DATA BOOK FOR CIVIL ENGINEERS

DESIGN

THIRD EDITION

ELWYN E. SEELYE

~i., ...

. With special acknowledgment to

MORTON C. SIMMONS

(

~ I~~- ./

JOHN WILEY AND SONS, Inc.

NEW YORK-LONDON-SYDNEY

.>:

Contents

1. STRUCTURAL GENERAL

Unit Stresses Properties of Materials Unit Weights .

Live Loads ..... Wind Design

Wall Thickness Fireproofing Requirements

Gages .

Chains and Wire Ropes. . Formulas-Properties of Sections

Approximate Solution .

Earthquakes .

Formulas-Torsion & Skin Stresses

Trusses .

Errors and Remedies Masonry .. General Notes . .

PAGE 1-01 to 1-07 1-08 1-09

1-10 to 1-14 1-15 1-16 1-17 1-18 1-19

1-20, 1-21 1-22 1-23 1-24 1-2~ 1-26

1-27,1-28 1-29

2. STRUCTURAL CONCRETE

Mixes and Properties of Lightweight Concrete . 2-01

Typical Beam Details and Anchorage Requirements 2-02

Typical Slab Details . . . . . . . . . . 2-03

Miscellaneous Requirements of A.C.!' Code 2-04

Flat Slabs . . . . 2-05, 2-06

Two-Way Slabs . . . . . 2-07,2-08

Beam Tables . . . . . . 2-09 to 2-13

Stirrup Design. . . . . . 2-14

Concrete Floor Slab Design . . . 2-15

Reinforcement Design and Details 2-16 to 2-18

Column Details . . . . . . . . . 2-19,2-26

Column Design Tables . . . . . . . . 2-20 to 2-25, 2-27 to 2-33 Prestressed-Method, Usage, and Properties of Reinforcement 2-50

Prestressed-Formula and Nomenclature . . . . 2-51

Prestressed-Application . . . . . . . . . .. . 2-52, 2-53

Ultimate Strength-Usage, Factors, and Formulas 2-76

Ultimate Strength-Design Charts . . . . .. 2-77 to 2-81

3. STRUCTURAL RIGID FRAMES

Fixed End Moments . . . . . . . . . . . Value of K for Concrete Beams and Columns Hardy Cross Method . . .

Haunched Beam Properties

Variable Section

Side-sway

Formulas ...

· . 3-01 3-02

3-03,3-04 3-05 to 3-08

· 3-09,3-10

· . . 3-11 3-12 to 3-14

4. STRUCTURAL STEEL

Red Lights in Design. . . . . . . . . Beam Sections. . . . . . . . . . . .

Columns .

Effective Net Areas-Angles in Tension.

Struts .

Moment of Inertia . . . . . . Bearing and Base Plates . . . Eccentric Connections, Ri veted Lally Columns ..

Pipe Columns . . . . . . . . Open Web Joists . . . . . . .

· . 4-01 4-02,4-03 4-04,4-05 · . 4-06

4-07 to 4-10 4-11 to 4-20

4-21 · . . 4-22 4-23 to 4-26 · . . 4-27 4-28 to 4-31

Economical Selection of Beams

Rivet Data .

Gratings and Floor Plates .

Hangers .

Wind Bracing, Riveted . . Welding Symbols and Data Welding Design . . . . .

Weld Groups-Allowable Eccentric Loads. Welding Details . . . . . . . .

Wind Connections, Welded . . .

Plastic Design of Steel, Data

Economical Selection of Beams

Moments and Reactions .

Composite Beams, Criteria and Design Properties and Connectors

5. STltUCTURAL ALUMINUM

Allowable Working Stresses . . Section Properties, Rivet Data

6. STRUCTURAL WOOD AND PLYWOOD

Properties of Lumber and Columna

Joists and Stud Walls .

Nail Data .

Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties of Structural Glued Laminated Lumber Plywood, Working Stresses

Design .

Skin Stressed Panels Data ....

7. STRUCTURAL FOUNDATlONS

Load Test and Soil Bearing Capacities Plain Concrete Wall Footings

Square Column Footings

Rectangular Footings

Trapezoidal Footings

Cantilever Footings

Pile Types

Pile Data .

Pile Caps .

Retaining Walls . . .

Bearing Piles and Sheet Piling Concrete Manholes and Inlets Transmission Towers . . . . .

8. STRUCTURAL FORMULAS

Beam Formulas .

9. SOILS

Soil Behavior . . . . . Application of Mechanics Factual Data . . . . .

Red Lights .

Identification and Classification Constants for Pavement Design Use and Treatment .....

xv

PAGE 4-32 4-33 4-34 4-35 4-36

4-51,4-52 4-53

4-54 to 4-57 4-58 4-59 4-70 4-71 4-72

4-89,4-90 4-91

5-01 to 5-03 . 5-04,5-05

6-01 6-02 6-03

6-04 to 6-06 6-07 6-26 6-27 6-28 6-29

. 7-01,7-02 7-03

7-04 to 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-14

7-15,7-16 . 7-17,7-18 7-19 to 7-29

7-30,7-31 7-32 7-33 7-50

. . . 3-01 to 8-04

9-01 to 9-04 9-05 to 9-07 9-08

. . 9-09

9-10 to 9-13, 9-16 9-14 . . . . . . 9-15

xvi

CONTENTS

Characteristics and Performance . . . . . . . Airports, C.A.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surveying and Sampling; Methods and Devices Profiles and Boring Logs . . . . . . Atterberg (Liquid Limit) Test . . . .

Moisture Determination .

Maximum Density, Optimum Moisture Proctor Needle Plasticity Test.

Field Density Test . . . . . . . . .

. Mechanical Analysis . . . . . . . .

Shear Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Density from Sieve Analysis Housel Penetrometer . . . . . . . Spread Footings . . . . . . . . . . Embankment Foundation . . . . . . Embankments and Retaining Walls Embankment Shrinkage and Permeability. Voids Ratio and Permeability

Frost .....

Sub drain Filters

Stabilization. .

PAGE 9-17 9-18, 9-19 9-20, 9-21 9-22 9-23 9-24 9-25 9-25 9-26 9-27 9-28 9-29 9-29 9-30 9-31 9-32 9-33 9-34 9-35 9-36 9-37

10. PAVEMENTS

Roads, Wheel Loads . . . . . . . . . 10-01

Roads, and Airfields, General Soil Rating 10-02

Roads, Subgrade. . . . . . . . . . 10-03

Design of pavements . . . . . . . 10-04

Design of Flexible Pavements . . . 10-05

Typical Sections, Flexible Pavement 10-06

Flexible Pavement Thickness 10-07

Use of Bituminous Materials 10-08, IO-D9

Bituminous Mixtures. . . . .. 10-10

Design of Rigid Pavements 10-11, 10-12

Rigid Pavement Subbases . 10-13

Dowels, Tiebars . . . . . 10-14

Joint Details .. . . . . 10-15

Rigid Pavement Details. . 10-16

Reinforced Rigid Pavements . . . 10-17

Airfield Pavements, C.A.A. Design Method 10-50

C.A.A. Equivalent Single Wheel Load 10-51, 10-52

Rigid, Design Charts, C.A.A. . . . . . 10-53

Flexible, Design Charts, C.A.A. . . . . 10-54

Pavement Layout and Sections,C.A.A. . . . 10-55

Secondary Airports, C.A.A.. . . . . . . 10-56

Rigid Pavement Design, Corps of Engineers . . 10-57

Flexible Pavement Design, Corps of Engineers. 10-58

Flexible Design Charts, Corps of Engineers . . . 10-59

Pavement Layout and Sections, Corps of Engineers 10-60

Dowels, Tiebars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 10-61

Joint Details 10-62

Rigid Joint Layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-63 Reinforced rigid Design and Details: C.A.A. Corps of En-

gineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-64, 10-65

11. EARTHWORK

Computations . . . . Double End Area Volume . Prismcidal Correction .. Mass Diagram. . . . . .

. . . 11-01 11-02, 11-03 11-04 . . . 11-05

12. HIGHWAYS, ROADS AND STREETS

Highways, Design Procedure .

Capacity .

Design Speed . . . . . . . . . . .

Grades .

New York State Geometric Standards Superelevation and Widening Horizontal Sight Distance. .

Vertical Sight Distance . . .

12-01, 12-02 12-03 to 12-05

12-06

· ... 12-07

· .' .. 12-08 12-09 to 12-11 · . . . 12-12 12-13 to 12-15

Highways (Com.) Cross-Sectional Elements Barriers ...

Interchanges .

Turning .

Curves . . . . . . . . .

Roads and Streets, Typical Cross Sections

Intersections .

Details .

Crown Data. . . . . . .

Highway and Street Lighting Parking Curb . . .

Fields .

Garages .

Trucks and Buses

13. BRIDGES

Live Loads ..... Live Load Distribution Unit Stresses

Loading Tables

Rigid Frame Design Data . Typical Simple Span . . Typical Continuous Span Typical Concrete Slab Typical Composite Beam Bearing Details . Expanaion Joints

14. RAILROADS

General .

Clearances and Cross Section Turnouts and Crossovers . .

Grade Crossings . . . . . . Superelevation and Accessories Circular Curves . . . . . . . Corrections for tangents and externals

15. AIRPORTS

General .

C.A.A. Standards . . . C.A.A. Runways Lengths C.A.A. Approach Standards Navigational Aids . . . Navigational Aid Siting .

Capacity .

Aircraft Data . . . . Wind Rose ..... Air Force Regulations

Runway and Taxiway Markings

Small Airfields. . " .

Trunk Plan .

Intercontinental Plan. . . . .

Terminal Buildings. . . . .. .

Control Tower and Typical Airline Bay .

Lighting .

Heliports, General . . .

Time Saving Analysis Layout ...

Aircraft Data . . . .

16. DAMS AND CATHODIC PROTECTION

Forces Acting on. . . . . . . . . . Resultant Pressures, Practical Section Earth Dam Sections . . . .

Typical Sections . . . . . . Miscellaneous Criteria . . . Miscellaneous Requirements .

PAGE

12-16 to 12-17 · . . . 12-18 12-19 to 12-21 12-22 to 12-24 12-25 to 12-33

· ... 12-50

· 12-51, 12-52 12-53 to 12-55

12-56

· . . . 12-57

· ... 12-76

· . . . 12-77 12-78 to 12-80 · ... 12-81

13-01 to 13-04 13-05 to 13-07 13-08 to 13-10

... 13-11 13-12, 13-13 13-14 13-15 13-16 13-17 13-18 13-19

14-01 14-02 14-03 14-04 14-05 14-06 14-07

15-01 to 15-03

· .. 15-04

· . . 15-05 15-06, 15-07

· .. 15-08

· .. 15-09 15-10, 15-11 15-12, 15-13

· .. 15-14

· . . 15-15 15-18, 15-19

15-20

· . . 15-21

· .. 15-22 15~23, 15-24 · .. 15-25

15-26 to 15-29

· . . 15-30

· .. 15-31 15-32, 15-33 · . . 15-34

.,

[ r ~

16-01 16-02 16-03 16-04 16-05

16-06, 16-07

CONTENTS

xvii

What the Flow Net Shows Water Stops, Drains, and Details Spillway Design

Stop Logs .

Flashboards . . . . .

Gates .

Section at Powerhouse

Power Chart . .

Log Sluices and Intake Rack Fishways ..... Galvanic Action . . . . . . Cathodic Protection . . . .

17. WATERFRONT STRUCTURES

Dynamic Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . Shore Protection; Seawalls, Bulkheads, and Revetments . . . . .

Break Waters and Jetties

Groins .

~ Wharves, Dynamic Forces

/~ 'Bulkheads .

'Piers . . . . . . . . .. . .

Small Craft Piers and Marine Service Station Docks and Piers, Protection of Piles . . . .

18. DRAINAGE AND SEWERAGE

Drainage: Runoff Common Sections Sub drainage . . . Headwalls .... Erosion Protection

Airports .... Unit Hydrograph and Flood Routing

Drainage and Sewerage: Manholes Inlets and Catch Basins Loading on Pipes

Rigid .

Flexible .

Pipe Data .

Basis of Design Pipe Capacities

Hydraulic Computations. ..

Minor Losses and Inverted Siphons Pipe details. . . . .'. . . . . .

19. SEWAGE TREATMENT

General Data .

Flow Diagrams Screens ....

Grit Chambers Parshall Flume

Setting Tanks . Imhoff Tanks . Chemical Precipitation Filters . . . . . Activated Sludge. . .

Sludge Drying . . . . . .

Digestor, Gas and Hot Water Layout Sludge Digestion. . . . . . . . . Sludge Conditioning . . . . . . . Sludge Drying (Vacuum Filtration) Chlorination. . . . . . . . . . Hypochlorinators ., . . . . . Classification of Receiving Waters

Pump Types .

Typical Sewage Lift Station. . .

Pumping Station .

18-01 to 18-04 18-05, 18-06 18-07, 18-08

· .. 18-09

· . . 18-10 18-11, 18-12 18-13, 18-14 · .. 18-25 18-26, 18-27 · .. 18-40 18-41, 18-42 · .. 18-43

18-44 to 18-46

· ... 18-65

· 18-66, 18-67 18-68 to 18-74

· . . 1~5 .

18-76, 18-77 22. WATER DISTRIBUTION

",.,~Pipe-SY8ten;:·Fi;;;;'·JjaIa-··-, ..

j' -' Hydrant and Hose Discharge

:.._._. 'FloW'iuPipes": . ..... . .

19-01 Equivalent Pipes. . . . . .

19-02, 19-03' Hardy Cross .

19-04, 19-05 Head Loss in Valves and Fittings, etc. 19-06 to 19-08 Cast Iron Pipe. . . .

· . . 19-08 Valves and Joints

· 19-09, 19-10 Asbestos-Cement Pipe

· . . . 19-11 Steel Pipe . . . . . .

· . . . 19-12 Reactions at Bends. . 19-13 to 19-15 Valves . . . . . . .

19-16 to 19-18 Hydrant, Service Valve, Pitometer · . . 19-19 Meters............

19-20, 19-21

19-22

· . . 19-23

· .. 19-24 19-25, 19-26

19-27 19-28 19-29 19-30 19-31

PAGE 16-08, 16-09 · .. 16-10 16-11, 16-12

· .. 16-13

· .. 16-14

16-15 to 16-19 16-20 16-21 16-22 16-23 16-50

16-51 to 16-53

· . . 17-01

17-02, 17-03 17-04, 17-05

· .. 17-06

· . . 17-07 17-08, 17-09

17-10 to 17-12 17-13 · . . . 17-26

Small Systems: Design Data Treatment Plant Units . Subsurface Tile Systems

Details .

Problem .

Analysis and Tests . . Laboratory Furniture. Laboratory Equipment Tool List for Plants . .

Industrial Wastes, General . . . . . Industrial Wastes, Data and Treatment Waste Disposal, Sanitary Fill

Waste Disposal, Incinerators .....

20. WATER SUPPLY

General .

Demands .

Rainfall and Runoff Reservoir Storage Mass Diagram. . . Evaporation. . . .

Deep Wells . . . . . ..

Intakes, Domestic Wells, Windmills Elevated Storage Tanks Distributing Reservoirs .

Pumping ....

Pumping Station

Pump Horsepower

Weirs and Orifices

Parshall Flume . . . Drinking Water Requirements .

21. WATER PURIFICATION

Extent of Treatment Required . Storage Reservoir Treatment .

Sand Filters. . . . . . . . . Coagulation and Sedimentation

Filters . . . . . . . . . . .

Flow Diagrams . . . . . . . Laboratory Equipment . . . . Corrosion and Demineralization Control

Chlorination . .

23. PETROLEUM PRODUCTS HANDLING

Properties Affecting Storage and Handling Viscosity and Temperature .... Reynolds Number . . . . . . . . Friction Loss . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Loss Conversion Factor

Vapor Pressures . . . . . . . . .

Centrifugal Pump Curves and Correction Factors

PAGE 19-32 19-33 19-34 19-35 19-36

19-37 to 19-47 · ... 19-50 19-51 to 19-53

· 19-54

· 19-75

19-76 to 19-81

19-90 · . . . 19-91

.~ •.. 20-01 20-02, 20-03 20-04, 20-05 20-06 20-07 20-08 20-09 20-10 20-11

20-12, 20-13

20-14

· .. 20-15

· .. 20-16 20-17,20-18 · .. 20-19 20-20, 20-21

· 21-01

· 21-02

21-03 to 21·07

21·08

· . . . 21-09

· ... 21-10 21-11 to 21-17

21-18 · ... 21-19

· 22-01

· 22-02

22-03 to 22-05

22-06

· .. 22-07

· .. 22-08 22-09, 22-10

· .. 22-11

· .. 22-12 22-13 to 22-15

· .. 22-17

· 22-18, 22-19

· ... 22-20 22-21 to 22-23

23-01, 23-02 ... 23-03 · .. 23-0'1, 23-05, 23-06

23-06 23-07 23-08

xviii

CONTENTS

Typical Tank Farm .. . . . Typical Tank Details and Data

24. ATHLETIC FIELDS

Grandstands

Athletic Fields, Dimensions Athletic Fields, Drainage .

PAGE

23-09 Outdoor Swimming Pools . . . . . . . . 23-10 to 23-12

.... 24-01 .... 24-02 24-02 to 24-04

25. MISCELLANEOUS Trigonometric Formulas

Conversion Factors. . .

INDEX

PAGE 24-05 to 24-08

.... 25-01 25-02 to 25-04

xix

\__/"

r:

STRUCTURAL- GENERAL-UNIT STRESSES - I

TABLE A-ALLOWABLE WORKING STRESSES IN CONCRETE BASED ON ULTIMATE
STRENGTH = f'c
Allowable Working Stresses
Description N.Y.C. A.C.I., Maximum
Controlled 1957 Value, A.C.I.
FLEXURE
Extreme fiber stress in compression. 0.40 Vc 0.45 f'c
Extreme fiber stress in compression adjacent to suooorts of continuous
or fixed beams, or s labs, or of rigi d frames. 0.45 f'c
Tension in plain concrete footings. 0.03 f'c* 0.03 f'c
SHEAR
Beams with no web reinforcement and without special anchorage of
longitudinal steel. 0.02 f'c 0.03 f'c 90
Beams with no web reinforcement, but with special anchorage of
longitudinal steel, see p, 2-02. 0.03 f'c
Beams with properly designed web reinforcement, but without soecial
anchorage of longitudinal steel, see o, 2-14. 0.06 f'c 0.08 f'c 240
Beams with prooerly designed web reinforcement and with special
anchorage of longitudinal steel, see pp, 2-02, 2-03 and 2-04. 0.09 f'c 0.12 Vc 360
Flat slabs at distance d from edge of column cap or droa panel.
(a) When at least 50% of total neg. reinf. passes over the column coo. 0.03 f'c 0.03 f'c 100
(b) When 25% or less of total neg. reinf. passes over the column cop. 0.025 f'c 0.025 f'c 85
(c) For intermediate oercentages, use intermediate values.
Footings where longitudinal bars are without special anchorage. 0.02 f'c 0.03 f'c 75
Footings where longitudinal bars have soecial anchorage. 0.03 f'c
BOND Top bars with 12 in. or more concrete below: (a) Plain. 0.03 f'c 105
(b) Deformed. 0.07 f'c 245
Beams, slabs & one-way footings: (a) Plain bars or structural shapes. 0.04 f'c 0.045 f'e 158
(b) Deformed bars. 0.05 f'c 0.10 f'c 350
In two-way footings: (a) Plain bars or structural shaoes. 0.03 f'c 0.036 f'c 126
(b) Deformed bars. 0.0375 f'e 0.08 f'c 280
(N.Y.C. only) Where soecial anchorage is provided, one and one-half
times these values in bond may be used.
(A.C.I. only) Bars not conforming to A.S.T.M. designation A-305 shall
be treated as plain bars. Plain bars must have hooks.
BEARING
Direct bearing on full area. 0.25 f'c 0.25 f'c
Direct bearing on one-third full area or less. 0.375 f'c 0.375 f'ct
The allowable bearing stress on on area greater than one-third, but le~s
than the full area shall be interpolated.
AXIAL COMPRESSION
In column s with lateral ties. 0.25 f'c
In pedestals. 0.25 f'c 0.25 f'c
For E see o. 1-08. n = 301000 30,000
f 'c f'c
TABLE B- REINFORCEMENT (Values in p.s.L)
Structurcl-crcde billet steel. Tension = 18,000 Web reinforcement: Tension N.Y.C. = 16,000
Intermediate-grade billet steel. Tension = 20,000 (See Table A, p, 2-14.) Tension A.C.I. = 20,000
Rail steel, straight or machine-bent. Tension = 20,000 Cold-drawn steel wire. Tension = 20,000
*For N.Y. City Code requirements add 4 in. to depth of footing (see 0.7-03.)
tThis increase shall be permitted only when the least distance between the edges of the loaded and unloaded areas is a
minimum of one-fourth of the ooro ll el side dimension of the loaded area. The allowable bearing stress on a reasonably
concentric area greater than one-third but less than the full area shall be interpolated between the values given. STRUCTURAL- GENERAL- UNIT STRESSES-2

TABLE A- ALLOWABLE WORKING STRESSES IN STEEL (in p.s.i.)

Compression on section through throat. Tension on section through throat.

Shear on section through throat of fillet weld. Shear on section through throat of butt wei d. Bendi ng - fiber stresses sholl not exceed val ues

given above for compression and tension, respectively.

*A.I.S.C. allows main members with ~ from 120 to 200 if not subject to shock

r

18,000 ~ L)

or vibrating loads - allowable stress = ~ x 1.6 - 7 .

1 + 18,000r2 200

For main compression members 120. For bracing and other secondary members in comoression 200. For main tension members 240. For bracing and other secondary members in tension 300.

tA.I.S.C. only: Use 20% higher stress for negative moments at supports in continuous beams orovided that section is not less than that required by maximum positive moments and compression flange is figured as un'suopor+ed from point of contraflexure to support. z See also p, 4-32. §Butt-weld only.

TENSION

Structutal steel section.

Rivets or high-strength bolts - on area based on nominal diameter - tension only. Rivets or high-strength bolts - tension combined with shear.

Bolts and other threaded oarts - on area at root of thread.

COMPRESSION*

Structural rolled steel on short lengths - lateral deflection prevented.

Columns - gross section axially loaded: main member ~ < 120.

secondary member ~ 120 to 200.

Plate girder stiffeners - gross section. Webs of rolled section at toe of fillet. BENDING (FLEXURE)t

Rolled sections and built-uo members - extreme fiber.

Tension on net section (except no deduction for rivet hcles}c 15% flange area.

Comoressiont (L for cantilever unstayed at outer end Ld <600.

= two times length of comoression flange.) bt

. Ld

Rolled beam encased in stone concrete ~con'i"u. cu. <onml. bt >600. (Neit more than 1 :571 mix) as follows: I "4b -<R<h .'do

Pin s - extreme fi ber. rJ2' M,n. 2' m;n prot.etlan

COMBINED STRESSES see po, 4-04 & 4'()5 SHEARING

Rivets - power-driven, high strength bolts, pins and turned bolts in reamed or drilled holes. Unfini shed bolts.

Webs of beams and plate girders, gross section. BEARING

Rivets, high-strength bolts and turned bolts in reamed or drilled holes. Unfinished bolts.

Pins.

Confect orec-rni II ed stiffeners a nd other mi 11 ed surfaces. fitted stiffeners.

Expansion rollers and rockers (Ibs. per linear inch). CAST STEEL

Tension. Cornores s ion.

CAST IRON

Tension, shear.

Bending - extreme fiber, comoression side.

tension si de.

comoression on columns - maximum ~ = 70.

Note: For A.J.S.C.: compression and bearing same as for structural steel. Other unit stresses 75% of those for structural steel.

WELDED JOINTS

A.I.S.C., 1957 H. Y,C., 1957
20,000 20,000
20,000 20,000
15,000
20,000 15,000
,
L2 20,000
17,000·0.485 2" Same as 4.I.S.C.
18,000 r
L2
1 + 18,000 r 2
20,000
24,000
20,000 20,000
20,000 Same as A.I.S.C.
12,000,000
li
bt 22,000
30,000 30,000 15,000 10,000 13,000

Double Single

Shear Shear

15,000 10,000 13,000

Double Singl e

Shear Shear

40,000 32,000

25,000 20,000

32,000 30,000 27,000

600 diem,

40,000 32,000

25,000 20,000

32,000 30,000 27,000

600 diam.

See note at left.

16,000 16,000

3,000 16,000

3,000. 9,000 - 40 b

r

20,OOO§ 20,OOO§ 13,600 13,000

20,OOO§ 20,000 § 13,500 13,500

Notation in TableA:

L = unbraced length in inches

r =radius of gyration in inches

b =width of compression flange in inches t = thi cknes 5 of c ompres s lon flange

in inches

d = depth in inches

STRUCTURAL - GENERAL-UN IT STRESSES - 3

LlMITA.TlONS OF TABLE A, pages 1·03, 1·04, and 1·06*

The allowable unit stresses in Table A below apply to sown lum- Increase allowable unit stress .. s i;;-""T'""a.,-b.,-I .. -A.,-,-p-p-.-l--0-3-,-I-.0-,f-.-l--0-6--

ber uncle, continuously clry conditions. The Allowabl .. Unit Stresses when the duration of th .. full maximum load does not .. xe .... d th"

in Table A, p. 1·06. apply to structural glued laminated lumber. period indicated b .. low:

Reduce allowable unit str"ss"s in Table A below when the rnois. 15% for 2 months' duration (as for snow)

ture content is at or ebeve the fiber saturation point, as follows: 25% for 7 days' duration 33y"% for wi nd or earthquake

10% 100% for impact

33y"%

In compression parallel to grain

In compr .. ssion perp .. ndicular to grain Modulus of "Iasticity .L

11

When member is fully stressed to maximum allowable stress for many years (either continuously or cumulativ .. ly), Use 90% of val u .. s in Table At pp, 1-03, 1-M and 1-06.

Wh .. n stress induced by impact does nat exe .... d the allowable unit str .. ss for normal loading, disregard impact. Th .. resulting structural m .. mbers shall not be smaller than required for a longer duration of loading,

TABLE A - ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES FOR STRESS-GRADE LUMBER. 1957

Species Use Grade Allowa.ble Unit Stresses (in p.s.i.)
f&t@ H cJ_ c@ E
Cypress, southern Joist and planks } 1700f 1700 145 360 1425 1,320,000
coast type Seams and stringers 1300f 1300 120 360 1125 1,320,000
(Tidewater red) Posts and columns 1450e - - 360 1450 ',320,000
'2ooc - - 360 1200 1,320,000
Cypress, southern Joist and planks } 1700f 1700 145 360 1425 1,320,000
inland type Beams and stringers 1300f 1300 120 360 1125 1,320,000
(swamp) Posts and columns 1450c - - 360 1450 1,320,000
1200c - - 360 1200 1,320,000
Douglas fir, Light framing Dense select structural © 2050 120@ 455 1500 1,760,000
coast region Select structural 1900 120@ 415 1400 1,760,000
1500f Industrial 1500 120 390 1200 1,760,000
1200f I ndust ri al 1200 95 390 1000 1,760,000
Joist and planks Dense sel ect structural © 2050 120@ 455 1650 1,760,000
Sel ect structural 1900 120@ 415 1500 1,760,000
Dense construction © '750 120® 455 1400 1,760,000
Construction 1500 120® 390 1200 1,760,000
Standard 1200 95@ 390 1000 1,760,000
Beams and stringers Dense select structural © 2050 120® 455 1500 1,760,000
Select structural 1900 12o® 415 1400 1,760,000
Dense construction © 1750 120® 455 1200 1,760,000
Construction 1500 120® 390 1000 1,760,000
Posts and columns Dense select structural.© 1900 120® 455 1650 1,760,000
Select structural 1750 120® 415 1500 1,760,000
Dense construction © 1500 120® 455 1400 1,760,000
Construction 1200 120® 390 1200 1,760,000
Douglas fir, Joist and planks@ Dense select structural © 2050 120@ 455 1650 1,760,000
inland region Select structural 1900 120@ 415 1500 1,760,000
Dense structural © 1750 120~ 455 1400 1,760,000
Structural 1500 120 E 390 1200 ',760,000
Standard structural 1200 95® 390 1000 1,760,000
Posts and columns Dense select structural © 1900 120~ 455 1650 1,760,000
Select structural 1750 120 F 415 1500 1,760,000
Dense structural © 1500 120® 455 1400 1,760,000
Structural 1200 120® 390 1200 1,760,000
Hemlock, eastern Joist and planks@ Common structural 1100 60 360 650 ',210,000
Utility structural 950 60 360 600 1,210,000
Beams and stringers ® Selec.t structural 1300 85 360 850 ',210,000
Posts and columns Select structural - - 360 850 1,210,000 STRUCTURAL- GENERAL- UNIT STRESSES-4

TABLE A - ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES FOR STRESS~GRADE LUMBER, 1957 (Continued)*

Species Use Grade Allowable Unit Stresses (in p.s. i.)
f&t@ H cl c@ E
Hemlock, west Light framing 1500f Industrial 1500 100 365 1000 1,540,000
coast 12QOf I ndustri 01 1200 80 365 900 1,540,000
Joist and planks Construction 1500 100CD 365 1100 1,540,000
Standard 1200 80(i) 365 1000 1,540,000
Beams and stringers Co nstru cti on 1500 looQ) 365 1000 1,540,000
Posts and columns Construction 1200 100Q) 365 1100 1,540,000
Oak, red and Joi st and planks 1700f 1700 145 600 1200 1,650,000
white 1450f 1450 120 600 1050 1,650,000
Beams and stringers 1450f 1450 120 600 1050 1,650,000
13QOf 1300 120 600 950 1,650,000
Posts and columns 1200c - - 600 1200 1,650,000
1075c - - 600 1075 1,650,000
Pine, Norway Joist and planks@ Common, structural 1100 75 360 775 1,320,000
Uti Ii ty structural 950 75 360 650 1,320,000
Pine, southern ® 2't thick No.1 Dense KD(b) 2050 135 455 1750 1,760,000
No.1 KD@ 1750 135 390 1500 1,760,000
No.2 Dense KD(b) 1750 120 455 1300 1,760,000
No.2 KD@ 1500 120 390 1100 1,760,000
No.1 Dense@) 1750 120 455 1550 1,760,000
No.1 1500 120 390 1350 1,760,000
No.2 Dense@ 1400 105 455 1050 1,760,000
No.2 1200 105 390 900 1,760,000
3ft and 4" th ick No. 1 Dense SR ® 1750 120 455 1750 1,760,000
No.1 SR 1500 120 390 1500 1,760,000
No.2 Dense SR ® 1400 105 455 1050 1,760,000
No.2 SR 1200 105 390 900 1,760,000
Sit thi ck and up No. 1 Dense SR ® 1600@ 120 455 1500 1,760,000
No.1 SR 14DO@ 120 390 1300 1,760,000
No.2 Dense SR ® 1400@ 105 455 1050 1,760,000
No.2 SR 1200@ 105 390 900 1,760,000
1ft, 1~" and lY,zN thick Industrial 58 KD@ 1750 120 390 1400 1,760,000
Industrial 50 KD@ 1500 120 390 1100 1,760,000
Industri al 58 1500 105 390 1250 1,760,000
Industrial 50 1200 105 390 900 1,760,000
Redwood Joist and planks }@ Dense structural © 1700 110 320 1450 1,320,000
Beams and stringers Heart structural 1300 95 320 1100 1,320,000
Posts and columns Dense structural © - - 320 1450 1,320,000
Heart structural - - 320 1100 1,320,000
Spruce, eastern Joist and planks ® 1450f Structural 1450 110 300 1050 1,320,000
1300f Structural 1300 95 300 975 1,320,000
1200f Structural 1200 95 300 900 1,320,000 f = extreme fib"r in bending t = tension p<lO'aliel to grain H = horizontal shear e = compression perpendicular to grain

c '" compression poraUel to grain E '" modulus of elasticity

.. "F.om "National Des ign Specification for Stress-Grade Lumber and its Fastenings," by National LUmb"r Manufacturers Auoc i ation, 1957 Ed ition.

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-UNIT STRESSES-5

FOOTNOTES FOR TABLE A, 7.03 and 7-04*

A. In tension members, the slope of grain limitations applicoble to the middle portion of the I .. ngth of the joist ond plank and beam and stringer grades used sholl opply throughout th .. I .. ngth of th .. pi .. ce.

B. Value for c shown is maximum unit stress. To derermlne the ol1owable unit stress (which connot exe .... d volu .. c), use th" following formula:

...£:. = 0.3 E 2

A (lid)

Where P / A = load per un i t of ere s s- sect iona I are a E = modulus of elasticity

I = unsupported over-all length in inche s

d ;:: dimension of least side in inches

C. These grad"s m .... t th" r .. quirements for d .. nsity.

D. Valu" oPflies to pi"c&$ us .. d as planks. Valu" applies to 2"-thick p ie ee s of S"lect Structural grod .. used os joists. For 3"-thick pi .. e .. s of Select Structuro, Construction, and Standard grodes used as joists:

H = 120 when I .. ngth of split is approximotely 2-114". H;:: 80 wh .. n I .. ngth of spl it is opproximately 4-112".

For 4"-thick pieces of S"lect Structural, Construction, and Standord grades used as joists:

H = 120 when length of spl it is approximately 3". H = 80 when length of spl it is approximotely 6".

E. Value appl ies to pieces used as plonks. For 2"-thick pieces of Construction ond Standard grades used as joists:

H = 120 when length of split is approximately equal to 112 the width of pi"ce. H = 100 when length of spl it is approximately equal to the width of piece.

H = 70 when length of split is approximately equal to 1-112 times width of piece.

For 3"-thick pieces of Select Structural, Construction, and Standard grodes used as joists:

H;; 120 when I"ngth of split is approximately 2-114". H = 80 when length of spl it is approximately 4-112".

For 4" -thlek pieces of Select Structural, Construct ion, and Standard grades used os joists:

H = 120 when length of split is approximately 3". H = 80 when length of spl it is approximately 6".

F. For beams and stringers and for posts and timbers:

H;;; 120 when length of split is equal to 1/2 the nominal narrow face dimension. H = 100 when length of split is equal to the nominal narrow face dimension.

H = BO when the length of split is equal to 1-1/2 times the nominal narrow fac .. dimension.

G. The allowable unit stresses for tension parall,,1 to grain t ond for compression parollel to groin c given for these joist and plank ond beam and stringer grades ore opplicable when the following additional provisions are applied to the grades:

The sum of the sixes of all knots in anr 6 in. of the length of th .. pj ec e shall not e xe .. ed twice the maximum perml s s ib le six .. of knot. Two knots of mex lmum permi ss ible size she I not be within the same 6 in. of length of ony face.

H. These grades appl icable to 2" thickness only. The allowoble unit stresses for tension porallel to grain t and for compression parollel to grain c given for these joist and plank and beam and stringer grades are appl icoble when the following additional provisions ore appl ied to the grades:

The sum of the sixes of all knots in onr 6 in. of the len$lth of the piece shell not exce"d twice the maximum p .. rmissible sixe of knot. Two knots of maximum permissible sim sha I not be within the same 6 in. of length of any face.

I. Value applies to pieces used as planks. For 2"-thick pieces of Consrruetten and Standard grades used as joists:

H = 100 when length of split is approximately equal to 112 the width of piece. H = 80 when length of spl it is approximotely equol to the width of the piece.

H = 60 when length of spl it is approximately equal to 1-1/2 times the width of piece.

For 3"-thick pieces of Select Structural, Construction, and stondard grades used os joists:

H:;; 100 when length of split is approximately 2-114". H = 70 when length of spl it is approximately 4-112".

For 4"-thick pi e ces of Select Structural, Construction, and Standard Grade used as joists:

H = 100 when length of split is opproximately 3". H = 70 when len$lth of split is approximately 6".

J. For beams and stringers and for posts and timb"rs:

H '" 100 when length of split is equal to 3/4 nominal narrow face dimension. H = 90 when length of split is equal to the nominol nerrew face diml!nsion.

H:;; 70 when length of split is equal to 1-1/2 times the nominal narrow face dimension.

K. All stress grades under the 1956 Grading Rules are all-purpose grades and apply to 011 sixes. Pieces so graded may be cut to shorter lengths without impairment of the stress rating of the shorter pieces.

Grade restrictions provided by the 1956 Grad ing Rules apply to th .. entire length of the piec .. , and eoch piece is suitoble for use in continuous spans, over double spans, or und .. r eoncentrcted loads, without regrading for special shear of other special stress requirements.

The following apply to lumber in serv iee under w"t canditions or where the moisture content is ot or above fib .. r saturation point, os when continuously submerged: (a) The allowable unit stresses in bending, tension parall .. 1 to grain, ond horizontol shear shall be limited to all thicknesses to the stresses indicated for thickness of 5" and up. (b) The ollowable unit .str .. sses for compression parallel to grain shall be limited to the stresses ind icated for thickne5ses of S" and up reduced by 10%. (c) The allowable unit stresses for compression perpendicular to groin sholl be reduced one third. (d) The ve lue s for modulus of e Iasticity sholl b" reduced one e leventh,

L. These grades meet the requirements for density. KD= Kiln dried in accord once with the provisions of the 1956 Grading Rules. Longleaf may be specified by substituting "Longleaf" for "Dense" in the grade name, ond, when sO specified, the s cme ollowable stresses sholl app l y,

M. KD= Kiln dried in accordance with the provisions of the 1956 Grading Rules.

N. These grades meet the requirements for d"nsity. Longl"af may be sp"cifi"d by substituting "Longleaf" for "Dense" in the grode name, ond, when so specified, the some allowoble stre sse s shall apply. SR" Stress rated.

O. These stresses apply for loading either on norrow face or on wid" foce.

"From "NatIonal DeSIgn Spec:ificotlon for Stress-Grade Lumber ond Its Fastentngs," by NotIonal Lumber Manufocturers Assoclotlon, 1957 Ed,tIon.

~,-06

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-UNIT STRESSES-6

TABLE A - ALLOWABLE UNIT STRESSES FOR STRUCTURAL GLUED LAMINATED LUMBER*

Outer Innet ExI .. m~ Flb.r I. TenslDn Parall el to Compr~ •• ian Parall.1 Compression
Camhi nation laminafio." Lamination. Bending f 1 ,2 Grain t 1 to Grain c' Harl~ontal P erpandicul or
Shear
Numb.r 1 Humber, From" to 1~1! 15 or Mo •• From", 10 14115 ar Mar. From" to 141115 Dr Mor. H to Grain
Grod. Each Sid .. Grade Laminations lamindlans La:minatiOl1s Lami nations l ami nations LamInation .. c.L PART I - DRY CONDITIONS OF USE3

DOUGLAS-FIR COAST REGION4

.' D.ns e S .. I .. cl Structural 3000 3000 3000 3000 2400 2500 165 450
1 Clear (Densa)5 On.
2 Cleer (Denoe)s One Dens. Construction 3000 3000 2600 3000 2200 2300 165 450
3 Den se Select Structural All Dens. Select Structural 2800 3000 3000 3000 2400 2500 165 450
.. Cleor (Close-Grain)' One Select Structural 2800 2800 2800 2800 2200 2200 165 415
5 S.lect Structural All Seleci Structural 2600 2800 2800 2800 2200 2200 165 415
6 Sel.ct Structural Two Construction 2600 2600 2600 2600 2000 2000 165 415
7 Clear (M...Jium Gr<rin)" One Ccnstructien 2600 2600 2200 2400 1900 2000 165 385
8 Dense Construction All Dense Construction 2400 2600 2600 3000 2200 2300 165 450
9 Den.e Construction 1/1401 total Construction 2400 2600 2200 2400 1900 2000 165 450
10 S.I""I Structural One Construction 2400 2600 2200 2400 1900 2000 165 415
11 Selecl Structural Two SIQndard9 2600 2600 2400 2400 2000 2000 165 415
12 Clear (Medium Grain' One Standard9 2200 2200 2000 2400 1800 1900 165 385
13 Select Struclural On e Standard9 2200 2200 2000 2400 1800 1900 165 415
14 Con struction All Con strucJion 2000 2200 2200 2400 1900 2000 165 385
15 Con slruction On. Standardl> 2000 2200 2000 2400 1800 1900 165 385
16 Standard All Stondard 1600 2000 2000 2400 1800 1900 165 385 PINE, SOUTHERN"·1

1-1 No.1 Dense All No.1 Den •• 3000 3000 3000 3000 2400 2500 200 450
1-2 B & B Dense One No.1 3000 3000 2600 2600 2100 2100 200 . 450
1-3 No.1 Dense 1/14 of tolal No.1 3000 3000 2600 2600 2100 2100 200 450
1-4 B& B Dense One No.2 Dens. 2800 2800 3000 3000 2400 2400 200 450
1-5 NQ.l Dense 1/501 tolal No.2 Dense 2800 3000 2800 3000 2300 2400 200 450
J.6 No.1 All No.1 2600 2600 2600 2600 2100 2100 200 385
1-7 B&B Dense li14 af Iotal No.2 2400 2800 2600 2600 2000 2000 200 450
1-8 B&B One No.2 2400 2400 2600 2600 2000 2000 200 385
1·9 No.1 li5 of total No.2 2400 2600 2400 2600 2000 2000 200 385
1-10 No.2 Dens .. All No.2 Dense 2000 2600 2600 3000 2200 2300 200 450
1-11 No.2 Dense 1/14 of total No.2 2000 2600 2200 2600 1900 2000 200 450
1·12 No.2 All No.2 1800 2200 2200 2600 1900 2000 200 385
1-13 No.1 li5 01 tatal No.3 t 1800 * 2400 2400 * 2500 1900* 2000 200 385
1·14 Na.2 1/501 total No.3 t 1800 ; 2200 2200 * 2300 1900 * 19l10 200 385 PART II - WET CONDITIONS OF USE8

DOUGLAS·FIR, COAST REGION"

1 Clear (Dense)" One Den se Select Structural 2400 2400 2400 2400 1700 1800 145 305
2 Clear (Dense)' One Dense Con slruction 2400 2400 2000 2400 1600 1700 145 305
3 Dens. S e leet Structural All Dense Select Structural 2200 2400 2400 2400 1700 1800 145 305
4 Clear (Clo ..... Grain)· One S.lect Structural 2200 2200 2200 2200 1600 1600 145 275
5 Sel eer Structural All Select Structural 2000 2200 2200 2200 1600 1600 145 275
6 Sel act Structur<rl Two Construction 2000 2200 2000 2000 1500 1500 145 275
7 CI""r (Medium Grain)' One Construction 2000 2000 1800 2000 1400 1400 145 260
8 Den •• Con .Iruction All Dens. Construction 2000 2200 2000 2400 1600 1700 145 305
9 Den •• Construction 1/14 of total Construction 2000 2200 1800 2000 1400 1400 145 305
10 Select Structural One Construction 2000 2000 1800 2000 1400 1400 145 275
11 Select Srrueturel Two Standard9 2000 2000 2000 2000 1400 1400 145 275
12 Clear (M...Jium Grain)s One Standard9 1800 1800 1600 1800 1300 1400 145 260
13 Select Structural On. Standard9 1800 1800 1600 1800 1300 1400 145 275
14 Construction All ConstrucJion 1600 1800 1800 2000 1400 1400 145 260
15 Conslruction On .. Standard 1600 1800 1600 ·1800 1300 1400 145 260
16 St ... dard All Standard? 1200 1600 1600 1800 1300 1400 145 260
• PINE, SOUTHERN .7

2-1 No.1 Den ... All No.1 Den.e 2400 2400 2400 2400 1800 1800 175 300
2-2 B&B O .. ns. On. No.1 2400 2400 2000 2000 1500 1500 175 300
2·3 No.1 Donse 1/14 of tolal No.1 2400 2400 2000 2000 1500 1500 175 300
2·4 B&B Denoe One No.2 Den ... 2200 2200 2400 2400 1700 1700 175 300
2-5 No.1 Dense lis of total No.2 Dense 2200 2400 2200 2400 1700 1700 175 300
2-6 No.1 All No.1 2000 2000 2000 2000 1500 1500 175 260
2-7 B&B Dan ... 1/14 of total No.2 1800 2200 2000 2000 1500 1500 175 300
2-8 B&B One No.2 1800 2000 2000 2000 1500 1500 175 260
2-9 No.1 1/5 of total Na.2 2000 2000 2000 2000 1400 1500 175 260
2.10 No.2 Den •• All No.2 Dense 1600 2000 2000 2400 1600 1700 175 300
2-11 No.2 Dense 1/14 of tetel No.2 1600 2000 1800 2000 1400 1400 175 300
2-12 No.2 All No.2 1400 1800 1800 2000 1400 1400 175 260
2·13 No.1 115 of tolal No.3 t 1400 * 1900 1900 * 2000 1400* 1400 175 160
2.14 No.2 1/5 of lotal No.3 t 1400 * 1700 1800 * 1900 1400* 1400 175 260 1. For special .Iope of grain requlremen+s see applicabl .. spacifications listed in Not •• 4 and 6.

2. The allowable unit .tresses in b.ndin~ apply only when the wide faces of Ihe laminations are ploced normal to Ihe direction of Ihe load. For allowable .IT ....... in bending when the

loading l s applied parall.lto th .. pian •• 01 the laminations, ... the applicabl. op.cification indicated in Note. 4 and 6.

3. The Modulu. of Ela.tleity E is 1,800,000 p ••• l, for dry conditions of use.

4. "Standard Specifications for Structural Glued Laminated Douglas-Fir (Coo.t Reg;on) Lumber", by We.t Coasl Lumb.rmen·. As.ociation, applies.

5. The rete of growth and density requirements 01 inner lamination. shall apply to dear outer lomination ••

6. "Standard Spedfications for Structural Glued Laminated Southe,n Pine "Lumber", by Southern Pine Inspection Bureau, opplies.

7. In grade combination. 1-1, 1.6, 2-1, and 2-6 no provi.ion has be.n made for use of B & B grade in euter lamination. because higher strea s rating would nol be justified. If, in the.e combinations, B & B quality is desired lor one or both laces 01 a member to improve appearance, it should be particularly .pecilied, keeping in mind thai B & B Dense io required when inner laminations are densa_

B. The Modulus of Ela$ticity E is 1,600,000 p.s.i. for wet conditions of use. 9. When the grade of .tand ... d Is used, the lumber must be of medium grain.

* Adopted Irom "National Design Speeification fo, Stress.Grade Lumbe, and its Fastenings" 1957 Edition, by National Lumber Manufacturers Association.

t Pitch, pitch pockets, pilch streak., r"dheart, wane, .hak •• and decay in No.3 southern pine boards and dim .... ion used lor .truclural gluing shall not exceed that permitted in No.2 dimen.ion.

t 6-14 laminations.

NOTE!Members with interm...Jiat .. working stre •• e. will satisfy most de.ign requirements. Mombers with th. highesl working stresses are available when speclcl strenght requirements

are needed. Where rarger sizes gre desired, those combinations with' lower $tr.sses snourd be used. .

~--- -,. " _..... - •.. ~ - ~ - .. ~ ._ ~ ., _'''~' .~ - -~ ,,;. ~

1-07

STRUCTURAL- GENERAL-UNIT STRESSES-7
TABLE A - WORKING STRESSES IN STONE MASONRY TABLE B - WORKING STRESSES IN RE-
Compression, Gross Area of Cross Section IN FORCED SOLID AND HOL-
Kind New York City 1957 Dept of Commerce 1955 LOW UNIT MASONRY*
Cement1 Cement 1
of Cement2 Cement2 Type of Stress
Masonry Lime Lime
Mortar Mortar Mortar Mortar
Compre s s i on I ax i a I 0.20 f'mt
Granite 640 BOO 640 BOO Compression, flexure I 0.33 f'mt

Gneiss 600 750 - - Sheaf, no shear reinforcement 0.02 f'mt
Limestone 400 500 400 300 Shear, shear reinforcement
Marble 400 500 400 500 Taking 2/3 of entire shear 0.04 f'mt

Bearing 0.25 f'mt
Sandstone 250 300 320 400
Modulus of elasticity 1000 f'mt
Bluestone 300 400 - - Bond
~ Natural Cut 110 140 - - Plain bcrs 30 p.s.i.:!:
;
Stone Uncut 110 140 - - Deformed bar s 90 p.s.U
TABLE C - WORKING STRESSES IN UNREIN FORCED UNIT MASONRY *
Stresses (in p. s.I, of Gross Area)
Material: Type-A Mortar3 Type-B Mortar4
Grade of Unit Tension in Flexure Tension in Flexure
Compression or Shear t: Compression or Shear:l:
Plain solid- brick masonry:
f'm = 4500 p.s.i., plus 250 10 200 7.5
f'm = 2500 - 4500 p.s.I, 175 10 140 7.5
f'm = 1500 - 2500 p.s.I, 125 10 100 7.5
Hol7ow unit masonry B5 611 70 5"
Cavity wall masonry:
Solid units, 2500 p.s.i., plus 14011 611 11011 511
.~ Solid units, 1500 - 2500 p.s .i. 10011 6" BOil 5"
)
Hollow units 7011 611 5011 5"
Stone masonry:
Cast stone 400 4 320 4
Natural stone 140 4 100 4
Solid-concrete brick units:
Grade A 175 6 125 6
Grade B 125 6 100 6 NOTE: 1. Cement lime mortar composed of 1 part Portland cement, 1 part hydrated lime, to not more than 6 parts sand, proportioned by vol urne,

2. Cement mortar: a mortar composed of 1 part Portland cement to not more than 3 parts of sand, proportioned by volume, with a allowable addition of hydrated lime, or lime putty. not to exceed 15% of the cement by volume.

3. Type A: by volume, 1 part Portlend cement, 4Y2 parts sand maximum, and Y2 part hydrated lime maximum.

4. Type B: by vol ume, 1 part Portl and cement, 6 parts sand maximum, and 1 port hydrated I ime maximum.

* Tables Band C from Uniform Building Code, 1955.

t f'm equal s compressive strength of masonary at 28 days.

1: These stresses may be doubled with continuous inspection. ~ With continuous inspection, 130 p.s.i. may be used.

II Net area, all others gross ero ss- sectional area.

STRUCTURAL -GENERAL -PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

TABLE A - PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS

Substance

Ultimate Stress, p.s.i.

Yield Modulus of Coeffi cient of
Point, Elasticity, Linear Expansion
p.s.i. p.s.i. for 1° F.
32,000tc 10,600,000 0.00000128
35,000tc 10,000,000 0.00000130
28,000,000 0.0000067
33,000t 29,000,000 0.0000063
55,000t 29,000,000 0.0000063
45,000t 29,000,000 0.0000063
50,000t 29,000,000 0.0000063
32,000t 29,000,000 0.0000077
90,000t 29,000,000
2,000,000 0.0000031 Aluminum, Structural allay 2014·T6 Structural alloy 6061· T6

65,000t 42,OOOt

Iron, Cast, gray

Wrought

18,000 . 24,OOOt 25,000 . 33,00013

48,000

Steel, Structural A.S. T.M. A7*

Structural A.S. T.M. A8 (3% to 4% nickel) Structural A.S. T.M. A94 (0.2% silicon) Structural A.S. T.M. A242 (low alloy) Structural A.S. T.M. A373 (for welding) Structural U. S. steel (T·l)

60,000. 72,OQOt 90, 000 • 115,OOOt 80,000· 95,000t

70,000t 58,000 - 75,000t 105,000 - 135,000t

Clay, Brick

Masonry, Granite

Limestone & bluestone Sandstone

Rubble

1000c, 200T, 600B

420c, t 600B t 350c,.t 500Bt 280c, t 400Bt 140c, t 250B t

0.0000035

Stone, Bluestone Granite/ gneiss

L im"stol1e / marble Sandstone

Slate

12,000c, 1200t, 2500B 12,OOOc, 1200t, 1600B 8,000c, 800t, 1500B 5,000c, 150t, 1200B 10,000c, 3000t, 5000B

7,000,000 7.000,000 7,000,000 3,000,000

14,000,000

0.00000 0.0000047 0.0000044/0.0000056 0.0000061 0.0000058

1,760,000

0.0000021 parall,,1 0.000032 perpendicular

0.000003 parol I el 0.000019 perpendicular

Wood, Douglas fir

Southern pine

1,760,000

0.0000079

Concrete

t == ultimate stress tension.

c = ulti mate .stress compress ion. S = ul ti mate stress bending.

* = for welding A.S. T.M; A· 373 preferred. t = safe working stress.

_. __ , '................ , .~., _ J~ _ ~ •• _.,

/

STRUCTURAL- GENERAL-UNIT WEIGHTS

TABLE A

Type of Substanc=e p.s.f. RIB SLABS
ROOF AND WALL COVERINGS Depth in Inches Width of Rib Add for
Wood shingles 3 (R ib Depth + Slab Thickness) 4 5 6 7 8 Tapered Ends
Asphalt shingles 2 12-inch clay-tile fillers
Cement asbestos shingles 4 4+2 49 51 52 54 - -
Cement tile 16 6+2 60 63 65 67 - -
Clay ti le (for mortar odd 10 lb.) 8 + 2M2 79 82 85 87 - -
2" book tile 12 10+3 96 100 103 106 - -
3" book tile 20 12 +3 108 112 116 120 - -
Roman 12 20-inch metal fillers
Spanish 19
Ludowici 10 6 +2 41 43 45 47 - 4
Sheet-meta I roofi ng 2 8 + 2M2 51 54 57 60 - 5
Corrugated roofing (no. 20) 2 10 +3 63 67 70 74 - 5
Corrugated asbestos 3-4 12+3 69 74 78 82 86 5
Copper or tin 1 14+3 75 81 82 87 91 5
Corrugated iron 2 30-inch metal fi l lers
Gypsum sheathing 1/2" 2 6+2M1 41 43 45 47 - 3
Wood sheathing 3 8+2l/;! 45 48 50 54 - 4
Slag roofing 5 10 +3 56 59 61 65 - 4
Composition roofing 12+3 - 63 67 70 73 4
3-ply ready roofing 1 14+3 - 69 72 76 80 4
3-p Iy felt tar and gravel roofi ng 4 2·way clay tile fillers (12x 12)
4-ply felt tar and gravel roofing 5V2
5-p Iy felt tar and gravel roofing 6 4+2 61 62 64 - - -
Slate roofing loid in place with 3" double lap, 3/16" thickness 7 6+2 87 87 90 - - -
Slate roofing laid in place with 3" double lap, 1/4" thickness 10 8 +2l/;! 100 103 107 - - -
SI ate roofing laid in place with 3"double lap, 3/8" thickness 14V2 10+3 121 126 131 - - -
Slate roofing I aid in place with 3" double lap, 112" thickness 19M2 12+3 136 141 146 - - -
Skyl ight, metal frame, 3/8" wire glass 8 2-way metal fi Ilers (16 x 16)
Plate glass per in. of thickness 14 4+2 44 47 50 - - -
Fiberboard 1/2" * 6+2 55 60 63 - - -
8+2l/;! 72 78 83 - - -
CEILINGS 10+3 91 96 103 - - -
12+3 103 111 118 - - -
Plaster on ti Ie or concrete 5 14 +3 116 125 133 - - -
Suspended metal lath and gypsum plaster 10 2-way metal fillers (20+20)
Suspended metal lath and cement plaster 15
Plaster on woad lath 8 4+2 42 44 46 - - -
6+2 50 54 58 - - -
8+2l/;! 66 71 76 - - -
10 +3 83 88 94 - - -
Type of Substance p.s.f. p.c.f_ 12+3 93 100 107 - - -
14+3 105 113 120 - - -
MASONARY WALLS AND PARTITIONS-OF.AD LOA.O
WITHOUT PLA.sTER Type of Substance p.s.f.
Sol id br ickwork: Clay brick 120 FLOORS- FLOOR FILL AND FINISHES AND FLOOR
Sand lime 105 SLABS AND WATERPROOFING
Concrete (heavy aggregate) 130
Concrete (light aggregate) 98 1" terrazzo +2" stone concrete 38
Concrete, stone 144 lM1" terrazzo 18
Granite, blue stone, marble 165 Ti Ie and setting bed 15-23
Limestone 156 Marble and setting bed 25-30
Sandstone 144 1l/;!" asphalt mastic flooring 18
4"·brick + 4" load-bearing structural clay 2" asphalt block + MI" mortar 30
ti Ie back ing. 60 3" wood block + W' mortar 16
4" brick + 6" hollow block back ing 75 Linoleum or asphalt fini sh 2
4" bri ck + 8" hoi low block backing 80 Hardwood flooring, 7/8" thick 4
Concrete block: Heavy aggregate 85 Softwood subflooring, 7/8" thick 3
Light aggregate 55 Oak and yellow pine 48*
2" furring ti Ie 12 Spruce, fir, hemlock, white pine 30*
2" T .C. or cinder block (non-bearing) 16 Concrete, reinforced stone, per inch of thickness 12M2
3" T .C. or ci nder block (non-bearing) 17 Concrete, reinforced, cinder, per inch of thickness 9\4
4" T .C. or cinder block (non-bearing) 18 Concrete, reinforced, lightweight, per inch of thickness 9
6" T.e. or cinder block (non-bearing) 28 Concrete, plain, stone, per inch of thickness 12
8" T .C. or cinder block (non-bearing) 34 Concrete, plain, cin<:ler, per inch of th i ckn e s s 9
4" load-beoring T.C. or cinder block 22 Multiply hy Concrete, plain, lightweight, per inch of thickness 7
6" load-bearing T.C. or cinder block 32 1.40 for can- WATERPROOFING
8" lood.bearing T.C. or cinder block 39 crete block Five-ply membrane, 1/2" thick 5
12" load-bearing T.C. or cinder block 56 (gravel or stone Five-ply membrane, mortar, stone concrete,S" thick 55
2" sol id gypsum 10 aggregate) 2" spl it ti Ie + 3" stone co ncrete, 5" thick 45
3" solid gypsum 13 PATENTED STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS
3" hollow gypsum 12 2" Gypsteel plank 12
4" hollow gypsum 13
6" hollow gypsum T9 2V2" Sheetrock - Pyrofi I 12
2" solid plaster 20 2M1" Lightweight ne il ing concrete 19
Waod studs 2 + 4 (unp lastered) 4 2*" lightweight channel slabs 10
Plaster add each side 8 2V2" Porete roof slobs (with 112" nail ing fin) 15
4" glass block mosonry 18 3V2" Porete channel slabs 12
2" Cinder Plank IS
Aerocrete I ightweight concrete 50-80*
Nalecode 75*
Adapted from A. C.I. Handbook, C.RS.I. Handbook, and * lb. per cu. ft.
American Stondard S Association. _. ::"'10
STRUCTURAL- GENERAL- LIVE LOADS - I

TABLE A - LIVE LOADS IN POUNDS PER SQUARE FOOT
American Nat. Bd. Pacific
Caast Bd. Sauthern
Standards of Fire Officials Std. Bldg. New Chicago,'" Phila- Dallas,
Occupancy Associ- Under- York, Detroit*
ation, writers, Confer- Code,* 1957 1956 delphia* 1951
ence, t 1954
1955 1955 1955
Dwell ings, opartment and
tenement houses, hotel s ,
cl ubhouses, hospitals, and
pi aces of detention:
Dwellings, private rooms, 40' 40 11 4025 4027 4043
and apartments 40 40 40 40
P ubi le corridors, lobbies, 1002 1002 100'7
and dini ng rooms 100 100 100 100 80 100
School buildings:
Clossromms and rooms of 5038
similor use 40 403 40 40 6028 40 5038 5044
Corridors and publ ic ports 1003 100'8
of building 100 100 100 100 100 80 100
Theaters, assembly halls,
and other places of
assemblage: 7529 6039
Auditoriums with fixed seats 60 60 50 50 60 50 60
Lobbies, passageways, gym-
nasi ums, grandstands and
auditoriums of places of
assemblage without fixed 1004 1004 100" 100" 10045
seats 100 100 100 100
Office Buil di ngs: B05 50'2,19 5027 50 12,19 505•
Office space BO 50 60 50
Corridors and other
public places 100 100 100 100 10030 100 100 80 100
Workshops, factories, and
mercantile establ ishments 12552
Manufacturing - light 125 125'2 75 100 120 10036 12040 75
Manufacturing - heavy 125 12520 150 1203 i 10036 20040 100'15046 125
Storage _ light 125 12512 125 125 120 10036 120-15040 125 12553
Storage - heavy 250 25012 25021 250 1203• 10036 20040 12547 250
Stores _ retail laOS 75'3 75 75 7532 10036 10040 100 10052
Stores - wholesale 125 12512 100 100 120 10036 10040 100 125
Garages: 17554 i
All types of vehicles 14 10022 12022 17533 10022 1008 10048
Passenger cars only 1007 100.2 50 75 755 50'3 75 804B B055
All stairs and fire escapes, 10056
except in private residences 100 100.5 100 100 100 100 100 100
Roofs (flat) 20 20 2023 20 40 25 30 3049 30
Sidewalks 2508•9 250B 250 200B 30034 15041 3008 250
Wind •• 0 15.40' S 15.2024 10_4026 2035 2037 15'2542 2050 2057
-
,.. Taken from C.R.S.I., 1957; others from local codes. tOr Uniform Bui [ding Code, 1955.
FOOTNOTES FOR TABLE A
1- 30 for second floor dwellings and habitable attics; 20 for en- 9. 100 for yards and terraces for pedestrians only.
inhabitable atti cs; 60 for operating rooms. 10. See p. 1-14.
2. 60 for corridors in apartment and tenement houses and public
corridors in hotels; 40 for private corridors in hotels. 11. On first floor, 40 p.s.f.; upper floors for dwellings 30 p.s.f.
3. 60 for I ibrary reading rooms; 150 for stack rooms. 12. Or 2000 on any space 2).1 ft. square.
4. 150 for armories and stage floors. 13. 100 on first floor and alternate of 2000 lb. on area 2].1 feet
squore.
5. Or 2000 concentrat"d.
14. 100 p.s.f. for passenger cars. Trucks: 150 P.s.f. (3 to 10 tons
6. 75 for upper floors. including load), 200 p.s.f. (over 10 tons including load). Con-
7. Floors shall be designed to corry 150% of the maximum wheel centrated load; 150% maxinium wheel load for passenger cars;
load anywhere on the floor. 125% maximum axle load for trucks.
". .. 8. Or 8000 concentrated • 15. 300 lb. on 2).1 ft. square at any location. , ,

STRUCTURAL- GENERAL- LIVE LOADS - 2

FOOTNOTES FOR TABLE A, p. 1-10 (Continued)

16. 15 p. s , f. for buildi ng height less tho n 30 ft.; increase to 40

p.s.f. for building height equal ta or greater than 1200 feet.

17. 40 for private corridors in hotel s; 50 for rest rooms. 60 for library reading rooms; 125 for stack rooms.

Where partitions are subject to change 20 p.s.f. to all other loads.

100 for compasing and linotype rooms; 150 for press rooms. 250 minimum. Load to be determined by use.

Or concentrated rear wheel of loaded truck in any position.

1 B.
19.
20.
2t.
22.
23.
24.
25.
,/
26.
27.
2B.
29.
30.
31.
32. 20 p.s.f. for under 200 sq. ft.; 16 p.s.f. for 201 to 600 sq. ft.; 12 pvs, f. for over 600 sq. ft. loaded area on a member.

15 for portions below 60 ft.; 20 for portions above 60 ft. 30 lb. for roof tonks, signs, and exposed roof structures.

30 p.s.f. for one-story, ene- and two·family dwellings,

10 p.s.f. for portions below 30 ft.; 40 p.s.f. for portions above 400 ft. in Southern Inland Regions. Varies from 25 to 50 p.s.f. for Southern Coastal Regions.

lnel uding corridors.

For rooms with fixed seats or classrooms not excee'ding 900 sq. ft. with movable seats; 120 for library stack rooms.

60 for churches.

Includi n9 entire first floor.

The minimum for storage or manufacturing is 120 p.s.f., but floors must be designed for any heavier loads contemploted and for any concentrations.

37. 20 for buildings less than 300 ft. high; add 0.025 p.s.f. per ft. above 300 ft.

38. Only school classrooms with fixed seats. (Removable seats 80 p.s.f.)

39. Churches only.

40. Every floor beam 4000 concentrated.

41. Interior courts, sidewalks, etc., not accessible to a driveway.

42. 15 p.s.f. up to 50 ft. high, 20 p.s.f. from 50 to 200 ft" 25 p.s.f. over 200 ft. high. Roofs over 30 degrees, 20 p.s.f. on windward side, 10 p.s.f. on leeward.

43. 100 for public rooms; 40 for guest corridors in hotels; 50 for rest rooms.

44. 60 for laboratories, library reading rooms; 20 plus actual weight of stack and contents.

45. 150 for armories and theater stages; 120 for drill rooms.

46. 100 for composing and linotype rooms; 150 for press rooms;

for all others, load is determined by use.

47. Lood is determined by use. 4B. For unloaded vehicles.

49. 25 for flat roofs without parapet wall s,

50. 20 for structures less than 300 ft. high. Above 300 ft.,

p = 20 + (H - 300) x 0.025 for tonks, signs, and exposed structures 30 lb.

51. Above first floor including corridors.

52. 125 for first floor.

53. 150 for first floor.

54. Or 2500 lb. concentrated on area 6 in. square with such concentrations spaced alternately 2 ft. 4 in. and 4 ft. 8 in. in one direction and 5 ft. and 10ft. in the other direction.

55. ani y structures with clear headroom of 8 ft. 6 in. or less. Or 1500 lb. concentrated, ~paced as in note 54.

56. 50 for dwellings and ap~rtments under 3 stories.

57. For buildings less than'SOO ft. high.

100 for entire first floor.

33. Or 6000 concentrated. Trucking space and driveways 12,000 concentroted. (For beams, columns, and girders 120 p.s.f. live load.)

34. Or 12,000 concentrated for driveways over sidewalks.

35. 20 p.s.f. for structures over 100 ft. high. 30 p.s.f. for tonk towers, stacks, and isolated chimneys.

36. The minimum for storage or manufacturing is 100 p.s.f., but floors must be designed for ony heavier leeds contemplated and for any concentrations.

TABLE A - LIVE LOAD REDUCTIONS - NEW YORK CITY BUILDING CODE, 1956

(a) In structures for storaqe purposes all columns, piers, walls, and foundat.ions mcv be designed for 85% of live load.

(b) In structures intended for other purposes, I ive load reducti ons for columns, piers, wall s, and foundations are as follows: 100% L.L. on roof, 85% top floor, 80% next floor, and 5% reduction for each successive lower floor, provided thot in all cases at least 50% of live load is assumed.

(c) Cirder members, except in roofs and as specified below, carrying floor loads the equivalent of 200 sq. ft. or more may be designed for 85% of live load.

(d) For trusses and girders supporting columns and for determining area of footings the full dead load and live load may be token with the reductions as permitted above.

STRUCTURAL- GENERAL-LIVE LOADS -:3

TABLE A - MISCELLANEOUS LIVE LOADS

GRANDSTAND LOADING

LIVE LOAD 100 p.s.f. of gross horizontal projection. 120 Ib.llin. ft. for designing seats and footboards.

HORIZONTAL FORCES A horizontal swaying force parallel to the seats of 24 I b./ft. and perpendi euler to the seats of 10 Ib./ft.

WIND 30 p.s.f. on vertical projection. (See also p. 1 -14.)

WIND STRESS REDUCTIONS

CONCRETE STRUCTURES Increase allowable stresses one third where wind loads are added to live and dead loads. t

STEEL STRUCTURES For members subject only to wind, increase allowable stresses one third. For members subject to wind and other forces, increase one third, but section to be not less than that required for dead, live, and impact loads.+

WOOD STRUCTURES Increase al"rowable stresses one third, but section to be not less than that required for dead and live loads. ~

IMPAcn

For structures carrying live loads which induce impact or vibration, the assumed live load shall be increased sufficiently to provide for same. If not otherwise specified, the incr~ase shall be:

For supports of elevators 100%

For travel ing crane support girders and their connections 25

For supports of light machinery, shaft - or motor-driven, not less than 20

For supports of reciprocating machinery or power units, not less than 50

For threaded hanger rods supporting floors and balconies 33%

CRANE RUNWAY HOR{ZONTAL FORCES:t.

\...._) The lateral force on crane runways to provide for the effect of moving crane trolleys shall, if not otherwi se specHied, be 20%

of the sum of the weights of the lifted load and of the crane trolley (but exclusive of other parts of the crane), applied at the

top of rail one half on each side of runway; and shall be considered as acting in either direction normal to the runway rail.

The longitudinal force shall, if not otherwise specified, be taken as 10% of the maximum wheel loads of the crane applied at the top of rai I.

UPLIFT ON ROOFS

Design roof for factorie~, hangers, armories, ete., which have large open interiors for an uplift of25 p.a.],

FOOTNOTES

• American Standards Association, Places of Outdaar Assembly.

American Concrete Institute, 1956.

t American Institute af Steel Construction, 1954.

§ National Lumber Manufacturers Associatian, National Design Specifications for Stress-Grade Lumber & its Fastenings, 1955.

_,I

STRUCTURAL- GENERAL-LIVE LOADS-4

TABLE A - SNOW LOAD*

Where no values for snow loads appear on the mop, they have been omitted because of irregular distribution associated with rugged terrain. Consult local Weother Bureau or Bui!d ing Code.

The value of 20 lb. on the projected area has been selected as a minimum because it has been considered nece sscry to provide for occasional loading due to workmen and materials during repair operations. Where load exceeds

20 p.s.f., the excess may be reduced from its full value at a 20-degree slope to zero at a 60-degree slope.

For big flat roofs and high parapets special attention is required.

LEQEND

[f#:'i:N 40 POUNDS ~

m ~OPOUNDS ~

~ 20 POIlNDS D

10 POUflDS

<10 POUNDS

FIG. B. ESTIMATED WEIGHT OF SEASONAL SNOWPACK EQUAL ED OR EX~E EOED ONE YEAR IN TEN (p.s.f.) t

* Based on American Standard Building Code Requirements for Minimum Design Loads in Buil~.ings and Other Structures, ASS. 1-1955, by American Standards Association.

t This materia I is reproduced from the American Standards Building Code Requirements for MInimum Design Loads in Building and oth .. r Structures, A58. 1-1955, copyrighted by American Standards Association.

1-14

STRUCTURAL- GENERAL- LIVE LOADS - 5

)

MINIMUM DESIGN PRESSURE

Buildings, chimneys, tanks, and solid towers shall be designed and constructed to withstand the applicable horizontal pressures shewn in Tables B, C, 0' 0, allowing for wind in any direction. The height is to be measured above the average level of the ground adjacent to the building, chimney, tankt or sol id rewer , Figuras do not provide for "xtreme wind conditions of short duration such as tornadoes (gusts are inclUded). Th .. factors in Table B or

C d Iready take into consideration

the 1.3 shape factor used in determining the wind pressures noted in Fig. A. The design pressure se le ct"d from Table B should be multi· plied by the carre ct factor from Tables C 0. D.

FIG. A. MINIMUM ALLOWABLE RESULTANT WIND PRESSURES'"

,
TABLE B - WIND PRESSURES FOR VARIOUS TABLE C - FACTORS FOR TRUSSED TOWERS'"
HEIGHT ZONES ABOVE GROUN~''' Wind pr .. ssure on tower - p x A x factor shown b .. low.
H .. ight of Zone, Wind-pressute-mop Areas, p = pressur .. from Fig. A, modi fied with Table B for tower height.
ft. p.s.f. A = total normal projected ar .. a of all the .. I .. ments of on .. face of the tower.
20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Type Foetor t Illustrations
Less than 30 15 20 25 25 30 35 40 Wind normal to one face of tower,
30 to 49 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 4-cornered, flat or angular sections. :c-----D1
, I
50 to 99 25 30 40 45 50 55 60 st .... 1 or wood. 2.20 , 1-
,
100 to 499 30 40 45 55 60 70 70i I ,
ig _____ bll
500 to 1199 35 45 55 60 70 70t 70t .......... ~1
1200 and over 40 50 60 70 70t 70t 70t 3-corne.ed, flat or angular sections. ~~ ,
st .... 1 or wood 2.00 <:{ ,-
-- ,
NOTE: R .. comm .. nd .. d appl ication: ....... ~J
Windward foc .. : 1.00 = 77"10 /.
1.30 Wind on corner, "-corner .. d tow .. r, flat
.30 or angular sections. 2.40 ro.----llI
Leeward fac .. : = 23"10 ' ,
1.30 , I'
t70-lb. upp .. r limit recomm .. ndatians of D .. an b.. __ gl
Sh .. rlock at Am .. rican Society of Civil Engin- Wind parallel to an .. fac .. of 3-corner .. d ~...",._.....
eers Convention, October 1957. tow .. r, flat or angular sections. 1.50 " I
<' I
-- '
TABLE D - FACTORS FOR CHIMNEYS. ---..II - ,
T).NKS, AND TOWERS* Wind on individual memb .. rs. tj J
Horizontal Cross Section Foetor ~ Cylindrical 2 in. or l .. ss in diameter. 1.00
Cylindrical ove,2 in. in diam .. ter. 0.80
Squar .. or r .. ctangular 1.00 ~~ ~
H .. xogonol or octogonal 0.80 Flat or angular sections 1.30
Round or elliptical 0.60
EXAMPLE: Giv .. n: Radio tower NOTE: Factors for towers with cylindrical el .. ments are opproximat .. ly two
lacot e d in eastern New thirds of thos .. for simi lor towers with flat or angul or s .. ctions.
York Stat ... Tow .. r bas ..
50' above ov .. roge ele· TABLE F - REQUIREMENTS FOR COMBINED
, votion of surrounding
~~:i t .. rrain. LOADINGS ON ROOFS'"
Find: Wind preSSur .. Pt. Ext .. rior load coeffici "nts
...... r {factors to be oppli e d to wind
0 Procedure: Front Fig. A, eastern N .. w York State is in the pres sur .. s sp .. cifi .. d in 5.1}
\C 25 m.p.h. zone. From Tabl .. B, sel .. ct pressures Windward Le e word
,
30 P .s. F.} for various h .. ight zon .. s as in Fig. E. From Slop .. Slope Slope
Tabl .. C, s .. l .. ct th .. appropriate factor. Assume 200 or less -0.60 -0.45
, ,,,..-K:JW4!r' ba.H a "·corner .. d tow .. r with wind normal to one fac .. Betw .... n 200 and 300 0.06-1.8 -0.45
<, and m .. mbers angular. (Factor::: 2.20.) Th .. r"fore,
11 ~ A, e- a9· B .. tw e en 300 and 600 0.OlSA.0.45 -0.45
terrall'l total pres.sur .. s du .. to wind at various .. I .. vations B .. twe .. n 600 and 900 0.45 -0.45
rl!le.vation. or,,: Positive volu .. s indicat .. an inward load;
FIG. E Elev. 50 to 99 Pt = 2.2 x 30 = 66 p.s.f. x A negotiv .. volu .. s, an outward load. A is the
EI e v. 100 to 200 Pt ::; 2.2 x 40 ::; B8 p.s.f. x A roof slop .. in degr .... s. zoo

,00

so

"This material is reproduced from the American Standards Building Code Requirements for Minimum Desig1 Loads in Building and other Structures, A.58.1-1955, copyrighted by American Standards Association

tAlthough the factors vary with the solidity ratio, these factors in Table C may be e ons l de re d as overage values.

1-15

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-WIND DESIGN

APPROXiMATE WIND DESIGN METHODS FOR MULTI-STORIED FRAME BUilD\NG5

NOTE:

S.r p.4--~Gror RiTld«l WNW Con~ MOJr1~/7ls,§. DeIQils.

Se .. p.4-59 {Of' WlldtM Wtho' (Nn~diM

MOmehf..r ~ Dtdails.

I - PORTAL METHOD

A s s o m p t i o n s »

1. Each 60,:/ an independent/rame.

2. The p%~~f o~ Con fro flex are 0 f each co /c/rrrr: /~ O'f midhe./ghf.

3. The point or cOl7fra/lexure oreoch girder is of ifs l77iQ'/englh.

4. The horl3onfo/ shear 0/7 OI7{/ p/QJ7e /s divided etjdol/!/ 0n70/7Q fhenurnher of' aisles. "In oa rer: column fales rz fhe shear or an infer/or c cr/errr» 1"7 •

5. The wind load is r-esisre o' by fhe Iral77~. G. )11 direcf sfr~ss in outside coh.lr77/?s.

~
-
I
1 z
h
t-
hi
t- N/
h2
j_
t j-- __ -12;__ __ 3~---i4 LeI s .=: tola/ s o ea» in ho!! above floor line.

SI.,S2~S~~S4 ><" proportional sheers fcken on eo. co!. Then: 5,+ 5Z +S3 +54- = 5 +

Wind 51 =: 5.,_ = ~ ; Sz:: 5.3 '" ;

Marne-pi per girder connecflon =- S X' h oVlmrge r

Nc. o~9irdt!r ~nnecl$.

GiVen S: Zo Kips,. h, + hz - /2 I

Z -

t M, = M2 = ?~" I? ~ 4o'Kips

"* 5hear may be proportioned to the rnornertt of inertia offhe column.

IT-SHEAR DISTRiBUTION BY STIFfNESS OF CELLS OF RESISTANCE

AFTER E.E.5E.ELYE. E..N.R.,MA~. 20,1930.

/~ I )

J. To 10/ horl30nlq/ Shear:: 5= 5,+ S2 -I S3 y. s,t Z. 70lel sfjff";'~s.s Co~F. :: F~ F,+Fe-l'F.3r F4

3.

;::; _ J(,(Ork'S)

I -Or/(i'l'/(.s-fl<s

F-z:::: I<'? ( /{S"r KG) Ks j-/{Z-f /(G1"/(!, f3:: K; (1<10 r 8'7)

J( t; +)(3 ~ )(7+ }(/O

F. J(4(k7+0)

4 K 7 + k 4 .f () -I- JOt

5, ::=-9- xS

S-z=-9-xS

53= r: x5

S4 =.fLx:s

F

I Ka ~ /I(!I k/O IKt,

I I , ,

I J / I

I I I ,

\..._-~- -"'--'r.:--_L --- - .. l ~--- _ _j

4

1 I

K=- or-

t h

DIRECT STRESSES rrorn WInd in columns rno!lbe neg/ecfedt excepf in aaos aot cases where Ihey exceed o//oJVq6/e WInd' aversrr-ess: orre,/,(/)reunChorqge.

1-16

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL- WALL THICKNESS

FOUNDATION

WALL5

S K E.LE.TON(PANE.L) WALLS

CUR-TArN WALLS

(c ZG; -44(;)

(CARRIES OWN W7.' ON!. Y) ( c ea- 44S)

SOLID I J-IOLLOW 8LOCK

MASONRY OR HOLLOW WALLS

'Q~R ,,~.:- .... ~ -"

,. ~ ~~~ 0 q -'

~ ~ Cl"l t oJ:: ~

'''t f--- lJ"!::" ,

: )0; t:i C!PJ ~"'t

: 51 tJ., .... ':! ~~ =(1

(3 ()J IZ- 11t' <!! -I> ~ - ~

"It);';"'~ "l

t

-~ ,__

3:O·M;n.qb(J~2""

~sfory 1'0" hU5il7es~ slru~furescv~r 401 high' .3 hr. Fire r~sjs"QnC'e-J.CVt7 be 'Nirt~9J~55 or simi/Dr,

WIndow

SOLID MA50NR Y EXCEPT

1_ No basemen;' or Cellar

Z. Above grade when upper walls wood or hoI/ow block.i=j..f

To" I'dn. Wall

Fi£1.- <>,od3L t' t .. 4''A/,n.(f"cetJa.kl ... )

%" llilt' For Plain !I'Z-Nli".

i cancrefe.~ .. •

.liB ~ 0" ~concr .. ;e 8M",.!or

d!!?J:l ~ ?Z" "'tn.zll,a".

5Tt.'PPED FTGS, I {~8'1 ' 5Iruc/IJrt:

,...".....,..~~~_~ Ma.jon,.'1' 2P

D'~.e.';.so;1 Pr~SS.;J7#Jo· or 8" Min ..

-1.2 f~

Non·b<=ring in Skelefon ..... Consrrucfion, supporfedaf each floor.

t-~

""Apron Wall

t7

Wind, 3004/1:1' - ~ 'r'-Spandrel Wall

fiRePROOF STRucT. 1 OTHER STRlJCTURfIS

(2 HI: Reding) (f Hr. Raling)

NOTEl Under fhe revised coe'e, no list of walls which will meet ~he Cod'!re'Pi~menlsl-~~~~G=-=e=....:...N.:..:'E.~R::..:Ar=L=--.:::C:.:.~..:..:::5:..:E=-~~~--I ha& be"f7 issved fa d"l-e (Feb. I, I!U.9) by

aoard o£ sfandards. The walls lisfed ~ .--

beJow will probably be accepfable - :f"

5" Re;nF. con(;.'GPIQ;nt.~ r-I-=J ~ ~ ..

8"8rick.IO"){oll"w13lock I O::J:l( :c

4"J"oce 8rick+ G"Bockup 8- ~oI;d Masonr Ii

block 0'" n-Ie 'z H(Jllo.,M~ •• ':'~I'c;

e, EAR I N G W ALL S (TJ·IOS!! WHICH C'"A~R'I 110 2i_;b",.. 1

~~~~~~~~~~~==~~~====~====~=====;=;~~M~o~R=E~rH~A~N~O~W~N~W~~~ c:1 c:J

SOLID MASONR Y (C2I:.,4'<:7) ReINFORCED 1-I0LLOW HOllO!! PRIVATE fJWELL1N65 PRIVATlf DWlfL.l.II.JGS OTHER SrRUCTURES

RU6J,/(t d'·9r~o}~"fnd.n Genrr6/ CqSIit It O.R " -~- "

Pla/rrC,."",.'Z"J"s. fhM£ienl.Cose,bufS·',4f;". CONCRETE CAVITY BLOCKS 35:0 HIGH OR LESS @ Jrd. FI

Topaf f?,,~~el7~S .vOT/!.' Ai (C2t;·4,S) (C2G·430) (CZG·HI) MI;tED OCCtlPA}/C/ES ~ • "

~ 'h'~ WOII$'Qb~~:O;:::Jf<tZ -'=1- 25:0"Wloe lOR ££S5 :IT ?"t/·FI. ~t=t. if t lor a/leas!-

for fop : I::; . fo be !Jul-hick.. I~ 1[' IINO < 3 STORIE5 R;I--:t' Isf. Floor '2 Sjor/~s.

Yr-ya! I'::!_ 0 Tap cf Roof iJeD"""" ) v'!ct

5/';!({ '1 roJ;. ;; • ~ t: ,~(CZe; - 443 E' HOLLOW BLOCK OR

8ldgs. :-:_9 ~ g :f - ~.g. -9 ~ !18"SDltil-'1 __ HOlLOW(CAVITY) supeRS TRUCTUR£

q~ .. ~~ "Ff.8 ," ~. IO "',

"it L:~ ~ f.. ~~..t; ~I!..~ ....... ' ms. ~ e:: ~ f-.I.~ lor JloIIl/wUI;t. V

I~ iJ..'.. .. 0 :+-...... '.' . -r 'I; ~~ :c <; j",e"v/f". ENE.EP.~(C2G-4:!>7.4;!.a,A39)

.. II: gO,. "..; ... " ~ t. '-}·'11 £ .. ~ ~ ,; ;., i/~·"IJbf',.." .

~ ~ ~ ~ ".. w ~ " ~ "''' Dt, 40-0' Max.helghf ahove Foundahons

,I ~ ~ § :!-'l. ~ ~-l! JI~If! ~ !! ~ ~ ... ~I , excepf on panelor enclosure Wolls;

ll{~'i: t- ""0 ~ ~ V Q!! '10;:;',..110110", 3S:0"Mo}(.heinhfor25foriespltnone

-l! o.!; 11~... ., ~ I _ "<:i .,.J ii Ma$Dn"'!I"nt/ "

h~ ~ l< " n ~:~" ... I"'- "'01 .... JJ....HoIIDwlIf,!lJ gah/e on Wood frame.

11 1'0 i) '!J v :;r: ." -k ~ ~ f-;"::!:"~/"'_'~",:"+.,,--:-:-::=:~,,..,...+-------------------~

'1 r s «) ~ '0 l~l f. ~~ '~~ ~~ ~ INTEI?J0118EAHINfiJqillS t 150LATED PIER

I ~. 'A .s~~ r" , ~ b! r'.L

1~-iJ_ ~ ~ ~ lI) ~~% ~:.~ t ~~] '0 ~ ~ RE51D1:i~~~RfaC[dllE5 fir! 50(IIC'd"<Dm':sO_~"'r:y4J~;()~I"Ao,..

I ~ ~ r-, ,- :-;. '-I ~ ~ ~ " ~ j """'--1 ~ ~, ~

I ~ .. r" ss _0.; 0 ;" ~ {

, I ... • ~;"1j I>: -" I". 8 ~ 1'>- 5'_~ PI, I! L

[I ~ Q /'"" .< '.. l;:-C ~ -, ,- oin Cone,.ef" -.: r;. reo Ii?mox. of

~.J t ~ ~'" ;:: 5 ~ I~ ~ t ls~ ~ ~" ~ reduced sfrt!'.r5

'Zo"... :~ ~ 'I.. 11' t ~ -.. "', ReinFo,.e",d Concref", -12"

I 0 -r- op of:' IJ" II",,, f ~. ,~~- tll.~"

::"=:'-1---4, r';'" ~ " ,'. ._ IJ I· wall SlIppor '-' .. c, -' -e _ •

III Support:~ ~ ~ 11!l ....... _,_~...L.-'--'-_

I I ;>~ NOT/!;' 8I:AIUJ.JGI8fJR_ ISIOE NOTE:- ?:O·'min. diam. re'luired 10'"

G ~N'cR'--'A"-L_'_ C'AS" ~SlD'HGSfG·HUJ.J/?!fD '. , foundafion piers (exeec>fion~ tn",t;le)_

c: t; s; ,. N_~ Also s ee Privafe &DTJls/lJ:s ORNOII.SEAR.I- _;r;__ -I

NOT t:Xc£.J:.O _ , MIlx. hGrl",,,,,folcle,,r

!:!.2I.!!.: ABOV!! ntlCI<JJES5ES DwellIng 35 1",,:1.''' of woll$ dO!O". G ENE Po A L NOTE 5 :

Also 5"e Pr;,/oJ" DWf:llings J5'Hlg/l High or [es» 6- ~·;,~t,,;,.".s"!'::'~!':"':!;s Walls musf be increased i£;

or le55 .t- Mixt!td Occupancies. Miy'dOt:tUl,ttlldes S,zml!tJs 6t:,zril'lg wailS. • •

~. r (d) Openings in bearing walls exceed 50/0

(CZG'4'8)~

~

(b) clear span exc.eeds 2'€':O"/'or beorin9. waIlS (t;;!G' 427) 4"Ii7cret7se lar ever!ll~/2 ~vt:r?({,' (c) Unsu pporfed heighf grt!ofar fhan 20, I (c 2(;.417)

(d) Fouf"'/dahon Wall,; Clre mare fhan !.3'deep bel-ween hQriz. sUf'f'crls. (C'2G'~!}7)

IFe) Necessarfj 10 resisf wind (CZG;-349) ~brkk or p::;::I:L Hollow

~: 1~!22ir Con",,-.,.fe b::::I:I' Block

When horl:z.. lengfh bef. supporls exceeds '20', increase wall fhickness J."lor eo. addiHonal /0' or Iroc/ion_

/3' Solid M."",r Ii 12 LHollo . MQ Mr II;.

.. llii

c: CJ

PA~TIT10N5 (czt;-4~1)

Non' bearing wall One Siory or less In heigh!.

Fl RE.

WALLO

• 3" fhic..l< 4"

G"

e;

" (c 2G;-441. 44'1, G;~J, G;~'Z)

C!.b- (If nof loaderl) /?einr. <one.; (;'Sol,dCino'cr ~ Cone. bJocltr p/dtsi-t!r '2" ..rides_

tl~1-- _ .sohi:! Brie}:; Solid S'l-rucl.,rol unlls; Plain Cone.; solli:l ei"dcr Co,.,,,.iJloc.l:.s,·/j ''Hollow Cone. 8Iocl:s(/~"thie/( Shells) plos/ered

Z Sides; tJ"Hollow ClIO!! rile (J cel/s) pla:;fere<l '2 s/oIe".

'1.- " .

.. I' . IZ lIo//owClo!l Tile IJloct.1 (2uni!, JCc//s) fJ/osrer.,d 2 side"; 12- HoIIDw CDnc.

(Z cell; 'JI,," w"b)

__ ,- "Hours Fir e ,..",slsfopee_

Un de,. JZ' Nigh I'Z'" JG'

IG'· 'CO' 20"'24'

WALL

THICKNESSES - NYC. (OD£*

5E£!LYE, STEVENSON, VALUE §.KNECHT CONS ULrlNG eNGINEERS

101 PARK AVe. NEW YORK CITY

TEL. MURRAY HILL 4 - '2500

Po E VIS eo TO JANUARY I, 1958

* ThiS code 15 Incorporated as typical of'modern engmeermg thought of' on!! of' tile coaee.

FOr walls SUbject to earth pressure - see page 7-3{

', .~

1-]7

STRUCTURAL - GENERAL-FIREPROOFING REQUIREMENTS

SUGGESTED FIREPROOFING REQUIREMENTS'"

TABLE A

P rotectl on of Walls and Partitions

P roteetion of St,uctural Parts

- - 6 4 644

Strllc:turol members. wi rh floo-r and c.i.lll'1g pro,.,.r;:tion

M.mb.'f'to Bit Protected

FrrepraoHng Material

Brick of day, share, concreto, or sand lime

G,oup 1 eonerot. t :m 2 lIS I

Group 2 eoncr.t. t 3 2 1 Y.z 1

Brtek, cloy (wlt~ bdek fill) 3* 3* 3* 2%

Coner .. '. block ~allow (martor .n~ b.okon black fill) 3 3 3 3

Cloy ti I. (two 2" loy.,,) 4 2t 2 2

Solid gypsum block with Ii.. 2 pi 2 pi 2 2

Hollow gyp."m block with Ii.. 3 pi 3 pi 3 3

~;~:·u~ g!~:::l~~~~~. on s.lf.furril1!l :n~'al ~*!~ ~t ~'''' H~IJow structural

Gyps~m_Perliro on 5~~.f::'~~9m~::~lr.~nforcem8nt ~~ ~~ p~ ~~ ~~~daeJlJf~I;'~ :;~:I:

Qn gypsum lath. tlllfl1fl;m:emeni 1 i'2 ll'§: 1 1 f~-cing

Sprayed fib ....... diT.etly to steel 2 lY.z 1'" Hollow structural Unptas'erod 6

~--------------~G~r~o~"p~l~c~o~n~c-r.~,~.~~~~~~--------------r2~~2~~1~~7+1~i~~fu~e~ln~g~ti~I.~,~c~l~aY~-+P~la~.~,.~,~0~d~o~n~0~.~id~e~ ~r--1 __ -t __ r-~~-t6~4~~:'1

G,oop 2 cencrefe 2~ 2~ 2 lIS Solid unpIQ.t.,.~ 5 3 3 2

Brick of -=10.,., concretet or- sGnd time 3" 3~ 2~ 2!04 Gypsum block HallDW Unp-Iastered 3

Gyp.om blocks, solid 2 pI 2 pi 2 2 Hallow plo ••• rod 4 3 3 3

Gypsum hloeks, hOIrDW 3 p~ 3 2 2 Bonded 10.411 'brick facing .( p l 4 p~

Gypsum, pour.d 2 2 lIS 1 Aggregote expand.d burnt day

GYPslJm- Vermic:ulife on self·furring metal lath 1/ ". Hmo.I.I:nW,yoOUnn,:t'.lIIt., or :shale, crushed lime stone, Unplastered 10

cagoD ..., f_... UnOo>:pand.d :IIdQg. or cinders prast.red 8

Gypsum - Po-rlit. On self .. ll,llrring' metal loth cage Hi 1~ 1 1

Sprayed fibor -dil'ectly to adhesiYit coated ste.1 3% 2 2 2 Expa-ncied 51.=-g Qr pumice Urip!.;l5:f1n"d 8

Floor = 2W' co-neret. dab on metal lath and aggregate- Plast"red 6

gypsum vermteultte ceiling ~ ~ * Calcar.Clus sa"d and gravel

FloQr = 2" preee st gyp .um 51 ab + Y.I cover of mQrtar and gypsum vermLC\llite ceiling Floor = 2u concr.t. slab on metal leth and gyp:sum perlite coUing Floor = 2~' c:onerete slab on metal lath and gypsum y..,rmic:uIUe ceiling Flaw = 2~" ee nerete p~ank and gypsum vermicuUt. 1;:.,~ling Floor = 2" r:lnder conerot. ~Ia:b on $t •• l cellular

unit. ond gypsum vermiculite cening !{

Floor = 2" perlite concrete on :iteel cIIIllul-ru units, arid gypsum pa,Ii'~ c:.ifing Floor- :::: 2" rllllinforcad caner.te an stee-l -C;:IIIUulor

units and gypsum perUte coiling ~

Floor ="2" eenerete on sfeel cenular' unit. ond

sprayed fiber c.iling 1"

Floor::: 1;'" I;allcrete + ~ cement mortar' f:lni $h 'e;m s.tee l clI"lIular units end gypsum vermFc:utife ceiling Floor = 2" conero-te on steel l;eUular vntte and gypsum perlite or gYPSUM yermiculite e:eiUng

5 .... 1 columns .quol Dr -great.r than 6)( 6

SIe.1 beams, girders, ,-. '"'I:nd truss ml!mbl!rs ~ndiv,d\lally protoctodl

Bearling§-

Non- Bear:ht9

Minimum Thld:n ... : fot Hour Rotlng ..

Minimum Thlckn ••• for Hour Ra-Ilng.

Mlrdmum Th.lclcnes. for Haur RotEn.g ..

Material

Constn.ldfan

3 2

432

4 3 2 I

SoUd unplastered

SoBel plas'lIIfI!td on" side Sol.d plastarltd both sid •• Honew -I;QvUy

8 4

a 8 4

B .( ..

10 10 10

8 8 8 10

- ..

- - 4 ..

.. 4

HoUow s.ructutol Unpla!ilitllfad Nore: For !lumber of units 12

Plast.,.d ene side and c:.Hs s.1t N.B4F.U. 1:2

tile, day, or shoJe Plast.r-ed both sides FE ... Residence Raling •• 12

12 12 8 12 8 8 8 8 8

Unpla:stered Plast.red tile sid.,

B 4

8

8 -

6 ..

6 4 3

6 _

663 6 6 3 -

Unplastond

Plo.t.red 10

- 10

JO 11

~ !6 PlaLn concrete

SiJ leeeu.s $I:md" and gravol UllP lesteeed Pta:sterltd

12 12

Solid meeeff thte W(ills

Solid waUs unpla-stered Group 1

Group 2 Solid walls plQ"stered both sides Graup 1 Gra"'l'_2

71S 61S S~ - 6~ 6 5 3~ 7lS 6~ 5~

5 .(

6 5 4

Rei .,Ioreed concret. (monol ithic)

4 - 3 3 3

¥.. ~ Stone masonry

12 12 12

1% 1% 1'1.

NOTE: Group 1 eener .. t .. aggr .. gate. are bla.t.furnac ... Iag, Iime.tone, calcareous grav .. l, traprock, burnt clay or .hale, cinders containing not mo, .. than 25% of cernbustibl .. mat .. rial and not more than 5% of volatil .. material, and other materials m .... ting the requirem .. nts of th ..... specifications and containing nat mar .. than 30% quartz, che,t, flint, and similar mcterlcl s,

Coer!u, aggregote air-cooled slag, IIIXpalldl!d SlG9, crushed limestonet calcar.oul gtavel, siliceous 9ra yel, or trepeeck

1~ lIS

Group 2 concrete agg re gate. a,e granite, quartzit .. r siliceous gravel, sandstone, gnei.s, cinder. containing mere than 25%, but not more than 40% of combustible material and not mere than 5% of volatile material and other material. meeting requirement. of the ... spocificotions, and containing more t;"<ln 30% of quartz, chert, flint, and similar material5.

Reinforced-concrete:

Nom:.. 9'~rd.,rs and truss ..... reinforcing bars

R.inforc:.d·conlC;:nte ~ labs -reinforcing or.

Group 1 concrlll!ct

Graup 1 eenerete 02" or larg., fcu.nd or sqllore eelcmnsl, Not lnduding clrid.r Clggrega'e Group 2 concrete 06" or larger found or squCllre eelumns}, Not indudhllg c:ind'.r Clggregata

* Bg.sed en author's intltfpr.totia" of NqtlonQ[ Board of Fir. Und.r-wtir.n (N.B.F.U.) publ icatlon, Fire R~si$trlnce Rali1Jgst 1957. For Furthor

dataUs ar"! construction end meteetels, aee N.64F.U. publ leetlen, Fire Resistance RGtings.

t Not more than 1G% unburned eecl s -and no. over 5,. -ash.

t Wi.h fill ond Ii •••

II She' c:eJ loler unit. or ethee sfeel structural lIf1rts. 1111<1 for c:alc:areou$ aggrega •••

~ None or noncombustible mltmb.rs fr-ami"SlI into w.;dL

ReinfClfced-O:;Qncrete -columns _ reinfar~ing :baT~

1~ lIS

lIS 1~ lIS 1~

4..r1,. Rating: 4Y.z." slGD, expanded .slag aggregc.te (~" protection te r.i.riforeem.nt). 6" sl eb, ail.caoled stag, aggregate {l n pro-Iec:lion to reh1forc.m.nt).

5" slClb, lirnestonlll Q:gg::regate and 1ft gypsum viumieu!it. plaster eel LIng, metal leth (eJectrjca[ raceways and junction box-es In $Iab. 3" slab, lirne$tone aggr.g-at. and 1 Q" sypsum vennie-ulit. plast.r ceilif19t metal lath.

3.Hr. Rating; 6" 5Jab, trQprock, or crusna-d timestan." or calcar .. cu,Is gravel, er sllie:ltous gravel aggregate (1 ""prouc:tioo ro re~nforcement) • .,fl'lslab, lime-.tons aggreg-ote hung e.iEil"lg of ~"gyps'Um vllllrmlc:uUt. plQ$1a.r metal lath ("Ie:c'riC"~1 raceways and iunction boxers in slab).

2" :do:b, limeslone- aggregg te "hung ceUEng 01?4" gYP'sum vermiculi.e pEas._, m.tal lath.

l-Hr. R(lting; 4*" slaD, traproc-li:, Dr silkeous gravel gggregG'e (*"prQtection 10 reinFo-reerMn.).

4~" eleb, eeleeeeeoe gray.l, or crushed [lmn.tone oggregg,,, (I'" protection to rainforce.ment).

I-Hr. Rating: 4" slab. sHiceous gravel aggregat. (~nplot.ctJon to- reinrorc8'me:nt).

REI N FO RCED.COHCR ET E FLOO RS

1-18

·-1·'·· .. 1

~

1

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-GAGES

WIRE AND SHEET METAL GAGES IN DECIMALS OF AN INCH

Name of Gage

N ..... of Gage

United Stat ..

Standard Gage"

Principal 11M

Uncoated StlMll ShMb and Light Plat ..

The United States Steel Wire Gage

Steel Wi", except MuaicWi ..

Americ.an or Brown .. Sharpe Wire Gage

Non-Ferro ... ShMta and Wire

New Birmingh.m Standard Sheet ..

Hoop Gage

British Imperia' or Engli.h

Lejlal Standard Wire Gage

Birmingham or Stubs Iron Wire Gage

Wire

a. No.

7.0'. 6/0'. 50'. 40'. 3/0'. 2,'0'.

o

1 2 3 4 5 ,

7 • 9

10 It 12 13 14 15

IS 17 II 19 20 21 22 23 24 211 21 'Z1 21 21 30 31 32 33 34 35

Jf 37 31 at 40

We~t Oz. pet Sq. Ft.

160 ISO 140

130 120 110 100 1M)

eo 70 60 50 45 40 36 32 21

24

22 20

18

16

14

12

11

10 ,

8

7 6.5 6 5.5 5 4.5 4.~ 4

Approx.

Thick,_ I nella

Iron and Sloel Sheets and HOOIlS

Thic~.lnchu

.2391 .2242 .2092 .1943 .1793 .1644 .H~ .1345

.1196 .1046 .01187 .07;'7 .0673 0Il8I .0531 .0;,71 .0411 .03¥1

0329 .1l2tt .0261 .0239 .0201 0179 .0164 .0149 .0135 .0120

.0105 .0097 .0090 .00II2 .0075

.0061 .0064 .0060

.4900 .4615 .4305 .J9J8 .3625 .3310 .3065 .28JO .2625 .2"37 .2263 .2070 .1920 .1770 .1620 .1483 .1350 .1206 .1056 .0915 .0800 .07'20

.0625 .0!>40 .0475 .0410 .0341

.0311 .1J286 .0'251 .0230 .0204 .0181 .0173 .0162 .0HiO .0140

.0132 .01~ .0118 .0104 .0096 .0090 .0085 .0060 .0075 .0070

.5Il00 .5165 .4600 .4096 .3&48 .3249

.2893' .2576 .2294 .20i03 .1819

.1620 .1443 .1285 .1144 .1019

.0907 .080II .07'20 .0641 .0571 .0501 .04!3 .0i003 .03511 .0320 .0215 .0253 .0'.l26 .0201 .0179

.0159 .0142 .0126 .0113 .0100

.D0e9 .00lI0 .0071 .0063 .0066

.0050 .00;,5 .0040 .0035 .0031

• 6666 .625

• 5883 .5416 500 .4452 .3964 .3532 .3141 .21104 .250 .2225 .1911 .1764 .1510 .1398 .1250 .1113 .0991 .0182 .0715 .0699 .0625 .0654 .0;,96 .0440 .0392 .D349 .0313 .0278 .D24I .0220

.0196 .om. .Olti6 .0139 .0123

.0110 .0098 .0087 .oon .0069 .0061 .00!>4 .0048 .00;,3 .0039

.500 .464 .432 .400 .372 .343 .324

.300 .276 .252 .2.12 .212

.192 .116 .160 .144 1211

.116 .104 .092 .010 .07'2

.064 .056 :D43 .040 .036 .032 .028 .024 .022 .020

.018 .0164 .0148 .0136 .0124

.0116 .0108 .0100 .0092 .0014 .0076 .0068 .0060 .~2 .0048

.500

• 454 .425 .380 .340 .300 .284 .259 .238 .220

.203 .180 .165 .141 .134 .120 .109 .D9!i .083 .07'2 .065 .058 .049 .0;,2 .035 .032 .021 .025 .022 .020 .018 .016 .014 .013 .012

.010 .009 .008 .007 .oos .00;,

• U. S. Standard Gage is officially a ... eilht gage. in oz. per sq. It, as tabulated. TIle Appro~. Thiclcl'M!Stl ~oo.n i$ the .. Manufacturen' Standard" of the American Iron and Steel I nstitute, based on steel as weighing 501.81 lbs, per cu. ft. (489.6 true weight plus 2.5 percent (or average over-run in area and thickness). The A.I.S.I. standard nomenclature for flat rolled carbon steel is as follows:

Gage No.

7/0' • 6/0'1 5/0' • 4/0' • l/O'. 2/0'5

o 1 2 a 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 11 19 20

21 22 23 24 25 26 'Z1 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 31 39 40

WidtN, Inchw 0.2500

and thicker

To 3~ incl. Bar

0- 3~ to 6 incl........... Bar

6 10 12 " Plat.

" 12 10 J2 "._....... PIa .. .. 32 to 48 ".......... Plate

" 48 _............ PIal.

0.1874 0.0567 0.0343

to to 10

0.0!i68 0.0344 0.0255

0.2499 I 0.2030

to to

0.2031 0.1875

Bar . i Strip

Bar I Strip

Strip I Strip

Strip Strip Strip

Sheet ShMt

SMel SlIMt

1"1.1.

t'late

I Sheet ShMt

I Sheet

TABLE A

II ~::

ShMt

Sheet

Strip Strip

Strip

Sheet Sheet Sheet ~t ShHt

0.0254 to 0.0142

Sheet St-t S'-I ShMt ShMl S'-t

0.0141 and thinnw

Sheet Sheet Sheet

Black Plat.

'-J

1-19

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-CHAINS SWIRE ROPES

Nominal Size of Chain Bar, inches

TABLE A - SAFE WOR KING LOA OS OF CHAINS (in kips) A.S.T. M.. A56. 39

Crane Chain

1 5 3 7 1 9

4" 16 "8 16 2 16

1.0 1.6 2.3 3.2 4.2 5.3

.85 1.3 1.9 2.6 3.4 4.3

TABLE B - NOMINAL WEIGHTS AND DIMENSIONS OF CHAINS A.S.T.M .. A56.39

~.-------------.-----r-----------r----------~--------------------------------------------,

Proof Coil

6.6 9.5 12.9 16.9 20.0 24.7 29.9 35.6 41.13 48.4 55.3 63.3

5.3 7.6 10.4 13.6

Nominal Dimensions of L inks, inches

Inside

Nominal Nominal

Actual Length of We ight per

Size of~1_0_~_L_i,n_k_s,_i_n_'4- __ 1_0_0_frt._,_lb_. __ ~ C_r_an_e-rC_h_o_in -+ P_r_o_o,f_C_o_il ~

Material, inches

Normal Size of Chain Sor, inches

Crone Proof

Choin Coil

Crone Proof

Chain Coil

Outside

Inside

Outsi de

Length Width Length Width Length Width Length Width

1%

1 %2 306 1 600 5 % 4 51,. 3 '1,. 1 JI.

1 ';.

1~

2

2

TABLE C - WIRE ROPE 6 X 19 STANDARD HOISTING PLOW STEEL*

254.0174.0 139.0 123.0 108.0 93.4 80.0 67.5 56.2 45.7 36.4 28.0 20.7 14.5 11.8 9.35 7.19 5.31

r--.

"I Diameter, in.

Breaking strength, t tons of 2000 lb.

*From John A. Roebling's Sons Co.

tUse factor of safety from 5 to 8.

7359173 8" 4' "8 IT "2 16 8'

[-20

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-PROPERTIES OF SECTIONS-I

A =Area of" .5ecfion

~=>=~oe7::i7:~f1:ad!}:S PROP E RTl ES OF SECTlO N 5

r> Rad/u~ of Ggralion

.For ra/reo' .s I-ee/

~ecfian.r: e, - _l_

..;1- X

r=W

)li A= bd-b,d" )( .. 4- ~A'"f' x",d A= ~=.7854 bel ~ )(~ -t
I,:~; 5,2 bd';;;1,d,l d I _ bd~. 5,r~ h~ I,·u-et - o"o4!lO~db~
~-3 ' .1.' ,~. 6,.1IJi!2.. .. - oose.IOdb~
c; 'ytx:jl- bld,3 r,- -it- :!>l_
l_p ,'U, _ 040Bt48d fi 7 -f- b.d
f§i] A r da; X" {-
r,,,i· dl
s'''?D
, _Q_ :: O"ZMG>75d
Ii ="Y1I'
bod
A,,"d~; )(~d
dLg3 I,=~~ 5,"%~
L !.._
r;:~ ; 0" 0"7735 d
b= d
A= d"-d,a. )(~~
d~~'T I,.d~i'''''; 5-~
~ ,- CD
:J r;=~
~ A~ ¥l= 'lTrt"o.11164(j1.,. 3.1415!l r~ )( "" di-2. =: r

I 'lTd"" .".,-d. _.>4

,= c;lI: c ""4 = ·04S0=5.71154r4

s,·W- '!fP ~ .o~l8d~ •. ~S4r'1 Ii= ~ = 1:

A"~"157oert; x-~ x," r«I-i*r)",o 5755~r

I,c" r"(~-A) '" O·IOS7~ r4- 6,,, ilg~:1~l '" O.\~O~~r~ fj.r~ _ D.U.4~4r

P, .. bd; )( .. f

I.=~: ~'G ¥

r; .. "* " OWIYD7Sd

A-bel; x .. d

I,=¥. 5,,, ¥ rI"-vt p O.57DSd

A. ¥ • )< = .g. \ x, .. ?f

I, .. ~; 5,= it

Ii = vt .. 0 u.670z.a

A. ~dzjz,n22t"·08zadl: x ~ ~

I,· MQi';"1'r~f!)] "OS5 d4- :),.~[d('4~'1~~ ~.'09d3

r. ~"l/'''~='Q~· =c~7d , ~ CJ>~l zz, ~.

b=d

,~

Adapted from S/nqleton, Manual of structural Oeeiqn , J..../.M. Ives $ Sons

\.._)

I-~.I

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-PROPERTIES OF SECTIQNS-2

A=Areo or Section

I=Mornenfol'l~rliq PROPERTIES OF SECTIONS S =Secfion Modulus

r = Rod/vJ' 01" G,!/ralion

r"" Exfrel71e fiber S'fress p. s.i, M: Mot71en f /n i'7. los.

A <= dt ~ da.p ~ ~ r~

,,=< f

v= t

I, ~ ~ +4[~ r1. ~ I(i,- ff] It- ~pb:{(.\;\4[~ r"'.~,l(t ~~)~

(

I

For ra//ed' ..rree/ secfion.!' :

5=+ r=W

A = dt .. "Ul.( "'Tn) ,,= i-

t= t

1." bd'- ~ (c.4._ e.") Ii

I1. '" <'nb)t e"t"t;re- (b"'- t"'J

A= ¥~"'t~o.{m~n); y.-t 'It' ~~~(rn'~+3tdl dt-W6dil

~

L. e>t}ll..tl.4brt 14.(",-~)l. A ( •• .,,)t

T_ "b't(.,,-~)t1t e1.!.'

>-(.. I~

+ a.("'-")[l,g_~ .. (w.+~t)tJ 3eo

t e(t-I..l [(t·W! .t(b+?uY- J

of 144

Adapted from Sinqteron, Manual of structural Design) J-I. M. Ives $ Sons.

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-APPROXIMATE SOLUTION

TABLE A-CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND SLABS, A.C.I .. 1956

I ;; Clear span for positive moment and shear, and the average,of the two adjacent clear spans for negative moment w ;; Uniformly distributed load per unit of length of beam or per unit area of slab

Applicable if (1) Longer of 2 adjacent spans does not exc:eed shorter by more than 20%.

(2) Live load is not more than 3 times dead load.

Pas itive moment End spans

If discontinuous end is unrestrained •..•..•...•.•.•.•.•.•.•....••.•.•.•••.•••••.•...•..•.•••.••.•.•..... , .

If discontinuous end is integral with the support • .

Interior spans •..•••••••••••...•.•..•••••.•..•.....•••.•..•.....•.•..•...•••••••.••.........•.........•.....•...

Negotive moment at exterior face of first interior support •••••...•...••.••••.........••.••... , , ........•.. , , , , .

Two spans ..•.......•••••••••.....•...•.•••••••• , •.......••.•....••••••...••.•••••.••••..........•.•..........

More than two spans .

Negative moment at other faces of interior supports ...•....•..•••••••••••••••••••••.............••..•. " .•. , ........•...

Negative mornerrt at face of all supports for (a) sl abs with spans not exceed ing 10 ft., and (b) beams and girders where ratio

of sum of column stiffnesses to beam stiffness exceeds 8 at each end of the span •..•.•••.•.••...•.................•...

Negative moment at interior faces of exterior supports for members built integrally with their supports

Where the support is a spandrel beam or girder .••••••..•.•............••••....•.......•••••..•••••.•...............

Where the support is a col umn .

Shear in end members at first interior support •....••.•••...•.......•....•..•••..•.•....••..•..••.•..........•.....•••

Shear at all other supports •...•••.••••••.••••••••.....••.••.••••••••••••••••••.. , •..•.........•.....•..••.•.••.....

_V

)

Assome pin connection

RIGID FRAMES - FIXED AT BASE

Safe load in kips on WF column, normal story height 4 to 5 times weight per foot. Use 4 for light sections, 5 for heavy sections.

STEEL BEAMS

d Approximate section' modulus of steel WF ;; IT x

STEEL COLUMNS

1 w!,2
11
1 wi' 2
14
1 wi' 2
16
1 wl'2
9
1 w1'2
10
1 wl'2
11
, wi' 2
-
12 "-'
.i, wi' 2
24
1 w(2
16
1. 15 wi'
2
wi'
-
2 DEFLECTION

Steel Beams

Uniform load - see pp. 4-02 and 4-03.

Other loads - use formulas on pp. 8-01 through 8-04.

Concrete Seams

Use formulas on pp , 8-01 through 8-04.

E ;; 3,000,000 for short time loads to 1,000,000 for permanent loads

I = I of transformed section

CONCRETE BEAMS

(3000 lb. concrete; 12 in. width, d in ft.)

Allowable moment foot ki ps = 34 x d2

Reccti on - No stirrups = 10d Reaction - Maxi mum = 40d

CONCRETE TIED COLUMNS (3000 lb. concrete)

Maximum concentric load in kips =: 150 x area in sq. ft.

1-23

LATERAL BRACING OF STRUCTURES TABLE A -l-fORIZONTAL FORCE FACTORS

PACIFIC COAST UNIF"ORM BUILDING CODE -!9S'Z VAl.Ue DIRECTION

SUPERSTRUCTURE: PART OR POR.TION op-'C"'.lI OF FORCe

Desi9n sfrucrl.lre as (7 whole aac/ every porfion ol':some Floors;rooh co/amos orx/ An!:!

foresisi /of~rol /Orc~s d_.:>p//ed qfeQch.r/oor or rool' 6roc/n9hoa!/.sTor9'C1I'obldy~ /Y·1$:r direcflon

level a.6ove ,£'ov.n<7or,/o/7s. )lorizonlo/ Forc~ 'F; CWinlbs. or/he slr(/c:rore(7~o(U.?oie ori3onfo/1g

Wilt:' re: {,'.: Force /,qC ror, /'oc for from fable A. W= tolo / D L. 8eorio9 wolis; t7o/l-beorin9 .05" Normal fo

of QOd o.6ove pO/ill (/nqer cOI7S;d~r(}flon ~xcepf f:'or {(/o/ls,porfiftons,f'rff" s-Ittm:tln9 wifAmln. sur,coce (l/o,...ehof./,ses ond r<7/l/(S Where: W::Toral 11L+ To 101 L.L. /7X7.sot7rfl(Uoll5ov~r "inoe/9"hf op.s%' of' woll

FOUNDATIONS: COl7fi/eve'r pqrapefoodofher !\hrmoi.fo

All f'oundafions on pti<;s or soil wifh /~ss fhem 2000%' cor7Tileverwo//s excepf re- ,25 ~'j!:;~/l bearing vo/"e shQI/oave foofings inf6"rconnecfed fOlhin (£/o/Is.'

I t---'c;'::;::':x'":';f-.:'-':e~r:<-:;/o-::'r~t7.:-':''/7~''''r;=-e'_r/'''''o-r-o.-::!r----+----rrn-'9---''/.::-~''''''c'''''f;.-j'()fl

wilA fi~s /n fwo o'/rechons of 90°!-0 eoch orher .25

lJe sholl fro/ls/77;f 10% o,t' verfical load 0;:' /reav/e» l7om~nlo-fI0/7S&O?/'':;~9<es hor/3onfc;Jly

{ffht:'/l coaoec ed 0 Or (1

/'coll/79 connecfed. Cooerere slob min. (;··or48 -1017~ fXlrfo/'o6l//1d;i7g: lowers; Any

and aOTmore Than 12/106ove lop oj' /'001109 IT/OY be lonks; fowerfo/7(:/lon/rs-p/uS" .os dlre-cllon

reo' in ploce 0/" lies. A.fX"J. reio/.' ~·PO'r Ie 'ac. (."'OC''? confenfs: cnil77nec;.s; S/flo/:,>!:S'!rtci:s hori3onla/&

GENEQAL DESIGN DATA: 1-::-;----:- _ _,-==-c-~e_:_'/7....:..r...::..:hc.c:oc.c:u:..=s_~.;:;.:;r.;_. --:--r---f------1

.sf~sses sha/I no"; hC' more loan 33JJ % a60ve O'/IO((/(76/e £Ievoled (Uokr tanks and

((/orkI179 s-frcsse's in c"d~ excepf fhofsh(?(7ril7 ofher fowers-upp~r-ted

conc-refe walls 6'or flucker sholl nofexc~edt)SJ:. sfrt/cfur~..f'(7of.5qof'0rf~dbq

.~. a but/dlh

Over fornin9 momt:f>or shol/ nOT exceed J oJ'momenf,#; See B ror 3,m(!s. The values givl!?l7 'C'ore minimflm

ol'slo6ilifg 60fl1 co/cC/lofcd dsing fhe .some/oods. om7 shOl/ld Dl?oc/opfedinlocolions l7ofsflCyecflo

Co/cu/ohonol's/Jeorf Q/7d momenl's sho// i>eln f'requenfsCi?ism_icdislur.6_.C1'7ces osshow/7/n30lle

.... / 0.0 N~,/".LLU. . d / ' I. ForlocOT/0I7/17 3onc>~ c .sholl be dou.6/ed. For

crccor crorr ... ....,. Tn rnC"W//7 aes/9n• M(·n. lies J..i.'. "C'··L IlL /'1. r: d.6 4

c: IOcO/~/On.f//730iJc>3_ ,J"1/gflaemClrtpFle y .

...J_. 12';'(2: 4~~f~ * * (]jh~re<.l.li/Jd load a/oc//c/. proO"uceht'gher s/resxes Qnd!,: ,¥ r;e~ this /ooc/ sholl be t/sedin lieu o.c ,c(7c/or .5'bo(.(/O.

of /zrac ,N/s O(//71.6e;-o-' sforles 060vEfhesloryvnclerC0I7,$Jo'er"I/on, pro YIO'ed fhQf lOr ;/oor.:s or ;'orJ.son/rJ1 brae//?0 IV .sholl 6e> onlfl fht:' /7(/1?76er 0;:' sfories conlrihuflnq /ooo's.

,03

Any dlrecfiol7 hori,Jorr/o!lj

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-EARTHQUAKES

o 0 FOUNDATION PLAN

Z oo e 0 - no dOl77oge

Zone 1 - I77J/70r d0/7709eZone 2 - rnoderf7"ce (/omoge Zone 3- ffJcuordotnoyC'

FIGURE B - SEISMIC PROBABILITY MAPOFTHE U.S.

STRUCTURAL -GENERAL-TORSION ftSKIN STRESSES
TOI=\SION
e '" Antlle- 01' TtL/ist (roc/;"c7IlS)
T". Twi.s/illg momenf(in./b)·
L " L(,179f17 (/17.)
55" tim! Sneqr Stress ~p"du('fo torsion momrrr:
G = Modvlus 01' rig/oily 'i'D",,/l,ooo,ooo<7ppro.riIl1Q/c/y forsirvcftJro/skd(Jlld.45E (£=Modv/f./s of'
E/tls"flclty) for coacrrr«:
K (117. 4)ond OCilla) are /'vf7ctions Of the cross sect/or:
SUfe tuorki179 srrrss 1/7 torsionol .sbeor = 00..3 r/ ( cOf7cref(')
SOft' workinq sfrt>ssifl to,510170/ s/reor» rz.ooo "1d(sft!t'I)
t" e ril let rodii./s
o ~ D/ometc-r lorg("sf inscribed cirde.
CROSS SECTION MAXIMUM SHEARING ~ fORMULA FOR K IN e " TL t
UN IT ~ STRESS K"n"
F"OR SHEAR. FOR e I I< := 2 X, +K. +' Z oC 04, where
l3rJ :rbr :~ - M
S=_9_ T KI ~ ab3 [!3-o.ztRO-IZQ.4]
5 Z t~ h +4bo Kz" 113 cd3 cC" {(O.15rO.l"f), where 1'-"
a=(b)orCd) whic!rt'ver fh~ thinner
tl.=(b) ord) which('v("the flricker.
1-0 Q "':-i
FOR SHEAR FOR e J< '" x..+~ +K3.rd:. 04-
~: lEt: 5$= 9T
Z t.~ h K, ; ob3 ['I; -o.zt #(I-1itiV
~=~
S5=~ T Xz= Cc!3[}S-O.losf(/- :;;C'f.)]
+b tZ(ht-2bo) cC" @-(O.07"O.01G f)
FOR. 5HE.AR FOR e K " ~ .. Kz .. ec 04 where
Lt .....j I-
S-~ T ~" Clb3[h -o.Zlj(!-;t;4)J
~~ 5-Z tl(h"t-b-t) Xz" cd3[frs-o.JOSf.(I-;'ttC"4)]
_- _l c<: '" % (O.07+0.07Gf)
• , d
!

0 12, s.. kJ$ I< = i lTr4 -
-./
FOR SHEAR FOR. e
OJ OJ" s = 9T f{ :; ob 3 [IG;_, - 3.3G *(I-/~;4)]
s 2b"Zh
I. b I ho-b I. 2b J

5~IN ST8,ESSr.;S t
TYPE OF eE.AM ~"O.I ~;oo.z ~"'O.4 !r= (XI
/f '" /-j'/ J ~
// ) /
// / // /) COl"rrinuol/sj uniForm load
/ / // /
/;/ / //
/ /// / o/suppar! O.OfQCO 0.085 0.105 0.120
/ / / of mid-span 0.090 0./50 0./90 O.2Z0
LV ~ ~LV Confinllous_ cenfer /oa'<7$
af sl./pporf O.07G 0./05 0./.30 O.ISO
E2EAM~ WIII:! WIDE [~GES of mia- span 0.07(0 0.105 0./30 0./50
cF. /:-ctlve l%nqewF ~C~L Simple> beam, unil'orlTl load 0.175 0.290 03100
VO/(Ies 01' C in fable opposifc- Simple beam, center load 0.150 0.2/0 0.310
t Ildoph'd From °Formu/qs f'orSfressQnd5froir/by R...lRoClrk-fr!£GroliJ-Hi// 1?4}.
"* J!daph'd I'rolTl ·'-4dv(l/Jc("d l1<!'chol1ics 01' /1okrio/s" by F8. Seq/!/- John Wikfll947. > ••

\

1-25

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-TRUSSES

(--.., \ I

(-..,

CRESCENT

SCISSOR

PRATT (FLAT)

PRATT

QUADRANGULAR

HOWE OR ENGUSH

KIJ.JG POST

FINK

BELGIAN

QUEEN POST

HAtvll'<1ER ~EAM (CHAPE.LS)

FIG, A

ROOF TRUSSES

PRATT

HOWE

WARR EN PARKER

BALTIMORE.

PENNSYLVANIA

PETTJT K

'----------- HEAVY BRIDGES _...f

DOUBLE TRIANGULAR

POST

PEGRAM

LATTICE.

BOWSTRING

FINK

BOLLMAN

WHIPPLE

FIG, B

BRIDGE TRUSSES

SWING

E)ASCULE

FIG, C

MOVABLE BRlDGES

TA.BLE 0 - TRUSS WEIGHTS *'

ROOFS

W '" wip<!'r,t:~ of' one truss ¢" i- 01" Ihe: hrocJ/7Y'; WI ~ fo/a/

~uper/mpo.:red /0<70 per 1'1. broughl 10 eQch fruss: - wI. 01" Floor

pk·,s bve load.;. "mpacf: L = .span Hi n.

L W'" wI in Ibs:/~'l.l·/. of' har/5. coveree/ sur/'oce/ /.:: TrI.lS$ .$,.00/7 - Ff.

W:: 3p s:; Truss spacing':' 1'1; ond p = /oo~;n 16,s./stf./'1. of' nor/5'

450 +15L 'fpS covered area/carried b'7 frus~. (40 Ibsj sq 1'1: /T7/n.)

R.R 8RIDGES (SJn9J~ Troef<)

w" Wi in Ib.s./I'I: 01' .spOn oj' one fri./.fs, ~ of federal braC/:79 J I' ~ of

w" 2 (Z L +5£) fhe 1'/001" S!I,s!-e/77.; L = span /c>n9Ih- /:'f:; £ = fhe rJufl7her o,{' fhe clo$<S oj' CooperS /oad,nq gDVera/og fh~ de,s/gn.

HIGHWAY BRIDGES

*Adopfed from

1-26

B

STRUCTURAL - GENERAL - ERRORS & "REMEDIES

B

- -=- --=

Trou61t: R(!ITf4dy

PIER CONSTRUCTlON

I I

';'ouble R~me~

HOUSE CONSTRUCTION

/70 collar cellarlco J,iyh I

Trouble Reme-:ry

ROOF CONSTRUCTlON

\..__.,

lor /Of1!1 Barns Knee l3,.tZce

Trouble Remedy

SIDE BRACING

-DC}

Traunt; ~PeQf Remedy

501 L CQNO\TlON

Rool dr~"1'1

O ~ i:» Lt under

r arrr 0 I b/~ Orles

dry #<.Ie II or s e WeT' J../ !/,J,.o/il It ie

---------------Ren7~dy---------------WATERPROOFING

Trouble

TrDuble

Z-lin;Sh Trouble

Remedy

TERM\TE CONTROL

Trouj,/e

FOVNOAT\O'" P'ROTECnO~ fROM TERMlTES I C leg" up "uildin_'j' en,d grounds cl' oIl wacel frash.

t. Brt!"oK 01/ wood To eorf"J, con/oels Q/'ld Ir~QI !lrounc/ wi!1t P~l1lochloro/,hendl

[-2j

STRUCTURAL -GENERAL - BRICK MASONRY

II n I I I

--.. I II 11 L I II I ~ I I

II I I

I !_ n I
n I L I I
Il I 1 Il L 1
It U
n n II I II .l .I j_ I
II I
n ~ I _I r:

~ 1C 'r~ 0/1 coa :S~ <: raw.
II I
II / I I I B
I~ ~ II ! I _l .i.
~ I I u
II D II J_
Jl II ft I '"
R II I I I
I II
1 II II II
II II II
u u U i COMMOJi (;ltrader.lJond) COMMON" (F/~m/~h ./3ond)

Sl"re-rcher Or !<ul1ning 8ahel.l SNni/II:Tr {ud llj/rh-

OUT headers, eX~pTeVl?r!loTIJl?rcOurs'i' or corrrer:

I ~ ,
I I _l_l\_ ! JL 1 In! ! i
II L n_ JL I
H I I I II
! II IL IL n
~ I I ~ ~ n 1 n
J i II II I I
i II I II II a n
I II u II
II 1I H jJ_ n II
M II I 11 II Q II ~ U
I I II I I I
I ft I I i II I
I I l_ J..
D I I
_j_ I
1 I I 0 J J ~ i
I I I I
I I I n
I I I I II I
II II i ~ FLE:.MI5H

C;' .ser:

( a
ft Il II
I'~ I II II II I
I J I
~ . II 1 JL
II _i .l l -'_
II I , I JL ~ I I
i I j
II , H I !
I l_ II n
II ~ I i n I
II ENGLJSH

'i I 1I
I I I I
I I H I I I
_j !I j_ _l_
~
L L 1 Jl 1 I
I I l_ 1 I j
I II ~ 1 1
H I a
1I I I j_ _l_
I I FLEM 15 H (£Joub/e SfreklHu;)

I~

E: N G- L 1.5 H (cro.!s)

C/,"pped header every G; 1-!;t CO<.JrSe fOr bond.

HI G H' P,l\RAPET FLASHING

HEADER FOR MULLION ~~~J'" f/es--~

ever'f Glob Course 3~O"o.c. 1701""13'

ra 03. Copper Flashing.

Roo f'''7:;

LOW PARAPE.T FLASHIN G

bond..r ond '/0/17 r:r adO'_.o;l-ed rrO/77 Arch. Graphic sids. by J?o/77se!} <1 S/~e'pef"!.

WEA.THER PROOF WALL AS5EM&LY

Conrr"nuous Spandrel Flash/ng.

CAVITY WALL

1-28

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL-STONE MASONRY

- STONEWORK-

faid "!Jlrafi!/ed slone /i!I..dMjob. If/~ perween rubNe ./ ashlar. Tlm}1I /$ quarr'! fa.:e .s-earn (ace Or" spIff. Co/led rubble' 4"sn/qri" "rantle .

UNCl)UR.5rn flE.Ltl5rONE. -POLYGONAL, M.OSAIC

.;wUGH OP_ ORD1NA;1._Y. OR.. R..ANDOM.

TYPE.5 OF R.lJBBLE M.<~.50NR-V

CCUR.5ED

5QUAliD-JTONE MASONRY.

RANC;E.

Cocrr.s a d

Tor boll> hord und S 01.1 .s fones.

ifoci: or Pilch Toce.

$JI{ h <"oqrJ~ me</J"", or h"". UJlfd//'IOI1 Mrd.JIo"eJ.

Pointed !'inisa.

rOT Jafl s/"''''':; 1Ji/Sh- hamm~J'e:d.

Nr" .ud/ s lonl!s. !JnJye or lJoosled.

~oImurhJ>1(1'1kzl"lCpeoiJ(lI. Fer .soil slaneJ.

A/ocl7ine Tooled. 700117- chisel.

..J'mool/r

Yer'! .smaalh /los 111111 "loSJ.

, ;J?g,,a"tY71 lersolIJlom·,j. Crandalled.

.f9"o~d .rib"e ~10S0"~r

r'nm~~i 1"4rl(/' kr I;ne_

J ;,lJl')~ I. h~ "'VIJe. Alari.

dJIII",. </01/"''<71",,:. times/one

• '!_";:_'.

./pe("Ial .i17..1<:riorJ

R..u.sh'cofed h(p~s of Jo/nf.s.

STONE JOINT5

TV.PES, FIN_I.5H .. f\.ND ,)Q1NrING Of' STO.NE MA50NR.Y

IJ perch ISl70111l17ollf( "'6 lonel, /'0 htqh .J- /." IlJIck.. =Z4J, Cu.'#. If! Some. loco/,h([;'s 162' l/. ZZ cl.I.llorr::: used

Adcrp red "om Arch. Graphic Sfds. bq Rorn.rev s: Sleeper-.

I

<::

.I

1-2

STRUCTURAL-GENERAL- NOTES

CONCRETE

DESIGN DRAWINGS

1. Concrete shal I develop a strength of --p.s,i. at 28 days. Reinforc e ment sha I[ be int.ermediate-grade deformed bars conforming to

A.S.T.M. A-IS and A-305.

2. In twa-way slabs, place short-span bars in bottom layer.

3. Concrete beams to have 8·in. bearing on walls unless otherwise noted.

4. Cancrete joists to have not less than 6-in. bearing on walls.

5. Solid slabs to have 4-in. bearing on wails.

6. Fireproofing thickness shall be 3/4·in. for slabs and joists, 1-112 in. for beams, girders, and columns.

7. See specifications for instructions to detailer s,

8. Add notes as may be required by local codes.

WORKING DRA WINGS (include inSjecificotlons.)

9. Prov ide adequate I ies for a I st ee 1 bars and st irrups in slabs and beams. All r e inforc ing st e .,1 in slabs and beams to be held at correcl d i atence from forms by ode quat e concrete blocks, steel chairs, or ties in accordance with latest A,C.I. detailing practices.

10. Follow A.C.I. rules as to stirrups, column ties, and anchorage.

11. Where concrete beams frame into steel, provide twa 314-in. round anchor bolts at top of concrete beam with double nuts through web Or hooks

over flanges except as otherwise noted.

12. Provide--head .. r bars in bottom of slab in front of all openings and cases in bearinll walls unle s s otherw ise shown.

13. Metal tile slabs to be anchored to walls with 5/8-in. round anchors 4 ft. long with 6-in. hook at wall end, placed in top of alternate joists.

14. Metal tile joists to be 25-in. on center except as shown. Steel shown in slab schedules is per joist.

15. Topping of metal tile 'Ioist slobs to be 2 in. thicker than typieal each side of concrete beams parallel to joists.

16. Where joists run parol el to wall, provide 1I2-in. round anchors 3'-6" lang with 6-in. hooks at right angles to joists 4 ft. on center in topping.

17. Working drawings to show T flanges on beams of s uff icle nt width and thickness to develop full strength of steel.

18. Provide '10.2 stirrups 12 in. On center for beams and joists with top steel for sections where no stirrups are called for.

19. Provide two no. 3 tie rods in top of all concrete beams to fasten stirrups where no top steel occurs.

20. Topping of metal tile joist slabs to be reinforced with 66-66 steel mesh.

21". Provide longitudinal or temperature reinforcement in solid slabs in accordance with A.C.I. code. (See p, 2-04.)

22. Provide 100% continuity over supports for a II continuous slabs, beams, and joists unless otherwi se noted.

23. In all solid slabs, bend up alternate bars and extend into adjacent spans where continuous, unless otherwise noted on plans.

24. Where main slob reinforcement is paralle( to beam, place no. 3 rods, spacing equal Or less than 18 in. or 5 times the thickness of the slab by 6 Ft. long, except where otherwise shown Over beam.

25. AI I negative-moment rods to extend to quarter points of spans unless otherwise shown. .

26. (0) At ends of non-continuous beams, provide anchor bars in top of beam. Anchors to be equivalent to one third of main reinforcement, but not less than twa no. 64ft. long, unless noted otherwise. (See p. 2-02.)

(b) At ends of non-continuous slobs, provide anchor bars in top of slab. Anchors to be equivalent to one-half main reinForcement but not less than no. 3 bars spaced 12 in. on center 3'-0" long. (See p. 2-03.)

STEEL

DESIGN DRA WINGS

1. All lintels sholl have 6-in. minimum bearing each side unless otherwise noted.

2. Steel joists to have not less than 4-in. bearing on wails.

3. Where open-web steel joists span mare than 14 ft., provide safety headers of approved type.

4. All rivets to be --diameter unless otherwise noted. (Include on shop drawings.)

5. Provide 8" x 5/8" X 0 ~8" bearing plates and government anchors for all ste e ] beams r(tsting on masonry, except as orherwis e shown.

6. Double steel beams and girders to be provided with pipe separators.

7. Provide soffit c l ips for bottom flanges of all stee I beams to be fireproofed, and mesh for all steel columns to be fireproofed.

8. Firerroofing thickness shall be as follows: Beoms--, columns--.

9. Stee beams carrying chimneys Or other masonry to be fireproofed with stone concrete.

WOOD

DESIGN DRAWINGS

1. All wood shall be (give species and stress grade).

2. Provide I-V 4" x 2" cross-bridging not OVer 6 ft. on center for all wood joists.

3. Where waod joists frame into or rest on top of steel beoms, provide 1-1/2" x 3/16" steel strap anchors spiked to wood joists and hooked over

flange of beam at every third joist on each s ide of beam. .

4. Where wood joists rest on masonry, provide metal anchors at maximum intervals of 4 ft. an center having a minimum cross section

114" x 1-114" by minimum length of 16 in. securely fastened to joist and built into masonry with split or upset ends. Where joists or" parallel to walls, provide similar anchors at maximum spacing of 6 ft., engaging 3 joists.

5. Bolts of ring connectors sholl be retightened periodically during the process of seasoning.

r 6. ·Provide standard beam hangers for the beams framed into girders except as otherwise shown.

( 7. Joists to be double under partitions parallel to joists except as otherwise shown.

MASONRY

(Include in Specifiealion)

1. Mortar to be (Engineer to fill in).

2. All masonry work to be bonded as shown Or c s approved by enJineer.

3. Brick pilasters in tile backup walls to be bonded into adjoining masonry.

FOUNDATIONS

DESIGN DRAWINGS

1. Foundations des igned lor-_tans per sq. h. (check soi I in field,) Client or Engineer will check the assumption.

2. Concrete shall develop a strengih at --p.s.i. at 28 days.

3. No backfill"ing against foundation walls to be done until aFter superstructure is in place.

*4. Where reinforced mot slobs are erected and ground-water pressure is likely to occur, relief holes should be left to relieve water pressure until approved by Engineer.

5. Extreme high woter leve I has been assumed at elevation--. This assumption must be checked in the field. Client or Engineer will check the assumption.

6. See specifications for instructions to detai l er s , WORKING DRAWINGS (Include in Spedflcotions).

7. Wall footings to be stepped where e l evct ion changes 1 vertical to 2 horizontal, except where otherwis e shown. Maximum vertical slip not to exceed 2 '-0".

8. Provide 6 no. 4 rods continuous in top and 2 no. 6 continuous in bottom of all exterior wal Is, except 0$ otherwise shown. Lap 40 diameters, and bend around corners.

9. Provide 2 no. 4 rods cerrt i nuous in top and bottom of an interior concrete wc l l s , except as otherwise shown,

10. All wall, pier, and stock foolings shall be 12 in. thick and project 6 in. beyond all faces of walls, piers, and stacks, except as otherwise

noted.

11. Provide 2 no. 6 rods, all sides, lor all openings in concrete walls unless otherwise noted. Extend 2 ft. beyond openings or hook ends.

12. Provide pockets in wall s for all concrete beams and s labs at first floor.

13. Construction joints in foundation walls, interior and exterior, shall be placed not more than 30 ft. apart and shall be V·chamfered unless otherwise shown. Location of joints shall be as shown on the drawings or approved by the Engineer. Sections of walls shall be poured alternately.

• This note to be placed on working drawings.

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