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Genick Bar–Meir, Ph. D. 2729 West Jarvis Ave Chicago, IL 60645-1335 email:barmeir at gmail.com

Copyright © 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, and 2006 by Genick Bar-Meir See the ﬁle copying.fdl or copyright.tex for copying conditions. Version (0.2.9.1 October 11, 2010)

‘We are like dwarfs sitting on the shoulders of giants”

from The Metalogicon by John in 1159

CONTENTS

Nomenclature GNU Free Documentation License . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . 2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . . . 8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . . . ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents How to contribute to this book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steven from artofproblemsolving.com . . . . . . . . . . . Dan H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard Hackbarth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . John Herbolenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eliezer Bar-Meir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Henry Schoumertate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Your name here . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions . . . . . Version 0.1.8 August 6, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pages 189 size 2.6M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Version 0.1 April 22, 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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xv xxi xxii xxiii xxiii xxiv xxvi xxvi xxvii xxvii xxvii xxvii xxviii xxix xxix xxix xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxxi xli xli xli

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iv

CONTENTS pages 151 size 1.3M . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlvii Open Channel Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlvii

1 Introduction 1.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? . . . . . 1.2 Brief History . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Kinds of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 Shear Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . 1.5.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids . . 1.5.3 Kinematic Viscosity . . . . 1.5.4 Estimation of The Viscosity 1.5.5 Bulk Modulus . . . . . . . 1.6 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . 1.6.1 Wetting of Surfaces . . . .

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1 1 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 12 20 22 24 33 33 41 41 43 43 44 44 44 45 47 51 52 53 53 54 57 57 57 59 59 60 64 67 71

2 Review of Thermodynamics 2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Review of Mechanics 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body . . . . . 3.2 Center of Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Actual Center of Mass . . . . 3.2.2 Aproximate Center of Area . . 3.3 Moment of Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass . . 3.3.2 Moment of Inertia for Area . . 3.3.3 Examples of Moment of Inertia 3.3.4 Product of Inertia . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia . . . . 3.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . 3.5 Angular Momentum and Torque . . . 3.5.1 Tables of geometries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4 Fluids Statics 4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field . . . . . . . . 4.3.2 Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.4 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations 4.3.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density .

CONTENTS 4.4 4.3.6 Liquid Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fluid in a Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System . 4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Fluid Forces on Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces . . . . 4.5.2 Force on Curved Surfaces . . . . . . . . Buoyancy and Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Surface Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rayleigh–Taylor Instability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

v . 73 . 74 . 74 . 76 . 78 . 78 . 88 . 94 . 102 . 112 . 112

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4.6

4.7

I

Integral Analysis

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121 121 122 123 125 125 132 134 140 143 145 145 145 146 147 147 148 152 155 156 163 164 167 169 169 181 182 183

5 Mass Conservation 5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Control Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 Non Deformable Control Volume . . . . . 5.3.2 Constant Density Fluids . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Examples For Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . 5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship 5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation . . . . . .

6 Momentum Conservation 6.1 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 External Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Momentum Governing Equation . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System . . 6.1.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow . 6.2 Momentum Equation Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow 6.2.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State . . . . 6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . 6.4.1 Qualitative Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Energy Conservation 7.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . 7.2 Limitation of Integral Approach . . . . . 7.3 Approximation of Energy Equation . . . 7.3.1 Energy Equation in Steady State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi 7.4 7.3.2 Energy 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4

CONTENTS Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State . Equation in Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate . . . . . . . . Linear Accelerated System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System . . . . . Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow . . . . . 183 185 185 186 186 188

II

Diﬀerential Analysis

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189

191 191 192 195 197 202 202 203 204 208 218 218 222 231 231 231 232 233 234 235 239 240 243 244 246 247 248 250 251 253 254 261

8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 Mass Conservation Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3 Conservation of General Quantity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.3.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations 8.3.2 Examples of Generalized of Quantities . . . . . . . . . . 8.4 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.6.1 Boundary Conditions Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) . . . . . . . 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes . . . . . . . . . 9.5.1 Co–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.6.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions . . . . . 9.7 Homogeneous Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.1 Pressure Loss Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.7.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8 Solid–Liquid Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.8.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL . . . . 9.8.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity 9.9 Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.9.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow . . . . . . . . . . . 9.9.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . .1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations . .3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations . . . .2 Variables Separation or Segregation . . . .6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Trigonometry . . . . . .4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . A. . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Forth and Higher Order ODE . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 .2. . . .3 Non–Linear Equations . . . . A. . . . . .2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) . . . A. . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . .2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . .1 Vectors . . . .8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation A. . . . . .1 First-order equations . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS A Mathematics For Fluid Mechanics A. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1. A. . . vii 263 263 264 266 268 274 274 275 277 280 282 285 287 289 289 290 291 Index 293 Subjects Index . . .1. . . A. . . . . . A. . . . . . . . .2. .5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Authors Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 Vector Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . .

viii CONTENTS .

. . . Water viscosity as a function temperature. . . . . .7 3. . .10 1. .17 1. . . . . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. . . . . . Nitrogen and Argon viscosity. . . . . .7 1. . . . . . 2 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 12 15 17 18 22 24 25 26 29 29 42 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 ix . . . . . .5 3. . The schematic that explains the summation of moment of inertia. . . Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. . . . . . . . . . Thin body center of mass/area schematic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.3 3. . .14 1. . . . . Description of liquid surface. . . . . Description of rectangular in x–y plane. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . Description of how the center of mass is calculated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface tension control volume analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 1.16 1. . .5 1. . . . . . . . .8 Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. . . . . The raising height as a function of the radius. . . Schematics to describe the shear stress in ﬂuid mechanics. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 1. . . . . . . Air viscosity as a function of the temperature. . Density as a function of the size of sample. . . . . . . . . . . Cylinder with an element for calculation moment of inertia . . . . . . . . . .4 1. . . . . . A square element for the calculations of inertia. . .13 1. . Forces in Contact angle. . . . . . . .3 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . .2 3. . . . . . .12 1. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear stress. . . . The raising height as a function of the radii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 3. . .LIST OF FIGURES 1. . . . . . Description of the extinguish nozzle .9 1.11 1. . . . . Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. . .1 3.18 3. The shear stress as a function of the shear rate. . . . . The diﬀerence of power ﬂuids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Description of wetting and non–wetting ﬂuids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.16 4. . . . . . Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane. . . . . . . . .27 4.30 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 4. . . . . . . . .23 4. . .13 4. . . . . . . . A cart slide on inclined plane. . . . . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating bodies. .29 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 49 49 50 52 57 59 60 61 62 66 69 71 75 75 76 76 77 78 80 80 82 83 86 88 88 90 90 91 92 93 93 95 95 96 102 102 102 104 105 105 106 108 Description of a ﬂuid element in accelerated system. . . Polynomial shape dam description. . .34 4. . . . . . . . . . .22 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .moment of inertia and Triangle for example 3. . . . . . . . . The eﬀects of liquid movement on the GM . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 4. . . .26 4. . area . . Schematic of a thin wall ﬂoating body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic angular angle to explain example 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic to explain the angular angle.12 3. .9 3. . . . . . Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density. . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body. . . . . . Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.4 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 4. .33 4. .32 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 4. . . . . . . Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. . . .28 4. . . .10 3. . . . . . Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis. . . . . . . . .13 4. . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart.31 4. . . . . . . . . . . Moment on arc element around Point “O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 4. . . . . . . . Description of parabola . . . . . . . . . .18 4. . . Schematic of submerged area. .38 The ratio of the moment of inertia 2D to 3D. . . . .11 3. . .1 4. . . . . Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body.14 4. . . . Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long. . . . Moment of inertia for rectangular . . . . . . .17 4. . . Schematic of sensitive measurement device.5 4. . The eﬀects of multi layers density on static forces. . . Schematic of gas measurement utilizing the “U” tube. . . . . . . . . Product of inertia for triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle. . . . . The forces on curved area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Area above the dam arc subtract triangle. . . . Stability of two triangles put tougher. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 4. . . . .11 4. . . . . . . . . . . . The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 4. . . . . Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. . . . . . . . .36 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure. . .25 4. . . . . . . . . . . LIST OF FIGURES . . . .12 4. . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. . . . . . . . .15 4. . Hydrostatic pressure when there is compressibility in the liquid phase. .20 4. . . . . . . Dam is a part of a circular shape. . .21 4. . . . The varying gravity eﬀects on density and pressure. . .x 3. . . . . . . . . .” .35 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. The general forces acting on submerged area. . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular area under pressure. . . . The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder. . . . . . . . . . . . . center of . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 4. . . . .

. . Schematics of velocities at the interface . . . . . . . . . . . Height of the liquid for example 5. . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . Schematic of a tank seating on wheels . . . . Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux . . . . Flow out of un symmetrical tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Toy Sled pushed by the liquid jet . . . . . . xi 109 110 112 113 114 116 117 121 122 123 124 127 130 135 140 141 142 143 144 146 149 151 153 154 155 158 159 163 165 168 170 172 173 182 192 194 196 197 205 206 208 The explaination for the direction relative to surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mass ﬂow due to temperature diﬀerence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Boat for example 5. . Piston control volume . . .6 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 5. . . . Boundary Layer control mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discharge from a Large Container . . . .4 5. . . . . . . . .8 5. .4 . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . Stress diagram on a tetrahedron shape .5 8. Mass ﬂow in coating process .2 8. . . . . . .7 6. . . . . . .14 . . . . . .6 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nozzle schematic for forces calculations . . Propeller schematic to explain the change of momentum . . .40 4. . . .4 6.41 4. . . The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The work on the control volume . . . Control volume usage to calculate local averaged velocity Control volume and system in the motion .12 6.3 8.44 4. . . Filling of the bucket and choices of the control volumes .9 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 6. . .3 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 5. Description of depression to explain the instability. .7 Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body. . . . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 6. .10 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 4. . . . . . . Description of depression to explain the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. . . . Diagram to analysis the shear stress tensor . . . . . . . The cross section of the interface for max liquid. . . . . .7 5. . . .43 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three liquids layers under rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . Control volume and system in motion . . . . .1 5. . . .4 8. .11 5. . . . . . Schematics of ﬂow in a pipe with varying density . . . . The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . Calculations of GM for abrupt shape body. . . . . . . . . . . The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram Nozzle schematics water rocket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. . . . . . Schematics of area impinged by a jet . . . . . . .2 7. . . Kinetic Energy and Averaged Velocity Flow in an oscillating manometer . . . . .3 6. . . .45 5. . . . . . . .11 7. . . . . . . . . . A rocket with a moving control volume . . . A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. . . . . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 5. . . . . . . . . .LIST OF FIGURES 4. . Velocity for a circular shape . . A new control volume to ﬁnd the velocity in discharge tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .16 One dimensional ﬂow with shear between plates . . . .15 Flow between two plates top moving . . . . . . . . Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. . . . . . . . . . .2 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . .3 9. . . . . . 9.11 9. . . The general Orthogonal with unit vectors . . . . . . . . . .16 A. . . .4 A. (b) Deformations of the straight angle triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flood in vertical pipe. . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii LIST OF FIGURES 8. . . . . . . . . . .6 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Flow of Liquid between concentric cylinders . . . . Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes with the liquids ﬂow is faster. . . .4 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . . . 8. .12 9. . . . . . . . . . . . The terminal velocity that left the solid particles. The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. . . .3 A. Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender The tringle angles sides . . .5 9. . . . . . . . . .15 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Flow in kerosene lamp . . . . . . Image of counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas/solid–gas conﬁgurations. . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 A. . . . . . . A ﬂow map to explain the horizontal counter–current ﬂow. . . .7 9. . . . (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular . . . . . . . . .9 9. . . . . . . . . . . 8. . 8. The right hand rule . . A diagram to explain the ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. . A dimensional vertical ﬂow map low gravity against gravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 The control volume in pipe ﬂow . . . . Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spherical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . . Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the liquids ﬂow is very slow. .6 9. . . . . . . . .9 Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations . . . . . .8 9. .5 A. . . . . Cylindrical Coordinate System . . . . . . . . . Counter–current ﬂow in a can. .2 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Deformations of diﬀerent rectangles . . . . .14 9. . . . . . . . . . . Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. . . .13 9. Vector in Cartesian coordinates system . . . . . .10 9. . . . . . .7 .13 Flow driven by surface tension . . . . . . . . . . . .12 1–Dimensional free surface . . . . . . . . . . 210 211 213 213 213 214 219 221 222 222 224 225 228 233 235 236 236 237 238 239 249 250 251 252 252 253 254 254 260 263 264 270 271 272 273 291 Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. . . . . . . .11 Linear strain of the element . . . . . . . . General forces diagram to calculated the in a two dimension geometry.

LIST OF TABLES 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 1. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces . . . .1 3. continue . . . Moments of Inertia full shape. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 xiii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . Viscosity of selected gases . . . .7 2. . . . . Bulk modulus for selected materials . . xxxviii Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients . . . . . . . . . .6 1. . 13 13 14 15 20 25 31 32 38 55 56 Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] . . . . . . . . . The surface tension for selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Books Under Potto Project . . . . . . .3 1.7 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 3. . . . . Properties at the critical stage . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1. . . . . . . . . . . .2 1. . . . . . . . . . . . The contact angle for air/water with selected materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) . . Viscosity of selected liquids . . . . . . . .

xiv LIST OF TABLES .

11).43). page 33 M µ µ0 F ext U Ξ A a Bf c. page 146 Units length. page 12 External forces by non–ﬂuids means. see equation (4. page 145 Martinelli parameter.17).0). see equation (2. see equation (2. see equation (9.9). Cp Cv EU Eu Angular Momentum. page 57 Body force.6). page 163 viscosity at input temperature T. see equation (2.3). page 122 Speciﬁc pressure heat.. see equation (2. see equation (2.17). see equation (2. page 37 Internal energy.38). see equation (6.1).117).7). see equation (5. page 35 subscribe for control volume. see equation (6. page 12 reference viscosity at reference temperature.26).v. page 147 The velocity taken with the direction.22). page 37 Speciﬁc volume heat. see equation (4. see equation (1.23). see equation (6.0). see equation (2. page 88 The acceleration of object or system. see equation (1.1). page 34 Internal Energy per unit mass. page 34 xv . page 37 The shear stress Tenser.NOMENCLATURE ¯ R τ Universal gas constant. page 247 The area of surface. Ti0 . see equation (6.

page 34 the coordinate in z direction. see equation (3. see equation (2. page 12 Torque. see equation (3. see equation (2.13).4).2). see equation (2. see equation (2.85). page 59 Subscribe says. page 36 the ratio of the speciﬁc heats. see equation (1. page 12 input temperature in degrees Kelvin. see equation (4.1.14).6). page 53 LIST OF TABLES Patmos Atmospheric Pressure. page 34 The work done by the system between state 1 and state 2. page 34 The gravitation constant.42).24).18). page 122 .0). page 37 Fluid thermal conductivity. see equation (4. page 36 Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1. page 36 Speciﬁc enthalpy. see equation (5.0). see equation (1. see equation (2. see equation (4. page 72 general Body force. page 34 Work per unit mass.27).40). page 57 Enthalpy. see equation (7. see equation (2.3). see equation (1.62). see equation (2. page 12 velocity . page 80 q Q12 R S Suth Tτ Ti0 Tin U w W12 z says Energy per unit mass. page 34 Speciﬁc gas constant. page 34 The energy transfered to the system between state 1 and state 2.6). see equation (2. page 170 Angular momentum.2).17).18).2). see equation (2.17).17). page 54 reference temperature in degrees Kelvin. page 38 Entropy of the system. see equation (2.xvi Ei G gG H h k kT L System energy at state i. see equation (4. see equation (2.

Add example. Add to the appendix the diﬀerentiation of vector operations.9 M 280 pages) add example to Mechanical Chapter and some spelling corrected.6 March 10. 2010 (2.2. Improve the emphasis macro for the important equation and useful equation.9 Sep 20.3 M 338 pages) Initial release of the diﬀerential equations chapter. xvii . 2010 (3.The Book Change Log Version 0. Correct the ideal gas relationship typo thanks to Michal Zadrozny.1 Oct 11.9.2. Minor correction to to the wording in page 11 viscosity density issue (thanks to Prashant Balan).2. change to the new empheq format and improve cylinder ﬁgure. 2010 (3.3 M 344 pages) Change the emphasis equations to new style in Thermo chapter. Add example to dif chap on concentric cylinders poiseuille ﬂow. Version 0. Version 0.

2.9 Dec 01. English corrections. 2010 (2. 2010 (2.4 March 01.3 Jan 01. English corrections. Add the macro to improve emphases equation thanks to Steven from www. Some additions to mass conservation chapter on averaged velocity. Additions to the mathematical appendix on variables separation in second order ode equations.artofproblemsolving. Additions to the mathematical appendix on vector algebra. Add Reynold’s Transform explanation.6 M 219 pages) The mass conservation chapter was released. Two open questions were released.1.2. Some additions to momentum conservation chapter.8 M 241 pages) The momentum conservation chapter was released. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0. English corrections. Add the macro protect to insert ﬁgure in lower right corner thanks to Steven from www.com. 2009 (2. Add the macro ekes to equations in examples thanks to Steven from www. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir Version 0.artofproblemsolving.9 M 280 pages) The energy conservation chapter was released. Add the open question concept.xviii LIST OF TABLES Version 0. Corrections to Static Chapter. Thanks to Eliezer Bar-Meir .artofproblemsolving Add example about the the third component of the velocity. Add example on angular rotation to statics chapter.

Improve the doChap scrip to break up the book to chapters. 2008 (1.1 Sep 17.8. .8.3 M 151 pages) Fix the English in the introduction chapter.5 Nov 01.8a July 5. Add an example to mechanics chapter.1. Improve the dwarﬁng macro to allow ﬂexibility with sub title. Add the Rayleigh–Taylor instability.6 Jun 30. (thanks to Tousher). Version 0. Add some examples to static chapter.8 Aug 6. 2009 (2.1.6 M 183 pages) Fixing some long titles issues. Version 0.5 M 203 pages) First true draft for the mass conservation.5 M 197 pages) Continue ﬁxing the long titles issues. Correcting the gas properties tables (thanks to Heru and Micheal) Move the gas tables to common area to all the books.LIST OF TABLES xix Version 0. Improve the Index (thanks to Irene). Add the ﬁrst draft of the temperature-velocity diagram to the Therm’s chapter.1. Remove the multiphase chapter (it is not for public consumption yet).1. 2009 (2.4 M 189 pages) Add the chapter on introduction to muli–phase ﬂow Again additional improvement to the index (thanks to Irene). Version 0.1. 2008 (2. 2009 (2. Version 0.

xx LIST OF TABLES Version 0. 2008 (1. The mechanics chapter was released. 2008 Version 0. 2008 (1.1. viscosity and other properties of ﬂuid.1. Version 0.1 May 8. Version 0. Fix minor issues (English) in the introduction chapter.1 M 111 pages) Major English corrections for the three chapters.4 M 149 pages) Add the introduction.1a April 23. Minor corrections for all three chapters. The static chapter was released (the most extensive and detailed chapter). 2008 (1. Fix very minor issues (English) in the static chapter.5 Jun 5. 2008 The Thermodynamics chapter was released. Version 0. Add the product of inertia to mechanics chapter.5a Jun 11.1a April 23. .4 M 155 pages) Add the constant table list for the introduction chapter.1.

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etc. date. I am indebted to all those who have given freely of their own knowledge. time. Any and all contributions are gratefully accepted. contact info. This is a copyrighted work: it is not in the public domain! If you wish to cite portions of this book in a work of your own. Dec. Credits All entries have been arranged in alphabetical order of surname (hopefully. Contact at: barmeir at gmail. Please understand that when I classify a contribution as ”minor. Minor contributions (typo corrections. you must follow the same guidelines as for any other GDL copyrighted work.CONTRIBUTOR LIST How to contribute to this book As a copylefted work.) are listed by name only for reasons of brevity.com Date(s) of contribution(s): June 2005. this book is open to revisions and expansions by any interested parties. 2009 xxix .com Steven from artofproblemsolving. etc. Major contributions are listed by individual name with some detail on the nature of the contribution(s). just smaller in the sense of less text changed.” it is in no way inferior to the eﬀort or value of a ”major” contribution. and resources to make this a better book! Date(s) of contribution(s): 1999 to present Nature of contribution: Original author. The only ”catch” is that credit must be given where credit is due.

Your name here Date(s) of contribution(s): Month and year of contribution Nature of contribution: Insert text here. Olson Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English. John Herbolenes Date(s) of contribution(s): August 2009 Nature of contribution: Provide some example for the static chapter. Contact at: my email@provider. Dan H. Richard Hackbarth Date(s) of contribution(s): April 2008 Nature of contribution: Some discussions about chapter on mechanics and correction of English.xxx LIST OF TABLES Nature of contribution: LaTeX formatting. Eliezer Bar-Meir Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009. Nature of contribution: In 2009 creating the exEq macro to have diﬀerent counter for example. help on building the useful equation and important equation macros. Henry Schoumertate Date(s) of contribution(s): Nov 2009 Nature of contribution: Discussion on the mathematics of Reynolds Transforms.net . describing how you contributed to the book. Dec 2009 Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Mass. Nature of contribution: Correct many English mistakes Momentum.

(Nov 2010) . January 2008.CREDITS xxxi Typo corrections and other ”minor” contributions R. review of statics and thermo chapters. Tousher Yang April 2008. help with the original img macro and other ( LaTeX issues).38) by Michal Zadrozny. (Nov 2010) Corretion to wording in viscosity density Prashant Balan. Gupta. Corretion to equation (2.

xxxii LIST OF TABLES .

These models have been extended by several research groups (needless to say with large research grants). this author’s views had changed and the virtue of the practical part of any model becomes the essential part of his ideas. Bar-Meir developed models that explained several manufacturing processes such the rapid evacuation of gas from containers.D. the critical piston velocity in a partially ﬁlled chamber (related to hydraulic jump). Dr. British industry. Bar– 1 Where the mathematicians were able only to prove that the solution exists. it was commonly believed and taught that there is only weak and strong shock and it is continue by Prandtl–Meyer function. Bar-Meir was mainly interested in elegant models whether they have or not a practical applicability. in GM. application of supply and demand to rapid change power system and etc.E. Eckert. and Canada. In his early part of his professional life. These models are based on analytical solution to a family of equations1 . He developed models for Mass Transfer in high concentration that became a building blocks for many other models. he spends time writing books (there are already three very popular books) and softwares for the POTTO project (see Potto Prologue). R. Moreover.G. In the area of compressible ﬂow. Bar-Meir was the last student of the late Dr. Spain. Currently. the author’s models were used in numerical works. books and software. Now.About This Author Genick Bar-Meir holds a Ph. xxxiii . and the CICYT and the European Commission provides 1FD97-2333 grants for minor aspects of that models. The author enjoys to encourage his students to understand the material beyond the basic requirements of exams. the Spanish Comision Interministerial provides grants TAP97-0489 and PB98-0007. in Mechanical Engineering from University of Minnesota and a Master in Fluid Mechanics from Tel Aviv University. As the change in the view occurred. All the models have practical applicability. Much of his time has been spend doing research in the ﬁeld of heat and mass transfer (related to renewal energy issues) and this includes ﬂuid mechanics related to manufacturing processes and design. For example.

All the previous models for the ﬂooding phenomenon did not have a physical explanation to the dryness. He also constructed and explained many new categories for two ﬂow regimes. Engineers have constructed design that based on this conclusion. In his book “Basics of Fluid Mechanics”. Bar-Meir demonstrated that common Prandtl–Meyer explanation violates the conservation of mass and therefor the turn must be around a ﬁnite radius. He built a model to explain the ﬂooding problem (two phase ﬂow) based on the physics. Bar-Meir demonstrated that ﬂuids must have wavy surface when the materials ﬂow together. The author lives with his wife and three children. the author just know to learn quickly. A past project of his was building a four stories house. . The common explanation to Prandtl–Meyer function shows that ﬂow can turn in a sharp corner. The author spent years working on the sea (ships) as a engine sea oﬃcer but now the author prefers to remain on solid ground. he often feels clueless about computers and programing. While he writes his programs and does other computer chores.xxxiv LIST OF TABLES Meir discovered the analytical solution for oblique shock and showed that there is a quiet buﬀer between the oblique shock and Prandtl–Meyer. practically from scratch. He also build analytical solution to several moving shock cases. He described and categorized the ﬁlling and evacuating of chamber by compressible ﬂuid in which he also found analytical solutions to cases where the working ﬂuid was ideal gas. While he is known to look like he knows about many things. The author’s explanations on missing diameter and other issues in fanno ﬂow and ““naughty professor’s question”” are used in the industry.

one of this author’s sages.law.wikipedia. Ashcroﬀ (see http://cyber. but also by coming to understand and be able to solve 2 After the last decision of the Supreme Court in the case of Eldred v. It has become very clear to the author and founder of the POTTO Project that this situation must be stopped. It is apparent that writing textbooks especially for college students as a cooperation.harvard. Writing a book in the technical ﬁeld is not the same as writing a novel. As individuals we have to obey the law. judges simply manufacture facts to make the little guy lose and pay for the defense of his work. The Potto Project has far greater goals than simply correcting an abusive Judicial system or simply exposing abusive judges. xxxv . As R. 3 In some sense one can view the encyclopedia Wikipedia as an open content project (see http://en. The writing of a technical book is really a collection of information and practice. the creation of the POTTO Project. is a new idea3 . Hence. punishes the small “entrepreneur” who tries to defend his or her work. It is unacceptable that the price of the college books will be over $150 per book (over 10 hours of work for an average student in The United States).edu/openlaw/eldredvashcroft for more information) copyrights practically remain indeﬁnitely with the holder (not the creator). The second issue that prompted the writing of this book is the fact that we as the public have to deal with a corrupted judicial system.Prologue For The POTTO Project This books series was born out of frustrations in two respects. the corrupted court system defends the “big” guys and on the other hand. like an open source.org/wiki/Main Page). one should increase wisdom. particularly the copyright law with the “inﬁnite2 ” time with the copyright holders. said instead of whining about arrogance and incorrectness. The study of technical material isn’t only done by having to memorize the material. The wikipedia is an excellent collection of articles which are written by various individuals. when applied to “small” individuals who are not able to hire a large legal ﬁrm. Kook. There is always someone who can add to the book. On one hand. The ﬁrst issue is the enormous price of college textbooks. However. This project is to increase wisdom and humility.

one also begins to better understand the material. For some authors. especially for family members or relatives and those students lacking funds.uk/bugclub/raiders. Thus.ac. contributing to these books will help one to understand the material better. Whatever the reasons. For others the social part is as simple as a desire to reduce the price of college textbooks. but also students who happened to be doing their homework. The student’s contributions can be done by adding a question and perhaps the solution. The collective material is much richer than any single person can create by himself. Experience has shown that in explaining to others any given subject. the reason is the pure fun of writing and organizing educational material. While one can be as creative as possible. they now have an opportunity to put their notes to use for others. To reach this possibility the collective book idea was created/adapted. they will become the most popular books and the most read books in their respected ﬁeld. The desire to be an author of a well–known book (at least in his/her profession) will convince some to put forth the eﬀort.. The secret of the ants’ power lies in their collective intelligence. These books are written in a similar manner to the open source software 4 see also in Franks. then that contributor will be the copyright holder of that speciﬁc section (even within question/answer sections). When an insect which is blind can be so powerful by networking. Nigel R. In a way. The following example explains this point: The army ant is a kind of carnivorous ant that lives and hunts in the tropics. hunting animals that are even up to a hundred kilograms in weight. For some contributors/authors. One can be successful when one solves as many problems as possible. in the course of their teaching they have found that the textbook they were using contains sections that can be improved or that are not as good as their own notes. The book’s contributor’s names could be written by their sections.xxxvi LIST OF TABLES related problems. there are always others who can see new aspects of or add to the material. It is hoped that because of the open nature of these books.” American Scientist. For example. The answer varies from individual to individual. this method is expected to accelerate the creation of these high quality books. In these cases. While a single ant is not intelligent enough to attack and hunt large prey. the collective power of their networking creates an extremely powerful intelligence to carry out this attack4 .ex. so can we in creating textbooks by this powerful tool. Why would someone volunteer to be an author or organizer of such a book? This is the ﬁrst question the undersigned was asked. The social function can have at least two components. It is not just for experts to contribute. 1989 (see for information http://www. Thus. The author has not found any technique that is more useful for this purpose than practicing the solving of problems and exercises. ”Army Ants: A Collective Intelligence. One component is to come to know and socialize with many in the profession.html) . the writing of or contributing to this kind of books will serve as a social function. 77:139. the popularity of the books should be one of the incentives for potential contributors. the undersigned believes that personal intentions are appropriate and are the author’s/organizer’s private aﬀair. the books on compressible ﬂow and die casting became the most popular books in their respective area. If a contributor of a section in such a book can be easily identiﬁed. For others.

This may merely be the person who decides what will go into the book and what will not (gate keeper). These books should be considered more as a project than to ﬁt the traditional deﬁnition of “plain” books. some errors are possible and expected. the contributions to books can be done by many who are not experts. graphs and etc. Nevertheless.” In this process. these works will have a version number because they are alive and continuously evolving. These books are intended to be “continuous” in the sense that there will be someone who will maintain and improve the books with time (the organizer(s)). For example. Unlike a regular book. Gas Dynamics Calculator (Potto-GDC). other books contain data5 which can be typeset in A LTEX. These data (tables. many algorithms for calculating Fanno ﬂow parameters which are not found in any other book. It is also hoped that others will contribute to the question and answer sections in the book. These books contain innovative ideas which make some chapters the best in the world. Additionally. better discussions or better explanations are all welcome to these books. In addition. Every month people from about 110 diﬀerent countries download these books. The books are used in more than 165 diﬀerent countries around the world. Thus. Even if not complete. Potto has auxiliary materials such as the gas dynamics tables (the largest compressible ﬂow tables collection in the world).CREDITS xxxvii process. The organizer of the book in some instances will be the main author of the work. chapters or sections can be added after the skeleton has been written. . The combined number downloads of these books is over half a million (December 2009) or in a rate of 20. But more than that. the chapters on Fanno ﬂow and Oblique shock contain many original ideas such as the full analytical solution to the oblique shock. NASA Langley Research Center. The book on compressible ﬂow is also used by “young engineers and scientists” in NASA according to Dr. the traditional role of author will be replaced by an organizer who will be the one to compile the book. Farassat. Thus. Potto books on compressible ﬂow and ﬂuid mechanics are used as the main textbook or as a reference book in several universities around the world. while in other cases only the gate keeper. In the last 5 years three textbooks have been constructed which are available for download. etc.000 copies a month. It is hoped that the books will be error-free. contributions can be made from any part of the world by those who wish to translate the book. The undersigned of this document intends to be the organizer/author/coordinator of the projects in the following areas: 5 Data are not copyrighted.) can be redone by anyone who has the time to do it. Someone has to write the skeleton and hopefully others will add “ﬂesh and skin.

0.0.1. etc.0 NSY = Not Started Yet The meaning of the progress is as: The Alpha Stage is when some of the chapters are already in a rough draft.0. The mature stage of a section is when all of the topics in the section are written.0.0. ﬁgures.0 0. in Beta Stage is when all or almost all of the chapters have been written and are at least in a draft stage.0 0. While some terms are deﬁned in a relatively clear fashion. and the Advanced Stage is when all of the basic material is written and all that is left are aspects that are active. other deﬁnitions give merely a hint on the status. The mature stage of a chapter is when all or nearly all the sections are in a mature stage and have a mature bibliography as well as numerous examples for every section.) are already presented.0 0. in Gamma Stage is when all the chapters are written and some of the chapters are in a mature form.0.0 0. but it has roots in the way science progresses.xxxviii Table -1.2 0.1 0.01 TelAviv’notes 0. Books under development in Potto project. However. The idea that a book can be created as a project has mushroomed from the open source software concept.8.4. advanced topics. and special cases. But such a thing is hard to deﬁne and should be enough for this stage.0. LIST OF TABLES Project Name Compressible Flow Die Casting Dynamics Fluid Mechanics Heat Transfer Progress beta alpha NSY alpha NSY Remarks Version 0.1 0. traditionally books have been improved by the same author(s). a process in which books .3 0.0.0 Based on Eckert Availability for Public Download Mechanics Open Channel Flow Statics Strength of Material Thermodynamics Two/Multi ﬂow phases NSY NSY early alpha NSY early alpha NSY ﬁrst chapter 0.0. and all of the examples and data (tables.

Word processors. projects such as the Linux Documentation project demonstrated that books can be written as the cooperative eﬀort of many individuals.e. the Boundary Layer Theory originated6 by Hermann Schlichting but continues to this day. and Microsoft Word software. But more A than that. and perhaps troﬀ. 6 Originally authored by Dr. Writing a textbook is comprised of many aspects. such as OpenOﬃce. have the ability to produce the quality that one expects for A these writings. Further. which include the actual writing of the text. writing examples. There are book(s) that have continued after their author passed away. only LTEX.. any text that is produced by Microsoft and kept in “Microsoft” format are against the spirit of this project In that they force spending money on Microsoft software. creating diagrams and ﬁgures. pieces of material and data can be used by diﬀerent books. Abiword. 7 One can only expect that open source and readable format will be used for this project. are the only ones which have a cross platform ability to produce macros and a uniform feel and quality. i. who passed way some years ago. A new version is created every several years. . However.CREDITS xxxix have a new version every a few years. The text processes. because of the open nature of this project. Schlichting. Again. and writing the A LTEX macros7 which will put the text into an attractive format. These chores can be done independently from each other and by more than one individual. are not appropriate for these projects. especially LTEX. many of whom volunteered to help.

xl LIST OF TABLES .

Prologue For This Book Version 0.3M The topic of ﬂuid mechanics is common to several disciplines: mechanical engineering. Now. This author was bothered by this explanation.1. chemical engineering. number of downloads per month is about 5000 copies. In fact. 2008 pages 151 size 1. The introduction to multi–phase is another example to this quality. The common explanation to the wave existence was that there is always a disturbance which causes instability. The number of downloads of this book results from this quality.1 April 22. it was proven that this wavy interface is created due to the need to satisfy the continuous velocity and shear stress at the interface and not a disturbance. Even in this early development stage. in this version. it is also related to disciplines like industrial engineering. and electrical engineering.8 August 6. he spend time to study the wave phenomenon at the interface of open channel ﬂow. This issue is related to renewal energy of extracting energy from brine solution (think about the Dead Sea. aerospace engineering. 2008 pages 189 size 2. it is very satisfying for the author. the common material is presented and hopefully can be used by all. While the emphasis is somewhat diﬀerent in this book.6M When this author was an undergraduate student. Potto project books are characterized by high quality which marked by presentation of the new developments and clear explanations. and civil engineering. This explanation (on the wavy interface) demonstrates this characteristic of Potto project books. Version 0. One can only admire the wonderful advances done by the xli . While it is a hard work to discover and develop and bring this information to the students. so much energy).

not a traditional topic. . Up to Egret’s book. This book is written in the spirit of my adviser and mentor E. this is the only reply. the previous book. This book is the third book in the series of POTTO project books. there is no known place in world that does not teach according to Eckert’s doctrine. With all the above. It is assumed that the same kind of individual(s) who criticized Eckert’s work will criticize this work. In this book it is hoped to insert. some minimal familiarity can be helpful for many engineers who have to deal with non pure single phase ﬂuid. what and when a certain model is suitable than other models. The classic issue of turbulence (and stability) will be presented. When the Static Chapter was written. ideal ﬂow will be presented with the issues of added mass and added forces (under construction). will be presented next (again under construction). As traditional texts in this ﬁeld. He wrote his book because he realized that the dimensional analysis utilized by him and his adviser (for the post doc). Today. deals with a basic introduction to the ﬂuid properties and concepts (under construction). Maybe that was the reason that he felt that is okay to plagiarize the book on Wikipedia. However.R. An introduction to multi–phase ﬂow. One of the diﬀerence in this book is the insertion of the introduction to multiphase ﬂow.xlii LIST OF TABLES previous geniuses who work in this ﬁeld. For example. These criticisms will not change the future or the success of the ideas in this work. as a traditional textbook. During the writing it became apparent that it should be a book in its own right. must be taught in engineering classes. and their colleagues. His book met strong criticism in which some called to “burn” his book. he just doesn’t know from where and what. Indeed. The book is organized into several chapters which. show me what is wrong”. however. aside from his research activity. It is hoped that the other chapters will be as good this one. The next topic is statics. Eckert. Eckert. on compressible ﬂow. The third book chapter is a review of mechanics. multiphase is an advance topic. The second chapter deals with Thermodynamics. wrote the book that brought a revolution in the education of the heat transfer. As a wise person says “don’t tell me that it is wrong. At this stage. The next two chapters will deals with open channel ﬂow and gas dynamics. it must be emphasized that this book is not expected to revolutionize the ﬁeld but change some of the way things are taught. In writing the chapter on ﬂuid statics.G. anonymous Wikipedia user name EMBaero claimed that the material in the book is plagiarizing. there was a realization that it is the best chapter written on this topic. The topic of ﬂuid mechanics was chosen just to ﬁll the introduction chapter to compressible ﬂow. Ernst Schmidt. dimensional analysis will be present (again under construction). Clearly. POTTO project books are open content textbooks so everyone are welcome to joint in. the study of heat transfer was without any dimensional analysis. this author did not realize that so many new ideas will be inserted into this topic. met its opposition.

this book avoids this kind of issues. The ﬁrst 4 chapters were written ﬁrst because they were supposed to be modiﬁed and used as ﬂuid mechanics introduction in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow. The structure of Hansen. Streeter and Wylie. This statement really meant that the book is intent to be used by students to solve their exams and also used by practitioners when they search for solutions for practical problems. The chapters are not written in order. In writing this book. a program that currently cannot be used on new Linux systems. and hope to ﬁnd a way to use gaspell. The approach adapted in this book is practical. There are numerous books on ﬂuid mechanics but none of which is open content. The book does not provide the old style graphical solution methods yet provides the graphical explanation of things. The ﬁgure in cover page was created by Genick Bar-Meir. and more hands–on approach. issue of proofs so and so are here only either to explain a point or have a solution of exams. Otherwise. The graphics were done by TGIF. Of course. The spell checking was done by ispell. So. the best graphic program that this author experienced so far. The presentation of some of the chapters is slightly diﬀerent from other books because the usability of the computers. The ﬁgures were done by gle. this book was written on Linux (Micro$oftLess book). and Shames books were adapted and used as a scaﬀolding for this book. After a while it seems that is easier to write a whole book than the two original planned chapters. This author was inﬂuenced by Streeter and Wylie book which was his undergrad textbooks. xliii . This book was written using the vim editor for editing (sorry never was able to be comfortable with emacs). and is copyleft by him.How This Book Was Written This book started because I needed an introduction to the compressible ﬂow book.” Later. multi–phase ﬂow chapter was written. it was assumed that introductory book on ﬂuid mechanics should not contained many new ideas but should be modern in the material presentation.

xliv LIST OF TABLES .

This book contains many worked examples. the explanations are not as good as if I had a few years to perfect them. due to the fact that English is my third language and time limitations. increase your understanding of the many aspects of ﬂuid mechanics.Preface "In the beginning. and there were words. It is hoped that the book could be used as a reference book for people who have at least some basics knowledge of science areas such as calculus. the POTTO project was and void. This book is written and maintained on a volunteer basis. I believe professionals working in many engineering ﬁelds will beneﬁt from this information. the book is not well organized. Like all volunteer work. Moreover. statics’ equations. I have tried to describe why the theories are the way they are. Nevertheless. This book is designed to replace all introductory textbook(s) or instructor’s notes for the ﬂuid mechanics in undergraduate classes for engineering/science students but also for technical peoples. say. And the Fingers of the Author the face of the keyboard. However. This means that a lot of information is presented which is not necessary for everyone. This book is only to explain his power. etc. this manuscript is ﬁrst and foremost a textbook. if you need information about. The structure of this book is such that many of the chapters could be usable independently. describes the fundamentals of ﬂuid mechanics phenomena for engineers and others. Let This book. without form. there is a limit on how much eﬀort I was able to put into the book and its organization. naturally. Basics of Fluid Mechanics.9 Reading everything will. physics." 8 . the present. marked with a Mata mark. For example. These explanations have been marked as such and can be skipped. 9 At 8 To xlv . the power and glory of the mighty God. You have to remember that this book is a work in progress. rather than just listing “seven easy steps” for each task. and secondly a reference manual only as a lucky coincidence. I hope to improve or to add to these areas in the near future. I hope this makes the book easier to use as a reference manual. of the bits moved upon said. and emptiness was upon the face and files. And the Author there be words. you can read just chapter (4). I have left some issues which have unsatisfactory explanations in the book. which can be very useful for many.

E. whose work was the inspiration for this book. . literature review is always good. If you would like be “peer reviews” or critic to my new ideas please send me your comment(s). G. isn’t it?). A I encourage anyone with a penchant for writing. There are also notes in the margin. Marshall wrote to this author that the author should review other people work before he write any thing new (well. I would like to especially thank to my adviser.xlvi LIST OF TABLES Furthermore. In practice. editing. this book contains material that never was published before (sorry cannot avoid it). However. it brought or cause the expansion of the explanation for the oblique shock. Eckert. graphic design. and material knowledge and a desire to provide open content textbooks and to improve them to join me in this project. Naturally. ideas. 10 Dr. Several people have helped me with this book. I am particularly interested in the best arrangement of the book. and assistance. I also would like to thank to Jannie McRotien (Open Channel Flow chapter) and Tousher Yang for their advices.com”. graphic ability. Over ten individuals wrote me about this letter. ignore them please. Even reaction/comments from individuals like David Marshall10 . This material never went through a close content review. LTEX knowledge. more fundamental material. You may contact me via Email at “barmeir@gmail. They will be removed gradually as the version number advances. I am asking from everyone to assume that his reaction was innocent one. ideas for new areas to cover. If you want to be involved in the editing. directly or indirectly. While close content peer review and publication in a professional publication is excellent idea in theory. While his comment looks like unpleasant reaction. I hope that many others will participate of this project and will contribute to this book (even small contributions such as providing examples or editing mistakes are needed). I am interested in it all. or proofreading. If you have Internet e-mail access. I have tried to make this text of the highest quality possible and am interested in your comments and ideas on how to make it better. R. you can contact me at “barmeir@gmail. The symbol META was added to provide typographical conventions to blurb as needed. Incorrect language. other email that imply that someone will take care of this author aren’t appreciated. errors. Dr. but those are solely for the author’s purposes. This is mostly for the author’s purposes and also for your amusement. please drop me a line. this process leaves a large room to blockage of novel ideas and plagiarism.com”. rewritten sections. more mathematics (or less mathematics).

Also issues that associated with the book like the software has to be improved. there are speciﬁc issues which are on the “table” and they are described herein. many chapters are missing. Open Channel Flow The chapter isn’t in the development stage yet. These omissions. xlvii . question. mistakes. Properties The chapter isn’t in development stage yet. illustration or photo of experiment. Additional material can be provided to give a diﬀerent angle on the issue at hand. Material can be further illuminate. There will always new problems to add or to polish the explanations or include more new materials. approach problems are sometime appears in the book under the Meta simple like this Meta sample this part. Meta End You are always welcome to add a new material: problem. It is hoped that the style ﬁle will be converged to the ﬁnal form rapidly. Nevertheless. Speciﬁc missing parts from every chapters are discussed below. At this stage. It is hoped the A changes in TEX and LTEX related to this book in future will be minimal and minor. Some parts were taken from Fundamentals of Die Casting Design book and are in a process of improvement.To Do List and Road Map This book isn’t complete and probably never will be completed.

xlviii LIST OF TABLES .

ﬂuid statics. The last boundary (as all the boundaries in ﬂuid mechanics) 1 . A proof of the glass “liquidity” is the change of the glass thickness in high windows in European Churches after hundred years. motions. but a closer look reveals that the glass is a liquid with a large viscosity. etc. After it was established that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. Furthermore. The ﬂuid mechanics study involve many ﬁelds that have no clear boundary between them. It is known that these materials have the ability to drown people. almost any action a person is doing involves some kind of a ﬂuid mechanics problem. the discussion in this book is limited to simple and (mostly) Newtonian (sometimes power ﬂuids) ﬂuids which will be deﬁned later. Researchers distinguish between orderly ﬂow and chaotic ﬂow as the laminar ﬂow and the turbulent ﬂow. the boundary between the solid mechanics and ﬂuid mechanics is some kind of gray shed and not a sharp distinction (see Figure 1. Materials like sand (some call it quick sand) and grains should be treated as liquids. and statical conditions in continuous material.CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1. For example. The ﬂuid mechanics can also be distinguish between a single phase ﬂow and multiphase ﬂow (ﬂow made more than one phase or single distinguishable material). ﬂow in enclose bodies. Fluid mechanics is a branch of continuous mechanics which deals with a relationship between forces. Even material such as aluminum just below the mushy zone also behaves as a liquid similarly to butter. The bottom part of the glass is thicker than the top part.1 What is Fluid Mechanics? Fluid mechanics deals with the study of all ﬂuids under static and dynamic situations.). glass appears as a solid material.1 for the complex relationships between the diﬀerent branches which only part of it should be drawn in the same time. or ﬂow round bodies (solid or otherwise). In fact. ﬂow stability. This study area deals with many and diversiﬁed problems such as surface tension.

After it was made clear that the boundaries of ﬂuid mechanics aren’t sharp. For example. when a general model is need because more parameters are eﬀecting the situation. engineers in software company (EKK Inc. INTRODUCTION Continuous Mechanics Solid Mechanics something between Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Fluid Dynamics Boundaries problems Multi phase flow Internal Flow Laminar Flow Stability problems Turbulent Flow Fig. Then the dimensional analysis will be used explain why in certain cases one distinguish area/principle is more relevant than the other and some eﬀects can be neglected. ﬂow with two phases (or materials) can be treated as a single phase (for example. Moreover. air with dust particle). Or. the study must make arbitrary boundaries between ﬁelds. isn’t sharp because ﬂuid can go through a phase change (condensation or evaporation) in the middle or during the ﬂow and switch from a single phase ﬂow to a multi phase ﬂow. It is this author’s personal experience that the knowledge and ability to know in what area the situation lay is one of the main problems.2 CHAPTER 1.1.com/HTML ) analyzed a ﬂow of a complete still liquid assuming a . Diagram to explain part of relationships of ﬂuid mechanics branches. http://ekkinc. -1.

These two approaches pose a dilemma to anyone who writes an introductory book for the ﬂuid mechanics.1. the knowledge of ﬂuid mechanics (hydraulic) increasingly gained speed by the contributions of Galileo. There are two main approaches of presenting an introduction of ﬂuid mechanics materials. These aqueducts reached their greatest size and grandeur in those of the City of Rome and China. there isn’t a clear winner. For example. and D’Alembert. with the exception Archimedes (250 B. The ﬁrst progress in ﬂuid mechanics was made by Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) who built the ﬁrst chambered canal lock near Milan. to be followed by stability. 1. “The theory of ﬂuids must necessarily be based upon experiment. Naturally. the simpliﬁed private cases must be explained. This book attempts to ﬁnd a hybrid approach in which the kinematic is presented ﬁrst (aside to standard initial four chapters) follow by Integral analysis and continued by Diﬀerential analysis. This fact was acknowledged by D’Alembert who stated that. As in thermodynamics. Reviewing many books on ﬂuid mechanics made it clear. The ideal ﬂow (frictionless ﬂow) should be expanded compared to the regular treatment.2. At that stage theory and experiments had some discrepancy. two diﬀerent of school of thoughts were created: the ﬁrst be- . There were no calculations even with the great need for water supply and transportation. people realized that wells have to be dug and crude pumping devices need to be constructed. Yet. turbulence. and continue with Empirical Analysis. a large population created a need to solve waste (sewage) and some basic understanding was created. Before dealing with the boundaries.C. Euler. For example.2 Brief History The need to have some understanding of ﬂuid mechanics started with the need to obtain water supply. boundary layer and internal and external ﬂow . He also made several attempts to study the ﬂight (birds) and developed some concepts on the origin of the forces. chapters on open channel ﬂow (as a sub class of the multiphase ﬂow) and compressible ﬂow (with the latest developments) are provided. This discrepancy between theory and practice is called the “D’Alembert paradox” and serves to demonstrate the limitations of theory alone in solving ﬂuid problems. The ﬁrst approach introduces the ﬂuid kinematic and then the basic governing equations. The second approach deals with the Integral Analysis to be followed with Diﬀerential Analysis. BRIEF HISTORY 3 complex turbulent ﬂow model. larger tunnels built for a larger water supply. At some point. Later. almost all knowledge of the ancients can be summarized as application of instincts. conﬂicts with the reality. These two approaches have justiﬁcations and positive points.” For example the concept of ideal liquid that leads to motion with no resistance. Thus. After his initial work. This book is unique in providing chapter on multiphase ﬂow. people realized that water can be used to move things and provide power. When cities increased to a larger size. Torricelli. one of the main goals of this book is to explain what model should be applied. etc. Newton.) on the principles of buoyancy. Bernoulli family. aqueducts were constructed. Such absurd analysis are common among engineers who do not know which model can be applied.

La Grange. the way how it was calculated changed. ﬁrst Navier in the molecular level and later Stokes from continuous point of view succeeded in creating governing equations for real ﬂuid motion. and Kelvin. many call Prandtl as the father of modern ﬂuid mechanics. and many others. At the end of the twenty century. On the theoretical side. the demand for vigorous scientiﬁc knowledge that can be applied to various liquids as opposed to formula for every ﬂuid was created by the expansion of many industries. and Manning. The Navier-Stokes equations. Bossut. However. as in thermodynamics. Thus. Lanchester’s concept of circulatory ﬂow (1894). resistance by Darcy. and Froude’s idea of the use of models change the science of the ﬂuid mechanics.4 CHAPTER 1. Dupuit. Perhaps the most radical concept that eﬀects the ﬂuid mechanics is of Prandtl’s idea of boundary layer which is a combination of the modeling and dimensional analysis that leads to modern ﬂuid mechanics. Rose. there are many . The introduction of the computers during the 60s and much more powerful personal computer has changed the ﬁeld. As results it created today “strange” names: Hydrodynamics. at the same time proposed many correlations to many ﬂuid mechanics problems. for example. INTRODUCTION lieved that the solution will come from theoretical aspect alone. Weisbach. considerable contribution were made by Euler. Theoreticians tried to simplify the equations and arrive at approximated solutions representing speciﬁc cases. The experimentalists. These programs in many cases can capture all the appropriate parameters and adequately provide a reasonable description of the physics. Taylor. Chezy. and Aeronautics. the empirical formulas generated by ﬁtting curves to experimental data (even sometime merely presenting the results in tabular form) resulting in formulas that the relationship between the physics and properties made very little sense. mainly in pipes and open channels area. Bhuckingham. Gas Dynamics. and Blasius and several other individuals as Nikuradse. But. Thus. after World War Two. were Brahms. d’Aubisson. and the Kutta-Joukowski circulation theory of lift (1906). Today many problems can be analyzed by using the numerical tools and provide reasonable results. Prandtl and his students Blasius. The obvious happened without theoretical guidance. Stanton. Coulomb. which describes the ﬂow (or even Euler equations). people cannot relinquish control. Hydraulics. and Poisseuille. In the middle of the nineteen century. Ganguillet. Rankine. This problem led to two consequences. There are many open source programs that can analyze many ﬂuid mechanics situations. were considered unsolvable during the mid nineteen century because of the high complexity. Kirchhoﬀ. transformed the ﬂuid mechanics to modern science that we have known today. Examples of such work are Hermann von Helmholtz’s concept of vortexes (1858). Therefore. and the second believed that solution is the pure practical (experimental) aspect of ﬂuid mechanics. This demand coupled with new several novel concepts like the theoretical and experimental researches of Reynolds. Hagen. Helmhoitz. the development of dimensional analysis by Rayleigh. This concept leads to mathematical basis for many approximations. Meyer. Fanning. Dubuat. creating a matching between the two school of thoughts: experimental and theoretical. von Karman. Fabre. Rayleigh. On the “experimental” side. While the understanding of the fundamentals did not change much.

under certain limits. For example. It must be remember that force is a vector. This is a result of division of a vector by a vector and it is referred to as tensor. The direction of area is perpendicular to the area. Gas has no free interface/surface (since it does ﬁll the entire volume). for most practical purposes considered. The traditional quantity. The ﬂuid is mainly divided into two categories: liquids and gases. if the change of pressure is signiﬁcantly less than that. the pressure will not aﬀect the volume. The gas ﬁlls the volume and liquid cannot. the pressure has three components.1). The study of this kind of material called rheology and it will (almost) not be discussed in this book. a change in the volume by more 5% will required tens of thousands percent change of the pressure. The area is measured in [m2 ]. The diﬀerence between a gas phase to a liquid phase above the critical point are practically minor. It is evident from this discussion that when a liquid is at rest. the discussion on the mathematic meaning will be presented (later version). This diﬀerence can be. It is also said that liquid cannot return to their original state after the deformation. e. The main diﬀerence between the liquids and gases state is that gas will occupy the whole volume while liquids has an almost ﬁx volume. For the discussion here. For example. 1.3 Kinds of Fluids Some diﬀerentiate ﬂuid from solid by the reaction to shear stress. then the change of volume is at best 5%. The second quantity discussed here is the area.3. these programs are as good as the input provided. sharp even though in reality this diﬀerence isn’t sharp. In this book. Area of three–dimensional object has no single direction. It is a known fact said that the ﬂuid continuously and permanently deformed under shear stress while solid exhibits a ﬁnite deformation which does not change with time. assuming turbulent ﬂow for still ﬂow simply provides erroneous results (see for example. The unit used to measure is [N]. This diﬀerentiation leads to three groups of materials: solids and liquids. The ﬁrst is force which was reviewed in physics. Hence. so at this stage the tensor will have to be broken into its components. Inc). it behaves like solid and under others it behaves like liquid (see Figure 1. In gaseous phase. There are several quantities that have to be addressed in this discussion. these kinds of areas should be addressed inﬁnitesimally and locally. the change of water pressure by 1000% only change the volume by less than 1 percent. So. Building a car with this accuracy is a disaster). the emphasis is on the physics. one in the area direction and two perpendicular to the area. This test creates a new material group that shows dual behaviors. which is force per area has a new meaning. EKK. no weather prediction program can produce good engineering quality results (where the snow will fall within 50 kilometers accuracy. and it is referred to the direction of the area. The pressure component in the area . Thus. Later.g it has a direction. KINDS OF FLUIDS 5 other cases that numerical analysis cannot provide any meaningful result (trends). no shear stress is applied. Thus. This quantity was discussed in physics class but here it has an addtional meaning. any change in pressure directly aﬀects the volume. But below the critical point.1. In the best scenario.

2 for point where the green lines converge to constant density). From solid mechanics study.1) It must be noted that ε is chosen so that the continuous assumption is not broken. then. it did not reach/reduced to the size where the atoms or molecular statistical calculations are signiﬁcant (see Figure 1. (1. Experiments show that the increase of height will increase the velocity up to a certain range. Figure 1. When this assumption is broken. Schematics to describe the shear short distance of two plates as shown in Figure stress in ﬂuid mechanics. In this discussion. the aim is to develop diﬀerential equation. ﬂuid cannot pull directly but through a solid surface. isn’t it?).6 CHAPTER 1. The density is a property which requires that ρ liquid to be continuous. After certain sample size. thus the small distance analysis is applicable. that is. INTRODUCTION direction is called pressure (great way to confuse. -1.3). In solid mechanics.3. h) (1. the principles of statistical mechanics must be utilized. The other two components are referred as the shear stresses. Density as a function of ρ= ∆m ∆V −→ε ∆V lim the size of sample. 1. here it will be treated as a separate issue. U0x F However.2 shows the density as log ℓ a function of the sample size. (1. it was shown that when the force per area increases.4 Shear Stress ∆ℓ The shear stress is part of the pressure tensor. F. It doesn’t mean ǫ that a sharp and abrupt change in the density cannot occur. The units used for the pressure components is [N/m2 ]. h is the distance between the plates. -1. Thus.2. the shear stress is h β considered as the ratio of the force acting on y area in the direction of the forces perpendicular x to area. Consider liquid that undergoes a shear stress between a Fig. Diﬀerent from solid. the density is deﬁned as Fig. the F denotes the force. It referred to density that is independent of the sampling size. the velocity of the plate increases also. the density remains constant. . The density can be changed and it is a function of time and space (location) but must have a continues property.2) Where A is the area. The upper plate velocity generally will be U = f (A. Consider moving the plate with a zero lubricant (h ∼ 0) (results in large force) or a large amount of lubricant (smaller force).

5) it follows that ratio of the velocity to height is proportional to shear stress. the distance the t0 < t1 < t2 < t3 upper plate moves after small amount of time.4) and (1. Hence. The deformation of ﬂuid due to shear geometry stress as progression of time.4 it can be noticed that for a small angle.9) with equation (1. the regular approximation provides Fig.10) If the velocity proﬁle is linear between the plate (it will be shown later that it is consistent with derivations of velocity). d = U δt = h δβ (1.1.9) Combining equation (1. -1. applying the coeﬃcient to obtain a new equality as τxy = µ U h (1.6) yields τxy = µ δβ δt (1. In steady state.8) From equation (1.3) can be rearranged to be U F ∝ h A Shear stress was deﬁned as τxy = F A hF A 7 (1.8) it follows that U =h δβ δt (1.4.5) From equations (1. then it can be written for small a angel that dU δβ = δt dy (1.7) From Figure 1. SHEAR STRESS For cases where the dependency is linear. the following can be written U∝ Equations (1.4) (1. δt is d = U δt (1.3) (1.4.6) Where µ is called the absolute viscosity or dynamic viscosity which will be discussed later in this chapter in great length.11) .

is due to the existence of cohesion and interaction between ﬂuid molecules.1[m] diameters with height of 0.069 × 0. It can be assumed that the plates remains in equiledistance from each other and steady state is achived instanly.45[N ] h 0.6)) F = 1 × 1.5 A µU ∼ = 53. Assume steady state conditions. the notation of τxy is easier to understand and visualize.9) can be interpreted as momentum in the x direction transfered into the y direction. Solution . Equation (1. the viscosity is the resistance to the ﬂow (ﬂux) or the movement. Many ﬂuids fall into this category such as air.1 [m].2: Castor oil at 25◦ C ﬁlls the space between two concentric cylinders of 0. Thus.10) referred to as Newtonian ﬂuid. Calculate the force that is required to drag a very thin plate of 1 [m2 ] at a speed of 0. Calculate the torque required to rotate the inner cylinder at 12 rpm.5 m/sec. For this kind of substance τxy = µ dU dy (1. The units of shear stress are the same as ﬂux per time as following F kg m 1 mU ˙ = 2 m2 A sec A kg m 1 sec sec m2 Thus. In fact.2[m] and 0. This approximation is appropriate for many other ﬂuids but only within some ranges.01 End Solution Example 1. Solution Assuming Newtonian ﬂow. The property of viscosity. which is exhibited by all ﬂuids. The units of absolute viscosity are [N sec/m2 ]. Example 1. water etc. INTRODUCTION Materials which obey equation (1.12) Newtonian ﬂuids are ﬂuids which the ratio is constant.8 CHAPTER 1. the following can be written (see equation (1. Some referred to shear stress as viscous ﬂux of x–momentum in the y–direction. when the outer cylinder remains stationary. this interpretation is more suitable to explain the molecular mechanism of the viscosity. These cohesion and interactions hamper the ﬂux in y–direction.1: A space of 1 [cm] width between two large plane surfaces is ﬁlled with glycerine.

However. the viscosity is primarily dependent on the magnitude of these cohesive forces. Since these forces decrease rapidly with increases of temperature.0078[N m] h ¡ End Solution 1. In liquids. thus. while in the dU liquids. ri = A µU ro − ri µ 2 π 2 0. in gases. the viscosity of gases will increase with temperature. The same way as in example (1. -1. Thus. the moment can be calculated as the force times the distance as ri 2 π ri h M =F In this case ro − ri = h thus. temperature variation has an opposite eﬀect on the viscosities of liqτ0 uids and gases.5.5. and it resists the ﬂow. This molecular activity is known to increase with temperature.5 Viscosity 1.4 π ri Where rps is revolution per second.1. Thus. liquid viscosities decrease as temperature increases. the molecules are more dx compact and cohesion is more dominate. the momentum exchange due to molecular movement is small compared to the cohesive forces between the molecules. In gases.1). exchange of momentum between layers brought as a result of molecular movement normal to the general direction of ﬂow. This reasoning is a result of the considerations of the kinetic theory.1 General S Bi imp ng le ha m Viscosity varies widely with temperature.13 h 0. ic op molecules are sparse and cohetr o ix th sion is negligible. as pl do ne Ne r-P wt ic eu ct ei pe re ho ps R on ia n hi lip tic po ff di la ta n t .1 × 12/60 = 0.5. The diﬀerence is due to their fundamentally different mechanism creating visτ cosity characteristics. This theory indicates that gas viscosities vary directly with the square root of temperature.4 ¡ M= ∼ . VISCOSITY The velocity is rps 9 ˙ U = r θ = 2 π ri rps = 2 × π × 0.986 0. the Fig. The diﬀerent of power ﬂuids familys.

It must be stress that the viscosity in the dome is meaningless. but this variation is negligible for most engineering problems.6 demonstrates that viscosity increases slightly with pressure. This relationship is referred to as power relationship Fig.2 Non–Newtonian Fluids In equation (1.13) are constant.6. On the liquid side below the critical point. the pressure has minor eﬀect on the viscosity. the coeﬃcient depends on the velocity gradient. Nitrogen (left) and Argon (right) viscosity as a function of the temperature and pressure after Lemmon and Jacobsen. When n = 1 equation represent Newtonian ﬂuid and K becomes the familiar µ. Oils have the greatest increase of viscosity with pressure which is a good thing for many engineering purposes. viscosity τ =K dU dx n−1 dU dx (1.13) The new coeﬃcients (n. -1. There is a large class of materials which shows a non-linear relationship with velocity for any shear stress.7. -1.5. There is no such a thing of viscosity at 30% liquid. Figure 1. From the physical point of view. K) in equation (1. 1. Well above the critical point. Not all the materials obey this relationship. This class of materials can be approximated by a single polynomial term that is a = bxn . INTRODUCTION Fig.10 CHAPTER 1. The viscosity coeﬃcient is . It simply depends on the structure of the ﬂow as will be discussed in the chapter on multi phase ﬂow. The lines in the above diagrams are only to show constant pressure lines. The shear stress as a function and it can be written as of the shear rate. the relationship between the velocity and the shear stress was assumed to be linear. both materials are only a function of the temperature.5).

the ﬂuid is pseudoplastic. The above equation shows that the dimensions of ν to be square meter per second. However.5.0024 0. The increase of the absolute viscosity with the temperature is enough to overcome the increase of density and thus.002 0. 1 C.0008 0. The general relationship for simple Bingham ﬂow is τxy = −µ ± τ0 if |τyx | > τ0 (1.0012 0. cosity is deﬁned as 0.0026 0.15) There are materials that simple Bingham model does not provide dequate explanation and a more sophisticate model is required. When n. 215-241 (2001) m ν[ sec ] 2 .of the temperature. The liquids which satisfy equation (1.003 0.000025 0. In the simple case. Air viscosity as a function the name “kinematic” viscosity. This fact explains Fig. Mindess and J.0018 0. S. according to Ferraris at el1 concrete behaves as shown in Figure 1.16) The gas density decreases with the temperature.13) are referred to as purely viscous ﬂuids. Materials which behave up to a certain shear stress as a solid and above it as a liquid are referred as Bingham liquids. Many ﬂuids satisfy the above equation.5).e-05 0.0004 0. for most practical purposes. the kinematic viscosity also increase with the temperature for many materials.5. The kinematic viscosity embraces both the viscosity and density properties of a ﬂuid.0014 0. F. Fluids that show increase in the viscosity (with increase of the shear) referred to as thixotropic and those that show decrease are called reopectic ﬂuids (see Figure 1.7. Materials Science of Concrete VI. The reason for this new deﬁnition is that some experimental data are given in this form. this kind of ﬁgures isn’t used in regular engineering practice. -1.0022 0.3 Kinematic Viscosity Air absolute & kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0.0028 0. When n is below one. the liquid is dilettante. Skalny.1.000015 0. which are acceleration units (a combination of kinematic terms). eds.00002 The kinematic viscosity is another way to look at the viscosity.001 sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1.8. The Newtonian part of the model has to be replaced by power liquid. is above one. However. These results also explained better using the new deﬁnition. de Larrard and N. For example. [m2 /sec]. Martys. VISCOSITY 11 always positive.0002 5. Ferraris.0006 0. 2008 ν= µ ρ (1.0016 0.e-06 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.14) dUx =0 dy if |τyx | < τ0 (1. the “liquid side” is like Newtonian ﬂuid for large shear stress. The kinematic vis.. 1.

End Solution Liquid Metals 2 This author is ambivalent about statement.07 + 120 µ = 0. the viscosity can be considered constant in many cases.12 CHAPTER 1. Some common materials (pure and mixture) tion temperature. For isothermal ﬂow. Solution Appallying the constants from Suthelnd’s table provides 0. Use the data provide in Table 1.555 Ti0 + Suth µ = µ0 0.1.51 10−5 N sec m2 The viscosity increases almost by 40%. INTRODUCTION 1. The observed viscosity is about ∼ 3. -1.710−5 . .555 × 524.002 0. T T0 3 2 (1. Ti0 input temperature in degrees Kelvin reference temperature in degrees Kelvin Suth is Sutherland’s constant and it is presented in the Table 1.00001827 × × 0.17) viscosity at input temperature T reference viscosity at reference temperature.5. have expressions that provide an estimate.07 3 2 ∼ 2. The variations of air and water as a function of the temperature at atmospheric pressure are plotted in Figures 1.9.9.555 Tin + Suth Where µ µ0 Tin Ti0 Suth .3: Calculate the viscosity of air at 800K based on Sutherland’s equation.001 0. provides reasonable results2 for the range of −40◦ C to 1600◦ C m ν[ sec ] 2 µ[ N sec ] m2 0.8 and Fig.1 Example 1. 2008 0. Water viscosity as a func1.0005 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.0015 The absolute viscosity of many ﬂuids relatively doesn’t change with the pressure but very sensitive to temperature. For many gases.4 Estimation of The Viscosity Water absolute and kinematic viscosity Atmospheric Pressure 0. Sutherland’s equation is used and according to the literature.555 × 800 + 120 800 524.

The list for Sutherland’s equation coeﬃcients for selected materials.57 µ0 (N sec/m2 ) 0.67 528.05 528.0000146 0.0001254 Table -1.00001827 0.0000876 0.00001720 0.1. Substance formula i − C4 H10 CH4 CO2 O2 Hg Temperature T [◦ C] 23 20 20 20 380 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.0000654 oxygen mercury vapor Table -1.99 526.93 540.0002018 0.0000109 0.0000076 0. . Viscosity of selected gases.5.00001480 0.0000203 0.67 524.0001781 0.07 527.2.00000982 0.1.67 518. VISCOSITY 13 coeﬃcients chemical formula Material ammonia standard air carbon dioxide carbon monoxide hydrogen nitrogen oxygen sulfur dioxide CO2 CO H2 N2 O2 SO2 N H3 Sutherland 370 120 240 118 72 111 127 416 TiO [K] 527.

000245 0. .986 5-20 0.001194 0.000946 0.15-0.05 0.200 0.001547 0.069 Olive Oil Castor Oil Clucuse Corn Oil SAE 30 SAE 50 SAE 70 Ketchup Ketchup Benzene Firm glass Glycerol Table -1.54 1.3. INTRODUCTION Substance formula (C2 H5 )O C6 H6 Br2 C2 H5 OH Hg H2 SO4 Temperature T [◦ C] 20 20 26 20 25 25 25 25 25 20 ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C ∼ 25◦ C ∼ 20◦ C 20 Viscosity [ N sec ] m2 0.14 CHAPTER 1. Viscosity of selected liquids.084 0.000647 0.6 0.072 0.098 0.000652 ∼ 1 × 107 1.01915 0.

4 or similar information.4 49.40685 22.5 1. Atomic Energy Commission AECD-3646 U.83865 46. VISCOSITY chemical component H2 He Ne Ar Xe Air “mix” CO2 O2 C 2 H6 CH4 Water Molecular Weight 2.4 305.0 Li Na K Hg Pb Liquid metal can be considered as a Newtonian ﬂuid for many applications. Even when there is a solidiﬁ.S.3 28.5.865925 50.064 [MPa] µc [ N sec ] m2 3. The critical pressure can be evaluated in the following three ways. May 1995 p.003 20. µc is the viscosity at critical condition and µ is the viscosity at any given condition. The simplest way is by obtaining the data from Table 1.4.) sec µ[ Nm2 ] 1. other points can be estimated.9 15 Table -1.636 58.Fig. Liquid metals viscosity as a function of the temperature. Hougen et al suggested to use graph similar to compressibility chart.5 151 289. cation (mushy zone). Tr .183 39.0 15.54 15.97 44.0 18.47 2. The lower pressure is.016 4. 19. if one point is well documented. many aluminum alloys are behaving as a Newtonian liquid until the ﬁrst solidiﬁcation appears (assuming steady state thermodynamics properties).C. Washington D.7 647. the metal behavior can be estimated as a Newtonian material (further reading can be done in this author’s book “Fundamentals of Die Casting Design”).944 131.8823 73.26 44.07 16.1. Government Printing Oﬃce.096 K Pc [Bar] 12.0 0. then the critical .3 19. for practical purpose. In Figure 1. Figure 1. 258.9696 2. 2008 The General Viscosity Graphs In case “ordinary” ﬂuids where information is limit.8 132 304. ∼ 1[bar]. Vol.10 exhibits several liquid metals (from The Reactor Handbook. The second way. Furthermore.00 30. -1. Liquid Metal viscosity 2. Pr = P/Pc are drawn.3 5. if the information is available and is close enough to the critical point. In this graph.01 32.0 21.04 Tc [K] 33.2 154. Furthermore.289945 27. this graph also shows the trends.6 26.11 the relative viscosity µr = µ/µc is plotted as a function of relative temperature.256425 48.7685 36.5 2.358525 48. The lines of constant relative pressure. The properties at the critical stage and their values of selected materials.5 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 Temperature [◦ C ] May 1.4 190.10.

Rev.41 154.18) The third way. 26 No.4 N sec m2 The From Figure 1.4 50. 2 1956.4 µc = 18 value of the reduced temperature is Tr ∼ The value of the reduced pressure is Pr ∼ 20 ∼ 0. only the mixture of low density gases is discussed for analytical expression. Example 1.11 (1. For most 3 Kyama.4: Estimate the viscosity of oxygen. Even for homogeneous mixture. Makita. Solution The critical condition of oxygen are Pc = 50. O2 at 100◦ C and 20[Bar]. In this book. is by utilizing the following approximation µc = M Tc vc 2/3 ˜ (1. there isn’t silver bullet to estimate the viscosity.20) Calculate the reduced pressure and the reduced temperature and from the Figure 1. . INTRODUCTION µc = µ µr ﬁgure 1. when none is available.35[Bar] Tc = 154.11 it can be obtained µr ∼ 1.2 = 21. Physical Chemistry Japan Vol. End Solution Viscosity of Mixtures In general the viscosity of liquid mixture has to be evaluated experimentally.19) Where vc is the critical molecular volume and M is molecular weight.15 ∼ 2.35 373.16 viscosity is obtained as given CHAPTER 1.2 and the predicted viscosity is T able µ = µc µ µc = 18 × 1. Or ˜ √ µc = M Pc 2/3 Tc −1/6 (1.6[N sec/m2 ] The observed value is 24[N sec/m2 ]3 .11 obtain the reduced viscosity.

and µi is the viscosity of component i. the following Wilke’s correlation for gas at low density provides a result in a reasonable range.11.2 Pr=0.5 Pr=1 Pr=2 Pr=3 Pr=5 Pr=25 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 5 2 2 3 T Tc 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 Reduced Temperature May 27. xi is the mole fraction of component i.5. n µmix = i=1 xi µi n j=1 xi Φij 2 (1. -1. VISCOSITY 17 Reduced Viscosity 2 10 liquid 5 dense gas Reduced Viscosity µ µc 2 two-phase region 1 critical point Pr=LD Pr=0.22) Here.21) where Φi j is deﬁned as 1 Φij = √ 8 Mi 1+ Mj 1+ µi µj 4 Mj Mi (1.1. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature. . cases. The subscript i should be used for the j index. The mixture viscosity is highly nonlinear function of the fractions of the components. 2008 Fig. n is the number of the chemical components in the mixture. The dimensionless parameter Φij is equal to one when i = j.

8 Viscosity.1 Tr=1. M 32. µ 0. Reduced viscosity as function of the reduced temperature.6 Tr=2 Tr=3 µ µ0 4 Reduced viscosity 3 2 1 -1 10 2 5 1 2 5 10 2 P Reduced Pressure [ Pc ] June 2.2 Tr=1. 28. Solution The following table summarize the known details i 1 2 Component O2 N2 Molecular Weight. x 0.0000203 0. INTRODUCTION 5 Tr=0. Mole Fraction.2 0.00001754 .4 Tr=1.12.18 6 CHAPTER 1.5: Calculate the viscosity of a mixutre (air) made of 20% oxygen. 2008 Fig. Example 1. -1. O2 and 80% netrogen N2 for the temperature of 20◦ C.8 Tr=1 Tr=1.

157 .996 + 0. The term τs is the characteristic shear stress of the mixture.8 × 0.2 × 1. VISCOSITY i 1 2 j 1 2 1 2 Mi /Mj 1.8 × 1.0 1. The term µ0 is the experimental viscosity at shear stress approaching zero.86 1.996 1. To estimate the viscosity of the mixture with n component Hougen and Watson’s method for pseudocritial properties is adapted. End Solution In very low pressure.0 19 µmix ∼ 0. An example for values for this formula.0 m2 N sec m2 The observed value is ∼ 0. the viscosity is only a function of the temperature with a “simple” molecular structure.2 × 0.25) .1.0000181 0. in theory. For gases with very long molecular structure or complexity structure these formulas cannot be applied.0024 0.0 Φij 1. µ0 = 0.23) provides reasonable value only up to 2 m τ = 0. for Molten Sulfur at temperature 120◦ C are µ∞ = 0.0000182 .0024 0.0 1.00001754 N sec + ∼ 0.001 kN . m2 m2 and τs = 0.12 can be used for a crude estimate of dense gases mixture.5.23) τxy dy 1 + τs Where the term µ∞ is the experimental value at high shear stress. It this method the following is deﬁned as n Pc mix = i=1 xi Pc i (1.875 1.0 + 0.143 0.0000073 kN .00105 N sec . m2 Figure 1. Reiner and Phillippoﬀ suggested the following formula 1 µ0 − µ∞ τ xy dUx µ + 2 = ∞ (1.2 × 0. The higher viscosity is more dominate at low shear stress.24) n Tc mix = i=1 xi Tc i (1.0 1.0215 N sec . the viscosity is dominated by a liquid with high viscosity and at high shear stress to be dominated by a liquid with the low viscosity liquid. For some mixtures of two liquids it was observed that at a low shear stress.0000203 0.8 × 1. This equation (1.0 µi /µj 1.

It can be noted that this property is not the result of the equation of state but related to it.064 [MPa] .34 1.5.60 1. The bulk modulus for selected material with the critical temperature and pressure na −→ not available and nf −→ not found (exist but was not found in the literature).5 [Bar] 172. chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Benzene Carbon Tetrachloride Ethyl Alcohol Gasoline Glycerol Mercury Methyl Alcohol Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Paraﬃn Oil SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water Bulk Modulus 109 N m 2.79 K na 647.27) T Using the identity of v = 1/ρ transfers equation (1. liquids have a property that describes the volume change as results of pressure change for constant temperature.28) T The bulk modulus for several liquids is presented in Table 1.3 4.97 2.5 0.5 [Bar] nf nf nf na na 4. INTRODUCTION µc mix = i=1 xi µc i (1.28 2.62 1.109 [MPa] na 22.3 [Mpa] nf 7.174 Tc 593K 508 K 562 K 556.096 K Pc 57.32 1.49 [MPa] 6.10 1.74 [MPa] 4.49 0.20 1. The bulk modulus is deﬁned as BT = −v ∂P ∂v (1.20 and n CHAPTER 1.2-28.15-2.06 1. Table -1.09 1.8 [Bar] 48 [Bar] 4.4 K 514 K nf 850 K 1750 K Est 513 nf nf nf na na 591.52 26.5 2.5.27) into BT = ρ ∂P ∂ρ (1.03-4.26) 1.5 Bulk Modulus Similar to solids (hook’s law).00 [MPa] Est 78.80 1.5.

32) is 0= ∂P ∂T dT + v ∂P ∂v dv T (1. The thermal expansion is deﬁned as βP = 1 v ∂v ∂T (1. . This relationship is obtained by the observation that the pressure as a function of the temperature and speciﬁc volume as P = f (T. additional expansions for similar parameters are deﬁned. v) The full pressure derivative is dP = ∂P ∂T dT + v (1. and therefore equation (1. The increase of the pressure increases the bulk modulus due to the molecules increase of the rejecting forces between each other when they are closer.34) T Equation (1. In contrast.33) follows that dv dT ∂P ∂T ∂P ∂v =− P =const v (1.35) The last equation (1. VISCOSITY 21 In the literature.33) From equation (1.29) P This parameter indicates the change of volume due to temperature change when the pressure is constant.34) indicates that relationship for these three coeﬃcients is βT = − βv βP (1. Another deﬁnition is referred as coeﬃcient of tension and it is deﬁned as βv = 1 P ∂P ∂T (1.5. dP = 0. the temperature increase results in reduction of the bulk of modulus because the molecular are further away.30) v This parameter indicates the change of the pressure due to the change of temperature (where v = constant).35) sometimes is used in measurement of the bulk modulus.31) ∂P ∂v dv T (1.32) On constant pressure lines.1. These deﬁnitions are related to each other.

and ﬂuid mechanics) books explained that the surface tension is a result from unbalance molecular cohesive forces. This explanation is wrong since it is in conﬂict with Newton’s . In many (physics. The R2 dℓ1 surface tension is force per length x and is measured by [N/m] and is acting to stretch the surface. -1.6 Surface Tension The surface tension manifested itself by a rise or depression of the 2dβ1 liquid at the free surface edge. Surface tension results from a sharp change in the density between two adjoint phases or ma. INTRODUCTION Example 1.15 109 . Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus ∆P ∼ βT ∆v ∼ 2. There is a common mis. y Surface tension is also responsi2dβ2 ble for the creation of the drops dℓ2 and bubbles.cribing preincipls radii. conception for the source of the surface tension. Surface tension control volume analysis disterials. Solution Using the deﬁnition for the bulk modulus βT = −v v 5 ∂P ∼ ∆P = ∼ 14285.035 per cent of its volume by applying a pressure of 5[Bar].13.22 CHAPTER 1.714[Bar] ∂v ∆v 0. It also responsible for the breakage of a liquid jet into other medium/phase to R1 many drops (atomization). Assume the temperature to be 20◦ C.01 = 2. surface tension.15 107 [N/m2 ] = 215[Bar] v End Solution 1.Fig.7: Calculate the pressure needed to apply on water to reduce its volume by 1 per cent.6: Calculate the modulus of liquid elasticity that reduced 0.00035 End Solution Example 1.

8: A Tank ﬁlled with liquid. A soap bubble is made of two layers. which contains n bubbles with equal radii. r.37) Equation (1. In the vertical direction.40) Example 1.36) For a very small area. the pressure diﬀerence has to balance the surface tension. inner and outer. Furthermore. The work is rf w= r0 ∆P (v)dv (1. The second with two equal radii. Solution The work is due to the change of the bubbles volume. When the surface tension is constant.38) Other extreme is for a sphere for which the main radii are the same and equation (1. The relationship between the surface tension and the pressure on the two sides of the surface is based on geometry. This erroneous explanation can be traced to Adam’s book but earlier source may be found.39) R Where R is the radius of the sphere. thus the pressure inside the bubble is ∆P = 4σ R (1. Calculate the minimum work required to increase the pressure in tank by ∆P . the horizontal forces cancel each other because symmetry.6. Thus. The forces in the vertical direction reads (Pi − Po ) d 1 d 2 = ∆Pd 1 d 2 = 2 σd 1 sin β1 + 2 σd 2 sin β2 (1.37) is reduced to ∆P = σ 1 R (1. Assume that the liquid bulk modulus is inﬁnity. the equation (1. The pressure on one side is Pi and the pressure on the other side is Po . The ﬁrst case is for an inﬁnite long cylinder for which the equation (1. Thus.37) predicts that pressure diﬀerence increase with inverse of the radius. There are two extreme cases: one) radius of inﬁnite and radius of ﬁnite size. the surface tension forces are puling the surface upward. the angles are very small and thus (sin β ∼ β).36) can be simpliﬁed as ∆P = σ 1 1 + R1 R2 (1.37) is reduced to 2σ ∆P = (1.1. SURFACE TENSION 23 second law (see example ?). Consider a small element of surface.41) . it can be noticed that d i ∼ 2 Ri dβi .

Regardless to the magnitude of the surface tensions (except to zero) the forces cannot be balanced for the description of straight lines.44) (1.1 Wetting of Surfaces To explain the source of the contact angle. r0 is the radius at the initial stage and rf is the radius at the ﬁnal stage. the temperature must remain constant due to heat transfer. The work for n bubbles is then 4 π σ n rf 2 − r0 2 . It can be noticed that the work is negative. Forces in Contact angle.14. For example. It is worth noting that for very slow process. forces diagram is shown when control volume is chosen so that Fig.45) (1.43). The reversible process requires very slow compression.39) for reversible process. The gas solid surface tension is diﬀerent from the liquid solid surface tension and hence violating equation (1. Hence the work is ∆P rf dv rf r0 w= r0 2σ 4 π r2 dr = 8 π σ r rdr = 4 π σ rf 2 − r0 2 (1.43) yields σgs − σls = Fsolid tan β (1.14. the solid reaction force must be zero. End Solution 1. INTRODUCTION The minimum work will be for a reversible process.6.42) Where.44) into equation (1. and gas can be ignored. forces balanced along the line of solid boundary is σgs − σls − σlg cos β = 0 and in the tangent direction to the solid line the forces balance is Fsolid = σlg sin β substituting equation (1. -1. . liquid.24 CHAPTER 1.43) For β = π/2 =⇒ tan β = ∞. that is the work is done on the system. The relationship between pressure diﬀerence and the radius is described by equation (1. In Figure 1. the masses of the solid. The surface tension occurs between gas phase (G) to liquid phase (L) S L and also occurs between the solid (S) and the liquid phases as well as between the gas phase and the solid phase. This contact point occurs due to free surface G reaching a solid boundary. consider the point where three phases became in contact. Thus.

-1.15.74 π/4. This fact is the reason that no reliable data can be provided with the exception to pure substances and perfect geometries. For example.Nickel Nickel Nickel Chrome-Nickel Steel Silver Zink Bronze Copper Copper Copper Contact Angle π/3. chemical component Steel Steel. SURFACE TENSION 25 The surface tension forces must be balanced. It must be noted that the solid boundary Fig. This statement is correct in most cases.83 π/4. Siegel. gas medium and the solid surface.2 π/4 π/3 π/2 Source [1] [2] [1] [3] [4] [5] [4] [4] [4] [7] [8] 1 R. The connection of the three phases–materials–mediums creates two situations which are categorized as wetting or non–wetting. The angle is determined by properties of the liquid. G.83 π/3. thus.5 π/3.non–wetting ﬂuids. a contact angle is created to balNonWetting ance it.7 π/6 to π/4. If the angle of the contact between three materials is larger than 90◦ then it is non-wetting. The contact angle for air. Description of wetting and isn’t straight.4 π/3. the wetness of ﬂuids is a function of the solid as well. when solid surface is made or cotted with certain materials.1. The contact angle is determined by fluid Wetting whether the surface tension between the gas fluid solid (gs) is larger or smaller then the surface tension of liquid solid (ls) and the local geometry.74 to π/3. The surface tension is a molec. thus depend on the locale structure of the surface and it provides the balance for these local structures. however. water is described in many books as a wetting ﬂuid.76 to π/3. distiled water with selected materials to demonstrat the inconconsitency. ular phenomenon.6. E. There is a common deﬁnition of wetting the surface. On the other hand. In fact there are commercial sprays that are intent to change the surface from wetting to non wetting. the water is changed to be wetting (for example 3M selling product to “change” water to non–wetting).15). if the angle is below than 90◦ the material is wetting the surface (see Figure 1.7 π/4. So. Keshock (1975) “Eﬀects of reduced gravity on nucleate boiling bubble . And a small change on the solid surface can change the wetting condition to non–wetting. Table -1.6.

Aladev O. papes 717 -728.N. I. Prog. H.. R. 124. the Figure 1. M. Vol. Pages 509 .. Y. 9. K. and Ostrovsky. 1975 2 Bergles A. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer.372. 6 Basu. J. Vol.” AIChE Journal Volume 10 Issue 4.517. and Dhir. on the gas side.. pages 1465-1470. 3 Tolubinsky. No 12. No 1. Heat Transfer 115. Warrier. N. V. vol 1 pp 365 . and Dhir. (1960) “Population of Active Sites in Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer. 8 Wang. In Figure 1. G. F. Heat Transfer. The surface tension reduces the pressure in the liquid above the liquid line (the dotted line in Fig. 5 Labuntsov D. Ser. Eng.” ASME Journal of Heat Transfer. R. the P h pressure diﬀerence between the two sides of P P free surface has to be balanced by the surface tension.16 describes the raising of the liquid as results of the surface tension. 7 Gaetner. To solve the shape of the liquid surface. -1.I.. Symp.. Appalling equation (1.26 CHAPTER 1. ASME. Description of liquid surface. A.” Chem. 4 Arefeva E.38) and using the pressure diﬀerence yields 0 0 0 g h(x). This problem is a two dimensional problem and equation (1.T. The pressure just below the surface is −g h(x) ρ (this pressure diﬀerence will be explained in more details in Chapter 4).46) .16).38) is applicable to it. is the atmospheric pressure. V. and Rohsenow W. (1966) “On the mechanism of boiling heat transfer”.16. E. ”The determination of forced convection surface– boiling heat transfer. (1939) “Approximate theory of heat transfer by developed nucleate boiling” In Sussian Izvestiya An SSSR . ρ = σ R(x) (1. 11-17 1(7) In Russian. (1958) “wlijanii smatchivaemosti na teploobmen pri kipenii. and the contact angle consider simple “wetting” liquid contacting a solid material in two– dimensional shape as depicted in Figure 1.I.16.” J. Energetika I transport... The pressure. 56. INTRODUCTION dynamics in saturated water. (2002) “Onset of Nucleate Boiling and Active Nucleation Site Density during Subcooled Flow Boiling.. pp. and Westwater.” Injenerno Fizitcheskij Jurnal. V.. C.. (1993). J.. K. “Eﬀect of Surface Wettability on Active Nucleation Site Density During Pool Boiling of Water on a Vertical Surface. 659-669 To explain the contour of the surface. W.

52) becomes h2 + constant = − 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. Substituting equation (1. metry) and the derivative at hx An alternative presentation of equation (1. Using dummy variable and the ˙ ¨ ˙ identys h = ξ and hence.1.51) The constant Lp σ/ρ g is refered to as Laplace’s capillarity constant.48) is non–linear diﬀerential equation for height and can be written as ghρ dh d2 h (1.52) After the integration equation (1. is ˙ 1 + h(x) R(x) = ¨ h(x) 2 3/2 27 (1.47) ˙ Where h is the derivative of h with respect to x.47) can be derived either by forcing a circle at three points at (x. h = h(x). The diﬀerential dh is h.53) .48) 2 3/2 ˙ 1 + h(x) ¨ h(x) Equation (1. Equation (1.50) dh (1.50) transforms into gρ h dh = σ ¨ h ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 2 3/2 ¨ σh ˙ 1 + h2 3/2 (1.49) 1+ − 2 =0 σ dx dx ˙ With the boundary conditions that specify either the derivative h(x = r) = 0 (sym˙ = β or heights in two points or other combinations.6. h = ξ = dξ transforms equation (1. The units of this ˙ constant are meter squared. SURFACE TENSION The radius of any continuous function. x+dx.47) into equation (1.51) into 1 h dh = Lp ξdξ (1 + ξ 2 ) 3/2 (1. and x+2dx) and thus ﬁnding the the diameter or by geometrical analysis of triangles build on points x and x+dx (perpendicular to the tangent at these points).48) is ghρ = Integrating equation (1.46) yields σ g h(x) ρ = (1.

This equation is studied extensively in classes on surface tension.55) Squaring both sides and moving the one to the right side yields ˙ h2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp −1 (1.1.28 CHAPTER 1. this equation describes the dimensionless parameter that aﬀects this phenomenon and this parameter will be studied in Chapter ?. Equation (1. 1− h2 = 2 Lp 1 ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 (1. . constant = −1 .59) The constant is determined by the boundary condition at x = 0.6.54) can be rearranged to be ˙ 1 + h2 1/2 = 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 (1. Furthermore.58) can be integrated to yield dh = x + constant 2 1 −1 2 1 − 2h Lp - (1. 1.58) Equation (1. the height and the derivative of the height must by zero so constant + 0 = −1/1 and hence.56) The last stage of the separation is taking the square root of both sides to be dh ˙ h= = dx or dh 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 1 2 1 − 2h Lp 2 −1 (1. INTRODUCTION At inﬁnity.54) Equation (1. Shamefully.57) = dx −1 (1. therefore this discussion on surface tension equation will be limited.54) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation that can be solved by variables separation4 .1 4 This Capillarity p equation has an analytical solution which is x = Lp 4 − (h/Lp)2 − Lp acosh(2 Lp/h) + constant where Lp is the Laplace constant. This book is introductory. For example if h(x − 0) = h0 then constant = h0 . this author doesn’t know how to show it in a two lines derivations.

The maximum that the contact angle can be obtained in equation (1.9 1. However. However.60) h 29 Theory actual 0 working range R Fig. The raising height as a Where ∆ρ is the diﬀerence of liquid density to the function of the radii. the small scale indicates that the simplistic and continuous approach is not appropriate and a diﬀerent model is needed. in reality there is no readily information for contact angle5 and therefore this equation is useful to show the treads.” The depression height. that information conﬂict each other and no real information is avaible see Table 1.18.61) provides reasonable results only in a certain range.61) Figure 1. otherwise it will not be there.17 as blue line.0 { Distilled water [23 C] Mercury [25 C] Equation 0.6 0. The conclusion of this discussion are shown in Figure 1.6 0. The discussion above was referred to “wetting” contact angle.2 1. The acutal dimension for many liquids (even water) is about 1-5 [mm]. .49) proved better results because the curve approaches hemispherical shaper (small gravity eﬀect).5 1.18 exhibits the height as a function of the radius of the tube.1.1 2. -1.3 0. equation (1. But this simplistic equation is unusable and useless unless the contact angle (assuming that the Capilary Height contact angel is constant or a repressive average can be found or provided or can be measured) is given. The height based on equation (1. However. there are information about the contact angle.8 2. The measurements of the height of distilled water and mercury are 5 Actially. The depression of the liquid occurs in a “negative” contact angle similarly to “wetting. For a small tube radius.6.61) is shown in Figure 1. for extremely small radii equation (1.60) when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. Equation (1. Furthermore.4 0.61) with a minus sign.49) approaches the strait line (the liquid line) strong gravity eﬀect. For large radii equation (1.61) indicates that the high height which indicates a negative pressure.60) becomes Fig. (1.6. 2008 hmax 2σ = g ∆ρ r function of the radius.7 Radii [cm] May 29.17. The actual height is shown in the red line. The raising height as a 1. In that case equation (1.8 Height [cm] 0. The liquid at a certain pressure will be vaporized and will breakdown the model upon this equation was constructed.2 0. gas density and r is the radius of tube.0 0. This angle is obtained when a perfect half a sphere shape exist of the liquid surface.17. h is similar to equation (1.2 1. the gravity is working against the surface tension and reducing the range and quality of the predictions of equation (1. SURFACE TENSION The capillary forces referred to the fact that surface tension causes liquid to rise or penetrate into area (volume). On the other hand. It can be shown that the height that the liquid raised in a tube due to the surface tension is 2 σ cos β h= g ∆ρ r (1.61).4 2. -1.0 0.

30

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

presented in Figure 1.18. The experimental results of these materials are with agreement with the discussion above. The surface tension of a selected material is given in Table 1.7. In conclusion, the surface tension issue is important only in case where the radius is very small and gravity is negligible. The surface tension depends on the two materials or mediums that it separates. Example 1.9: Calculate the diameter of a water droplet to attain pressure diﬀerence of 1000[N/m2 ]. You can assume that temperature is 20◦ C. Solution The pressure inside the droplet is given by equation (1.39). D = 2R = 22σ 4 × 0.0728 = ∼ 2.912 10−4 [m] ∆P 1000

End Solution

Example 1.10: Calculate the pressure diﬀerence between a droplet of water at 20◦ C when the droplet has a diameter of 0.02 cm. Solution using equation ∆P = 2σ 2 × 0.0728 ∼ ∼ 728.0[N/m2 ] r 0.0002

End Solution

Example 1.11: Calculate the maximum force necessary to lift a thin wire ring of 0.04[m] diameter from a water surface at 20◦ C. Neglect the weight of the ring. Solution F = 2(2 π r σ) cos β The actual force is unknown since the contact angle is unknown. However, the maximum Force is obtained when β = 0 and thus cos β = 1. Therefore, F = 4 π r σ = 4 × π × 0.04 × 0.0728 ∼ .0366[N ] In this value the gravity is not accounted for.

End Solution

1.6. SURFACE TENSION

◦

31

Table -1.7. The surface tension for selected materials at temperature 20 C when not mentioned.

chemical component Acetic Acid Acetone Aniline Benzene Benzylalcohol Benzylbenzoate Bromobenzene Bromobenzene Bromoform Butyronitrile Carbon disulﬁd Quinoline Chloro benzene Chloroform Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Cyclopentanol Carbon Tetrachloride Carbon disulﬁd Chlorobutane Ethyl Alcohol Ethanol Ethylbenzene Ethylbromide Ethylene glycol Formamide Gasoline Glycerol Helium Mercury Methanol Methyl naphthalene Methyl Alcohol Neon Nitrobenzene Olive Oil Perﬂuoroheptane Perﬂuorohexane

**Surface Tension 27.6 25.20 43.4 28.88 39.00 45.95 36.50 36.50 41.50 28.10 32.30 43.12 33.60 27.50 24.95 34.40 32.70 26.8 32.30 23.10 22.3 22.10 29.20 24.20 47.70 58.20 ∼ 21 64.0 0.12 425-465.0 22.70 38.60 22.6 5.15 43.90 43.0-48.0 12.85 11.91
**

mN m

T 20◦ C 22◦ C 25◦ C −269◦ C −247◦ C -

correction

mN mK

n/a -0.1120 -0.1085 -0.1291 -0.0920 -0.1066 -0.1160 -0.1160 -0.1308 -0.1037 -0.1484 -0.1063 -0.1191 -0.1295 -0.1211 -0.0966 -0.1011 n/a -0.1484 -0.1117 n/a -0.0832 -0.1094 -0.1159 -0.0890 -0.0842 n/a -0.0598 n/a -0.2049 -0.0773 -0.1118 n/a n/a -0.1177 -0.067 -0.0972 -0.0935

32

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

Table -1.7. The surface tension for selected materials (continue)

chemical component Perﬂuorooctane Phenylisothiocyanate Propanol Pyridine Pyrrol SAE 30 Oil Seawater Toluene Turpentine Water o-Xylene m-Xylene

Surface Tension

mN m

T 25◦ C -

correction

mN mK

14.00 41.50 23.70 38.00 36.60 n/a 54-69 28.4 27 72.80 30.10 28.90

-0.0902 -0.1172 -0.0777 -0.1372 -0.1100 n/a n/a -0.1189 n/a -0.1514 -0.1101 -0.1104

**CHAPTER 2 Review of Thermodynamics
**

In this chapter, a review of several deﬁnitions of common thermodynamics terms is presented. This introduction is provided to bring the student back to current place with the material.

2.1 Basic Deﬁnitions

The following basic deﬁnitions are common to thermodynamics and will be used in this book. Work In mechanics, the work was deﬁned as mechanical work = F•d = P dV (2.1)

This deﬁnition can be expanded to include two issues. The ﬁrst issue that must be addressed, that work done on the surroundings by the system boundaries similarly is positive. Two, there is a transfer of energy so that its eﬀect can cause work. It must be noted that electrical current is a work while heat transfer isn’t. System This term will be used in this book and it is deﬁned as a continuous (at least partially) ﬁxed quantity of matter. The dimensions of this material can be changed. In this deﬁnition, it is assumed that the system speed is signiﬁcantly lower than that of the speed of light. So, the mass can be assumed constant even though the true conservation law applied to the combination of mass energy (see Einstein’s law). In fact for almost all engineering purpose this law is reduced to two separate laws of mass conservation and energy conservation.

33

34

CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS

Our system can receive energy, work, etc as long the mass remain constant the deﬁnition is not broken. Thermodynamics First Law This law refers to conservation of energy in a non accelerating system. Since all the systems can be calculated in a non accelerating systems, the conservation is applied to all systems. The statement describing the law is the following. Q12 − W12 = E2 − E1 (2.2)

The system energy is a state property. From the ﬁrst law it directly implies that for process without heat transfer (adiabatic process) the following is true W12 = E1 − E2 (2.3)

Interesting results of equation (2.3) is that the way the work is done and/or intermediate states are irrelevant to ﬁnal results. There are several deﬁnitions/separations of the kind of works and they include kinetic energy, potential energy (gravity), chemical potential, and electrical energy, etc. The internal energy is the energy that depends on the other properties of the system. For example for pure/homogeneous and simple gases it depends on two properties like temperature and pressure. The internal energy is denoted in this book as EU and it will be treated as a state property. The potential energy of the system is depended on the body force. A common body force is the gravity. For such body force, the potential energy is mgz where g is the gravity force (acceleration), m is the mass and the z is the vertical height from a datum. The kinetic energy is K.E. = mU 2 2 (2.4)

Thus the energy equation can be written as Total Energy Equation mU1 mU2 2 + mgz1 + EU 1 + Q = + mgz2 + EU 2 + W 2 2 For the unit mass of the system equation (2.5) is transformed into Spesiﬁc Energy Equation U1 2 U2 2 + gz1 + Eu 1 + q = + gz2 + Eu 2 + w 2 2 (2.6)

2

(2.5)

where q is the energy per unit mass and w is the work per unit mass. The “new” internal energy, Eu , is the internal energy per unit mass.

2.1. BASIC DEFINITIONS

35

Since the above equations are true between arbitrary points, choosing any point in time will make it correct. Thus diﬀerentiating the energy equation with respect to time yields the rate of change energy equation. The rate of change of the energy transfer is DQ ˙ =Q Dt (2.7)

In the same manner, the work change rate transfered through the boundaries of the system is DW ˙ =W Dt Since the system is with a ﬁxed mass, the rate energy equation is DU D Bf z D EU ˙ ˙ + mU +m Q−W = Dt Dt Dt (2.9) (2.8)

For the case were the body force, Bf , is constant with time like in the case of gravity equation (2.9) reduced to Time Dependent Energy Equation D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt (2.10)

The time derivative operator, D/Dt is used instead of the common notation because it referred to system property derivative. Thermodynamics Second Law There are several deﬁnitions of the second law. No matter which deﬁnition is used to describe the second law it will end in a mathematical form. The most common mathematical form is Clausius inequality which state that δQ ≥0 T (2.11)

The integration symbol with the circle represent integral of cycle (therefor circle) in with system return to the same condition. If there is no lost, it is referred as a reversible process and the inequality change to equality. δQ =0 T (2.12)

The last integral can go though several states. These states are independent of the path the system goes through. Hence, the integral is independent of the path. This observation leads to the deﬁnition of entropy and designated as S and the derivative of entropy is ds ≡ δQ T rev (2.13)

Or in a diﬀerential form as dH = dEU + dP V + P dV Combining equations (2. Thus.12) can be written as δQ = T dS and the work that the system is doing on the surroundings is δW = P dV Substituting equations (2. Thus. the process in which it is reversible and adiabatic. equation (2.18) the (2. Furthermore.20) (2. h. it still remail valid for all situations.16) into (2.14) One of the conclusions that can be drawn from this analysis is for reversible and adiabatic process dS = 0.19) (2. For reversible process equation (2. The equation (2.16) (2. isn’t correct.17) is reduced to dH = V dP . the enthalpy of the system. the reverse conclusion that zero change of entropy leads to reversible process.17) (2.21) ρ .18) For isentropic process. the entropy remains constant and referred to as isentropic process.17) in mass unit is dP T ds = du + P dv = dh − (2. Enthalpy It is a common practice to deﬁne a new property. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Performing integration between two states results in 2 S2 − S1 = 1 δQ = T rev 2 dS 1 (2. which is the combination of already deﬁned properties.15) (2.17) yields (one form of) Gibbs Equation T dS = dH − V dP (2.36 CHAPTER 2. it can be shown that it is valid for reversible and irreversible processes. It can be noted that there is a possibility that a process can be irreversible and the right amount of heat transfer to have zero change entropy change.15) Even though the derivation of the above equations were done assuming that there is no change of kinetic or potential energy. H = EU + P V The speciﬁc enthalpy is enthalpy per unit mass and denoted as.10) results in T dS = d EU + P dV (2.

22) And since the change of the enthalpy involve some kind of work is deﬁned as Spesiﬁc Pressure Heat Cp ≡ ∂h ∂T (2.26) . The simplest equation of state referred to as ideal gas. and speciﬁc volume deﬁne the equation of state for gases. and it is deﬁned as P = ρRT (2.2. Normally the relationship of temperature. The ﬁrst change of the internal energy and it is deﬁned as the following Spesiﬁc Volume Heat Cv ≡ ∂Eu ∂T (2. BASIC DEFINITIONS when the density enters through the relationship of ρ = 1/v. This approximation less strong for liquid but not by that much and in most cases it applied to the calculations. 37 Speciﬁc Heats The change of internal energy and enthalpy requires new deﬁnitions.3145 kj kmol K (2. The ratio the speciﬁc heat of gases is larger than one. that ”all gases at the same pressures and temperatures have the same number of molecules per unit of volume.24) For solid. Commonly the diﬀerence for solid is ignored and both are assumed to be the same and therefore referred as C.25) Application of Avogadro’s law.” allows the calculation of a “universal gas constant. the ratio of the speciﬁc heats is almost 1 and therefore the diﬀerence between them is almost zero.” This constant to match the standard units results in ¯ R = 8.23) The ratio between the speciﬁc pressure heat and the speciﬁc volume heat is called the ratio of the speciﬁc heat and it is denoted as. Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp k≡ Cv (2. k. pressure.1. Equation of state Equation of state is a relation between state variables.

29637 2.4108 1.18855 0.01 28.7662 1.124 44.18892 0.1156 10.6179 0.667 1.04 20.7165 0.044 1. REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS Thus.7448 1. Table -2.0413 1.6618 1.183 28.25) of state for perfect gas it follows d(P v) = RdT For perfect gas dh = dEu + d(P v) = dEu + d(RT ) = f (T ) (only) (2.0299 1.015 R kj KgK CP kj KgK Cv kj KgK k Air Argon Butane Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Ethane Ethylene Helium Hydrogen Methane Neon Nitrogen Octane Oxygen Propane Steam 0. Properties of Various Ideal Gases [300K] Gas Chemical Formula Ar C4 H10 CO2 CO C 2 H6 C 2 H4 He H2 CH4 Ne N2 C8 H18 O2 C 3 H8 H2 O Molecular Weight 28.230 31.186 1.2091 2.07 28.27) The speciﬁc constants for select gas at 300K is provided in table 2.2537 1.7445 1.400 1.20813 0.091 1.409 1.6794 1.07703 4.400 1.126 1.393 1.0416 1.27650 0.097 18.667 1.7113 0.013 114.400 1.0035 0.1.289 1.7164 0.28700 0.25983 0.9216 1.29680 0. the speciﬁc gas can be calculate as R= ¯ R M (2.29683 0.14304 0.5482 5.8723 0.4909 1.327 From equation (2.237 1.28) .2518 3.29) (2.38 CHAPTER 2.01 30.48152 1.970 39.003 2.12418 0.5203 1.07279 0.0849 1.3122 1.6529 0.7354 0.054 4.999 44.1.299 1.667 1.5734 0.41195 0.4897 1.8418 1.016 16.6385 0.1926 14.948 58.51835 0.

32) (2.38) .1.35) transformed into k T2 P2 s2 − s1 = ln − ln R k − 1 T1 P1 For isentropic process. The entropy for ideal gas can be simpliﬁed as the following 2 s2 − s1 = 1 dh dP − T ρT (2.33) The speciﬁc heat ratio. k value ranges from unity to about 1.2. The ratio of the speciﬁc heats can be expressed in several forms as Cv to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cv = R k−1 (2. the following is obtained T2 ln = ln T1 P2 P1 k−1 k (2.36) (2. of Classical thermodynamics. BASIC DEFINITIONS From the deﬁnition of enthalpy it follows that d(P v) = dh − dEu 39 (2.37) as Ideal Gas Isontropic Relationships T2 = T1 P2 P1 k−1 k = V1 V2 k−1 (2.28) and subsisting into equation (2.” The values of several gases can be approximated as ideal gas and are provided in Table (2.35) Or using speciﬁc heat ratio equation (2.1). These values depend on the molecular degrees of freedom (more explanation can be obtained in Van Wylen “F.31) Cp to Spesiﬁc Heats Ratio Cp = kR k−1 (2.30) and dividing by dT yields Cp − Cv = R This relationship is valid only for ideal/perfect gases.30) Utilizing equation (2.34) Using the identities developed so far one can ﬁnd that 2 s2 − s1 = 1 Cp dT − T 2 1 R dP T2 P2 = Cp ln − R ln P T1 P1 (2.37) There are several famous identities that results from equation (2. ∆s = 0.667.

REVIEW OF THERMODYNAMICS The ideal gas model is a simpliﬁed version of the real behavior of real gas. The real gas has a correction factor to account for the deviations from the ideal gas model.40 CHAPTER 2. This correction factor referred as the compressibility factor and deﬁned as Z deviation from the Ideal Gas Model PV Z= RT (2.39) .

1) Notice that ω can have three dimensional components. The acceleration is the derivative of the velocity “regular acceleration” angular acceleration centrifugal acceleration Coriolis acceleration a= dU = dt d2R dt2 + R× R dω dt +ω × R × ω +2 dR dt ×ω R (3.2) Example 3.1 Kinematics of of Point Body A point body is location at time. This chapter provides a review of important deﬁnitions and concepts from Mechanics (statics and dynamics).1: A water jet is supposed be used to extinguish the ﬁre in a building as depicted in Figure 41 . 3. The velocity is derivative of the change of the location and using the chain role (for the direction and one for the magnitude) results. These concepts and deﬁnitions will be used in this book and a review is needed. t in a location. change in R direction change in perpendicular to R U = dR = dt dR dt + R ω ×R (3. It also can be noticed that this derivative is present derivation of any victory. R .CHAPTER 3 Review of Mechanics This author would like to express his gratitude to Dan Olsen (former Minneapolis city Engineer) and his friend Richard Hackbarth.

d) results in tan θ = 1 b + a 2 (3.e) into (3.f) (3.a) becomes √ ag −g a 0= + U cos θ =⇒ U = U cos θ cos θ Substituting (3.I. -3.I.b) and (3.11 . at what angle the jet has to be shot so that velocity will be horizontal at the window. For given velocity. Assume that gravity is g and the distance of the nozzle from the building is a and height of the window from the nozzle is b.c) can be solved explicitly.a) and substituting into equations (3.b) The velocity for the y coordinate at the window is zero u(t) = 0 = −g t + U sin θ (3. What is the angle that jet has to be aimed.e) −g a2 + a tan θ 2 U 2 cos2 θ (3.c) These nonlinear equations (3. U sin θ U cos θ θ Solution The initial velocity is unknown and denoted as U which two components. dow.I.c) b= and equation (3. The equation for the x coordinate is a = U cos θ t (3. Isolating t from (3.a). t and three equations.I. and time.I.I. There there are three unknowns. Description of the extinguish locity so that the jet reach the winnozzle aimed at the building window. it b proposed to calculate the velocity a of the point particle to toward the window. Calculate what is the veFig.a) The distance for y equation for coordinate (zero is at the window) is 0=− g t2 + U sin θ t − b 2 (3.I. U .I.I.42 CHAPTER 3.I.I.I.d) End Solution 1 While the simple example does not provide exact use of the above equation it provides experience of going over the motions of kinematics.I.b) and (3. . The velocity at x is Ux = U cos θ and the velocity in y direction is Uy = U sin θ.I.I. θ. To simplify the calculations. (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.1.

y or z.2. It can be noticed that center of mass in the x–direction isn’t aﬀected by the distribu. The density “normally” deﬁned as mass per volume. ρ(xi ) is the line density as function of xi . ﬁrst. the dV element has ﬁnite dimendV sions in y–z plane and inﬁnitesimal dimension in x direction see Figure 3. the center will be deﬁned as 1 x= ¯ m dm y x ρ(x)dV V (3. moment of inertia. the the line density is referred to density mass per unit length in the x direction.2. Note.2. the body will not rotate. The physical meaning of the center of mass is that if a straight line force acts on the body in away through the center of gravity. even for solid and uniform density the line density is a function of the geometry. In x coordinate. In same is calculated. -3. Description of how the center of mass tion in the y nor by z directions. center of area (two–dimensional body with equal distribution mass). center of the mass and two. x.3.Fig. then a moment in additional to force is required (to prevent the body for rotating). the x mass. rho) as a function of the location.3) z Here. The density. Here. Suppose that the body has a distribution of the mass (density. fashion the center of mass can be deﬁned in the other directions as following xi of Center Mass 1 xi = ¯ xi ρ(xi )dV m V (3.2. Thus. It turns out that this concept is very useful in calculating rotations. CENTER OF MASS 43 3. Also. It is convenient to use the Cartesian system to explain this concept.2 Center of Mass The center of mass is divided into two sections. the center of mass is required to make the calculations. . m is the total mass of the object.4) where xi is the direction of either. 3. In other words. This concept is derived from the fact that a body has a center of mass/gravity which interacts with other bodies and that this force acts on the center (equivalent force). etc. The center of mass doesn’t depend on the coordinate system and on the way it is calculated. if the body isn’t be held through the center of mass.1 Actual Center of Mass In many engineering problems. if a body will be held by one point it will be enough to hold the body in the direction of the center of mass.

t. Furthermore. -3. are constant and can be canceled.7) can be transformed into Irr m = ρ r2 dV V (3. Thus. schematic.7) If the density is constant then equation (3. the moment of inertia is divided into moment of inertia of mass and area. it turns out that the moment of inertia has much wider applicability. There are cases where the body can be approximated as a twodimensional shape because the body is with a thin with uniform density. 3. Thin body center of mass/area The density.2. Finding the centroid location should be done in the most convenient coordinate system since the location is coordinate independent.5) can be transferred into Aproxiate xi of Center Mass xi = ¯ 1 A xi dA A (3.8) .3. Thus equation (3.3 which has density. REVIEW OF MECHANICS 3.5) Fig. 3. the body was a three dimensional shape. Moment of inertia of mass is deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Irr m = ρr2 dm m (3. equation (3.3.6) when the integral now over only the area as oppose over the volume.3) can be transferred into 1 x= ¯ tA ρ V dm z x x ρ t dA V (3. Consider a uniform thin body with constant thickness shown in Figure 3.1 Moment of Inertia for Mass The moment of inertia turns out to be an essential part for the calculations of rotating bodies. ρ and the thickness.2 Aproximate Center of Area t dA Y In the previous case.44 CHAPTER 3.3 Moment of Inertia As it was divided for the body center of mass. ρ.

but dependent on the location of axis of rotation relative to the body. .12) x= y2 + z2 (3.15) mation of moment of inertia. equation (3.3.3. Any point distance can be calculated from axis x as y (3. MOMENT OF INERTIA 45 The moment of inertia is independent of the coordinate system used for the calculation.13) y’ C z Thus.14) ∆y x z’ ∆x x’ In the same fashion for other two coordinates as Iyy = A x2 + z 2 dA Fig.9) The body has a diﬀerent moment of inertia for every coordinate/axis and they are Ixx = Iyy = Izz = V V V rx 2 dm = ry 2 dm = rz 2 dm = (3. rk = Im m (y 2 + z 2 ) dm (x2 + z 2 ) dm V (x2 + y 2 ) dm V V (3.2.11) The moment of inertia about axis is x can be deﬁned as Moment of Inertia Ixx m Ixx = r2 dA = ρt A where r is distance of dA from the axis x and t is the thickness.4.1 Moment of Inertia for Area General Discussion For body with thickness. The schematic that explains the sum- (3.3. -3. t and uniform density the following can be written moment of inertia for area Ixx m = r2 dm = ρ t m A r2 dA (3.10) 3.12) can be written as Ixx = A y +z 2 2 dA (3.2 3. Some people deﬁne the radius of gyration as an equivalent concepts for the center of mass concept and which means if all the mass were to locate in the one point/distance and to obtain the same of moment of inertia.3.

2 The Parallel Axis Theorem The moment of inertial can be calculated for any axis. Ixx = i=1 Ixxi = n Ixxi (3. The schematic to explain the summation of moment of inertia.20) The moment of inertia of several areas is the sum of moment inertia of each area see Figure 3.46 CHAPTER 3.3. n 2 1 y Ixx = i=1 Ixx i (3. Let Ixx the moment of inertia about axis xx which is at the center of mass/area.17) equation (3. The knowledge about one axis can help calculating the moment of inertia for a parallel axis.18) The ﬁrst term in equation (3.2.18) on the right hand side is the moment of inertia about axis x and the second them is zero.19) Hence.22) . REVIEW OF MECHANICS Izz = A x2 + y 2 dA (3. -3.16) 3.21) x If the same areas are similar thus n Fig.5 and therefore. the relationship between the moment of inertia at xx and parallel axis x x is Parallel Axis Equation Ix x = Ixx + r2 A z (3. The third term is a new term and can be written as constant r2 2 A 2 A 2 2 (∆y) + (∆z) A dA = (∆y) + (∆z) dA = r2 A (3.17) can be expended as Ixx =0 Ix x = A y 2 + z 2 dA + 2 A (y ∆y + z ∆z) dA + A (∆y) + (∆z) 2 2 dA (3.5. The second therm is zero because it integral of center about center thus is zero. The moment of inertia for axis x is Ix x = A r dA = A 2 y 2 +z 2 dA = A (y + ∆y) + (z + ∆z) 2 2 dA (3.

End Solution Fig.7 around x coordinate. -3. Description of rectangular in x–y plane for calculation of moment of inertia.7. For example.3. dr r 3. .2: Calculate the moment of inertia for the mass of the cylinder about center axis which height of h and radius. The moment of inertia can then move the center of area. Cylinder with an element for calculaof the tion moment of inertia. Solution The moment of inertia is calculated utilizing equation (3. Here the convenient element is a shell of thickness dr which shown in Figure 3. Fig.6.3.3.6 as Irr = ρ V r dm = ρ 0 2 r0 dV r h 2 π r dr = ρ h 2 π 2 r0 4 1 1 = ρhπr0 4 = m r0 2 4 2 2 The radius of gyration is rk = 1 2 mr0 2 r0 =√ m 2 End Solution Example 3. The material is with an uniform density and homogeneous.14) as following 0 y z b dx a x Ixx = A 2 2 y +z dA = 0 a dA z 2 bdz = a b 3 3 This value will be used in later examples.3: Calculate the moment of inertia of the rectangular shape shown in Figure 3. Solution The element can be calculated using cylindrical coordinate. as shown in Figure 3.22) is very useful in the calculation of the moment of inertia utilizing the moment of inertia of known bodies. r0 .3 Examples of Moment of Inertia Example 3. MOMENT OF INERTIA h 47 Equation (3. -3.6. the moment of inertial of half a circle is half of whole circle for axis a the center of circle.

2 This .48 CHAPTER 3.9. Calculate the moment of inertia about the center of mass of a square shape with a thickness. The ratio of the moment of inertia of ditionally it can be noticed that the ratio two-dimensional to three–dimensional. Ad. Ixx m = ρ −t/2 b a3 a b t 2 + a3 b + z 2 b a dz = ρ t 12 12 (3. The results are present in Figure 3. a2 /t2 is the only contributor to the error2 . 2008 t a End Solution ratio is a dimensionless number that commonly has no special name. February 28. t compare the results to a square shape with zero thickness.26) = 2 = 3 t2 Ixx m t ba + ba 1 + a2 Ixx Ixxm It can be noticed right away that equation (3. consider a simple shape to see the eﬀects of this assumption.25) Comparison with the thin body results in Ixx ρ t b a3 1 (3. b has no eﬀect on the error. REVIEW OF MECHANICS Example 3.Fig.8. -3. -3. Ixx m (t → 0) → 1.4: To study the assumption of zero thickness.24) The total moment of inertia can be obtained by integration of equation (3.9.23) dz dIx x m b a3 = ρdy + z2 12 2 r r A 2 ba A a b (3. A square element for the calculations of inertia of two-dimensional to three– dimensional deviations. x can be done as following Ixx b a3 12 (3. I can be noticed that the error is signiﬁcant very fast even for small values of t/a while the with of the box.26) indicates that ratio approaches one when thickness ratio is approaches zero.24) to write as t/2 Fig. This author suggests to call this ratio as the B number. Solution The moment of inertia of transverse slice about y (see Figure mech:ﬁg:squareEll) is Ixx t dIxx m = ρ dy The transformation into from local axis x to center axis.

V. There are several ways to approach the calculation (diﬀerent inﬁnitesimal area). -3.11. MOMENT OF INERTIA Example 3.V.b) Results in Izz = Or a 2 a b3 + 2 a3 b = A 3 End Solution (2a)2 + (2b)2 12 (3.20).10 is a r2 d Izz |dy = y 2 + x2 dy dx = −a 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 (3.6: Calculate the center of area and moment of inertia for the parabola. The moment of inertia for a long element with a distance y shown in Figure 3.11. y = αx2 .V. Using this method calculate the entire rectangular. calculate the area ﬁrst.5: Calculate the rectangular moment of Inertia for the rotation trough center in zz axis (axis of rotation is out of the page). Use this area to calculate moment of inertia.10. -3. First the area inside the parabola calculated as √ b/α dA/2 A=2 0 2(3 α − 1) (b − αξ )dξ = 3 2 b α 3 2 .3. Solution For y = b the value of x = Fig. construct a small element and build longer build out of the small one.3. Hint. Parabola for calculations of moment of inertia. Rectangular Moment of inertia. b/α. Hint. why?) is b Izz = −b 2 3 a y 2 + a3 dy 3 4ab (3. Solution dx dy y r x 49 2b 2a Fig.c) Example 3. depicted in Figure 3.a) The second integration ( no need to use (3.

7: Calculate the moment of inertia of strait angle triangle about its y axis as shown in the Figure on the right.14) and doing the integration from 0 to maximum y provides dA b Ix Utilizing equation (3. What is the moment inertia when h −→ 0. Assume that base is a and the height is h.6).20) x =4 0 ξ2 ξ 2 b7/2 dξ = √ α 7 α Ix x A (∆x=xc )2 Ixx = Ix x − A ∆x2 = 4 b7/2 3 α − 1 √ − 3 7 α √ b α 3 2 3αb 15 α − 5 2 or after working the details results in Ixx = b 20 b3 − 14 b2 √ 35 α End Solution Example 3. -3. What is the moment inertia when a −→ 0. Solution The right edge line equation can be calculated as x y = 1− h a Y h dy X a Fig. Utilizing equation (3. The center of every 2 element is at. What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on left. α ξ 2 + b−αξ the element area is used before and therefore 2 √ 1 xc = A 0 xc b/α (b − αξ 2 ) αξ + 2 2 dA (b − αξ 2 )dξ = 3αb 15 α − 5 (3.27) can be done in two steps ﬁrst calculate the moment of inertia in this coordinate system and then move the coordinate system to center. Triangle for example 3. . What is the moment when a symmetrical triangle is attached on bottom.7.27) The moment of inertia of the area about the center can be found using in equation (3.50 CHAPTER 3.12. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The center of area can be calculated utilizing equation (3.

30) results in 0 0 Ixy ∆y A x dA x ∆ydA + ∆x A y dA ∆x ydA + ∆x ∆y A Ix y = A x ydA + A ∆x ∆ydA A (3. the product of inertia for x and y axises is Ixy = A x ydA (3.29) Product of inertia can be positive or negative value as oppose the moment of inertia.3.31) A . Ix y = A x y dA = A (x + ∆x) (y + ∆y)dA (3.3.3)) y 3 h a 1− dy a3 h h = 3 4 0 For two triangles attached to each other the moment of inertia will be sum as The rest is under construction. The calculation of the product of inertia isn’t diﬀerent much for the calculation of the moment of inertia.3. MOMENT OF INERTIA or x y = 1− a h 51 Now using the moment of inertia of rectangle on the side (y) coordinate (see example (3. Here only the product of the area is deﬁned and discussed.4 Product of Inertia In addition to the moment of inertia.30) expanding equation (3. the product of inertia is commonly used. The product of inertia deﬁned as Ix i x j = xi xj dA A (3. End Solution a3 h 2 3. The units of the product of inertia are the same as for moment of inertia. Transfer of Axis Theorem Same as for moment of inertia there is also similar theorem.28) For example.

34) In linear algebra it was shown that for some angle equation (3. End Solution 3.5 Principal Axes of Inertia The inertia matrix or inertia tensor is Ixx −Iyx −Izx −Ixy Iyy −Izy −Ixz −Iyz Izz (3.8: Calculate the product of inertia of straight edge triangle. The total product of inertia is ∆x ∆y A b ′ y y x a ′ x Ix y =0+ a 3 b 3 ab 2 = a2 b2 18 Fig.52 The ﬁnal form is Ix y CHAPTER 3.32) There are several relationships should be mentioned Ixy = Iyx (3. -3. Product of inertia for triangle.35) System which creates equation (3. Solution The equation of the line is a y = x+a b The product of inertia at the center is zero.35) referred as principle system.33) Symmetrical area has zero product of inertia because integration of odd function (asymmmertial function) left part cancel the right part. . Example 3.34) can be transform into Ix x 0 0 0 Iy y 0 0 0 Iz z (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS = Ixy + ∆x ∆y A (3.13.3.

Coriolis. F= ρ rdV V (3. Angular.4 Newton’s Laws of Motion These laws can be summarized in two statements one.36) can be transformed to a continuous form as D (ρ U ) F= dV (3. dm. U is a derivative of the location with respect to time.41) .3. 2 (Ur × ω). NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 53 3. ˙ 3. ω×(r × ω). This law apply to any body and any body can “broken” into many small bodies which connected to each other. for every action by body A on Body B there is opposite reaction by body B on body A. These small “bodies” when became small enough equation (3.38) The velocity. r × ω. Since the derivative with respect to time is independent of the volume.4. stresses).40) The angular momentum of the entire system is calculated by integration (summation) of all the particles in the system as Ls = m r × U dm (3. the system acceleration called the internal forces. The radial velocity is denoted as Ur . Yet this examination provides a tool to study what happened in the ﬂuid during operation of the forces. which can expressed in mathematical form as D (m U ) (3. The body forces are forces that act from a distance like magnetic ﬁeld or gravity. Two.36) F= Dt It can be noted that D replaces the traditional d since the additional meaning which be added. The same as in the dynamic class.39) where r is the location of the particles from the origin. Yet. is deﬁned as L = r × Udm (3. The acceleration is divided into three categories: Centrifugal.37) Dt V The external forces are equal to internal forces the forces between the “small” bodies are cancel each other. it can be treated as the regular derivative. the derivative can be taken out of the integral and the alternative form can be written as F= D Dt D2 Dt2 ρ U dV V (3. The external forces are typically divided into two categories: body forces and surface forces. thus.5 Angular Momentum and Torque The angular momentum of body. The surface forces are forces that act on the surface of the body (pressure.

1 Tables of geometries Th following tables present several moment of inertias of commonly used geometries. A force is acting on the particle in the same plane (x–y) plane.47) The torque is a vector and the various components can be represented as Tτ x = ˆ • i D Dt r × U dm m (3.48) In the same way the component in y and z can be obtained.54 CHAPTER 3. in analogous to the momentum change of time which is the force. consider a particle moving in x–y plane. in the same fashion.40) provides ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ L = r × U = x y 0 = (x v − y u)k (3. Tτ = DL D = (r × Udm) Dt Dt (3. 3. .42) to calculate the torque as ˆ ˆ k i j ˆ ˆ Tτ = r × F = x y 0 = (x Fx − y Fy )k Fx Fy 0 (3. as F = Fxˆ + Fy ˆ Utilizing equation i j. The torque of entire system is Tτ s = D DL = Dt Dt (r × Udm) m (3. REVIEW OF MECHANICS The change with time of angular momentum is called torque.44) To understand these equations a bit better.42) where Tτ is the torque.5.45) u v 0 Utilizing equation (3. it can be proved utilizing vector mechanics) that Tτ = D D Dr D2 r (r × U) = (r × )= Dt Dt Dt Dt2 (3.46) Since the torque is a derivative with respect to the time of the angular momentum it is also can be written as xFx − yFy = D [(xv − yu) dm] Dt (3.43) m It can be noticed (well. The force can be written. The velocity can be written as U = uˆ + vˆ and the location from the origin can be written as r = xˆ + yˆ i j i j. (3.

ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND TORQUE 55 Table -3. yc A Ixx XX Rectangle b b/2 a b a .3. Moments of Inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity (full shapes) Shape Name Picture description xc .1.5. 2 2 ab ab3 12 XX Triangle b b/3 a a 3 ab 3 ab3 36 XX Circle a=b b b/2 b 2 π b2 4 πb4 64 a Ellipse XX a>b b b/2 b b 2 2 π ab 4 Ab2 64 a y = αx2 Parabola a XX b xc 3αb 15 α−5 6α−2 3 × 3 b 2 α √ b (20 b3 −14 b2 ) √ 35 α .

2. Moment of inertia for various plane surfaces about their center of gravity Shape Name Picture description r xc .56 CHAPTER 3. yc A Ixx Quadrant of Circle XX 4r 3π 4r 3π π r2 4 4 π r 4 ( 16 − 9π ) r Ellipsoidal Quadrant XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Half of Elliptic XX b 4b 3π 4b 3π πab 4 π 4 a b3 ( 16 − 9π ) a Circular Sector XX α α 0 2α r2 r4 4 (α− 1 sin 2α) 2 r XX Circular Sector α α 2 r sin α 3 α 2 r sin α 3 α Ix 2α r2 r4 4 x = r (α+ 1 sin 2α) 2 . REVIEW OF MECHANICS Table -3.

gG (x. There is no requirement that the pressure has to be a monotonous function e.1.1.1 Introduction The simplest situation that can occur in the study of ﬂuid is when the ﬂuid is at rest or queasy rest.CHAPTER 4 Fluids Statics 4.2 The Hydrostatic Equation A ﬂuid element with dimensions of DC. several assumptions must be made. the student will be exposed to stability analysis probably for the ﬁrst time. and dz is motionless in the accelerated system. The ﬁrst assumption is that the change in the pressure is a continuous function.g. Description of a ﬂuid element in accel- Equation (4. that pressure can increase and later decrease.1) erated system under body forces. Fig. a as shown in Figure 4. where n is the steepest 57 . z). here this topic will be more vigorously examined. This topic was introduced to most students in previous study of rigid body. with acceleration. 4. -4. dy. a = 0. Later.1) can be reduced and simpliﬁed for the case of no acceleration. The changes of the second derivative pressure are not signiﬁcant compared to the ﬁrst derivative (∂P/∂n × d >> ∂ 2 P/∂n2 ). The system is in a body force ﬁeld. Furthermore. In these derivations. However. the methods discussed here will be expanded to more complicated dynamics situations. The combination of an acceleration and the body force results in eﬀective body force which is gG − a = geﬀ y P P+ ∂P dy dxdz ∂y P+ dy ∂P dz dxdy ∂z P+ ∂P dx dydz ∂x dz dx z P x (4. y.

FLUIDS STATICS direction of the pressure derivative and d is the inﬁnitesimal length.8) as the Fluid Static Equation. As before. now.7) Some refer to equation (4. For example. if the coordinates were to “rotate/transform” to a new system which has a diﬀerent orientation the dot product results in ∂P (4.58 CHAPTER 4. the pressure is treated. P . The body (element) is in rest and therefore the net force is zero in • gradP = F= total surface F+ body F (4. the dot product of the following is ˆ • gradP = ∂P i ∂x (4.6) Hence. was a two–dimensional height (that is only a function of x and y) then the gradient is the steepest ascent of the height (to the valley). This mathematical operation has a geometrical interpretation. as a scalar function (there no reference to the shear stress in part of the pressure) the gradient is a vector. The net pressure force on the faces in the x direction results in ∂P dydx ˆ i dF = − (4. If the pressure.4) In general.3) The term in the parentheses in equation (4. the utilizing the above derivations one can obtain −gradP dx dy dz + ρ geﬀ dx dy dz = 0 or gradP = ρ geﬀ (4. Even though.5) ∂n where in is the unit vector in the n direction and ∂/∂n is a derivative in that direction. This equation can be integrated and therefore solved.8) (4. the calculations of the three directions result in the total net pressure force as F =− surface ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ ∂P ˆ k i+ j+ ∂x ∂y ∂y (4. the eﬀective gravity force is utilized in case where the gravity is the only body force and in an accelerated system.3) referred to in the literature as the pressure gradient.2) ∂x In the same fashion. . it has a direction). a discussion on a simple condition and will continue in more challenging situations. However. The second point is that the gradient is a vector (that is. First. This mathematical statement simply requires that the pressure can deviate in such a way that the average on inﬁnitesimal area can be found and expressed as only one direction. there are several physical implications to this equation which should be discussed and are presented here.

-4. ρ. z) = −ρgz + constant (4. The eﬀective body force is ˆ geﬀ = −g k (4.9) Utilizing equation (4. the z coordinate is used as the (negative) direction of the gravity1 .13) that the pressure depends only on z and/or the constant pressure lines are in the plane of x and y. For this reason sometime there will be a deviation from the above statement. y. Traditionally. it will be used.3.12) (4. Figure 4.13) The integration constant is determined from the initial conditions or another point. (4.2 describes the constant 1 This situation were the tradition is appropriated.3 Pressure and Density in a Gravitational Field In this section. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 59 4.14) a Fig.4. T (in a way no function of the location) are constant.11) (4.8) results into three simple partial diﬀerential equations.12) can be absorbed by the integration of equation (4.9) and substituting it into equation (4. and temperature. .10) can be integrated to yield P (x.3.10) and constant in equation (4. P .1 Constant Density in Gravitational Field The simplest case is when the density. There are ﬁelds where x or y are ρgh designed to the direction of the gravity and opposite direction. pressure. For example. 4.3. y) = constant (4. These equations are ∂P ∂P = =0 ∂x ∂y and ∂P = −ρ g ∂z Equations (4.13) becomes P (z) − P0 = −ρg(z − z0 ) It is evident from equation (4. if at point z0 the pressure is P0 then the equation (4.11) and therefore P (x. A schematic to explain the measure of the atmospheric pressure. a discussion on the pressure and the density in various conditions is presented.

1 Pressure Measurement Measuring the Atmospheric Pressure One of the application of this concept is the idea of measuring the atmospheric pressure. -4.60 CHAPTER 4. Assume that the mercury vapor pressure is .3.3. The reason that a solid boundary doesn’t break the continuity of the pressure lines is because there is always a path to some of the planes.2 4. The high of the Mercury is 0.14) becomes P (h) − P0 = ρgh (4. The liquid is ﬁlling the tube and is brought into a steady state.15) In the literature.82[m/sec].2.1: Calculate the atmospheric pressure at 20◦ C. Example 4. 4. Consider a situation described in Figure 4. Using liquid with a very low vapor pressure like mercury.2. The pressure lines are continuous even in area where there is a discontinuous ﬂuid. It is convenient to reverse the direction of z to get rid of the negative sign and to deﬁne h as the dependent of the ﬂuid that is h ≡ −(z − z0 ) so equation (4.15) is deﬁned as piezometric pressure. FLUIDS STATICS Constant Pressure Lines Fig. will result in a device that can measure the pressure without additional information (the temperature).76 [m] and the gravity acceleration is 9. The pressure above the liquid on the right side is the vapor pressure. pressure lines in the container under the gravity body force. Pressure lines a static ﬂuid with a constant density.3. the right hand side of the equation (4.

Schematic of gas measurement liquid densities is α = ρ1 /ρ2 . The atmospheric pressure at point a is the same as the pressure on the right hand side of the tube.4.3.85[kg/m3 ]. The third reason is the low vapor (partial) pressure of the mercury.16) The main reason the mercury is used because its of large density and the fact that it is in a liquid phase in most of the measurement range.39[P a] ∼ 1. knowing any point on this plane provides the pressure anywhere on the plane. If the width of the U tube is equal or larger than total length of the two liquids then the whole liquid will be in bottom part.2: A liquid2 a in amount Ha and a liquid b in amount Hb in to an U tube. The partial pressure of mercury is in the range of the 0.4. L.15) can be utilized and it can be noticed that pressure at point a is Pa = ρ g h + Pvapor The density of the mercury is given along with the gravity and therefore. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 61 0. Locate the liquids surfaces. Solution The question is to ﬁnd the equilibrium point where two liquids balance each other. End Solution (4. Pa = 13545. P valve 2 1 Example 4. The width of the utilizing the “U” tube. The ratio of the Fig.01[Bar] The vapor pressure is about 1 × 10−4 percent of the total results. U tube is L. For smaller width.82 × 0.85 × 9. Solution The pressure is uniform or constant plane perpendicular to the gravity. Equation (4.000001793[Bar] which is insigniﬁcant compared to the total measurement as can be observed from the above example. the ratio between two sides will be as ρ1 h1 = ρ2 h2 → h2 = α h1 The mass conservation results in Ha + Hb = L + h1 + h2 2 This example was requested by several students who found their instructor solution unsatisfactory. Gas The pressure. Hence.76 ∼ 101095. h .000179264[kPa]. -4. The mercury density is 13545. The description of the height is given in Figure 4.3.

Consider a chamber ﬁlled with gas needed to be ρ1 measured (see Figure 4.5.17) Since the atmospheric pressure was measured previously (the technique was shown in the previous section) the pressure of the chamber can be measured.62 CHAPTER 4.2. One A2 h2 ρ2 technique is to attached “U” tube ρ2 to the chamber and measure the ρ2 pressure. imal interference to the gas (some gas enters to the tube). the gas is prevented from escaping and its pressure can be measured with a min. Schematic of sensitive measurement device. The gas density is signiﬁcantly lower than the liquid density and therefore can be neglected.Fig.4). the balance is h1 ρb + h2 ρa = h3 ρa where h1 is the height of liquid b where h2 is the height of “extra” liquid a and same side as liquid b and where h3 is the height of liquid b on the other side. The additional equation is the mass conservation as Ha = h 2 + L + h 3 The solution is h2 = (Ha − L) ρa − Hb ρb 2 ρa End Solution 4.3. Thus. -4. When in this case h1 is equal to Hb . The pressure at point “1” is P1 = Patmos + ρg h (4. This way. .2 Pressure Measurement The idea describes the atmoh1 P1 P2 A1 A1 spheric measurement can be exρ1 ρ1 tended to measure the pressure gas chambers. FLUIDS STATICS Thus two equations and two unknowns provide the solution which is h1 = Ha + Hb − L 1+α When Ha > L and ρa (Ha − L) ≥ ρb (or the opposite) the liquid a will be on the two sides of the U tube.

The pressure diﬀerence can be expressed as P1 − P2 = g [ρ2 h2 − ρ1 (h1 + h2 )] (4. h1 and provide “better” accuracy reading. Additional parameter.20) −h1 A1 = h2 A2 −→ h1 = − A1 Liquid volumes do not necessarily have to be equal. the density of one side was neglected (the gas side) compared to other side (liquid). Here. This technique utilizes the opposite range. This device is build around the fact that the height is a function of the densities diﬀerence.23) as “magniﬁcation factor” since it replace the regular density. In steady state.2.20). it can be observed that h1 is relatively small because A1 >> A2 .3 Magniﬁed Pressure Measurement 63 For situations where the pressure diﬀerence is very small.18) It can be noticed that the “missing height” is canceled between the two sides. Figure 4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 4.5 shows a typical and simple schematic of such an instrument. This device is based on the following mathematical explanation.20) equation (4.22) A2 A1 (4. The densities of the liquids are chosen to be much heavier than the measured gas density.22) becomes h2 = (4. It can be noticed that h1 can be positive or negative or zero and it depends on the ratio that two containers ﬁlled with the light density liquid. The two sides of the densities are very close to each other so the height became large.4. engineers invented more sensitive measuring device. it provides the relationship between h1 and h2 . the volume ratio. Thus. In the previous technique.3. A2 /A1 << 1. if the volumes in two containers is equal then h2 A2 (4.18) becomes P1 − P2 = g h2 ρ2 − ρ1 1 − or the height is h2 = P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) + ρ1 A2 A1 P1 − P2 g (ρ2 − ρ1 ) (4. But this ratio easily can be inserted into the derivations. For example.19) If the light liquid volume in the two containers is known. this ratio equals to one and it simplify the equation (4. If the pressure diﬀerences between P1 and P2 is small this instrument can “magniﬁed” height. the pressure balance (only diﬀerences) is P1 + g ρ1 (h1 + h2 ) = P2 + g h2 ρ2 (4. Additionally. will be introduced when the volumes ratio isn’t equal.21) For the small value of the area ratio. With the equation for height (4. in writing equation (4. ρ2 .23) Some refer to the density diﬀerence shown in equation (4.3. then equation (4. The densities of the liquid are chosen so that they are close to each other but not equal. The calculations as results of this additional parameter does not cause signiﬁcant complications.18) the gas density was neglected. .

27) can be expanded to show the diﬀerence to standard assumption of constant pressure as − h ρ0 g P0 P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g =1− + + ··· P0 RT 6RT Or in a simpliﬁed form where the transformation of h = (z − z0 ) to be P ρ0 g h − =1+ P0 P0 correction factor 2 (4.3 Varying Density in a Gravity Field There are several cases that will be discussed here which are categorized as gases.3.26) to the following P = P0 e − g(z−zo ) RT (4.64 CHAPTER 4.26) It is convenient to rearrange equation (4.29) . These relationships will be used to ﬁnd the functionality between pressure. The equation of state for liquid can be approximated or replaced by utilizing the bulk modulus.28) h2 + ··· 6 (4.1 Gas Phase under Hydrostatic Pressure Ideal Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The gas density vary gradually with the pressure.24) Separating the variables and changing the partial derivatives to full derivative (just a notation for this case) results in dP g dz =− P RT Equation (4. 4.3. As ﬁrst approximation. FLUIDS STATICS 4. Thus equation (4. the equation of state is simply the ideal gas model or the ideal gas with the compressibility factor (sometime referred to as real gas).27) Here the pressure ratio is related to the height exponentially.25) can be integrated from point “0” to any point to yield ln P g =− (z − z0 ) P0 RT „ « (4. density and location. liquids and other. the ideal gas model can be employed to describe the density.11) becomes ∂P gP =− ∂z RT (4. Equation (4.25) (4.3. In the gas phase.

32) The variables for equation (4. the diﬀerential equation for density should be solved ﬁrst. The modiﬁed equation is P = P0 Or in a series form which is P (z − z0 ) g (z − z0 ) g + + ··· =1− P0 Z RT 6Z RT 2 e „ − g (z−zo ) Z RT « (4.31) Without going through the mathematics. the value of the compressibility factor. In general. The governing diﬀerential density equation (see equation (1.29) is useful in mathematical derivations but should be ignored for practical use3 . So.27) and (4. The simplest approach is to assume that the bulk modulus is constant (or has some representative average). only one hydrostatic equation depends on density equation. Z.28).39). Real Gas under Hydrostatic Pressure The mathematical derivations for ideal gas can be reused as a foundation for the real gas model (P = ZρRT ). Fortunately.2 Liquid Phase Under Hydrostatic Pressure The bulk modulus was deﬁned in equation (1. These deviations have a limited practical purpose.3.30) (4.32) should be separated and then the integration can be carried out as P ρ dP = P0 ρ0 BT dρ ρ (4. there are two diﬀerential equations that needed to be solved. Another point that is worth discussing is the relationship of Z to other gas properties. 4. . However. they are presented here for students who need to answer questions on this issue. can be assumed constant and therefore can be swallowed into equations (4.3. the relationship is very complicated and in some ranges Z cannot be assumed constant. here.28). the ﬁrst approximation should be noticed that the compressibility factor.28)) is ρ = BT ∂ρ ∂P (4. In these cases. a numerical integration must be carried out. For these cases. For a large range of P/Pc and T /Tc .33) The integration of equation (4.33) yields P − P0 = BT ln ρ ρ0 (4. Z enter the equation as h/Z and not just h.4. The compressibility is deﬁned in equation (2.34) 3 These derivations are left for a mathematical mind person. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 65 Equation (4.3.

−1 = (4. Utilizing equation (4.39) March 11.35) in equation (4. The solution is a reverse function (that is not P = f (z) but z = f (P)) it is a monotonous function which is easy to solve for any numerical value (that is only one z corresponds to any Pressure). Additional discussion will be presented in the dimensionless issues chapter (currently under construction).36) e P −P0 BT = z + Constant (4.40) BT The solution is presented in equation (4. -4. BT /g ρ0 . The solution becomes BT g ρ0 BT g ρ0 (4.36) can be integrated to yield BT g ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4.66 CHAPTER 4. with units of length.34) can be represented in a more convenient form as ρ = ρ0 e P −P0 BT (4. the solution is presented as P −P0 BT e Fig. If at z = 0 the pressure is P0 and the density is ρ0 then the constant is Constant = This constant.6.39) and is plotted in Figure 4. Hydrostatic pressure when there is P BT = ln P0 P0 g ρ0 z +1 +1 BT (4. The integration constant.6.38) e P −P0 BT −1 =z (4. FLUIDS STATICS Equation (4.41) .37) It can be noted that BT has units of pressure and therefore the ratio in front of the exponent in equation (4. 2008 P −P0 BT Or in a dimensionless form g ρ0 z BT z g ρ0 compressibility in the liquid phase.35) Equation (4. can be evaluated at any speciﬁc point.11) transformed into ∂P = −gρ0 ∂z Equation (4. is a typical length of the problem.37) has units of length. Sometimes.35) is the counterpart for the equation of state of ideal gas for the liquid phase.

Hence.1 The Pressure Eﬀects Because Temperature Variations The Basic Analysis There are situations when the main change of the density results from other eﬀects.44) where the Constant is the integration constant which can be obtained by utilizing the initial condition. For h = 0. Additionally.3. the temperature–distance function can be written as T = Constant − Cx h (4.3. For example.43) where h here referred to height or distance.3.).45) .42) is reduced to the standard equation when the normalized pressure ratio.45) with (4. it is commonly assumed that the temperature is a linear function of the height. it can be observed that the correction is on the left hand side and not as the “traditional” correction on the piezometric pressure side. A bit more complicate case is when the gas is a function of the pressure and another parameter. when the temperature ﬁeld is not uniform. 4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 67 An approximation of equation (4.11) results in ∂P gP =− ∂h R (T0 − Cx h) (4.40) is presented for historical reasons and in order to compare the constant density assumption.4. Here. in the atmosphere the temperature is assumed to be a linear with the height under certain conditions. The exponent can be expanded as piezometric pressure BT (P − P0 ) + 2 corrections P − P0 BT 2 3 BT + 6 P − P0 BT + · · · = z g ρ 0 (4.42) It can be noticed that equation (4. Air can be a function of the temperature ﬁeld and the pressure. P/BT is small (<< 1). For the atmosphere.4.46) (4. the temperature is T0 and using it leads to T = T0 − Cx h Combining equation (4.4 4. a simple case is examined for which the temperature is a linear function of the height as dT = −Cx dh (4. the density is aﬀected and thus the pressure is a location function (for example.

T0 R 2 T0 2 R2 Equation (4. However. I am grateful to my adviser E. The correction factor occurs only at the third term which is important for larger heights. 4 A colleague asked this author to insert this explanation for his students.G.49) Or in a more convenient form as g T0 − Cx h ( R Cx ) T0 P = P0 (4. negative direction).50) It can be noticed that equation (4. please.47) and reusing (the reverse deﬁnitions) the variables transformed the result into ln P g T0 − Cx h = ln P0 R Cx T0 (4. this kind of analysis will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter5 .51) P Cx = lim 1 − h h−>0 P0 T0 g R Cx =1− R g C x − g 2 h2 gh − −. h. Using these deﬁnitions results in g dξ dP = P RCx ξ (4. If you feel that it is too simple. Equation (4.50) is a monotonous function which decreases with height because the term in the brackets is less than one. It can be observed that Cx has a “double role” which can change the pressure ratio.e. .51) shows that the ﬁrst two terms are the standard terms (negative sign is as expected i. just ignore it. This situation is roughly representing the pressure in the atmosphere and results in a temperature decrease. 5 These concepts are very essential in all the thermo–ﬂuid science. It can be recalled that the following expansions are g h ρ0 P0 correction factor (4. The ﬁrst approximation for a small distance. and the second approximation for a small temperature gradient.48) After integration of equation (4. It is worth to point out that the above statement has a qualitative meaning when additional parameter is added. Eckert who was the pioneer of the dimensional analysis in heat transfer and was kind to show me some of his ideas.47) Deﬁning a new variable4 as ξ = (T0 − Cx h) for which ξ0 = T0 − Cx h0 and d/dξ = −Cx d/dh.68 CHAPTER 4.46) and changing the formal ∂ to the informal d to obtain dP g dh =− P R (T0 − Cx h) (4.R. FLUIDS STATICS Separating the variables in equation (4.50) can be approximated by two approaches/ideas...

If . Suppose that h for some reason. That is. The buoyancy forces are proportional to the ratio of the density of the slab to surrounding layer density. This question is determined by the net forces acting on the slab..50) represents only the pressure ratio. to yield P P0 T0 T g R Cx ρ P T0 = = ρ0 P0 T 1− Cx h ( T0 ) 1+ Cx h T (4. The two forces that act on the slab are the gravity force and the surroundings pressure (buoyant forces).52) are not properly represented without the characteristic height.45). -4. Thus. A weak wind or other disturbances can make the unstable system to move to a new condition. Two adjoin layers for stability analysis. Whether these forces are toward the original layer or not. a small slab of material moves from a layer at height.25).52) shows that the correction factor (lapse coeﬃcient). PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD The second approximation for small Cx is P Cx = lim h 1− Cx −>0 P0 T0 g R Cx 69 = e gh −RT 0 − g h2 Cx 2 T0 2 R e gh −RT 0 − . Cx . For engineering purposes.3. This relationship can be obtained from combining equations (4.53) Advance material can be skipped 4. main possibilities one: the slab could return to the original layer or two: stay at the new layer (or even move further.52) Equation (4.7) What could happen? There are two Fig. inﬂuences at only large values of height. (4. the stability question is whether the slab density from layer h. higher heights).50) is stable and if so under what conditions.4. The simplest assumption to combine these equations is by assuming the ideal gas model. The ﬁrst case is referred to as the stable condition and the second case referred to as the unstable condition. the slab is in equilibrium with its surroundings before the movement (not necessarily stable). It has to be inserted to make the physical signiﬁcance clearer. Under equilibrium. to layer at height h + dh (see Figure 4.7. The whole system falls apart and does not stay if the analysis predicts unstable conditions.51) and (4.4. Equation (4. it is sometimes important to obtain the density ratio. equation (2. It has to be noted that these equations (4. ρ (h) undergoing a free expansion is higher or lower than the density of the layer h + dh.2 The Stability Analysis It is interesting to study whether h + dh this solution (4.. Clearly. the surroundings “pressure” forces (buoyancy forces) are equal to gravity forces.3.50) and (4. the body forces that acting on the slab are equal to zero. h.

59) .55) When the symbol denotes the slab that moves from layer h to layer h + dh. The little slab undergoes isentropic expansion as following for which (see equation (2. The reason that the free expansion is chosen to explain the process that the slab undergoes when it moves from layer h to layer h + dh is because it is the simplest. The term ρ (h) is slab from layer h that had undergone the free expansion.51) and thus ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− gdh T (h) R 1/k (4.53) as following ρ(h + dh) P T0 = = ρ(h) P0 T 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T (4. Pk 2 P 2 k2 (4.56) Again using the ideal gas model for equation (4.57) transformed into ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− ρ gdh P 1/k (4.57) Expanding equation (4. FLUIDS STATICS ρ (h) > ρ(h + dh) then the situation is stable.70 CHAPTER 4.57) in taylor series results in 1− ρ gdh P 1/k =1− g 2 ρ2 k − g 2 ρ2 dh2 g ρ dh − − . the pressure process is about thousands times faster then the thermal process. In reality.. The thermal process is in the range of [cm/sec] while the speed of sound is about 300 [m/sec]. The pressure ratio is given by equation (4. under the above discussion and simpliﬁcations..50) but can be approximated by equation (4.54) The pressure and temperature change when the slab moves from layer at h to layer h + dh. The slab density at layer h+dh can be obtained using equation (4. However.25)) ρ (h + dh) = ρ(h) P (h + dh) P (h) 1/k (4.58) The density at layer h + dh can be obtained from (4. the free expansion is not far way from the actual process. can be assumed to be adiabatic (that is. That is. The process. no signiﬁcant heat transfer occurs in the short period of time). The second issue that occurs during the “expansion” is the shock (in the reverse case [h + dh] → h). this shock is insigniﬁcant (check book on Fundamentals of Compressible Flow Mechanics by this author on the French problem).54) and then it is expanded in taylor series as ρ(h + dh) = ρ(h) 1− g Cx dh ( R Cx ) Cx dh 1+ T0 T ∼1− g ρ Cx − P T dh + · · · (4. The two processes that occurred here are thermal and the change of pressure (at the speed of sound).

one has to bear in mind that this analysis only provides a range and isn’t exact. It should be noted that this value should be changed a bit since the k should be replaced by polytropic expansion n. The varying gravity eﬀects on force source in liquid can be the liquid itself.5 Gravity Variations Eﬀects on Pressure and Density Until now the study focus on the change of density and pressure of the ﬂuid.3. See example for the ﬂoating ice in cup. The body g ∝ r2 force was assumed until now to be constant.61) The analysis shows that the maximum amount depends on the gravity and gas properties. At ﬁrst glance. When lapse rate Cx is equal to the right hand side of the inequality.60) After rearrangement of the inequality (4. ρ and the body force. it is said that situation is neutral. Thus. 6 The same issue of the ﬂoating ice.11) has two terms on the right hand side.4. The source of the gravity force in gas is another body.3. rb the density.8. . From a mathematical point of view. it transformed to (k − 1) g ρ Cx > T kP k−1 g Cx < k R (4. What is the source of the force(s) that make this situation when unstable continue to be unstable? Supposed that the situation became unstable and the layers have been exchanged.59) and (4. would the situation become stable now? One has to remember that temperature gradient forces continuous heat transfer which the source temperature change after the movement to the new layer. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD 71 The comparison of the right hand terms of equations (4. Equation r P b ρb (4. while the gravity Fig. density and pressure. the body force is independent of the ﬂuid. Thus. the unstable situation is continuously unstable.60) and using the ideal gas identity. 4. g. This assumption must be deviated when the distance from the body source is signiﬁcantly change. One of the common question this author has been asked is about the forces of continuation.58) provides the conditions to determine the stability. -4. However. to keep the inequality for a small dh only the ﬁrst term need to be compared as gρ g ρ Cx > − Pk P T (4. around this value additional analysis is needed 6 .

Again. numerical integration is a possible solution.5.63) results in ln Or in a simpliﬁed form as ρ P = = ρb Pb P G =− Pb RT 1 1 − rb r (4. As before. Assuming that the pressure is aﬀected by this gravity/body force. It has to remember when this assumption isn’t accurate enough. The regular method of separation is employed to obtain P Pb dP G =− P RT r rb dr r2 (4. The integration of equation (4.62) where here G denotes the general gravity constant.11) can be used (semi one directional situation) when r is used as direction and thus ∂P G = −ρ 2 ∂r r (4. 4.65) Equation (4. The gravity force can be assumed that for inﬁnity. The issues of magnetohydrodynamics are too advance for undergraduate student and therefore. the discussion is separated into two different issues. Z. equation (4.3. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0. r → ∞ the pressure is about zero.65) can be expanded in taylor series as standard correction f actor 2 2 G R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) ρ P G (r − rb ) = =1− − + . 4. it was explained that the gravity is a function of the distance from the center of the plant/body. FLUIDS STATICS Thus. is employed.63) where the subscript b denotes the conditions at the body surface.65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance..will not be introduced here. equation (4.72 CHAPTER 4.2 Real Gas in Varying Gravity The regular assumption of constant compressibility. .64) e G r−r − RT r r b b (4.66) Notice that G isn’t our beloved and familiar g and also that G rb /RT is a dimensionless number (later in dimensionless chapter about it and its meaning). The gravity force is reversely proportional to r2 ..1 Ideal Gas in Varying Gravity In physics.3. 2 ρb Pb RT 2 rb (R T ) (4.5. It can be noticed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb .

72) . 2 ρb Pb Z RT 2 rb (Z R T ) (4. It can be observed that for r → rb the pressure is approaching P → Pb ..4.65) is standard correction f actor 2 2 G Z R T + G2 rb (r − rb ) P G (r − rb ) ρ − = =1− + . there are situations where the spherical coordinates must be considered and used. it is left for the reader to apply according to problem. If the liquid “equation of state” (4.5.3. This equation conﬁrms that the density in outer space is zero ρ(∞) = 0.69) It can be noted that compressibility factor can act as increase or decrease of the ideal gas model depending on whether it is above one or below one.67) With the same process as before for ideal gas case.70) e 4.3.3.6 Liquid Phase P0 −P BT = Constant − (4. the Cartesian coordinates provides suﬃcient treatment to the problem.70) is e P −P0 BT G r2 BT g ρ0 r (4. Derivations of the ﬂuid static in spherical coordinates are 1 d r2 dr r2 dP ρ dr + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4.000 [m].. While for most practical purposes. As before taylor series for equation (4.63) is transformed into P Pb 73 dP G =− P Z RT r rb dr r2 (4. 4. if applicable.35) is used with the hydrostatic ﬂuid equation results in ∂P = −ρ0 ∂r which the solution of equation (4.3 Liquid in Under Varying Gravity For comparison reason consider the deepest location in the ocean which is about 11. one can obtain ρ P = = ρb Pb e G r−r −Z RT r r b b (4.65) demonstrates that the pressure is reduced with the distance.68) Equation (4. equation (4. PRESSURE AND DENSITY IN A GRAVITATIONAL FIELD Thus.71) Since this author is not aware to which practical situation this solution should be applied.

73) 4. in a two dimensional system. Equation (4. As before.3: What is the angle of the liquid surface for a container in an accelerated system of a = 5[m/sec]? Solution This question is one of the traditional question the ﬂuid static and is straight forward. Example 4. However. . the constant pressure plane is perpendicular to the direction of the eﬀective gravity.75) and the angle/direction can be obtained from tanβ = a g (4. the previous derivations can be easily extended. Generally the acceleration is divided into two categories: linear and angular and they will be discussed in this order.74 Or in a vector form as 1 P ρ CHAPTER 4.74) where the magnitude of the eﬀective gravity is |gef f | = g 2 + a2 (4. for the eﬀective gravity (4. The general. the linear acceleration have three components as opposed to the previous case of only one.4 Fluid in a Accelerated System Up to this stage.76) Perhaps the best way to explain the linear acceleration is by examples.4. the previous method can be used and there is no need to solve new three (or two) diﬀerent equations. FLUIDS STATICS • + 4 π Gρ = 0 (4. body forces were considered as one-dimensional. Consider the following example to illustrate the situation.8) can be transformed into a diﬀerent coordinate system where the main coordinate is in the direction of the eﬀective gravity.1 Fluid in a Linearly Accelerated System ˆ gef f = a ˆ + g k i For example. Thus. 4.

10. The eﬀective gravity is for accelerated cart.1 a 75 m 5 sec g geﬀ Fig.81 The magnitude of the eﬀective acceleration is |gef f | = 52 + 9. the acceleration in the cart direction is determined from a = g sin β (4.10. If there is no resistance. This requires to ﬁnd the angle of the eﬀective body force.4.9. the liquid surface is parallel to the surface of the inclination surface.77) Fig. If there is a resistance what will be the angle? What happen when the slope angle is straight (the cart is dropping straight down)? Solution (a) The angle can be found when the acceleration of the cart is found. A cart slide on inclined plane.01◦ g 9. This angle/direction can be found using the following tan−1 β = tan−1 a 5 = ∼ 27. Thus.4: Cart partially is ﬁlled with liquid and is sliding on an inclined plane as shown in Figure 4.812 = 11. -4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM 27. Calculate the shape of the surface.015[m/sec2 ] End Solution Example 4. . F (a ) β The eﬀective body force is acting perpendicular to the slope. -4.4.

76

End Solution

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

(b) In case of resistance force (either of friction due to the air or resistance in the wheels) reduces the acceleration of the cart. In that case the eﬀective body moves closer to the gravity forces. The net body force depends on the mass of the liquid and the net acceleration is a=g− The angle of the surface, α < β, is now tan α =

net g − Fm g cosβ

Fnet m

(4.78)

(4.79)

(c) In the case when the angle of the inclination turned to be straight (direct falling) the eﬀective body force is zero. The pressure is uniform in the tank and no pressure diﬀerence can be found. So, the pressure at any point in the liquid is the same and equal to the atmospheric pressure.

r su ce fa

th wi

t ic fr

n io

α

a

β g sin β − Fnet m

β g

geﬀ

4.4.2 Angular Acceleration Systems: Constant Density

Fig. -4.11. Forces diagram of cart sliding on inclined plane.

For simpliﬁcation reasons, the ﬁrst case to deal with a rotation in a perpendicular to the gravity. That is the eﬀective body force can be written as ˆ gef f = −g k + ω 2 r r ˆ The lines of constant pressure are not straight lines but lines of parabolic shape. The angle of the line depends on the radius as dz g =− 2 dr ω r (4.81) (4.80)

z r

unit mass

ω2 r g

geﬀ

center of circulation

Equation (4.81) can be integrated as ω 2 r2 z − z0 = 2g (4.82)

Fig. -4.12. Schematic to explain the angular angle.

4.4. FLUID IN A ACCELERATED SYSTEM

77

Notice that the integration constant was substituted by z0 . The constant pressure will be along P − P0 = ρg (z0 − z) + To illustrate this point, example 4.5 is provided.

Calculation of the correction factor dA Rotation center

ns ta re lin e

ω 2 r2 2g

(4.83)

pr

es

su

S

ω

L

co

xL

Fig. -4.13. Schematic angular angle to explain example 4.5.

Example 4.5: A “U” tube with a length of (1 + x)L is rotating at angular velocity of ω. The center of rotation is a distance, L from the “left” hand side. Because the asymmetrical nature of the problem there is diﬀerence in the heights in the U tube arms of S as shown in Figure 4.13. Expresses the relationship between the diﬀerent parameters of the problem. Solution It ﬁrst assumed the height is uniform at the tube (see for the open question on this assumption). The pressure at the interface at the two sides of the tube is same. Thus, equation (4.82) represent the pressure line. Taking the “left” wing of U tube change in z direction zl − z0 The same can be said for the other side zr − z0 = ω 2 x2 L2 2g = change in r direction ω 2 L2 2g

Thus subtracting the two equations above from each each other results in zr − zl = L ω 2 1 − x2 2g

**It can be noticed that this kind equipment can be used to ﬁnd the gravity.
**

End Solution

nt

78

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

Example 4.6: Assume the diameter of the U tube is Rt . What will be the correction factor if the curvature in the liquid in the tube is taken in to account. How would you suggest to deﬁne the height in the tube? Solution In Figure 4.13 shown the inﬁnitesimal area used in these calculations. The distance of the inﬁnitesimal area from the rotation center is ?. The height of the inﬁnitesimal area is ?. Notice that the curvature in the two sides are diﬀerent from each other. The volume above the lower point is ? which is only a function of the geometry.

End Solution

Example 4.7: In the U tube in example 4.5 is rotating with upper part height of . At what rotating velocity liquid start to exit the U tube? If the rotation of U tube is exactly at the center, what happen the rotation approach very large value?

**4.5 Fluid Forces on Surfaces
**

The forces that ﬂuids (at static conditions) extracts on surfaces are very important for engineering purposes. This section deals with these calculations. These calculations are divided into two categories, straight surfaces and curved surfaces.

4.5.1

Fluid Forces on Straight Surfaces

A motivation is needed before going through the routine of derivations. Initially, a simple case will be examined. Later, how the calculations can be simpliﬁed will be shown. Example 4.8: Consider a rectangular shape gate as shown in Figure 4.14. Calculate the minimum forces, F1 and F2 to maintain the gate in position. Assuming that the atmospheric pressure can be ignored. Solution The forces can be calculated by looking at the moment around point “O.” The element of moment is a dξ for the width of the gate and is

dF

"0"

β = 50◦

h

A-A

ξ

ℓ = 5[m]

ξ

A-A

a[m]

dξ

dM = P a dξ ( + ξ)

dA

F2

F1

b[m]

Fig. -4.14. Rectangular area under pressure.

4.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The pressure, P can be expressed as a function ξ as the following P = g ρ ( + ξ)sinβ The liquid total moment on the gate is

b

79

M=

0

g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ( + ξ)

**The integral can be simpliﬁed as
**

b

M = g a ρ sin β

0

( + ξ)2 dξ

(4.84)

The solution of the above integral is M = g ρ a sin β 3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3

This value provides the moment that F1 and F2 should extract. Additional equation is needed. It is the total force, which is

b

Ftotal =

0

g ρ ( + ξ) sin β a dξ

**The total force integration provides
**

b

Ftotal = g ρ a sin β

0

( + ξ)dξ = g ρ a sin β

2 b + b2 2

The forces on the gate have to provide F1 + F2 = g ρ a sin β 2 b + b2 2

Additionally, the moment of forces around point “O” is F1 + F2 ( + b) = g ρ a sin β The solution of these equations is F1 = F2 = (3 + b) a b g ρ sin β 6 (3 + 2 b) a b g ρ sin β 6

End Solution

3 b l2 + 3 b2 l + b3 3

80

CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS

The above calculations are time consuming and engineers always try to make life simpler. Looking at the above calculations, it can be observed that there is a moment of area in equation (4.84) and also a center of area. These concepts have been introduced in Chapter 3. Several represented areas for which moment of inertia and center of area have been tabulated in Chapter 3. These tabulated values can be used to solve this kind of problems. Symmetrical Shapes Consider the two–dimensional symmetrical area that are under pressure as shown in Figure 4.15. The symmetry is around any axes parallel to axis x. The total force and moment that the liquid extracting on the area need to be calculated. First, the force is

"O"

β ξ

ξ

ℓ0 dξ ℓ1

ξ

**Fig. -4.15. Schematic of submerged area to explain the center forces and moments.
**

h(ξ)

1

F =

A

P dA =

**(Patmos + ρgh)dA = A Patmos + ρg (4.85)
**

0

(ξ +

0 ) sin β

dA

In this case, the atmospheric pressure can include any additional liquid layer above layer “touching” area. The “atmospheric” pressure can be set to zero. The boundaries of the integral of equation (4.85) refer to starting point and ending points not to the start area and end area. The integral in equation (4.85) can be further developed as Ftotal = A Patmos + ρ g sin β

0 xc A

1

(4.86)

A+

0

ξdA

In a ﬁnal form as Ftotal = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( The moment of the liquid on the area around point “O” is

ξ1 0

+ xc )]

y ξ0 β a F1 b F2

"O"

(4.87)

My =

ξ0

P (ξ)ξdA

(4.88)

ξ1

Fig. -4.16. The general forces acting on submerged area.

4.5. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES

81

ξ1

ξ sin β

My =

ξ0

(Patmos + g ρ h(ξ) )ξdA

(4.89)

**Or separating the parts as
**

xc A ξ1 Ix ξ1

x

My = Patmos

ξ0

ξdA +g ρ sin β

ξ0

ξ 2 dA

(4.90)

The moment of inertia, Ix x , is about the axis through point “O” into the page. Equation (4.90) can be written in more compact form as My = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx (4.91)

x

Example 4.8 can be generalized to solve any two forces needed to balance the area/gate. Consider the general symmetrical body shown in ﬁgure 4.16 which has two forces that balance the body. Equations (4.87) and (4.91) can be combined the moment and force acting on the general area. If the “atmospheric pressure” can be zero or include additional layer of liquid. The forces balance reads F1 + F2 = A [Patmos + ρ g sin β ( and moments balance reads F1 a + F2 b = Patmos xc A + g ρ sin βIx The solution of these equations is F1 = and F2 = Ix

x x 0

+ xc )]

(4.92)

(4.93)

ρ sin β −

Patmos gb

xc +

0

ρ sin β + g (b − a)

Patmos g

b A−, Ix

x

ρ sin β

(4.94)

ρ sin β −

ρ sin β −

Patmos ga

xc +

0

ρ sin β +

Patmos g

aA

g (b − a)

(4.95)

In the solution, the forces can be negative or positive, and the distance a or b can be positive or negative. Additionally, the atmospheric pressure can contain either an additional liquid layer above the “touching” area or even atmospheric pressure simply can be set up to zero. In symmetrical area only two forces are required since the moment is one dimensional. However, in non–symmetrical area there two diﬀerent moments and

82 CHAPTER 4.101) (4. These equations (4. two forces and moment) but no general solution is provided. Solution The three equations that needs to be solved are F1 + F2 + F3 = Ftotal The moment around x axis is F1 b = My (4.100) Fig.18.96) can be written as A yc Ix y Mx = Patmos A y dA +ρ g sin β A ξ y dA (4. The moment around the y axis is given by equation (4.97) The integral in equation (4.99) y ξ dA y x Example 4.g.98) The compact form can be written as Mx = Patmos A yc + ρ g sin β Ix The product of inertia was presented in Chapter 3. .96) into Mx = A y (Patmos + ρ g ξ sin β) dA (4. Example to illustrate the use of these equations is provided.91) and (4.99) provide the base for solving any problem for straight area under pressure with uniform density. additional equation is required.87). The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area.96) Substituting the components for the pressure transforms equation (4.17).91) and the total force is given by (4. There are many combinations of problems (e. y (4. FLUIDS STATICS therefor three forces are required. The moment around the x axis (which was arbitrary chosen) should be Mx = A y P dA (4. (4. Thus. This equation is for the additional moment around the x axis (see for explanation in Figure 4.17.87). -4.9: Calculate the forces that are required to balance the triangular shape shown in the Figure 4.

moment of inertia about its center is Ixx = b( 1 − 0 )3 /36.102) The right hand side of these equations are given before in equations (4. The lower line of the b 0 triangle is y = ( 1 − b −a)x + 0 + a. 2 a b2 1 +2 a b 2 Ixy = 0 b 1 − 0 )x + b 0 x y dx dy = 24 0 +a 2 b2 The solution of this set equations is A F1 = a b (g (6 3 „ (3 1 + 3 a) + 6 g „ 12 a 0) ρ sin β + 8 Patmos 24 1 .99). The moment of inertia for triangle 1 about y is A1 ∆x1 2 0 2 Ixx 1 = b( 3 1− 0) 36 + 1 b( 1− 0) 3 0) + 2( 1− 0) 3 The height of the triangle 2 is a − ( inertia about its center is b[a−( 1− 36 0 )] 3 − and its width b and thus. The moment of inertia of the triangle around x is made of two triangles (as shown in the Figure (4. The height of triangle 1 is ( 1 − 0 ) and its width b and thus.4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The moment around y axis is F1 1 83 + F2 (a + 0) + F3 0 = Mx (4.18. Triangle 1 can be calculated as the moment of inertia around its center which is 0 +2∗( 1 − 0 )/3.5. -4. . b ( ( 1 − 0 −a)x ℓ1 y b 1 ℓ0 F3 a F1 2 F2 x + 0 +a Fig.18) for triangle 1 and 2).87). (4. 1 −14 a)− 0 F2 ab 3 « « 12 2 g ρ sin β −27 + a 0 « 0 =− „„ 72 « 48 24 1 a −24 + a 72 − Patmos .91) and (4. It can be noticed that upper line of the triangle is y = ( 1 − 0 )x + 0 . the moment of ∆x2 2 1 A2 Ixx 2 = + b[a−( 1 − 0 )] 3 + [a−( 1 − 0 )] 2 3 and the total moment of inertia Ixx = Ixx 1 + Ixx 2 The product of inertia of the triangle can be obtain by integration. The general forces acting on non symmetrical straight area.

106) and in the same fashion in y direction yp = Ixy + yc yc A (4. The pressure center is the distance that will create the moment with the hydrostatic force on point “O. 4.84 F3 ab 3 „„ 15 a− a « 1 + „„ „ 12 27− a 0 CHAPTER 4.5. These deﬁnitions are mathematical in nature and has physical meaning of equivalent force that will act through this center.5.99). Consider straight/ﬂat body that .91) and equation (4.105) according to equation (3. these limitations diminish the usefulness of pressure center deﬁnitions. In fact.” Thus.17) results in xp = Ixx + xc xc A (4. the reader can ﬁnd that direct calculations can sometimes simplify the problem.1.104) To show relationship between the pressure center and the other properties. pressure centers are commonly deﬁned. Thus. the density was assumed to be constant.103) In the same way. it can be found by setting the atmospheric pressure and 0 to zero as following xp = Expanding Ix x g ρ sin β Ix x A ρ g sin β xc (4. FLUIDS STATICS « « 12 2 1 + a0 g ρ sin β « 0 = + 72 « 24 1 48 a +24 + a 72 End Solution Patmos 4.1. the pressure center in the x direction is xp = 1 F x P dA A (4. The deﬁnition is derived or obtained from equation (4. the pressure center in the y direction is deﬁned as yp = 1 F y P dA A (4.107) It has to emphasis that these deﬁnitions are useful only for case where the atmospheric pressure can be neglected or canceled and where 0 is zero.2 Multiply Layers In the previous sections.1 Pressure Center In the literature. For non constant density the derivations aren’t “clean” but are similar.

If density can be represented by average density.4.5. one can ﬁnd that n My = g sin β i=1 ρi I x x i (4. . ρi is the density of the layer i and Ai and xc i are geometrical properties of the area which is in contact with that layer.112) After similar separation of the total integral. but constant in segments. the reasonable average can be used. the following can be written Ftotal = g sin β ρ1 x c 1 A1 xc 2 A2 xc n An (4. the atmospheric pressure can include all the layer(s) that do(es) not with the “contact” area. 8 A qualitative discussion on what is reasonably is not presented here.109) As before for single density. Moreover.108) In cases where average density cannot be represented reasonably8 .111) where the density. My under the same considerations as before is My = A g ρ ξ 2 sin β dA (4.110) ξ dA +ρ2 A1 A2 ξ dA + · · · + ρn An ξ dA Or in a compact form and in addition considering the “atmospheric” pressure can be written as n Ftotal = Patmos Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi xc i Ai (4. In cases where density is non–continuous. Why? Because of the buoyancy issue. the integral has be carried out. It also means that the density can be a non-continuous function. the following can be said Ftotal = A g ρ h dA = A1 g ρ1 h dA + A2 g ρ2 h dA + · · · + An g ρn h dA (4. if the variation of the density is within 10% and/or the accuracy of the calculation is minimal. However.113) 7 This statement also means that density is a monotonous function. the force that is acting on the body is Ftotal = A g ρ h dA ∼ ρ ¯ A g h dA (4. The moment around axis y. The atmospheric pressure can be entered into the calculation in the same way as before. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES 85 is under liquid with a varying density7 .

Assume that the layers are stables without any movement between the liquids. Calculate the forces at points a1 and b1 . Solution y "O" Since there are only two unknowns. pressure can be used as ρ1 ρ2 ρ3 ρ4 β h1 a2 h3 h2 b2 b1 F2 F1 a1 ℓ The eﬀects of multi layers density on static Patmos = Patmos + ρ1 g h1 The distance for the center for each area is at the middle of each of the “small” .5[m]. Equation ρ4 (4. The last layer is made of water with density of 1000[kg/m3 ].114) can be used by modifying it. and ρ4 = 1000[kg/m3 ]. and b1 = 4.114) and (4. The densities are ρ1 = 500[kg/m3 ]. only two equations are h4 needed.75[m]. The forces distances are a1 = 1. The heights are: h1 = 1[m].and h4 = 4[m]. h2 = 2[m]. a2 = 1.114) In the same fashion one can obtain the moment for x axis as n Mx = Patmos yc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi I x y i (4.19. as can be noticed that instead of using the regular atmospheric Fig.86 CHAPTER 4. ρ2 = 800[kg/m3 ]. Also neglect all mass transfer phenomena that may occur.111).10: Consider the hypothetical Figure 4. The angle of inclination is is β = 45◦ . FLUIDS STATICS If the atmospheric pressure also enters into the calculations one can ﬁnd that n My = Patmos xc Atotal + g sin β i=1 ρi Ix x i (4. ρ3 = 850[kg/m3 ].19. pressure the new “atmospheric” forces. Example 4. h3 = 3[m]. The solution method of this example is applied for cases with less layers (for example by setting the speciﬁc height difference to be zero).5[m]. -4. which are (4.115) To illustrate how to work with these equations the following example is provided.

92[N ] End Solution .79[N ] and F2 = 958923.718 The ﬁnal answer is F1 = 304809. the following equations are obtained Thus.696 A2 = 3. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES rectangular. the ﬁrst equation is Atotal 3 F1 + F2 = Patmos (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai The second equation is (4.5.2892 xc2 = 3. The geometries of each areas are „ «3 87 xc 1 = xc 2 = xc3 = h2 a2 + sin β 2 h2 +h3 2 sin β h3 +h4 2 sin β A1 = A2 = A3 = h2 sin β sin β sin β − a2 Ix x 1 = x 2 x 3 h2 sin β −a2 36 + (xc 1 ) A1 + (xc 2 ) A2 + (xc3 ) A3 2 2 2 (h3 − h2 ) (h4 − h3 ) Ix Ix = = (h3 −h2 )3 36 sin β (h4 −h3 )3 36 sin β After inserting the values.114) to be written for the moment around the point “O” as xc Atotal F1 a1 + F2 b1 = Patmos (b2 + a2 ) (b2 − a2 ) +g sin β ρi+1 Ix 2 i=1 P3 i=1 3 x i The solution for the above equation is 2 b1 g sin β P3 i=1 F1 = P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai −2 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 ρi+1 Ix x i − (b2 2 −2 b1 b2 +2 a2 b1 −a2 2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 2 g sin β ρi+1 Ix x i Patmos F2 = −2 a1 g sin β 2 b1 −2 a1 P3 i=1 ρi+1 xc i Ai + (b2 2 +2 a1 b2 +a2 2 −2 a1 a2 ) 2 b1 −2 a1 Patmos The solution isn’t provided in the complete long form since it makes things messy.9497 A1 = 2.5355 xc3 = 4.4.215 Ix x 2 = 44.535 Ix x 1 = 14. [m4 ]) are: xc1 = 2.292 Ix x 3 = 86. The intermediate results in SI units ([m].535 A3 = 3. [m2 ]. It is simpler to compute the terms separately. A mini source code for the calculations is provided in the the text source.

5. .121) only the liquid above the body affecting the body And the angle in “x z” plane is tan θxz = Fz Fx (4. The force in the z direction Fig.117) The result of the integral is a vector. is Fz = A h g ρdAz (4.2 Force on Curved Surfaces The pressure is acting on surfaces perpendicular to the direction of the surface (no shear forces assumption).120) The force which acting on the z direction is the weight of the liquid above the projected area plus the atmospheric pressure. This force component can be combined with the other components in the other directions to be Ftotal = Fz 2 + Fx 2 + Fy 2 (4. is simply the integral of the area perpendicular to y as Fy = A dAy dAx dA y dAz P dAy (4. The forces on curved area.88 CHAPTER 4. So.122) Fig. -4. Schematic of Net Force on ﬂoating body.118) z From this analysis (equation (4. dA. if the y component of the force is needed.116) Here. The total force on the area will be the integral of the unit force F=− A P n dA ˆ (4.21. -4.119) x The same can be said for the x direction. At this stage. the pressure is treated as a scalar function. FLUIDS STATICS 4. The element force is d F = −P n dA ˆ (4.118)) it can be observed that the force in the direction of y. for example.20. outward as positive. the conventional notation is used which is to denote the area. only a dot product is needed as dFy = dF • ˆ j (4.

Figure 4.4.124) Note that the direction of the area is taken into account (sign). Thus.22)).5. There are no readily made expressions for these 3–dimensional geometries.8[m/sec2 ] and width of the dame is b = 4[m]. When the area Ax is b r dθ cos θ.120) implicitly means that the net force on the body is z direction is only the actual liquid above it. The diﬀerential area that will be used is. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES and the angle in the other plane. Equation (4. Cut–Out Shapes Eﬀects There are bodies with a shape that the vertical direction (z direction) is “cut– out” aren’t continuous. The pressure is only a function of θ and it is P = Patmos + ρ g r sin θ The force that is acting on the x direction of the dam is Ax × P .). b r dθ where b is the width of the dam (into the page).21 shows a ﬂoating body with cut–out slot into it. However. The gravity is 9.123) 89 The moment due to the curved surface require integration to obtain the value. Solution The force in the x direction is dAx Fx = A P r cos θ dθ (4. only the net force is the actual liquid in the slot which is acting on the body.11: Calculate the force and the moment around point “O” that is acting on the dam (see Figure (4. The dam is made of an arc with the angle of θ0 = 45◦ and radius of r = 2[m]. “y z” is tan θzy = Fz Fy (4. Additional point that is worth mentioning is that the depth where the cut–out occur is insigniﬁcant (neglecting the change in the density). direct and indirect. You can assume that the liquid density is constant and equal to 1000 [kg/m3 ]. Example 4. Inside the slot. The atmospheric pressure does cancel itself (at least if the atmospheric pressure on both sides of the dam is the same. Compare the diﬀerent methods of computations. for some geometries there are readily calculated center of mass and when combined with two other components provide the moment (force with direction line). the atmospheric pressure with it piezometric pressure is canceled by the upper part of the slot. The atmospheric pressure acts on the area with continuous lines. The net force will be θ0 P dAx Fx = 0 ρ g r sin θ b r cos θ dθ End Solution . For example.

Area above the dam arc subthe y direction is the area times width. V A θ r2 r2 sin θ0 cos θ0 0 Fy = − − b g ρ ∼ 22375. The arc center (see Figure 4.0[N ] 2 Aarc = r θ r2 2 Since the last two equations are identical (use the sinuous theorem to prove it sin2 θ + cos2 = 1). clearly the discussion earlier was right (not a good proof LOL9 ).23) as r sin θ0 ρgbr = sin2 θ Fx = ρ g b r sin θ0 2 2 Ax xc CHAPTER 4. Ax (see Figure 4.22. just a demonstration! . why? The values to evaluate the last equation are provided in the question and simplify subsidize into it as A△ = r2 sin θ cos θ Fx = 1000 × 9. Some mathematics are required because the shift in the arc orientation. The force in Fig.216[N ] 2 2 The center area ( purple area in Figure 4.24) is at yc arc = 4 r sin2 3θ θ 2 9 Well. Dam is a part of a circular shape.8 × 4 × 2 sin(45◦ ) = 19600.90 The integration results in ρ g b r2 Fx = 1 − cos2 (θ0 ) 2 Another way to do this calculation is by calculating the pressure at mid point and then multiply it by the projected area. Notice that dAx (cos θ) and Ax (sin θ) are diﬀerent. tract triangle. -4. FLUIDS STATICS δθ θ θ0 θ Y 4[m] x dirction A θ Ax Ay Fig.23.23) should be calculated as yc = yc Aarc − yc Atriangle A The center area above the dam requires to know the center area of the arc and triangle shapes. -4.

65174[m] The result of the arc center from point “O” (above calculation area) is Fig. and substituting the proper values results in Aarc θ r2 2 yc yc Atriangle 91 4 r sin θ 2 cos θ 2 3θ θ 4 r sin yc r = 2 r cos θ sin θ r2 3θ 3 2 θ r2 r2 sin θ cos θ − 2 2 cos − Aarc Atriangle θ 2 θ 2 4 r sin 3θ θ 2 This value is the reverse value and it is yc r = 1.2.24.1 and 3.348 × 22375.5[N × m] For direct integration of the moment is done as following θ0 dF = P dA = 0 ρ g sin θ b r dθ .31759[N × m] The center pressure for x area is Ixx 3 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) Ixx r cosθ0 5 r cos θ0 36 xp = xc + = + = r cosθ0 xc A 2 9 b ¡ (r cos θ0 ) 2 xc The moment due to hydrostatic pressure is Mh = xp Fx = 5 r cosθ0 Fx ∼ 15399. Area above the dam arc calculation for the center.5.4. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES All the other geometrical values are obtained from Tables 3. -4. yc = r − yc r = 2 − 1.348[m] The moment is Mv = yc Fy ∼ 0.2 ∼ 7792.21[N × m] 9 The total moment is the combination of the two and it is Mtotal = 23191.65174 ∼ 0.

and the direct approach was presented second. Solution Fig. and thus.” Fv = 1 − cos (θ0 ) 2 Here. The reason that a polynomial function was chosen is that almost all the continuous functions can be represented by a Taylor series.92 and element moment is CHAPTER 4. this example provides for practical purposes of the general solution for curved surfaces. there are many programs or hand held devices that can carry numerical integration by inserting the function and the boundaries. Example 4. The function of the dam shape is y = n i i=1 ai x and it is a monotonous function (this restriction can be relaxed somewhat).12: For the liquid shown in Figure 4. the traditional approach was presented ﬁrst.calculate the moment around point “O” and the force created by the liquid per unit depth. In fact.26 . Moment on arc element around . FLUIDS STATICS dM = dF × = dF 2 r sin and the total moment is M= 0 θ0 θ 2 cos θ 2 dM θ 2 θ 2 or M= 0 θ0 ρ g sin θ b r 2 r sin cos dθ The solution of the last equation is M= g r ρ (2 θ0 − sin (2 θ0 )) 4 O θ θ/2 θ/2 π−θ 2 ℓ = 2 r sin The vertical force can be obtained by θ0 Fv = 0 P dAv P dAv θ 2 π 2 or θ0 Fv = 0 ρ g r sin θ r dθ cos θ dF θ/2 g r2 ρ 2 Point “O. Also calculate the horizontal and vertical forces.25. -4. To demonstrate this point further. consider a more general case of a polynomial function. It is much simpler now to use the second method.

27.26) in this case is P h dA y= n i=1 93 a i xi b dA dy dx y x dF = (b − y) g ρ dx2 + dy 2 Fig. -4. From mathematics.26. For example. expression of the distance and angle to point “O” are needed (see Figure 4. it can be shown that dx2 + dy 2 = dx 1+ dy dx 2 The right side can be evaluated for any given function. The element force (see Figure 4. Polynomial shape dam descrip- The size of the diﬀerential area is the square tion for the moment around point “O” and root of the dx2 and dy 2 (see Figure 4. in this case describing the dam function is 1+ dy dx 2 n 2 O y dy dx ℓ dF b = 1+ i=1 i a (i) x (i) i−1 y θ The value of xb is where y = b and can be obtained by ﬁnding the ﬁrst and positive root of the equation of n x x 0= i=1 ai x i − b To evaluate the moment.5.26).o 4. The angle between the force and the distance to point “O” is θ(x) = tan−1 dy dx − tan−1 b−y xb − x The element moment in this case is dF 2 dM = (x) (b − y) g ρ 1+ dy dx cos θ(x) dx .27). can be noticed that the diﬀerential area that is used here should be multiplied by the depth. It force calculations. -4. The distance between the point on the dam at x to the point “O” is (x) = (b − y)2 + (xb − x)2 Fig. FLUID FORCES ON SURFACES The calculations are done per unit depth (into the page) and do not require the actual depth of the dam. The diﬀerence between the slop and the direction angle.

The distance is = The angle can be expressed as θ = tan−1 12 x5 − tan−1 The total moment is √ 6 b 6 (b − 2 2 x6 ) + 6 b −x 2 2 b − 2x 6 b 2 −x M= 0 (x) cos θ(x) b − 2 x6 g ρ 1 + 12 x5 dx This integral doesn’t have analytical solution. for a given value b this integral can be evaluate. The derivative at x is and the derivative is dimensionless (a dimensionless number). In this case. This author ﬁnd this method to be simpler for complicated geometries while the indirect method has advantage for very simple geometries. End Solution 4. only one term is provided and xb can be calculated as following xb = Notice that 6 6 b 2 b 2 5 is measured in meters. However.6 Buoyancy and Stability . consider the speciﬁc case of y = 2 x6 . This omission saves considerable time. FLUIDS STATICS To make this example less abstract. trying to ﬁnd the center of the area will double the work. The horizontal force is Fh = b ρ g b ρ g b2 = 2 2 The vertical force per unit depth is the volume above the dam as √ 6 b Fv = 0 b − 2x 6 5 b6 ρ g dx = ρ g 7 7 In going over these calculations.94 CHAPTER 4. The number “2” is a dimensional number with dy = 12 x5 dx units of [1/m ]. In fact. the calculations of the center of the area were not carried out.

Another way to look at this point is by approximation. To understand this issue.29. more advance mathematics will be used. Fig. On the lower surface the pressure is ρg(h0 + a/2). The force to hold the cylinder at the place must be made of integration of the pressure around the surface of the square and cylinder bodies. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY r0 h0 95 a One of the oldest known scientiﬁc research on ﬂuid mechanics relates to buoyancy due to question of money was carb ried by Archimedes. Thus even these bodies are in contact with each other. consider a cubical and a cylindrical body that is immersed in liquid and center in a depth of. In illustration of this concept. Thus.126) V The force on the immersed body is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. the imaginary pressure make it so that they cancel each other. The forces on square geometry body are made only of vertical forces because the two sides cancel each other. . If the reader wonders why such a class is taught in a high school. While Archimedes did not know Fig. However. the ﬂoating vessels structure (more than 150 years ago) show some understanding10 . Here.127) 10 This topic was the author’s class name in high school. The ﬂoating forces on Immersed Cylinder.125) to F = ρg (4. Schematic of Immersed Cylinder. Rearranging equation (4.125) represents a depth (into the page). All the horizontal forces are canceled. The force due to the liquid pressure per unit depth (into the page) is F = ρg ((h0 − a/2) − (h0 + a/2)) b = −ρ g a b = −ρgV In this case the be (4. This analysis can be generalized by noticing two things. -4. Any body that has a projected area that has two sides. the horizontal forces are canceling each other.28. 150 years r ago and more.4.28. Archimedes principle is related to question of density and volume. on the vertical direction. The force per area (see Figure 4. The force on every rectangular shape is made of its weight of the volume. While the question of the stability was not scientiﬁcally examined in the past. It was taught by people like these. The total forces the liquid exacts on a body are considered as a buoyancy issue. h0 as shown in Figure 4. he was able to capture the essence. consider the cylindrical shape in Figure 4.6. ship builders who know how to calculate GM but weren’t aware of scientiﬁc principles θ behind it. perhaps the name can explain it: Sea Oﬃcers High School. the pressure on the two surfaces are diﬀerent. -4.28. because this material is presented in a diﬀerent era. On the other hand. those will cancel each other. any shape is made of many small rectangles. the total force is made of the sum of all the small rectangles which is the weight of the sum of all volume.29) is P dAvertical h0 dF = ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ r dθ (4. For any two rectangle bodies. much about integrals. On the upper surface the pressure is ρg(h0 − a/2).

127) 2π F = 0 ρ g (h0 − r sin θ) r dθ sin θ (4. T1 for the body to ﬂoat. these examples are a must. The body was inserted into liquid in a such a way that the air had remained in it. calculate the pressure inside the container. Express the maximum wall thickness.30. The container diameter is w.130) The negative sign indicate that the force acting upwards.128) Rearranging equation (4. as a Fig. The second example of the speed of the ﬂoating bodies.129) is F = −π r2 ρ g (4. ρl . FLUIDS STATICS The total force will be the integral of the equation (4. While the horizontal force is 2π Fv = 0 (h0 − r sin θ) cos θ dθ = 0 (4.30 . In the case where thickness is half the maximum. Assume that the wall thickness is small compared with the other dimensions (t << w and t << h). t. ﬂoating body.131) Typical examples to explain the buoyancy are of the vessel with thin walls put upside down into liquid. h1 t w hin h Example 4. ρl and the surroundings air temperature. Solution The air mass in the container is V ρair mair = π w2 h The mass of the container is Patmos RT A mcontainer = π w2 + 2 π w h t ρs .129) The solution of equation (4.96 CHAPTER 4.13: A cylindrical body. shown in Figure 4. Schematic of a thin wall function of the density of the wall. -4. Since there are no better examples.is ﬂoating in liquid with density. ρs liquid density.127) transforms it to 2π F = rgρ 0 (h0 − r sin θ) sin θ dθ (4.

6. Advance material can be skipped Extreme Cases The solution demonstrates that when h −→ 0 then hin −→ 0. so that the last solution is the only physical solution. the height. the pressure at the interface from the air point of view (ideal gas model) should be mair R T1 Pin = hin π w2 V Since the air mass didn’t change and it is known. Note that for the maximum thickness.14: Calculate the minimum density an inﬁnitely long equilateral triangle (three equal sides) has to be so that the sharp end is in the water.4. ρ π w2 h ρl g hin + Patmos = Pin = The last equation can be simpliﬁed into ρl g hin + Patmos = And the solution for hin is hin = − and hin = Patmos + Patmos R T1 R T1 hin π w2 h Patmos hin 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 2 g ρl 4 g h Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 − Patmos 2 g ρl The solution must be positive. Thus. it can be inserted into the above equation. the pressure at the interface can be written as Pin = ρl g hin On the other hand. Example 4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 97 The liquid amount enters into the cavity is such that the air pressure in the cavity equals to the pressure at the interface (in the cavity). h1 has to be zero. When the gravity approaches zero (macro gravity) then hin = Patmos h 2 ρl g 2 h 3 ρl 2 g 2 5 h 4 ρl 3 g 3 +h− + + ··· 2 − ρl g Patmos Patmos Patmos 3 .

FLUIDS STATICS This “strange” result shows that bodies don’t ﬂoat in the normal sense. The equation of state is Pi = mair R Ti Vi The new unknown must provide additional equation which is Vi = π w 2 h i . the temperature in the cavity immediately after the insertion is Ti = Tf Pi Pf The ﬁnal temperature and pressure were calculated previously. Thus. the following height can be expanded into hin = h Patmos Patmos + + ··· g ρl 2 g ρl End advance material which shows that the large quantity of liquid enters into the container as it is expected. net displayed water π w2 (h − hin ) g container = π w 2 + 2 π w h t ρs g + π w 2 h air Patmos R T1 g If air mass is neglected the maximum thickness is tmax = 2 g h w ρl + Patmos w − w 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 (2 g w + 4 g h) ρl ρs The condition to have physical value for the maximum thickness is 2 g h ρl + Patmos ≥ The full solution is tmax = − ” “ √ w R 4 gh Patmos ρl +Patmos 2 −2 g h w R ρl −Patmos w R T1 +2 g h Patmos w ρl (2 g w+4 g h) R ρl ρs T1 4 gh Patmos ρl + Patmos 2 In this analysis the air temperature in the container immediately after insertion in the liquid has diﬀerent value from the ﬁnal temperature. the air. It is reasonable as the ﬁrst approximation to assume that the process is adiabatic and isentropic. Archimedes theorem states that the force balance is at displaced weight liquid (of the same volume) should be the same as the container.98 CHAPTER 4. When the ﬂoating is under vacuum condition. Thus.

Is the body volume important? Solution The net force is liquid weight body weight F = V g ρl − V g α ρl = V g ρl (1 − α) But on the other side the internal force is m F = m a = V αρl a Thus. Calculate acceleration and time for a body to reach the surface. h0 and left at rest. but the liquid displacement is still unknown. which is π w2 (h − hin − h1 ) = π w2 + 2 π w h) t ρs g + π w2 h End Solution Patmos R T1 g Example 4. The body’s density is α ρl . where α is ratio between the body density to the liquid density and (0 < α < 1). The thickness is known. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Thickness Below The Maximum 99 For the half thickness t = tmax the general solution for any given thickness below 2 maximum is presented. The pressure at the interface (after long time) is ρl g hin + Patmos = which can be simpliﬁed to ρl g hin + Patmos = h Patmos hin + h1 atmos π w2 h PR T1 R T1 (hin + h1 ) π w2 The second equation is Archimedes’ equation. the acceleration is a=g 1−α α If the object is left at rest (no movement) thus time will be (h = 1/2 a t2 ) t= 2 hα g(1 − α) .4.6.15: A body is pushed into the liquid to a distance.

Find equivalent cylinder that has the same diameter that Solution The force act on the half sphere can be found by integrating the forces around the sphere. This idea can lead to experiment in “large gravity” because the acceleration can be magniﬁed and it is much more than the reverse of free falling. it is desired to ﬁnd equivalent of force of a certain shape to be replaced by another force of a “standard” shape.100 If the object is very light (α −→ 0) then tmin = 2hα + g √ 2 g h α2 3 + 2g 3 CHAPTER 4. it can be observed that only the density ratio is important. FLUIDS STATICS √ 2 g h α2 5 + 8g 5 √ 2 g h α2 + ··· 16 g 7 From the above equation. End Solution Example 4.16: In some situations. The element force is dAx h 2 dA dF = (ρL − ρS ) g r cos φ cos θ cos θ cos φ r dθ dφ The total force is then π π 0 Fx = 0 (ρL − ρS ) g cos2 φ cos2 θ r3 dθ dφ The result of the integration the force on sphere is Fs = The force on equivalent cylinder is Fc = π r2 (ρL − ρS ) h These forces have to be equivalent and thus $ ! £ (ρL $$ 3 π 2 $$− ρS ) r¡ $ = & $$− ρS ) h π r2 (ρL $$ 4 Thus the height is h π = r 4 End Solution 1 π 2 (ρL − ρS ) r3 4 . Consider the force that acts on a half sphere.

6. The net force down is the weight of the body ρc h A. Develp the relationship between the densities of liquids and solid and the location of the solid cubical. Thus. The density as a function of x coordinate along h starting at point ρh is x 2 ρ(x) = ρh − (ρh − ρl ) h Thus the equilibration will be achieved. There situations where density is a function of the depth. In this case there are two diﬀerent liquid densities. if body is small compare the zone of variation. when x1 +h ρc h = x1 ρh − x h 2 (ρh − ρl ) dx After the integration the equation transferred into (3 ρl − 3 ρh ) x12 + (3 h ρl − 3 h ρh ) x1 + h2 ρl + 2 h2 ρh 3h And the location where the lower point of the body (the physical). the calculations can be carried out under assumption sharp change. ρl < ρs < rhoh is ﬂating between the two liquids. In the same vein. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 101 Example 4. What will be location of solid body if the liquid density varied parabolically. Where h is the height of the body and A is its cross section. will be at √ 3 3 h2 ρl 2 + (4 ρc − 6 h2 ρh ) ρl + 3 h2 ρh 2 − 12 ρc ρh + 3 h ρl − 3 h ρh X1 = 6 ρh − 2 ρl ρc h = For linear relationship the the following results can be obtained. Body with density between the two liquids. However. After rearrangement it became ρc − ρh α= ρl − ρh the second part deals with the case where the density varied parabolically. Solution In discussion to this section it was shown that met force is the body volume times the the density of the liquid. the body can be separated into two which one in ﬁrst liquid and second in the second liquid. End Solution . they have to accounted for.4. x1 = h ρl + h ρh − 6 ρc 2 ρl − 2 ρh In many cases in reality the variations occur in small zone compare to the size of the body.17: In the introduction to this section. This force is balance according to above explanation by the two liquid as ρc ¨A = ¨h (α ρl + (1 − α)ρh ) h¨ A¨ Where α is the fraction that is in low liquid. A is canceled on both sides. Suppose that the above layer is another liquid which has a bit lighter density. it was assumed that above liquid is a gas with inconsequential density. x1 .

1 Stability Empty buoyancy Figure 4. If one draws the stability (later about this criterion) as a function of the rotation angle will show a sinusoidal function with four picks in a whole rotation. FLUIDS STATICS 4. HowG ever the buoyant center is the middle of the volume under the water (see Figure 4. Small amount of tilting of Fig. -4. When tilting a larger amount than π/4 .102 CHAPTER 4. However. When the body is at the position shown in Figure 4.31c . Stability analysis of ﬂoating body.31b). the balloon will be on the top and sphere on the bottom. for example) is inserted into water. -4. This arrangement has mass centroid close to the middle of the sphere. Schematic of ﬂoating cubic. These forces create a moment which wants to return the body to the resting (original) position. The cubic is stable in six positions (every cubic has six faces). Schematic of ﬂoating bodies.32. These points are raised from the buoyant G dA force analysis. ing the body with a small angle from its resting position creates a shift in the forces direction (examine Figure 4. A wooden cubic (made of pine. .31 shows a body made of center hollow balloon and a heavy sphere connected by a thin and light rod. the cubic results in returning to the original position. When the body is tilted at δF ∆F GM a small angle. gravity center The buoyant center is below the midFull dle of the balloon. If this arrangec a ment is inserted into liquid and it will b be ﬂoating. any experiment of this cubic wood shows that it is stable locally.32).33. in any of these six positions. the body is “stable” in some β M δF ∆F points more than others in their vicinity. The cubic mass (gravity) centroid is in the middle of the cubic. The reason for this local stability of the cubic is that other positions are less stable. TiltFig. β. Part of the block ﬂoats above water line.6.31c. In fact.31c. B’ Fig. the immersed part of the B B’ body center changes to a new location. the body is in situation like in 4.31. it results in a ﬂipping into the next stable position.the body is unstable and any tilt from the original position creates moment that will further continue to move the body from its original position. This analysis doesn’t violate the second law of thermodynamics. -4. Moving bodies from an unstable position is in essence like a potential. This B situation is similar to Figure 4. That is. the body stability must be based on the diﬀerence between the body’s local positions rather than the “absolute” stability. So.

BB W = M (4. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 103 as shown in Figure 4.33 is displaced by the same area (really the volume) on left since the weight of the body didn’t change11 so the total immersed section is constant. The body. The third state is when the couple forces do have zero moment. The displacement of the buoyant center can be calculated by examining the moment these forces are creating.33. it is referred to as the neutral stable. shown in Figure 4. . This deviation of the buoyant center from the old buoyant center location. The distance. when given a tilted position. So the perpendicular distance. should to be calculated. If the new immerse volume creates a new center in such way that the couple forces (gravity and buoyancy) try to return the body. B. BB is the distance between points B and point B’.33. BB . This analysis is based on the diﬀerence of the displaced liquid. and.134) as BB = g ρl Ixx ρs Vbody (4. the original state is referred as the stable body and vice versa. W referred to the weight of the body.134) The integral in the right side of equation (4. when the body is not symmetrical.134) is referred to as the area moment of inertia and was discussed in Chapter 3. β. The body weight creates opposite moment to balance the moment of the displaced liquid volume.33 as ∆F . However. The right green area (volume) in Figure 4.132) Where M is the moment created by the displaced areas (volumes). the moment is calculated as the integration of the small force shown in the Figure 4. BB can be written from equation (4. It can be noticed that the distance BB is an approximation for small angles (neglecting the vertical component.6. move to a new buoyant center. For small angle.). B’.4.135) 11 It is correct to state: area only when the body is symmetrical. should be BB = The moment M can be calculated as δF M W (4. The center of the mass (gravity) is still in the old location since the body did not change. The stability of the body is divided into three categories. the analysis is still correct because the volume and not the area is used.133) M= A g ρl x β dA x = g ρl β dV A x2 dA (4.

The moment of 3 inertia for a block is given in Table 3.104 CHAPTER 4.135) with (4. Example 4.1 and is Ixx = La . is insigniﬁcant for this analysis. Fig. L.138) h h1 GM = ρl Ixx −BG ρs Vbody (4. -4.139) requires that several quantities should be expressed.18: A solid block of wood of uniform density.137) (4.33. Construct a graph that shows the relationship of the GM as a function of ratio height to width. ρs = α ρl where ( 0 ≤ α ≤ 1 ) is ﬂoating in a liquid.139) L a To understand these principles consider the following examples. Cubic body dimensions for stability analysis.136) And combining equations (4. The location of the metacentric point can be obtained from the geometry as BM = BB sin β (4. Looking at Figure 4. M. FLUIDS STATICS The point where the gravity force direction is intersecting with the center line of the cross section is referred as metacentric point. Solution Equation (4. Where L is the length into 12 the page.34. Show that the block’s length. the geometrical quantities can be related as BM g ρl βIxx ρl Ixx ¡ = g ρs sin β Vbody ρs Vbody ¡ (4.136) yields BM = For small angle (β ∼ 0) sin β ∼1 β→0 β lim It is remarkable that the results is independent of the angle. The distance BG obtained from Archimedes’ theorem and can be expressed as immersed V volume ρs W = ρs a h L = ρl a h1 L =⇒ h1 = h ρl .

2 -0.9 0.5 1.140)).1 0. 2008 Simplifying the above equation provides GM 1 = h 12 α a h 2 Fig.32) h1 Stability of Square Block 3.6 0. these two shapes in Figure 4.0 a h April 16.0 0.4.0 2.8 L 3 a g ρl ¡ 12 − h GM = g ρs a h 2 L ¡ V 0.8 1. Thus.36.7 0.0 This kind of analysis can be carried for different shapes and the results are shown for Fig. For cylinder (circle) the moment of inertia is Ixx = π b4 /64.6 α = 0.0 1.2 105 2. -4. The maximum height reverse as a function of density ratio. The distance BG is the same as for the square shape (cubic) (see above (4.5 α = 0.4 1. In cylindrical shape equivalent equation to equation (4. It can be noticed that the square body is more stable than the circular shape body. the distance BG is (see Figure 4.6 0.142) can be expressed.9 1.5 0.2 1.5 α = 0.35.2 0.8 0.0 1.140) 2.141) 2 where α is the density ratio.0 0.5 0.6. 2008 α 0.5 0. Principle Main Axises .0 1− ρs ρl -0. L.0 0. -4. Stability of cubic body inﬁnity long.1 0.0 square circle And the condition for maximum height for stability is b ≥ h 32 (1 − α) α 1.0 0.4 0. the equation is Stability of Solid Blocks GM g = h 64 α b h 2 − 1 (1 − α) 2 a h 3.0 α = 0. 1 − (1 − α) (4.0 0.3 1.2 1.142) End Solution One of the interesting point that the above analysis was that there is a point above which the ratio of the height to the body width is not stable any more. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY Thus.5 0. This equation leads to the condition where the maximum height above which the body is not stable any more as a ≥ h 6 (1 − α)α (4.2 0.6 1.4 α = 0.7 0.5 -0.9 1.8 0.1 1.4 April 16.4 α = 0.1 1.0 0.1 GM h h ρs 1 h h = BG = − 2 ρl 2 2 Ixx ρs 1− ρl (4.5 2.3 1.0 -0.3 0.36.2 α = 0.7 0.8 2. Notice that GM /h isn’t a function of the depth.3 0.

Thus. Some analysis of ﬂoating bodies are done by breaking the rotation of arbitrary axis to rotate around the two main axises. -4. This happens when a ship is overloaded with containers above the maximum height. Suppose that two opposite sides triangle (prism) attached to each other to create a long “ship” see Figure 4. but rather practical. On the other side if the a/h −→ ∞ the body is very stable. the ship that was stable (positive GM ) leaving the initial port might became unstable (negative GM ) before reaching the destination port. Supposed that a/h −→ ˜ the body will be 0 unstable.37. In commercial ships.139) have to found. FLUIDS STATICS Any body has inﬁnite number of diﬀerent axises around which moment of inertia can be calculated. it is enough to ﬁnd if the body is stable around the smallest moment of inertia. What is the ˜ minimum ratio of a/h that keep the body stable at half of the volume in liquid (water). This axis is where the main rotation of the body will occur. a a Stability of two triangles put The moment of inertia is triage (see for . the fuel is stored at the bottom of the ship and thus the mass center (point G) is changing during the voyage. For example. Example 4.37. With the exception of the circular shape. For stability analysis. For each of these axises there is a diﬀerent moment of inertia.19: One way to make a ship to be a hydrodynamic is by making the body as narrow as possible. this problem is reduced to ﬁnd the stability for principle axis. So. a square shape body has larger moment of inertia around diagonal. This is not a hypothetical question.106 CHAPTER 4. Unstable Bodies What happen when one increases the height ratio above the maximum height ratio? The body will ﬂip into the side and turn to the next stable point (angle). The diﬀerence between the previous calculation and the moment of inertia around the diagonal is I diagonal axis √ ∆Ixx = 2a √ 3a 2 3 “normal axis 6 − a4 12 ∼ 0. To ﬁnd this ratio equation terms in (4. ¯ Solution h The answer to the question is that the limiting case where GM = 0. it must be stable at the “diagonal” axis. The Volume of the body is V =2 a2 h 2 = a2 h Fig. tougher. Assume that density ratio is ρl /ρs = ρ.07 a4 Which show that if the body is stable at main axises. every geometrical shape has an axis in which the moment of inertia is without the product of inertia.

4. Denote the liquid density as ρl and solid density as ρs . BUOYANCY AND STABILITY explanation in example (3.6. The point B can be expressed as B= And thus the distance BG is BG = a 2 1− ρs ρl a ρs 2 ρl The limiting condition requires that GM = 0 so that ρl Ixx = BG ρs Vbody Or explicitly ρl ρs a2 h a h3 2 1− 1 a 4 h2 2 = a 2 1− ρs ρl After rearrangement and using the deﬁnitions of ξ = h/a ρρl /ρs results in ¯ ρ ξ2 ¯ 1− ξ 4 2 = 1− 1 ρ ¯ The solution of the above solution is obtained by squaring both sides and deﬁning a new variable such as x = ξ 2 .6.1.7) is Ixx = And the volume is Vbody = a2 h2 − a2 = a2 h 4 1− 1 a2 4 h2 a h3 2 107 The point B is a function of the density ratio of the solid and liquid. After the about manipulation and selecting the positive value and to keep stability as √ x< 64 ρ4 −64 ρ3 +ρ2 −2 ρ+1 ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ρ ¯ + 2 √ 1 ρ ¯ −1 2ρ ¯ End Solution 4.1 Stability of Body with Shifting Mass Centroid .

the extreme case where the load reacts in the same speed as the tilting of the ship/ﬂoating body is examined. The movement of B the load (grains. and/or liquid) B′ does not occur in the same speed as the body itself or the displaced outside liquid. Fig. the slow reaction of the load. here. When the body is given a tilting position the body displaces the liquid on the outside. in this analysis.145) ¡ For more than one tank. There are situations where the real case approaches to this extreme. the liquid inside is changing its mass centroid.108 CHAPTER 4. is enough to be ig.the GM . Moreover. a ship that carries G G′ wheat grains where the cargo is not properly secured to the ship. For practical purposes.38. Sometimes. A body is loaded with liquid “B” and is ﬂoating in a liquid “A” as shown in Figure 4. FLUIDS STATICS Ships and other ﬂoating bodies carry liqM uid or have a load which changes the mass location during tilting of the ﬂoatGc ing body. These situations involve liquid with a low viscosity (like water. -4.146) . it can be written as GG = g Wtotal n Gi Gi ρl i Vi = i=1 g Wtotal n i=1 Ixx bi Vb i (4.144) shows that GG is only a function of the geometry. The change in the mass centroid of the liquid “A” then is g ρl¨βIxx B Ixx B G1 G1 = ¡ ¨B = ρl¨ g VB ¨B VB ¡ Inside liquid weight (4. it is used as a limit for the stability analysis.38. The eﬀects of liquid movement on for stability analysis. furniture. This quantity. the dynamics are ignored and only the statics is examined (see Figure 4. However. is similar for all liquid tanks on the ﬂoating body. G1 G1 . At the same time.38). For example. X0 g mtotal GG = $mbody + g mf G1 G1 g $$$ ¡ (4. The moment created by the inside displaced liquid is Min = g ρl B βIxxB (4.144) Equation (4. nored. Exact analysis requires taking into account these shifting mass speeds. alcohol) and ship with low natural frequency (later on the frequency of the ships). The total change of the vessel is then calculated similarly to center area calculations.143) Note that Ixx B isn’t the same as the moment of inertia of the outside liquid interface.

150) T d h G Fig. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 109 A new point can be deﬁned as Gc .149) One way to reduce the eﬀect of the moving mass center due to liquid is done by substituting a single tank with several tanks. Where. GM . is measured as the diﬀerence in the orientation of the ﬂoating body. Measurement The metacentric height can be measured by ﬁnding the change in the angle when a weight is moved on the ﬂoating body. The angle. -4. The metacentric height is GM new = Td Wtotal θ (4. can be achieved by having some tanks spanning across the entire body with tanks spanning on parts of the body. 4. of the ship.151) (4. This point is the intersection of the center line with the vertical line form G . the general formula is Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal n i=1 Ixx b i Vb i (4. d then the moment created is Mweight = T d This moment is balanced by Mrighting = Wtotal GM new θ (4. Wtotal . The engineer could design the tanks in such a way that the moment of inertia is operationally changed. T a distance. The moment of inertial of the combine two tanks is smaller than the moment of inertial of a single tank. Moving the weight. This control of the stability.2 Metacentric Height.1.39.6. Increasing the number of tanks reduces the moment of inertia.6. θ.4.152) . is the total weight of the ﬂoating body including measuring weight. GM . G Gc = GG sin β (4.147) The distance that was used before GM is replaced by the criterion for stability by Gc M and is expressed as Gc M = g ρA Ixx A 1 Ixx b − BG − ρs Vbody mtotal Vb (4. Measurement of GM of ﬂoating body.148) If there are more than one tank partially ﬁlled with liquid. Movement of the liquid (mostly the fuel and water) provides way to control the stability. GM .

The calculation of GM can be improved by taking into account the eﬀect of the measuring weight. After the tilting. However. it must be taken into account.6. the mass centroid must be below the buoyant centroid in order to have stable condition.40. 4. Thus.154) (4.3 Stability of Submerged Bodies The analysis of submerged bodied is diﬀerent from the stability when the body lay between two ﬂuid layers with diﬀerent density.4 Stability of None Systematical or “Strange” Bodies While most ﬂoating bodies are symmeta rical or semi–symmetrical. For an example of such a case is an object ﬂoating in a solar pond where the upper layer is made of water with lower salinity than the bottom layer(change up to 20% of the density). 4.1. The calculations for such cases are a bit more complicated but based on the similar principles. there are situations where the body has a “strange” ∆F M δβ and/or un-symmetrical body. Calculations of GM for abrupt The mathematical condition for the border shape body. The body ∆F GM weight doesn’t change during the rotation that the green area on the left and the B’ B green area on right are the same (see Figb ure 4. all ﬂuids have density varied in some degree. FLUIDS STATICS If the change in the GM can be neglected. -4. When the body is submerged in a single ﬂuid layer.152) provides the solution. Fig. When the ﬂoating object is immersed in the two layers. For the case of b < 3 a . equation (4. The change in height of G is g mtotal Gnew = g mship Gactual + g T h ¡ ¡ ¡ Combining equation (4. This analysis is out of the scape of this book (for now).153) with equation (4.153) The weight of the ship is obtained from looking at the ship depth.6. There are two situations that can occur. In cases where the density changes signiﬁcantly.40). then none of the changes of buoyant centroid occurs.110 CHAPTER 4. is when b = 3 a. the upper part of the body is above the liquid or part of the body is submerged under the water. this density change helps to increase the stability of the ﬂoating bodies. Generally.152) results in GM a ctual = GM new mtotal T −h mship mship (4.1. Consider the ﬁrst strange body that has an abrupt step G change as shown in Figure 4. the stability analysis must take into account the changes of the displaced liquids of the two liquid layers.40.

The basic diﬀerential equation is used to balance and is rotation rotating moment ¨ Iβ − V ρs GM β =0 (4. The moment created by change in the displaced liquid (area) act in the same fashion as the before. Similar situation exists in the case of ﬂoating bodies. These calculations are done as if none of the body under the liquid. The amount of area under the liquid section depends on the tilting angle. the moment to return the body is larger than actually was calculated and the bodies tend to be more stable (also for other reasons). For the case where b < 3 a x some part is under the liquid.6. The governing equation for the pendulum is ¨ β −gβ = 0 (4.6. The moment of inertia should be calculated around this axis. This point is the intersection of the liquid line with the brown middle line.1. The center of the moment is needed be found.4. the larger GM the more stable the ﬂoating body is.158) V ρs GM Ibody (4. Increase in GM increases the frequency of the ﬂoating body. This point is intersection point liquid with lower body and it is needed to be calculated. . The moment of inertia is calculated around this point (note the body is “ended” at end of the upper body).156) In the same fashion the frequency of the ﬂoating body is 1 2π and the period time is 2π Ibody V ρs GM (4. The period of the cycle is 2 π /g.155) Where here is length of the rode (or the line/wire) connecting the mass with the rotation point. However.157) In general. the frequency of pendulum is 21π g which measured in Hz. If the ﬂoating body is used for transport humans and/or other creatures or sensitive cargo it requires to reduce the GM so that the traveling will be smother. BUOYANCY AND STABILITY 111 the calculation of moment of inertia are similar to the previous case. Thus.5 Neutral frequency of Floating Bodies This case is similar to pendulum (or mass attached to spring). 4.

the needle cannot be held by the liquid. Newton’s law states when there is unbalanced force. Thus. A heavy needle is ﬂoating on a liquid. in this case.21: Needle is made of steel and is heavier than water and many other liquids. -4. Solution Under Construction End Solution 4. Calculate the maximum diameter needle that can be inserted into liquid without drowning. the body should be accelerate. the common explanation is wrong. For example in die casting. Taylor. Explain why this description is erroneous? Solution The upper layer of the molecules have unbalanced force towards the liquid phase. the surface tension between the needle and the liquid hold the needle above the liquid.112 CHAPTER 4. . it can create a situation where the liquid metal is above the air but cannot penetrate into the cavity because of instability.7 Rayleigh–Taylor Instability RayleighTaylor instability (or RT instability) is named after Lord Rayleigh and G. I.41. Example 4. only simpliﬁed topics like constant value will be discussed. Thus. This situation has engineering implications in several industries. some air is not evacuated and stay in small cavity on the edges of the shape to be casted.20: In interaction of the molecules shown in Figure ? describe the existence of surface tension. etc. FLUIDS STATICS 4. Example 4. There are situations where a heavy liquid layer is placed over a lighter ﬂuid layer. In poor designs or other situations. However. End Solution Fig.2 Surface Tension The surface tension is one of the mathematically complex topic and related to many phenomena like boiling. However.6. In this section. liquid metal is injected in a cavity ﬁlled with air. After certain diameter. the liquid is not in motion. coating.

Thus. For perfectly straight interface. if the surface forces (surface tension) are not suﬃcient. As usual there is the neutral stable when the forces are equal. some of heavy liquid moves down. This condition is determined by competing forces. equation . The ﬂuid above the depression is in equilibrium with the sounding pressure since the material is extending to inﬁnity. example of a cosine function will be examined. This analysis is referred to the case of inﬁnite or very large surface. -4.2) are always stable but unstable of the density is in the reversed order. This disturbance can grow or returned to its original situation. heavy ﬂuid that is being placed above a lighter ﬂuid in a gravity ﬁeld perpendicular to interface. The original Rayleigh’s paper deals with the dynamics and density variations.7. density variations according to the bulk modulus (see section 4. The radius of any equation is expressed by equation (1. The conditions that required from this function will be required from all the other functions.4. The depression is returned to its h original position if the surface forces are L large enough. this situation x σ σ is considered to be stable. The disturbance is of the following h = −hmax cos 2πx L (4. Supposed that a liquid density is arbitrary function of the height. Example for such systems are dense water over oil (liquid–liquid).42). or water over air(gas–liquid). The depression has diﬀerent radius as a function of distance from the center of the depression.3. The ﬁrst derivative of cos around zero is sin which is approaching zero or equal to zero. In that case. above lower ﬂuid with lower density.47). if the center point of the depression can “hold” the intrusive ﬂuid then the whole system is stable. This distortion can be as a result of heavy ﬂuid above the lighter liquid. the heavy ﬂuid will stay above the lighter ﬂuid. the surface density. This analysis asks the question what happen when a small amount of liquid from above layer enter into the lower layer? Whether this liquid continue and will grow or will it return to its original conditions? The surface tension is the opposite mechanism that will returns the liquid to its original place. On the other hand. For example.159) where hmax is the maximum depression and L is the characteristic length of the depression. ρG . Thus. the force that acting to get the above ﬂuid down is the buoyancy force of the ﬂuid in the depression. x. Thus. Thus.42. Any continues function can be expanded in serious of cosines. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 113 This instability deals with a dense. Description of depression to explain unstable and the heavy liquid enters into the Rayleigh–Taylor instability. If the surface will disturbed. The simpliﬁed case is the two diﬀerent uniform densities. and the buoyancy forces. The weakest point is at x = 0 because symmetrical reasons the surface tension does not act against the gravity as shown in Figure (4.3. the situation is Fig. ρL . the liquid ﬂuid zone and vice versa. For example a heavy ﬂuid density.

162) The pressure diﬀerence due to the gravity at the edge of the disturbance is then PH − PL = g (ρH − ρL ) hmax Comparing equations (4.43. The heavier liquid needs to move in one side and the lighter liquid in another location.38) the pressure diﬀerence or the pressure jump is due to the surface tension at this point must be PH − PL = 4 hmax σ π 2 L2 (4.43. the force is atmospheric pressure times the area. The ﬁrst control volume is made of a cylinder with a radius r and the second is the depression below it.162) and (4.43. The point where the situation is neutral stable Lc = 4 π2 σ g (ρH − ρL ) (4. the force is ρ g h × A. In this process the heavier liquid “enter” the lighter liquid in one point and creates a depression as shown in Figure 4.164) (4. To analyze it.159) the radius is 1 4 π 2 hmax =− R L2 CHAPTER 4. FLUIDS STATICS (4.163) It should be noted that hmax is irrelevant for this analysis as it is canceled. The horizontal forces around the control volume are canceling each other. At the top. If all the heavy liquid “attempts” to move straight down.160) (4.161) According to equation (1. the lighter liquid will “prevent” it.43. At the cylinder bottom. The lighter liquid needs to move up at the same time but in a diﬀerent place.114 (1.165) An alternative approach to analyze this instability is suggested here. they are not part of the control volume. This acts Fig.163) show that if the relationship is 4 σ π2 > g (ρH − ρL ) L2 (4. considered two control volumes bounded by the blue lines in 2r Figure 4. The θ “extra” lines of the depression should be ignored. Description of depression to explain σ σ the instability. .47) can be approximated as 1 d2 h = 2 R dx For equation (4. Consider the situation described in Figure 4. -4.

the radius is r∼ 2πσ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. For the depression. It can be approximated as a ﬂat cylinder that has depth of r π/4 (read the explanation in the example 4. the maximum depression radius is about half for the container radius (see Figure 4. Thus.4.166) The force that hold this column is the surface tension. it can be written that the minimum radius is rmintube = 2 2πσ g (ρL − ρG ) (4. At the bottom. At that case. the liquid level is reduced a bit and the lighter liquid is ﬁlling the missing portion.16) This value is exact if the shape is a perfect half sphere. Additionally when the depression occurs. As shown in Figure 4.169) (4. the error is not signiﬁcant. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY 115 against the gravity force which make the cylinder to be in equilibrium with its surroundings if the pressure at bottom is indeed ρ g h. θ = π/2. the force at the top is the same force at the bottom of the cylinder.44). Thus.172) . Since the “exchange” volumes of these two process are the same.171) The maximum possible radius of the depression depends on the geometry of the container.7. the speciﬁc radius is limited. In reality. This radius is limited because the lighter liquid has to enter at the same time into the heavier liquid zone.167) πr + h (ρL − ρG ) g + Patmos 4 (4. the force is the integral around the depression.168) The maximum surface tension is when the angle.170) πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4. the total force is then Fσ = 2 π r σ cos θ The forces balance on the depression is then 2 π r σ cos θ ∼ π r2 The radius is obtained by r∼ 2 π σ cos θ (ρL − ρG ) g (4. For the cylindrical geometry. the force at the bottom is Fbottom ∼ π r2 The net force is then Fbottom ∼ π r2 πr 4 (ρL − ρG ) g (4.43.

81 The minimum radius is r ∼ 0. FLUIDS STATICS Fig. The actual value of this angle is about π/4 to π/3 and in only extreme cases the angle exceed this value (considering dynamics). For example. However.172) the angle was assumed to be 90 degrees. The heavier liquid can stay on top of the lighter liquid without being turned upside down when the radius is smaller than the equation 4.44. This analysis introduces a new dimensional number that will be discussed in a greater length in the Dimensionless chapter. σ r∼ 8 π 0. In equation (4. Solution The depression radius is assume to be signiﬁcantly smaller and thus equation (4. -4. The density of air is negligible as can be seen from the temperature compare to the aluminum density. The yellow color represents the maximum lighter liquid that are “going down. Example 4.” The actual radius will be much larger.171) can be used.4 2400 × 9.02[m] which demonstrates the assumption of h >> r was appropriate.22: Estimate the minimum radius to insert liquid aluminum into represent tube at temperature of 600[K]. this angle is never obtained. The purple color represents the maximum heavy liquid raising area.172.the depression is larger for square area. In Figure 4. . Assume that the surface tension is 400[mN/m]. These two scenarios should be inserting into equation 4. it was shown that the depression and the raised area are the same.168 by introducing experimental coeﬃcient.44. The cross section of the interface. The density of the aluminum is 2400kg/m3 . The actual area of the depression is only a fraction of the interfacial cross section and is a function.116 CHAPTER 4.

S. Is there diﬀerence if the process is isentropic? If so what is the diﬀerence? . the canister top center is connected to another tank with equal pressure to the canister before the rotation (the connection point). Three liquids layers under rotation with various critical situations.4. Describe the interface of the ﬂuids consider all the limiting cases.7.45. Example 4. RAYLEIGH–TAYLOR INSTABILITY End Solution 117 Z L3 L2 L1 Fig.23: A canister shown in Figure 4. for known geometries of the ﬂuids. 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U. Open Question by April 15.45 has three layer of diﬀerent ﬂuids with diﬀerent densities. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. What happen after the canister start to be rotated? Calculated the volume that will enter or leave. -4. The canister is rotate with circular velocity. Is there a diﬀerence if the ﬂuids are compressible? Where is the maximum pressure points? For the case that the ﬂuids are compressible. You the ideal gas model. You can assume that the process is isothermal. ω. Assume that the ﬂuids do not mix.

FLUIDS STATICS .118 CHAPTER 4.

Part I Integral Analysis 119 .

.

motion. -5. one wants to ﬁnd or predict the velocities in the system. This name is in honored J. the Lagrangian system turned out to be diﬃcult to solve and to analyze. The main target of such analysis is to ﬁnd the value of certain variables. L. In Euler’s approach the focus is on a deﬁned point or a deﬁned volume. This method applied and used in very few cases. This methods is referred as Eulerian method. The main diﬃculty lies in the fact that every particle has to be traced to its original state. Even though this system looks reasonable. Ad. The Eulerian method focuses on a deﬁned area or locaa system tion to ﬁnd the needed informab tion.1 Introduction This chapter presents a discussion on the control volume and will be focused on the conservation of the mass. The use of the Eulerian methods leads to a set diﬀerentic control ation equations that is referred to volume as Navier–Stokes equations which are commonly used. This kind of analysis is reasonable and it referred to in the literature as the Lagrangian Analysis. When the ﬂuid system moves or changes. Langrange (1736–1813) who formulated the equations of motion for the moving ﬂuid particles. 121 . These differential equations will be used in Fig.CHAPTER 5 The Control Volume and Mass Conservation 5.1. Control volume and system before and after the later part of this book. Leonard Euler (1707–1783) suggested an alternative approach.

The green lines in Figure ?? represent the system. The control volume should be chosen so that the analysis should be simple and dealt with as less as possible issues which are not in question. energy. The control volume is a deﬁned volume that was discussed earlier. the Eulerian system leads to integral equations which are the focus of this part of the book. At certain time the system and the control volume are identical location. Non–deformable control volume is a control volume which is ﬁxed in space relatively to an one coordinate system. The coordinate system could be ﬁxed to the conduit. The material that remained in the control volume is marked as “b”. At the same time.piston with in and out ﬂow. Fig. The control volume is diﬀerentiated into two categories of control volumes.122 CHAPTER 5. The red dotted lines are the control volume. Every control volume is the focus of the certain interest and will be dealt with the basic equations. The diﬀerence between the system and the control volume is shown in Figure ??. Control volume of a moving The control volume chosen is non-deformable con.2. non–deformable and deformable. trol volume.2 Control Volume The Eulerian method requires to deﬁne a control volume (some time more than one). Therefore a limited discussion on the Lagrangian system will be presented (later version). entropy etc. 5. This methods has its limitations and for some cases the Lagrangian is preferred (and sometimes the only possibility). The Eulerian method plays well with the physical intuition of most people. After a certain time. -5. some of the mass in the system exited the control volume which are marked “a” in Figure ??. mass. This coordinate system may be in a relative motion to another (almost absolute) coordinate system.2. Deformable control volume is a volume having part of all of its boundaries in motion during the process at hand. . the control volume is a system. Lagrangian equations are associated with the system while the Eulerian equation are associated with the control volume. momentum. In the case where no mass crosses the boundaries. the control gains some material which is marked as “c”. Flow in conduits can be analyzed by looking in a control volume between two locations. MASS CONSERVATION ditionally. Two examples of control volume are presented to illustrate diﬀerence between a deformable control volume and non–deformable control volume. When a piston pushing gases a good choice of control volume is a deformable control volume that is a head the piston inside the cylinder as shown in Figure 5.

3). The system mass change is D msys D = Dt Dt ρdV = 0 Vsys (5. The velocity component that velocities at the interface. The convention of direction ˆ is taken positive if ﬂow out the control volume and negative if the ﬂow is into the control volume. the ﬂow out is d ma = dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5.3) is the derivative of the mass in the control volume and at any given time is d mc.5) Ub n ˆ θ Uf −Ub Uf − Ub Where Uf is the liquid velocity and Ub is the boundary Fig. -5. (5. Schematics of velocity (see Figure 5. is made of msys = mc. In this chapter.3) The ﬁrst term in equation (5.v.1) The system mass after some time. d ma d mc = + − Dt dt dt dt (5.2)) results in 0= D msys d mc. The relative velocity is − → − → − → Ur = Uf − Ub (5.3. the mass conservation will be discussed.4) Control Volume and is a function of the time.6) Where n is an unit vector perpendicular to the surface.v.5.3 Continuity Equation In this chapter and the next three chapters.v.7) .3). The change with time (time derivative of equation (5. The interface of the control volume can move.3. The mass ﬂow out of the control volume is the system mass that is not included in the control volume.v. Thus.2) The change of the system mass is by deﬁnition is zero. CONTINUITY EQUATION 123 5. The actual velocity of the ﬂuid leaving the control volume is the relative velocity (see Figure 5. (t) d = dt dt ρ dV Vc. + ma − mc (5. the conservation equations will be applied to the control volume. according Figure ??. is perpendicular to the surface is − → Urn = −ˆ · Ur = Ur cos θ n (5.

Schematics of ﬂow in in pipe with varying density as a function time for example 5. (5.10) is essentially accounting of the mass.124 CHAPTER 5. Substituting equation (5.4. The next example is provided to illustrate this concept.8) and (5.v.9) into equation (5.v.1: The density changes in a pipe. the ﬂow rate in is d mb = dt ρs Urn dA Sc.9) applying negative value to keep the convention. Again notice the negative sign in surface integral. In the same manner. due to temperature variation and other reasons. The negative sign is because ﬂow out marked positive which reduces of the mass (negative derivative) in the control volume. MASS CONSERVATION It has to be emphasized that the density is taken at the surface thus the subscript s.3) results in d dt ρs dV = − c. Scv ρ Urn dA (5.7) are similar and can be combined. X dx L Fig. -5.10) Equation (5. ρ0 L t0 . The change of mass change inside the control volume is net ﬂow in or out of the control system.1. t) = 1− cos . taking the positive or negative value of Urn with integration of the entire system as d mb d ma − = dt dt ρs Urn dA Scv (5. Example 5. can be approximated as x 2 t ρ(x.8) It can be noticed that the two equations (5.

x L 2 cos t t0 dx Flow Out = π R2 d dt L ρ0 1 − 0 x L 2 cos t π R2 L ρ0 dx = − sin t0 3 t0 t t0 The ﬂow out is a function of length.10) become conservation of the volume. d dt ρ0 1 − c.3. x 1− L 2 cos t t0 π R2 dx The density is not a function of radius.4 length is L and its area is A.10) can be obtained by assuming constant density and the equation (5. Using equation (5.v.v. CONTINUITY EQUATION 125 The conduit shown in Figure 5. Solution Here it is very convenient to choose a non-deformable control volume that is inside the conduit dV is chosen as π R2 dx.v.10) can enter the integral since the boundaries are ﬁxed in time and hence.2 Constant Density Fluids Further simpliﬁcations of equations (5. and is the change of the mass in the control volume. Vc. r and angle.v. and the mass in the conduit as function of time.1 Non Deformable Control Volume When the control volume is ﬁxed with time. Write the expression for the mass change in the pipe.v. Express the mass ﬂow in and/or out.11) is simpler than equation (5. dρ dV = − dt ρ Urn dA Sc.11) Equation (5.5.10). .3.3. End Solution 5. ρ0 c. (5. the derivative in equation (5. and time. t.10). the ﬂow out (or in) is ρ(t) dV d dt d ρdV = dt c. θ and they can be taken out the integral as d dt which results in A ρdV = π R2 c.v. L. 5.

v. Example 5. c.12) Vrn dA = Sin Sout Vrn dA = 0 (5.2 Deformable Control Volume The left hand side of question (5.2. dρ dV +ρ dt n · Ub dA = ρ ˆ Sc.3. MASS CONSERVATION Non Deformable Control Volume For this case the volume is constant therefore the mass is constant. Sc.126 5.2 illustrates this point. Find the height as a function of the other parameters. Example 5. Sc.v. the net ﬂow (in and out) is zero. Urn dA (5. This condition can be written mathematically as =0 d −→ dt or in a more explicit form as Vrn dA = 0 Sc. and hence the mass change of the control volume is zero.v. 5.3.v.7 Ap .v.v.5.13) Notice that the density does not play a role in this equation since it is canceled out.1 CHAPTER 5.15) is the net growth (or decrease) of the Control volume is by net volume ﬂow into it. The last assumption is result of the energy equation (with . Ubn dA = Sc. The liquid ﬁlls a bucket with cross section area of A and instantaneous height is h.2: Liquid ﬁlls a bucket as shown in Figure 5. Physically. =0 =0 d dt ρ dV = c. Ubn dA (5. (5.2. Assume that the density is constant and at the boundary interface Aj = 0. Hence. The average velocity of the liquid at the exit of the ﬁlling pipe is Up and cross section of the pipe is Ap . the meaning is that volume ﬂow rate in and the volume ﬂow rate out have to equal.15) The meaning of the equation (5.v.14) where Ub is the boundary velocity and Ubn is the normal component of the boundary velocity. And where Aj is the area of jet when touching the liquid boundary in bucket.10) can be examined further to develop a simpler equation by using the extend Leibniz integral rule for a constant density and result in thus.

5.v. this eﬀect can be neglected for this range which this problem. no liquid leaves the jet and enters the air. ﬂow in = c. the ratio is determined by height of the pipe from the liquid surface in the bucket. In reality. The control volume around the jet is deformable because the length of the jet shrinks with the time. -5. Filling of the bucket and choices of the deformable control volumes for example 5.v. the liquid in the bucket has a straight surface. the air eﬀects are negligible. The mass conservation of the liquid in the bucket is boundary change Ubn dA c. Calculate the bucket liquid interface velocity. This assumption is a strong assumption for certain conditions but it will be not discussed here since it is advance topic. Third. Substituting the known values for Urn results in Urn Ub dA = c. several assumptions must be made.v. Fourth.v. some inﬂuence of momentum equation). CONTINUITY EQUATION 127 Up Ap Ub Aj h Uj A Fig. there are no evaporation or condensation processes. c.2. In this analysis. However. Urn dA where Ubn is the perpendicular component of velocity of the boundary.3. Solution This problem requires two deformable control volumes. The relationship is function of the distance of the pipe from the boundary of the liquid.5. The ﬁrst control is around the jet and second is around the liquid in the bucket. First. (Uj + Ub ) dA . Second.

128

CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

The integration can be carried when the area of jet is assumed to be known as Ub A = Aj (Uj + Ub ) (5.II.a)

To ﬁnd the jet velocity, Uj , the second control volume around the jet is used as the following

ﬂow in ﬂow out boundary change

Up Ap − Aj (Ub + Uj ) = −Aj Ub

(5.II.b)

The above two equations (5.II.a) and (5.II.b) are enough to solve for the two unknowns. Substituting the ﬁrst equation, (5.II.a) into (5.II.b) and using the ratio of Aj = 0.7 Ap results Up Ap − Ub A = −0.7 Ap Ub (5.II.c) The solution of equation (5.II.c) is Ub = Ap A − 0.7 Ap

It is interesting that many individuals intuitively will suggest that the solution is Ub Ap /A. When examining solution there are two limits. The ﬁrst limit is when Ap = A/0.7 which is Ap Ub = =∞ 0 The physical meaning is that surface is ﬁlled instantly. The other limit is that and Ap /A −→ 0 then Ap Ub = A which is the result for the “intuitive” solution. It also interesting to point out that if the ﬁlling was from other surface (not the top surface), e.g. the side, the velocity will be Ub = Up in the limiting case and not inﬁnity. The reason for this diﬀerence is that the liquid already ﬁll the bucket and has not to move into bucket.

End Solution

Example 5.3: Balloon is attached to a rigid supply in which is supplied by a constant the mass rate, mi . Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries assuming constant density. Solution The applicable equation is Ubn dA =

c.v. c.v.

Urn dA

The entrance is ﬁxed, thus the relative velocity, Urn is Urn = −Up 0 @ the valve every else

5.3. CONTINUITY EQUATION

129

Assume equal distribution of the velocity in balloon surface and that the center of the balloon is moving, thus the velocity has the following form Ub = Ux x + Ubr r ˆ ˆ Where x is unit coordinate in x direction and Ux is the velocity of the center and where ˆ r is unit coordinate in radius from the center of the balloon and Ubr is the velocity in ˆ that direction. The right side of equation (5.15) is the net change due to the boundary is center movement net boundary change (Ux x + Ubr r) · n dA = ˆ ˆ ˆ

Sc.v. Sc.v.

(Ux x) · n dA + ˆ ˆ

Sc.v.

(Ubr r) · n dA ˆ ˆ

The ﬁrst integral is zero because it is like movement of solid body and also yield this value mathematically (excises for mathematical oriented student). The second integral (notice n = r) yields ˆ ˆ (Ubr r) · n dA = 4 π r2 Ubr ˆ ˆ

Sc.v.

**Substituting into the general equation yields
**

A

ρ 4 π r2 Ubr = ρ Up Ap = mi Hence, Ubr = mi ρ 4 π r2

The center velocity is (also) exactly Ubr . The total velocity of boundary is Ut = mi (ˆ + r) x ˆ ρ 4 π r2

It can be noticed that the velocity at the opposite to the connection to the rigid pipe which is double of the center velocity.

End Solution

5.3.2.3

One–Dimensional Control Volume

Additional simpliﬁcation of the continuity equation is of one dimensional ﬂow. This simpliﬁcation provides very useful description for many ﬂuid ﬂow phenomena. The main assumption made in this model is that the proprieties in the across section are only function of x coordinate . This assumptions leads d ρ2 U2 dA − ρ1 U1 dA = dt A2 A1

dV

ρ(x) A(x) dx

V (x)

(5.16)

130

CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

**When the density can be considered constant equation (5.16) is reduced to U2 dA −
**

A2 A1

U1 dA =

d dt

A(x)dx

(5.17)

For steady state but with variations of the velocity and variation of the density reduces equation (5.16) to become ρ2 U2 dA =

A2 A1

ρ1 U1 dA

(5.18)

For steady state and uniform density and velocity equation (5.18) reduces further to ρ1 A1 U1 = ρ2 A2 U2 (5.19)

For incompressible ﬂow (constant density), continuity equation is at its minimum form of U1 A1 = A2 U2 (5.20)

The next example is of semi one–dimensional example to illustrate equation (5.16).

min

h

Fig. -5.6. Height of the liquid for example 5.4.

Example 5.4: Liquid ﬂows into tank in a constant mass ﬂow rate of a. The mass ﬂow rate out is √ function of the height. First assume that qout = b h second Assume as qout = b h. For the ﬁrst case, determine the height, h as function of the time. Is there a critical value and then if exist ﬁnd the critical value of the system parameters. Assume that the height at time zero is h0 . What happen if the h0 = 0?

5.3. CONTINUITY EQUATION Solution

131

The control volume for both cases is the same and it is around the liquid in the tank. It can be noticed that control volume satisfy the demand of one dimensional since the ﬂow is only function of x coordinate. For case one the right hand side term in equation (5.16) is d L dh ρ h dx = ρ L dt 0 dt Substituting into equation equation (5.16) is dh ρL = dt solution is h= ﬂow out b1 h ﬂow in − mi private solution

homogeneous solution

b1 t mi + c1 ρ L b1 The solution has the homogeneous solution (solution without the mi ) and the solution of the mi part. The solution can rearranged to a new form (a discussion why this form is preferred will be provided in dimensional chapter). b t − ρ1L

e

e

h b1 = m1

e

− ρ1L

b

t

+c

e

b1 t ρL

With the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 the constant coeﬃcient can be found as h0 b 1 h0 b1 = 1 − c =⇒ c = 1 − m1 mi which the solution is h b1 = m1

e

− ρ1L

b

t

+ 1−

h0 b1 mi

e

b1 t ρL

0 0 It can be observed that if 1 = hmb1 is the critical point of this solution. If the term hmb1 i i is larger than one then the solution reduced to a negative number. However, negative number for height is not possible and the height solution approach zero. If the reverse case appeared, the height will increase. Essentially, the critical ratio state if the ﬂow in is larger or lower than the ﬂow out determine the condition of the height. For second case, the governing equation (5.16) is

ﬂow out ﬂow in √ dh ρL = b h − mi dt with the general solution of √ hb ln −1 mi √ √ mi hb hb + − 1 = (t + c) ρL mi 2ρL

132

CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

The constant is obtained when the initial condition that at h(t = 0) = h0 and it left as exercise for the reader.

End Solution

**5.4 Reynolds Transport Theorem
**

It can be noticed that the same derivations carried for the density can be carried for other intensive properties such as speciﬁc entropy, speciﬁc enthalpy. Suppose that g is intensive property (which can be a scalar or a vector) undergoes change with time. The change of accumulative property will be then D Dt f ρdV =

sys

d dt

f ρdV +

c.v. c.v

f ρ Urn dA

(5.21)

This theorem named after Reynolds, Osborne, (1842-1912) which is actually a three dimensional generalization of Leibniz integral rule1 . To make the previous derivation clearer, the Reynolds Transport Theorem will be reproofed and discussed. The ideas are the similar but extended some what. Leibniz integral rule2 is an one dimensional and it is deﬁned as d dy

x2 (y) x2 (y)

f (x, y) dx =

x1 (y) x1 (y)

dx2 dx1 ∂f dx + f (x2 , y) − f (x1 , y) ∂y dy dy

(5.22)

Initially, a proof will be provided and the physical meaning will be explained. Assume that there is a function that satisfy the following

x

G(x, y) =

f (α, y) dα

(5.23)

Notice that lower boundary of the integral is missing and is only the upper limit of the function is present3 . For its derivative of equation (5.23) is f (x, y) = ∂G ∂x (5.24)

diﬀerentiating (chain rule d uv = u dv + v du) by part of left hand side of the Leibniz integral rule (it can be shown which are identical) is

1 2 3 4

**d [G(x2 , y) − G(x1 , y)] ∂G dx2 ∂G ∂G dx1 ∂G = + (x2 , y) − − (x1 , y) dy ∂x2 dy ∂y ∂x1 dy ∂y
**

1 These 2 This

(5.25)

papers can be read on-line at http://www.archive.org/details/papersonmechanic01reynrich. material is not necessarily but is added her for completeness. This author ﬁnd material just given so no questions will be asked. 3 There was a suggestion to insert arbitrary constant which will be canceled and will a provide rigorous proof. This is engineering book and thus, the exact mathematical proof is not the concern here. Nevertheless, if there will be a demand for such, it will be provided.

5.4. REYNOLDS TRANSPORT THEOREM

133

**The terms 2 and 4 in equation (5.25) are actually (the x2 is treated as a diﬀerent variable)
**

x2 (y) x1 (y)

∂ f (x, y) dx ∂y

(5.26)

The ﬁrst term (1) in equation (5.25) is dx2 ∂G dx2 = f (x2 , y) ∂x2 dy dy (5.27)

The same can be said for the third term (3). Thus this explanation is a proof the Leibniz rule. The above “proof” is mathematical in nature and physical explanation is also provided. Suppose that a ﬂuid is ﬂowing in a conduit. The intensive property, f is investigated or the accumulative property, F . The interesting information that commonly needed is the change of the accumulative property, F , with time. The change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f dV

sys

(5.28)

**For one dimensional situation the change with time is DF D = Dt Dt ρ f A(x)dx
**

sys

(5.29)

If two limiting points (for the one dimensional) are moving with a diﬀerent coordinate system, the mass will be diﬀerent and it will not be a system. This limiting condition is the control volume for which some of the mass will leave or enter. Since the change is very short (diﬀerential), the ﬂow in (or out) will be the velocity of ﬂuid minus the boundary at x1 , Urn = U1 − Ub . The same can be said for the other side. The accumulative ﬂow of the property in, F , is then

F1

dx1 dt

**Fin = f1 ρ Urn The accumulative ﬂow of the property out, F , is then
**

F2

dx2 dt

(5.30)

Fout = f2 ρ Urn

(5.31)

**The change with time of the accumulative property, F , between the boundaries is d dt ρ(x) f A(x) dA
**

c.v.

(5.32)

This assumption is good for most cases with very few exceptions. The magical averaged velocity is obtained using the equation (5.13).134 CHAPTER 5. the velocity became uniform.a) The integration of the equation (5.a) is R2 = Uave π R2 6 The solution of equation (b) results in average velocity as Umax π Uave = Umax 6 (5.V. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has three components and only the perpendicular component enters into the calculations. What is the magical averaged velocity at the exit? Assume no–slip condition.V. It will be assumed that the velocity at the interface is zero. f ρ Urn dA (5.c) End Solution .b) (5. After magical mixing. Thus. the boundary condition is U (r = R) = 0 and U (r = 0) = Umax Therefore the velocity proﬁle is r U (r) = Umax 1 − R Where R is radius and r is the working radius (for the integration).5 Examples For Mass Conservation Several examples are provided to illustrate the topic.v.33) 5. Reynolds Transport theorem is a generalization of the Leibniz rule and thus the same arguments are used. D DT d dt f ρdV = sys f ρ dV + c.V. For which R Umax 1 − 0 r R 2 π r dr = Uave π R2 (5. Since the time variable. Write the equation which describes the velocity at the entrance. Additionally. later a discussion on relationship between velocity at interface to solid also referred as the (no) slip condition will be provided. is arbitrary and it can be replaced by any letter.5: Liquid enters a circular pipe with a linear velocity proﬁle as a function of the radius with maximum velocity of Umax .v Sc. Solution The velocity proﬁle is linear with radius. Example 5. t.V. MASS CONSERVATION When put together it brings back the Leibniz integral rule. The above discussion is one of the physical meaning the Leibniz rule.

6: Experiments have shown that a layer of liquid that attached itself to the surface and it is referred to as boundary layer. The control volume has three surfaces that mass can cross. right. The boundary layer is growing with x because the boundary eﬀect is penetrating further into ﬂuid. Boundary Layer control mass. and upper. -5. The assumption is that ﬂuid attaches itself to surface.13) results in x direction y direction out in δ δ U0 dy − 0 0 U0 y dy = δ L U xdx 0 It can be noticed that the convention used in this chapter of “in” as negative is not “followed. In this case.7. Example 5. A common boundary layer analysis uses the Reynolds transform theorem. (to satisfy the boundary condition) it will be U0 y Ux (y) = δ The chosen control volume is rectangular of L × δ. The situation is steady state and thus using equation (5.5. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION (1) (2) 135 U0 o ge Ed fB r nd ou yL ay er L Fig. calculate the relationship of the mass transfer across the control volume. the left. Then assume parabolic velocity proﬁle as Ux (y) = 2 U0 y 1 + δ 2 y δ 2 and calculate the mass transfer across the control volume.5. Where δ is the height of the boundary layer at exit point of the ﬂow as shown in Figure 5. The above integrals on the . No mass can cross the lower surface (solid boundary).” The integral simply multiply by negative one.7. Solution Assuming the velocity proﬁle is linear thus. Compare the two diﬀerent velocity proﬁles aﬀecting on the mass transfer. For simplicity assume slowed ﬂuid has a linear velocity proﬁle. The slowed liquid is slowing the layer above it.

1 ) 5. The tank is 3/4 fulls. 7 hours.136 right hand side can be combined as δ CHAPTER 5. and 8 hours.01 m2 500 m/sec End Solution The mass (volume) ﬂow rate is given by direct quantity like x kg/sec.02kg/m3 AU 0. However sometime. The burned gases leaves at the exhaust which has cross area 0.7: Air ﬂows into a jet engine at 5 kg/sec while fuel ﬂow into the jet is at 0.1 kg/sec The density is ρ= m ˙ 5.8: The tank is ﬁlled by two valves which one ﬁlled tank in 3 hours and the second by 6 hours.1 kg/sec.1 kg/sec = = 1. The tank also has three emptying valves of 5 hours. the ﬂow out is ( 5 + 0.1 m2 with velocity of 500 m/sec. Is there a combination of valves that make the tank at steady state? . Example 5. What is the density of the gases at the exhaust? Solution The mass conservation equation (5. calculate the time for tank reach empty or full state when all the valves are open. the mass (or the volume) is given by indirect quantity such as the eﬀect of ﬂow. The next example deal with such reversed mass ﬂow rate. Thus.13) is used. MASS CONSERVATION U0 1 − 0 y δ L dy = 0 U xdx the integration results in U0 δ = 2 or for parabolic proﬁle δ δ L U xdx 0 U0 dy − 0 0 δ U0 y y + δ δ y y − δ δ L 2 L dy = 0 U xdx or 0 U0 1 − the integration results in 2 dy = U0 U0 δ = 2 U xdx 0 End Solution Example 5.

The time to completely ﬁlled the tank is 1 70 4 = hour 159 1 131 − 2 280 The rest is under construction. assume that the process is isothermal. Assume that the gas mass is supplied in uniformed way of mi [kg/m/sec]. dρ dV dt ρ Ub dV ρUrn dA Every term in the above equation is analyzed but ﬁrst the equation of state and volume to pressure relationship have to be provided.5. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution 137 Easier measurement of valve ﬂow rate can be expressed as fraction of the tank per hour. The pressure inside the cylinder is linearly proportional to the volume. ρ= P RT and relationship between the volume and pressure is P = f π Rc 2 . For simplicity.5. Thus. Calculate the cylinder boundaries velocity. End Solution Example 5.v.v. in or out ﬂow rate = Sc. Solution The applicable equation is increase pressure Vc. The gas inside the cylinder obeys the ideal gas law.9: Inﬂated cylinder is supplied in its center with constant mass ﬂow.v boundary velocity + Sc. mass ﬂow rate in is min = 1/3 + 1/6 = 1/2tank/hour ˙ The mass ﬂow rate out is mout = 1/5 + 1/7 + 1/8 = ˙ 131 280 Thus. For example valve of 3 hours can be converted to 1/3 tank per hour. Assume that the cylinder inﬂated uniformly and pressure inside the cylinder is uniform. if all the valves are open the tank will be ﬁlled.

Where fv is a coeﬃcient describing the balloon physical characters.10: A balloon is attached to a rigid supply and is supplied by a constant mass rate.v Vc. Assume that gas obeys the ideal gas law. mi . When the derivative of the second part is dUb /dRc = 0. It also can be noticed that boundary velocity is related to the radius in the following form Ub = dRc dt The ﬁrst term requires to ﬁnd the derivative of density with respect to time which is Ub dρ d = dt dt Thus the ﬁrst term is dρ dV = dt 2 π Rc f π Rc RT 2 = 2 f π Rc dRc RT dt Vc. MASS CONSERVATION Where Rc is the instantaneous cylinder radius. . 4 The proof of this idea is based on the chain diﬀerentiation similar to Leibniz rule.v. Combining the above two equations results in f π Rc 2 ρ= RT Where f is a coeﬃcient with the right dimension. Assume that balloon volume is a linear function of the pressure inside the balloon such as P = fv V . Calculate the velocity of the balloon boundaries under the assumption of isothermal process.v 2 f π Rc Ub RT 2 π Rc dRc dV = 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub 3RT The integral can be carried when Ub is independent of the Rc 4 The second term is ρ f π Rc 2 ρ Ub dA = Ub 2 πRc = RT Sc. A f π 3 Rc 2 RT Ub substituting in the governing equation obtained the form of f π 2 Rc 3 4 f π 2 Rc 3 Ub + Ub = mi RT 3RT The boundary velocity is then Ub = mi 3 mi R T G= 7 f π 2 Rc 3 7 f π 2 Rc 3 3RT End Solution Example 5.138 CHAPTER 5.

v The right hand side of the above equation is ρUrn dA = mi Sc. .v.v.5.v. EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Solution The question is more complicated than Example 5. ρUrn dA Vc.5. The density change is Ub dρ 12 fv π Rb dRb = dt RT dt The ﬁrst term is =f (r) Rb 0 2 12 fv π Rb 2 16 fv π 2 Rb 5 Ub 4 π r2 dr = Ub RT 3RT dV The second term is 8 fv π 2 R b 5 4 fv π R b 3 4 fv π R b 3 Ub dA = Ub 4 π Rb 2 = Ub 3RT 3RT 3RT A A Subsisting the two equations of the applicable equation results Ub = 1 mi R T 8 fv π 2 R b 5 Notice that ﬁrst term is used to increase the pressure and second the change of the boundary. Sc.10. The ideal gas law is ρ= P RT 139 The relationship between the pressure and volume is P = fv V = 4 fv π Rb 3 3 The combining of the ideal gas law with the relationship between the pressure and volume results 4 fv π Rb 3 ρ= 3RT The applicable equation is dρ dV + dt ρ (Uc x + Ub r) dA = ˆ ˆ Sc.

140

**CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION
**

End Solution

Open Question: Answer must be received by April 15, 2010 The best solution of the following question will win 18 U.S. dollars and your name will be associated with the solution in this book. Example 5.11: Solve example 5.10 under the assumption that the process is isentropic. Also assume that the relationship between the pressure and the volume is P = fv V 2 . What are the units of the coeﬃcient fv in this problem? What are the units of the coeﬃcient in the previous problem?

**5.6 The Details Picture – Velocity Area Relationship
**

The integral approach is intended to deal with the “big” picture. Indeed the method is used in this part of the book for this A purpose. However, there is very little written about the usability of this approach to provide way to calculate the average quantities in the control system. Sometimes hℓ z y Ae it is desirable to ﬁnd the averaged velocx Ue ity or velocity distribution inside a control volume. There is no general way to provide these quantities. Therefore an example will be provided to demonstrate the use Fig. -5.8. Control volume usage to calculate of this approach. local averaged velocity in three coordinates. Consider a container ﬁlled with liquid on which one exit opened and the liquid ﬂows out as shown in Figure 5.8. The velocity has three components in each of the coordinates under the assumumption that ﬂow is uniform and the surface is straight5 . The integral approached is used to calculate the averaged velocity of each to the components. To relate the velocity in the z direction with the ﬂow rate out or the exit the velocity mass balance is constructed. A similar control volume construction to ﬁnd the velocity of the boundary velocity (height) can be carried out. The control volume is bounded by the container wall including the exit of the ﬂow. The upper boundary is surface parallel to upper surface but at Z distance from the bottom. The mass balance reads dρ dV + dt Ubn ρ dA +

A A

Urn ρ dA = 0

(5.34)

V

5 The liquid surface is not straight for this kind of problem. However, under certain conditions it is reasonable to assume straight surface which have been done for this problem.

5.6. THE DETAILS PICTURE – VELOCITY AREA RELATIONSHIP For constant density (conservation of volume) equation6 and (h > z) reduces to Urn ρ dA = 0

A

141

(5.35)

In the container case for uniform velocity equation 5.35 becomes Uz A = Ue Ae =⇒ Uz = − Ae Ue A (5.36)

It can be noticed that the boundary is not moving and the mass inside does not change this control volume. The velocity Uz is the averaged velocity downward. The x component of velocity is obY control Volume Volume tained by using a diﬀerent control volume. Ax− X controlpage into the page into the The control volume is shown in Figure 5.9. The boundary are the container far from Ay − y the ﬂow exit with blue line projection into x page (area) shown in the Figure 5.9. The mass conservation for constant density of this control volume is −

A

Ue

Ae

Ubn ρ dA +

A

Urn ρ dA = 0 (5.37)

Fig. -5.9. Control volume and system before and after the motion.

Usage of control volume not included in the previous analysis provides the velocity at the upper boundary which is the same as the velocity at y direction. Substituting into (5.37) results in Ae Ue ρ dA + A Ux ρ dA = 0

Ayz

(5.38)

Ax

−

Where Ax − is the area shown the Figure under this label. The area Ayz referred to area into the page in Figure 5.9 under the blow line. Because averaged velocities and constant density are used transformed equation (5.38) into Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A

Ayz

(5.39)

Where Y (x) is the length of the (blue) line of the boundary. It can be notice that the velocity, Ux is generally increasing with x because Ax − increase with x. The calculations for the y directions are similar to the one done for x direction. The only diﬀerence is that the velocity has two diﬀerent directions. One zone is right to the exit with ﬂow to the left and one zone to left with averaged velocity to right. If the volumes on the left and the right are symmetrical the averaged velocity will be zero.

6 The

point where (z = h) the boundary term is substituted the ﬂow in term.

142

CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION

Example 5.12: Calculate the velocity, Ux for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). Solution The relationship for this geometry needed to be expressed. The length of the line Y (x) is Y (x) = 2 r 1− 1− x r

2

Ax− Y(x)

(r − x) x α

y

r

(5.XII.a)

Ue

Ae

This relationship also can be expressed in the term of α as Y (x) = 2 r sin α (5.XII.b)

Fig. -5.10. Circular cross section for ﬁnding Ux and various cross sections.

Since this expression is simpler it will be adapted. When the relationship between radius angle and x are x = r(1 − sin α) (5.XII.c) The area Ax − is expressed in term of α as Ax − = Thus the velocity, Ux is Ae A α− 1 sin(2α) r2 Ue + Ux 2 r sin α h = 0 2 Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue A h sin α 1 S (5.XII.e) (5.XII.f) 1 α − , sin(2α) r2 2 (5.XII.d)

Ux = Averaged velocity is deﬁned as

Ux =

U dS

S

(5.XII.g)

Where here S represent some length. The same way it can be represented for angle calculations. The value dS is r cos α. Integrating the velocity for the entire container and dividing by the angle, α provides the averaged velocity. Ux = which results in Ux = 1 2r

π 0

**Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α (π − 1) Ae r Ue 4 A h
**

End Solution

(5.XII.h)

(5.XII.i)

Example 5.13:

5.7. MORE EXAMPLES FOR MASS CONSERVATION Calculate the velocity, Uy for a cross section of circular shape (cylinder). What is the averaged velocity if only half section is used. State your assumptions and how it similar to the previous example. Solution

X(y)

x

143

y

r (r − x)

Ay − Ue Ae

Fig. -5.11. y velocity for a circular shape

The ﬂow out in the x direction is zero because symmetrical reasons. That is the ﬂow ﬁeld is a mirror images. Thus, every point has diﬀerent velocity with the same value in the opposite direction. The ﬂow in half of the cylinder either the right or the left has non zero averaged velocity. The calculations are similar to those in the previous to example 5.12. The main concept that must be recognized is the half of the ﬂow must have come from one side and the other come from the other side. Thus, equation (5.39) modiﬁed to be Ae − Ax Ue + Ux Y (x) h = 0 A The integral is the same as before but the upper limit is only to π/2 Ux = which results in Ux = (π − 2) Ae r Ue 8 A h

End Solution

Ayz

(5.40)

1 2r

π/2 0

Ae r α − 1 sin(2α) 2 Ue r dα A h tan α

(5.XIII.a)

(5.XIII.b)

**5.7 More Examples for Mass Conservation
**

Typical question about the relative velocity that appeared in many ﬂuid mechanics exams is the following. Example 5.14:

144 CHAPTER 5. MASS CONSERVATION A boat travels at speed of 10m/sec upstream in a river that ﬂows at a speed of 5m/s. The inboard engine uses a pump to suck in water at the front Ain = 0.2 m2 and eject it through the back of the boat with exist area of Aout = 0.05 m2 . The water absolute velocity leaving the back is 50m/sec, what Fig. -5.12. Schematic of the are the relative velocities entering and leaving the boat for example 5.14 boat and the pumping rate?

Us = 5[m/sec] Uo = 50[m/sec] Ub = 10[m/sec]

Solution The boat is assumed (implicitly is stated) to be steady state and the density is constant. However, the calculation have to be made in the frame of reference moving with the boat. The relative jet discharge velocity is Urout = 50 − (10 + 5) = 35[m/sec] The volume ﬂow rate is then Qout = Aout Urout = 35 × 0.05 = 1.75m3 /sec The ﬂow rate at entrance is the same as the exit thus, Urin = Aout 0.05 Urout = 35 = 8.75m/sec Ain 0.2

End Solution

**CHAPTER 6 Momentum Conservation for Control Volume
**

6.1 Momentum Governing Equation

6.1.1 Introduction to Continuous

In the previous chapter, the Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) was applied to mass conservation. Mass is a scalar (quantity without magnitude). This chapter deals with momentum conservation which is a vector. The Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) is applicable to any quantity and the discussion here will deal with forces that acting on the control volume. Newton’s second law for single body is as the following F = U d(mU ) dt (6.1)

It can be noticed that bold notation for the velocity is U (and not U ) to represent that the velocity has a direction. For several bodies (n), Newton’s law becomes

n n

Fi =

i=1 i=1

U d(mU )i dt

(6.2)

The ﬂuid can be broken into inﬁnitesimal elements which turn the above equation (6.2) into a continuous form of small bodies which results in

n

Fi =

i=1

D Dt

element mass U ρ dV

sys

(6.3)

145

The Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT) has to be used on the right hand side.7) Fig. The gravity acts on all the system elements. one due to viscosity (solid body) and two consequence of the ﬂuid pressure. The surface “force”. is made out of two components.2 External Forces First.5) which acts through the mass center towards the center of earth. The explaination for the direction relative to surface perpendicular and with the surface.v.8) Where Sν is perpendicular stress due to viscosity. n is an unit vector outward ˆ of element area and the negative sign is applied so that the resulting force acts on the body. have to be discussed. is in the surface direction. ∼0 Pˆ S n = −P n + Sν (6. τ dA (6.1. only the pressure component is used which is reasonable for most situations. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Note that the notation D/Dt is used and not d/dt to signify that it referred to a derivative of the system. Thus.1. it can be written as Fs = c.). Sn dA + c. The forces. After inﬁnitesimal time the gravity force acting on the system is the same for control volume. Where the surface “force”.v. are the body forces. Here for simplicity. g ρ dV = sys cv g ρ dV (6.146 CHAPTER 6. or the forces. hence. excluding the external forces. Thus. and the surface forces as the following F total = F b + F s (6.1. the surface forces are with the divided into two categories: one perpendisurface n ˆ perpendicular to cular to the surface and one with the surthe surface face direction (in the surface plain see Figure 6. In this chapter. Sn . the main body force is the gravity. -6. Again. and τ are the shear stresses. the terms on the left hand side. . The total gravity force is element mass Fb = sys g ρ dV (6.4) In this book (at least in this discussion).6) The integral yields a force trough the center mass which has to be found separately. Sn . 6.

τ x · dA = ρ U x · U rn dA (6. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 147 6. friction (non-ﬂuid).11) is a vector equation which can be broken into its three components. is ρ U dV = sys ρ U dV + c.v.v. 6. are the forces resulting from support of the control volume by non–ﬂuid elements.v. c. supporting solid structures.1.10) is transformed to Integral Momentum Equation & External Forces F ext + g ρ dV − P · dA + τ · dA = c. t = dt c. ρ U Urn dV The external forces. In Cartesian coordinate.v. etc. Thus. where θx is the angle between n and ˆ or (ˆ · ˆ ˆ i n i). the general form of the momentum equation without the external forces is Integral Momentum Equation g ρ dV − P dA + τ · dA c. c.4 Momentum Equation in Acceleration System For accelerate system.v.v.v.v. c.9) The liquid velocity. for example in the x coordinate.1.6. U . c. With external forces equation (6.1. according Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT).3 Momentum Governing Equation D Dt t dt The right hand side. (6. Equation (6. ducts.v.11) ρ U dV + c. Fext . These external forces are commonly associated with pipe.v.v.v.v.v. the components are Fx + c. c. is measured in the frame of reference and U rn is the liquid relative velocity to boundary of the control volume measured in the same frame of reference.10) ρ U Urn dV ρ U dV + c.v. ρ U U rn dA (6. t dt c. the right hand side has to include the following acceleration r ˙ a acc = ω × (r × ω) + 2 U × ω + r × ω − a 0 (6.13) . g · ˆ ρ dV i c. P cos θx dA + c.v. (6.v.12) t dt ρ U x dV + c. c.

ﬂow is exposed to the atmosphere and thus (almost) uniform pressure surrounding the control volume. In this case the resulting force due to the pressure is zero to all directions. Thus.1 Momentum for For Constant Pressure and Frictionless Flow Another important sub category of simpliﬁcation deals with ﬂow under approximation of the frictionless ﬂow and uniform pressure.5 Momentum For Steady State and Uniform Flow The momentum equation can be simpliﬁed for the steady state condition as it was shown in example 6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where r is the distance from the center of the frame of reference and the add force is F add = Vc.15) 6.5.6. a acc ρ dV (6.v. g ρ dV − c.v. P dA + c.14) Integral of Uniform Pressure on Body In this kind of calculations. The unsteady term (where the time derivative) is zero. This situation is a similar idea that was shown in Section 4. equation (??) is further reduced to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA (6.148 CHAPTER 6.3.v. the mass ﬂow rate in and out are equal. . τ dA = c.18) is applicable to any velocity proﬁle and any geometrical shape.1. it common to obtain a situation where one of the term will be an integral of the pressure over the body surface. Integral Steady State Momentum Equation F ext + c.17) 1 A [U (r)] dA A 2 (6.v. In this situation. Additionally.16) In situations where the velocity is provided and known (remember that density is constant) the integral can be replaced by F = mU o − mU i ˙U ˙U The average velocity is related to the velocity proﬁle by the following integral U = 2 (6. ρ U Urn dA (6. This kind of situations arise when friction (forces) is small compared to kinetic momentum change.v.18) Equation (6. in these situations. 6.1.

2.I.2: A jet is impinging on a stationary surface by changing only the jet direction (see Figure 6. calculate the force and the angle which the support has to apply to keep the system in equilibrium. Fig. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION 149 Example 6.I.I. Schematics of area impinged by a jet and angle eﬀects.6. Solution The velocity proﬁle is U r R = Umax 1 − r R 2 (6. Uo θ Ui F Fig b.a) Substituting equation (6. Example 6. Umax U= √ 6 End Solution 2 1 2 π R2 1 0 R 0 [U (r)] 2 π r dr 2 (6.1. What is the angle for which maximum force will be created? .1: Calculate the average velocity for the given parabolic velocity proﬁle for a circular pipe.18) U = results in U = (Umax ) Thus. Neglect the friction. -6.c) y x Uo Ui F Fig a. Schematics of area impinged by a jet for example 6. Schematics of maximum angle for impinged by a jet.2.a) into equation (6.b) 2 2 1 − r2 ¯ 2 rd¯ = ¯ r 1 2 (Umax ) 6 (6.2).I.

II. Equation (6.a) can be explicitly written for the two coordinates. Fx occurs when cos θ = π. End Solution Example 6. For small angle analysis is important in the calculations of ﬂow around thin wings. because it is a steady state. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Equation (6.3: Liquid ﬂows through a symmetrical nozzle as shown in the Figure 6.a) It can be noticed that even though the velocity change direction. Hence Fx |max = −2 m Ui ˙ and the force in the y direction is Fy = m Ui sin θ ˙ the combined forces are Ftotal = Which results in Ftotal = m Ui sin (θ/2) ˙ with the force angle of tan φ = π − Fy π θ = − Fx 2 2 Fx 2 + Fy 2 = m Ui ˙ (cos θ − 1) + sin2 θ 2 For angle between 0 < θ < π the maximum occur at θ = π and the minimum at θ ∼ 0.11) can be reduced. The equation for the x coordinate is Fx = m (cos θ Uo − Ui ) ˙ or since Ui = Uo Fx = m Ui (cos θ − 1) ˙ It can be observed that the maximum force.3 with a mass . the mass ﬂow rate remains constant.150 Solution CHAPTER 6.II. It can be proven by setting dFx /dθ = 0 which yields θ = 0 a minimum and the previous solution. to Urn Urn F = out U U ˆ ρU (U · n) dA − in U U ˆ ˙U ˙U ρU (U · n) dA = mUo − mUi (6.

τ z dA = c.1. ˆ g · k ρ dV + P cos θz dA + (6.3.v. Then A1 U1 = A2 U2 and after rearrangement. the exit velocity is U2 = A1 0. The control volume does not cross any solid body (or surface) there is no external forces. ρ U z · U rn dA . The exit velocity is uniform but unknown.III. τ z dA = (6.III.3. The exit pressure is 1[Bar].0001[cm2 ].b) c.0015 [m3 ]. Hence. the velocity has to be found. Solution U2 =? P2 = 1[Bar] A2 = 10[cm2] 151 z P2 = 3[Bar] A1 = 50[cm2] U1 = 5[m/sec] Fig.v.0005 U1 = × 5 = 25[m/sec] A2 0. MOMENTUM GOVERNING EQUATION ﬂow rate of 0. =0 liquid surface Fz + c.0005[m2 ] and the exit area is 0. First.a) ρ U z · U rn dA ρ U z dV + c.v.v. =0 c. Nozzle schematic for the discussion on the forces and for example 6.v. c.v.3. ˆ g · k ρ dV + t dt P cos θz dA + c.6.v. The chosen control volume is shown in Figure 6. The entrance area is 0. -6.v. The entrance pressure is 3[Bar] and the entrance velocity is 5 [m/sec].v.0001 Equation (6. forces on the nozzle Fnozzle solid surface P cos θz dA + c.12) is applicable but should be transformed into the z direction which is Fz + c. This situation is a steady state for constant density.v.01 [gk/sec]. What is the exit velocity? What is the force acting the nozzle? Assume that the density is constant ρ = 1000[kg/m3 ] and the volume in the nozzle is 0. c.

In the Figure 6.v. fan etc. P cos θz dA = c. This surface is called slip surface.d) 6. this analysis is used for academic purposes.III. Combining all transform equation (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION All the forces that act on the nozzle are combined as Fnozzle + c. ρ U z · U rn dA (6. Many times it is used for propulsion purposes of airplanes. The part of the pressure which act on the nozzle in the z direction is − c.4 the ﬂuid ﬂows from the left to the right.v.4.v.III. The other common used of propeller is mostly to move ﬂuids as a pump. Or there is a line (or surface) in which the ﬂuid outside changes only the ﬂow direction.2 Momentum Equation Application Momentum Equation Applied to Propellers The propeller is a mechanical devise that is used to increase the ﬂuid momentum.v. Either it is assumed that some of the ﬂuid enters into the container and ﬂuid outside is not aﬀected by the propeller. ˆ g · k ρ dV + c. g · n ρ dV = −g ρVnozzle ˆ Notice that in the results the gravity is not bold since only the magnitude is used.c) into Fz = −g ρVnozzle + P A|2 − P A|1 + ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 Fz = 9.c) The second term or the body force which acts through the center of the nozzle is Fb = − c. The propeller analysis of unsteady is complicated due to the diﬃculty in understanding the velocity ﬁeld.v. P dA = 1 P dA − 2 P dA = P A|1 − P A|2 The last term in equation (6.8 × 1000× End Solution (6.III. A2 U2 (U2 ) dA − A1 U1 (U1 ) dA which results in ρ U z · U rn dA = ρ U2 2 A2 − U1 2 A1 c. . Improvements can be made to this analysis. ships and other devices (thrust) as shown in Figure 6. The propeller can be stationary like in cooling tours.152 CHAPTER 6.v.III. Here.v. For a steady state the analysis is simpler and used here to provide an example of steady state. Of course it is only approximation but is provided a crude tool.c) is ρ U z · U rn dA = c.

Further increase of the exit area with the increased of the burned gases further increase the thrust. a very limited discussion related to the steady state is oﬀered.6. The analysis of such device in complicated and there is a whole class dedicated for such topic in many universities.2. The diﬀerence between the jets propulsion and propellers is based on the energy supplied.4: A sled toy shown in Figure ?? is pushed by liquid jet.19) 153 1 U1 3 4 2 U2 Liquid Combining the control Fig. Here. The inlet area and exit area are diﬀerent for most jets and if the mass of the fuel is neglected then F = ρ A2 U2 2 − A1 U1 2 (6. In Jet propulsion. Notice that Example 6. Jet Propulsion Jet propulsion is a mechanism in which the air planes and other devices are propelled. and is. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION As ﬁrst approximation. Calculate the friction force on the .20) This analysis provide way to calculate the work needed to move this propeller. in many case more eﬃcient. the air is sucked into engine and with addition heating (burning fuel) the velocity is increased. this direct conversion can be.21) An academic example to demonstrate how a steady state calculations are done for a moving control volume. as it will be shown in the Chapter on compressible ﬂow it allows to achieve velocity above speed of sound. Furthermore.4. 3 with (note that there are no external forces) with points 4 and 2 results in ρ U2 2 − U1 2 = P4 − P3 (6. a major obstacle in the past. Note that in this analysis it was assumed that the ﬂow is horizontal that z1 = z2 and/or the change is insigniﬁcant. the pressure around control volume is the same. Hence. Thus. Essentially. The one dimensional momentum equation is reduced F = ρ U2 2 − U1 2 (6. Propeller schematic to explain the change of movolume between points 1 and mentum due to velocity. pressure drops from the calculation. the thermal energy is converted to thrust. The propellers are moved by a mechanical work which is converted to thrust. -6.

U0 Uj Calculate the absolute velocity of the Ff jet exit. . namics friction is µd . the gravity can be neglected also because this term is small compared to other terms. U0 .154 CHAPTER 6. The dyjet in a steady state for example 6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION toy when the toy is at steady state with velocity.IV.v. The pressure is uniform around the control volume and thus the integral is P dA = 0 c. The velocity of the jet is uniform. Toy Sled pushed by the liquid relative to the vertical force. The frame of reference is moving with the toy velocity. τ dA = c.v.v. thus g ρ dV ∼ 0 c. Assume that the jet is horizontal and the reﬂecting jet is vertical.5. The same can be said for air friction as τ dA ∼ 0 c.v.v.v. Neglect y the friction between the liquid (jet) and control x volume the toy and between the air and toy.v. -6. Assume that the friction between the toy and surface (ground) is Fig. ρ U U rn dV (6. The applicable mass conservation equation for steady state is A1 U1 = A2 U2 The momentum equation in the x direction is Ff + c.4. U 0 .a) The relative velocity into the control volume is U 1j = (Uj − U0 ) x ˆ The relative velocity out the control volume is U 2j = (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ The absolute exit velocity is U 2 = U0 x + (Uj − U0 ) y ˆ ˆ For small volume. g ρ dV − c. 2 1 Solution The chosen control volume is attached to the toy and thus steady state is obtained. P dA + c.

2.IV. A rocket with a moving control volume.2.a) yields Ff = A ρ U1j 2 The friction can be obtained from the momentum equation in the y direction mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = Fearth According to the statement of question the friction force is Ff = µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 The momentum in the x direction becomes µd mtoy g + A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ U1j 2 = A ρ (Uj − U0 ) The toy velocity is then U0 = Uj − µd mtoy g A ρ (1 − µd ) 2 (6. Additionally larger toy mass decrease the velocity. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION The control volume was chosen so that the pressure calculation is minimized. 155 (6. Alternative method of solution is done by attaching the frame of reference to the accelerating body.10). A possible way to solve the problem is by expressing the terms in an equation (6.b) The substituting (6.v.6. This method is cumbersome in many cases. FR mf mR UR Ug Fig.IV. One such example of such idea is associated with the Rocket Mechanics which is present here.6.IV. . End Solution 6. -6.IV.c) Increase of the friction reduce the velocity.1 Momentum for Unsteady State and Uniform Flow The main problem in solving the unsteady state situation is that the control volume is accelerating.b) into equation (6. The momentum ﬂux is ρ Ux Ui rn dA = A ρ U1j 2 Sc.

25) Combining all the above term results in −FR − (mR + mf ) g + dU (mR + mf ) = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ dt (6. The rocket is accelerating and thus the frame for reference is moving the with the rocket. inside the rocket the change in the velocity is due to change in the reduction of the volume of the oxidant and fuel. The gravity term is an instantaneous mass times the gravity times the constant and the same can be said for the acceleration term. g ρ dV + c.23) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is the change of the momentum in the rocket volume. the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity and thus ρ a0 dV = dU (mR + mf ) dt (6. The diﬀerence is the fact that the oxidant is on board with the fuel. P dA − d dt ρ a0 dV = ρUy dV + Vc. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 6.24) Clearly. The last term is ρUy Urn dA = m (Ug − UR ) ˙ c. Yet. ρUy Urn dA (6. This mechanism is useful for speciﬁc locations because it is independent of the medium though which it travels. dU /dt = 0 is not zero. (6.156 CHAPTER 6. d [(mR + mf ) U ] dt (6. c. The pressure term vanish because the pressure essentially is the same and the diﬀerence can be neglected. This change is due to the change in the volume of the oxidant and the fuel.v. vanishes. However. The resistance of the medium is Denote as FR . the derivative with respect to time. the ﬁrst term FR .22) There are no external forces in this control volume thus. d dt ρUy dV = Vc.v. The oxidant and fuel ﬂow outside. The two components are burned and the gases are ejected through a nozzle.v. The momentum equation is FR 0 τ dA + c. the change of the rocket mass can be considered minimal or even neglected.v. The velocity of the rocket in the rocket frame of reference U is zero.26) . c.v.2. In contrast to other mechanisms such as jet propulsion which obtain the oxygen from the medium which they travel the rockets carry the oxygen with it.v. However.2 Momentum Application to Unsteady State Rocket Mechanics A rocket is a devise similar to jet propulsion. This change is minimal and for this analysis. it can be neglected.v.

However. Integrating equation (6.28). is a function of the several parameters such the duration.28) with limits of U (t = 0) = 0 provides U 0 ˙ dU = −MT Ue 0 t dt − MT t g dt 0 (6.27) Separating the variables equation (6.29) ˙ the results of the integration is (notice M = M0 − t M) U = Ue ln M0 ˙ M0 − t M −gt (6. it can be noticed that the friction resistance FR . Thus it is assume that FR = 0. This problem was aroused in manufacturing industry.6. gas ﬂow out is constant as well. for constant constant gas consumption equation (6.30) The following is an elaborated example which deals with an unsteady two dimensional problem. Thus.26) transformed to −FR − MT g + dU ˙ MT = MT Ue dt (6. This author was called for consultation and to solve a related problem.2. This problem demonstrates the used of control volume to ﬁnd method of approximation for not given velocity proﬁles1 Example 6. For which he noticed this “constant velocity. For simplicity here the part close to Earth (to the atmosphere) is assumed to be small compared to the distance in space.28) Before integrating equation (6. As ﬁrst approx˙ imation. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 157 Denoting MT = mR + mf and thus dM/dt = m and Ue = Ug − UR .” .5: 1 A variation of this problem has appeared in many books in the literature. the speed (the Reynolds number). material that surface made and the medium it ﬂow in altitude.27) yields dU = ˙ −MT Ue FR − − g dt MT MT (6. for constant fuel consumption (and almost oxidant). in the past it was not noticed that a slight change in conﬁguration leads to a constant x velocity.

V. Furthermore.c) + U0 A0 = 0 dt It can be noticed that the area of the tank is almost constant (A = constant) thus A dh dh U0 A0 + U0 A0 = 0 =⇒ =− dt dt A (6.V. Equation (6. = −ρ U0 A0 = −m0 dt (6. the ﬂuid has two velocity components verse one component in the rocket mechanics. Schematic of a tank seating on wheel for unsteady state discussion Assume that the exit velocity is a This problem is similar to the rocket mechanics with a twist.d) into equation (6.31) The relationship between the height and the ﬂow now can be used.12) for two dimensions is used. Calculate the tank velocity for two cases.V. Solution Uo FR Fig. linear function of the height.158 CHAPTER 6. One the wheels have a constant resistance with the ground and two the resistance linear function of the weight.c) results in dh B h A0 + =0 dt A (6.b) can be further reduced due to constant density to d (A h) (6.V. The frame of reference is moving with the tank. At initial time the valve on the tank is opened and the liquid ﬂows out with an uniform velocity proﬁle.a) can be transferred to dmc.V. The tank upper part is opened to the atmosphere. The control volume is shown in Figure 6. This situation is unsteady state thus equation (6.7. U0 = B h (6.7. mt . the source of the propulsion is the potential energy. Sc. Substituting equation (6.d) that represent the resistance in the system and substitute the energy equation.7. -6.V. The tank mass with the wheels (the solid parts) is known. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION UT y x h A tank with wheels is ﬁlled with liquid is depicted in Figure 6.d) Where B is the coeﬃcient that has the right units to mach equation (6.v.V.b) Where m0 is mass ﬂow rate out.a) Equation (6. ρdA = 0 (6.v.e) .V.V.V. The mass conservation equation is d dt ρ dV + Vc.v.

y The boundary of this control volume are x the tank boundary on the left with the U straight surface as depicted in Figure 6.2. Using a similar control volume2 . Substituting (6. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 159 Equation (6. A new control volume to ﬁnd the servation for this control volume is velocity in discharge tank for example 6.j) It can be noticed that the velocity in the y is a function of time as oppose to the x direction.2.8. The tank depth.V.V.V.V.V.f) UT To ﬁnd the average velocity in the L x direction a new control volume is used. the average velocity in the y direction is Uy = dh h0 A0 B − =− e dt A t A0 B A (6.k) 2 The boundaries are the upper (free surface) and tank side with a y distance from the free surface. The solution (see for details in the Appendix A. The mass con. -6.f) into (6. it can be shown that average velocity is a function of cross section (what direction?). is not relevant. the average velocity in the tank is Ux = 1 L L 0 x A0 B L A0 B = A 2A (6. it also can be noticed that Ux (x) is a not function of the time.V. The applicable momentum equation (in the tank frame of reference) is (6. Using this function.11) which is reduced to acceleration F −F R − (mt + mf ) g − a (mt + mf ) = R d [(mt + mf ) U r ] + U0 mo dt (6.V. R Ubn dA = Urn dA =⇒ Ubn = Urn .6. Perhaps surprising. h.V.1 ) is h(t) = h0 e − t A0 B A (6.g) results ¨ t A0¨ B h0 x A0 B − ¨ ¨ A = x A0 B (6.V. In fact. . F The last boundary is variable surface in a distance x from the tank left part. h x o R w &x dh = −& h Ux w dt (6.e) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which can be solved with the initial condition h(t = 0) = h0 .g) Where here w is the depth or width of the tank.8.5.h) e Ux (x) = ¨ A Ah ¡ The average x component of the velocity is a linear function of x.Fig.i) It can be noticed that Ux is not function of height.

= mf + mT because the density of the air is very small the change of the air mass is very small as well (ρa << ρ). This limitation can be partially overcome by assuming some kind of average. mf and mt are the mass of the ﬂuid and the mass of tank respectively.v. The main problem of integral analysis approach is that it does not provide a way to analysis the time derivative since the velocity proﬁle is not given inside the control volume.l) Where Fx is the x component of the reaction which is opposite to the movement direction. The tank movement cause movement of the air which cause momentum change.v. and the resistance due to air is negligible. (6.V. The momentum equation in the y coordinate it is Fy − (mt + mf ) g = d (mt + mf ) Uy dt (6. It .V.v. This momentum is function of the tank volume times the air density times tank velocity (h0 × A × ρa × U ). The momentum ﬂow rate out of the tank is ρ Ux Urn dA = ρ Uo 2 Ao = mo Uo Sc. The pressure around the control volume is uniform thus P cos θx dA ∼ 0 Sc.m) There is no mass ﬂow in the y direction and Uy is component of the velocity in the y direction.v. Here this eﬀect is neglected. a Vc.32) In the x coordinate the momentum equation is −Fx + (mt + mf ) a = d [(mt + mf ) Ux ] + U0 mf ˙ dt (6. mc.v. This eﬀect is known as the add mass/momentum and will be discussed in the Dimensional Analysis and Ideal Flow Chapters.v. The mass in the control volume include the mass of the liquid with mass of the solid part (including the wheels). The acceleration of the tank is a = −ˆ 0 or ˆ · a = −a. hence τ dA ∼ 0 Sc.160 CHAPTER 6. And the additional force for accelerated system ia i is −ˆ · i a ρdV = mc. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Where U r is the relative ﬂuid velocity to the tank (if there was no tank movement).

2.V.V. Ux = mc.V.v. The ﬁrst component is downward (y) direction and the second in the exit direction (x).q) A0 If the Fx ≥ m0 L 2 A B + U0 the toy will not move.V.v. However.V. if the diﬀerence between the actual and averaged momentum is neglected then ∼0 d dt ρ Ux dV ∼ Vf d mc. The velocity in the y direction does not contribute to the momentum in the x direction. From equation (6. d d Ux Ux + mc.n) Noticing that the derivative with time of control volume mass is the ﬂow out in equation (6. if it is the opposite the toy start to move.V. dt dt L A0 B Ux = −m0 2A (6.v.p) into a= Fx − m0 mf + mt L A0 B + 2 A U0 (mf + mt ) 2 A (mf + mt ) (6. d Ux Ux + mc. The average velocity in the tank (because constant density and more about it later section) is Ux = 1 Vt Ux dV Vf Because the integral is replaced by the average it is transferred to ρ Ux dV ∼ mc.o) Combining all the terms results in −Fx + a (mf + mt ) = −m0 L A0 B − U0 m0 2A (6.V.d) the mass ﬂow out is U0 h m0 (t) = B h0 e − t A0 B A A0 ρ (6. Ux Vf Thus.v.p) Rearranging and noticing that a = dUT /dt transformed equation (6.6.n) becomes mass rate out ˙ = − m0 d mc. MOMENTUM EQUATION APPLICATION 161 can be noticed that the velocity in the tank has two components.v.r) . dt dt dt (6.v.V.

Rearranging the momentum equation in the y direction transformed m f t A0 B − A g + 2 Fy = mt + ρ A h0 e ρ h0 A0 2 B2 A 2 e − t A0 B A (6.V. For example.s) The initial condition is that UT (t = 0) = 0.t) (mf ) Uy = mf Uy + dt dt dt The reason that mf is used because the solid parts do not have velocity in the y direction. This correction factor can be calculated by ﬁnding the relation between the two cases. Here.v. End Solution Average Velocity Estimates In example 6.s) into equation (6.V. the velocity proﬁle can be estimated using the ideal ﬂuid theory but the actual values are not known.v U dV (6.35) .v U = ρ V c.V. The momentum for average velocity is Ma = mc.u) The actual results of the integrations are not provided since the main purpose of this exercise to to learn how to use the integral analysis. There are situations where actual velocity proﬁle is not known but is function can be approximated. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION V mf = ρ A h0 e − t A0 B A (6.5 can be estimated even by hand sketching.34) The actual momentum for control volume is Mc = c. ρ Ux dV (6.V. the ﬂow proﬁle in example 6.33) The y component of the average velocity is function of the time. Substituting equations (6. For the second case where Rx is a function of the Ry as Rx = µ Ry (6. The change in the accumulative momentum is d dmf dUy (6.V. For example.V. For these cases a correction factor can be used.1 relationship between momentum of maximum velocity to average velocity was presented.q) transforms it to a diﬀerential equation which is integrated if Rx is constant. relationship between momentum for the average velocity to the actual velocity is presented.r) and (6.162 The mass in the control volume is CHAPTER 6.

CONSERVATION MOMENT OF MOMENTUM These two have to equal thus. However.3.36) If the density is constant then the coeﬃcient is one (C ≡ 1). if the density is not constant.38) Now the left hand side has to be transformed into the control volume as M= d dt r ρ (r × U ) dV + Vc. the coeﬃcient is not equal to one.v r ρ (r × U ) U rn dA (6. The pressure on the outer side is uniform thus does not create a moment.6. A pump impeller is shown in Figure 6. applying equation (6.3 Conservation Moment Of Momentum The angular momentum can be derived in the same manner as the momentum equation for control volume.39) to uniform and steady state ﬂow with neglected pressure gradient is reduced to M = m (r2 × U2 + r2 × U1 ) ˙ Introduction to Turbo Machinery The analysis of many turbomachinary such as centrifugal pump is fundamentally based on the angular momentum.v.9 commonly used in industry. ditionally increase of velocity occur.39) The angular momentum equation. The impeller of the centrifugal pump and the velocities diagram at the exit. The ﬂow is Um2 Ulr2 U2 Un2 Ut2 (6. The force F = D Dt U ρU dV Vsys (6.v 163 U dV = c. The impeller increases the velocity of the ﬂuid by increasing the radius of the particles.v. the following discussion is provided. Sc. To demonstrate this idea.9. 6.40) . The inside particle is obtained larger velocity and due to centrifugal forces is moving to outer radius for which ad.37) The angular momentum then will be obtained by calculating the change of every element in the system as M = r ×F = D Dt ρ r × U dV Vsys (6. C ρV c. ρ Ux dV (6. -6.Fig.

Here it is assumed that ﬂuid is incompressible (ρ = constant).41) M ω = m r2 ω Ut2 ˙ The shaft work is given by the left side and hence. The height of the impeller is h. one the tangential velocity.6: A centrifugal pump is pumping 600 2[m3 /hour].41) results in Um2 (6. and h. Example 6. Ut2 is not equal to the impeller outer edge velocity Um2 . 6.7: A design of a rocket is based on the idea that density increase of the leaving jet increases the acceleration of the rocket see Figure . U2 has two components. h is 2[cm] and the exit diameter is 0.42) (6.164 CHAPTER 6. r. Un2 . It is assumed that required torque is function U2 . Notice that tangential liquid velocity. ˙ W = m Um2 Ut2 ˙ (6. Estimate what is the minimum energy required by the pump. The exit liquid velocity.4 More Examples on Momentum Conservation Example 6.40[m]. The angular velocity is 1200 r. Assume that angle velocity is leaving the impeller is 125◦ . The thickness of the impeller. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION assumed to enter the impeller radially with average velocity U1 . M = m r2 Ut2 ˙ Multiplying equation (6.43) The diﬀerence between Um2 to Ut2 is related to the eﬃciency of the pump which will be discussed in the chapter on the turbomachinary.m. Ut2 and radial component. The relative exit velocity is Ulr2 and the velocity of the impeller edge is Um2 .p.

The cross section of the liquid is constant. In this problem the energy source is the pressure of the gas which propels the rocket. The following is not the solution but rather the approach how to treat this problem. No gas leaves the rocket. forces for example 6.6. the initial take oﬀ is requires a larger pressure. Nozzle schematics wapression for rocket velocity. The upper part of the rocket tank is ﬁlled with compressed gas. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 165 6. Once the gas pressure reduced to be equal or below the outside pressure the rocket have no power for propulsion. Several people ask to provide a solution or some hints for the solution. The surface remained straight at the times and no liquid residue remains behind.10. The mixing between the liquid and gas is negligible. No resistance to the rocket (can be added). Liquid ﬁlls the lower part of the rocket tank.2. Develop exFig. The gas mass is negligible in comparison to the liquid mass and/or the rocket.3) without a solution. hg Gas Select the control volume in such a way that provides the ability to ﬁnd the rocket Liquid acceleration. The gas obeys the ideal gas law. .a) 3 This problem appeared in the previous version (0. Additionally. The mass conservation is similar to the rocket hence it is dm = −Ue Ae dt (6.VII.7 What are the parameters that eﬀect the problem. Assume that ter rocket for the discussion on the the gas is obeying the perfect gas model. The process is isothermal (can be isentropic process). What is the instantaneous vehℓ locity of the rocket at time zero? Develop Uexit the expression for the pressure (assuming no friction with the walls).4.10. Assume that this idea has a good enUrocket gineering logic. -6. hypotherical volume height Solution Under construction for time being only hints3 In the solution of this problem several assumptions must be made so that the integral system can be employed.

VII.VII.c) The gas geometry is replaced by a virtual constant cross section which cross section of the liquid (probably the same as the base of the gas phase). The change of the gas volume is dVg dhg dh (6. The total change of the gas volume can be obtained by integration as Vg = A (hg0 − ∆h ) (6. Furthermore.b) becomes P0 = The relationship between the gas volume Vg = h g A (6. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION The mass conservation on the gas zone is a byproduct of the mass conservation of the liquid.VII. The minus sign is to account for change of “direction” of the liquid height.VII. The gas pressure at the initial point is P0 = ρ0 R T (6.VII.VII.a) can be written as t mg R T hg0 A mg R T hg A 1 ∆h 1− hg0 (6.f) It must be point out that integral is not function of time since the height as function of time is known at this stage.d) mg R T V0g (6. it can be observed that the gas pressure is a direct function of the mass ﬂow out.i) m (t) = m 0 − 0 Ue Ae dt (6.j) . equation (6.g) (6.VII.b) Per the assumption the gas mass remain constant and is denoted as mg .h) (6.166 CHAPTER 6. Using the above deﬁnition.VII. The initial pressure now can be expressed as P0 = The pressure at any time is P = Thus the pressure ratio is P hg0 hg0 = = = hg0 P0 hg hg0 − ∆h Equation (6.VII.e) =A = −A dt dt dt The last identify in the above equation is based on the idea what ever height concede by the liquid is taken by the gas.VII.VII.

1 Qualitative Questions Example 6. 6.k) According to the assumption the ﬂow out is linear function of the pressure inside thus. What was the assumption that the third velocity component was neglected. What are the parameters that eﬀect the rocket velocity.5 it was mentioned that there are only two velocity components. Develop an expression for the rocket velocity.6.a) it also can be written that dh Ue Ae = dt ρe A 167 (6.m) Example 6.VII.4. What is the minimum pressure which make the rocket ﬂy. The liquid momentum balance is =0 f (P ) = ζ P (6. MORE EXAMPLES ON MOMENTUM CONSERVATION From equation (6.11: . Example 6.10: For each following ﬁgures discuss and state force direction and the momentum that act on the control volume due to .9: In Example 6.4. Ue = f (P ) + g h rho Where ζ here is a constant which the right units. End Solution (6.VII.VII. At a speciﬁc moment the valve is opened and the rocket is allowed to ﬂy.8: A rocket is ﬁlled with only compressed gas.VII. Example 6.l) d −g (mR + m ) − a (mR + m ) = (mR + m ) U +bc + (UR + U ) m dt Where bc is the change of the liquid mass due the boundary movement.

Look at the directions which the unsteady state momentum in the tank change its value.11 . Fig.11.11 is built with a exit located in uneven distance from the the right and the left and is ﬁlled with liquid. consider the unsteady eﬀects. The exit is located on the left hand side at the front. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Explanations Uout F U Uin Flow in and out of Angle β θ Flow in and out at angle from a tank A similar tank as shown in Figure 6.168 Situations CHAPTER 6. What are the direction of the forces that keep the control volume in the same location? Hints. -6. Flow out of un symmetrical tank for example 6.

the above view is wrong when the heat convection.3) in which the right hand side has to be interpreted and the left hand side interpolated using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem (RTT)2 . obeys this law which creates strange and wonderful phenomena such as a shock and choked ﬂow. here it will be derived. 169 . the relationship between height and ﬂow rate was assumed previously.2) (7. For example. This simplistic representation is correct only under extreme conditions.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics This chapter focuses on the energy conservation which is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics1 . However. which is external force. 1 Thermodynamics is the favorite topic of this author since it was his major in high school. Moreover. For example. The ﬂuid. is included on the right hand side.2) is similar to equation (6. Clearly this topic is very important and will be extensively discussed here. which were assumed in the previous chapters.10) for a system is D EU DU Dz ˙ ˙ Q−W = + mU + mg Dt Dt Dt This equation can be rearranged to be D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt EU + m U2 + mgz 2 (7. It was shown in Chapter 2 that the energy rate equation (2. during time of the constructing this book only a simple skeleton by Potto standards will be build. Additionally a discussion on various energy approximation is presented.CHAPTER 7 Energy Conservation 7.1) Equation (7. as all phases and materials. The right hand side is very complicated and only some of the eﬀects will be discussed (It is only an introductory material). this law allows to solve problems. 2 Some view the right hand side as external eﬀects while the left side of the equation represents the internal eﬀects.

The work done by system on the surroundings (see Figure 7.1) is F dF dV S A S dw = −S dA ·d = − (Sn + τ ) · d dA The change of the work for an inﬁnitesimal time (excluding the shaft work) is U (7. Hence. Issues related to radiation are very complicated and considered advance material and hence will be left out.1. The issues of convection are mostly covered by the terms on the left hand side. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy transfer is carried (mostly3 ) by heat transfer to the system or the control volume. convection4 and radiation.7) are other methods such as magnetic ﬁelds (like microwave) which are not part of this book. -7. actual mass transfer must occur and thus no convection is possible to a system by the deﬁnition of system. the radiation is minimal. the discussion here will be restricted to convection and conduction. . The ﬁrst kind work is by the friction or the shear System at t + dt stress and the second by normal force.v.5) dw d S S = − (Sn + τ ) · dA = − (Sn + τ ) · U dA dt dt The total work for the system including the shaft work is ˙ W =− Ac.4) System at t Sn The work done on the system is dℓ more complicated to express than the heat transfer. The total heat transfer to the control volume is ˙ Q= Acv k dT dA dn τ (7. dealing with convection. the surface forces Fig. The main heat transfer mode on the left hand side is conduction. In most problems. As in the previous chapter. conduction.170 CHAPTER 7.3) Where dq is heat transfer to an inﬁnitesimal small area per time and kT is the heat ˙ conduction coeﬃcient. There are two kinds of works that the system does on the surroundings. The work on the control volume is are divided into two categories: one per.6) S (Sn + τ ) U dA − Wshaf t (7. 3 There 4 When (7.done by two diﬀerent mechanisms pendicular to the surface and one with the surface direction. Conduction for most simple cases is governed by Fourier’s Law which is dq = kT ˙ dT dA dn (7. There are three modes of heat transfer. The heat derivative is normalized into area direction.

12) . As it was discussed in the previous chapter the normal stress component is replaced by the pressure (see equation (6.8) and thus yields kT Acv dT dA+ dn Energy Equation ˙ S (Sn + τ ) dA + Wshaf t = d dt + Acv Acv (7. Now Reynolds Transport Theorem can be used to transformed the left hand side of equation (7.2) for system is kT Asys 171 dT dA+ dn S (Sn + τ ) dV D ˙ +Wshaf t = Dt Asys ρ Vsys EU + m U2 + g z dV 2 (7.8) does not apply any restrictions on the system. In the last term in equation (7.8) for more details).1. Note that U is the velocity in the frame of reference while Urn is the velocity relative to the boundary.11) can be further manipulated to become work due to the ﬂow work due to boundaries movement P n · U dA = ˆ S S P ρ Urn dA + ρ P Ubn dA S (7. The work rate (excluding the shaft work) is ﬂow work ˙ = W ∼ S P n · U dA − ˆ S τ · U n dA ˆ (7.9) the velocity appears twice.7.11) Equation (7.8) Equation (7. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The energy equation (7. The system can contain solid parts as well several diﬀerent kinds of ﬂuids.9) ρ Vcv Eu + m Eu + m U2 +gz 2 U2 + g z dV 2 ρ Urn dA From now on the notation of the control volume and system will be dropped since all equations which deals with the control volume.10) The ﬁrst term on the right hand side is referred to in the literature as the ﬂow work and is Urn P n · U dA = ˆ S S P (U − Ub ) n dA + ˆ S P Ubn dA (7.

The example of ﬂow from a tank or container is presented to demonstrate how to treat some of terms in equation (7. so the velocity can be assumed uniform (not a function of the opening height)5 . and exit area is relatively with a small diameter. the ﬂow rate out of a tank or container was assumed to be a linear function of A the height.14) The new term P/ρ combined with the internal energy. 6 This 5 Later . Flow Out From A Container In the previous chapters of this book. The ﬂow out is related to the height but in a more complicate function and is the focus of this discussion. -7. assumption is appropriated only under certain conditions which include the geometry of the tank or container and the liquid properties. In this analysis several assumptions are made which includes the following: constant density. A discussion about this issue will be presented in the Dimensional Chapter and is out of the scope of this chapter. which was discussed on page 36.15) Equation (7. the temperature is assumed to constant.13) Substituting all these terms into the governing equation yields d U2 ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 P U Eu + + + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA ρ 2 S S (7.14) transformed ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear + Simpliﬁed Energy Equation d U2 ˙ Wshaf t = Eu + + g z dV + dt V 2 2 U + g z Urn ρ dA + P Urn dA h+ 2 S S (7.2. the gas density is very small compared to Fig.15) describes the energy conservation for the control volume in stationary coordinates. a discussion about the height opening eﬀects will be discussed. Also note that the straight surface assumption is not the same surface tension eﬀects zero. The enhℓ Ae ergy equation with mass conservation will Ue be utilized for this analysis. Eu is referred to as the enthalpy. Discharge from a Large Container liquid density.172 CHAPTER 7. Additionally. ENERGY CONSERVATION The second term is referred to as the shear work and is deﬁned as ˙ Wshear = − S τ · U dA (7. With these deﬁnitions equation (7. small. h. surface tension eﬀects are negligible and the liquid surface is straight6 .15).

is suﬃcient as (π − 2)r dh Uy ∼ = 8h dt (7. in this discussion it is assumed that surface has only one component in z direction. Similar estimate that was done for x direction can be done Ue to every side of the opening if they are not symmetrical.18) Note that the boundary velocity is not the averaged velocity but the actual velocity. Hence it requires that velocity proﬁle in x y to be parabolic. The surface has three velocity components which non have them vanish. The averaged velocity in the y direction is zero because the ﬂow is symmetrical7 .19) The x component of the averaged velocity is a function of the geometry and was calculated in Example 5. The conservation of the mass is d dt V ρ dV + ¡ dρ dt A ρ Urn dA = 0 ¡ (7. this quantity will be used.20) In this analysis.3.17) Equation (7. . the change of the kinetic Uy 1 Uy 1 energy due to the change in the velocity 2 2 ﬁeld isn’t zero. for the energy analysis the averaged velocity cannot be considered zero. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 173 The control volume is chosen so that all the liquid is included up to exit of the pipe.1.21) Also notice that the surface velocity is not zero. -7. The averaged velocity in z direction is same as the boundary velocity Ub = Uz = dh Ae = Ue dt A (7. The kinetic energy of the tank or container is based on the half part Uy = 0 as shown in Figure 7. However. However. the velocity is zero for symmetrical geometry and some other geometries. How to compensate and estimate the kinetic energy when averaged Velocity is zero. Since in this case the geometry is assumed to be symmetrical one side Fig. for simplicity.3.17) provides the relationship between boundary velocity to the exit velocity as A Ub = Ae Ue (7. 7 For the mass conservation analysis. However.7.16) which also can be written (because = 0) as Urn dA = 0 A Ubn dA + A (7. Second reason for this exercise the surface velocity has only one component is to avoid dealing with Bar-Meir’s instability.12 to be larger than Ux 2 r Ae 2r 2 r dh Ue =⇒ Ux ∼ Ub = = h A h h dt (7.

The pressure terms in equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION The energy balance can be expressed by equation (7. Ec number is named after this author’s adviser.24) is reduced to d dt U2 + g z ρ dV − 2 Ue 2 2 Ue ρ dA = 0 (7.23) Now the energy equation deals with no “external” eﬀects.15) which is applicable to this case. why this approach is correct in most cases is not explained here.25) A It can be noticed that Pa = Pe hence =0 Pa A Ue dA − A Ub dA =0 (7. Combining all these information results in energy ﬂow out internal energy change energy in and out upper surface work d dt V U + g z ρ dV + 2 2 A Pe Ue + ρ 2 2 Ue ρ dA − A Pa Ub dA = 0 (7.22) The boundary shear work is zero because the velocity at tank boundary or walls is zero. ˙ ˙ Wshear = Wshaf t = 0 (7. The temperature is constant8 . 9 It is only the same assumption discussed earlier. the dissipation creates a loss that has temperature component. A discussion about this eﬀect will be presented in the dimensional analysis chapter.27) V A 8 This approach is a common approximation. Yet. the internal shear work is assumed negligible.G. E. the shear stresses at the exit are normal to the ﬂow direction hence the shear work is vanished.R. In this light.24) are Pe Ue ρdA − ρ Pa Ub dA = Pe A A Ue dA − Pa A Ub dA (7. Note that the exit velocity on the upper surface is zero Urn = 0. Furthermore.26) The governing equation (7. Ec which is very small. . 10 It is assumed that the pressure in exit across section is uniform and equal surroundings pressure. the following approximation can be written Eu ˙ = hin − hout = 0 Q= dt (7. this change is a function of Eckert number. Additionally. Eckert. Clearly. Pa is the external pressure and Pe is the exit pressure10 . In this case.24) Where Ub is the upper boundary velocity. At the free surface the velocity has only normal component9 and thus shear work vanishes there as well. The dissipation can be neglected for small Ec number.174 CHAPTER 7.

THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 175 The minus sign is because the ﬂow is out of the control volume.29) yields d gρ dt V h2 d h dh dA = g ρ hA = g ρAh 2 dt 2 dt (7. The inside integral can be evaluated as h zdz = 0 h2 2 (7. Even the averaged velocity is zero the kinetic energy is not zero and another method should be used.30) Substituting the results of equation (7. The averaged velocity is Uave = 1 V U dV V (7. A discussion on the correction factor is presented to provide a better “averaged” velocity.28) V V The second integral (in the r.31) A The kinetic energy related to the averaged velocity with a correction factor which depends on the geometry and the velocity proﬁle.1.h. Furthermore.29) V Where h is the height or the distance from the surface to exit.32) The total kinetic energy for the averaged velocity is ρ Uave 2 V = ρ 1 V 2 2 U dV V V =ρ V U dV (7.s) of equation (7. Similarly to the previous chapter which the integral momentum will be replaced by some kind of average. The terms under the time derivative can be divided into two terms as d dt d U2 + g z ρdV = 2 dt U2 d dV + 2 dt g z ρ dV V (7.7. The ﬁrst integral can be estimated by examining the velocity proﬁle eﬀects. A comparison between the actual kinetic energy and the kinetic energy due to the “averaged” velocity (to be called the averaged kinetic energy) provides a correction coeﬃcient.28) is d dt d g z ρ dV = g ρ dt h A 0 dV z dz dA (7.30) into equation (7.33) .

In this case. 11 Laminar ﬂow is not necessarily implies that the ﬂow velocity proﬁle is parabolic. For circular shape. For a pipe geometry. The relationship between Umax to the averaged velocity. for simplicity reason. 12 The advantage is described in the Dimensional Analysis Chapter.176 CHAPTER 7. A large family of velocity proﬁles is laminar or parabolic (for one directional ﬂow)11 .37) The correction factor for many other velocity proﬁles and other geometries can be smaller or larger than this value. diﬀerent directions cancel each other out.36) It can be noticed that the velocity is presented as a function of the reduced radius12 .35) V V This integral can be evaluated for any given velocity proﬁle.36) into equation (7. CF is the correction coeﬃcient.35) results Uave 2 V U 2 dV V V = Uave 2 V 2 Uave 1 − r2 ¯ 2 = dV 3 Uave 2 V = 4 4 Uave 2 π L R2 3 (7. the velocity is U r R = U (¯) = Umax 1 − r2 = 2 Uave 1 − r2 r ¯ ¯ (7. Substituting equation (7. The ﬂow is parabolic only when the ﬂow is driven by pressure or gravity.34) Here. Uave is obtained by using equation (7. a good guess number is about 1. Note. ENERGY CONSERVATION The general correction factor is the ratio of the above value to the actual kinetic energy as 2 ρ U dV CF = V ρ U 2 dV V ρ (Uave ) V = ¡ ρ U 2 dV ¡ V 2 (7.1. The correction factor for a constant density ﬂuid is 2 2 ρ U dV CF = V = ρ U 2 dV ρ ¡ ρ ¡ U dV V = U 2 dV Uave 2 V U 2 dV V (7. More about this issue in the Diﬀerential Analysis Chapter. the inequality sign because the density distribution for compressible ﬂuid. The diﬀerence between the “averaged momentum” velocity and the “averaged kinetic” velocity is also due to the fact that energy is added for diﬀerent directions while in the momentum case. Calculations according to this point can improve the accurately based on the above discussion. . it is assumed that the averaged velocity indeed represent the energy in the tank or container.32) which yields 1/2.

It must be remembered that is eﬀect extremely important in the later stages of the emptying of the tank.38) The relationship between the boundary velocity to the height (by deﬁnition) is Ub = dh dt (7. Analytical solution of the governing equation is possible including this eﬀect of the height. 14 The solution not the derivation is about one page.7.43) f (G) dh U∼ = dt (π − 2) r 8h 2 + (π − 1) r 4h 2 + 12 (7. the velocity in the z direction13 is Uz = dh dt (7. However.39) Therefore. However.42) 2 U ∼ = (π − 2) r dh 8h dt 2 + (π − 1) r dh 4h dt 2 + dh dt 2 (7. But in the same vain. 13 A similar point was provided in mass conservation Chapter 5. The reader is encouraged to do it to get acquainted with this concept. some other eﬀects have to be taken into account which were neglected in construction of this model such as upper surface shape.44) It can be noticed that f (G) is a weak function of the height inverse.1. it easy can be proved by construction the same control volume.41) Combining all the three components of the velocity (Pythagorean Theorem) as 2 2 2 2 U ∼ Ux + Uy + Uz = (7.40) Ue = A dh dh = −Ub Ae dt dt (7. . THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS The unsteady state term then obtains the form 2 U2 d U d gh ∼ρ ρ + g y dV = + dt V 2 dt 2 2 177 V hA (7. the mathematical complication are enormous14 and this eﬀect is assumed neglected and the function to be constant.

178 The last term is CHAPTER 7.51) part can be skipped to end of ”advanced material”.47) Equation (7.46) hA + U gh + 2 2 2 A dh 1 − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 Ue Ae = 0 (7. results in d U gh + dt 2 2 2 (7.46) by Ue Ae and utilizing equation (7. Advance material can be skipped Dividing equation (7.45) Combining all the terms into equation (7.47) can be rearranged and simpliﬁed and combined with mass conservation 15 .s.h.50) f (G)2 h 15 This d2 h g h f (G)2 + + dt2 2 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7. .48) Notice that U = Ub f (G) and thus f (G) Ub U dU h A g dh h A U gh 1 + + + − dt Ue Ae 2 dt Ue Ae 2 2 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION A Ue 2 Ue 2 Ue ρ dA = Ue ρ Ae = 2 2 dh A dt Ae 2 Ue ρ Ae (7.40) A Ae A Ue d U gh + dt 2 2 2 hA U gh + + Ue Ae 2 2 2 dh 1 A − dt 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 $ Ue A $$ e = 0 (7.49) Further rearranging to eliminate the “ﬂow rate” transforms to 1 U dh 1 A B ¨ gh dU Ub A¨ f (G)2 dt ¨ + f (G) h + ¨ dt ¨Ue Ae 2 e Ae U 2 dh dt 2 + gh 1 − 2 2 dh dt 2 A Ae 2 =0 (7.27) results in V 2 2 2 d U gh 1 dh A ρ + hA − Ue ρ Ae = 0 ¡ dt ¡ 2 2 2 dt Ae taking the derivative of ﬁrst term on l.

Dividing equation (7.7. Thus deﬁne function of the height as dh f (h) = − (7. as Te = A f (G) Ae 2 (7. equation (7. Te . .52) by f (G)2 and using this parameter. THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 179 End Advance material Combining the gh terms into one yields f (G)2 h d2 h 1 +gh+ dt2 2 dh dt 2 f (G)2 − A Ae 2 =0 (7.55) dh (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) = t + k2 (7.52) after minor rearrangement transformed to h d2 h g Ae 2 + dt2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 [1 − Te ] = 0 (7.1.52) Deﬁning a new tank emptying parameter.56) The solution with the positive solution has no physical meaning because the height cannot increase with time.54) The solution can either of these equations16 dh − = t + k2 (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) or - (7.53) This parameter represents the characteristics of the tank which controls the emptying process.57) (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h) T e + 2 g h2 h (T e − 2) f (G) 16 A discussion about this equation appear in the mathematical appendix.

64) It can be noticed that Te “disappeared” from the equation. ENERGY CONSERVATION The initial condition for this case are: one the height initial is h(0) = h0 The initial boundary velocity is dh =0 dt (7. the information about opening of the valve did not reached to the surface.62) [1 − Te ] = 0 (7. The initial velocity 17 For the initial condition speed of sound has to be taken into account. The ﬁrst condition yields k2 = −f (h0 ) The second condition provides dh =0= dt (k1 Te − 2 k1 ) eln(h0 ) T e + 2 g h0 2 h0 (T e − 2) f (G) (7. This initial condition is the initial height of the liquid. .63) is still non linear equation.54) into h g Ae 2 Te A2 + 1 2 dh dt 2 (7.63) While equation (7. This information travel in characteristic sound speed which is over 1000 m/sec.65) 2 dt A 1 − Ae The nature of ﬁrst order Ordinary Diﬀerential Equation that they allow only one initial condition. Thus for a very short time.59) (7.60) The complication of the above solution suggest a simpliﬁcation in which d2 h g Ae 2 << dt2 Te A2 which reduces equation (7.180 CHAPTER 7. the non linear element can be removed by taking negative branch (height reduction) of the equation as dh dt 2 = 2gh −1 + A Ae 2 (7. if this phenomenon is ignored this solution is correct. And taking the “positive” branch √ dh 2gh = (7.61) (7. However.58) This condition pose a physical limitation17 which will be ignored.

2 Limitation of Integral Approach Some of accuracy issues to enhance the quality and improvements of the integral method were suggested in the analysis of the emptying tank.70) 7. Yet. He derived this equation based on similar principle to Bernoulli equation (which later leads to Bernoulli’s equation). In the calculations 18 Evangelista Torricelli (October 15. The improvements to the integral methods are the corrections to the estimates of the energy or other quantities in the conservation equations. Today the exact reference to his work is lost only “sketches” of his lecture elude work. There are problems that the integral methods even with these enhancements simply cannot tackle. 1608 October 25. LIMITATION OF INTEGRAL APPROACH 181 ﬁeld was eliminated by the approximation (remove the acceleration term).67) dh A Ue = = dt Ae If the area ratio Ae /A << 1 then 2gh A Ae (7. Equation (7.66) The initial condition has been inserted into the integral which its solution is 1− A Ae √ 2 h − h0 √ =t 2gh A = 2 Ae √ 2gh Ae 2 A (7.68) 1− 1− U∼ = 2gh (7.7. It is correct only for large ratio of h/r and the error became very substantial for small value of h/r. . The experimental coeﬃcient can be added to account for the dissipation and other eﬀects such dh ∼ =C dt 2gh (7. this analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the integral analysis to provide a reasonable solution. It seems that Torricelli was an honest man who gave to others and he died at young age of 39 while in his prime. Thus it is assumed that the initial velocity is not relevant at the core of the process at hand.2. 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician. This analysis can be improved by experimental investigating the phenomenon.65) integrated to yield 1− A Ae 2 h h0 dh √ = 2gh t dt 0 (7. He was student (not formal) and follower of Galileo Galilei.69) Equation (7.69) is referred in the literature as Torricelli’s equation18 This analysis has several drawbacks which limits the accuracy of the calculations.

Furthermore. H For example. In the analysis of the tank it was assumed that the dissipation can be igD nored.182 CHAPTER 7. two such corrections were presented. Additionally. Hence the prediction can skew the actual predictions. Hence diﬀerent techniques are required. the knowledge of whether the ﬂow is laminar or turbulent (later on this issue) has to come from diﬀerent techniques. In cases that dissipation play major air air role. the averaged velocity in x direction is zero yet the averaged velocity in the two zooms (two halves) is not zero. the analysis of the oscillating manometer cannot be carried by the intelowest level for the liquid gral methods.4. A liquid in manometer is disturbed from a rest by a distance of H0 . The ﬁrst type is the prediction of the velocities proﬁle (or the concentration proﬁle). The following sections provides further explanation.3 Approximation of Energy Equation The emptying the tank problem was complicated even with all the simpliﬁcations that were carried. the integral methods is Fig. the problems can be solved. These problem were minor for the emptying the tank but for the oscillating manometer it is the core of the problem. In the case of the tank. The accuracy issues that integral methods intrinsically suﬀers from no ability to exact ﬂow ﬁeld and thus lost the accuracy as was discussed in the example. Flow in an oscillating manometer. The integral method does not handle the problems such as the free surface with reasonable accuracy. The second type of corrections is the understanding that averaged of the total ﬁeld is diﬀerent from the averaged of diﬀerent zooms. . 7. The description H(t) as a function of time requires exact knowledge of the velocity ﬁeld. too crude to handle issues of free interface. In fact. The integral method is a powerful and yet simple method but has has to be used with the limitations of the method in mind. It turn out that these simpliﬁcations can provide reasonable results and key understanding of the physical phenomena and yet with less work. -7. The discussion on the limitations was not provided to discard usage of this method but rather to provide a guidance of use with caution. ENERGY CONSERVATION of the exit velocity of a tank. Engineers in order to reduce the work further simplify the energy equation. the integral does not provide a sufH equilibrioum level ﬁcient tool to analyze the issue at hand. the averaged energy in the x direction contributes or eﬀects the energy equation.

the pressure is different.3.74) in 7. The reason is that while the velocity is constant.3. Fix m & uniform ˙ q − wshear − wshaf t = ˙ ˙ ˙ h+ U2 +gz 2 − out h+ U2 +gz 2 (7.1 Energy Equation in Steady State The steady state situation provides several ways to reduce the complexity. For a stationary ﬁx control volume the energy equation. The second low is the core of “no losses” and can be employed when calculations of this sort information is needed.7. Equation (2. equation (7. The acceleration term must be eliminated for the obvious reason.21) which can be written as dqrev = T ds = dEu + P dv (7.72) U2 + g z Urn ρAin + P Ubn Aout − P Ubn Ain 2 It can be noticed that last term in equation (7. under this simpliﬁcation transformed to ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 U2 + g z Urn ρAin h+ 2 (7. APPROXIMATION OF ENERGY EQUATION 183 7.71) is reduced to Steady State Equation & uniform ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = h+ h+ U2 + g z Urn ρAout − 2 (7.71) If the ﬂow is uniform or can be estimated as uniform.72) for non-deformable control volume does not vanished. The time derivative term can be eliminated since the time derivative is zero.75) .2 Energy Equation in Frictionless Flow and Steady State In cases where the ﬂow can be estimated without friction or where a quick solution is needed the friction and other losses are illuminated from the calculations.73) Dividing equation the mass ﬂow rate provides Steady State Equation.3. This imaginary ﬂuid reduces the amount of work in the calculations and Ideal Flow Chapter is dedicated in this book. Hence the energy equation is reduced to Steady State Equation ˙ ˙ ˙ Q − Wshear − Wshaf t = S h+ U2 + g z Urn ρ dA + 2 P Ubn dA S (7.

74) results in change in pressure energy change in kinetic energy change in potential energy 0 = wshaf t + dP ρ − 2 dP ρ + 1 U2 2 − U1 2 + g (z2 − z1 ) 2 (7.77) P ρ − v dP (7.83) from equation (7.79) becomes h D ˙ Qrev = Dt Eu + V P ρ ρ dV − D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.84) .76) qrev = Eu + P ρ − dP ρ (7.76) yields dqrev = dEu + d P ρ − v dP (7.79) Taking time derivative of the equation (7.82) in (7.80) Using the Reynolds Transport Theorem to transport equation to control volume results in d ˙ Qrev = dt h ρ dV + V A h Urn ρ dA + D Dt V dP ρ ρ dV (7.83) in Subtracting equation (7.184 CHAPTER 7. ENERGY CONSERVATION Using the multiplication rule change equation (7.78) Integration over the entire system results in h Qrev = V Eu + P ρ ρ dV − V dP ρ ρ dV (7.81) As before equation (7.75) dqrev = dEu + d (P v) − v dP = dEu + d integrating equation (7.80) can be simpliﬁed for uniform ﬂow as ˙ Qrev = m (hout − hin ) − ˙ or qrev = (hout − hin ) − ˙ dP ρ − out dP ρ − out dP ρ dP ρ (7.

The only acceptation to the above statement.90) The total work or potential is the integral over the whole mass.88) r2 Where G is the gravity coeﬃcient and M is the mass of the Earth. is the gravity that was compensated by the gravity potential.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated System In the discussion so far.4.E. The accelerations are referring to two kinds of acceleration. linear and rotational. = − ref F ·d (7. General Acceleration can be broken into a linear acceleration and a rotating acceleration.85) reduced to 0= U2 2 − U1 2 P2 − P1 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 (7. it was assumed that the control volume is at rest.84) for constant density is 0 = wshaf t + P2 − P1 U2 2 − U1 2 + + g (z2 − z1 ) ρ 2 185 (7. It was pointed earlier in this book that accelerated forces can be translated to potential force.4. r and m are the distance and mass respectively. However.7. In building the gravity potential it was assumed that the gravity is a conservative force.87) In Chapter 3 a discussion about gravitational energy potential was presented. the mathematical treatment is somewhat diﬀerent which is the reason for the separation. There is no conceptional diﬀerence between these two accelerations. for the gravity force is GM m (7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM Equation (7.85) For no shaft work equation (7.89) The reference was set to inﬁnity. For example. The gravity potential is then F =− r P Egravity = − ∞ − GM m dr r2 (7. The gravity force for ﬂuid element in small distance then is g dz dm.1 Energy in Linear Acceleration Coordinate 2 The potential is deﬁned as P.86) 7. The work this element moving from point 1 to point 2 is 2 g dz dm = g (z2 − z1 ) dm 1 (7. In many cases. the control volume is moving in accelerated coordinates. 7. . These accelerations will be translated to potential energy.

3 Energy Equation in Rotating Coordinate System The coordinate system rotating around ﬁx axis creates similar conservative potential as the linear system.95) The Reynolds Transport Theorem is used to transferred the calculations to control volume as Energy Equation in Linear Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv Eu + cv U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7.186 CHAPTER 7. There are two kinds of acceleration due this rotation one is the .4.4. Thus.93) The change of the potential with time is D D P Ea total = Dt Dt (ax x + ay y + az z) dm sys (7. The “potential” of moving the mass in the ﬁeld provides the energy. the element of the potential is d P Ea = a · d dm The total potential for element material (1) (7. The linear acceleration “creates” a conservative force of constant force and direction.96) h+ U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z Urn ρ dA 2 + cv P Ubn dA 7.94) Equation can be added to the energy equation as D ˙ ˙ Q−W = Dt Eu + sys U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z ρ dV 2 (7. The same can be done for the other two coordinates. The potential of unit material is P Ea total = (ax x + ay y + az z) ρ dV sys (7. and z = 0. The Force due to the acceleration of the ﬁeld can be broken into three coordinates.92) At the origin (of the coordinates) x = 0.91) P Ea = (0) a · d dm = (ax (x1 − x0 ) ay (y1 − y0 ) az (z1 − z0 )) dm (7. y = 0. Using this trick the notion of the ax (x1 − x0 ) can be replaced by ax x.2 Linear Accelerated System The acceleration can be employed in similar fashion as the gravity force. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.

98) (7. Hence. θ. and k are units vector in the coordinates r. The net change of the potential energy due the centrifugal motion is 2 P Ecentrif ugal = − 1 ω 2 r2 dr dm = ω 2 r1 2 − r2 2 dm 2 (7.100) The ﬁrst term results in ω 2 r2 (see for explanation in the appendix 263 for vector explanation). the most important direction is the direction of the velocity.97) (7. From physical point of view. The cross product is zero of U ×ω×U =U ×ω×ω = 0 because the ﬁrst multiplication is perpendicular to the last multiplication. To understand it better. The forces acting on particles are centrifugal Coriolis F = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω dm ˆ The work or the potential then is P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · d dm ˆ The cylindrical coordinate are ˆ ˆ d = drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k r (7.103) P Ubn dA .7. ENERGY EQUATION IN ACCELERATED SYSTEM 187 centrifugal and second the Coriolis force.99) ˆ where r. θ and z respectively. The ˆ ˆ potential is then ˆ ˆ P E = ω 2 r r + 2 U × ω · drˆ + r dθ θ + dz k dm ˆ r (7. consider a particle which moves with the our rotating system. This multiplication creates lines (surfaces ) of constant values.102) Inserting the potential energy due to the centrifugal forces into the energy equation yields Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate d ˙ ˙ Q−W = dt + cv U2 ω 2 r2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g)z − ρ dV 2 2 cv ω2 r2 U2 + ax x + ay y + (az + g) − z Urn ρ dA h+ 2 2 Eu + + cv (7.101) This multiplication does not vanish with the exception of the direction of U . The second part is (2 U × ω) · d dm (7. However. the ﬂux of this property is important only in the direction of the velocity. this term canceled and does not contribute to the potential.4.

188 CHAPTER 7.4.4 Energy Equation in Accelerated Coordinate with Uniform Flow One of the way to simplify the general equation (7. ENERGY CONSERVATION 7.103) is to assume uniform ﬂow. .

Part II Diﬀerential Analysis 189 .

.

Like many equations they were independently derived by several people. These equations are named after Claude–Louis Navier–Marie and George Gabriel Stokes. The equations without the viscosity eﬀects are referred to as the ideal ﬂow equations (Euler Equations) which will be discussed in the next chapter. The foundations for their arguments or motivations are based on a molecular view of how stresses are exerted between ﬂuid layers. 191 . which leads to a diﬀerent approach of differential analysis. Later in the Chapters on Real Fluid and Turbulence. the solution is not unique. with a presentation of the “non–regular” solutions will be presented with the associated issues of stability.g. The diﬀerential analysis allows the investigation of the ﬂow ﬁeld in greater detail. Navier-Stokes equations are non–linear and there are more than one possible solution in many cases (if not most cases) e. the emphasis is on inﬁnitesimal scale and thus the analysis provides better accuracy1 . The concepts of Add Mass and 1 Which can be view as complementary analysis to the integral analysis. As usual Simon-Denis Poisson independently.1 Introduction The integral analysis has limited accuracy. In diﬀerential analysis. A discussion about the “regular” solution is present and a brief discussion about limitations when the solution is applicable. However even for the “regular” solution the mathematics is very complex. as he done to many other equations or conditions. First these equations were derived by Claude– Louis–Marie Navier as it is known in 1827. Barr´ de e Saint Venant (1843) and George Gabriel Stokes (1845) derived these equation based on the relationship between stress and rate–of–strain (this approach is presented in this book). derived these equations in 1831 for the same arguments as Navier. This analysis leads to partial diﬀerential equations which are referred to as the Navier-Stokes equations. One of the approaches is to reduce the equations by eliminating the viscosity eﬀects.CHAPTER 8 Diﬀerential Analysis 8.

This phenomenon is presented in Multi–phase chapter and in this chapter. Historically.1) x A ρ Ux dy dz ρ+ dρ dz Uz + dUz dz dx dy E F dρ y ρ+ d U dU + dy y y dx dz B ρ+ dρ dx Ux + dUx dx dy dz G dx dz H ρU y C ρ Uz dx dy D However for a control volume using Reynolds Transport Theorem (RTT). (8.2) For a constant control volume the derivative can enter into the integral (see also for the divergence theorem in the appendix A. there are cases when the complying with the boundary conditions leads to a discontinuity (shock or choked ﬂow).3) . the boundary conditions create instability which alters the boundary conditions itself which is known as Bar– Meir’s instability. These issues are discussed in Open Channel Flow and Compressible Flow chapters. Even for simple situations. The mass balance on the inﬁnitesimal control volume. the following can be written D Dt ρdV = d dt ρdV + Urn ρ dA = 0 Fig. and will be presented in the Ideal Flow chapter. Sometimes. The connection between these two ideas or ﬁelds was done via introduction of the boundary layer theory by Prandtl which will be discussed in a separate chapter. on one hand.2) and hence dρ dt dV dρ dV + dt Urn ρ dA = 0 (8.1. At a speciﬁc time this control volume can be viewed as a system. the complexity of the equations.1.192 CHAPTER 8. leads to approximations and consequently to ideal ﬂow approximation (equations) and on the other hand experimental solutions of Navier–Stokes equations. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Add Force.1. It has to be pointed out that the Add Mass and Add Force appear regardless to the viscosity. -8. 8. The choked ﬂow is associated with single phase ﬂow (even the double choked ﬂow) while the Bar-Meir’s instability associated with the Multi–Phase ﬂow. These equations cannot satisfy the boundary conditions in other cases and in way the ﬂuid pushes the boundary condition(s) further downstream (choked ﬂow). which are easier to discuss when the viscosity is ignored.2 Mass Conservation Fluid ﬂows into and from a three dimensional inﬁnitesimal control volume depicted in Figure 8. The mass conservation for this inﬁnitesimal small system is zero thus D Dt ρdV = 0 (8.

.8. the operation.7) Combining the ﬁrst term with the second term results in the continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates as Continuity in Cartesian Coordinates ∂ρ ∂ρ Ux ∂ρ Uy ∂ρ Uz + + + =0 ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z Cylindrical Coordinates The same equation can be derived in cylindrical coordinates. as ∼0 dρ dρ dV = dx dy dz + f dt dt dV d ρ dt2 2 + ··· (8.4) The second term in the LHS of equation (8. in the control volume is ∂ρ dr dz r dθ dm = ˙ ∂t 2 Note (8.3) for the inﬁnitesimal volume is expressed. MASS CONSERVATION 193 The ﬁrst term in equation (8. in the x coordinate. neglecting higher order derivatives. The net mass change. as depicted in Figure 8.8) dv (8.2.9) that some time the notation dAyz also refers to dAx . for example.2) is expressed2 as dAyz Urn ρ dA = dy dz (ρ Ux )|x − (ρ Ux )|x+dx + dAxz dAxz (8.5) dx dz (ρ Uy )|y − (ρ Uy )|y+dy + dx dy (ρ Uz )|z − (ρ Uz )|z+dz The diﬀerence between point x and x + dx can be obtained by developing Taylor series as (ρ Ux )|x+dx = (ρ Ux )|x + ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂x dx x (8. It also can be noticed that.2.6) The same can be said for the y and z coordinates. produces additional dx thus a inﬁnitesimal volume element dV is obtained for all directions. The combination can be divided by dx dy dz and simpliﬁed by using the deﬁnition of the partial derivative in the regular process to be Urn ρ dA = − ∂(ρ Ux ) ∂(ρ Uy ) ∂(ρ Uz ) + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (8.

The mass conservation in cylindrical coordinates. In a similar fashion the net ﬂux in the z coordinate be written as net ﬂux in z direction = r dθ dr The net change in the θ direction is then net ﬂux in θ direction = dr dz ∂ρ Uθ dθ ∂θ (8. the change of r with r. Hence. This change creates a diﬀerent diﬀerential equation with additional complications. the r is “trapped” in the derivative. The net mass ﬂow out or in the r direction has an additional term which is the area change compared to the Cartesian coordinates. The mass ﬂow at r + dr is ρ Ur r dθ dz|r + d/dr (ρ Ur r dθ dz) dr + · · · .14) 3 The mass ﬂow is ρ U r dθ dz at r point. -8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS + ∂ (ρ Ur r) dz dθ dr ∂z ρ U θ ∂ (ρ Uθ ) dθ dr dz + ∂θ dz ρ Uz r) d r r ρU ∂ ( ∂z r+ dθ dz ρU r rd θd z rd z θ dr ρ Uθ dr dθ y θ x ρ Uz r dr dθ Fig.11)–(8.2.12) Combining equations (8.10) The net ﬂux in the r direction is then ∂ρ Ur r net ﬂux in the = dθ dz dr ∂r r direction (8. e. The change is ﬂux in r direction = dθ dz r ρ U r − r ρ Ur + ∂ρ Ur r dr ∂r (8.g. Expansion to Taylor serious ρ U r dθ dz| r r r+dr is obtained by the regular procedure.11) Note3 that the r is still inside the derivative since it is a function of r. dr r dθ dz results in total net ﬂux =− 1 ∂ (ρ Ur r) ∂ρ Uz r ∂ρ Uθ + + r ∂r ∂z ∂θ (8.13) and dividing by inﬁnitesimal control volume.13) ∂ (ρ Uz ) dz ∂z (8. r .194 ρ U r z CHAPTER 8.

For academic purposes. Again remember that the meaning of repeated index is summation.8).15) Carrying similar operations for the spherical coordinates. The mass equation (see in the appendix for more information on the index notation) written as ∂ρ ∂ (ρ U )i + =0 ∂t ∂xi (8. Hence.9) divided by inﬁnitesimal control volume.17) + · (ρ U ) = 0 ∂t Advance material can be skipped The mass equation can be written in index notation for Cartesian coordinates. End Advance material The use of these equations is normally combined with other equations (momentum and or energy equations). this writing reduce the amount of writing and potentially can help think about the problem or situation in more conceptional way.2 page 266).2. several examples are constructed here. MASS CONSERVATION 195 Combining equation (8. 8. It can be noticed that the second part of these equations is the divergence (see the Appendix A.16) The continuity equations (8. the continuity equation can be written in a general vector form as Continuity Equation ∂ρ (8. (8.1 Mass Conservation Examples Example 8. There are very few cases where this equation is used on its own merit. The index notation really does not add much to the scientiﬁc understanding.1. dr r dθ dz yields Continuity in Cylindrical Coordinates ∂ρ Uz ∂ρ 1 ∂ (r ρ Ur ) 1 ∂ρ Uθ + + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (8. .2.8. t0 .15) and (8. At time. the upper surface is exposed to temperature T1 .8).16) can be expressed in diﬀerent coordinates. the continuity equation becomes Continuity in Spherical Coordinates ∂ρ 1 ∂ r 2 ρ Ur 1 ∂ (ρ Uθ sin θ) 1 ∂ρ Uφ + 2 + + =0 ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂z (8. However.18) Compare to equation (8.14) with the change in the control volume (8.1: A layer of liquid has an initial height of H0 with an uniform temperature of T0 .

I.I. Solution The situation is unsteady state thus the unsteady state and one dimensional continuity equation has to be used which is ∂ρ ∂ (ρUy ) + =0 ∂t ∂y (8. For this question.I. Neglect the mutual dependency of the temperature and the height.I. as a function of time into the governing equation (8.f) .a) T(t = 0) T(t > 0) T(t = ∞) where ρ1 is the density at the surface and where ρ0 is the density at the botFig.I. Mass ﬂow due to temperature tom. It can be noticed that the height H0 is a function of time.I.I.e) =0 e−β t + ∂y Equation (8.I. it is treated as a constant. The expression that connects the temperature with the space for the ﬁnal temperature as T − T0 H0 − y =α T1 − T0 H0 (8.I. H0(t) The density is a function of the temperT0 y ature according to ρ 1 0 T − T0 =α T1 − T0 ρ − ρ0 ρ1 − ρ0 (8. Assume that the velocity is only a diﬀerence for example 8. Assume that the velocity at the lower boundary is zero at all times.b) results in ∂ρ ∂t ∂ρ Uy ∂y 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 αβ H0 − y H0 (8.1 function of the y coordinate. Substituting the density.d) ρ1 − ρ0 H0 Equation (8. Calculates the velocity of the liquid.196 CHAPTER 8.e) is ﬁrst order ODE with the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 which can be arranged as 0 ∂ Uy α HH−y 1 − e−β t 0 ∂y = −α β H0 − y H0 e−β t (8.3.d) relates the temperature with the time and the location was given in the question (it is not the solution of any model).3. -8. ρ. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Assume that the actual temperature is ρ T1 exponentially approaches to a linear temperature proﬁle as depicted in Figure 8.I.b) with the boundary condition of zero velocity at the lower surface Uy (y = 0) = 0.c) The exponential decay is 1 − e−β t and thus the combination (with equation (8.a)) is ρ − ρ0 H0 − y =α 1 − e−β t (8.

from the extraction point. it can be treated for the solution of equation (8. The relationship between the density and the temperature is linear as T − T∞ ρ − ρ∞ =α (8.2.19) If the ﬂuid is incompressible then the governing equation is a volume conservation as ·U = 0 Note that this equation appropriate only for a single phase case.I.2: In many coating processes a thin ﬁlm is created by a continuous process in which liquid injected into a moving belt that carries the material out as exhibited in Figure 8.4. Calculate the ﬁlm velocity ﬁeld if the density is a function of the temperature.I.I. End Solution 8.f) holds for any time and thus. MASS CONSERVATION 197 Uy is a function of the time but not y. asH0 T0 T(x) T∞ sume that no mass transfer occurs or can x be neglected and the main mechanism is x heat transfer.f) as a constant4 . Hence.h) It can be noticed that indeed the velocity is a function of the time and space y.II. Equation (8.2. The temperature and mass transfer takT0 ing place which reduces (or increases) the thickness of the ﬁlm. -8.8. Mass ﬂow in coating process perature is only a function of the distance for example 8. 4 Since (8.g) Utilizing the boundary condition Uy (y = 0) = 0 yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t (y − 1) (8. Example 8. . the integration with respect to y yields Uy α H0 − y 1 − e−β t H0 = −α β 2 H0 − y 2 H0 e−β t y + c (8.2 Simpliﬁed Continuity Equation A simpliﬁed equation can be obtained for a steady state in which the transient term is eliminated as · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. For this example.2. Assume that the ﬁlm temFig.I.4.20) the time can be treated as constant for y integration.a) ρ0 − ρ∞ T0 − T∞ State your assumptions.

1 for the general function T = F (x).II. If the frame of reference was moving with the belt then there is only velocity component in the y direction6 .II. Higbie suggested this idea which was rejected by the scientiﬁc establishment. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS This problem is somewhat similar to Example 8.d) into the governing equation results in α ∂F (x) ∂Uy ρ = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂y Ux ∂x The density is expressed by equation (8. This assumption is consistent with the ﬁrst solution (no stability issues).c) Where Ux is the belt velocity.II. 6 In reality this assumption is correct only in a certain range.I.198 Solution CHAPTER 8.e) Notice that ρ could “come” out of the derivative (why?) and move into the RHS. At any point the governing equation in coordinate system that moving with the belt is ∂ (ρ Ux ) ∂ (ρ Uy ) (8. it can be assumed that the material moves with at the belt in the x direction in the same velocity. the discussion about this point is beyond the scope of this section.f) (8.b) can be written as Ux ∂ (ρ Uy ) ∂ρ =− ∂x ∂y (8.II.II. He spend the rest of his life to proof it and ending only to suicide. . however it can be considered as steady state.15 . One of the early pioneers who suggest this idea is Higbie which Higbie’s equation named after him. See the resembles to equation (8.b). However.g) 5 The presentation of one dimension time dependent problem to two dimensions problems can be traced to heat and mass transfer problems.b) + =0 ∂x ∂y At ﬁrst. Hence equation (8. On personal note.II.d) Substituting this relationship in equation (8. The solution is similar to the previous Example 8.II.a) and thus Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y + c ρ Ux ∂x (8.II. Applying the boundary condition Uy (t = 0) = 0 results in Uy = α ∂F (x) (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) y ρ(x) Ux ∂x End Solution (8. ∂ρ α ∂F (x) = (ρ0 − ρ∞ ) ∂x Ux ∂x (8. this author Master thesis is extension Higbie’s equation.II.

For the second part equation (8.f) and switching sides to be ∂ Uy b + Uy = −a 2 x + x2 + y 2 (8.f) The exponent can be canceled to simplify further the equation (8.III.III.c) (8. assume the density is also a function of the location as ρ = m ex+y Where m is constant.III.III. Notice the symmetry of the situation.e) Taking the derivative of the ﬁrst term and second part move the other side results in a 2 x + x2 + b 2 y a ex+y = − ex+y ∂ Uy + Uy ∂y (8.8. Solution The ﬂow ﬁeld must comply with the mass conservation (8.d) The integration constant in this case is not really a constant but rather an arbitrary function of x.19) is applicable and used as ∂ a x2 + b y 2 (m ex+y ) ∂ Uy (m ex+y ) + =0 ∂x ∂y (8.a) Equation (8.20) thus 2ax + ∂Uy =0 ∂y (8.2.h) ∂y . Uy = − 2 a x + f (x) = −2 x y + f (x) (8.III.3: The velocity in a two dimensional ﬁeld is assumed to be in a steady state. The velocity. The homogeneous equation is ∂ Uy + Uy = 0 (8. MASS CONSERVATION 199 Example 8.III.III.g) is ﬁrst order ODE that can be solved by combination of the homogeneous solution with the private solution (see for explanation in the Appendix). Ux has also arbitrary function in the y component. It can be noted that x should be treated as a constant parameter for the y coordinate.III. Ux = a x2 + b y 2 Next.III.g) ∂y a Equation (8. Assume that the density is constant and calculate the vertical velocity (y component) for the following x velocity component. Thus.c) is an ODE with constant coeﬃcients.III.III. Calculate the velocity ﬁeld in this case.b) (8.

a) Mathematically speaking. Check if the ﬂow is incompressible for this continuity equation should be used for constant density.a) Is the ﬂow is incompressible? Is the ﬂow in a steady state condition? Solution To check whether the solution is in a steady state.IV.V. if it exist.c) The divergence isn’t zero thus this ﬂow. must be compressible ﬂow. This ﬂow can exist only for a limit time since over time the divergence is unbounded.IV. However physically there are velocity components in y and z directions. the mass conservation is reduced only for one dimensional form as ∂ρ ∂ (Ux ρ) + =0 ∂t ∂x (8.h) is Uy = c e−y (see for explanation in the appendix). it can be observed that the velocity contains time component. Solution This problem is one dimensional unsteady state and for a compressible substance. this kind of presentation is possible. this ﬂow ﬁeld is not steady state.III. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution for (8.III.i) End Solution Example 8. ∂Ux ∂x = t2 z ∂Uy ∂y =t ∂Uz ∂z =t (8.IV.b) Or the combination of these derivatives is U = t2 z + 2 t (8.III. The initial density is ρ(t = 0) = ρ0 .200 CHAPTER 8. End Solution Example 8. Ux = (x t) z 2 Uy = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) Uz = (x t) + (y t) + (z t) (8.5: Find the density as a function of the time for a given one dimensional ﬂow of Ux = x e5 α y (cos (α t)).4: Can the following velocities co-exist. Hence. In this problem these physical . Thus.j) (8. The private solution is Uy |private = −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x The total solution is Uy = c e−y + −b y 2 − 2 y + 2 − a x2 − 2 a x (8.

Ux .V.e) The same can be done for the right hand side as ρ x e5 α y + (8.c) Possible solution is when the left and the right hand sides are equal to a constant.h) Equation (8.V. In that case the left hand side is 1 ∂ρ = c1 cos (α t) ∂t The solution of equation (8.d) (8.V.a) is ﬁrst order partial diﬀerential equation which can be converted to ordinary diﬀerential equation when the velocity component.h) is constant coeﬃcients ﬁrst order ODE which its solution discussed extensively in the appendix.V.8. real value.V.V. The solution of (8.b) into equation (8.f) (8. c3 . MASS CONSERVATION 201 components are ignored for academic reasons.V.V.V.V. must be zero and thus the constant.c) can be separated to yield 1 ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y − e cos (α t) ∂t ∂x (8. Equation (8.V.V. ∂Ux = e5 α y (cos (α t)) ∂x (8.V.g) The term e5 α y is always positive. Hence. is substituted. ρ.V.b) Substituting equation (8.2.V. c1 vanishes as well and the solution contain only the homogeneous part and the private solution is dropped ρ = c2 e− x2 2 (8.e) is reduced to ODE and its solution is ρ= c1 sin (α t) + c2 α ∂ρ 5 α y e = c1 ∂x (8.h) is given by impossible solution ρ=e −x 2 2 √ π i c3 erf √ c − 2 ix √ 2 (8.V.i) which indicates that the solution is a complex number thus the constant.j) . is a function of x results in ∂ρ ∂ρ 5 α y = −ρ x e5 α y (cos (α t)) − e (cos (α t)) ∂t ∂x Equation (8. and independent of x thus ρx + ∂ρ c1 = 5 α y = c3 ∂x e (8.a) and noticing that the density.

z.g. are presented. the volume integral can be changed to the surface integral) as ρ φ U · dA = A V · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.V. A change with time is DΦ D = Dt Dt φ ρ dV sys (8.f) is ρ = c2 e− x2 2 c1 sin (α t) + c2 α End Solution (8.202 CHAPTER 8.23) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv cv · (ρ φ U ) dV (8. . c2 is arbitrary function of the y coordinate.26) 7 These integrals are related to RTT.25) Since the volume of the control volume remains independent. Basically the divergence theorem relates the ﬂow out (or) in and the sum of the all the changes inside the control volume. t).V. Suppose that the property φ is under a study which is a function of the time and location as φ(x.24) into equation (8.21) Where Φ is the total quantity of the system has a volume V and a surface area of A which are a function of time.33)) yields D Dt φ ρ dV = sys d dt φ ρ dV + cv A ρ φ U · dA (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS The solution is the multiplication of equation (8.24) Substituting equation (8. y.V.3 Conservation of General Quantity 8. The total amount of quantity that exist in arbitrary system is Φ= sys φ ρ dV (8. 8. scalar. vector or tensor.22) Using RTT to change the system to control volume (see equation (5. the derivative can enter into the integral and thus combining the two integral on the RHS results in D Dt φ ρ dV = sys cv d (φ ρ) + dt · (ρ φ U ) dV (8.1 Generalization of Mathematical Approach for Derivations In this section a general approach for the derivations for conservation of any quantity e.3.j) by (8.23) The last term on the RHS can be converted using the divergence theorem (see the appendix7 ) from a surface integral into a volume integral (alternatively.k) Where the constant.

x. The substantial derivative represents the change rate of the density at a point which moves with the ﬂuid.21) LHS can be change to simply to derivative of Φ.1 Examples of Generalized of Quantities The General Mass Time Derivative For example.3.2 8. for the last derivations using φ = 1 which is the same for mass conservation.32) . y.30) can be further rearranged so derivative of the density is equal the divergence of velocity as 1 ρ ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ =− ·U (8.29) Equation (8. t) i + Uy (x. t) j + Uz (x. y. y. t) k (8.8. In that case D Φ = D ρ and hence equal to zero as Dt Dt φ d dV 1 ρ φ (8. For an inﬁnitesimal control volume the change is DΦ ∼ = Dt d (φ ρ) + dt dV · (ρ φ U ) dx dy dz (8. The term in the bracket LHS is referred in the literature as substantial derivative. The integral is carried over arbitrary system.31) relates the density rate of change or the volumetric change to the velocity divergence of the ﬂow ﬁeld. it can be written that U (x. y.3. t) = Ux (x. A ﬂuid particle velocity is a function of the location and time.2. z. Acceleration Direct Derivations One of the important points is to ﬁnd the particles acceleration of the ﬂuid.30) · (ρ U ) = 0 (8. z.27) 8.3. z. Therefore.31) Equation (8.29) can be rearranged as ∂ρ +U ∂t ·ρ+ρ ·U = 0 (8. CONSERVATION OF GENERAL QUANTITY 203 By the deﬁnition of equation (8.28) dx dy dz = 0 + · ρ 1 U dt - The integral is over arbitrary volume which mean that integrand is zero as ∂ρ + ∂t Equation (8.

So it can be written that F τ = f (F .204 The acceleration will be CHAPTER 8.4 Momentum Conservation The relationship among the shear stress various components have to be established.38) It was shown that in static case (or in better words.35) The same can be developed to the other two coordinates and when combined to be (in a vector form) ∂U dU U = + (U · dt ∂t or in more explicit form as local acceleration convective acceleration )U (8.39) .36) ∂U ∂U dU ∂U ∂U = + U +U +U dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z (8. 8.33) ∂ Ux d t ∂ U x d x ∂ U x d y ∂ U x d z d Ux = + + + dt ∂t d t ∂x d t ∂y d t ∂z d t The acceleration in the x can be written as ∂ Ux ∂ Ux d Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ Ux U = + Ux + Uy + Uz = + (U · dt ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂t ) Ux (8. While the ﬂow is in a steady state there is acceleration of the ﬂow.34) (8. A ) (8. The ﬂow in a nozzle is an example to ﬂow at steady state but yet has acceleration which ﬂow with low velocity can achieve a supersonic ﬂow. This division creates a tensor which the physical meaning will be explained here (the mathematical explanation can be found in the mathematical appendix of the book). The stress is relationship between the force and area it is acting on or force divided by the area (division of vector by a vector).37) The time derivative referred in the literature as the local acceleration which disappear when the ﬂow is steady state. when the shear stresses are absent) it was written τ = −P n (8. The area has a direction or orientation which control the results of this division. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS U dU d Ux d Uy d Uz = i+ j+ k dt dt dt dt The velocity components are a function of four variables and hence =1 Ux Uy Uz (8.

It can be noticed that no mathematical symbols are written between the components. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 205 It also was shown that the pressure has to be continuous.4.42) T0 Z τnn where δAy is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the y direction. The forces balance in the x direction excluding the slanted surface is Fx = −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz (8. A common approach is to collect the stress in a “standard” orientation and then if needed the stresses can be reorientated to a new direction. The transformation n·i n·j n·k ·i ·j ·k ℵ·i ℵ·j ℵ·k When the tetrahedron is shrunk to a point relationship of the stress on the two sides can be expended by Taylor series and a diﬀerence is related to the ﬁrst derivative.44) . δAx is the surface area of the tetrahedron in the x diFig. The transformation is available because the “standard” surface can be transformed using trigonometrical functions.43) and n are the local unit coordinates on n surface. The reason for this omission is that there is no physical meaning for it. Similar “vectors” exist for the y and z coordinates which can be written in matrix forms τxx τxy τxz τ = τyx τyy τyz (8.8. these stresses that act on every point and have three components on every surface and depend on the surface orientation.40) where τxx is the stress acting on surface x in the x direction.5. The notation τ (xi ) is used to denote the stresses on xi surface. matrix is then · i − τzℵℵ · i (8. However. similarly for τxz . and τxy is the stress acting on surface x in the y direction. If Y τn ℵ τnℓ X τ τ xx xy τxz τ yx τy y τyz (8. The opposing forces which acting on the slanted surface in the x are Fx = δAn τnn n · i − τn Where here ℵ.5.41) τzx τzy τzz Suppose that a straight angle tetrahedron is under stress as shown in Figure 8. tetrahedron in the z direction. In Cartesian coordinates on surface in the x direction the stresses are τ (x) = τxx τxy τxz (8. -8. Stress diagram on a tetrahedron rection and δAz is the surface area of the shape.

This matrix is referred to as stress tensor and as it can be observed has nine terms. The momentum can be accessed by the shear stresses that act on it. However. These relationships provide the transformation for the diﬀerent orientations which depends only angles of the orientations. it is assumed x that the external body force exert a torque GT per unit volume at the speciﬁc location. The Symmetry of the Stress Tensor A small liquid cubical has three possible rotation axes and here only one will be discussed. The clarity of this analysis can y τyx be improved if additional terms are taken but the results will be the same. the rotation of the inﬁnitesimal ﬂuid cube can be viewed as it is done almost as a solid body. The body force can exert torque is Fig. -8. for cases that body force. .5 for moment of inertia.6 is Mz = Izz dθ dt (8. Advance material can be skipped 8 See for derivation in Example 3. Hence. The shear stress at point x is τxy . The areas are related to each other through angles.45) The same can be done for y and z directions. can create torque. The τxy τxx dy τ normal body force (gravity) acts through τxx xy the cubic center of gravity and can be neglected (the changes are insigniﬁcant). τyx τ However. dx For simplicity and generality. Balance of momentum around the z direction shown in Figure 8. Diagram to analysis the shear stress due to the fact that the body force is not tensor. The cubical rotation can involve two parts one distortion and one rotation.6. such yy as the magnetic ﬁelds. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS the ﬁrst derivative is neglected (tetrahedron is without acceleration) the two sides are related as −τyx δAy − τxx δAx − τzx δAz = δAn τnn n · i − τn · i − τzℵℵ · i (8.206 CHAPTER 8. uniform and hence act not through the mass center.47) The same can be said for τyx for y τyy direction. the shear stress at point x + dx is τxy |x+dx = τxy + dτxy dx dx (8.46) Where Mz is the cubic moment around the cubic center and Izz 8 is the moment of inertia around that center. A ﬁnite angular distortion of inﬁnitesimal cube requires requires an inﬁnite shear.

The moment that results from this shear force (clockwise positive) is y+dy τxx (η) y η− dy 2 dη (8.50) isn’t zero (non symmetrical function around the center of integration). but provided to those who wonder why body forces can contribute to the torque while pressure does not. MOMENTUM CONSERVATION 207 The torque due to the shear stress in the surface direction results in a change due to the shear stress9 .50) The integral of (8. End Advance material The net torque in the z-direction around the particle’s center would then be (τyx ) dx dy dz − 2 τxy + τyx + ∂τxy ∂x ∂τxy ∂x dx dy dz 2 + (τxy ) dx dy dz − 2 Izz (8. It can be ignored. The reason that this term neglected because the other face of the cubic contributes an identical term but in the opposing direction. .53) This analysis can be done on the other two directions and hence the general conclusion is that GT + τij = τji (8. This point is for self convincing since it deals with a “strange” and problematic “animals” of integral of inﬁnitesimal length. τxx at x can be expended as a linear function τxx = τxx |y + dτxx dy η y (8.48) where η is the local coordinate in the y direction stating at y and mostly used between y < η < y + dy.49) results y+dy y τxx |y + dτxx dy η y η− dy 2 dη (8.4.48) into (8.54) 9 This point bother this author in the completeness of the proof.52) which means since that dx −→ 0 and dy −→ 0 that GT + τxy = τyx (8.49) Substituting (8.51) 2 2 dθ dt dx dy dz 2 = ρ dx dy dz (dx) + (dy) The actual components that contribute to the moment are =0 (dx)2 + (dy)2 =0 GT + τxy − τxy + ∂ (τyx − τxy ) =ρ ∂y 12 dθ dt (8. For example.8.

However. It is believed that this notation should and can be used only after the physical meaning was “digested. All shear stress shown in surface x and x + dx. y.11) is also applicable for the small inﬁnitesimal cubic.55) 8. One direction of the vector equation will be derived for x Cartesian coordinate (see Figure ??).56) 10 The index notation is not the main mode of presentation in this book. z and the j is any of the other x. and internal forces.5 Derivations of the Momentum Equation τzz + ∂τzz dz ∂z ∂τ y y + ∂ y dy τ yy Z τxz τxx τxy τxx + ∂τxz dx ∂x ∂τxx dx ∂x τxz + τxy + τyy ∂τxy dx ∂x y τzz x Fig.” 11 In the Dimensional Analysis a discussion about this eﬀect hopefully will be presented. However. The gravity is a body force that is considered in many kind of calculations and this force cause a change in symmetry of the stress tensor. The shear stress at diﬀerent surfaces. For surface forces that acting on the cubic are surface forces. For the case of GT = 0 the stress tensor become symmetrical. Equation (6. since Potto Project books are used extensively and numerous people asked to include this notation it was added. gravitation forces. Later it will be used and generalized. for almost all practical purposes.208 CHAPTER 8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS where i is one of x. can be neglected11 . z 10 . The body force that acting on inﬁnitesimal cubic is i · f B = f B x dx dy dz (8. -8. .11) is equivalent to Newton second law for ﬂuids.7. y. The magnetic body forces on the other hand is signiﬁcant and has to be included in the calculations. If the body forces eﬀect is neglected or do not exist in the problem then regardless the coordinate system τij = τji (i = j) (8. this change. Previously it was shown that equation (6.

Hence.5.60) after rearrangement equations such as (8.8. The vector form is ρ U DU = Dt · τ (i) + ρ fG (8. The advantage of the vector from allows the usage of the diﬀerent coordinates.61) equation (8. The shear stresses can be expanded into Taylor series as τix |i+di = τix + ∂ (τix ) di + · · · ∂i i (8.62) The same can be obtained for the z component and generally it is as ρ DUi = Dt ∂τii ∂τji ∂τki + + ∂i ∂j ∂j + ρ fG i (8. y. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 209 Where B is in the body force direction and f B is the body force per unit mass.61) for y coordinate is ρ DUy = Dt ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy + + ∂x ∂y ∂z + ρ fG y (8. or z.59) where i in this case is x. Equation (8. The surface forces in x direction on the x surface on are dAx dAx fxx = τxx |x+dx × dy dz − τxx |x × dy dz The surface forces in x direction on the y surface on are dAy dAy (8.64) . the total net force results from the shear stress in the x direction is fx = ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz (8.57) fxy = τyx |y+dy × dx dz − τyx |y × dx dz (8.63) Advance material can be skipped Where i is the balance direction and j and k are two other coordinates.63) can be written in a vector form which combined all three components into one equation.57) and (8.58) becomes internal forces surface forces body forces DUx & & ρ& & = dx dy dz Dt ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx + + ∂x ∂y ∂z & & & & dx dy dz dx dy dz & & + fG x ρ & & (8.58) The same can be written for z direction. The dot product yields the force in the directing of x.

At time t. Furthermore. There is no preference in the orientation (also call isentropic ﬂuid).65) or (8. The similarity to solids the increase shear stress in ﬂuids yields larger deformations. The control volume moves to a new location. when applying the shear stress in ﬂuids. the simplest model is assumed which referred as the solid continuum model.8)). In contrast. the result is a continuous deformation. reduction of the shear stress does not return the material to its original state as in solids. Thus this “solid” model is a tions: = y B + + ∂Uy U + dt y ∂y D @ t + dt Uy dt A A @t Uxdt Uy + ∂Uy dt ∂x C x y’ linear relationship with three main assump- Fig. y. Or in index (Einstein) notation as ρ DUi ∂τji = + ρ fG i Dt ∂xi (8. The relationship between the stress tensor and deformation depends on the classes of materials the stresses acts on. -8. the control volume is at a square shape and location as depicted in Figure 8. As engineers do in general.210 where here CHAPTER 8.64) requires that stress tensor be deﬁned. and c.8. a linear relationship between the shear stress to the rate of shear strain. Control volume at t and t + dt under continuous angle deformation. The rotation is the second movement that referred to change in of the relative orientation inside the control x’ 45◦ . At time t + dt the control volume undergoes three diﬀerent changes. there is no left over stresses (In over words when the “no shear stress” situation exist the rate of deformation or strain is zero). the deformation can be viewed as a function of the velocity ﬁeld. In solid material the shear stress yields a ﬁx amount of deformation.8 (by the blue color). Notice the three combinations of the deformation shown by purple color relative to blue color. b.65) End Advance material Equations (8. or z. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS τ (i) = τix i + τiy j + τiz k is part of the shear stress tensor and i can be any of the x. Additionally. The translational movement is referred to a movement of body without change of the body and without rotation. rotates and changes the shape (the blow color in in Figure (8. In this model the (shear) stresses and rate of strains are assumed to be linearly related. a.

5. the relationship between the two of stress tensor are found. In a similar fashion it can be written to other directions for x z as τxz = µ Dγxz =µ Dt dUz dUx + dx dz (8. is the diagonal component which dealt below. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 211 volume.9.68) where. at this stage. The shear stress is related to the change in angle of the control volume lower left corner.70) Note that the viscosity coeﬃcient (the linear coeﬃcient13 ) is assumed to be the same regardless of the direction. µ is the “normal” or “ordinary” viscosity coeﬃcient which the linear coeﬃcient of proportionality the shear and it is assumed to be a property of the ﬂuid. The deformation of the control volume has several components.69) D y τxx τxy A τx y ’ ’ τx x ’ ’ C τyx τyy x y’ τyz = µ Dγyz =µ Dt dUz dUy + dy dz (8. 12 While 13 The Fig. The only missing thing.8.67) In these derivatives. However. ﬁrst assumption is mentioned above. In general equation (8. Shear stress at two coordinates in 45◦ orientations. The third change is the misconﬁguration or control volume deformation. For the assumption of linear ﬂuid12 τxy = µ Dγxy =µ Dt dUy dUx + dx dy B (8. -8.71) not marked as important equation this equation is is source of the derivation.66) The total angle deformation (two sides x and y) is dUy dUx Dγxy = + Dt dx dy dU (8.68) can be written as τij = µ where i = j and i = x or y or z. . This assumption is referred as isotropic viscosity. the symmetry dxy = dUx was not assumed and or required because dy rotation of the control volume. It can be noticed at this stage. The angle between x to the new location of the control volume can be approximate for a small angle as dγx = tan dt Uy + dUy dx dx − Uy dx = tan dUy dx ∼ dUy = dx (8. under isentropic material it is assumed that the contribution of all the shear stresses contribute equally. Dγij =µ Dt dUj dUi + di dj x’ and for the directions of y z as 45◦ (8.

It can be noticed that “dx’ ” surface is 2 times larger than dx and dy surfaces. The dx is construct so it equals to dy.73) results in 2 τyx = τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ or dividing by 2 equation (8. the sides AB and AC rotate in unequal amount which make one diagonal line longer and one diagonal line shorter. y.75) (8.x. τii (where i is either . on the “x” surface (lower surface) and the “y” (left) surface. y coordinates).75) becomes τyx = 1 (τx x − τy’ y’ ) 2 ’’ (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Normal Stress The normal stress. y’ ) frame. The relationship can be obtained by changing the coordinates orientation as depicted by Figure 8. The rate of strain in the x direction is c (8.74) (8. and d in the Figure are related to the incremental linear strains. The linear deformations in the x’ and y’ directions which are rotated 45◦ relative to the x and y axes can be expressed in both coordinates system. The angular strain rate in the (x.73) Equation (8. The forces acting in the direction of x ’ are combination several terms. √ shear the stresses are acting in this direction. In addition. The small deformations a . b.212 CHAPTER 8. y) is frame related to the strain rates in the (x’ .75) relates the diﬀerence between the normal shear stress and the shear stresses in x’ .72) dividing by dx and some rearrangements utilizing the identity τxy = τyx results in τxx + τyy + τyx = τx’ x’ 2 Setting the similar analysis in the y’ results in τxx + τyy − τyx = τy’ y’ 2 Subtracting (8. To ﬁnd the main (on the diagonal) stress the coordinates are rotate by 45◦ . The diagonal lines (line BC and line AD in Figure 8.8) in the control volume move to the new locations.9. The force balance in the x’ is Ax cos θx dy τxx √ 1 1 1 1 √ + dx τyy √ + dx τyx √ + dy τxy √ = dx 2 τx’ x’ 2 2 2 2 Ay cos θy Ay cos θy Ax cos θy Ax’ (8. For example.10(a) depicts the deformations of the triangular particles between time t and t + dt.77) d x= dx . The normal shear stress relates to the change in the diagonal line length change.76) (8. y’ coordinates) and the angular strain rate in the regular (x. z) appears in shear matrix diagonal.74) from (8. Figure 8. c.

The original length of the √ 2 2 hypotenuse 2dx.79) Here. the ratio strain in the x direction is 2 2 d x’ = (c + b) + (a + d) √ 2dx (c + b) (c + b) √ + √ + f (dx’ ) 2 √ 2 2dx ∼0 (8. The rate of the strain in y direction is d y = a dx (8.78) The total change in the deformation angle is related to tan θ.80) Equation (8.5.10.79)) d x’ = 1 2 a+b+c+d dx = 1 (d 2 y +d y + dγxy ) (8. It ◦ can be approximated that the change is about 45 because changes are inﬁnitesimally small. cos 45◦ or sin 45◦ times the change contribute as ﬁrst approximation to change. and d y is its linear strain in the y-direction. The linear angular deformation in xy direction is dγxy = b+d dx (8. d x is the linear strain (increase in length divided by length) of the particle in the x direction. The hypotenuse of the triangle is oriented in the x’ direction (again observe Figure 8.81) . The change in the hypotenuse length is (c + b) + (a + d) . Fig. -8. Deformation of the diﬀerent triangles for the calculations of the normal stess. x (b) Deformation of the straight angle triangle.80) can be interpreted as (using equations (8.77). in both sides (d/dx+b/dy) which in turn is related to combination of the two sides angles.10(b)).10(b). The linear strain in the x direction can be computed by observing Figure 8. Hence. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION b 213 b y’ y x’ a 45◦ y a d+a c+b d c 45◦ y’ x’ x (a) Deformations of the isosceles triangular. Thus.8.78). (8. and (8.

88) ∂Ux ’ ’ Ux ’ + dx dt ∂x ’ x’ Equation (8. (8.11.83) into D x’ D y’ Dγxy − = Dt Dt Dt D x’ D y’ τxy − = Dt Dt µ (8. Changing it to the Eulerian coordinates and location diﬀerential transform equation (8.88) changes into τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ − ∂x’ ∂y’ Fig.83) Equation (8.90) . The rate of strain relations can be substituted by the velocity and equations (8. ∂Uy’ D y’ = Dt ∂y’ (8.214 CHAPTER 8. Dashed squares denotes the movement without the linear change. (8.81) with equation (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS In the same fashion the strain in y’ coordinate can be interpreted to be d y’ = 1 (d 2 y +d y − dγxy ) (8.85) From equation (8.89) Similar two equations can be obtained in the other two plains. -8.86) Uy’ + ∂Uy ’ ’ dy dt ∂y ’ Uy’dt The same way it can written for the y’ coordinate. The linear deformation is the diﬀerence between the two sides as D x’ ∂Ux’ = Dt ∂x’ (8.87) y’ (8.83) describing in Lagrangian coordinates a single particle.11 depicts the approximate linear deformation of the element.82) results in d x’ −d y’ = dγxy (8.87) and (8. Linear strain of the element purple denotes t and blue is for t + dt.84) From (8.87) can be written in the y’ and is similar by substituting the coordinates.82) Combining equation (8.85) can be continue and replaced as D x’ D y’ 1 − = (τx x − τy’ y’ ) Dt Dt 2µ ’ ’ Figure 8.75) τxy be substituted and equation (8. For example in y’ –z’ plain one can obtained τx’ x’ − τz’ z’ = 2µ ∂Ux’ ∂Uz’ − ∂x’ ∂z’ (8.68) it can be observed that the right hand side can be replaced by τxy /µ.

93) must be valid in any coordinate system thus equation (8.93) The “mechanical” pressure is the (negative) average value of pressure in directions of x’ –y’ –z’ . It can be shown that this two deﬁnitions are “identical” in the limits15 . With this deﬁnition and noticing that the coordinate system x’ –y’ has no special signiﬁcance and hence equation (8. This pressure is a true scalar value of the ﬂow ﬁeld since the propriety is averaged or almost14 invariant to the coordinate transformation.8.94) Where Pm is the mechanical pressure and is deﬁned as Pm = − τxx + τyy + τzz 3 (8.141.93) can be written as τxx = −Pm + 2 µ ∂Ux 2 + µ ∂x 3 ·U (8.96) Advance material can be skipped 14 It 15 G. In situations where the main diagonal terms of the stress tensor are not the same in all directions (in some viscous ﬂows) this property can be served as a measure of the local normal stress. Commonality engineers like to combined the two diﬀerence expressions into one as 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.89) and (8. Cambridge University Press.71). identical only in the limits not in mechanical measurements. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION Adding equations (8.90) results in 2 4 215 (3 − 1) τx’ x’ − τy’ y’ − τz’ z’ = (6 − 2) µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.91) transforms it into 3 τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ + 6 µ ∂Ux’ − 2µ ∂x’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ ∂Ux’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8.95) It can be observed that the non main (diagonal) terms of the stress tensor are represented by an equation like (8. Batchelor.91) rearranging equation (8.92) The further rearranging the results by dividing by 3 so that “mechanical pressure τx’ x’ = τx’ x’ + τy’ y’ + τz’ z’ ∂Ux’ 2 +2 µ − µ 3 ∂x’ 3 ∂Ux’ ∂Uy’ ∂Uz’ + + ∂x’ ∂y’ ∂z’ (8. .5. p. The mechanical pressure can be deﬁned as averaging of the normal stress acting on a inﬁnitesimal sphere. An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics. 1967. K.

The thermodynamic pressure always tends to follow the mechanical pressure during a change. it does not add any additional information.98) The value of λ is obtained experimentally. According to second law of thermodynamic derivations (not shown here and are under construction) demonstrate that λ must be positive. connection between τxy and the deformation was built.0 several people ask me to summarize conceptually the issues.61) the relationship between the stress tensor and the velocity were to be established. First. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.” Here the term bulk viscosity will be adapted. this association was established. This correction results in P = Pm + λ ·U (8.99) can be written in terms of the thermodynamic pressure P .97) End Advance material where δij is the Kronecker delta what is δij = 1 when i = j and δij = 0 otherwise.99) ·U (8. if the derivations before were to include additional terms. Using the coordinates transformation.216 or index notation 2 τij = − Pm + µ 3 CHAPTER 8. The dimension of the bulk viscosity.100) 16 Since the publishing the version 0. Equation (8. λ. To reduced one unknown (the shear stress) equation (8. are similar to the viscosity µ. Second Viscosity Coeﬃcient The coeﬃcient 2/3µ is experimental and relates to viscosity.9. an additional correction will be needed. This coeﬃcient is referred in the literature by several terms such as the “expansion viscosity” “second coeﬃcient of viscosity” and “bulk viscosity. The expansion rate of change and the ﬂuid molecular structure through λ control the diﬀerence. as τij = − P + 2 µ−λ 3 ·U δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8.3 . However.2. Then the association between normal stress and perpendicular stress was constructed. This expression suggests a new deﬁnition of the thermodynamical pressure is 2 P = Pm + µ 3 Summary of The Stress Tensor The above derivations were provided as a long mathematical explanation16 . While this expression has the advantage of compact writing. The linkage was established between the stress int he rotated coordinates to the deformation. With God help. it will be provide before version 0.

for the τxx it can be written that τxx = −P + 2 and the y coordinate the equaiton is τyy = −P + 2 however the mix stress. λ is large (3 times µ) but the net eﬀect is small because in that cases · U −→ 0. neglecting this eﬀect results in τij = −P δij + µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi (8. . can be over 100 times larger than µ. The physical meaning of · U represents the relative volume rate of change. Thus. this coeﬃcient or the whole eﬀect is vanished17 .102) For the total eﬀect. In material such as water.106) Por in index form as ρ D Ui ∂ =− Dt ∂xi P+ 2 µ−λ 3 ·U + ∂ ∂xj µ ∂Ui ∂Uj + ∂xj ∂xi + f Bi (8.100) into equation (8. is τxy = τyx = ∂Uy ∂Ux + ∂x ∂y (8. In most cases. DERIVATIONS OF THE MOMENTUM EQUATION 217 The signiﬁcance of the diﬀerence between the thermodynamic pressure and the mechanical pressure associated with ﬂuid dilation which connected by · U . Only in micro ﬂuids and small and molecular scale such as in shock waves this eﬀect has some signiﬁcance.105) or in a vector form as ρ U DU =− P + Dt 1 µ+λ 3 ( ·U) + µ 2 U +fB (8. λ. substitute equation (8.104) ∂Uy ∂y (8. For simple gas (dilute monatomic gases) it can be shown that λ vanishes. Clearly for incompressible ﬂow.101). the total eﬀect of the dilation on the ﬂow is very small. it can be written for spesiﬁc coordinates. In fact this eﬀect is so insigniﬁcant that there is diﬃculty in to construct experiments so this eﬀect can be measured.103) ∂Ux ∂x (8.107) 17 The reason that the eﬀect vanish is because · U = 0.8.5. For example. For complex liquids this coeﬃcient.61) which results in ρ DUx Dt =− ∂ P+ 2 3µ −λ ∂x ·U +µ ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux ∂ 2 Ux + + ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 f +f B x (8.101) To explain equation (8. τxy .

110) + ρgx in y coordinate is ρ ∂Uy + ∂t ∂Uy ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 2 ∂P ∂ v ∂ v ∂ v − +µ + 2 + 2 + ρgy 2 ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z Ux (8.106) reduced 2 U DU =− P + Dt U +fB (8. For this discussion the shear sensor will be separated into two categories. In situations where the scale is very small and the velocity is . These conditions can be categorized by the velocity. or in more general condition as shear stress conditions at the interface. This condition referred as the “no slip” condition. pressure.109) The momentum equation in Cartesian coordinate can be written explicitly as ρ ∂Ux + ∂t ∂Ux ∂Uy ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂P ∂ Ux ∂ Ux ∂ 2 Ux − +µ + + ∂x ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8.108) ∂P D Ui ∂ 2U =− +µ + f Bi Dt ∂xi ∂xi ∂xj (8. These conditions described physical situations that are believed or should exist or approximated conditions.6 Boundary Conditions and Driving Forces 8.112) + ρgz 8.111) in z coordinate is ρ ∂Uz + ∂t ∂Uz ∂Uz ∂Uz + Uy + Uz = ∂x ∂y ∂z 2 2 ∂ Uz ∂ Uz ∂ 2 Uz ∂P +µ + + − ∂z ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂z 2 Ux (8.1 Boundary Conditions Categories The governing equations that were developed earlier requires some boundary conditions and initial conditions.6. pressure (in the interface direction) and shear stress (perpendicular to the area). A common velocity condition is that the liquid has the same value as the solid interface velocity. The solid surface is rough thus the liquid participles (or molecules) are slowed to be at the solid surface velocity. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS · U vanishes thus Thus equation (8.218 For incompressible ﬂow the term to ρ or in the index notation ρ CHAPTER 8. This boundary condition was experimentally observed under many conditions yet it is not universal true.

it is more common to write this condition as a given velocity at a certain point U( ) = U (8.114) Note. For example. In this book. free surface in the two dimensional case is represented as f (t. this condition will not be discussed (at least not plane to be written). The slip condition is dealing with a diﬀerent velocity between the solid (or other material) the ﬂuid media.8. 1–Dimensional free surface describing n and t The (free) moving boundary can b. t) = 0 as the equation which describes the bounding surface. The perpendicular relative velocity at the surface must be zero and therefore f (x) y Df =0 Dt on the surface f = 0 (8. r be given as f (r . The free surface is a special case of moving surfaces where the surface between two distinct ﬂuids. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 219 relatively very small. While this condition (8. The diﬀerence between the small scale and the large scale is that the slip can be neglected in the large scale while the slip cannot be neglected in the small scale.113) is given in a vector form. -8.12.116) The solution of this condition sometime is extremely hard to handle because the location is not given but the derivative on unknown location.115) This condition is called the kinematic boundary condition. Another condition that aﬀects the slip condition is the transportability of the condition. The condition becomes as 0= ∂f ∂f ∂f + Ux + Uy ∂t ∂x ∂y (8.113) where n referred to the area direction (perpendicular to the area). x. the surt n face can be moving.6. y). the slip condition (as oppose to “no slip” condition) exist. The condition (8. the “no slip” condition is applicable to the ideal ﬂuid (“inviscid ﬂows”) because this kind of ﬂow normally deals with large scales.113) can be mathematiflow cally represented in another way for free surface conditions. In reality the interface between these two ﬂuids is not a sharp transition . Fig. As oppose to given velocity at particular point. Mathematically the “no slip” condition is written as U n · (U f luid − U boundary ) = 0 (8. For a ﬂow with a large time ﬂuctuation the slip condition cannot be ignored in same regions. To direction make sure that all the material is accounted in the control volume x (does not cross the free surface) the relative perpendicular velocb ity at the interface must be zero.

The condition with curved surface are out the scope of this book yet mathematically the condition is given as without explanation.118) (8. In other cases. there situations where the ﬂuid (above one of the sides) should be considered as weightless material. A jump in the shear stress creates inﬁnite force on the adjoin thin layer. One of results of the free surface condition (or in general.120) 18 There is no additional beneﬁt in this writing. In index notation equation (8. the moving surface condition) is that integration constant is unknown).12) and R1 and R2 are principal radii. and the density has a jump while the shear stress are continuous (in some case continuously approach zero value). This condition is expressed mathematically equating the shear stress diﬀerence to the forces results due the surface tension.119) t · τ (t) = −t · where n is the unit normal and t is a unit tangent to the surface (notice that direction pointed out of the “center” see Figure 8. this condition cannot be tolerated since inﬁnite velocity (acceleration) is impossible. The shear stress diﬀerence is ∆τ (n) = 0 = ∆τ (n) upper − ∆τ (n) lower surface surface (8. While a jump in density does not break any physical laws (at least those present in the solution).118) is written18 as 1 1 + R1 R2 τij nj + σ ni (1) = τij nj (2) (8. it just for completeness and can be ignored for most purposes. In same instances. . There situations were the transition should be analyzed as continuous transition between two phases.117) where the index (n) indicate that shear stress are normal (in the surface area).220 CHAPTER 8. this constant is determined from the volume conservation. the transition is idealized an almost jump (a few molecules thickness) Furthermore. In these cases the assumptions are that transition occurs in a sharp line. The jump in the density (between the two ﬂuids) creates a surface tension which oﬀset the jump in the shear stress. Oﬀ course. If the surface is straight there is no jump in the shear stress. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS but only approximation (see for surface theory). 1 1 + R1 R2 σ n · τ (n) = σ (8. The jump in shear stress can appear when the density has a jump in density. the jump in a shear stress (without a jump in density) does break a physical law.

The static pressure is measured perpendicular to the ﬂow ﬂow direction. In this category include the boundary conditions with issue of surface tension which were discussed earlier. The shear stress carry the material as if part of it was a solid Fig. 74 (1980). -8.8. Arch.122) The Pressure Condition The second condition that commonality prescribed at the interface is that the static pressure at speciﬁc value. Consider for example the case shown in Figure 8. Karosin lamp. Jean. shear stress (including the surface tension) and the pressure. in the kerosene lamp the burning occur at the surface of the lamp and the liquid is at the bottom. For example. The liquid does not move up due the gravity (actually it is against the gravity) but because the surface tension move the liquid up.13. The last condition is similar the pressure condition is of prescribed shear stress or some relationship to it. 1) 1 + (f (x)) (1.47). For example in one dimensional19 n= t= (−f (x).13. 3. Anal.121) 2 the unit vector is given as two vector in x and y and the radius is given by equation (1. The gravity is a common body force which is considered in many ﬂuid mechanics problems. M. Rational Mech. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS AND DRIVING FORCES 221 where 1 is the upper surface and 2 is the lower surface. pulling the side will pull all the material. f (x)) 1 + (f (x)) 2 (8. In ﬂuid (mostly liquid) shear stress pulling side (surface) will have limited eﬀect and but sometime is signiﬁcant and more rarely dominate. . Free surface of the steady ﬂow of a Newtonian ﬂuid in a ﬁnite channel. material. It can be noticed that the boundary conditions that involve the surface tension are of the kind that where the something is given on boundary but no at speciﬁc location. 19 A one example of a reference not in particularly important or signiﬁcant just a random example. The equation is given by ∂f ∂f + Ux = Uy ∂t ∂x (8. no. 197–217. Gravity as Driving Force The body forces in general and gravity as a particular body force driving the ﬂow beside the velocity.6. The gravity can be considered as a constant force in most case (see for dimensional analysis for the reasons). Shear Stress and Surface Tension as Driving Force If the ﬂuid was solid material.

14. this eﬀect is not discussed. However the diameter at the depent on the surface tension. For further enhance the understanding some of the derivations are repeated. The surface tension is a function of the temperature therefor the gradint in surface tension is restuls of temperature gradent. 20 The diﬀerence is measured at the bottom point of the plate. the velocity at the gradent surface of the inner rode is zero. } } } 8. The control volume shown in darker colors. The ﬂuid surrounds the rode temperature and ﬂows upwards. example dealing won one phase are present. Later. U which is deﬁned as positive when it move with the ﬂow. . the contribution due to the curvature is zero in the dirction of the ﬂow. In the case. The distance between the plates is . However. The boundary condition at outer surface given by a jump of the shear ∂U ∂σ constant = µ T ∂r ∂h stress. Example 8. the physical condition in Figure 8.13 can be used and idealized as a ﬂow around an inner rode. It can be notice that under the assumption here there are two principal radii. Even in that case. In this Fig. somewhere downstream the temperature graident is insifginiﬁcant. One radius toword the conter of the rode while the other is inﬁnite (approximated). Uℓ y flow direction dy x z Fig. the surface tension gradient remains.6: Incompressible liquid ﬂows between two inﬁnite plates from the left to the right (as shown in Figure 8. The velocity at U(ri) = 0 mix zone the outer surface is unknown. Schamatic of kerosene lamp.222 CHAPTER 8. examples with two phase are presented. First. In that case.7 Examples for Diﬀerential Equation (Navier-Stokes) Examples of an one-dimensional ﬂow driven by the shear stress and pressure are presented. Flow between two plates top moving at U to the right (as positive). The only (almost) propeling source of the ﬂow is the surface graident. book. The upper surface is moving in Velocity.15).15. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS To understand how to apply the surface tension boundary condition. -8. -8. The static pressure per length is given as ∆P 20 .

128) The assumptions is that there is no pressure diﬀerence in the z direction.124) Thus. Furthermore. the velocity in and out are the same (constant density).127) (8. the mass conservation yields =0 223 d dt ρdV = − cv cv ρ Urn dA = 0 (8.125) The shear stress on the lower surface based on Newtonian ﬂuid is τ xy = −µ dU dy (8. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Solution In this example.8.7. Further because no change of the thus ρ Ux Urn dA = 0 A (8.130) . The momentum conservation is − cv P dA + cv τ xy dA = 0 (8. the ﬂow in and the ﬂow out are equal.129) The momentum equation in the x direction then results (no gravity eﬀects) in − dP d2 U =µ 2 dx dy (8.123) The momentum is not accumulated (steady state and constant density). The only diﬀerence in the pressure is in the x direction and thus P− P+ dP dx dx =− dP dx dx (8.126) On the upper surface is diﬀerent by Taylor explanation as ∼ =0 dU d2 U d3 U 2 τ xy = µ + dy + dy + · · · dy 2 3 dy dy The net eﬀect of these two will be diﬀerence between them µ dU d2 U dU ∼ d2 U + dy − µ = µ 2 dy dy dy 2 dy dy (8.

75 green line to 3 the blue line. The boundaries conditions are 1.8 0.0 0.75 Ψ = 0.9 1.132) (8.224 CHAPTER 8. The problem is still one dimensional because the ﬂow velocity is a function 21 A discussion about the boundary will be presented.0 0. Equation (8.6 0.3 0.25 Ψ = 0.8 Ux Uℓ 0.75 Ψ = 1. However.tween -1. In that case.7 0. The “standard” boundary conditions is non–vanishing pressure gradient (that is the pressure exist) and velocity of the upper or lower surface or Fig.2 0.16.6 0.130) is Ux = − 1 dP 2 y + c2 y + c3 2 dx (8.1 0. dition21 .75 Ψ = 2. It is common to assume that the between two plates when Ψ change value be“no slip” condition on the boundaries con. .4 0. 2010 Ux (y = 0) = 0 Ux (y = ) = U The solution of the “ordinary” diﬀerential equation (8.130) was constructed under Velocity distributions in one dimensional ﬂow several assumptions which include the direction of the ﬂow. One dimensional ﬂow with a shear both.2 0.25 1.0 0. No assumption was imposed on the pressure distribution.25 Ψ = −0.131) Applying the boundary conditions results in =Ψ Ux (y) = y y y 2 dP 1− + U0 2µ dx For the case where the pressure gradient is zero the velocity is linear as was discussed earlier in Chapter 1.134) Cylindrical Coordinates Similarly the problem of one dimensional ﬂow can be constructed for cylindrical coordinates.130) is a partial diﬀerential equation but can be treated as ordinary diﬀerential equation in the z direction of the pressure diﬀerence is uniform. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Equation (8. Newtonian ﬂuid.4 0. the left hand side is equal to constant.75 Ψ = −1.25 Ψ = 1.0 y ℓ October 4.25 Ψ = 2.5 0.75 Ψ = −0. if the plates or the boundary conditions do not move the solution is Ux (y) = dP y 1− U0 2µ dx End Solution 2 + y (8. -8.2 Ψ = −1.133) (8.

7.8. -8. Hence.17. The shear stress on the circumferential part small dark blue shown in Figure 8. Fig. of (only) radius. The full analysis will be presented to review the the previous analysis of building the equation. Thus.137) Uz Urn dA = − z Uz+dz 2 dA Uz 2 dA =ρ z Uz+dz 2 − Uz 2 dA (8.139) . The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.17a is dUz τ dA = µ 2 π r dz dr The pressure integral is P dA = (Pzd z − Pz ) π r2 = The last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = ρ ρ z+dz 2 2 dA (8. The momentum equation for the control volume shown in the Figure 8.138) The term Uz+dz − Uz is zero because Uz+dz − Uz as can be shown by conservation of the mass for any element.136) Pz + ∂P dz − Pz ∂z π r2 = ∂P dz π r2 ∂z (8. This ﬂow referred as Poiseuille ﬂow after Jean Louis Poiseuille a French Physician who investigated ﬂow of blood in veins.135) The shear stress in the front and back surfaces do no act in the z direction. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) 225 r θ dz r θ dz r θ flow Directi o r z n r θ flow Directi on z dr Fig a. The analysis can be carried out by two diﬀerent approaches: one is a kind of short cut and one for the full analysis. the last term is ρ Uz Urn dA = 0 (8. The control volume of liquid element in “short cut” Fig b. The control volume of liquid element in cylindrical coordinates.17a is − P dA + τ dA = ρ Uz Urn dA (8. Poiseuille study ﬂow in a small diameters (he was not familiar with the concept of Reynolds numbers).

it has several shortcomes which include the ability to incorporate diﬀerent boundary conditions such as pipe within a pipe. However.141) results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 µ ∂z (8.142) Where R is the outer radius of pipe or cylinder. However. Integrating equation (8. The shear stress in the z direction can be on the control volume (again the front and the back do not contribute here) is expressed τ dA = µ dU dA dr (8.141) dUz ∂P & & 2&¡ & = − π r dz dz π 2 & &r £ dr ∂z (8. The governing equation can be constructed by this smaller control volume for various boundary condition.144) (8. The applicable equation is still (8. While the above analysis provides a solution.145) The trick in the construction of control volumes such as the above can shorten the solution of problems.226 CHAPTER 8.137) into equation (8.146) The shear stress can be expressed in a Taylor series as τ (z + dz) = µ 22 Asymmetrical dU dr + r d2 U dr2 dr + · · · r (8.141) is a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation for which only one boundary condition is needed.147) element or function is −f (x) = f (−x) .17a.143) It can be noticed that asymmetrical element22 was eliminated due to the smart short cut.135) results in µ Which shrinks to 2 µ dUz ∂P =− r dr ∂z (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Substituting equation (8.136) and (8. The integration constant obtained via the application of the boundary condition which is c1 = − The solution is Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r R 1− µ ∂z R 2 1 ∂P 2 R µ ∂z (8.140) Equation (8. this chapter deals with construction of diﬀerential analysis more general analysis is provided. The “no slip” condition is assumed Uz (r = R) = 0 (8. in this analysis the control volume that will be used is of Figure 8.135) since the condition did not change.

Example 8.7: .153) can be used to solve problem that are not symmetrical.151) d2 U ∂P 2 π r dz dr = − dz 2 π r dr dr2 dz (8.7. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) The net change in the shear stress is d2 U τ dA = µ 2 2 π r dz dr dr The pressure diﬀerence P dA = ∂P dz 2 π r dr dz dA A 227 (8. However. The boundary conditions “no slip” at the outer radius and symmetry at the center which are Uz (r = 0) = 0 dU dr (r = 0) = 0 (8. The same result is obtained.151) or its solution (8.7.151) is the governing equation only the z direction. the governing equation (8. The only diﬀerence is the boundary conditions for demonstration of this point see the following example 8.149) and equation (8. The double integration results in Uz = − 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 r + c2 2 µ dz (8.150) Equation (8.147) remembering that velocity is canceled into (8.151) can be integrated since the left right side is a function of r and right is a function of x.149) Substituting equation (8.135) results in µ Or µ d2 U ∂P =− dr2 dz (8.153) The symmetry requirement (derivative at r = 0 is equal zero force the coeﬃcient c1 to be zero.148) (8.152) Equation (8.8.

VII.a) once results in r ∂Uz 1 ∂P 2 = r + c1 ∂r 2 µ ∂z (8. It can be noticed that it this case the change with time is zero but also the there is no accelation (convective accelaration) is zero =f (t) =0 ∂U ∂Uz Uφ z ρ + Ur + ∂r r ∂t =0 Uz =f (φ) =0 ∂Uz ∂Uz +Uz =0 ∂φ ∂z ro flow Directi o ut r in z n (8. The situation is best sutable to solved in cylinderial coordinats. After the previous example. it is possible to satisfy the boundary conditions.a) required boundary conditions which are Uz (r = ri ) = Uz (r = ro ) = Integrating equation (8.154) The steady state governign equation is ρ ¡ =0=− 0 ∂P +µ ∂z 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂Uz ∂r =0 + ··· ρ gz + $$ (8. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS r θ θ r Fig.c) and second intergration results in ∂Uz 1 ∂P c1 = r+ ∂r 2 µ ∂z r (8. It turn out that the “simple” solution is the ﬂow ﬁrst mode that appear in reality.18.VII. However. In this solution will be discussing the ﬂow ﬁrst mode. Solution CHAPTER 8. That is.VII.228 A liquid with constant density is ﬂowing between two cylinders as shown in Figure 8. Build the velocity proﬁle when the ﬂow is one directional and viscosity is Newtonian. Calculate the ﬂow rate for a given pressure gradient. the velcoity isn’t a function of the angle.VII.7.VII.VII.c) 0 0 (8. or z coordinate. For this mode the ﬂow is assumed to be one diminstional.VII. -8. Assume that the velocity at the surface of the cylinders is zero calculate the velocity proﬁle. Thus only equation in z coordinate is needed.b) Dividing equation (8.a) The PDE above (8.18. One of the solution of this problems is one dimensional. the appropiate version of the Navier–Stokes equaiton will be used.d) . Flow of liquid between concentric cylinders for example 8. In fact there is no physical reason why the ﬂow should be only one dimensional.

f) with the scond boundary condition yields 0= The solution is c1 c2 = 1 ln 4µ 1 ln 4µ ro ri ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 dz (8.VII.VII.i) ro ri ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz ro Uz (r)dA (8.h) ∂P ln(ri ) ro 2 − ln(ro ) ri 2 dz 1 ∂P 2 ro + c1 ln ro + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.g) = The solution is then Uz (r) = 1 ∂P 2 1 r + ln 4 µ ∂z 4µ 1 + ln 4µ The ﬂow rate is then Q= ri End Solution ro ri ∂P ro 2 − ri 2 ln r dz (8.VII. EXAMPLES FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (NAVIER-STOKES) Integration of equation (8.d) resutls in Uz = 1 ∂P 2 r + c1 ln r + c2 4 µ ∂z 229 (8.VII.e) Appling the ﬁrst boundary condition results in 0= 1 ∂P 2 ri + c1 ln ri + c2 4 µ ∂z (8.VII.VII.7.j) .8.VII.

DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS .230 CHAPTER 8.

Calculations of many kinds of ﬂow deals with more than one phase or material ﬂow1 . In the past. 2 Or when the scientiﬁc principles simply dictate.there are two possibilities (1) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing in well homogeneous mixed (where the main problem 1 An example. the nature of multiphase ﬂow requires solving many equations. 231 . it is believed that the interactions/calculations requires a full year class and hence. In fact.CHAPTER 9 Multi–Phase Flow 9.D. the topic of multi–phase ﬂow is ignored in an introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics. his analysis is in the twilight zone not in the real world. This book attempts to describe these issues as a fundamentals of physical aspects and less as a literature review. books on multiphase ﬂow were written more as a literature review or heavy on the mathematics.1 Introduction Traditionally. The knowledge in this topic without any doubts. this class will be the only opportunity to be exposed to this topic. As result. who did not consider the ﬂow as two–phase ﬂow and ignoring the air. Thus. is required for many engineering problems. For simple models. For many engineers. Additionally.2 History The study of multi–phase ﬂow started for practical purposes after World War II. working for the government who analyzed ﬁling cavity with liquid metal (aluminum). only the trends and simple calculations are described. Here. 9. there is not a consensus to the exact map of many ﬂow regimes. This chapter provides information that is more or less in consensus2 . Initially the models were using simple assumptions. The author believes that the trends and eﬀects of multiphase ﬂow could and should be introduced and considered by engineers. in many books the representations is by writing the whole set governing equations. there was a Ph. It is recognized that multiphase ﬂow is still evolving.

Also the researchers looked at the situation when the diﬀerent regimes are applicable. This was suggested by Lockhart and Martinelli who use a model where the ﬂow of the two ﬂuids are independent of each other. this chapter will not provide a discussion of transient problems. Which leads to the concept of ﬂow regime maps. a description of what to expect in this chapter is provided. double choking phenomenon (hopefully). Taitle–Duckler’s map is not applicable for microgravity. Hence. and actual calculation of pressure of the diﬀerent regimes. This chapter will provide: a category of combination of phases. this chapter will explain the core concepts of the multiphase ﬂow and their relationship. If the pressure loss was linear then the total loss will be the summation of the two pressure losses (of the lighter liquid (gas) and the heavy liquid). This chapter will introduce these concepts so that the engineer not only be able to understand a conversation on multi-phase but also. However. For example. researchers started to look for diﬀerent ﬂow regimes and provided diﬀerent models. the concept of ﬂow regimes. However. It turned out this idea provides a good crude results in some cases. will know and understand the trends. It is an attempt to explain and convince all the readers that the multi–phase ﬂow must be included in introductory class on ﬂuid mechanics3 . (2) the ﬂuids/materials are ﬂowing separately where the actual total loss pressure can be correlated based on the separate pressure loss of each of the material. multi–phase ﬂow parameters deﬁnitions. Taitle and Duckler’s map is not universal and it is only applied to certain liquid–gas conditions. and calculation of pressure drop of simple homogeneous model. and importance to real world. MULTI–PHASE FLOW to ﬁnd the viscosity). and more importantly. Under this assumption the total is not linear and experimental correlation was made. Taitle and Duckler suggested a map based on ﬁve non-dimensional groups which are considered as the most useful today.232 CHAPTER 9.3 What to Expect From This Chapter As oppose to the tradition of the other chapters in this book and all other Potto project books. Researchers that followed Lockhart and Martinelli looked for a diﬀerent map for diﬀerent combination of phases. phase change or transfer processes during ﬂow. When it became apparent that speciﬁc models were needed for diﬀerent situations. partial discussion on speed of sound of diﬀerent regimes. They postulate that there is a relationship between the pressure loss of a single phase and combine phases pressure loss as a function of the pressure loss of the other phase. . 9. ﬂow parameters eﬀects on the ﬂow regimes. The ﬂow patterns or regimes were not considered.

it is assumed that air is made of only gases. While the diﬀerence of the concentration between the top to button is insigniﬁcant. KIND OF MULTI-PHASE FLOW Gas Liquid Liquid Solid Gas Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid 233 Gas Solid soid Liquid Solid Solid Soid Fig. The results of the calculations of a mixture do not change much if it is assumed that the air ﬂow as stratiﬁed ﬂow 4 of many concentration layers (thus.000 in about two and half years. In fact. Diﬀerent ﬁelds of multi phase ﬂow. It also provides an opportunity to bring the latest advances in the ﬁelds since this author does not need to “sell” the book to a publisher or convince a “committee.4. or a large acceleration. . many layers (inﬁnite) of diﬀerent materials).” 4 Diﬀerent concentration of oxygen as a function of the height. The discussion in the previous chapters is only as approximation when multiphase can be “reduced” into a single phase ﬂow.1. The creation 3 This author feels that he is in an unique position to inﬂuence many in the ﬁeld of ﬂuid mechanics. Practically for many cases. there are situations when air ﬂow has to be considered as multiphase ﬂow and this eﬀect has to be taken into account. this assumption will not be appropriate when the air is stratiﬁed because of large body forces.9.4 Kind of Multi-Phase Flow All the ﬂows are a form of multiphase ﬂow. Adopting this assumption might lead to a larger error. the homogeneous assumption is enough and suitable. -9. In our calculation. However. Hence. nonetheless it exists. 9. This fact is due to the shear number of the downloaded Potto books. For example. many proprieties of air are calculated as if the air is made of well mixed gases of Nitrogen and Oxygen. The number of the downloads of the book on Fundamental of compressible ﬂow has exceed more than 100. consider air ﬂow that was discussed and presented earlier as a single phase ﬂow. Air is not a pure material but a mixture of many gases.

March 29. There are many more categories. Jr. rain. For example. living bodies (bio–ﬂuids). Generally.5 Classiﬁcation of Liquid-Liquid Flow Regimes The general discussion on liquid–liquid will be provided and the gas–liquid ﬂow will be discussed as a special case. This category should include any distinction of phase/material. in nature can be blood ﬂow. for example. This ﬂow is used by engineers to reduce the cost of moving crude oil through a long pipes system.. plasma and river ﬂow with live creatures (small organisms to large ﬁsh) ﬂow of ice berg. When the . spray casting. and river ﬂow. it is more common to categorize the ﬂow by the distinct phases that ﬂow in the tube. solid propellant rocket. This notion eliminates many other ﬂow categories that can and should be included in multiphase ﬂow. Thus. In a four (4) miles long train. Gas–solid can be found in sand storms. there are situations where cleanness of the air can aﬀect the ﬂow. although important. The water ﬂow is the source of the friction. 360070 issued to George Westinghouse. The engineering accuracy is enough to totally ignore it. The liquid–solid. The body inhales solid particle with breathing air. For example. The multiphase can be found in nature. One way to categorize the multiphase is by the materials ﬂows.234 CHAPTER 9. Many industries are involved with this ﬂow category such as dust collection. hydraulic with two or more kind of liquids. The materials can ﬂow in the same direction and it is referred as co–current ﬂow. they can be solid–liquid. Many natural phenomenon are multiphase ﬂow. The same can be said for gas–gas ﬂow. The “average” viscosity is meaningless since in many cases the water follows around the oil. ﬂuidized bed. the cleanness of air can reduce the speed of sound. Many industrial process also include liquid-liquid such as painting. 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW of clean room is a proof that air contains small particles. paint spray. liquid–gas and solid–liquid–gas ﬂow. the density is a strong function of the temperature and pressure. solid–gas. In almost all situations. the ﬂow of oil and water in one pipe is a multiphase ﬂow. Since there are three phases. there are two possibilities for two diﬀerent materials to ﬂow (it is also correct for solid–liquid and any other combination). Flow of air is actually the ﬂow of several light liquids (gases). sand and grain (which are “solids”) ﬂow with rocks and is referred to solid–solid ﬂow. for an example. the breaks in long trains were activated by reduction of the compressed line (a patent no. This ﬂow also appears in any industrial process that are involved in solidiﬁcation (for example die casting) and in moving solid particles. In the past. and avalanches. Open Channel ﬂow is. mud ﬂow etc. Liquid–liquid ﬂow is probably the most common ﬂow in the nature. 1887). The multiphase is an important part of many processes. a 10% change of the speed of sound due to dust particles in air could reduce the stopping time by 2 seconds (50 meter diﬀerence in stopping) and can cause an accident. For the gas. is only an extreme case of liquid-gas ﬂow and is a sub category of the multiphase ﬂow. the breaks would started to work after about 20 seconds in the last wagon. and industries. The category of liquid–gas should be really viewed as the extreme case of liquid-liquid where the density ratio is extremely large. the cleanness of the air or the fact that air is a mixture is ignored. However. Yet.

the co-current is the more common. For example. the ﬂow is referred to as open channel ﬂow. The ﬂow regimes are referred to the arrangement of the ﬂuids. 5 top as depicted in Figure 9.2. the heavy liquid ﬂows on the Fig. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as horizontal ﬂow.1 Horizontal Flow The typical regimes for horizontal ﬂow are stratiﬁed ﬂow (open channel ﬂow.5. a reduction of the pressure by half will double the gas volumetric ﬂow rate while the change in the liquid is negligible. the counter–current ﬂow must have special conﬁgurations of long length of ﬂow. it is referred as counter–current. The main diﬀerence between the liquid–liquid ﬂow to gas-liquid ﬂow is that gas density is extremely lighter than the liquid density. the limits between the ﬂow regimes are considerably diﬀerent. up or down. There is no exact meaning to the word “near vertical” or “near horizontal” and there is no consensus on the limiting angles (not to mention to have limits as a function with any parameter that determine the limiting angle). When the ﬂow rate of the lighter liquid is almost zero. horizontal.5. It is common to diﬀerentiate between the vertical (and near vertical) and horizontal (and near horizontal).5. This deﬁnition (open channel ﬂow) continues for small amount of lighter liquid as long as the heavier ﬂow can be calculated as open channel ﬂow (ignoring the lighter liquid). The geometries (even the boundaries) of open channel ﬂow are very diverse. The channel ﬂow will be discussed in a greater detail in Open Channel Flow chapter. plug ﬂow. Yet. The ﬂow in inclined angle (that not covered by the word “near”) exhibits ﬂow regimes not much diﬀerent from the other two. water and air ﬂow as oppose to water and oil ﬂow. For example. Light Liquid and non open channel ﬂow). Generally. In general.1. 5 With the exception of the extremely smaller diameter where Rayleigh–Taylor instability is an important issue. two liquids can have three main categories: vertical. and annular ﬂow. The other characteristic that is diﬀerent between the gas ﬂow and the liquid ﬂow is the variation of the density. the ﬂow of gas–liquid can have several ﬂow regimes in one situation while the ﬂow of liquid–liquid will (probably) have only one ﬂow regime. Open channel ﬂow appears in many nature (river) as well in industrial process such as the die casting process where liquid metal is injected into a cylinder (tube) shape. This issue of incline ﬂow will not be covered in this chapter. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 235 materials ﬂow in the opposite direction. the counter–current ﬂow has a limited length window of possibility in a vertical ﬂow in conduits with the exception of magnetohydrodynamics. . Thus. -9. and what ever between them. Additionally. 9.2.1 Co–Current Flow In Co–Current ﬂow. Stratiﬁed ﬂow in horizontal tubes when bottom and lighter liquid ﬂows on the the liquids ﬂow is very slow. For low velocity (low ﬂow rate) of the two liquids. The vertical conﬁguration has two cases.9. 9. dispersed Heavy Liquid bubble ﬂow.

All liquids are compressible Heavy Liquid to some degree. For liquid which the density is a strong and primary function of the pressure.236 CHAPTER 9. liquid level is higher. Choking occurs in compressible Light Liquid ﬂow when the ﬂow rate is above a certain point. These plugs are separated by large “chunks” that almost ﬁll the entire tube. At this stage. choking occurs relatively Fig. MULTI–PHASE FLOW As the lighter liquid (or the gas phase) ﬂow rate increases (superﬁcial velocity). -9. The “average” viscosity depends on the ﬂow and thus making it as insigniﬁcant way to do the calculations. This kind of ﬂow regime is referred to as annular ﬂow. The conﬁguration of the cross section not only depend on the surface tension. Fig. In fact. all the two phase ﬂow are categorized by wavy ﬂow which will proven later.4). Kind of Stratiﬁed ﬂow in There are two paths that can occur on the heavier horizontal tubes. when the lighter liquid ﬂow increases. Thus. as a stratiﬁed ﬂow will turned into a slug ﬂow or stratiﬁed wavy7 ﬂow after a certain distance depends on the heavy ﬂow rate (if 6 The 7 Well. liquid ﬂow rate.3). Light Liquid Light Liquid Some referred to this regime as wavy stratiﬁed ﬂow Heavy Liquid Heavy Liquid but this deﬁnition is not accepted by all as a category by itself. then the wave cannot reach to the crown and the shape is deformed to the point that all the heavier liquid is around the periphery. the ﬂow that starts liquids ﬂow is faster. Plug ﬂow is characterized by regions of lighter liquid ﬁlled with drops of the heavier liquid with Plug (or Slug) of the heavier liquid (with bubble of the lighter liquid). the heavier liquid wave reaches to the crown of the pipe. If the heavier liquid ﬂow rate is larger6 than the distance. -9. If the heavier ﬂow rate is small.4. At some point. the possibility to go through slug ﬂow regime depends on if there is enough liquid ﬂow rate. The slug ﬂow cannot be assumed to be as homogeneous ﬂow nor it can exhibit some average viscosity. Plug ﬂow in horizontal tubes when the closer/sooner. and other physical properties of the ﬂuids but also on the material of the conduit. the friction between the phases increase. As the lighter liquid velocity increases two things can happen (1) wave size increase and (2) the shape of cross section continue to deform. The superﬁcial velocity is referred to as the velocity that any phase will have if the other phase was not exist.3. Thus. This friction is one of the cause for the instability which manifested itself as waves and changing the surface from straight line to a diﬀerent conﬁguration (see Figure 9. all the ﬂow is wavy. for the wave to reach the conduit crown is smaller. the ﬂow pattern is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow. The wave shape is created to keep the gas and the liquid velocity equal and at the same time to have shear stress to be balance by surface tension. Further increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate move the ﬂow regime into annular ﬂow. thus it is arbitrary deﬁnition. . The plugs are ﬂowing in a succession (see Figure 9. The pressure drop of this kind of regime is signiﬁcantly larger than the stratiﬁed ﬂow.

5. Hence. The choking can occur before the annular ﬂow regime is obtained depending on the velocity and compressibility of the lighter liquid. The buoyancy . the return path is not move the exact same way. liquid–liquid ﬂow has a maximum combined of the ﬂow rate (both phases). As in many ﬂuid mechanics and magnetic ﬁelds. This phenomenon is refer to as hysteresis. Flow that is under small angle from the horizontal will be similar to the horizontal ﬂow. Besides the length. The reverse way is referred to the process where the starting point is high ﬂow rate and the ﬂow rate is decreasing. There is even a possibility to return on diﬀerent ﬂow regime.1.g. with the gravity or against it. -9. in normal gravitation. as in compressible ﬂow. this map is only characteristics of the “normal” conditions. etc. The results of the above discussion are depicted in Figure 9. the “near” angle depends on the length of the pipe.” Dispersed Bubble Liquid Superficial Velocity Elongated Bubble Slug Flow Annular Flow Stratified Flow Wavy Stratified Open Channel Flow Gas Superficial Velocity Fig. the ﬂow become annular or the ﬂow will choke. As many things in multiphase. ﬂow that had slug ﬂow in its path can be returned as stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow. In engineering application.5.5. CLASSIFICATION OF LIQUID-LIQUID FLOW REGIMES 237 this category is accepted). There is a difference between ﬂowing with the gravity and ﬂowing against the gravity. This maximum is known as double choking phenomenon. However. Qualitatively.5.2 Vertical Flow The vertical ﬂow has two possibilities. there is no consensus how far is the “near” means. other parameters can aﬀect the “near. For example. e. 9. Modiﬁed Mandhane map for ﬂow regime in horizontal tubes. The angle decreases with the length of the pipe. After a certain distance. weak to strong surface tension eﬀects (air/water in “normal” gravity). the vertical ﬂow against the gravity is more common used.9.

is acting in two diﬀerent directions for these two ﬂow regimes. The increase of the lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the number of bubbles until some bubbles start to collide. see Figure 9.6. Gas and liquid in Flow in verstical tube against the gravity. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Bubble Flow Slug or Plug Flow Churn Flow Annular Flow Dispersed Flow Fig. the ﬂow starts as a bubble ﬂow. -9. The ﬂow is less stable as more turbulent ﬂow and several “super slug” or churn ﬂow appears in more chaotic way. they create a large bubble and the ﬂow is referred to as slug ﬂow or plug ﬂow (see Figure 9. Thus. Any further increase transforms the outer liquid layer into bubbles in the inner liquid. . The heavier liquid has to occupy almost the entire cross section before it can ﬂow because of the gravity forces. the lighter liquid has a buoyancy that acts as an “extra force” to move it faster and this eﬀect is opposite for the heavier liquid. it can be noted the diﬀerence in the mechanism that create annular ﬂow for vertical and horizontal ﬂow. the ﬂow cannot start as a stratiﬁed ﬂow. the diﬀerent mechanism in creating the plug ﬂow in horizontal ﬂow compared to the vertical ﬂow. For the ﬂow against gravity. Thus. the ﬂow regime is referred as elongated bubble ﬂow. Again. Flow of near vertical against the gravity in two–phase does not deviate from vertical. The opposite is for the ﬂow with gravity. Flow Against Gravity For vertical ﬂow against gravity. The choking can occur at any point depends on the ﬂuids and temperature and pressure. Notice. After additional increase of “super slug” .6. all these “elongated slug” unite to become an annular ﬂow. there are diﬀerent ﬂow regimes for these two situations.6).238 CHAPTER 9. Further increase of lighter liquid ﬂow rate will increase the slug size as more bubbles collide to create “super slug”. When many bubbles collide. The main reason that causes the diﬀerence is that the heavier liquid is more dominated by gravity (body forces) while the lighter liquid is dominated by the pressure driving forces.

After the ﬂow has settled. A dimensional vertical ﬂow map considered as the “open channel ﬂow” of under very low gravity against the gravity. Liquid Flow Rate 9. As the gas ﬂow increases. The initial part for this ﬂow is more signiﬁcant. -9. there is pulse ﬂow in which liquid is moving in frequent pulses. Since the heavy liquid can be supplied from the “wrong” point/side. all the gas phase change into tiny drops of liquid and this kind of regime referred to as mist ﬂow. In cases where the surface tension is very important. While this author is not aware of an actual model.Reynolds. the vertical conﬁguration.7). The ﬂow starts as disTrickling persed bubble (some call it as “gas conFlow Spray or tinuous”) because the gas phase occupies Mist Flow most of column. the ﬂow continues in a stratiﬁed conﬁguration. the points where these transitions occur are diﬀerent from the horizontal ﬂow.9. and Weber numbers. At a higher rate of liquid ﬂow and a low ﬂow rate of gas. it is presented in a dimension form to explain the trends (see Figure 9. the initial part has a larger section compared to the ﬂow against the gravity ﬂow. When the ﬂow rate of the gas increases further. the liquid becomes more turbulent and some parts enter into the gas phase as drops. The transitions between the ﬂow regimes is similar to stratiﬁed ﬂow. both will be united in this discussion. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 9.7 presented in dimensionless coordinates.1.5. it must be possible to construct a model that connects this conﬁguration with the stratiﬁed ﬂow where the transitions will be dependent on the angle of inclinations. The liquid ﬂows through Gas Flow Rage a trickle or channeled ﬂow that only partially wets part of the tube. Figure 9. In the literature. However. this ﬂow can starts with stratiﬁed ﬂow. However. The abscissa is a function of combination of Froude . the regime liquid ﬁlls the entire void and the gas is in small bubble and this ﬂow referred to as bubbly ﬂow. The common map is based on dimensionless parameters.6 Multi–Phase Flow Variables Deﬁnitions Since the gas–liquid system is a speciﬁc case of the liquid–liquid system. out in space between gas and liquid (large density diﬀerence) the situaPulsing & Bubbling tion is diﬀerent. Here. The liquid–liquid (also . for the convenience of the terms “gas and liquid” will be used to signify the lighter and heavier liquid. A good example for this ﬂow regime is a water fall.7.6. The ordinate is a combination of ﬂow rate ratio and density ratio. Flow With The Gravity As opposed to the ﬂow against gravity. respectively.3 Vertical Flow Under Micro Gravity 239 The above discussion mostly explained the Dispersed Dispersed ﬂow in a vertical conﬁguration when the Bubble Bubble surface tension can be neglected. The interaction between the phases is minimal and can be Fig. Pulsing For example. In the medium range of the ﬂow rate of gas and liquid.

The volumetric ﬂow rate is not constant (since the density is not constant) along the ﬂow rate and it is deﬁned as QG = and for the liquid QL = GL ρL (9. some variables are deﬁned so that the ﬂow can be described as a one-dimensional ﬂow.4) mL ˙ A (9.6) GG = UsG ρG (9. 9. the volumetric ﬂow rate can be considered as constant. MULTI–PHASE FLOW gas–liquid) ﬂow is an extremely complex three–dimensional transient problem since the ﬂow conditions in a pipe may vary along its length. It has to be noted that this mass velocity does not exist in reality. This method is the most common and important to analyze two-phase ﬂow pressure drop and other parameters.6.240 CHAPTER 9. The total volumetric volume vary along the tube length and is Q = QL + QG (9. and with time.2) Where A is the entire area of the tube. The gas mass velocity is GG = mG ˙ A (9.3) It has to be emphasized that this mass velocity is the actual velocity.1 Multi–Phase Averaged Variables Deﬁnitions The total mass ﬂow rate through the tube is the sum of the mass ﬂow rates of the two phases m = mG + mL ˙ ˙ ˙ (9. over its cross section.5) For liquid with very high bulk modulus (almost constant density). The liquid mass velocity is GL = The mass ﬂow of the tube is then G= m ˙ A (9. To simplify the descriptions of the problem and yet to retain the important features of the ﬂow.1) It is common to deﬁne the mass velocity instead of the regular velocity because the “regular” velocity changes along the length of the pipe.7) . the only serious missing point in this discussion is the change of the ﬂow along the distance of the tube. Perhaps.

The gas superﬁcial velocity is therefore deﬁned as UsG = The liquid superﬁcial velocity is UsL = GL (1 − X) m ˙ = = QL ρL ρL A (9. Thus. It can be noticed that Um is not constant along the tube. MULTI–PHASE FLOW VARIABLES DEFINITIONS 241 Ratio of the gas ﬂow rate to the total ﬂow rate is called the ’quality’ or the “dryness fraction” and is given by X= GG mG ˙ = m ˙ G (9. The liquid fraction or liquid holdup is LH = 1 − α = AL A (9.14) Slip ratio is usually greater than unity. the value of (1 − X) is referred to as the “wetness fraction.9) This fraction is vary along tube length since the gas density is not constant along the tube length.10) It must be noted that Liquid holdup.8) In a similar fashion. . The average superﬁcial velocity of the gas and liquid are diﬀerent. The ratio of the gas ﬂow cross sectional area to the total cross sectional area is referred as the void fraction and deﬁned as α= AG A (9. a superﬁcial velocity is commonly deﬁned in which if only one phase is using the entire tube. it can be noted that the slip velocity is not constant along the tube.” The last two factions remain constant along the tube length as long the gas and liquid masses remain constant.9. LH is not constant for the same reasons the void fraction is not constant. the ratio of these velocities is referred to as the slip velocity and is deﬁned as the following SLP = UG UL (9. Also.6.12) GG Xm ˙ = = QG ρG ρG A (9. Thus.13) Where Um is the averaged velocity.11) Since UsL = QL and similarly for the gas then Um = UsG + UsL (9. The actual velocities depend on the other phase since the actual cross section the phase ﬂows is dependent on the other phase.

Substituting equations (9.20) becomes X= ρG α ρL (1 − α) + ρG α (9.17) can be simpliﬁed by canceling the m and noticing the (1−X)+X = 1 ˙ to become + (1−X) ρL The average speciﬁc volume of the ﬂow is then X ρG ρaverage = 1 (9.20) mG + mL ˙ ˙ ρL UL A(1 − α) +ρG UG A α ρL UL (1 − α) + ρG UG α AL If the slip is one SLP = 1.19) The relationship between X and α is AG X= mG ˙ ρG UG A α ρG UG α = = (9.17) Equation (9.21) .7) into equation (9.242 CHAPTER 9. thus equation (9.18) vaverage = 1 ρaverage = X (1 − X) + = X vG + (1 − X) vL ρG ρL (9.15) This density represents the density taken at the “frozen” cross section (assume the volume is the cross section times inﬁnitesimal thickness of dx). MULTI–PHASE FLOW For the same velocity of phases (SLP = 1).16) Where Q is the volumetric ﬂow rate. for the ﬂowing material it is ρ= m ˙ Q (9. The density of any material is deﬁned as ρ = m/V and thus.16) results in mG ˙ mL ˙ ρaverage = ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ ˙ X m + (1 − X) m ˙ = ˙ X m (1 − X) m ˙ QG + QL + ρG ρL QG QL (9. the mixture density is deﬁned as ρm = α ρG + (1 − α) ρL (9.1) and (9. The average density of the material ﬂowing in the tube can be evaluated by looking at the deﬁnition of density.

7. and the ﬂow is continuous only in many chunks (small segments). the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes are examples of typical conﬁguration of segments of continuous ﬂow. it was assumed that the ﬂow is continuous. Initially.23) Example 9.9. Thus.7 Homogeneous Models Before discussing the homogeneous models. The single phase was studied earlier in this book and there is a considerable amount of information about it. Furthermore.26) .22) It can be noted that the continuity equation is satisﬁed as m = ρm Um A ˙ (9. this assumption has to be broken.24) or modifying equation (9. these segments are not deﬁned but results of the conditions imposed on the ﬂow. Now.25) The energy equation can be approximated as dw d dq − =m ˙ dx dx dx hm + Um 2 + g x sin θ 2 (9. For the construction of ﬂuid basic equations.24) as − dP S m dUm ˙ = − τw − + ρm g sin θ dx A A dx (9.13)) is Um = QL + QG = UsL + UsG = Um A (9.23) is correct? Solution Under construction End Solution The governing momentum equation can be approximated as m ˙ dUm dP = −A − S τw − A ρm g sin θ dx dx (9. The average velocity (see also equation (9. it is worthwhile to appreciate the complexity of the ﬂow. In fact. it was assumed that the diﬀerent ﬂow regimes can be neglected at least for the pressure loss (not correct for the heat transfer). HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 243 9. the simplest is to used it for approximation.1: Under what conditions equation (9.

1 Friction Pressure Loss The frictional pressure loss for a conduit can be calculated as − dP dx = f S τw A (9. the gravitation pressure loss reduce the pressure and thus the density must change and hence. the pressure loss is aﬀected by friction loss. this dependency can be neglected. . In fact.29) The wall shear stress can be estimated by τw = f ρm Um 2 2 (9. Yet. the total pressure loss can be written as f riction acceleration gravity dP dP dP dP + + = (9. and body force(gravitation). from equation (9.25). the experimental data that was developed and measured for single ﬂow is used. In that case. acceleration.244 CHAPTER 9. acceleration must occur. The friction factor is obtained by using the correlation f =C ρm Um D µm −n (9. For laminar ﬂow C = 16 and n = 1. this friction factor was not measured for the “averaged” viscosity of the two phase ﬂow.7.25. For turbulent ﬂow C = 0. for small distances (dx) and some situations. 9.31) Where C and n are constants which depend on the ﬂow regimes (turbulent or laminar ﬂow). since there isn’t anything better. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 9.1.27) dx dx f dx a dx g Every part of the total pressure loss will be discussed in the following section. For calculating the frictional pressure loss in the pipe is − dP dx = f 4 τw D (9.28) Where S is the perimeter of the ﬂuid. However. There is not available experimental data for the relationship of the averaged velocity of the two (or more) phases and wall shear stress.7.1 Pressure Loss Components In a tube ﬂowing upward in incline angle θ.079 and n = 0. These losses are non-linear and depend on each other.30) The friction factor is measured for a single phase ﬂow where the average velocity is directly related to the wall shear stress. For example.

the friction loss can be estimated.37) a There are several special cases.36) becomes pressure loss due to pressure loss due to density change area change 2 =m ˙ 1 1 d 1 dA + 2 dx A dx ρm ρm A − dP dx (9.32) Duckler linear formula does not provide always good approximation and Cichilli suggest similar to equation (9.7. HOMOGENEOUS MODELS 245 There are several suggestions for the average viscosity. the private case is where densities are constant for both phases. dX/ dx = 0.35) The acceleration pressure loss (can be positive or negative) results from change of density and the change of cross section.35) can be written as − dP dx =m ˙ a d dx m ˙ A ρm (9.33) Or simply make the average viscosity depends on the mass fraction as µm = X µG + (1 − X) µL Using this formula. 9.36) Or in an explicit way equation (9.7. .34) The acceleration pressure loss can be estimated by − dP dx =m ˙ a dUm dx (9.9. In second case is where the mass ﬂow rates of gas and liquid is constant in which the derivative of X is zero. The third special case is for constant density of one phase only. Duckler suggest the following µm = µG QG µL QL + QG + QL QG + QL (9. The ﬁrst case where the cross section is constant. dA/ dx = 0.2 Acceleration Pressure Loss (9. For the last point. Equation (9.1.18) average viscosity as µaverage = 1 X µG (1−X) µL + (9. dρL / dx = 0. For example.

φG = dP dx dP dx (9.7. Equivalent deﬁnition for the liquid side is φL = dP dx dP dx (9. The density in equation (9. Lockhart and Martinelli built model based on the assumption that the separated pressure loss are independent from each other.42) SL f TP Where the SL denotes the pressure loss for the single liquid phase.4 Total Pressure Loss The total pressure between two points. Taitle .1.38) The density change during the ﬂow can be represented as a function of density.246 9.40) 9.3 Gravity Pressure Loss CHAPTER 9. (a and b) can be calculated with integration as b ∆Pab = a dP dx dx (9. 9. private communication with Y. Thus.2 Lockhart Martinelli Model The second method is by assumption that every phase ﬂow separately One such popular model by Lockhart and Martinelli8 .7.. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Gravity was discussed in Chapter 4 and is dP dx = g ρm sin θ g (9. 8 This method was considered a military secret.38) is the density without the “movement” (the “static” density). there are two parameters as shown below.7.1.41) SG f TP Where the T P denotes the two phases and SG denotes the pressure loss for the single gas phase.39) and therefore f riction acceleration gravity ∆Pab = ∆Pab f + ∆Pab a + ∆Pab g (9. Lockhart Martinelli parameters are deﬁned as the ratio of the pressure loss of two phases and pressure of a single phase.

8. the pressure loss is dP dx = G 2 fG UG 2 ρl DG (9.43) SG f SL where Ξ is Martinelli parameter. Thus. In solid–liquid. dP dx = SG dP dx (9. 2. 3. The word “solid” is not really mean solid but a combination of many solid particles. it is assumed that the surface tension is insigniﬁcant compared to the gravity forces. The ﬂow with the gravity and lighter density solid particles. analysis of small coal particles in water is diﬀerent from large coal particles in water. etc).46) Simpliﬁed model is when there is no interaction between the two phases. For example. 9. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 247 The ratio of the pressure loss for a single liquid phase and the pressure loss for a single gas phase is Ξ= dP dx dP dx (9.45) For the gas phase.” Therefor. The uniformity is categorizing the particle sizes.there will be a discussion about diﬀerent particle size and diﬀerent geometry (round. Consider the case where the solid is heavier than the liquid phase. the eﬀect of the surface tension are very minimal and can be ignored. It is also assumed that the “liquids” density does not change signiﬁcantly and it is far from the choking point. The ﬂow against the gravity and lighter density solid particles. The ﬂow with the gravity and heavier density solid particles. and geometry. The density of the solid can be above or below the liquid. distribution. Diﬀerent combination of solid particle creates diﬀerent “liquid. cubic. . In that case there are four possibilities for vertical ﬂow: 1.8 Solid–Liquid Flow Solid–liquid system is simpler to analyze than the liquid-liquid system.44) SL The pressure loss for the liquid phase is dP dx = L 2 fL UL 2 ρl DL (9. To insert the Diagram. It is assumed that the pressure loss for both phases are equal.9. in this discussion.

The drag coeﬃcient. When the liquid velocity is very small. All these possibilities are diﬀerent. The Reynolds number deﬁned as Re = UL D ρL µL (9.48) Inserting equating (9. the Newton’s Law region. MULTI–PHASE FLOW 4. there are two sets of similar characteristics.50) For larger Reynolds numbers.51) 24 Re (9. CD ∞ is complicated function of the Reynolds number. The ﬁrst regime is for Re < 1 where Stokes’ Law can be approximated as CD ∞ = In transitional region 1 < Re < 1000 CD ∞ = 24 Re 1+ 1 Re2/3 6 (9.1 Solid Particles with Heavier Density ρS > ρL Solid–liquid ﬂow has several combination ﬂow regimes.248 CHAPTER 9. However.47) become CD ∞ (UL ) f (Re) UL 2 = 4 D g (ρS − ρL ) 3 ρL (9.44 (9.52) . 1 and 4 and the second set is 2 and 3. The discussion here is about the last case (4) because very little is known about the other cases. possibility. However.47) Where CD ∞ is the drag coeﬃcient and is a function of Reynolds number. 9. Re.49) relates the liquid velocity that needed to maintain the particle “ﬂoating” to the liquid and particles properties. the liquid cannot carry the solid particles because there is not enough resistance to lift up the solid particles. The ﬁrst set is similar because the solid particles are moving faster than the liquid velocity and vice versa for the second set (slower than the liquid).8. and D is the equivalent radius of the particles. The ﬂow against the gravity and heavier density solid particles. is nearly constant as CD ∞ = 0.49) Equation (9.48) into equation (9. CD ∞ . The force balance of spherical particle in ﬁeld viscous ﬂuid (creeping ﬂow) is gravity and buoyancy forces π D g (ρS − ρL ) 6 3 drag forces = CD ∞ π D2 ρL UL 2 8 (9. A particle in a middle of the vertical liquid ﬂow experience several forces. it can be approximated for several regimes.

Minimum velocity is the velocity when the particle is “ﬂoating”. the Reynolds number is in the second range9 . Yet.9). then the actual velocity that every particle experience depends on the void fraction. The simplest assumption that the change of the cross section of the ﬂuid create a parameter that multiply the single particle as CD ∞ |α = CD ∞ f (α) (9.8. It has to remember that not all the particle are uniform in size or shape. -9. further increase will create a slug ﬂow. In very large range (especially for gas) the choking might be approached. In that case. When the velocity of liquid is higher than the minimum velocity many particles will be ﬂoating. the only velocity that can be applied is Trasiton the ﬂuid velocity. For the ﬁrst region. So far the discussion was about single particle.53) When the subscript α is indicating the void.9. the sparse solid particles are dispersed all over. the minimum velocity is a range of velocity rather than a sharp transition point. additional increase create “tunnels” of empty almost from solid particles. Additional increase of the ﬂuid velocity will move all the particles and this Fig. the velocity is small to lift the particle unless the density diﬀerence is very small (that very small force can lift the particles). For the case of gas. 9 It be wonderful if ﬂow was in the last range? The critical velocity could be found immediately. Additional increase in the ﬂuid velocity causes large turbulence and the ordinary domes are replaced by churn type ﬂow or large bubbles that are almost empty of the solid particles. SOLID–LIQUID FLOW 249 In most cases of solid-liquid system. For small gas/liquid velocity. When the velocity is lower. the solid particles Packed can be supplied at diﬀerent rate. Thus. The terminal velocity that left the solid is referred to as fully ﬂuidized bed. particles flow the particles are what some call ﬁxed ﬂuidized bed. US|avarge . the particle will drift with the liquid. in many cases the middle region is applicable. the function f (α) is not a linear function. If the velocity is larger. This regimes is referred to as Pneumatic conveying (see Figure 9. Consequently. partialy Fully the discussion will be focus on the ﬂuid solid fluidized velocity. Thus. Further increase of the ﬂuid ﬂow increases the empty spots to the whole ﬂow. As the solid particles are not pushed by a pump but moved by the forces the ﬂuid applies to them. This slug ﬂow is when slug shape (domes) are almost empty of the solid particle.8. the case of liquid. the particle will sink into the liquid. Thus. Increasing the ﬂuid velocity beyond a minimum will move the parti∆Ptube cles and it is referred to as mix ﬂuidized bed. For particles. When there are more than one particle in the cross section. In the literature there are many functions for various conditions.

9. In the gas phase. the length of conduit is very limited. Thus. Furthermore. the ﬂuid density can be higher than the solid (especially with micro gravity). There was very little investigations and known about the solid–liquid ﬂowing down (with the gravity). this limitation does not (eﬀectively) exist for most cases of solid–liquid ﬂow.250 CHAPTER 9. the speed of sound is reduced dramatically with increase of the solid particles concentration (further reading Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” chapter on Fanno Flow by this author is recommended). there is very little knowledge about the solid–liquid when the solid density is smaller than the liquid density. the velocity √ of gas is limited when reaching the Mach somewhere between 1/ k and 1 since the gas will be choked (neglecting the double choking phenomenon). MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fixed Bed Mixed Bed Slug or Plug Flow Turbulent Regimes Fast Fluidization Pneumatic Conveying Fig. The ﬂow is fully ﬂuidized for any liquid ﬂow rate. several conclusions and/or expectations can be drawn. The ﬂow patterns in solid-liquid ﬂow. it must be pointed out that even in solid–gas. Hence. The forces that act on the spherical particle are the buoyancy force and drag force. Hence. 9. One of the main diﬀerence between the liquid and gas ﬂow in this category is the speed of sound. There is no known ﬂow map for this kind of ﬂow that this author is aware of. The issue of minimum terminal velocity is not exist and therefor there is no ﬁxed or mixed ﬂuidized bed. The speed of sound of the liquid does not change much. The ﬂow can have slug ﬂow but more likely will be in fast Fluidization regime. Nevertheless. -9.2 Solid With Lighter Density ρS < ρ and With Gravity This situation is minimal and very few cases exist. The buoyancy is accelerating the particle .8. However.

Counter–ﬂow in vertical tubes map. the liquid will ﬂow in pulse regime. The solid–liquid horizontal ﬂow has some similarity to horizontal gas–liquid ﬂow. Liquid Body Foreces . for Pulse Flow Inpossible long tubes. the heavy phase (liquid) is pushed by the gravity and lighter phase (gas) is driven by the pressure diﬀerence. when cavity is ﬁlled or emptied with a liquid. physical properties) positive while the pressure diﬀerence in the other phase can be negative. The ﬂow regimes will be similar but the transition will be in diﬀerent points. the counter–current ﬂow can have opposite pressure gradient for short conduit. In short tube. The counter-current ﬂow occurs. opening a can of milk or juice.54) 6 8 From equation 9. for large velocity of the ﬂuid it can be observed that UL /US → 1. This kind of ﬂow is probably the most common to be realized by the masses. be ﬁnite. The aﬀective body force “seems” by the particles can be in some cases larger than the gravity. the ﬂow will be in a pulse regime. Hence. the pressure diﬀerence and Open Channel gravity (body forces) dominates the ﬂow.9.9. Otherwise. For example. Thus. However. Initially the solid particles will be carried by the liquid to the top. The two phase regimes “occurs” mainly in entrance to the cavity. For example. Flow The inertia components of the ﬂow. cannot compensate for the Flow pressure gradient. Most people know that two holes are needed to empty the can easily and continuously. Further increase of the liquid velocity appear as somewhat similar to slug ﬂow.54. Typically if only one hole is opened on the top of the can. When the liquid velocity increase and became turbulent. the or Dripping Flow pressure diﬀerence in one phase can be f (D/L. But in most cases. Annular Extented Flow In that case. However. UL /US → 0. -9. it can observed that increase of the liquid velocity will increase the solid particle velocity at the same amount. the possibility to have counter–current ﬂow is limited to having short length of tubes. this author have not seen any evidence that show the annular ﬂow does not appear in solid–liquid ﬂow. The pressure diﬀerence in the interface must Fig. for example. In most cases. 9.10. In only certain conﬁgurations of the inﬁnite long pipes the counter–current ﬂow can exist. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW and drag force are reducing the speed as 2 251 π D3 g(ρS − ρL ) CD ∞ π D2 ρL (US − UL ) = (9. for a small ﬂuid velocity the velocity ratio is very large. some of the particles enter into the liquid core.9 Counter–Current Flow This discussion will be only on liquid–liquid systems (which also includes liquid-gas systems).

Even though the solid–gas ratio is smaller. The ﬁrst ﬂow pattern is pulse ﬂow regime. the pressure in the can increase. -9. Figure 9. This is opposed to counter–current solid–gas ﬂow when almost no pulse was observed.). 10 Caution! this statement should be considered as “so far found”. the phases ﬂow turns into diﬀerent direction (see Figure 9.11 depicts emptying of can ﬁlled with liquid. The name pulse ﬂow is used to signify that the ﬂow is ﬂowing in pulses that occurs in a certain frequency.12. -9. The container is made of two compartments. the liquid will stay in the cavity (neglecting other phenomena such as dripping ﬂow. There must be other ﬂow regimes that were not observed or deﬁned. water solution. Then the pressure in the can is reduced compared to the outside and some lighter liquid (gas)entered into the can. If there are two holes. or small wood particles) by rotating the container. elongated pulse ﬂow was observed but measured. Initially. There are more things to be examined and to be studied. liquid ﬂows through one hole and the air through the second hole and the ﬂow will be continuous.11. Fig. the heavy liquid is leaving the can. There are three ﬂow regimes10 that have been observed. The upper compartment is ﬁlled with the heavy phase (liquid. due to the gravity. In this ﬂow regime. it can be noticed that the solid–gas is faster than the liquid–gas ﬂow. This ﬁeld hasn’t been well explored.12). . Counter–current ﬂow in a can (the left ﬁgure) has only one hole thus pulse ﬂow and a ﬂow with two holes (right picture). Then. Picture of Counter-current ﬂow in liquid–gas and solid–gas conﬁgurations. For example. The air is “attempting” to enter the cavity to ﬁll the vacuum created thus forcing pulse ﬂow. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Fig. in some cases. It also can be noticed that if there is one hole (oriﬁce) and a long and narrow tube.252 CHAPTER 9.

As opposed to the co–current ﬂow. A heavier liquid layer can ﬂow above a lighter liquid.7). However. if the can was on the sun (ignoring the heat transfer issue). there are someFlow one who claims that heavy liquid will be inside).7) page 112) it can be considered stable for small diameters. The heavy liquid will ﬂow with the body forces (gravity).9. Flood in vertical pipe. At this point. the counter–current ﬂow has no possibility for these two cases. Annular Flow in Counter–current ﬂow The other ﬂow regime is annular ﬂow in which the heavier phase is on the periphery of Water the conduit (In the literature. The analysis is provided.1 Horizontal Counter–Current Flow Up to this point. Thus it should be considered as non existent ﬂow. no counter–current ﬂow possible. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 253 and some heavy liquid will starts to ﬂow. no counter–current ﬂow is possible. the pulsing ﬂow will start and larger diameter will increase the ﬂow and turn the ﬂow into annular ﬂow. The cycle duration can be replaced by frequency. there is an additional ﬂow regime which is stratiﬁed . ﬂow with gravity or against it. Example of such ﬂow in the nature is water falls in which water ﬂows down and air (wind) ﬂows up. The driving force is the second parameter which eﬀects the ﬂow existence. . Further increase of the body force will move the ﬂow to be in the extended “open channel ﬂow.13. 9. the volume ﬂow rate of the two phase is almost equal. Probably. The analysis of the frequency is much more complex issue and will not be dealt here. When the driving (body) force is very small. Horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent from vertical ﬂow from the stability issues. In very small Steam Flow diameters of tubes the counter–current ﬂow is not possible because of the surface tension (see section 4. the discussion was focused on the vertical tubes. the ﬂow regime in the can moves from pulse to annular ﬂow. Extended open channel ﬂow retains the characteristic of open channel that the lighter liquid (almost) does not eﬀect the heavier liquid ﬂow. In many situations. The ratio of the diameter to the Fig. -9. one or more of the assumptions that the analysis based is erroneous). A ﬂow in a very narrow tube with heavy ﬂuid above the lighter ﬂuid should be considered as a separate issue. This situation is unstable for large diameter but as in static (see section (4. Additional increase of the diameter will change the ﬂow regime into extended open channel ﬂow. but somehow it contradicts with the experimental evidence. This process continue until almost the liquid is evacuated (some liquid stay due the surface tension). Consider the can in zero gravity ﬁeld.9.9. The duration the cycle depends on several factors. In horizontal tubes. length with some combinations of the physical properties (surface tension etc) determines the point where the counter ﬂow can start.” In the vertical co–current ﬂow there are two possibilities.

Thus. mass transfer.9. In some situations. The ﬂow will change to pulse ﬂow when the heavy liquid ﬂow rate increases. the ﬁre could melt or damage the boiler.14. A diagram to explain the As it will be shown later. etc11 .254 CHAPTER 9. The ﬂow map of the horizontal ﬂow is diﬀerent f (D/L. The steam will ﬂow in the opposite direction.14. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Single phase Flow or Dripping Flow When the ﬂow rate of both ﬂuids is very small. Thus. . The liquid velocity at very low gas velocity is constant but not uniform. Fig. wavy interface. The model can be improved by considering turbulence.Fig.13. However. A ﬂow in an angle of inclination is closer to verti. the ﬂow will be stratiﬁed counter–current ﬂow. horizontal counter–current ﬂow. coexist. the ﬁre can be too large or/and the water supply failed below a critical value the water turn into steam. -9. The stratiﬁed counter ﬂow has a lower pressure loss (for the liquid side). The liquid ﬂow rate. Additionally. A simpliﬁed model for this situation is for a two dimensional conﬁguration where the liquid is D ﬂowing down and the gas is ﬂowing up as shown h in Figure 9. Liquid Flow Rate Pulse Flow Straitified Flow 9. QL . -9. The change to pulse ﬂow increases the pressure loss dramatically. Further increase of the ﬂow will result in a single phase ﬂow regime. the pressure diﬀerence in the (x direction) is known and equal to zero. Further increase of the gas velocity will reduce the average liquid velocity. 11 The circular conﬁguration is under construction and will be appeared as a separated article momentarily. closing the window of this kind of ﬂow. When there is no water (in liquid phase). that is stratiﬁed ﬂow are discussed here.2 Flooding and Reversal Flow The limits of one kind the counter–current ﬂow regimes.15. Additional increase of the gas velocity will bring it to a point where the liquid will ﬂow in a reverse direction and/or disappear (dried out). this increase terminates the two phase ﬂow possibility. both conditions cannot ﬂood in a two dimension geometry. is unknown. It is assumed that both ﬂuids are W ξ x y ﬂowing in a laminar regime and steady state. To analyze this situation consider a two dimensional conduit with a liquid inserted in the left side as depicted in Figure 9. A ﬂow map to explain the cal ﬂow unless the angle of inclination is very small. physical properties) from the vertical ﬂow and is shown in Figure 9. This problem appears in nuclear engineering (or boiler engineering) where there is a need to make sure that liquid (water) inserted into the pipe reaching the heating zone. it is assumed that the entrance eﬀects L can be neglected.15. The boundLiquid Gas Flow ary conditions for the liquid is that velocity at the Flow wall is zero and the velocity at the interface is the same for both phases UG = UL or τi |G = τi |L .

the gravitational force has to be balanced by the shear forces as dτxy = ρL g dx The integration of equation (9. the liquid ﬂow rate is a function of the boundary conditions. It is assumed that the last assumption does not contribute or change signiﬁcantly the results.55) The integration constant. Thus.9. Assuming the pressure diﬀerence in the ﬂow direction for the gas is constant and uniform.55) results in τxy = ρL g x + C1 (9.63) .56) (9. is zero and the integration coeﬃcient can be found to be C2 = 0 The liquid velocity proﬁle is then ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + 2 µL (9.61) (9. [U (x = 0) = 0]. τi = ρL g h + C1 The integration constant is then Ci = τi − ρL g h which leads to τxy = ρL g (x − h) + τi Substituting the newtonian ﬂuid relationship into equation (9.). On the liquid side.60) dUy = ρL g (x − h) + τi dx (9.58) (9. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 255 This model is presented to exhibits the trends and the special features of counter-current ﬂow. The underline rational for this assumption is that gas density does not change signiﬁcantly for short pipes (for more information look for the book “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” in Potto book series in the Fanno ﬂow chapter. The liquid ﬁlm thickness is unknown and can be expressed as a function of the above boundary conditions.62) Uy = (9. C1 . can be found from the boundary condition where τxy (x = h) = τi .58) to obtained µL or in a simpliﬁed form as dUy ρL g (x − h) τi = + dx µL µL Equation (9.9.57) The liquid velocity at the wall. Hence.59) (9.60) can be integrate to yield Uy = ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + + C2 2 µL (9.

The ﬁrst two solutions are identical in which the ﬁlm height is h = 0 and the liquid ﬂow rate is zero. MULTI–PHASE FLOW τi h ρL g h2 − µL 2 µL (9. There are three solutions for equation (9.70) .256 The velocity at the liquid–gas interface is Uy (x = h) = CHAPTER 9. Integration equation (9.15). h.69) is equated to zero.65) is x|@UL =0 = 2 h − 2 τi µL g ρL (9. This point can be obtained when equation (9.65) The solution for equation (9. Q = w h h Uy dx = 0 0 ρL g µL x2 τi x − hx + dx 2 µL (9.66) The maximum x value is limited by the liquid ﬁlm thickness.68) results in Q h2 (3 τi − 2 g h ρL ) = w 6 µL (9. The minimum shear stress that start to create reversible velocity is obtained when x = h which is 0= ρL g µL h2 τi h − hh + 2 µL h g ρL → τi0 = 2 (9. The notation of τi 0 denotes the special value at which a starting shear stress value is obtained to have reversed ﬂow. This request is identical to the demand in which 2 g h ρL 3 τi critical = (9.69) It is interesting to ﬁnd the point where the liquid mass ﬂow rate is zero.68) Where w is the thickness of the conduit (see Figure 9. The ﬂow rate can be calculated by integrating the velocity across the entire liquid thickness of the ﬁlm.69). But. also. the ﬂow rate is zero when 3 τi = 2 g h ρL .64) The velocity can vanish (zero) inside the ﬁlm in another point which can be obtained from 0= ρL g µL τi x x2 − hx + 2 µL (9.67) If the shear stress is below this critical shear stress τi0 then no part of the liquid will have a reversed velocity. The point where the liquid ﬂow rate is zero is important and it is referred to as initial ﬂashing point.

For this shear stress. The momentum balance on element in the gas side is dτxy G dP = dx dy (9.74) can be rewritten as dτxy G ∆P ∆P = = dx ∆y L (9.72) the direction) 12 becomes (notice the change of the sign accounting for g h ρL 3 τL |@wall = (9. The shear stress on gas side is balanced by the pressure gradient in the y direction. reduces the ﬂow rate to zero or eﬀectively “drying” the liquid (which is diﬀerent then equation (9.76) noticing that equation (9. In reality the logarithmic equation should be used ( a discussion can be found in “Fundamentals of Compressible Flow” a Potto project book).9.71) 6 µL The wall shear stress is the last thing that will be done on the liquid side. COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 257 This critical shear stress.67)). it is assumed that pressure gradient is linear. Utilizing the Newtonian relationship. for a given ﬁlm thickness.75) Where ∆y = L is the entire length of the ﬂow and ∆P is the pressure diﬀerence of the entire length. The wall shear stress is τi Ucritical |interf ace = τL |@wall = µL dU dx x=0 ρL g 2 g h ρL 1 B0 = µL 2¨ x µL ¨ − h + 3 µL x=0 (9.70) has to be equal g h ρL to support the weight of the liquid.74) The pressure gradient is a function of the gas compressibility. Here. equation (9. the gas is assumed to be in a laminar ﬂow as well.9. For simplicity. the diﬀerential equation is ∆P d2 UG = dx2 µG L 12 Also (9.73) Again. Thus. .72) Simplifying equation (9. If the gas was compressible with an ideal gas equation of state then the pressure gradient is logarithmic. the critical upward interface velocity is (2−1) 3 2 1 ρL g h2 (9. for simplicity reasons. This assumption means or implies that the gas is incompressible ﬂow. the linear equation is used.

78) into equation (9.77) results in UG = 0 = ∆P D2 + C1 D + C2 µG L ∆P → C2 = − D 2 + C1 D µG L (9. However.258 CHAPTER 9.79)(a).80) (a) (b) or (9.83) (9.84) is equal to the velocity equation (9. in that case. The diﬀerence in shear stresses at the interface due to this assumption. of the equal velocities.64) when (x = h).77) This velocity proﬁle must satisfy zero velocity at the right wall. equation (9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW Equation (9.84) The velocity in Equation (9.78) Which leads to UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + C1 (x − D) µG L (9.79) (9. Mathematically these boundary conditions are UG (x = D) = 0 and UG (x = h) = UL (x = h) τG (x = h) = τL (x = h) Applying B. . cause this assumption to be not physical. it is easy to show that the gas shear stress is not equal to the liquid shear stress at the interface (when the velocities are assumed to be the equal). (9.76) can be integrated twice to yield UG = ∆P 2 x + C1 x + C2 µG L (9. C1 can be evaluated as C1 = ρL g h 2 ∆P (h + D) − 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9. the gas velocity proﬁle is UG = ∆P ρL g h2 (x − D) ∆P (h + D) (x − D) x2 − D2 + − µG L 6 µL (h − D) µG L (9.81) At the other boundary condition.82) With the integration constants evaluated. The velocity at the interface is the same as the liquid phase velocity or the shear stress are equal.C. becomes ρL g h2 ∆P = h2 − D2 + C1 (h − D) 6 µL µG L The last integration constant.

91) The Required Pressure Diﬀerence . condition (9.87) (9.86) (9. the two conditions can co–exist. The shear stress at the interface must be equal. Since there no possibility to have both the shear stress and velocity on both sides of the interface.90) x=D or in a simpliﬁed form as τG |@wall = 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 (9.85) The expressions for the derivatives are gas side liquid side 2 h ∆P 2 g h ρL + µG C1 = L 3 As result. The wall shear stress is τG |@wall = µG dUG dx = µG x=D ∆P 2 x + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. if no special eﬀects occurs.79)(b). COUNTER–CURRENT FLOW 259 The second choice is to use the equal shear stresses at the interface.89) This gas interface velocity is diﬀerent than the velocity of the liquid side.9.88) The gas velocity at the interface is then UG |@x=h = ∆P h2 − D 2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (h − D) (9. the integration constant is C1 = The gas velocity proﬁle is then UG = ∆P x2 − D2 + µG L 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (x − D) 2 g h ρL 2 h ∆P − 3 µG µG L (9. diﬀerent thing(s) must happen. The velocity at interface can have a “slip” in very low density and for short distances. This condition requires that µG dUG dUL = µL dx dx (9. Then if the interface becomes wavy.9. It was assumed that the interface is straight but is impossible.

94) Simplifying equation (9.260 CHAPTER 9.93) result in ρgLh + L 2 ∆P (D − h) 2 g h ρL + L 3 D ∆P (9. Fig.95) . The gravity force on the gas can be neglected in most cases. However. To calculate the required pressure that cause the liquid to dry. There are two forces that act against the gravity and two forces with the gravity. this explanation is to show magnitudes and trends and hence it provided here.94) results in 4ρgLh = (2 h − D) ∆P 3 or ∆P = 4ρgLh 3 (2 h − D) (9. be between these two assumptions but not must be between them. The estimation of the pressure diﬀerence under the assumption of equal shear stress can be applied. However. The gravity force on the liquid is the liquid volume times the liquid volume as V olme/w FgL = ρ g hL (9. The control volume include the gas and liquid volumes.96) (9. Figure 9. MULTI–PHASE FLOW The pressure diﬀerence to D create the ﬂooding (drying) has to take into account the fact that h W x y the surface is wavy. In D ∆P the same fashion the pressure difference under the assumption the equal velocity can be calculated. as ρgLh L ﬁrst estimate the waviness of the Lτw |L Lτw |G surface can be neglected. the total balance is needed.16. -9.16 describes the general forces that acts on the control volume.16) A/w G A/w L f orce due to pressure FgL + L τw = L τw + Substituting the diﬀerent terms into (9.92) The total momentum balance is (see Figure 9. General forces diagram to calculated the in a The actual pressure diﬀerence can two dimension geometry.93) =L g h ρL + D ∆P 3 (9. This model and its assumptions are too simplistic and the actual pressure diﬀerence is larger.

the appropriate model for the ﬂow regime should be employed. There are several points that should be noticed in this chapter.9. the assumption of straight line is not appropriate when two liquid with diﬀerent viscosity are ﬂowing. Perhaps as a side conclusion but important.10. Unless the derivations or assumptions are wrong. In other case where more accurate measurement are needed a speciﬁc model is required. this analysis equation (9. There are many ﬂow regimes in multi–phase ﬂow that “regular” ﬂuid cannot be used to solve it such as ﬂooding. 9. . The homogeneous models or combined models like Lockhart–Martinelli can be employed in some cases. In that case.10 Multi–Phase Conclusion For the ﬁrst time multi–phase is included in a standard introductory textbook on ﬂuid mechanics. MULTI–PHASE CONCLUSION 261 This analysis shows far more reaching conclusion that initial anticipation expected. The interface between the two liquid ﬂowing together is wavy.96) indicates that when D > 2 h is a special case (extend open channel ﬂow).

MULTI–PHASE FLOW .262 CHAPTER 9.

APPENDIX A The Mathematics Backgrounds for Fluid Mechanics In this appendix a review of selected topics in mathematics related to ﬂuid mechanics is presented. Uy is the vector component in the y direction. nates depicted in Figure A.1) z U Ux Uy y Uz x Vector can be normalized and in Cartesian coordi. The material is not presented in “educational” order but in importance order. Furthermore. This appendix condenses material that spread in many various textbooks some of which are advance. These topics are present so that one with some minimal background could deal with the mathematics that encompass within basic ﬂuid mechanics. Thus.dinates system. the 263 Fig. -A.1. Hence without additional reading. and Uz is the vector component in the z direction.1 where Ux is the vector component in the x direction. this book on ﬂuid mechanics issues could be read by most readers.1 Vectors Vector is a quantity with direction as oppose to scalar. The length of the vector in Cartesian coordinates (the coordinates system is relevant) is U = Ux 2 + Uy 2 + Uz 2 (A. There is very minimal original material which appears without proofs.). A. some of the material appears in specialty books such as third order diﬀerential equations (and thus it is expected that the student is not familiar with this material. Vector in Cartesian coor- .

and h3 ) as angle U V U U × V = |U | · |V | sin (∠(U . There are two kinds of multiplications for vectors.5) . The ﬁrst multiplication is the “dot” product which is deﬁned by equation (A. The right hand rule.4). U . Additive inverse U − U = 0 U 5. U + V = V + U 3. and W and for in this discussion a and b are scalars. The results of this multiplication is scalar but has no negative value as in regular scalar multiplication. a (U + V ) = a U + a V 6. A. V )) n (A.2. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS U Ux ˆ Uy ˆ Uz ˆ = i+ j+ k U U U U U = (A. V . U ·V = U V U |U | · |V | cos (∠(U .1. Zero vector is such that U + 0 = U 4.264 unit vector is APPENDIX A. regular scalar multiplication angle between vectors W V U Fig. The following are vectors.3) Vectors have some what similar rules to scalars which will be discussed in the next section. multiplication of U × V results in W . (U + V ) + W = (U + V + W ) = U + (V + W ) 2.4) The second multiplication is the “cross” product which in vector as opposed to a scalar as in the “dot” product. -A.2) and general orthogonal coordinates U = U U1 U2 U3 = h1 + h2 + h3 U U U U (A. h2 . The “cross” product is deﬁned in an orthogonal coordinate (h1 . V )) (A. a (b U ) = a b U The multiplications and the divisions have somewhat diﬀerent meaning in a scalar operations. Then the following can be said U U V 1.1 Vector Algebra Vectors obey several standard mathematical operations which are applicable to scalars.

7) (A. VECTORS 265 where θ is the angle between U and V . In right hand orthogonal coordinate system h1 × h2 = h3 h2 × h3 = h1 h3 × h1 = h2 The “cross” product can be written as U × V = (U2 V3 − U3 V2 ) h1 + (U3 V1 − U1 V3 ) h2 + (U1 V2 − U2 V1 ) h3 Equation (A.6) (A. Note that U and V are not necessarily orthogonal. The previous experience is that help to deﬁne multiplication help to deﬁnition the division. .1. or vector with the angle. that is scalar associated with cos θ vectors is associated with sin θ. The reason that these current combinations. Additional possibility is that every combination of one vector element 1 This author did ﬁnd any physical meaning these combinations but there could be and those the word “little” is used. is that these combinations have physical meaning.9) in matrix form as h1 U × V = U2 V2 h2 U2 V2 h3 U3 V3 (A. However. For example. The multiplication in vector world have two deﬁnition one which results in a scalar and one which results in a vector. This multiplication has a negative value which means that it is a change of the direction.10) (A. etc. and n is a unit vector perpendicular to both U and V which obeys the right hand rule. Additionally note that order of multiplication is signiﬁcant. One of the consequence of this deﬁnitions in Cartesian coordinates is i =j =k =0 In general for orthogonal coordinates this condition is written as h1 × h1 = h1 = h2 = h3 = 0 where hi is the unit vector in the orthogonal system. The number of the possible combinations of the division is very large.8) The most complex of all these algebraic operations is the division. Multiplication combinations shows that there are at least four possibilities of combining the angle with scalar and vector.A. the result of the division can be a scalar combined or associated with the angle (with cos or sin). It turn out that these combinations have very little1 physical meaning. these above four combinations are not the only possibilities (not including the left hand system).9) h2 × h1 = −h3 h3 × h2 = −h1 h1 × h3 = −h2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (A. The right hand rule is referred to the direction of resulting vector.

j. y. i. A compact presentation is a common way to handle the mathematics which simplify the calculations and explanations. the gradient. =ˆ i ∂T ˆ ∂T ˆ ∂T +j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. divergence. in Cartesian coordinates the operation is =ˆ i ∂ ∂ ˆ ∂ +ˆ j +k ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. respectively.z).2 Diﬀerential Operators of Vectors Diﬀerential operations can act on scalar functions as well on vector and vector functions.1. and the Laplacian are based or could be constructed from this single operator. The three vectors have a need for additional notation such of vector of vector which is referred to as a tensor. For example. A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is divided by the other vector element. derivatives of diﬀerent directions can represented as a vector or vector function. A scalar function is a function that provide a valued based on the coordinates (in Cartesian coordinates x. such as. the temperature of the domain might be expressed as a scalar ﬁeld. There at least are two possibilities how to treat these elements.” Also note the multiplying matrices and inverse matrix are also available operation to these tensors. One of these operations is nabla operator sometimes also called the “del operator. This tenser or the matrix can undergo regular linear algebra operations such as ﬁnding the eigenvalue values and the eigen “vectors. the curl.12) ˆ Where ˆ ˆ and k are denoting unit vectors in the x.266 APPENDIX A. Gradient This operation acts on a scalar function and results in a vector whose components are derivatives in the principle directions of a coordinate system. Since every vector element has three possible elements the total combination is 9 = 3 × 3.11) V2 V V2 V2 U2 U3 U1 V3 V3 V3 One such example of this division is the pressure which the explanation is commonality avoided or eliminated from the ﬂuid mechanics books including the direct approach in this book. It turned out that combination of three vectors has a physical meaning.y. The following combination is commonly suggested U2 U3 U1 V V1 V1 1 U U1 U2 U3 = (A. More diﬀerential operations can on scalar function can results in vector or vector function. In multivariate calculus. For example. and z directions.13) . Many of the operations of vector world.” This operator is a diﬀerential vector.

z)k i j The dot product of these two vectors. y. This combined operations is known as the “div grad” which is given in Cartesian coordinates by · = ∂2 ∂2 ∂2 + 2+ 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z (A. The divergence is the similar to “dot” product which results in scalar. Laplacian The new operation can be constructed from “dot” multiplication of the nabla.17) This combination is commonality denoted as 2 . y. y. N . d‘Alembertian As a super–set for four coordinates (very minimal used in ﬂuid mechanics) and it reﬀed to as d’Alembertian or the wave operator. VECTORS 267 Divergence The same idea that was discussed in vector section there are two kinds of multiplication in the vector world and two will be for the diﬀerential operators. in Cartesian coordinate is results in div N = ·N= ∂Nx ∂Ny ∂Nz + + ∂x ∂y ∂z (A.15) (A.A. z) = Nx (x. z)ˆ + Ny (x. A gradient acting on a scalar ﬁeld creates a vector ﬁeld. A vector domain (function) assigns a vector to each point such as velocity for example. for Cartesian coordinates is ˆ N (x.18) . This operator also referred as the Laplacian operator.14) The divergence results in a scalar function which similar to the concept of the vectors multiplication of the vectors magnitude by the cosine of the angle between the vectors. Applying a divergence on the result creates a scalar ﬁeld again. Curl Similar to the “cross product” a similar operation can be deﬁned for the nabla (note the “right hand rule” notation) for Cartesian coordinate as curl N = ×N = ∂Nz ∂Ny − ∂y ∂z ∂Nx ∂Nz − ∂z ∂x ˆ i+ ˆ+ j ∂Ny ∂Nx − ∂x ∂y ˆ k (A. and it deﬁned as 2 = 2 − 1 ∂2 c2 ∂ 2 t (A.1. z)ˆ + Nz (x. in honor of Pierre-Simon Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827). y.16) Note that the result is a vector.

19) In Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem (Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (September 24. x2 . In Gauss notation it is written as ( V · N ) dV = A N · n dA (A.3 Diﬀerentiation of the Vector Operations The vector operation sometime fell under (time or other) derivative.20) V Note the strange notation of “Σ” which refers to the area. the dot product of operation 2 for more information http://math. · · · )e3 + · · · (A. · · · )e1 + f2 (x1 .edu/mathews/c2003/HarmonicFunctionMod. x3 . If N is a gradient of a scalar ﬁeld Π(x. or called it Gauss’ Theorem (Carl Friedrich Gauss 30 April 1777 23 February 1855). A vector is made of the several scalar functions such as R = f1 (x1 .22) where e i is the unit vector in the i direction. 1862). The notation is a bit diﬀerent from Gauss and it is written in Ostrogradsky notation as ∂Q ∂R ∂P + + ∂x ∂y ∂z dx dy dz = Σ (P p + Qq + Rr) dΣ (A. Thus. 1801 – January 1. z) then it can insert into identity to produce ( V · ( Φ)) dV = V 2 Φ dV = A Φ · n dA (A.fullerton. Many engineering class present this theorem as a theorem on its merit without realizing that it is a subset of Reynolds Transport Theorem. x3 . MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Divergence Theorem Mathematicians call to or refer to a subset of The Reynolds Transport Theorem as the Divergence Theorem. This theorem is applicable for a ﬁx control volume and the derivative can enters into the integral.21) for harmonic function (solutions Laplace equation see2 Harminic functions) then the left side vanishes which is useful identity for ideal ﬂow analysis. The cross and dot products when the come under diﬀerentiation can be look as scalar. · · · )e2 + f3 (x1 . A. normally for steady state. x2 . For example.1.268 APPENDIX A.html . x2 . the harmonic functions can be added or subtracted because inside the volume these functions contributions is eliminated throughout the volume. This subset can further produces several interesting identities. x3 . The basic of these relationships is explored. Special case of equation (A. y. This results reduces equation.21) Since the deﬁnition of Φ = N . to a balance of the ﬂuxes through the surface.

1 Orthogonal Coordinates These vectors operations can appear in diﬀerent orthogonal coordinates system. There are several orthogonal coordinates which appears in ﬂuid mechanics operation which include this list: Cartesian coordinates. the chain role is applicable. Yet. Parabolic coordinates. Spherical coordinates. VECTORS R · S = (xˆ + y 2 ˆ · (sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ can be written as i j) i j) R d (R · S ) d = dt dt It can be noticed that d x sin x + y 2 exp(y) R d (R · S ) = = dt dt dx d sin x d y 2 d y2 sin x + + exp(y) + exp(y) dt dt dt dt xˆ + y 2 ˆ · sin xˆ + exp(y)ˆ i j i j 269 It can be noticed that the manipulation of the simple above example obeys the regular chain role. Parabolic cylindrical coordinates Paraboloidal coordinates. velocity. Oblate spheroidal coordinates. As in operation on scalar time derivative of dot or cross of constant velocity is zero. and acceleration.1. R S d dR dS R (R · S ) = ·S + ·R dt dt dt And the the chain role for the cross operation is R S d dR dS R (R × S ) = ×S + ×R dt dt dt It follows that derivative (notice the similarity to scalar operations) of d dR R (R · R ) = 2 R dt at There are several identities that related to location.24) (A. Elliptic . Prolate spheroidal coordinates. the most interesting is U d dU R (R × U ) = U × U + R × dt dt (A. Similarly. The results of operations of two vectors is similar to regular multiplication since the vectors operation obey “regular” addition and multiplication roles. Cylindrical coordinates.25) (A.23) The ﬁrst part is zero because the cross product with itself is zero.A.1. A.3. The second part is zero because Newton law (acceleration is along the path of R). it can done for the cross product. Hence the chain role apply for dot operation. Ellipsoidal coordinates.

Conversation of the angel to units of length is done by length factor which is.mcs. http://www-history.270 APPENDIX A. These coordinates rer θ r duced the work. Flat-disk cyclide coordinates. Bipolar cylindrical coordinates Conical coordinates.27) The line element and volume element are ds = dr2 + (r dθ) + dz 2 2 dr r dθ dz (A. in most cases. In this book the dimensional chapter shows that in physics that derivatives have to have same units in order to compare them or use them.ac. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS cylindrical coordinates. Note the advantage of cylindrical (polar) coordinates in description of geometry or location relative to a center point. -A. Three common systems typical to ﬂuid mechanics will be presented and followed by a table and methods to present all the above equations. Historically. These three diﬀerent rs are some what similar to any of the Cartesian coordinate. The ﬁrst one represents the vector that is the direction of r while the second is the unit vector in the direction of the coordinate r.29) 3 Coolidge. the ﬁgure shows that the coordinates are r. In Fig. The conversion between the Cartesian coordinate and the Cylindrical is r= x2 + y 2 θ = arctan y x y z=z (A. in this case. The meaning of − r and r are diﬀerent. ”The Origin of Polar Coordinates”.3. Bi-cyclide coordinates and Cap-cyclide coordinates. and z.26) The reverse transformation is x = r cos θ y = r sin θ z=z (A. Julian (1952). The second coordinate θ has unite coordinate θ. American Mathematical Monthly 59: 7885. θ. Flat-ring cyclide coordinates. The coordinate θ is angle. .28) The gradient in cylindrical coordinates is given by =r ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ +θ +z ∂r r ∂θ ∂z (A. This kind sity uations occur in pipe ﬂow even if the pipe is not exactly symmetrical. because probθ x lem is reduced a two dimensions. → and z. x these coordinate were introduced for geometrical problems about 2000 years ago3 . The new concept here is the length factor. Bispherical coordinates. r. θ.html.3.st-and. The cylindrical coordinates are shown in Figure A. Cylindrical Coordinates The cylindrical coordinates are commonz ality used in situations where there is line of e1 symmetry or kind of symmetry. Cylindrical Coordinate System. Note that unite coordinates are denoted as r.uk/Extras/Coolidge Polars. Toroidal coordinates. Because there are so many coordinates system is reasonable to develop these operations for any for any coordinates system.

Spherical Coordinate System.33) Line element and element volume are ds = dr2 + (r cos θ dθ) + (r sin θ dφ) 2 2 dV = r2 sin θ dr dθ dφ (A. VECTORS The curl is written ×N = 1 ∂Nz ∂Nθ − r ∂θ ∂z 1 r The Laplacian is deﬁned by · = 1 ∂ r ∂r r ∂ ∂r + 1 ∂2 ∂2 + 2 2 ∂θ 2 r ∂z r+ ∂Nr ∂Nz − ∂z ∂r ∂ (r Nθ ) ∂Nθ − ∂r ∂θ θ+ z 271 (A. boom explosion. Spherical system used for z y x θ cases where spherical symmetry exist.32) Spherical Coordinates z The spherical coordinates system is a φ r three-dimensional coordinates which is imθ provement or further modiﬁcations of the cylinφ r drical coordinates.36) The divergence in spherical coordinate is ·N = 1 ∂ r2 Nr 1 ∂ (Nθ sin θ) 1 ∂Nφ + + r2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. 0 < θ < 2 π while the second angle (colatitude) is only 0 < φ < π.4. The second angle is between the positive y–axis and the vector as shown in Figure ?? The conversion between Cartesian coordinates to Spherical coordinates x = r sin φ cos θ The reversed transformation is r= x2 + y 2 + z 2 φ = arccos z r (A. A location is represented by a radius and two angles. In ﬂuid y mechanics such situations exist in bubble dynamics.34) y = r sin φ sin θ z = r cos φ (A.35) The gradient is =r ∂ ∂ ˆ1 ∂ + φ 1 +θ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ (A. -A. Note that the ﬁrst angle (azimuth or longitude) θ range is between Fig. The radius is the distance between the origin and the location.37) . The ﬁrst angle between projection on x − y plane and the positive x–axis. sound wave propagax tion etc.1.31) (A.30) (A.A.

θ.2. The notation for the presentation is required general notation of the units vectors is ei and coordinates distance coeﬃcient is hi where 1 e1 q i is 1.272 APPENDIX A.39) General Orthogonal Coordinates There are several orthogonal system and general form is needed. Also note that the derivative of the coordinate in the case of cylindrical coordinate is ∂θ and unit ˆ vector is θ. While the θ is the same the meaning is diﬀerent and diﬀerent notations need.41) Gradient The gradient in general coordinate for a scalar function T is the nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates as T = T T T e1 ∂T e2 ∂T e3 ∂T + + h1 ∂q 1 h2 ∂q 2 h3 ∂q 3 (A.40) The nabla operator in general orthogonal coordinates is = e1 ∂ e2 ∂ e3 ∂ + + 1 2 h1 ∂q h2 ∂q h3 ∂q 3 (A. -A. θ is lengthens unit vector and the coordinate distance coeﬃcient in this case Fig. For example in cylindrical coordinates.42) . Since it is engineering book the h is adapted. The coordinates distance coeﬃcient is in ase cre in e2 the change the diﬀerential to the actual distance. The derivative quantity will be denoted by q superscript.38) ˆ φ The Laplacian in spherical coordinates is 2 = r2 + sin θ + (A. there is dispute what with unit vectors. The general Orthogonal is r. In mathematics it is denoted as q while in engineering is denotes h. As in almost all cases. the proper notation for these coeﬃcients. and z . The length of d d 2 = i=1 hk dq k 2 (A. However. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The curl in spherical coordinates is ×N = 1 r sin θ 1 r 1 ∂ r2 ∂r ∂ (Nφ sin θ) ∂Nθ − ∂θ ∂φ 1 ∂Nr ∂ (rNφ ) − sin θ ∂φ ∂r ∂ ∂r 1 ∂ 2 sin θ ∂θ r r+ ˆ 1 ˆ θ + r ∂ ∂θ ∂ (rNθ ) ∂Nr − ∂r ∂θ 1 ∂2 r2 sin2 θ ∂φ2 (A. The units r and z are units ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ with length.3.5. the unit vectors are: r.

.6.44) The Laplacian of a scalar equals 1 ∂ h1 h2 h3 ∂q 1 h2 h3 ∂φ h1 ∂q 1 ∂ ∂q 2 h3 h1 ∂φ h2 ∂q 2 ∂ ∂q 3 h1 h2 ∂φ h3 ∂q 3 (A. 2 φ= + + Fig.1.45) The following table showing the diﬀerent values for selected orthogonal system. VECTORS The divergence of a vector equals ·N = 1 ∂ ∂ ∂ (N1 h2 h3 ) + 2 (N2 h3 h1 ) + 3 (N3 h1 h2 ) . Parabolic coordinates by user WillowW using Blender. 1 h1 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂q 273 (A.A. -A.43) For general orthogonal coordinate system the curl is ∂ e1 ∂ (h3 N3 ) − 3 (h2 N2 ) + 2 h2 h3 ∂q ∂q ∂ ∂ e3 ∂ ∂ (h1 N1 ) − 1 (h3 N3 ) + (h2 N2 ) − 2 (h1 N1 ) 3 1 ∂q ∂q h1 h2 ∂q ∂q ×N = e2 h3 h1 (A.

1. If the highest derivative is ﬁrst order the equation is referred as ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation etc. it is possible to deﬁne fraction of derivative. second derivative etc4 .1 First Order Diﬀerential Equations As expect. It is not intent to be a replacement to a standard textbook but as a quick reference. It is suggested that the reader interested in depth information should read “Diﬀerential Equations and Boundary Value Problems” by Boyce de–Prima or any other book in this area. the ﬁrst ODEs are easier to solve and they are the base for equations of higher order equation. A.2.274 APPENDIX A. there is no physical meaning to such a product according to this author believe.47) 4 Note that mathematically. The meaning of linear equation is that the operation is such that a L (u1 ) + b L (u2 ) = L (a u1 + b u2 ) (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Table -A. However. ODE are categorized into linear and non-linear equations. .g. Orthogonal coordinates systems (under construction please ignore) Orthogonal coordinates systems name Cartesian Cylindrical Spherical Paraboloidal Ellipsoidal Remarks 1 standard common common ? ? √ 1 1 1 u2 + v 2 √ h 2 1 r r u2 + v 2 3 1 1 r cos θ uv 1 x r r u λ q 2 y θ θ v µ 3 z z ϕ θ ν A. The ﬁrst order equations have several forms and there is no one solution ﬁt all but families of solutions. du . The most general form is f u. ﬁrst derivative. Ordinary diﬀerential equations are deﬁned by the order of the highest derivative. Note that the derivatives are integers e. Or this dt dy2 operation on y2 is dt + y2 and the summation of operation the sum operation of +y L(y1 + y2 ) = y1dt 2 + y1 + y2 .46) d An example of such linear operation L = dt + 1 acting on y is dy1 + y1 .t dt =0 (A.2 Ordinary Diﬀerential Equations (ODE) In this section a brief summary of ODE is presented.

The initial condition is the value the function has at some points.1: Solve the following equation du = ut dt with the initial condition u(t = 0) = u0 .2 Variables Separation or Segregation In some cases equation (A.I.I.2.48) can be written as du = X(t)dt U (u) (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Sometimes equation (A.I.47) can be simpliﬁed to the ﬁrst form as du = F (t.A.d) (1.b) (1.48) A.2.48) can be written as F (t. Example A. The separation yields du = t dt u The integration of equation (1. In that case it is said that F is spreadable and then equation (A. (1.a) Solution The solution can be obtained by the variable separation method.I. u) = X(t) U (u).e) .b) becomes du = u t dt =⇒ ln (u) + ln (c) = t2 2 (1.c) can be transferred to u = c et For the initial condition of u(0) = u0 then u = u0 et End Solution 2 2 (1.I.I.50) The limits of the integral is (are) the initial condition(s). The name initial condition is used because the values are given commonly at initial time.c) Equation (1.49) Equation can be integrated either analytically or numerically and the solution is du = U (u) X(t)dt (A. u) dt 275 (A.I.

55) (A.54) is integrated to be ln (N (x)) = g(x)dx =⇒ N (x) = e g(x)dx (A. This family is part of a linear equations.51) What is needed from N (x) is to provide a full diﬀerential such as N (x) dy d [N (x) g(x) y] + N (x) g(x) y = dx dx (A. The general form of the equation is dy + g(x) y = m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.2.52) becomes d [N (x) g(x) y] = N (x) m(x) dx Multiplying equation (A.53). Thus equation (A.58) (A. .276 A.57) e R g(x)dx (A.59) N (x) A special case of g(t) = constant is shown next.1 APPENDIX A.54) Using the diﬀerentiation chain rule provides dv du du dx d N (x) =e dx g(x)dx g(x) (A.52) (A.53) This condition (note that the previous methods is employed here) requires that d N (x) d N (x) = N (x) g(x) =⇒ = g(x) dx dx N (x) Equation (A.57) by dx and integrating results in N (x) g(x) y = The solution is then N (x) m(x) dx y= g(x) N (x) m(x) dx (A.2.56) which indeed satisfy equation (A.51) by unknown function N (x) transformed it to N (x) dy + N (x) g(x) y = N (x)m(x) dx (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The Integral Factor Equations Another method is referred to as integration factor which deals with a limited but very important class of equations.

62) Example A.3 Non–Linear Equations Non-Linear equations are equations that the power of the function or the function derivative is not equal to one or their combination. One such equation family is referred in the literature as the Bernoulli Equations5 . ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 277 Example A.60) into a linear equation which is dv + (1 − p) m(t) v = (1 − p) n(t) dt (A. Many non linear equations can be transformed into linear equations and then solved with the linear equation techniques.3: Solve the following Bernoulli equation du + t2 u = sin(t) u3 dt 5 Not (1.III.2.59) provides y = e−x (ex + c) = 1 + c e−x End Solution A. .2.61) The linearized equation can be solved using the linear methods.2: Find the solution for a typical problem in ﬂuid mechanics (the problem of Stoke ﬂow or the parachute problem) of dy +y =1 dx Solution Substituting m(x) = 1 and g(x) = 1 into equation (A. This equation is non–linear part du + m(t)u = n(t) dt up (A.a) to be confused with the Bernoulli equation without the s that referred to the energy equation.60) The transformation v = u1−p turns equation (A. The actual solution is obtained by reversed equation which transferred solution to u = v (p−1) (A.A.

The solution is then ln |t| = dv +c f (1.63) into t dv + v = f (1.b) Using the deﬁnition (1.III.c) is u(t) = ce And the general solution is t3 − 3 −t3 3 1−p 1−p (1. a t) dt (A.2.III.65) Example A.a) becomes dv −2 t2 v = −2 sin(t) dt The homogeneous solution of equation (1.b) equation (1. For this case.278 Solution The transformation is APPENDIX A.63) for any real positive a. t) = f (a u. Example of such case u = u3 − t3 /t3 becomes u = v 3 + 1 .III.III. v) dt (A. v) − v (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS v = u2 (1.a) .4: Solve the equation du u = sin + dt t u4 − t4 t4 (1.IV.III.64) In another words if the substitution u = v t is inserted the function f become a function of only v it is homogeneous function.1 Homogeneous Equations Homogeneous function is given as du = f (u.d) (1.III.e) private solution u= e e t3 3 sin (t) dt +c End Solution A.c) (1. the transformation of u = v t transforms equation (A.III.3.

this kind of class of equations appears all over this book. it can be written that du = f (t)g(u) dt (A.IV.c) (1.IV.2. End Solution 279 (1. The solution of this kind of equation is du = f (t) dt (A.IV.2.2 Variables Separable Equations In ﬂuid mechanics and many other ﬁelds there are diﬀerential equations that referred to variables separable equations.d) (1.IV.b) .66) The main point is that f (t) and be segregated from g(u).IV.c) can be solved by variable separation as t dv = t dt sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v Integrating equation (1.a) Solution Segregating the variables to be du = u2 t2 dt (1.5: Solve the following ODE du = −u2 t2 dt (1. For this sort equations.IV.d) results in dv t2 = +c sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v 2 The initial condition can be inserted via the boundary of the integral.e) A. In fact.b) (1.V.3.67) g(u) Example A.V.A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Solution Substituting u = v T yields du = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 dt or dv dv + v = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 =⇒ t = sin (v) + v 4 − 1 − v dt dt Now equation (1.

3.b) transformed into − 1 t3 = + c1 u 3 (1.69) If b2 > 4 a c then there are two unique solutions for the quadratic equation and the general solution form is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t For the case of b2 = 4 a c the general solution is u = c1 es1 t + c2 t es1 t (A. There are additional methods such numerical analysis. transformation (like Laplace transform).68) In a way.70) In the case of b2 > 4 a c. Practically. and perturbation methods.71) (A. the solution of the quadratic equation is a complex number which means that the solution has exponential and trigonometric functions as u = c1 eα t cos(βt) + c2 eα t sin(βt) (A. A.d) End Solution A. the second order ODE is transferred to ﬁrst order by substituting the one linear operator to two ﬁrst linear operators.2.72) .3 Other Equations There are equations or methods that were not covered by the above methods. it is done by substituting est where s is characteristic constant and results in the quadratic equation a s2 + b s + s = 0 (A. Many of these methods will be eventually covered by this appendix.2.V.c) Rearranging equation (1. The simplest equations are with constant coeﬃcients such as a d2 u du +b + cu = 0 dt2 dt (A.4 Second Order Diﬀerential Equations The general idea of solving second order ODE is by converting them into ﬁrst order ODE. One such case is the second order ODE with constant coeﬃcients.V. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Integrating equation (1.c) becomes u= t3 −3 +c (1.280 APPENDIX A. variable substitutions.V.V.

b) (1.4. Thus.75) +b + c u = l(x) dt2 dt The solution of the homogeneous equation is zero that is the operation L(uh ) = 0. .a) Solution The characteristic equation is s2 + 7 s + 10 = 0 The solution of equation (1. where L is Linear operator. and −5. This fact can be used to solve non-homogeneous equation. If the function on the right hand side is polynomial than the solution is will n utotal = uh + i=1 up i (A.c) A.VI.2.VI.1 Non–Homogeneous Second ODE Homogeneous equation are equations that equal to zero. the solution is u = k1 e−2 t + k2 e−5 t End Solution (1. Equations that not equal to zero in this form d2 u du (A.76) Where the solution uh is the solution of the homogeneous solution and up is the solution of the particular function l(x).A. The additional solution of L(up ) is the total solution as a =0 L (utotal ) = L (uh ) +L (up ) =⇒ utotal = uh + up (A.b) are −2.2. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) Where the real part is α= and the imaginary number is β= √ −b 2a 281 (A.VI.77) The linearity of the operation creates the possibility of adding the solutions.VI.74) Example A.6: Solve the following ODE d2 u du +7 + 10 u = 0 dt2 dt (1.73) 4 a c − b2 2a (A.

VII.d) A.5.VII.7: Solve the non-homogeneous equation d2 u du −5 + 6 u = t + t2 dt2 dt Solution The homogeneous solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t the particular solution for t is u(t) = and the particular solution of the t2 is u(t) = The total solution is u(t) = c1 e2 t + c1 e3 t + End Solution (1. u) = 0 ˙ ¨ can be written or presented in the form f1 (u)u = f2 (u) u ˙ ˙ ¨ (A.a) (1.282 APPENDIX A. The derivative of u can be treated as a new function v and v = u. A.c) (1.2. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Example A. ˙ ˙ ¨ equation (A.79) . Hence. u.78) can be integrated u u ˙ v f1 (u)u = ˙ u0 u0 ˙ f2 (u) u = ˙ ¨ v0 f2 (u) v ˙ (A.1 Segregation of Derivatives If the second order equation f (u.VII.2.5 Non–Linear Second Order Equations Some of the techniques that were discussed in the previous section (ﬁrst order ODE) can be used for the second order ODE such as the variable separation.78) then the equation (A.b) 6t + 5 36 18 t2 + 30 t + 19 108 9 t2 + 24 t + 17 54 (1.VII.78) is referred to as a separable equation (some called it segregated equations).

2. It can be noticed that the function initial condition is used twice.VIII. ﬁrst with initial integration and second with the second integration.VIII.A.c) becomes 3 3 2 u 2 − u0 2 3 = cos (v0 ) − cos (v) = cos du0 dt − cos du dt (1.a) becomes u du = sin d (1. The physical reason is that the equation represents a strong eﬀect of the function at a certain point such surface tension problems.a) du dt du dt d2 u =0 dt2 (t = 0) = 0 What happen to the extra Thus the extra dt is disappeared and equation (1.VIII.d) can be rearranged as du = arcsin dt t u 3 3 2 u0 2 − u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 (A.VIII. The papers are still his drawer and waiting to a spare time. 6 This .d) Equation (1.81) author worked (better word toyed) in (with) this area during his master but to his shame he did not produce any papers on this issue.b) After the integration equation (1.VIII. Note that the derivative initial condition is used once.8: Solve the equation √ du u − sin dt With the initial condition of u(0) = 0 and “dt”? Solution Rearranging the ODE to be √ du u = sin dt & √ and transformation to v is √ u du = sin (v) dv (1. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) 283 The integration results in a ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation which should be dealt with the previous methods. Example A.VIII. This equation family is not well discussed in mathematical textbooks6 .80) Using the ﬁrst order separation method yields dt = 0 u0 du 2 3 3 arcsin u0 2 −u 2 + cos (v0 ) 3 =0 =1 (A.c) du dt d dt & du dt du dt du dt (1.VIII.

86) A.2.83) results in 1 dv dt =v =⇒ = v dv a dt a (A.5.84) which can be solved with the previous methods.88) .2 Full Derivative Case Equations Another example of special case or families of second order diﬀerential equations which is results of the energy integral equation derivations as u − au du dt d2u d t2 =0 (A.87) It can be noticed that that c2 is actually two diﬀerent constants because the plus minus signs. u d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 =0 (A. One solution is u = k1 and the second solution is obtained by solving 1 = a The transform of v = du dt du dt d2u d t2 (A.3 Energy Equation ODE It is non–linear because the second derivative is square and the function multiply the second derivative.82) where a is constant. d dt u du dt =0 (A.81) shows that initial condition of the function is used twice while the initial of the derivative is used only once.85) + c2 (A. Bifurcation to two solutions leads t 1 du + c = v 2 =⇒ =± a 2 dt which can be integrated as u= ± a 2t + c1 dt = ± a 3 2t + c1 a 3 2 2t + c1 a (A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS The solution (A.5.284 APPENDIX A. End Solution A.2.

91) The solution is assumed to be of the form of est which general third order polonium. This kind of diﬀerential equation has been studied in the last 30 years to some degree.6 Third Order Diﬀerential Equation There are situations where ﬂuid mechanics7 leads to third order diﬀerential equation. the linear third-order diﬀerential equation” Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Third unsteady energy equation in accelerated coordinate leads to a third order diﬀerential equation. Thus. Solving Third Order Linear Diﬀerential Equations in Terms of Second Order Equations Mark van Hoeij 8 “On 7 The .IX. Solution to more complicate linear equations with non constant coeﬃcient (function of t) can be solved sometimes by Laplace transform or reduction of the equation to second order Olivier Vallee8 .90) +u=0 (1.c) A.IX. 1999.2.b) (1. Example A.9: Show that the solution of u is − √ 3 d2 u d t2 + du dt 2 (A.A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) after integration u du = k1 dt 285 (A. The solution to constant coeﬃcients is relatively simple and will be presented here. the general solution is depend on the solution of third order polonium.89) Further rearrangement and integration leads to the solution which is u2 = t + k2 2 k1 For non–homogeneous equation they can be integrated as well.2. The general form for constant coeﬃcient is d3 u d2 u du +a 2 +b + cu = 0 3 dt dt dt (A.a) √ 3 u √ du 3 k1 − u3 √ = t + k2 2 u √ du 3 k − u3 √1 = t + k2 2 (1.IX.

all the roots are real and unequal. For the case D = 0.95) R+ √ D.286 APPENDIX A. derivation of the leading equation (results of the ode) is reduced into quadratic equation and thus the same situation exist.96) T = and where the D is deﬁned as 3 R− √ D (A. θ.93) (A. all the roots are real and at least two are identical.101) . one root is real and two roots are complex. s3 + a1 s2 + a2 s + a3 = 0 The solution is 1 s1 = − a1 + (S + T ) 3 1 1 1 √ s2 = − a1 − (S + T ) + i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 and 1 1 √ 1 s3 = − a1 − (S + T ) − i 3(S − T ) 3 2 2 Where S= 3 (A. if D > 0. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS order polonium has always one real solution.94) (A.99) (A. When the characteristic equation solution has three diﬀerent real roots the solution of the diﬀerential equation is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + c3 es3 t (A.97) D = Q3 + R 2 and where the deﬁnitions of Q and R are Q= and R= 9a1 a2 − 27a3 − 2a1 3 54 3a2 − a1 2 9 (A. In the last case where D < 0. (A. From a mathematical point of view. Thus.100) Only three roots can exist for the Mach angle.92) (A.98) (A.

107) was discussed earlier.106) and equation (A. Thus the solution of d2 +1 u=0 dt2 with the solution of d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.104) The order of operation is irrelevant as shown in equation (A. ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS (ODE) In the case the solution to the characteristic has two identical real roots u = (c1 + c2 t) es1 t + c3 es2 t 287 (A.108) .109) (A. Generally.A.107) (A. For the case of only one real root.105) d4 −1 u=0 dt4 (A.2.106) are the solutions of (A. Sometimes the ODE is fourth order or higher the general solution is based in idea that equation is reduced into a lower order.102) Similarly derivations for the case of three identical real roots. for constant coeﬃcients ODE can be transformed into multiplication of smaller order linear operations. For example. A. the solution is u = (c1 sin b1 + c2 cos b1 ) ea1 t + c3 es3 t (A. The solution of equation (A. The general procedure is based on the above concept but is some what simpler.104).7 Forth and Higher Order ODE The ODE and partial diﬀerential equations (PDE) can be of any integer order.2. the equation d4 u − u = 0 =⇒ dt4 can be written as combination of d2 −1 dt2 d2 +1 u=0 dt2 or d2 +1 dt2 d2 −1 u=0 dt2 (A.105).103) Where a1 is the real part of the complex root and b1 imaginary part of the root. Inserting es t into the ODE an u(n) + an−1 u(n−1) + an−2 u(n−2) + · · · + a1 u + a0 u = 0 yields characteristic equation an sn + an−1 sn−1 + an−2 sn−2 + · · · + a1 s + a0 = 0 (A.

X.X. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn The Solution of Diﬀerential Equation Is u = c1 es1 t + c2 es2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = c1 + c2 t + · · · + ck tk−1 es1 t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + · · · + cn esn t u = (cos(b1 t) + sin(b1 t)) ea1 t + · · · + (cos(bi t) + sin(bi t)) eai t + · · · + (cos(bk t) + sin(bk t)) eak t + ck+1 + ck+2 t + · · · + ck+ t −1 esk+1 t + ck+2 esk+2 t + ck+3 esk+3 t + · · · + cn esn t Example A.g.d) . sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots.c) The roots are two pairs of complex numbers and one real number.g. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi and some real and diﬀerent e.g. are pairs of conjugate complex numbers of si = ai ± bi . Thus the solution is u = c1 et + e2 t (c2 sin (t) + c3 cos (t)) + e3 t (c4 sin (3 t) + c5 cos (3 t)) End Solution (1.X.b) With the roots of the equation (1.X.a) (1. sk+1 = sk+2 = sk+3 · · · = sn k/2 roots. roots are similar and some real and diﬀerent e.X. s1 = s2 = s3 = s4 · · · = sn all roots are real but some are identical e.b) (these roots can be found using numerical methods or Descartes’ Rule) are s1.4 s5 = = = 3 ± 3i 2±i 1 (1.g. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS If The Solution of Characteristic Equation all roots are real and diﬀerent e.g.10: Solve the ﬁfth order ODE d5 u d4 u d3 u d2 u du − 11 4 + 57 3 − 149 2 + 192 − 90 u = 0 5 dt dt dt dt dt Solution The characteristic equation is s5 − 11 s4 + 57 s3 − 149 s2 + 192 s − 90 = 0 (1.2 s3.288 APPENDIX A. s1 = s2 = · · · = sk and some diﬀerent e.

the PDE solution is done by transforming the PDE to one or more ODE. Normally.) = 0 (A. .112) is similar to the equations for a conic geometry: axx x2 + axy x y + ayy y 2 + · · · = 0 (A.8 A general Form of the Homogeneous Equation dn u dn−1 u du + k1 tn−1 n−1 + · · · + kn−1 t + kn u = a x dtn dt dt The homogeneous equation can be generalized to k0 tn (A. The hyperbolic equations are associated with method of characteristics because physical situations depends only on the initial conditions. The general second-order PDE in two independent variables has the form axx uxx + 2axy uxy + ayy uyy + · · · = 0 (A. When the discriminant .3. One example of such equation is heat equation.112) The coeﬃcients axx . when the discriminant is zero the equation are called parabolic.113) In the same manner that conic geometry equations are classiﬁed are based on the discriminant a2 − 4 axx ayy . The disxy criminant can be function of the x and y and thus can change sign and thus the characteristic of the equation. the same can be done for a second-order PDE. Many situations in ﬂuid mechanics can be described by PDE equations. . Generally.3 Partial Diﬀerential Equations Partial Diﬀerential Equations (PDE) are diﬀerential equations which include function includes the partial derivatives of two or more variables. ayy might depend upon ”x” and ”y”. sometimes similar deﬁnition can be applied for other order. The nature of the solution is based whether the equation is elliptic parabolic and hyperbolic. PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 289 A. ux = ∂u . this characterization is done for for second order.111) Where subscripts refers to derivative based on it. As one might expect PDE are harder to solve. The meaning for initial conditions is that of solution depends on some early points of the ﬂow (the solution). However. Note that ∂x partial derivative also include mix of derivatives such as ux y. ux . The physical meaning of the these deﬁnition is that these equations have diﬀerent characterizations.A. Partial diﬀerential equations are categorized by the order of highest derivative. Generally. .110) To be continue A. Example of such equation is F (ut .2. The solution of elliptic equations depends on the boundary conditions The solution of parabolic equations depends on the boundary conditions but as well on the initial conditions. axy . For example. Equation (A.

Hence. A.117) A possible way the equation (A.3. If it turned that assumption is wrong the ratio is not constant..119) and (A. An example of ﬁrst order equation is ∂u ∂u + =0 ∂x ∂y (A.115) The solution is assume to be u = Y (y) X(x) and substitute into the (A. .116) Rearranging equation (A.118) Equations (A. the physics dictates this character and will be used in the book.115) results in Y (y) ∂X(x) ∂Y (y) + X(x) =0 ∂x ∂y (A. In ﬂuid mechanics this kind equation appear in supersonic ﬂow or in supper critical ﬂow in open channel ﬂow. However. The equations that not mentioned above are elliptic which appear in ideal ﬂow and subsonic ﬂow and sub critical open channel ﬂow. The ﬁrst equation is X function 1 ∂X(x) =λ X(x) ∂x The second ODE is for Y 1 ∂Y (y) = −λ Y (y) ∂y (A.1 First-order equations First order equation can be written as u = ax ∂u ∂u + ay + .290 APPENDIX A. ∂x ∂x (A.119) (A. Is it possible that these terms not equal to a constant? The answer is no if the assumption of the solution is correct.116) yields 1 ∂X(x) 1 ∂Y (y) + =0 X(x) ∂x Y (y) ∂y (A. the constant is denoted as λ and with this deﬁnition the PDE is reduced into two ODE.118) are ODE that can be solved with the methods described before for certain boundary condition..114) The interpretation the equation characteristic is complicated. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS is larger then zero the equation is referred as hyperbolic equations.117) can exist is that these two term equal to a constant.

consider the triangle with sides of length a. sin(α + β) = sin α cos β + sin β cos α 2. Area of triangle = 1 a b sin γ 2 6. tan(α + β) = 6. c2 = a2 + b2 − 2 a b cos γ (Law of Cosines) 5. tan 2α = 1 − tan2 α 4. and γ. The tringle angles sides. cos2 α = 2 sin α sin β sin γ 3.4 Trigonometry These trigonometrical identities were set up by Keone Hon with slight modiﬁcation 1. β. and opposite angles α. cos(α + β) = cos α cos β − sin α sin β 4.4.by ﬁnding the quadrant 2 2 α that lies in) 2 α 1 + cos α =± (same as above) 2 2 α 1 − cos α sin α 6. cos 1 − 2 cos(2α) 2 1 + 2 cos(2α) 2. cos(α − β) = cos α cos β + sin α sin β 5. Area of triangle = s(s − a)(s − b)(s − c). sin(α − β) = sin α cos β − sin β cos α 3. -A. . and c. = = (Law of Sines) a b c 1. sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α 2. cos 2α = cos2 x − sin2 x = 2 cos2 x − 1 = 1 − 2 sin2 x 2 tan α 3. a+b+c (Heron’s Formula) where s = 2 β a c γ b α Fig.7. sin2 α = 4. tan = = 2 sin α 1 + cos α for formulas 3-6. sin α 1 − cos α =± (determine whether it is + or . b. TRIGONOMETRY 291 A. tan(α − β) = tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β 1.A. respectively 5.

292 APPENDIX A. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS .

146 B Bar–Meir’s instability. 170 Conservative force. 162 Averaged kinetic energy. 102 F First Law of Thermodynamics. 57. 191 dilettante. 59 Boundary Layer. 252 Counter–current ﬂow. 170 Convective acceleration. 172 Flow regime map. 60. 89 Cylindrical Coordinates. 185 Linear accelerate System. 249 Flow ﬁrst mode. 7. 268 horizontal counter–current ﬂow. 235 Hydrostatic pressure. 3 Atmospheric pressure. 90 Archimedes. 232 Flow regimes in one pipe. 253 Extended Open channel ﬂow. 185 Rotating Coordinate System. 236 Free expansion. 91 . 160. 253 Cut–out shapes. 20. 169 Energy Equation Accelerated System. 186 Energy equation Frictionless Flow. 64. 175 Counter–current Pulse ﬂow. 69. 68 Correction factor for averaged velocity. 11 Divergence Theorem. 69–71 Fully ﬂuidized bed. 183 Euler equations.SUBJECTS INDEX 293 Subjects Index A absolute viscosity. 69. 169 Fixed ﬂuidized bed. 94–96 buoyant force. 235 Compressibility factor. 60 Average Momentum. 192 Add momentum. 11 Body force. 192 Add mass. 69. 135 bulk modulus. 160. 11. 3 d‘Alembertian Operator. 235. 149 Average Velocity Integral Analysis. 73 Conduction. 175 Averaged momentum energy. 8. 234 Gauss-Ostrogradsky Theorem. 160 Arc shape. 21 buoyancy. 185 Convection. 249 C Co–current ﬂow. 105 Diﬀerential analysis. 228 Flow out tank. 3. 122 Density ratio. 183 Steady State. 12 Add Force. 57. 191 External forces. 237 E Energy conservation. 267 Deformable control volume. 268 H Harmonic function. 268 Double choking phenomenon. 71 eﬀective. 175 D D’Alembert paradox. 193 G Gas–gas ﬂow. 204 Correction factor. 192 Bingham’s model. 251 Annular ﬂow. 58. 253 Horizontal ﬂow.

71 Leibniz integral rule. 211 K Kinematic boundary condition. 103 Neutral stable. 122 Non–Linear Equations. 11 M “Magniﬁcation factor”. 104 Micro ﬂuids. 220 Multi–phase ﬂow. 268 Rocket mechanics. 191 . 275 Integral analysis big picture. 235 Orthogonal Coordinates. 6 Slip condition range. 219 Moving surface. 216 Segregated equations. 234 Local acceleration. 231 Multiphase ﬂow against the gravity. 237 Reynolds Transport Theorem. 277 Normal stress.294 APPENDIX A. 113. constant of integration. 60 Pneumatic conveying. 11 O Open channel ﬂow. 225 Concentric cylinders. 219 Moving surface Free surface. 274 Liquid phase. 247 N Navier-Stokes equations. 58. 204 Lockhart martinelli model. 246 P Pendulum action. 132 Limitation of the integral approach. 181 Linear acceleration. 114 Newtonian ﬂuids. 112. 248 Mixed ﬂuidized bed. 212 I Ideal gas. 8 No-slip condition. 66 Liquid–Liquid Regimes. 252 purely viscous ﬂuids. 1. 250 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow. 170 Rayleigh–Taylor instability. 11 Pulse ﬂow. 74 Linear operations. 64 Return path for ﬂow regimes. 219 kinematic viscosity. 147 index notation. 156 S Scalar function. 249 Momentum Conservation. 182 L Lapse rate. 140 Isotropic viscosity. 238 R Radiation. 219 Solid–ﬂuid ﬂow Gas dynamics aspects. 71. 228 Polynomial function. 218 Non–deformable control volume. 92 Pressure center. 88 Second Law of Thermodynamics. 282 shear stress. 111 Piezometric pressure. 269 Oscillating manometer. 63 Mass velocity. 84 pseudoplastic. 145 Momentum conservation. 209 Moving boundary. 64 Initial condition. 140 small picture. 204 Momentum equation Accelerated system. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Neutral moment Zero moment. 103. 240 Metacentric point. 132 Divergence Theorem. 183 Second viscosity coeﬃcient. 217 Minimum velocity solid–liquid ﬂow. 235 Real gas. 249 Poiseuille ﬂow.

216 Thermodynamical pressure. 90. 73 Stability analysis. 205 symmetry.SUBJECTS INDEX Solid–liquid ﬂow. 248 Thermal pressure. 216 thixotropic. 179 Terminal velocity. 241 U Unstable condition. 181 Total moment. 267 Westinghouse patent. 241 Liquid holdup. 263 Vectors Algebra. 97 Turbomachinary. 206 Cartesian coordinates. 69. 205 substantial derivative. 145 Triangle shape. 241 Quality of dryness. 254 Slip velocity. 60 Variables Separation 1st equation. 11 Torricelli’s equation. 12 Vectors. 234 T Tank emptying parameters. 264 Vertical counter–current ﬂow. 69 Unsteady State Momentum. 235 295 W Watson’s method. 208 transformation. 253 Stable condition. 110 stratiﬁed ﬂow. 235 Stress tensor. 206. 241 Reversal ﬂow. 279 . 95 cubic. 71. 102 Stability in counter–current ﬂow. 69 stability analysis. 203 Superﬁcial velocity. 252 Vertical ﬂow. 163 Two–Phase Gas superﬁcial velocity. 79 Transition to continuous. 241 Wetness fraction. 241 Void Fraction. 19 Wave Operator. 247 Solid–solid ﬂow. 236 Sutherland’s equation. 234 Spherical coordinates. 155 V Vapor pressure.

4 O Olivier Vallee. 285 P Pierre-Simon Laplace. 225 Poisson. 4 Blasius. 112 G Ganguillet. 232 Meye. 4 E Evangelista Torricelli. Hermann von. 268 N Navier. MATHEMATICS FOR FLUID MECHANICS Authors Index B Bhuckingham. 4 C Cichilli. 4 Stokes. 232 Taylor. 181 S Stanton. 4 Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky. 268 Poiseuille. 232. 4 Blasiu. 4. 4 Westinghouse. G. 4 T Taitle. Jean Louis. 191 Prandtl. 132 Rose. 234 K Kutta-Joukowski. 268 V von Karma. Osborne.I. George Gabriel. 191 Nikuradse. 4 Martinelli. 232 M Manning. Barr´. 191 e Duckler. 4 Gauss. 132 Lockhart. 4 W Weisbach. 4 H Helmholtz. 4 . Claude–Louis.296 APPENDIX A. 245 R Rayleigh. 4 L Leibniz. 191 F Fanning. 4 de Saint Venant. 112 Reynolds. 4 Froude. Carl Friedrich.. Simon-Denis. 245 D Darcy.

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