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Introduction to Geography

Introduction to Geography

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Published by: Elle Lising on Apr 13, 2011
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Introduction to Geography




Definition of Geography
y Literal translation of the word 

Writing about the earth. Came from the geo ± the earth and graphien ± to write

y Definition 

Study of spatial variation, of how and why things differ from place to place on the surface of the earth. It is further, the study of how observable spatial patterns evolved through time

economies. geographers measured the earth. and customs of the various parts of the Persian Empire as necessary background to an understanding of the causes and course of the Persian wars.Evolution of Geography y Strabo¶s interpretation    Geography is to ³describe the several parts of the inhabitated world« to write the assessment of the countries of the world [and] to treat the differences between countries.´ A pre-cursor on the studies done by Roman and Greek giving the assumption that the nature and actions of human were determined by the physical environment they inhabited. peoples. Devoted much of his writing to the lands. derived the global grid of parallels and meridians and drew upon the grid surprisingly sophisticated maps of their known world. Observed what humans do in their home and distant areas with the varying landscape of the earth as their backdrop y Herotodus  y Greeks and Romans   . Observed that humans were the active elements in a human-environmental partnership.

Focused on patterns and processes of the physical landscape as the early interest. zoology. Undertook to describe and analyze their known world in its physical. botany. trade statistics and ethnomology studies gave firmer foundation to human geographic investigation y Muslims  y Traditional academic discipline    .Evolution of Geography y Chinese  Chinese geographers follow after the theories and interests and were as involved in geography as an explanatory point of view as were westerners although exchange of information between the easterners and westerners did not occur. as were concern with humans as part of the earth¶s variation from place to place 18th century ± development of geology. climatology and other natural sciences strengthened geographic investigation and increased scholarly and popular awareness of the intricate relationship between places. cultural and regional variation 17th century . 19th century ± national census.

geography examines relationships between human societies and natural environments that they occupy and modify.Dominating interests in Geography y 1st ± Spatial variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth. y 2nd ± Focus on the spatial systems that link physical phenomena and human activities in one area of the earth with other area. y 3rd ± Regional analysis ± geography studies human ± environmental (or ecological) relationships and spatial systems on specific locational settings .

Etc. and what kinds of landscape of human use they erect on the natural landscape they occupy. Ù  Human geography Ù Emphasizes on people. with atmospheric conditions and climatic patterns. Ù Concerns landforms and their distribution. what they are like.Branches of Geography y Systematic Geographic  Physical geography Directs its attention to the natural environmental side of the human-environmental structure. how they interact over space. . where they are.

Core Geographic Concepts y In summary. y The word spatial for geographers always carries around the idea of how things are distributed. y As such. the phenomena where things inter-relate with each other are called spatial relationship. explaining how humans and object interact with each other in a space ± the earth. . geography uses the term spatial to describe the relationship between the physical geography to human. cultural and other concepts.

Core Geographic Concepts .Location Absolute location y Identification of place by Relative location y Position of a place or a precise and accepted system of coordinates y Sometimes called mathematical locations y Every area has a unique identifier for absolute locations y Latitudes and longitudes thing in relation to that of other places or things y Expresses spatial interconnection and interdependence and may carry social and economic implications .

y An expression of relative location with particular reference to items of significance to the place in question .Core Geographic Concepts . refers to the physical and cultural characteristics and attributes of the place itself y Tells something about the internal features of the place y Refers to the external relations of the locale.Location Site Situation y An absolute location concept.

the sky location of the noontime sun.Core Geographic Concepts ± Direction Absolute direction y Based on the cardinal Relative or relational direction points of north. west y Appears uniformly and independently in all cultures. etc. south. y Directional references that are culturally based and locationally variable . east. derived from the obvious givens of nature: the rising and the setting of the sun for east and west.

kilometers. feet measurement into other units more meaningful for the space relationship in question .Core Geographic Concepts ± Distance Absolute distance Relative distance y Refers to the spatial y Transforms linear separation between two points in the earth¶s surface y measured by an accepted standard unit such as miles.

Size and Scale y Scale  Tells the relationship between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of the mapped area on the surface of the earth  Implies the degree of generalization represented  Maybe applied to other concepts and relations like climate. trade. etc . economic condition.

terrain features and the like. mineral resources. water suppliers. but no dictate. y Visible imprint of human activity in a given area y Exists at different scales and at different levels of visibility . how people live. y Provides the setting within which human actions occur y Help shape.Physical and Cultural Attributes Natural landscape y Physical characteristics Cultural landscape of a place such as its climate. soil.

Interrelations Between Places Accessibility Connectivity y Assessment that y Broader concept that considers distance between two places or objects in question implying all the tangible and intangible ways in which places are connected .

cultural. economic and environmental processes become international in scale and effect. y Promoted by continuing advances in worldwide accessibility. . connectivity and diffusion. political. interconnection of all societies in all parts of the world as the full range of social.Interrelations Between Places Spatial diffusion y Process of dispersion of Globalization y Implies the increasing an idea or thing from a center of origin to more distant points y Rate and extent of diffusion are affected by the distance separating the origin of the new idea or technology and other places where it is eventually adopted.

Place Similarity and Regions y Core ideas  1st ± No two places in the surface of the earth can be exactly the same Ù Implies that places do not only have different absolute locations but the features of the human face. the precise mixture of physical and cultural characteristics is never duplicated  2nd ± Natural and cultural characteristics of places show patterns of similarity in some areas Ù This gives way to the concept of regions .

Place Similarity and Regions y Regions  Does not naturally occur but are devised  These are spatial summaries designed to bring order to the infinite diversity of the earth¶s surface  Based on the recognition and mapping of spatial distributions ± the territorial occurrence of environmental. human or organizational features selected fro study .

Regions Formal region y One of the essential Functional region y May be visualized as spatial uniformity in one or a limited number of limited number of related physical or cultural features y A state is an example of formal region where there are defined laws and government system y Its parts are interdependent and throughout its extent the function regions operates as a dynamic organization unit y Has unity not in the sense of static content but in the manner of its operational connectivity y Has a node or core area surrounded by the total region defined by the type of control exerted .

Five Fundamental Themes of Geography y Location: the meaning of relative and absolute y y y y position on the earth¶s surface Place: the distinctive and distinguishing physical and human characteristics of locales Relationships within places: the development and consequences of human-environmental relationships Movement: Patterns and change in human spatial interaction on the earth Regions: How they form and change .

Judith Getis.Source: y Introduction to Geography  Jerome Donald Fellmann. 2006 . Arthur Getis.

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