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SJ-5112 1011 3B Horizontal Alignment

SJ-5112 1011 3B Horizontal Alignment

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SJ-5112 Perancangan Geometrik Jalan

Element of Design Sony Sulaksono Wibowo, Ph.D
Element of Design
o Sight Distance
o Horizontal Alignment
o Vertical Alignment
o Cross Section
Horizontal Alignment
Concept of Superelevation and Simple Horizontal Curves
Principles of Highway Alignment
o The alignment of a highway is a three dimensional
problem with measurement in x, y, and z dimensions
Principles of Highway Alignment
PROVINSI NAD
KP2T JALAN/JEMBATAN
HORIZONTAL = 1 : 1000
VERTIKAL = 1 : 100
STA
A
N
TO
D
A
D
A
N
G
13 NAD 2006
STA. 3+403,35 - 4+000
PENAMPANG MEMANJANG JALAN (SEKSI 02)
LEMBAR NO JML LEMBAR PROVINSI K P / THN PROYEK
N
O
M
O
R
M
E
M
A
N
JA
N
G
N
O
T
A
S
I B
A
N
G
U
N
A
N
D
IP
E
R
IK
S
A
P
A
T
O
K
-P
A
T
O
K
D
IP
E
R
IK
S
A
K
E
M
IR
IN
G
A
N
D
IP
E
R
IK
S
A
D
IG
A
M
B
AR
B
U
K
U
U
K
U
R
D
IU
K
U
R
P
O
T
O
N
G
A
N

T
A
N
G
G
A
L
O
LE
H
P
E
K
E
R
JA
AN
120
PI 1
PI 2
PI 3
PI 4
PVI 1
PVI 2
PVI 3
PVI 4
3+403,35
9,052 9,052 W
2,263 2,263
6 (-)
6 (+) TC CT
- 2 %
0 %
6,789 6,789
7,784
41,909 41,909 W
10,477 10,477
6 (-)
6 (+) TC CT
- 2 %
0 %
31,432 31,432
34,782
53,633 53,633 W
10,477 10,477
6 (-)
6 (+) TC CT
- 2 %
0 %
31,432 31,432
30,206
21,458 21,458 W
5,364 5,364
6 (-)
6 (+) TC CT
- 2 %
0 %
16,093 16,093
12,122
BRG
M
A
K
A
M

I
S
L
A
M
3
+
4
0
3
.
3
5
3
+
5
0
0
3
+
5
5
0
3
+
6
0
0
3
+
6
5
0
3+
70
0
3+
75
0
3
+
8
0
0
3
+
8
5
0
3
+
9
0
0 3
+
9
5
0 4
+
0
0
0
3
+
3
5
0
3
+
4
0
0
3
+
4
0
3
.
3
5
3
+
3
5
0
3
+
4
0
0
3
+
4
0
3
.
3
5
P
C
=

3
+
5
0
0
.
6
6
P
T
=

3
+
5
1
6
.2
0 P
C
=
3
+
5
6
4
.6
5
P
T

=

3
+
6
3
1
.
6
0
PC = 3+775.54
P
T

=

3
+
8
2
7
.
2
8
P
C

=

3
+
8
4
6
.
5
1
P
T

=
3
+
8
7
0
.
6
3
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
3+500 3+600 3+700 3+800 3+900 4+000
1
0
.
2
8
6
1
0
.
4
4
4
1
0
.
2
3
3
9
.
7
8
8
9
.
3
8
2
9
.
1
5
3
9
.
0
6
2
9
.
3
3
3
9
.
5
4
2
9
.
4
9
5
9
.
4
0
5
9
.
0
4
4
9
.
0
0
0
9
.
0
0
0
7 0 . 0 0 0 0 mVC
B
V
C
S
: 3
+
4
2
5
B
V
C
E
: 1
0
.3
5
3
E
V
C
S
: 3
+
4
9
5
E
V
C
E
: 1
0
.2
3
7
1
0
.3
8
8
5 0 .0 00 0 mVC
B
V
C
S
: 3
+
6
5
6
.5
0
B
V
C
E
: 9
.2
0
5
E
V
C
S
: 3
+
7
0
6
.5
0
E
V
C
E
: 9
.1
6
5
9
.1
3
9
1
0
.2
0
5
9
.8
8
6
9
.5
6
6
9
.2
4
7
5 0. 00 0 0 mVC
B
V
C
S
: 3
+
7
6
4
.3
9
B
V
C
E
: 9
.4
4
2
E
V
C
S
: 3
+
8
1
4
.3
9
E
V
C
E
: 9
.5
0
1
9
.5
2
1
9
.3
7
4
6 0 .0 0 0 0m VC
B
V
C
S
: 3
+
9
9
0
B
V
C
E
: 9
.0
7
3
E
V
C
S
: 4
+
0
5
0
E
V
C
E
: 8
.9
9
9
9
.0
5
1
8
.9
9
9
9
.4
1
4
9
.2
9
3
9
.1
7
1
8
.9
9
9
Horizontal Alignment
o Design based on appropriate relationship between
design speed and curvature and their relationship
with side friction and superelevation
o Along circular path, vehicle attempts to maintain its
direction (via inertia)
o Turning the front wheels, side friction and
superelevation generate an acceleration to offset
inertia
Horizontal Alignment
o ‘Components’ of Horizontal Alignment
Tangents
Curves need superelevation
Transitions
NC
RC
Horizontal Alignment
o The critical aspect of horizontal alignment is the
horizontal curve that focuses on the design of the
directional transition of the roadway in the
horizontal plane.
o A horizontal curve provides a transition between the
straight (or tangent) sections of roadways.
Horizontal Alignment
o The highway engineer must design a horizontal
alignment to accommodate a variety of vehicles
cornering capabilities that range from nimble sport
cars to ponderous trucks.
o Horizontal alignment deals with the positioning,
layout, and design of different types of curves and
their features (superelevation)
Horizontal Alignment
Horizontal Alignment
R
V
f
jam km V dtk m g
gR
V
f G f
gR
GV
127
/ , / 8 , 9
.
2
2
2 2
= ∴
= =
= ⇒ =
StadiumI:
Gaya sentrifugal diimbangi gesekan ban dengan perkerasan saja
G = berat kendaraan; g = percepatan gravitasi
Horizontal Alignment
StadiumII:
Gaya sentrifugal diimbangi kemiringan melintang jalan
R
V
e e
gR
V
e
gR
V
G
gR
GV
127
tan
tan cos / sin
sin cos
2 2
2
2
= → =
≡ ≅ ⇒ <<
= =
=
α α α
α α α
α α
Horizontal Alignment
StadiumIII:
Gaya sentrifugal diimbangi oleh gaya gesek melintang dan
kemiringan melintang jalan
R
V
f e e f
gR
V
e f
gR
V
G G f
gR
GV
G G f
gR
GV
127
maka , tan bila , tan
) cos / (sin
sin cos cos
2 2
2
2
2
= + → + =
= + =
+ =
+ =
α α
α α
α α α
Horizontal Alignment
o if the increases the increases as well
o thus, for a value of V:
f e
R
V
+ =
127
2
f e +
R
V
127
2
max max
min
2
127
f e
R
V
+ =
how to determine superelevation since there are many possibilities of f values?
Side Friction Factor, f
o Representing the lateral acceleration that acts on the
vehicle
o Wide variation in vehicle speed unbalanced force
whether the curve is superelevated or not
o The upper limit point at which the tire would begin to
skid (point of impending skid, ‘kondisi dimana
terjadinya slip’)
o Note that highway curves are design to avoid skidding
(‘slip’ in Indonesia terminology) condition with a margin
of safety
The f in design should be substantially less than the coeff. of
friction at impending skid
Side Friction Factor, f
o The side friction factor at impending skid depends on a
number of factors
Speed of the vehicle
Type and condition of the roadway surface
Type and condition of the vehicle tires
o Study results:
Max. side friction factors b/w new tires and wet concrete
pavements range from about 0.5 at 30 km/h to approx. 0.35 at
100 km/h
Wet concrete pavements and smooth tires about 0.35 at 70
km/h
In all cases, a decrease in friction values as speeds increase
Side Friction Factor, f
o Key consideration in selecting maximum side friction
The condition that drivers experiences a feeling of
discomfort and reacting instinctively to avoid higher speed
The speed on a curve (tikungan) at which discomfort
emerging could be accepted as a design control for the
maximum side friction factor
Ball-bank indicator:
Various Values of Side Friction, f
Various Values of Side Friction, f
Recommended Values of Side Friction, f
Recommended value of f
max
is the thick line
o 0,17 for speed of 30 km/jam
o 0.14 for speed of 80 km/jam
o 0.08 for speed of 130 km/jam
Maximum Superelevation, e
o The maximum rates of superelevation (kemiringan permukaan
jalan) on highways are controlled by four factors:
Climate condition, i.e. freq. and amount of snow and ice
Terrain conditions, i.e. flat, rolling, or mountainous
Type of area, i.e. rural or urban
Freq. of very slow-moving vehicles
o Some notes (cited from AASHTO, 2001):
Suggested value of e
max
: 4%; 6%; 8%; 10%; 12%
Common use for highways is e
max
= 10%
e
max
= 12% where snow and ice do not exist
e
max
= 12% snow and ice exist
e
max
= 4% to 6% traffic congestion or a restriction of top speed
Maximum Superelevation, e
o Other notes:
Several rates rather than a single rate of maximum superelevation
A rate of 12% should not be exceeded
A rate of 4% to 6% is applicable for urban design
Superelevation may be omitted on low-speed urban streets where
severe constraints are present
o Common uses in Indonesia:
Rural area: e
max
= 10%
Urban area: e
max
= 6%
In urban built-up areas might not need superelevation
In toll road design, it is commonly used 8%
Notes on Superelevation
o The minimum rate of cross slope (kemiringan
melintang jalan) applicable to the travelled way id
determined by drainage needs
The minimum values range from 1.5% (high-type surfaces)
to 2.0% (low-type surfaces)
o Indonesia:
Commonly use 2% for all surfaces
3% to 4% might be applied on gravel roads (known in
Indonesia as ‘Makadam’ or ‘Penetrasi Makadam’)
Minimum Radius, R
min
, of Curvature
o The minimum radius is a limiting value of curvature
for a given design speed
o It is determined from maximum rate of
superelevation and the maximum side friction factor
o Based on a threshold of driver comfort, rather than
safety – why?
o An important control value for determination of
superelevation rates for flatter curve – how?
Minimum Radius for Design of Rural
Highway, Urban Freeways, and High-
Speed Urban Street using Limiting
value of e and f
Methods of
Distributing e and f
Methods of Distributing e and f
o Method 1:
Superelevation and side friction are directly proportional to the inverse of the
radius (i.e. a straight-line relation exists between 1/R = 0 and 1/R = l/Rmin)
o Method 2:
For sharper curves, f remains equal to fmax and superelevation is then used to
sustain lateral acceleration until e reaches emax. In this method, first f and then e
are increased in inverse proportion to the radius of curvature.
o Method 3:
For sharper curves, e remains at emax and side friction is then used to sustain
lateral acceleration until, f reaches fmax. In this method, first e and then f are
increased in inverse proportion to the radius of curvature.
o Method 4:
This method is the same as method 3, except that it is based on average running
speed instead of design speed.
o Method 5:
Superelevation and side friction are in a curvilinear relation with the inverse of
the radius of the curve, with values between those of methods 1 and 3.
Methods of Distributing
Superelevation and Side Friction
Method 5 Procedure for
Development of the
Finalized e Distribution
Design Superelevation Rates
Design Superelevation Tables
o Based on Method 5
o Vehicles can travel safely at speeds higher than the
design speed on horizontal curves with superelevation
rates indicated in the tables
o The use of side friction factors are generally considerably
less than can be achieved – why?
o “Normal cross slope” (NC) curves that are so flat that
the elimination of adverse slope is not considered
o “Remove cross slope” (RC) it is adequate to eliminate
the adverse cross slope by superelevating the entire
roadway at the normal cross slope
Tangent-to-Curve Transition
o Tangent Runout Section (potongan melintang bagian
lurus):
o Superelevation (Curvature) Runout Section
(potongan melintang bagian tikungan):
length of roadway is needed to
accomplish a change from normal
section to rotated section and back
to normal section
Superelevation
o Transitions from crowned sections to
superelevations sections should be gradual
o Superelevation introduced and removed uniformly
over the length of the curve
o To superelevate – rotate about an axis on the cross-
section
Superelevation
o Superelevation Transition Distance:
(jarak untuk merubah dari bentuk normal ke superelevasi)
Superelevation – runoff length
o In AASHTO 1994, the runoff length should be at
least 2.0 sec. at the design speed
This criterion gives small superelevation rates
Problems associated with pavement drainage in the
transition section
Some agencies (among US agencies) do not this control
o AASHTO 2001:
It is comfortable and aesthetically pleasing runoff design
attaining by using maximum relative gradient or
suprelevation runoff rate
Superelevation
o Tangent Runout, L
t
Tangent Runoff, Crown Runoff
Gradual change from normal crowned section to a point
where the adverse cross slope is removed
Adverse cross slope is removed when elevation of outside
of pavement is equal to the centerline elevation
Inside pavement is unchanged
Superelevation - Tangent Runout
Superelevation - Tangent Runout
o Minimum Length of Tangent Runout (AASHTO,
2001)
e
NC
: Rate of Normal Cross Slope
e
d
: Design Superelevation Rate
L
r
: Minimum Length of Superelevation Runoff
r
d
NC
t
L
e
e
L =
Superelevation
o Superelevation Runoff, L
r
Gradual change from end of tangent runout to a cross
section that is fully superelevated
Rate of transition, Relative Gradient = superelevation
runoff rate (SRR)
Superelevation - Superelevation Runoff
Superelevation - Superelevation Runoff
o Minimum Length (AASHTO, 2001)
w: width of one travel lane, m
n
l
: number of lane(s) rotated
e
d
: Design Superelevation Rate
b
w
: adjustment factor for number of lanes rotated
∆: Maximum Relative Gradient or superelevation runoff rate
(SRR)
( )
( )
w
d l
r
b
e wn
L

=
Superelevation - Superelevation Runoff
o Maximum Relative Gradient
Superelevation - Superelevation Runoff
o Adjustment factor for number of lanes rotated, b
w
:
Superelevation Profile
Two-Lane Highway – Centerline Rotation
Normal Crown
Horizontal
Tangent Runout/Crown Runoff
Superelevation Runoff
Superelevation Achieved
Visual Effect of Having a Spiral Curve
before a simple horizontal curve
Smooth transition from
tangent to curve
The sharp “corners” at the
juncture of curve and tangent
section may become obvious to
from the driver’s seat especially
when the radius is small.
Example:
o A horizontal curve on radius of 800 meters has 3.6
meters lane and crown cross-slope of 0.02 m/m
(kemiringan melintang normal, NC, 2%). The design
speed is 80 km/h and according to the maximum
superelevation of 10%, the required superelevation is
0.043 (4.3%).
o Determine Superelevation Runoff and Tangent
Runout for two-lane and four-lane highway.
Answer:
o Data:
V
design
= 80 km/h ∆ = 0.50 (see the previous slide)
e
max
= 10%
e
NC
= 2%
e
d
= 4.3%
w = 3.6 m
n
1
for two-lane = 1 b
w
= 1.00 (see the previous slide)
n
1
for four-lane = 2 b
w
= 0.75
o Formula:
Superelevation Runoff:
Tangent Runout:
( )
( )
w
d l
r
b
e wn
L

=
r
d
NC
t
L
e
e
L =
Answer:
o Answer:
Superelevation Runoff:
two-lane:
four-lane:
Tangent Runout:
two-lane:
four-lane:
( )
( )
( )
( ) meters 31 96 . 30 00 . 1
5 . 0
3 . 4 1 6 . 3
≈ =
⋅ ⋅
=

=
w
d l
r
b
e wn
L
( )
( )
( )
( ) meters 46 44 . 46 75 . 0
5 . 0
3 . 4 2 6 . 3
≈ =
⋅ ⋅
=

=
w
d l
r
b
e wn
L
( ) meters 0 . 14 4 . 14 96 . 30
3 . 4
0 . 2
≈ = = =
r
d
NC
t
L
e
e
L
( ) meters 0 . 27 6 . 21 44 . 46
3 . 4
0 . 2
≈ = = =
r
d
NC
t
L
e
e
L
Tangent-to-Curve Transition
Diagrammatic of Attaining Superevelation
Applying the Superelevation
Simple Horizontal Curves
o Based on how the final superelevation being
developed:
Circular Curves
Superelevation runoff developed 2/3 on tangent and 1/3 on curve
Spiral Curves
The superelevation runoff completely developed on length of
spiral
Circular Curve with Spiral (S-C-S)
( )
( )
( )
Ls Lc L
R
p R
Es
k p R Ts
s R Yc p
s R Xc k
R
Ls
Ls Xc
R
Ls
Yc
R
c
Lc
s c
R
Ls
s
total
2
2
cos
2
tan
cos 1
sin
40
6
2
360
2
2
360
2
2
3
2
+ =


+
=
+

+ =
− − =
− =
− =
=

=
− ∆ = ∆
=
θ
θ
π
θ
π
θ
Diagrammatic of Attaining Superevelation
Full Spiral Curve (S-S)
( )
( )
( )
Ls L
R
p R
Es
k p R Ts
s R Yc p
s R Xc k
R
Ls
Ls Xc
R
Ls
Yc
Lc
c
s
total
2
2
cos
2
tan
cos 1
sin
40
6
0
0
2
3
2
2
1
=


+
=
+

+ =
− − =
− =
− =
=
=
= ∆
∆ =
θ
θ
θ
Diagrammatic of Attaining Superevelation
Simple Circular Curve (FC-Full Circle)
∆ =
∆ =

=
∆ =
4
1
4
1
0
2
1
tan
tan
2
360
tan
Tc Ec
atau
Tc Ec
R Lc
R Tc
π
R
O
TC
CT
Ec
PI
R
∆ ∆∆ ∆
∆ ∆∆ ∆/2 ∆ ∆∆ ∆/2
Tc
Lc
Diagrammatic of Attaining Superevelation
Combined Curves
o Combined Curves atau Tikungan gabungan adalah dua atau
lebih tikungan yang bersebelahan
o Dapat dibedakan menjadi Tikungan Gabungan Searah dan
Tikungan Gabungan Balik Arah
Tikungan Gabungan Searah yaitu gabungan dua atau lebih tikungan
dengan arah putar yang sama
Tikungan Gabungan Balik Arah yaitu gabungan dua tikungan dengan
arah putar yang berbeda.
Pada dasarnya tikungan gabungan searah kurang disarankan untuk
digunakan.
Penggunaan tikungan gabungan searah pada kondisi khusus dapat
diterapkan dengan menyediakan bagian lurus atau spiral diantara dua
tikungan yang bersebelahan.
Stationing
Stationing and Stacking Out
o Stationing:
Straight lines with distances continuous from the beginning to the end
of planned road
Specific station labels are given into vital points on the planned road
The distances with interval of 50 m or 100 m
Points of intersection (PI), Points of Vertical Intersection (PVI), Transition
points, etc.
Format of stationing label: X+YYY,ZZZ km
e.g.12+345,600 means a 12, 345.600 km away from the beginning.
o Stacking Out
“A drawing” of station points on the land surface
Locking in reference points azimuth, distance, GPS coordinates
Stationing for Horizontal and Vertical Alignment
Horizontal Alignment
Vertical Alignment
Stasioning
o Jarak A-PI
1
=d
1
, PI
1
-PI
2
=d
2
dan PI
2
-D=d
3
o A = titik awal dan D = titik akhir
o TS – SC = CS – ST = Ls
o SC – CS = Lc
o TS – PI = Ts
A
d
1
d
2
Tikungan 1
Tikungan 2
D
Stasioning:
o Sta A = 1+234,567
o Sta TS
1
= Sta A + d
1
– Ts
1
o Sta SC
1
= Sta TS
1
+ Ls
1
o Sta CS
1
= Sta SC
1
+ Lc
1
o Sta ST
1
= Sta CS
1
+ Ls
1
1
1
1
1
1
Pelebaran Perkerasan Jalan di
Tikungan
Pelebaran Perkerasan (Jalur) di Tikungan
o Untuk memberikan kebebasan mengemudi di tikungan (jejak
kendaraan tetap di dalam tikungan dan dalam lajurnya).
o Besar Lebar total:
B = n (b' + C) + (n-1) Td + z
dimana :
n = Jumlah lajur Ialu lintas
b’ = Lebar lintasan truk di tikungan
T = Lebar melintang akibat tonjolan depan
z = Lebar tambahan akibat kelainan pengemudi
C = Kebebasan samping = 0,8 m
o Untuk B ada > B perlu tidak perlu pelebaran
o Umunya terjadi bila R besar (>1200m) dan atau ∆ kecil (10°)
Pelebaran (Jalur) di Tikungan
Pelebaran (Jalur) di Tikungan
Pelebaran (Jalur) di Tikungan
Pelebaran (Jalur) di Tikungan
Pelebaran di Tikungan
Kebebasan Pandangan
Pandangan Bebas di Tikungan
o Jarak yang diperlukan untuk memenuhi syarat jarak
pandang
o Panjangnya tergantung jari-jari (R ), Kecepatan
Rencana (V) dan keadaan lapangan.
o Terdapat dua kemungkinan keadaan.
Pandangan Bebas di Tikungan
o Jarak pandangan < panjang tikungan;
o S<L):Jarak Pandang > Panjang Tikungan; S>L):
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
R π
S 90
cos 1 R
o
M
( )
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− +
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
R π
S 90
sin L S
R π
S 90
cos 1 R M
o
2
1
o
dengan:
R:Jari-jari tikungan (m)
S:Jarak pandang henti (m)
L:Panjang Tikungan (m)
E:Jarak Pandangan Bebas (m)
Pandangan Bebas di Tikungan
Length of Superelevation Run Off
atau Lengkung Peralihan
Special Notes
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Panjang Lengkung Transisi, Panjang Lengkung Spiral
o Panjang lengkung peralihan ditetapkan atas pertimbangan
bahwa:
Untuk menghindari kesan perubahan mendadak, nilai Ls dibatasi dan
ditetapkan 3 detik dari kecepatan rencana.
Antisipasi terhadap berangsurnya gaya sentrifugal yang terjadi pada
Ls.
Tingkat perubahan kelandaian melintang jalan (r
e
) dari bentuk e
normal
ke e rencana tidak boleh melebihi r
e-maks
o Tata Perencanaan Geometrik Jalan Antar Kota, Departemen
PU, Ditjen Bina Marga, 1997
untuk kecepatan rencana < 70 km/jam, r
e-maks
= 0,035 m/m/detik
untuk kecepatan rencana > 80 km/jam, r
e-maks
= 0,025 m/m/detik.
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Panjang Lengkung Transisi, Panjang Lengkung Spiral
o Percapaian kemiringan
Panjang jalan yang diperlukan untuk melakukan
perubahan superelevasi jalan dari e
n
(normal crown)
sampai e
p
(superelevasi penuh) atau sebaliknya.
o Panjang lengkung peralihan harus:
Memenuhi kenyamanan dan keamanan pencapaian
kemiringan
Pencapaian kemiringan terjadi secara teratur/seragam
Tepi perkerasan kelihatan tidak patah-patah (appearance yg
bagus)
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Panjang Lengkung Transisi, Panjang Lengkung Spiral
o Kelandaian relatif, (1/m), yaitu kemiringan tepi
perkerasan relatif terhadap sumbu putar perkerasan
jalan (sumbu jalan)
o Bila b adalah lebar lajur jalan dan e
p
adalah
superelevasi penuh jalan maka panjang lengkung
peralihan adalah:
Ls
min
= b . m . e
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Konsep percapaian kemiringan
e
p
= h
1
/b dan e
n
= h
2
/b
h = h
1
+ h
2
= (e
p
+ e
n
).b
Kelandaian relatif, 1/m, = h / Ls
Ls = h.m = (e
p
+ e
n
).b.m
Metoda BM - lama
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Dengan konsep percapaian kemiringan
e
p
= h
1
/b dan e
n
= h
2
/b
h = h
1
= (e
p
).b
Kelandaian relatif, 1/m, = h / Ls
Ls = h.m = (e
p
).b.m
Metoda BM - baru
Kelandaian Relatif
AASHTO, 2001
Kecepatan Rencana
(km/jam)
Gradient relatif
maksimum (%)
Kelandaian Relatitf
maksimum
20 0,80 1 : 125
30 0,75 1 : 133
40 0,70 1 : 143
50 0,65 1 : 150
60 0,60 1 : 167
70 0,55 1 : 182
80 0,50 1 : 200
90 0,47 1 : 213
100 0,44 1 : 227
110 0,41 1 : 244
120 0,38 1 : 263
130 0,35 1 : 286
Konsep Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
min
AASHTO, 2001
w
d l
r
b
e n w
L ⋅

⋅ ⋅
=
dimana:
w : width of one travel lane, m
n
l
: number of lane(s) rotated
e
d
: Design Superelevation Rate
b
w
: adjustment factor for number of lanes rotated
∆ : Maximum Relative Gradient or
superelevation runoff rate (SRR)
Parameter Perhitungan Ls
min
AASHTO, 2001
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Konsep Perubahan Percepatan
o Di sepanjang lengkung spiral, Ls, kendaraan
mengalami 2 macam perubahan, yaitu:
perubahan gaya sentrifugal, atau tepatnya percepatan
sentrifugal karena massa tetap, dari nol di awal lengkung
peralihan menjadi sebesar V
2
/R di akhir lengkung
peralihan
perubahan kedudukan dari datar (e
n
) di awal lengkung
menjadi sebesar superelevasi penuh e
p
di akhir lengkung
peralihan.
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Konsep Perubahan Percepatan
Ls R
V
Ls/V
/R V
C

= =
3 2
waktu sepanjang lengkung peralihan: t = Ls/V
percepatan arah radial: V
2
/R
perubahan percepatan radial terhadap waktu:
atau
C R
V
C R
V
Ls

=

=
3 3
021 , 0
dengan V = kecepatan rencana , km/jam
R = jari-jari busur lingkaran, meter
C = perubahan percepatan, m/det
3
Ls = panjang spiral, meter
Shortt Formula: umum digunakan di jalan rel
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Konsep Perubahan Percepatan dg Pengaruh Kemiringan
Ls
gVk
Ls R
V
Ls/V
k g /R V
C −

=
⋅ −
=
3 2
waktu sepanjang lengkung peralihan: t = Ls/V
percepatan arah radial, dg pengaruh superelevasi:
perubahan percepatan radial terhadap waktu:
atau dg g = 9.81 m/s
2
C
Vk
C R
V
Ls 725 , 2 021 , 0
3


=
V
2
/R – g.k
k ≡ sin dan sudut kemiringan
Modified Shortt Formula
Untuk jalan
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Metode-metode Perhitungan
o Berdasarkan waktu tempuh di lengkung peralihan:
o Berdasarkan perubahan gaya sentrifugal:
T
V
Ls
r
6 , 3
=
dengan:
Vr = kecepatan rencana (km/jam)
Ls = panjang lengkung peralihan (m)
T = waktu tempuh di Ls, diambil 3 detik
C
e V
C R
V
Ls
r r

− = 725 , 2
.
021 , 0
dengan:
Vr = kecepatan rencana (km/jam)
Ls = panjang lengkung peralihan (m)
e = superelevasi penuh
R = jari-jari tikungan (m)
C = perubahan percepatan radial (m/s
3
)
Perubahan Percepatan Radial, C
o Di Amerika nilai C berkisar antara 1,8 - 2,1 m/det
3
.
o Di Inggris digunakan nilai C = 0,3 m/det.
o Oleh Shortt nilai C dimaksudkan untuk jalan rel tanpa
memperhitungkan superelevasi.
o Untuk jalan, digunakan nilai C = 0,6 m/det.
o Rumus Modified Shortt dianjurkan nilai C = 0,4 m/det.
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Metode-metode Perhitungan
o Berdasarkan tingkat pencapaian perubahan kelandaian
e
r n p
r
V e e
Ls

⋅ −
=
6 , 3
) (
dengan:
Vr = kecepatan rencana (km/jam)
Ls = panjang lengkung peralihan (m)
e
p
= superelevasi penuh
e
n
= superelevasi normal (umumnya 2%)
r
e
= tingkat pencapaian perubahan kemiringan melintang jalan,
Vrencana ≤ 70 km/jam re-maks = 0,035 m/m/detik
Vrencana ≥ 80 km/jam re-maks = 0,025 m/m/detik
Panjang Lengkung Peralihan, Ls
Metode-metode Perhitungan
o Berdasarkan rumus spiral:
o Berdasarkan kelandaian relatif :
R Ls
s
⋅ ⋅ = θ 2
dengan:
Ls = lengkung spiral,
θs = sudut spiral
R = jari-jari tikungan
dengan:
Ls = lengkung spiral,
b = lebar lajur,
m = kelandaian relatif
e
n
= superelevasi normal,
e
p
= superelevasi penuh.
( )
p n
e e m b Ls + ⋅ ⋅ =
Lengkung Tertajam Tanpa Superelevasi
o Sesuai dengan tipe permukaan, superelevasi normal, e
n
antara 1,5% - 2,0%
o Superelevasi normal ditentukan oleh keperluan drainase
permukaan jalan
o Tikungan yang sangat tumpul (radius cukup besar) tidak
perlu superelevasi
o Untuk tikungan dengan e
n
Mobil di jalur dalam tikungan mempunyai superelevasi positif
Mobil di jalur luar tikungan mempunyai superelevasi negatif
Lengkung Tertajam Tanpa Superelevasi
o Makin tajam lengkungan, makin besar nilai superelevasi.
o Untuk kecepatan yang sama dan radius yang lebih kecil,
e
neg
dan percepatan lateral akan sama dengan nilai f yang
timbul
o Hubungan Superelevasi – Kecepatan – Lengkungan
digunakan untuk menentukan lengkung minimum yang
sudah memerlukan e atau lengkung maksimum dengan
e
n
Untuk tiap kecepatan rencana ditentukan dengan pertimbangan
nilai lebih rendah faktor gesekan melintang dengan
memperhatikan e
n
dan pergerakan kedua arah lalu-lintas
Lengkung Tertajam Tanpa Superelevasi
AASHTO, 2001
end of this part

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