a surface tension which oﬀset the jump in the shear stress. there situations where the ﬂuid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material.220 CHAPTER 8. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general. Oﬀ course.118) (8.119) t · τ (t) = −t · where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8. In other cases. In index notation equation (8. this constant is determined from the volume conservation. it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes.120) 18 There is no additional beneﬁt in this writing. and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some case continuously approach zero value). the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law. The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown). this condition cannot be tolerated since inﬁnite velocity (acceleration) is impossible. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS but only approximation (see for surface theory). The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as without explanation. the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness) Furthermore. While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution). 1 1 + R1 R2 σ n · τ (n) = σ (8. A jump in the shear stress creates inﬁnite force on the adjoin thin layer.12) and R1 and R2 are principal radii. There situations were the transition should be analyzed as continuous transition between two phases. If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress.

The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension move the liquid up. no. The shear stress carry the material as if part of it was a solid Fig. 197–217.122) The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is that the static pressure at speciﬁc value. In ﬂuid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited eﬀect and but sometime is signiﬁcant and more rarely dominate. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many ﬂuid mechanics problems. In this category include the boundary conditions with issue of surface tension which were discussed earlier. The last condition is similar the pressure condition is of prescribed shear stress or some relationship to it. 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1. Jean. Gravity as Driving Force The body forces in general and gravity as a particular body force driving the ﬂow beside the velocity. 19 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or signiﬁcant just a random example.13. Arch.121) 2 the unit vector is given as two vector in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1. . Rational Mech.8. -8. shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure. Anal. in the kerosene lamp the burning occur at the surface of the lamp and the liquid is at the bottom. The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x (8.6. Karosin lamp.47). BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 221 where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface. For example in one dimensional19 n= t= (−f (x). The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most case (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons). 3. The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the ﬂow ﬂow direction. M. material. 74 (1980). pulling the side will pull all the material. For example. Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the ﬂuid was solid material. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind that where the something is given on boundary but no at speciﬁc location. Free surface of the steady ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid in a ﬁnite channel. Consider for example the case shown in Figure 8.13. f (x)) 1 + (f (x)) 2 (8.

15. Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. First. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ T ∂r ∂h stress. Schamatic of kerosene lamp. The upper surface is moving in Velocity. the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the dirction of the ﬂow.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) Examples of an one-dimensional ﬂow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS To understand how to apply the surface tension boundary condition. In that case. Example 8. The distance between the plates is . example dealing won one phase are present. In the case. -8. somewhere downstream the temperature graident is insifginiﬁcant. Even in that case.14. It can be notice that under the assumption here there are two principal radii. The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 20 . book. In this Fig. Flow between two plates top moving at U to the right (as positive). Later. U which is deﬁned as positive when it move with the ﬂow. The ﬂuid surrounds the rode temperature and ﬂows upwards. the physical condition in Figure 8. The only (almost) propeling source of the ﬂow is the surface graident. examples with two phase are presented. The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefor the gradint in surface tension is restuls of temperature gradent. the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. . However the diameter at the depent on the surface tension. the surface tension gradient remains.6: Incompressible liquid ﬂows between two inﬁnite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. One radius toword the conter of the rode while the other is inﬁnite (approximated). The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated. However. -8.15). this eﬀect is not discussed. 20 The diﬀerence is measured at the bottom point of the plate.13 can be used and idealized as a ﬂow around an inner rode. The control volume shown in darker colors.222 CHAPTER 8. } } } 8.

130) .129) The momentum equation in the x direction then results (no gravity eﬀects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8. Furthermore.8. Further because no change of the thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8. The momentum conservation is − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8.124) Thus.123) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density). The only diﬀerence in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8.7.126) On the upper surface is diﬀerent by Taylor explanation as ∼ =0 dU d2 U d3 U 2 τ xy = µ + dy + dy + · · · dy 2 3 dy dy The net eﬀect of these two will be diﬀerence between them µ dU d2 U dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8. the ﬂow in and the ﬂow out are equal.125) The shear stress on the lower surface based on Newtonian ﬂuid is τ xy = −µ dU dy (8. the mass conservation yields =0 223 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8. the velocity in and out are the same (constant density). EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Solution In this example.127) (8.128) The assumptions is that there is no pressure diﬀerence in the z direction.

6 0.75 Ψ = 1. Newtonian ﬂuid.25 Ψ = 1.9 1.8 Ux Uℓ 0.1 0. Equation (8.75 Ψ = 2.2 Ψ = −1.132) (8.25 Ψ = 0.0 0. dition21 .3 0.5 0.131) Applying the boundary conditions results in =Ψ Ux (y) = y y y 2 dP 1− + U0 2µ dx For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1.75 Ψ = 0. The boundaries conditions are 1.2 0.133) (8.4 0.130) is a partial diﬀerential equation but can be treated as ordinary diﬀerential equation in the z direction of the pressure diﬀerence is uniform. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution. However.25 Ψ = −0.75 Ψ = −1.2 0.25 Ψ = 2.4 0.130) is Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8.0 y ℓ October 4.0 0. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or Fig.224 CHAPTER 8. The problem is still one dimensional because the ﬂow velocity is a function 21 A discussion about the boundary will be presented.16. the left hand side is equal to constant.6 0. . DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Equation (8. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = dP y 1− U0 2µ dx End Solution 2 + y (8. It is common to assume that the between two plates when Ψ change value be“no slip” condition on the boundaries con.134) Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional ﬂow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates.75 green line to 3 the blue line. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U The solution of the “ordinary” diﬀerential equation (8.tween -1. In that case.8 0.130) was constructed under Velocity distributions in one dimensional ﬂow several assumptions which include the direction of the ﬂow. -8.0 0.25 1.75 Ψ = −0. One dimensional ﬂow with a shear both.7 0.

This ﬂow referred as Poiseuille ﬂow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated ﬂow of blood in veins. The momentum equation for the control volume shown in the Figure 8. Poiseuille study ﬂow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers).17. The full analysis will be presented to review the the previous analysis of building the equation. The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8. Fig.135) The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction. of (only) radius. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.8.136) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8.17a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8. The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” Fig b. The analysis can be carried out by two diﬀerent approaches: one is a kind of short cut and one for the full analysis. -8. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 (8.7. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates. Thus. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 225 r θ dz r θ dz r θ flow Directi o r z n r θ flow Directi on z dr Fig a.17a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. Hence.137) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8.139) .138) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz − Uz as can be shown by conservation of the mass for any element.

The applicable equation is still (8.140) Equation (8. in this analysis the control volume that will be used is of Figure 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Substituting equation (8.141) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8.137) into equation (8. The governing equation can be constructed by this smaller control volume for various boundary condition.17a. While the above analysis provides a solution. However.141) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed.142) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder. it has several shortcomes which include the ability to incorporate diﬀerent boundary conditions such as pipe within a pipe.141) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8. However.147) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) .143) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element22 was eliminated due to the smart short cut.135) since the condition did not change.136) and (8.226 CHAPTER 8. Integrating equation (8.145) The trick in the construction of control volumes such as the above can shorten the solution of problems. The shear stress in the z direction can be on the control volume (again the front and the back do not contribute here) is expressed τ dA = µ dU dA dr (8. this chapter deals with construction of diﬀerential analysis more general analysis is provided.135) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8.144) (8. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − The solution is Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r R 1− µ ∂z R 2 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8.146) The shear stress can be expressed in a Taylor series as τ (z + dz) = µ 22 Asymmetrical dU dr + r d2 U dr2 dr + · · · r (8.

The double integration results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 r + c2 2 µ dz (8. The only diﬀerence is the boundary conditions for demonstration of this point see the following example 8. the governing equation (8.151) can be integrated since the left right side is a function of r and right is a function of x.151) d2 U ∂P 2 π r dz dr = − dz 2 π r dr dr2 dz (8.149) and equation (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The net change in the shear stress is d2 U τ dA = µ 2 2 π r dz dr dr The pressure diﬀerence P dA = ∂P dz 2 π r dr dz dA A 227 (8. However.147) remembering that velocity is canceled into (8.153) The symmetry requirement (derivative at r = 0 is equal zero force the coeﬃcient c1 to be zero.7: .150) Equation (8.152) Equation (8.8.7.7.153) can be used to solve problem that are not symmetrical. Example 8. The same result is obtained.151) or its solution (8. The boundary conditions “no slip” at the outer radius and symmetry at the center which are Uz (r = 0) = 0 dU dr (r = 0) = 0 (8.148) (8.149) Substituting equation (8.151) is the governing equation only the z direction.135) results in µ Or µ d2 U ∂P =− dr2 dz (8.

Flow of liquid between concentric cylinders for example 8. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity proﬁle.c) and second intergration results in ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r (8. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed.7. That is.18. -8. The situation is best sutable to solved in cylinderial coordinats.d) .18. In fact there is no physical reason why the ﬂow should be only one dimensional. or z coordinate. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z (8.VII.VII. Build the velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian.VII. After the previous example. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r θ θ r Fig. the velcoity isn’t a function of the angle. Calculate the ﬂow rate for a given pressure gradient.a) The PDE above (8.VII.b) Dividing equation (8. In this solution will be discussing the ﬂow ﬁrst mode. For this mode the ﬂow is assumed to be one diminstional. the appropiate version of the Navier–Stokes equaiton will be used. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions.VII. Solution CHAPTER 8.154) The steady state governign equation is ρ ¡ =0=− 0 ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8.228 A liquid with constant density is ﬂowing between two cylinders as shown in Figure 8.c) 0 0 (8.VII.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = Integrating equation (8. However. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the ﬂow ﬁrst mode that appear in reality.VII. It can be noticed that it this case the change with time is zero but also the there is no accelation (convective accelaration) is zero =f (t) =0 ∂U ∂Uz Uφ z ρ + Ur + ∂r r ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 ∂Uz ∂Uz +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z ro flow Directi o ut r in z n (8.

VII.VII.8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Integration of equation (8.VII.VII.g) = The solution is then Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 + ln 4µ The ﬂow rate is then Q= ri End Solution ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8.7.j) .VII.VII.f) with the scond boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8.d) resutls in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z 229 (8.VII.e) Appling the ﬁrst boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.

230 CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS .

this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic. In fact.D. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). As result.1 Introduction Traditionally. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. is required for many engineering problems. Here. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics. 231 .there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. only the trends and simple calculations are described. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate. Additionally. For many engineers. there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations.2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. Thus. it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. 9. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. there was a Ph. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. In the past. Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . For simple models. It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. Initially the models were using simple assumptions.CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.

They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today. will know and understand the trends. and importance to real world. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. 9. Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). . MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. For example. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. the concept of ﬂow regimes. This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. Hence. and more importantly. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. However. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. However. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow.232 CHAPTER 9.

000 in about two and half years. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases. However. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus.9. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant. -9. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. Hence. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. 9. many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials). In fact. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error. . many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen.1. or a large acceleration. nonetheless it exists. For example. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces. it is assumed that air is made of only gases. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow. Practically for many cases. In our calculation. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 233 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow.” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height.4. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable.

it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. solid propellant rocket. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. ﬂuidized bed. Open Channel ﬂow is. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. When the . The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. Generally. The multiphase can be found in nature.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. paint spray. Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). although important. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. Thus. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). For example. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. There are many more categories. and river ﬂow. Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction.. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. 9. For example. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). rain. Since there are three phases. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. mud ﬂow etc. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. March 29. Yet. they can be solid–liquid. and avalanches. for example. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. In almost all situations. Jr. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. for an example. In the past. solid–gas. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. However. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. The multiphase is an important part of many processes. in nature can be blood ﬂow. 1887). sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. spray casting. and industries. The liquid–solid.234 CHAPTER 9. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. For the gas. In a four (4) miles long train.

The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. up or down. The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal). horizontal. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gas-liquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density.1. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases.5. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape.2. Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow). plug ﬂow. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow. In general. For example. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. it is referred as counter–current. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow.5. Additionally. -9.5.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics.2. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow. When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. Thus. . and what ever between them. Yet. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid). the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow. 9. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. For example. and annular ﬂow. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. Generally. 9. the co-current is the more common. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 235 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9.9. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids.

. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). Fig. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 9. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe.4. -9. At this stage. the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension. all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if 6 The 7 Well.4). liquid level is higher. all the ﬂow is wavy. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. Thus. The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 9. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow. the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster.3). -9. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. Thus. the friction between the phases increase. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube.236 CHAPTER 9. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure. The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition. At some point. choking occurs relatively Fig. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity). In fact. liquid ﬂow rate.3. when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance.

This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. as in compressible ﬂow. As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds. weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity). liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. e. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means.5. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions.5. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. the return path is not move the exact same way. Besides the length. Hence.5. ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow. etc. -9. 9. However.1.g.9. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime.” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig. The buoyancy . CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 237 this category is accepted). in normal gravitation. Qualitatively. In engineering application.5. the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke. After a certain distance. the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. other parameters can aﬀect the “near. with the gravity or against it. For example. As many things in multiphase.2 Vertical Flow The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis.

see Figure 9. is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. Thus. the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations. Again. For the ﬂow against gravity. After additional increase of “super slug” . MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig. . Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow.238 CHAPTER 9. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity. The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow.6.6). it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way.6. Thus. they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 9. the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. When many bubbles collide. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. Notice. -9. the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide. the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow.

Liquid Flow Rate 9. However. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters. -9. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall. this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow. the vertical conﬁguration. Figure 9. the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity. and Weber numbers.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9.Reynolds. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further. both will be united in this discussion. there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses.5. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. After the ﬂow has settled. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude . respectively. Here. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9.7. the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow. While this author is not aware of an actual model. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant.6. However. out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent. The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas. The liquid–liquid (also . In the literature. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. As the gas ﬂow increases.9. In cases where the surface tension is very important. Pulsing For example.1.7).3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 239 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system. for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid. the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow.

1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9.7) . The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality. the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant.2) Where A is the entire area of the tube.3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity. the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube. The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9.6) GG = UsG ρG (9.4) mL ˙ A (9.240 CHAPTER 9. Perhaps. The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9. over its cross section.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density). some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a one-dimensional ﬂow. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9. and with time. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow.1) It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe.6. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters. 9.

6. The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9. a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube. Thus. The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent.9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length. it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9.9.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 241 Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9.13) Where Um is the averaged velocity. Also. Thus. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (9.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9.8) In a similar fashion. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase. . It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube.14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (9.

17) Equation (9.19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9.16) Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (9.20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1.21) . for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9. The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become + (1−X) ρL The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then X ρG ρaverage = 1 (9. the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9.242 CHAPTER 9. thus equation (9.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9.1) and (9.18) vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (9.7) into equation (9.15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). Substituting equations (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1).

the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). Now. this assumption has to be broken. Furthermore. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow.22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9. the simplest is to used it for approximation.1: Under what conditions equation (9.26) .13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow. In fact.23) Example 9.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9.24) or modifying equation (9.7. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments). The average velocity (see also equation (9. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 243 9. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous. Thus.9. Initially.

9. from equation (9. this dependency can be neglected.7.25. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ.28) Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss.1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9. the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). Yet.244 CHAPTER 9. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress. However.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9.30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress. In fact. For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1.079 and n = 0. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence. since there isn’t anything better. .7. and body force(gravitation). For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow.1. for small distances (dx) and some situations. acceleration must occur. In that case. These losses are non-linear and depend on each other. For example. acceleration.29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9.25).

36) Or in an explicit way equation (9.7. dX/ dx = 0.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9. . Equation (9.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9.1. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant. For the last point.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9.37) a There are several special cases. 9. dA/ dx = 0. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only. For example.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9.7. dρL / dx = 0.34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 245 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity.9. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero. the friction loss can be estimated.

41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase.38) The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density.7. Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase..40) 9.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9. The density in equation (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9.7.1. Thus.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points.1. Taitle . 8 This method was considered a military secret. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (9.246 9. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9.7.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density). there are two parameters as shown below. 9. private communication with Y.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 .42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase. φG = dP dx dP dx (9.39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9.

45) For the gas phase.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9. Thus.there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 247 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9. . The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. 3. In solid–liquid. etc). the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9. For example. in this discussion. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1. To insert the Diagram. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point.” Therefor. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal. distribution. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid. dP dx = SG dP dx (9. analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes. cubic. and geometry.43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter.9.46) Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. 2. 9.8.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles. it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces.

The drag coeﬃcient. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (9. there are two sets of similar characteristics. possibility. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4. However. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes. it can be approximated for several regimes. All these possibilities are diﬀerent. the Newton’s Law region. When the liquid velocity is very small.50) For larger Reynolds numbers.52) .44 (9. The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. Re.49) Equation (9. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0. The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9.48) Inserting equating (9.8.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. CD ∞ .47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties.51) 24 Re (9. 9. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces.48) into equation (9.248 CHAPTER 9. However. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number. 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid).

So far the discussion was about single particle. in many cases the middle region is applicable. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. For the case of gas. then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating.9). US|avarge . For small gas/liquid velocity. Consequently. When there are more than one particle in the cross section.8. Thus. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 249 In most cases of solid-liquid system. Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. When the velocity is lower. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . further increase will create a slug ﬂow. the function f (α) is not a linear function. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. the particle will drift with the liquid.8. If the velocity is larger. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle. the case of liquid. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (9. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. For the ﬁrst region. Yet. In that case. Thus.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached.9. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. -9. Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. For particles. Thus. the particle will sink into the liquid.

The buoyancy is accelerating the particle . The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. Hence. there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. the length of conduit is very limited. Thus. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow.250 CHAPTER 9. Hence. 9. Furthermore. However. There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of.9. In the gas phase. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate. Nevertheless.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas.8. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. -9.

Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. Liquid Body Foreces . Thus. For example. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. Hence. Otherwise. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 251 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow. -9. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. However. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. some of the particles enter into the liquid core. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. opening a can of milk or juice. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity.9. The counter-current ﬂow occurs.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems). UL /US → 0. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. for example. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. 9.9. But in most cases. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. However.10. In most cases. For example. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. In short tube.54) 6 8 From equation 9. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist.54. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. be ﬁnite. Annular Extented Flow In that case.

water solution.). the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. Initially. Fig. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime. -9. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture). The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency.11. Figure 9.252 CHAPTER 9. If there are two holes. 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 9. Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. in some cases. For example. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. Then. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored.12). Picture of Counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations. -9. In this ﬂow regime. The container is made of two compartments. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. .12. due to the gravity. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid. the pressure in the can increase.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid. the heavy liquid is leaving the can.

the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). -9.7). Probably. Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start. no counter–current ﬂow possible. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity). but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow. In many situations.9. there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. However. ﬂow with gravity or against it. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up. there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside). Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature.7) page 112) it can be considered stable for small diameters. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld.9. Flood in vertical pipe. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension).” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities. no counter–current ﬂow is possible. At this point. the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 253 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow.9. The analysis is provided.13. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. When the driving (body) force is very small. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. .1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. As opposed to the co–current ﬂow. Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. In horizontal tubes. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. 9.

etc11 . When there is no water (in liquid phase). coexist. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L . However. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out).14. the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically. A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). 11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9. mass transfer. Thus.15. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. Additionally. the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler.9. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. The model can be improved by considering turbulence. closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. Thus. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here. -9. -9. Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction. . QL .13. physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 9. it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected. The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow.Fig. Fig.14. In some situations.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes.254 CHAPTER 9. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. The liquid ﬂow rate. wavy interface. Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime.15. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. is unknown. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L.

COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 255 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current ﬂow.57) The liquid velocity at the wall. can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi . τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (9. Thus. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results.58) (9.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9.9. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9. is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9.9.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9. the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9.56) (9. Hence. The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions. the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions. On the liquid side.).62) Uy = (9.59) (9. C1 .55) The integration constant. [U (x = 0) = 0].63) .61) (9.58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform.

69).67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity.69) is equated to zero.70) .69) It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero.64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9. But. There are three solutions for equation (9. The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point.65) The solution for equation (9. This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness.256 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. This point can be obtained when equation (9. also. Integration equation (9.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9. Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9. h.15). The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm. the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL .68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9.

71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid. Thus. the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well.9.75) Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length.67)).9.74) The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. .74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9.76) noticing that equation (9. For this shear stress. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 257 This critical shear stress. the linear equation is used. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. for a given ﬁlm thickness. the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L 12 Also (9. For simplicity. equation (9. the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9. for simplicity reasons. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow.73) Again. it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear.72) the direction) 12 becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3 τL |@wall = (9. Here.72) Simplifying equation (9. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9. The wall shear stress is τi Ucritical |interf ace = τL |@wall = µL dU dx x=0 ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL x=0 (9. reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (9. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book).

76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal).84) is equal to the velocity equation (9. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (9. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.84) The velocity in Equation (9. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B. in that case.80) (a) (b) or (9.81) At the other boundary condition.79) (9. equation (9. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant.79)(a). However.83) (9.78) into equation (9. the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.258 CHAPTER 9. cause this assumption to be not physical. . (9.64) when (x = h). The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption.77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall.82) With the integration constants evaluated. of the equal velocities.C.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9.

85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances. The shear stress at the interface must be equal. condition (9.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9. the two conditions can co–exist.91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence . if no special eﬀects occurs.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 259 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface.87) (9.9.9.79)(b). It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible. Then if the interface becomes wavy.86) (9. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9.

However. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases.94) Simplifying equation (9.96) (9. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated. the total balance is needed. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (9. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (9. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9.95) . To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here. Fig.16.260 CHAPTER 9. However. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (9. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (9. Figure 9. -9.

Perhaps as a side conclusion but important.9. the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. In that case. 9. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 261 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow). the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing. this analysis equation (9.10. . The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong.

262 CHAPTER 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW .

-A. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic ﬂuid mechanics.APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to ﬂuid mechanics is presented.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction. nates depicted in Figure A. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order diﬀerential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance. the 263 Fig.1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi. Vector in Cartesian coor- . The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs. and Uz is the vector component in the z direction.dinates system.). this book on ﬂuid mechanics issues could be read by most readers. A. Thus.1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar. Furthermore. Uy is the vector component in the y direction. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order. Hence without additional reading.1.

V )) n (A. multiplication of U × V results in W .2. and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = |U | · |V | sin (∠(U . There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors. regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig.2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. -A. The right hand rule. (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2. V . h2 . A. The following are vectors. Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4.3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section. U . Then the following can be said U U V 1. The ﬁrst multiplication is the “dot” product which is deﬁned by equation (A. V )) (A.264 unit vector is APPENDIX A. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars.5) . The “cross” product is deﬁned in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 .1. U + V = V + U 3.1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars.4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product.4). U ·V = U V U |U | · |V | cos (∠(U . a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication. a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat diﬀerent meaning in a scalar operations.

A. The multiplication in vector world have two deﬁnition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector. In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin). However. VECTORS 265 where θ is the angle between U and V . For example. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system).7) (A. This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction. and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule. is that these combinations have physical meaning. The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector.6) (A. The previous experience is that help to deﬁne multiplication help to deﬁnition the division. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector. It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning.9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V = U2 V2 h2 U2 V2 h3 U3 V3 (A.1. One of the consequence of this deﬁnitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. The reason that these current combinations. that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ.8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division. Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did ﬁnd any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used. The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal. or vector with the angle. .10) (A. Additionally note that order of multiplication is signiﬁcant. etc.

The following combination is commonly suggested U2 U3 U1 V V1 V1 1 U U1 U2 U3 = (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element.266 APPENDIX A.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor. Many of the operations of vector world.1. i. the gradient. A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3. respectively. j. y.z).11) V2 V V2 V2 U2 U3 U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the ﬂuid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. and z directions. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. For example. the curl. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as ﬁnding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors.” This operator is a diﬀerential vector. derivatives of diﬀerent directions can represented as a vector or vector function. More diﬀerential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function. A. It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar ﬁeld.y. divergence. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations.13) . For example. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements. In multivariate calculus.2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors Diﬀerential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions. such as.

A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example. y.14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors. VECTORS 267 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the diﬀerential operators.1. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be deﬁned for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A. z) = Nx (x. This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator. z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors. d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in ﬂuid mechanics) and it reﬀed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator. Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla.A. in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x.16) Note that the result is a vector. N . A gradient acting on a scalar ﬁeld creates a vector ﬁeld. y. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. and it deﬁned as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A.17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 .15) (A. y. in honor of Pierre-Simon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827). Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar ﬁeld again. z)ˆ + Ny (x. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar.18) . z)ˆ + Nz (x. y.

the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume. This theorem is applicable for a ﬁx control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral.html . For example.20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. A. x2 . Thus. x2 . The basic of these relationships is explored. z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855).fullerton. This results reduces equation. The notation is a bit diﬀerent from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A. x3 . · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 . The cross and dot products when the come under diﬀerentiation can be look as scalar. Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem.1. In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A. x2 .268 APPENDIX A.22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction.21) Since the deﬁnition of Φ = N . 1862).19) In Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24. If N is a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Π(x. x3 . MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math.21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal ﬂow analysis. A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 . x3 . 1801 – January 1. normally for steady state. This subset can further produces several interesting identities. · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . to a balance of the ﬂuxes through the surface. · · · )e3 + · · · (A.edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod. y.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative. Special case of equation (A.

the chain role is applicable.23) The ﬁrst part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero. Oblate spheroidal coordinates.1.1.25) (A. Prolate spheroidal coordinates. Ellipsoidal coordinates. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location. velocity. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A.3. A. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates. Similarly. Cylindrical coordinates. it can done for the cross product. Spherical coordinates. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation. and acceleration. As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 269 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. Elliptic .24) (A.1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in diﬀerent orthogonal coordinates system. The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles. Yet. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R). There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in ﬂuid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates. Parabolic coordinates.A.

uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars. Julian (1952). . because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions. Three common systems typical to ﬂuid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations. These three diﬀerent rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate. The new concept here is the length factor. Flat-ring cyclide coordinates.st-and. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”.mcs. in this case. and z. Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is.ac. This kind sity uations occur in pipe ﬂow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. Toroidal coordinates. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885.3. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates. -A. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry. θ. in most cases. Flat-disk cyclide coordinates. http://www-history. The meaning of − r and r are diﬀerent. r. The ﬁrst one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r. In Fig. → and z. The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ.270 APPENDIX A.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A. the ﬁgure shows that the coordinates are r. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system. The coordinate θ is angle. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A.29) 3 Coolidge. Historically.28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. Cylindrical Coordinate System. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 .html. Bi-cyclide coordinates and Cap-cyclide coordinates. Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point. Bispherical coordinates. θ.3.

Note that the ﬁrst angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure ?? The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A. A location is represented by a radius and two angles. sound wave propagax tion etc. The ﬁrst angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis. boom explosion. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is deﬁned by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 271 (A. Spherical Coordinate System. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location. -A.1.A.4.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A.30) (A.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A.37) .36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. In ﬂuid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics.31) (A.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r three-dimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modiﬁcations of the cylinφ r drical coordinates.

In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h.272 APPENDIX A. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length. While the θ is the same the meaning is diﬀerent and diﬀerent notations need.2.42) . the unit vectors are: r. However. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coeﬃcient in this case Fig. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coeﬃcient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1. θ.3.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. there is dispute what with unit vectors. The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript. and z .39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed. Since it is engineering book the h is adapted.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A. -A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A. The coordinates distance coeﬃcient is in ase cre in e2 the change the diﬀerential to the actual distance.5. For example in cylindrical coordinates. As in almost all cases. the proper notation for these coeﬃcients. The general Orthogonal is r.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A.

1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 273 (A.1. Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) . .43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A.A.45) The following table showing the diﬀerent values for selected orthogonal system. 2 φ= + + Fig.44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A.6. -A.

It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference. ﬁrst derivative. it is possible to deﬁne fraction of derivative. If the highest derivative is ﬁrst order the equation is referred as ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation etc. A.46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 .47) 4 Note that mathematically.1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations As expect. Note that the derivatives are integers e. .2. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A.274 APPENDIX A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 . The ﬁrst order equations have several forms and there is no one solution ﬁt all but families of solutions. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe. second derivative etc4 . du . The most general form is f u.1. ODE are categorized into linear and non-linear equations. Ordinary diﬀerential equations are deﬁned by the order of the highest derivative. However.t dt =0 (A.g. the ﬁrst ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation. It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table -A.

In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A.e) .I. The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time.c) Equation (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A. (1. Example A.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.I.47) can be simpliﬁed to the ﬁrst form as du = F (t.2. u) dt 275 (A.b) (1.c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1.I. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1.I.b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1. u) = X(t) U (u).A.2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A.d) (1.I.48) can be written as F (t.2.48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A.I.50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s).48) A. The initial condition is the value the function has at some points.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A.I.

54) Using the diﬀerentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full diﬀerential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A.1 APPENDIX A.58) (A.276 A. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.57) e R g(x)dx (A. Thus equation (A.2. This family is part of a linear equations.59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A.2.53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A. .53).55) (A.52) (A.

III.60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods. This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A.2. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation.62) Example A. .2: Find the solution for a typical problem in ﬂuid mechanics (the problem of Stoke ﬂow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A.60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A.3 Non–Linear Equations Non-Linear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination. One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 .2.A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 277 Example A.

c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is t3 − 3 −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1.III. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1.e) private solution u= e e t3 3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A. t) = f (a u.63) into t dv + v = f (1.III.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.278 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A.b) equation (1.III.c) (1.3. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A.d) (1. v) dt (A. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function.2.III.4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.III.III.65) Example A. The solution is then ln |t| = dv +c f (1.IV.III.a) . a t) dt (A.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1.b) Using the deﬁnition (1. For this case. v) − v (A.63) for any real positive a.

e) A.b) .c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1.IV.A. this kind of class of equations appears all over this book.IV. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A.2.3.V.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1.2.IV.c) (1.IV. In fact.a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1.V.d) (1.67) g(u) Example A.b) (1. End Solution 279 (1.66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).2 Variables Separable Equations In ﬂuid mechanics and many other ﬁelds there are diﬀerential equations that referred to variables separable equations.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral. For this sort equations.IV.IV.

71) (A.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c.V.2. A. There are additional methods such numerical analysis.d) End Solution A.68) In a way. One such case is the second order ODE with constant coeﬃcients. Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix.3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1. variable substitutions. and perturbation methods.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into ﬁrst order ODE. Practically. transformation (like Laplace transform).c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1.V.V.72) .V. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1.280 APPENDIX A.3. The simplest equations are with constant coeﬃcients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A.c) Rearranging equation (1. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A. the second order ODE is transferred to ﬁrst order by substituting the one linear operator to two ﬁrst linear operators.2. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A.

a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1. and −5.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x). The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions.b) are −2. where L is Linear operator.1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero.4. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A.75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 281 (A.VI. .c) A.VI.VI. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A.74) Example A. Thus.b) (1.A. This fact can be used to solve non-homogeneous equation.73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A.VI.2.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1.2. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1.

u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A. Hence. u.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A.c) (1. ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.VII. A.79) . The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u.2.a) (1.VII.7: Solve the non-homogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1.d) A.5.2.282 APPENDIX A.78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations).VII.78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (ﬁrst order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation.78) then the equation (A.VII.

It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong eﬀect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems.VIII.2.80) Using the ﬁrst order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du 2 3 3 arcsin u0 2 −u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A.VIII.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1.VIII. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 283 The integration results in a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods.VIII. ﬁrst with initial integration and second with the second integration. Example A.A.VIII. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time.d) Equation (1. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 . 6 This .81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.VIII.b) After the integration equation (1.VIII.a) becomes u du = sin d (1.a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.

5.85) + c2 (A.284 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.88) .87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two diﬀerent constants because the plus minus signs.82) where a is constant.2.2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order diﬀerential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative. End Solution A.2.86) A. u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A.84) which can be solved with the previous methods.5. d dt u du dt =0 (A. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.

90) +u=0 (1.A. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order diﬀerential equation. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium. the linear third-order diﬀerential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg.b) (1. Example A.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1.2. Thus.IX. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 285 (A.IX.c) A. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coeﬃcient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 .89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well. 1999. This kind of diﬀerential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation There are situations where ﬂuid mechanics7 leads to third order diﬀerential equation.2. The solution to constant coeﬃcients is relatively simple and will be presented here. Solving Third Order Linear Diﬀerential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The .9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A.91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium.IX. The general form for constant coeﬃcient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A.

all the roots are real and at least two are identical. one root is real and two roots are complex. if D > 0. In the last case where D < 0.286 APPENDIX A.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle. Thus. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution.92) (A. θ.93) (A. all the roots are real and unequal.97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the deﬁnitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A. When the characteristic equation solution has three diﬀerent real roots the solution of the diﬀerential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A.101) .94) (A. From a mathematical point of view. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A.99) (A.96) T = and where the D is deﬁned as 3 R− √ D (A. (A. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist. For the case D = 0.98) (A.95) R+ √ D.

107) (A.108) . A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 287 (A. For the case of only one real root.2.103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root.102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots.106) are the solutions of (A.109) (A. For example. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A. the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A.104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A. for constant coeﬃcients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.105).104).2. the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A. The solution of equation (A.A. Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order.106) and equation (A.7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial diﬀerential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order. Generally.107) was discussed earlier. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler.

g.X.a) (1. roots are similar and some real and diﬀerent e.4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1.g. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi . Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t)) End Solution (1.288 APPENDIX A.X.g.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Diﬀerential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t Example A.d) . MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and diﬀerent e.X.b) With the roots of the equation (1.10: Solve the ﬁfth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0 (1.g.X. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and diﬀerent e.c) The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number.g. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some diﬀerent e. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.2 s3.X. s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e.

. The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the ﬂow (the solution). When the discriminant . Generally. axy . The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 289 A.A. . ux . Normally. the same can be done for a second-order PDE. . Many situations in ﬂuid mechanics can be described by PDE equations.2. The general second-order PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDE) are diﬀerential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables.110) To be continue A. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions. this characterization is done for for second order.3. Equation (A. ux = ∂u . Generally. For example.) = 0 (A. ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”.112) The coeﬃcients axx . the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A. sometimes similar deﬁnition can be applied for other order. One example of such equation is heat equation. Partial diﬀerential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative.113) In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classiﬁed are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy .112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A. The physical meaning of the these deﬁnition is that these equations have diﬀerent characterizations. Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y. The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation. when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic. Example of such equation is F (ut . However. As one might expect PDE are harder to solve.111) Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it.

the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book.118) Equations (A. However. A.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition.115) The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A. Hence..116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A.1 First-order equations First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + .119) and (A. The ﬁrst equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A. .116) Rearranging equation (A. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal ﬂow and subsonic ﬂow and sub critical open channel ﬂow. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations.117) A possible way the equation (A.3.114) The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct. An example of ﬁrst order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A. In ﬂuid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic ﬂow or in supper critical ﬂow in open channel ﬂow. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant.119) (A.290 APPENDIX A. the constant is denoted as λ and with this deﬁnition the PDE is reduced into two ODE. ∂x ∂x (A..

sin2 α = 4. a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2 β a c γ b α Fig. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 3-6. TRIGONOMETRY 291 A. . tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. and opposite angles α. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. tan(α + β) = 6. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or . c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5.A. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2.7. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4. consider the triangle with sides of length a. The tringle angles sides.by ﬁnding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2 α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. and c. b. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3. respectively 5. -A. cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. and γ. β. sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1.4 Trigonometry These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modiﬁcation 1.4. sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2. Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1.

MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS .292 APPENDIX A.

20. 170 Convective acceleration. 89 Cylindrical Coordinates. 175 D D’Alembert paradox. 105 Diﬀerential analysis. 186 Energy equation Frictionless Flow. 191 dilettante. 69–71 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 228 Flow out tank. 192 Add mass. 91 . 193 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 175 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 253 Horizontal ﬂow. 21 buoyancy.SUBJECTS INDEX 293 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 11. 268 H Harmonic function. 172 Flow regime map. 69. 57. 249 C Co–current ﬂow. 204 Correction factor. 268 horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 235. 253 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 94–96 buoyant force. 170 Conservative force. 3 d‘Alembertian Operator. 267 Deformable control volume. 236 Free expansion. 234 Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem. 160. 59 Boundary Layer. 149 Average Velocity Integral Analysis. 64. 57. 146 B Bar–Meir’s instability. 68 Correction factor for averaged velocity. 251 Annular ﬂow. 162 Averaged kinetic energy. 235 Compressibility factor. 185 Rotating Coordinate System. 135 bulk modulus. 160 Arc shape. 69. 7. 102 F First Law of Thermodynamics. 191 External forces. 183 Steady State. 90 Archimedes. 237 E Energy conservation. 60 Average Momentum. 122 Density ratio. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 185 Convection. 12 Add Force. 69. 253 Cut–out shapes. 71 eﬀective. 249 Flow ﬁrst mode. 169 Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 11 Body force. 60. 235 Hydrostatic pressure. 169 Energy Equation Accelerated System. 175 Averaged momentum energy. 192 Add momentum. 183 Euler equations. 268 Double choking phenomenon. 192 Bingham’s model. 160. 185 Linear accelerate System. 11 Divergence Theorem. 8. 3. 252 Counter–current ﬂow. 73 Conduction. 232 Flow regimes in one pipe. 58.

238 R Radiation. 234 Local acceleration. 104 Micro ﬂuids. 182 L Lapse rate. 275 Integral analysis big picture. 122 Non–Linear Equations. 248 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 274 Liquid phase. 156 S Scalar function. 247 N Navier-Stokes equations. 183 Second viscosity coeﬃcient. 145 Momentum conservation. 231 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 268 Rocket mechanics. 204 Momentum equation Accelerated system. 170 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 71. 147 index notation. 71 Leibniz integral rule. 132 Divergence Theorem. constant of integration. 112. 64 Return path for ﬂow regimes. 216 Segregated equations. 1. 282 shear stress. 277 Normal stress. 217 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 225 Concentric cylinders. 11 M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 63 Mass velocity. 269 Oscillating manometer. 209 Moving boundary. 212 I Ideal gas. 103 Neutral stable. 249 Poiseuille ﬂow. 249 Momentum Conservation. 250 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 64 Initial condition. 228 Polynomial function. 252 purely viscous ﬂuids. 74 Linear operations. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Neutral moment Zero moment. 66 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 92 Pressure center. 114 Newtonian ﬂuids. 235 Real gas. 235 Orthogonal Coordinates. 219 Moving surface. 60 Pneumatic conveying. 84 pseudoplastic. 204 Lockhart martinelli model. 237 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 113. 8 No-slip condition. 111 Piezometric pressure. 11 O Open channel ﬂow.294 APPENDIX A. 246 P Pendulum action. 6 Slip condition range. 219 kinematic viscosity. 240 Metacentric point. 132 Limitation of the integral approach. 219 Moving surface Free surface. 88 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 140 small picture. 140 Isotropic viscosity. 103. 220 Multi–phase ﬂow. 58. 211 K Kinematic boundary condition. 219 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 191 . 181 Linear acceleration. 218 Non–deformable control volume.

206. 248 Thermal pressure. 102 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 181 Total moment. 69. 241 U Unstable condition. 241 Reversal ﬂow. 206 Cartesian coordinates. 235 295 W Watson’s method. 71. 216 Thermodynamical pressure. 236 Sutherland’s equation.SUBJECTS INDEX Solid–liquid ﬂow. 241 Liquid holdup. 110 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 264 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 216 thixotropic. 241 Void Fraction. 208 transformation. 11 Torricelli’s equation. 163 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 60 Variables Separation 1st equation. 252 Vertical ﬂow. 90. 69 stability analysis. 79 Transition to continuous. 205 symmetry. 73 Stability analysis. 234 T Tank emptying parameters. 267 Westinghouse patent. 247 Solid–solid ﬂow. 97 Turbomachinary. 235 Stress tensor. 241 Wetness fraction. 69 Unsteady State Momentum. 155 V Vapor pressure. 241 Quality of dryness. 95 cubic. 203 Superﬁcial velocity. 234 Spherical coordinates. 179 Terminal velocity. 145 Triangle shape. 263 Vectors Algebra. 19 Wave Operator. 254 Slip velocity. 12 Vectors. 279 . 253 Stable condition. 205 substantial derivative.

191 Nikuradse. 132 Lockhart. 268 N Navier. 4 Westinghouse. 268 V von Karma. 232 M Manning. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. 225 Poisson. Jean Louis. 191 e Duckler. 4 O Olivier Vallee. 285 P Pierre-Simon Laplace. 4 H Helmholtz.296 APPENDIX A. Simon-Denis. 4 Gauss. 232. 191 F Fanning. 4 T Taitle. Osborne.. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 234 K Kutta-Joukowski. George Gabriel. 232 Meye. 112 Reynolds. 112 G Ganguillet. Carl Friedrich. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 245 D Darcy. 232 Taylor. 4. 4 Stokes. 268 Poiseuille.I. Hermann von. 4 C Cichilli. 4 Blasiu. 4 Froude. 4 W Weisbach. Claude–Louis. 4 Martinelli. Barr´. 4 L Leibniz. 181 S Stanton. 4 de Saint Venant. 4 . 245 R Rayleigh. 191 Prandtl. G. 132 Rose. 4 Blasius.

- Read and print without ads
- Download to keep your version
- Edit, email or read offline

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

CANCEL

OK

You've been reading!

NO, THANKS

OK

scribd

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->