INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS (IB) KEYUR D VASAVA..
Definition of Globalization
The broadening set of interdependent relationships among people from different parts of a world that happens to be divided into nations
Definition of International Business
All commercial transactions—including sales, investments, and transportation— that take place between two or more countries
Factors in Increased Globalization
• • • • •
Increase in and expansion of technology Liberalization of cross-border trade and resource movements Development of services that support international business Growing consumer pressures Increased global competition
Changing political situations Expanded cross-national cooperation
The Criticisms of Globalization
• • •
Threats to national sovereignty Growth and environmental stress Growing income inequality
Reasons That Firms Engage in International Business
• • •
Expanding sales Acquiring resources Minimizing risk
WHAT IS THE NATURE OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS?
Globalization creates international business opportunities. International business is done by global sourcing, import/export, licensing, and franchising. International business is done by joint ventures and wholly owned subsidiaries. International business is complicated by different legal and political systems.
Resources, markets and competition are worldwide in scope.
The process of growing interdependence among elements of the global economy.
Firms purchase products and services from around the world for local use.
Conducting commercial transactions across national boundaries
Five Reasons to Pursue International Business
1. Expanded profit potential 2. More customers 3. More capital 4. Lower cost suppliers 5. Lower costs of labor
Local products are sold abroad
The process of acquiring products abroad and selling them in domestic markets.
one firm pays a fee for rights to make or sell another company’s products.
a firm pays a fee for rights to use another company’s name and operating methods.
A firm operates in a foreign country through co-ownership with local parties.
Each partner hopes to achieve through cooperation things they couldn’t
A local operation completely owned by a foreign firm.
FOREIGN MARKET ENTRY MODES The decision of how to enter a foreign market can have a significant impact on the results. Expansion into foreign markets can be achieved via the following four mechanisms:
• • • •
Exporting Licensing Joint Venture Direct Investment
Exporting is the marketing and direct sale of domestically-produced goods in another country. Exporting is a traditional and well-established method of reaching foreign markets. Since exporting does not require that the goods be produced in the target country, no investment in foreign production facilities is required. Most of the costs associated with exporting take the form of marketing expenses. Exporting commonly requires coordination among four players:
• • • •
Exporter Importer Transport provider Government
Licensing essentially permits a company in the target country to use the property of the licensor. Such property usually is intangible, such as trademarks, patents, and production techniques. The licensee pays a fee in exchange for the rights to use the intangible property and possibly for technical assistance. Because little investment on the part of the licensor is required, licensing has the potential to provide a very large ROI. However, because the licensee produces and markets the product, potential returns from manufacturing and marketing activities may be lost.
There are five common objectives in a joint venture: market entry, risk/reward sharing, technology sharing and joint product development, and conforming to government regulations. Other benefits include political connections and distribution channel access that may depend on relationships. Such alliances often are favorable when:
• • •
the partners' strategic goals converge while their competitive goals diverge; the partners' size, market power, and resources are small compared to the industry leaders; and Partners' are able to learn from one another while limiting access to their own proprietary skills.
The key issues to consider in a joint venture are ownership, control, length of agreement, pricing, technology transfer, local firm capabilities and resources, and government intentions. Potential problems include:
• • • • • •
conflict over asymmetric new investments mistrust over proprietary knowledge performance ambiguity - how to split the pie lack of parent firm support cultural clashes if, how, and when to terminate the relationship
Joint ventures have conflicting pressures to cooperate and compete:
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Strategic imperative: the partners want to maximize the advantage gained for the joint venture, but they also want to maximize their own competitive position. The joint venture attempts to develop shared resources, but each firm wants to develop and protect its own proprietary resources. The joint venture is controlled through negotiations and coordination processes, while each firm would like to have hierarchical control.
Foreign Direct Investment
Foreign direct investment (FDI) is the direct ownership of facilities in the target country. It involves the transfer of resources including capital, technology, and personnel. Direct
foreign investment may be made through the acquisition of an existing entity or the establishment of a new enterprise. Direct ownership provides a high degree of control in the operations and the ability to better know the consumers and competitive environment. However, it requires a high level of resources and a high degree of commitment. Comparison of Foreign Market Entry Modes Mode Conditions Favoring this Mode Limited sales potential in target country; little product adaptation required Advantages Disadvantages
Trade barriers & tariffs add to Minimizes risk and costs. investment. Distribution channels close to Transport costs Exporting plants Speed of entry Limits access to local High target country Maximizes scale; uses information production costs existing facilities. Company viewed as an Liberal import policies outsider High political risk Import and investment barriers Legal protection possible in target environment. Licensing Low sales potential in target country. Large cultural distance High ROI Licensee lacks ability to become a competitor. Import barriers Large cultural distance
Lack of control Minimizes risk and over use of assets. investment. Speed of entry Able to circumvent trade barriers Licensee may become competitor. Knowledge spillovers License period is limited Difficult to manage Dilution of control Greater risk than
Overcomes ownership restrictions and cultural distance
Assets cannot be fairly priced High sales potential Some political risk Government restrictions on foreign ownership Combines resources of 2 companies. Potential for learning Viewed as insider exporting a & licensing Knowledge spillovers Partner may become a competitor.
Less investment Local company can provide required skills, resources, distribution network, brand name, etc. Greater knowledge of local Higher risk than Import barriers other modes market Direct Small cultural distance Can better apply Investme Assets cannot be fairly priced specialized skills nt Minimizes knowledge High sales potential spillover Low political risk Can be viewed as an insider Requires more resources and commitment May be difficult to manage the local resources.
ARE THE FORCES DRIVING GLOBALIZATION.?
a)Global Market Forces
b) Technological Forces
c) Global Cost Forces
d) Political and Macroeconomic Forces
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION A global institution to promote free trade and open markets around the
world. Location: Geneva, Switzerland Established: 1 January 1995 Created by: Uruguay Round negotiations (1986-94)
Membership: 149 countries (on 11 December 2005) Budget: 175 million Swiss francs for 2006 Secretariat staff: 635 Head: Pascal Lamy (Director-General)
Multinational corporations do substantial business in several countries. Multinational corporations can be controversial at home and abroad. Multinational corporations face a variety of ethical challenges. Planning and Controlling are complicated in multinational corporations. Organizing is complicated in multinational corporations. Leading is complicated in multinational corporations. Multinational Corporation (MNC) A business with extensive foreign operations in more than one county. Transnational Corporation A MNC that operates worldwide on a borderless basis.
“Fortune’s” Top 10 Multinational Corporations
1. Wal-Mart Stores 2. BP 3. Exxon Mobil 4. Royal Dutch Shell Group 5. General Motors 6. DaimlerChrysler 7. Toyota Motor 8. General Electric 9. Total 10. Chevron
A call for tariffs and special treatment to protect domestic firms from foreign competition.
Illegal practices to further one’s business interests. Transparency International gives these countries its poorest corruption scores: • Indonesia • Tajikistan • Haiti • Myanmar • Nigeria • Bangladesh • Paraguay
The possible loss of profits because of fluctuating exchange rates. EFFECTS
Emergence of worldwide production markets and broader access to a range of foreign products for consumers and companies. Particularly movement of material and goods between and within national boundaries.
Emergence of worldwide financial markets and better access to external financing for borrowers.
Global common market, based on the freedom of exchange of goods and capital. Interconnectedness of markets means that an economic collapse in any one given country cannot be contained.
Increase in information flows between geographically remote locations. Technological change with advent of fibre optic communications, satellites, and increased availability of telephone and Internet.
– Survival in the new global business market calls for improved productivity and increased competition. Due to the market becoming worldwide, companies in various industries have to upgrade their products and use technology skillfully in order to face increased competition.
– WTO, EU, NATO, APEC, G8
– Global environmental challenges that might be solved with international cooperation, such as climate change, cross-boundary water and air pollution, depletion of vital resources.
- the most popular language is English.
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About 35% of the world's mail, telexes, and cables are in English. Approximately 40% of the world's radio programs are in English. About 50% of all Internet traffic uses English.
Cultural (Soft power)
– world culture, growth of cross-cultural contacts, cultural diffusion, cultural diversity, multiculturalism desire to increase one's standard of living and enjoy foreign products and ideas adopt new technology and practices loss of languages Greater immigration, including illegal immigration Greater international travel and tourism Consumerism - Spread of local consumer products (e.g. food) to other countries (often adapted to their culture).
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– UN, Red Cross, Greenpeace, non-governmental organisations as main agents of global public policy, including humanitarian aid and developmental efforts
– Increase in the number of standards applied globally; e.g. copyright laws, patents and world trade agreements. The creation of the international criminal court and international justice movements.
Globalization allows the benefits of productivity developments in one nation to move more quickly to other nations A downside to this transfer is that individuals and companies must adjust to compete
Consumers benefit from globalization through their ability to choose from a greater variety of products and services and to buy from cheaper production locations A potential problem is the consumers’ weaker control over supplies from foreign countries
Critics of globalization contend that the quality, as well as the quantity, of jobs should be considered
Many of the most desired resources are in the poorest areas of the world where people can benefit economically from exploiting these resources On the other hand, concern is high over the depletion of finite resources, potential climatic changes, and destruction of the environment
Monetary and fiscal conditions
An advantage of globalization is that money, if allowed to move freely, should go where it will be most needed and have the highest productivity Monetary, fiscal, and regulatory differences remain
Globalization may undermine sovereignty in two ways:
Contact with other countries creates more cultural borrowing Countries are concerned that important decisions may be made abroad that will undermine their national well-being
ON FUTURE OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS AND GLOBALIZATION
• • •
Further globalization is inevitable. International business will grow primarily along regional rather than global lines. Forces working against further globalization and international business will slow down both trends.
THE CULTURAL ENVIRONMENTS
FACING BUSINESS .
The Cultural Environments facing business
Defined Culture: the specific learned norms of a society that reflect attitudes, values, and beliefs Major problems of cultural collision are likely to occur if: -a firm implements practices that do not reflect local customs and values and/or -employees are unable to accept or adjust to foreign customs.
Culture has several important characteristics
(1)Culture is comprehensive. This means that all parts must fit together in some logical fashion. For example, bowing and a strong desire to avoid the loss of face are unified in their manifestation of the importance of respect. (2)Culture is learned rather than being something we are born with. We will consider the mechanics of learning later in the course. (3)Culture is manifested within boundaries of acceptable behavior. For example, in American society, one cannot show up to class naked, but wearing anything from a suit and tie to shorts and a T-shirt would usually be acceptable. Failure to behave within the prescribed norms may
lead to sanctions, ranging from being hauled off by the police for indecent exposure to being laughed at by others for wearing a suit at the beach. (4)Conscious awareness of cultural standards is limited. One American spy was intercepted by the Germans during World War II simply because of the way he held his knife and fork while eating. (5)Cultures fall somewhere on a continuum between static and dynamic depending on how quickly they accept change. For example, American culture has changed a great deal since the 1950s, while the culture of Saudi Arabia has changed much less
Cultural Influences on International Business
Cultural Dynamics Cultures consist of societies, i.e., relatively homogeneous groups of people, who share attitudes, values, beliefs, and customs. Cultures are dynamic; they evolve over time. Cultural value systems are set early in life, but may change because of: -choice or imposition -contact with other cultures. The Nation as a Point of Reference The basic similarity amongst people within countries is both a cause and an effect of national boundaries. National identity is perpetuated through the rites and symbols of a country and a common perception of history. Subcultures may link groups from different nations more closely than certain groups within nations. Cultural Formation and Change Societal values and customs constantly evolve in response to changing realities. Cultural imperialism is brought about by the imposition of one culture upon that of another. Certain elements introduced from outside a culture may be known as creolization, indigenization, or cultural diffusion. Language as a Cultural Stabilizer Isolation from other groups, especially because of language, tends to stabilize cultures. Some countries see language as being so important that they regulate the inclusion of foreign words and/or mandate the use of the country’s official language for business purposes.
• • •
When people from different areas speak the same language, culture spreads more easily Among nations that share a same language, commerce is easier Isolation from other groups, especially because of language, tends to stabilize cultures.
Some countries see language as being so important that they regulate the inclusion of foreign words and/or mandate the use of the country’s official language for business purposes.
Religion as a Cultural Stabilizer Religion is a major source of both cultural imperatives and cultural taboos. Major religions include: -Buddhism -Christianity -Hinduism -Islam –Judaism
Centuries of profound religious influence continue to play a major role in shaping cultural values Many religions influence specific beliefs that may affect business
Social Stratification Systems Ascribed group memberships are defined at birth; they may include gender, family, age, caste, and ethnic or national origin. Acquired group memberships are based on one’s choice of affiliation, such as political party, religion, and social and professional organizations. Social stratification affects both business strategy and operational practices. Factors Affecting Work Ethics The desire for material wealth vs. the desire for leisure (Protestant Ethic) The expectation of success and reward Assertiveness (Hofstede’s masculinity vs. femininity index) Needs satisfaction (Maslow’s Hierarchy) Motivated employees are normally more productive, and higher productivity leads to lower costs. Implications/Conclusions Culture is dynamic and evolves over time. Economic development and globalization are two engines of cultural change. In addition to being part of a national culture, people are simultaneously part of other cultures, such as social and professional associations and business and government organizations. Host cultures do not always expect firms and individuals to conform to their norms; in some instances they may choose to accommodate differences in traditions. International firms should make a concerted effort to identify ideas and behaviors in host countries and foreign cultures that can be usefully applied across the whole of their organizations.
• • •
Cultural distance Culture shock Company and Management orientations polycentric ethnocentric geocentric
Factors Affecting Strategies for Instituting Cultural Change
• • • • • • • • Value systems Cost/benefits of change Resistance to too much change Participation Reward sharing Opinion leadership Timing Learning abroad
Cultural factors affecting international marketing
1.POPULATION- When the population is higher, the bigger is the market. However, it is necessary to look into the following. (a) Age groups and Sex- Different age groups of people, their taste & interests, preferences along with sexual differences, the trend of outlook and attitude people focus and prefer to adopt matters a lot.
(b) Social class or groups- This refers to the economic class of living and groups which they belong in the living environment, which also has an impact for product selling.
(c) Educational background-This refers to the background of the corresponding person who is actually involved in international markets, it doesn't specify anything in the form of an individual acquiring management degree, it specifies something more in the form of his/her family and circle of friends including peers with many people who give support for him to flourish well in international markets.
(d) Number of households- This gives information about the total number of households, the type of household ,nature of household and the kind of work which is performed in major by the household which can be identified and used if needed for marketing tool in international levels.
(e) Geographical concentration and differences- This specifies the concentration of each and every place on selected products in major amounts which is favorable for its market condition and clearly indicates the differences in choice of product chosen by each and every country depending on the demand condition. (f) The rate of changes in the above mentioned characteristics-specifies changes involved in each of the above mentioned qualities. 2. GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT(GNP) (a) Rate of growth of the economy- This must be positive and favorable for growth of the economy. (b) Standard of living-specifies the quality of living of people which must improve and give rising standards which will be the real benefit of international marketing if adopted properly efficiently and effectively. (c) Percapita income
3. THE POLITICAL
Definition of a Political System
• • The complete set of institutions, political organizations, and interest groups, The relationships among institutions, and the political norms and rules that govern their functions
Individualism vs. Collectivism
• Individualism: primacy of the rights and role of the individual
Collectivism: primacy of the rights and role of the community
• The system of ideas that expresses the goals, theories, and aims of a sociopolitical program Most modern societies are pluralistic—different groups champion competing political ideologies
• Wide participation by citizens in the decision-making process
Five types: Parliamentary Liberal Multiparty Representative Social
• • Restricts decision making to a few individuals Types: Authoritarianism Fascism Secular totalitarianism
Trends in Political Systems
• Engines of democracy: Failure of totalitarian systems to deliver economic progress Improved communication technology Belief that democracy leads to improved standards of living
Definition of Political Risk
• The risk that political decisions or events in a country negatively affect the profitability or sustainability of an investment Types: Procedural Distributive Catastrophic
How to Minimize Political Risk
• Stimulation of the Local Economy – – – – • Link business interests with national economic interests Purchase local products & RM for production Subcontract Assist local firms
Employment of Nationals
– – •
Intermediate technology accompanied by additional labor Promotes goodwill
Shared ownership – – – JV, partnership Make a separate local company Reduction of risk exposure
Being Civic minded – – Be a good corporate citizen Sponsor civic projects – schools, hospitals, roads, water systems
Political neutrality Behind the scenes lobbying – Develop local allies who can provide political contacts
The mechanism for creating, interpreting, and enforcing the laws in a specified jurisdiction
Common law Civil law Theocratic law Customary law
Legal / Regulatory Environment
Code laws – – – Codified legal system Commercial, civil, criminal How the law is applied to facts
Common law – – Tradition, past practices, legal precedents through interpretation of statutes, legislations, and past rulings
Based on religion. E.g. Islamic countries
Trends in Legal Systems
• • The preference for stability The influence of national legacies
• • Intangible property rights that are a result of intellectual effort Intellectual property rights refer to the right to control and derive the benefits from writing, inventions, processes and identifiers Local attitudes play a large role in piracy Legal issues In IB Different business cultures, legal environments and languages increase the risk of confusion when you trade internationally. It's important to have a clear contract. With trade in goods, attention often focuses on responsibilities for delivery, set out using internationally recognized Incoterms. Other issues, such as what is being supplied, are usually relatively straightforward.
For trade in services, it's almost the opposite. It can be difficult to specify exactly what services are to be provided, to what standards. It can be helpful to focus on what the desired outcomes are - i.e. what the service should achieve. This can be part of a service level agreement in the contract •
There are other important legal issues to consider: The location of supplier and customer can vary, affecting which country's regulations apply. See the page in this guide on delivering services internationally. You need to sort out payment issues such as choice of currency and protection against the risk of non-payment. See the page in this guide on payment for international trade in services. You may need to take action to protect your intellectual property in other countries.. …………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………
1. THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTS
Economics environment refers all economics surroundings that influence organization activities. It consists of economic parameters. It is concerned with the nature and direction of economy in which the organizations operate. Totality of economic factors, such as employment, income, inflation, interest rates, productivity, and wealth, that influence the buying behavior of consumers and firms.
Important elements of economic development are: 1. Economic systems: Economic system determines the scope of private
sec tore ownership of the factors of production and market forces. The model of economic system are: A) Free market economic :This system is based on private ownership of
the factors of production. Profit serves as the driver of economic engine. The competitive market mechanism guides business decisions. There is freedom of choice. Individual initiative is encouraged. B) Centrally planned economy: This system is based on police ownership of the factors of production. The economy is centrally planned. Controlled and regulated by the government. There is no consumer sovereignty. Police enterprises play a dominant role. C) Mixed economy: This system is a mix of free market and centrally planned economics. Both public and private sectors coexist. The public sector ha ownership and control of basic industries including utilities. The sector owns agriculture and other industries but is regulated by the state.
2. Economic policies: Policies are guidelines for decision making and
action. Economic policies of the government significantly influence and guide organizations. Key economic policies influencing organization are : A) Monetary policy-It is concerned with money supply, inflation rates, interest rates and credit availability. It influences the level of spending through interest rates. Cheap money reduces cost, dear money increase cost. Interest rates cost of capital. Foreign exchange rates affect imports and exports. B) Fiscal policy: It is concerned with the use of taxation and government expenditure to regulate economic activity. Tax on income, expenditure and capital influence business decisions. C) Industrial policy: It is concerned with industrial licensing location, incentives, facilities, foreign investment, technology transfer and nationalization.
3. Economic conditions: They indicate the health of the economy in
which the organization operates. The factors affecting economic conditions are:
• • •
State of economic development: An economy can be least developed developing and developed. Organizational activities are influence by the stage of economic development. Income: The level of employment affect expenditure, saving and investment. They together influence the economic conditions of organization. Employment: The level of employment affects organization. It determines availability and of labor. Business cycle: The stages of business cycle can prosperity; rescission and recovery .They affects the health organization. Influence: It is rise in price level. Influences costs, price and profit of organization.
4. Regional economic groups: They promote cooperation and free
trade among members by removing tariff and other restrictions. They provide opportunities to member countries and threats to non-member counties. Examples are:
• • •
SA ARC: South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. ASIAN: Association of South East Asian Nations. EU: European Union.
Economic….. • Nature of the Economy – – – • Level of development Sectoral composition of output Inter-sectoral linkages
Economic Conditions – – – – – – – Income levels Distribution of income GDP, GMP trends Sectoral growth trends Demand and supply trends Price trends Trade and BOP trends
– – •
Foreign exchange reserves position Global economic trends
Economic Policies – – – – – – Industrial policy Trade policy Monetary policy Fiscal policy Foreign exchange policy Foreign investment and technology policy
Global linkages – – Magnitude and nature of cross-border trade flows, financial flows Membership of WTO, IMF, World bank, trade blocs
Developed economies – – – High levels of income, consumption and business competition Markets may be saturated due to population trends Replacement demand
Developing economies – – – Steady increase in population Increase in income Creation of primary demand
• • • • • •
To understand the importance of economic analysis of foreign markets To identify the major dimensions of international economic analysis To compare and contrast macroeconomic indicators To profile the characteristics of the types of economic systems To discuss the idea of economic freedom To profile the idea, drivers, and constraints of economic transition
Importance of Economic Environments
• • •
Company managers study economic environments to estimate how trends affect their performance A country’s economic policies are a leading indicator of government’s goals and its planned use of economic tools and market reforms. Economic development directly impacts citizens, managers, policymakers, and institutions.
Elements of the Economic Environment
Gross national income (GNI): the income generated both by total domestic production as well as the international production activities of national companies
Gross domestic product (GDP): the total value of all goods and services produced within a nation’s borders over one year, no matter whether domestic or foreign-owned companies make the product.
Adjustments to GNI
• • • • Number of people in a country Growth rate Local cost of living Economic sustainability
Other features of an economy
• • • • • • • • Inflation Unemployment Debt Income distribution Poverty Labor costs Productivity Balance of payments
Definition of Economic System
• • A mechanism that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services Types: Market economy Command economy Mixed economy
The Economic Freedom Index
• Approximates the extent to which a government intervenes in the areas of free choice, free enterprise, and market-driven prices for reasons that go beyond the basic need to protect property, liberty, citizen safety, and market efficiency Countries with the freest economies have had the highest annual growth and a greater degree of wealth creation.
Dimensions of the Economic Freedom Index
• • • • • • • • • •
Business freedom Trade freedom Monetary freedom Freedom from government Fiscal freedom Property rights Investment freedom Financial freedom Freedom from corruption Labor freedom
Transition to a Market Economy
• • • • Liberalizing economic activity Reforming business activity Establishing legal and institutional frameworks Success is linked to how well the government deals with: Privatization Deregulation Property right protection Fiscal and monetary reform Antitrust legislation
To identify problems in evaluating the activities of multinational enterprises (MNEs)
• • • •
To evaluate the major economic effects of MNEs on home and host countries To understand the foundations of responsible corporate behavior in the international sphere To discuss some key issues in the social activities and consequences of globalized business To examine corporate responses to globalization
Evaluating the Impact of FDI
• • • FDI is Foreign Direct Investment The large size of some MNEs causes concern for some countries MNEs and countries need to understand the impact of FDI in home and host countries
Considering the Logic of FDI
• • Need to consider relationship between those who make foreign investments (MNEs) and possible effects on receiving countries Areas to consider: Stakeholder trade-offs Cause-and-effect relationships Individual and aggregate effects
The Economic Impact of the MNE
• Balance-of-Payments effects: Net import effect Net capital flow
Growth and Employment effects:
Home-country losses Host-country gains Host-country losses
Why Companies Care About Ethical Behavior
• Instrumental in achieving two objectives: To develop competitive advantage To avoid being perceived as irresponsible
The Cultural Foundations of Ethical Behavior
• • • Relativism vs. Normativism: do truths depend on the values of the groups or are there universal standards Negotiating between evils Respecting cultural identity
The Legal Foundations of Ethical Behavior
• • • Legal justification for ethical behavior may not be sufficient because not everything that is unethical is illegal The law is a good basis because it embodies local cultural values Laws will become similar in different countries
Ethics and Bribery
• • • Bribes are payments or promises to pay cash or anything of value Bribes used to get government contracts or to get officials to do what they should be doing anyway Problems with bribery: Affects performance of company & country Erodes government authority Damage reputations when disclosed Increases cost of doing business
What’s being Done About Corruption?
• • • • Cross-National Accords: The OECD, the ICC and the UN The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Properties Act Industry Initiatives Relativism, the Rule of Law, and Responsibility
Ethics and the Environment
• • Sustainability Global Warming and The Kyoto Protocol National and Regional Initiatives Company-Specific Initiatives
Ethical dilemma is a complex situation that will often involve an apparent mental conflict between moral imperatives, in which to obey one would result in transgressing another. This is also called an ethical paradox since in moral philosophy, paradox often plays a central role in ethics debates. OR
Ethical dilemmas, also known as moral dilemmas, have been a problem for ethical
theorists as far back as Plato. An ethical dilemma is a situation wherein moral precepts or ethical obligations conflict in such a way that any possible resolution to the dilemma is morally intolerable. In other words, an ethical dilemma is any situation in which guiding moral principles cannot determine which course of action is right or wrong.
Ethical Dilemmas and the Pharmaceutical Industry
• • • Tiered pricing and other price-related issues WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) R&D and the Bottom Line
Ethical Dimensions of Labor Conditions
• • • Ethical Trading Initiative The Problem of Child Labor What MNEs Can and Can’t Do
Corporate Codes of Ethics
• • Motivations for Corporate Responsibility Developing a good Code of Conduct
CHALLENGE OF ETHICAL BEHAVIOR
* Company profit * Operating efficiency * Individual friendships * Team interests * Social responsibility * Personal morality * Rules and standard procedures * Laws and professional codes
Globalization is not new, but the present era has distinctive features. Shrinking space, shrinking time and disappearing borders are linking people's lives more deeply, more intensely, more immediately than ever before. Globalization is a complex process which changes as well as has the potential to change the various events in the world at multiple levels. And globalization is a process of integrating not just the economy but culture, technology and governance. This era of globalization is opening many opportunities for millions of people around the world. Global markets, global technology, global ideas and global solidarity can enrich the lives of people everywhere, greatly expanding their choices. The growing interdependence of people's lives calls for shared values and a shared commitment to the human development of all people. Globalization, although often described as the cause of much turbulence and change, is in fact the umbrella term for the collective effect, the change itself. The challenge of globalization in the new century is not to stop the expansion of global markets. The challenge is to find the rules and institutions for stronger governance—local, national, regional and global—to
preserve the advantages of global markets and competition, but also to provide enough space for human, community and environmental people— not just for profits. Globalization is thus related with: • Ethics — less violation of human rights, not more. • Equity — less disparity within and between nations, not more. • Inclusion — less marginalization of people and countries, not more. • Human security — less instability of societies and less vulnerability of people, not more. • Sustainability — less environmental destruction, not more. • Development — less poverty and deprivation, not more. Indeed, there is a need for a recommitment to bring together of all the world's peoples around an agenda that does not seek to stifle the very productive and revolutionary innovations. However, it is essential that in so doing we do not forget basic and fundamental obligations that have been recognized and honored for decades as essential to a wholesome human existence. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………
1. INTERNATIONAL TRADE
• • • • • • To understand theories of international trade To explain how global efficiency can be improved through free trade To identify factors affecting national trade patterns To explain why a country’s export capabilities are dynamic To understand why production factors To explain the relationship between foreign trade and international factor mobility
Theories of Trade Patterns
• Explaining trade patterns: • Country size Factor proportions Country similarity
Trade competitiveness: Product life cycle theory Porter diamond
INTL. TRADE THEORY –
countries should export more than they import - balance of trade surplus – result in more gold & silver for governments trade conducted by governments Led consolidation of power trade with colonies import less-valued raw materials export more-valued manufactured goods views trade as zero-sum game
proposed by Adam Smith countries differed in their ability to produce different goods efficiently and should specialize in the production of goods they can produce more efficiently views trade as a positive sum game countries will benefit from trade if they have an absolute advantage in one product
even if a country has an absolute advantage in both products it should Specialize in production of that good in which it has a comparative advantage proposed by Ricardo
4)Assumptions Comparative Advantage
• • • • • • •
Full employment 2 products and 2 countries only Ignores role of technology and marketing Perfect competition Mobility of resources Transportation costs ignored Max efficiency - countries produce goods for other reasons
Theories of Specialization
Both absolute and comparative advantage theories are based on specialization Assumptions policymakers question: full employment economic efficiency division of gains transport costs statics and dynamics services
production networks mobility
Trade Pattern Theories
• • • How much a country will depend on trade if it follows a free trade policy What types of products countries will export and import With which partners countries will primarily trade
Theory of Country Size
• Countries with large land areas are apt to have varied climates and natural resources They are generally more self-sufficient than smaller countries are Large countries’ production and market centers are more likely to be located at a greater distance from other countries, raising the transport costs of foreign trade
• A country’s relative endowments of land, labor, and capital will determine the relative costs of these factors Factor costs will determine which goods the country can produce most efficiently
• Most trade today occurs among high-income countries because they share similar market segments and because they produce and consume so much more than emerging economies Much of the pattern of two-way trading partners may be explained by cultural similarity between the countries, political and economic agreements, and by the distance between them
Product Life Cycle (PLC) Theory
• Companies will manufacture products first in the countries in which they were researched and developed, almost always developed countries Over the product’s life cycle, production will shift to foreign locations, especially to developing economies as the product reaches the stages of maturity and decline
The Porter Diamond
• Four conditions as important for competitive superiority: demand conditions factor conditions related and supporting industries firm strategy, structure, and rivalry
Limitations of the Porter Diamond Theory • • Production factors and finished goods are only partially mobile internationally The cost and feasibility of transferring production factors rather than exporting finished goods internationally will determine which alternative is better
The Relationship between Trade and Factor Mobility • Capital and labor move internationally to gain more income and flee adverse political situations Although international mobility of production factors may be a substitute for trade, the mobility may stimulate trade through sales of components, equipment, and complementary products
2. GOVERNMENT INFLUENCE
• To explain the rationales for governmental policies that enhance and restrict trade To show the effects of pressure groups on trade policies To describe the potential and actual effects of governmental intervention on the free flow of trade To illustrate the major means by which trade is restricted and regulated To demonstrate the business uncertainties and business opportunities created by governmental trade policies
Possible impacts of import restrictions designed to create domestic employment
• • • • • May lead to retaliation by other countries. Are less likely retaliated against effectively by small economies. Are less likely to be met with retaliation if implemented by small economies. May decrease export jobs because of price increases for components. May decrease export jobs because of lower incomes abroad.
• The infant-industry argument for protection holds that governmental prevention of import competition is necessary to help certain industries move from high-cost to low-cost production
Developing an Industrial Base
• Countries seek protection to promote industrialization because that type of production: Brings faster growth than agriculture.
Brings in investment funds. Diversifies the economy. Brings more income than primary products do. Reduces imports and promotes exports. Helps the nation-building process.
Economic Relationships with Other Countries
• • Trade controls are used to improve economic relations with other countries Their objectives include improving the balance of: payments raising prices to foreign consumers gaining fair access to foreign markets preventing foreign monopoly prices assuring that domestic consumers get low prices lowering profit margins for foreign producers
Maintaining essential industries
• In protecting essential industries, countries must: Determine which ones are essential. Consider costs and alternatives. Consider political consequences.
Preventing Shipments to “Unfriendly” Countries
• Considerable governmental interference in international trade is motivated by: political rather than economic concerns
maintaining domestic supplies of essential goods preventing potential enemies from gaining goods that would help them achieve their objectives
Maintaining or extending spheres of influence
• Governments give aid and credits to, and encourage imports from, countries that join a political alliance or vote a preferred way within international bodies. A country’s trade restrictions may coerce governments to follow certain political actions or punish companies whose governments do not.
Preserving national identity
• To sustain this collective identity that sets their citizens apart from those in other nations, countries limit foreign products and services in certain sectors.
Instruments of Trade Control
• Trade controls that directly affect price and indirectly affect quantity include: tariffs subsidies customs-valuation methods special fees
NONTARIFF BARRIERS: QUANTITY CONTROLS
Trade controls that directly affect quantity and indirectly affect price include: quotas voluntary export restraint (VERs) “buy local” legislation standards and labels
licensing arrangements specific permission requirements administrative delays reciprocal requirements restrictions on services
Dealing With Governmental Trade Influences
• When facing import competition, companies can: Move abroad Seek other market niches Make domestic output competitive Try to get protection
4. C ROSS-NATIONAL COOPERATION
• To identify the major characteristics and challenges of the World Trade Organization
To discuss the pros and cons of global, bilateral, and regional integration
To describe the static and dynamic impact of trade agreements on trade and investment flows
To define different forms of regional economic integration
To compare and contrast different regional trading groups, including but not exclusively the European Union (EU), the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), the Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR), and the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN)
To describe other forms of global cooperation, such as the United Nations and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), begun in 1947, created a continuing means for countries to negotiate the reduction and elimination of trade barriers and to agree on simplified mechanisms for the conduct of international trade
The World Trade Organization (WTO) replaced GATT in 1995 as a continuing means of trade negotiations that aspires to foster the principle of trade without discrimination and to provide a better means of mediating trade disputes and of enforcing agreements
REGIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION
• • Efforts at regional economic integration began to emerge after World War II as countries saw benefits of cooperation and larger market sizes The major types of economic integration are: the free trade area the customs union the common market
The Effects of Integration Once protection is eliminated among member countries, trade creation allows MNEs to specialize and trade based on comparative advantage
Trade diversion occurs when the supply of products shifts from countries that are not members of an economic bloc to those that are
Regional, as opposed to global, economic integration occurs because of the greater ease of promoting cooperation on a smaller scale The European Union (EU) is an effective common market that has abolished most restrictions on factor mobility and is harmonizing national political, economic, and social policies The EU is comprised of 27 countries, including 12 countries from mostly Central and Eastern Europe that joined since 2004 The EU has abolished trade barriers on: intrazonal trade instituted a common external tariff created a common currency, the euro
Implications of the EU for corporate strategy
• • • Companies need to determine where to produce products. Companies need to determine what their entry strategy will be. Companies need to balance the commonness of the EU with national differences.
THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT (NAFTA)
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is designed to eliminate tariff barriers and liberalize investment opportunities and trade in services Key provisions in NAFTA are labor and environmental agreements
Regional economic integration in the Americas
• • • • • •
Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Central American Common Market (CACM) Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) Andean Community (CAN) The Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) The proposed South American Community of Nations.
Regional economic integration in Asia & Africa
• • •
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) The African Union
Forms of International Cooperation
The United Nations is comprised of representatives of most of the countries in the world and international trade and development in a number of significant ways
Many developing countries rely on commodity exports to supply the hard currency they need for economic development Instability in commodity prices has resulted in fluctuations in export earnings
OPEC is an effective commodity agreement in terms of attempting to stabilize supply and price
4. GLOBAL FOREIGN- EXCHANGE MARKETS.
• • To learn the fundamentals of foreign exchange To identify the major characteristics of the foreign exchange market and how governments control the flow of currencies across national borders To describe how the foreign exchange market works To examine the different institutions that deal in foreign exchange To understand why companies deal in foreign exchange
• • • •
• • • Foreign exchange is money denominated in the currency of another nation or group of nations The market in which these transactions take place is the foreign-exchange market. The exchange rate is the price of a currency
The Foreign Exchange
• The Bank for International Settlements divides the foreign exchange market into reporting dealers (also known as dealer banks or money center banks), other financial institutions, and nonfinancial institutions. Dealers can trade currency by telephone or electronically, especially through Reuters, EBS, or Bloomberg The foreign exchange market is divided into the over-the-counter market (OTC) and the exchange-traded market
Some Traditional Foreign Exchange Instruments
• • • Spot transactions involve the exchange of currency on the second day after the date on which the two dealers agree to the transaction Outright forward transactions involve the exchange of currency three or more days after the date on which the dealers agree to the transaction An FX swap is a simultaneous spot and forward transaction
Foreign Exchange Derivatives
Currency swaps deal more with interest-bearing financial instruments (such as a bond), and they involve the exchange of principal and interest payments. Options are the right but not the obligation to trade foreign currency in the future. A futures contract is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell a particular currency at a particular price on a particular future date.
Some Aspects of The Foreign Exchange Market
• • Approximately $3.2 trillion in foreign exchange is traded every day. The US dollar is the most widely traded currency in the world (on one side of 86% of all transactions) London is the main foreign exchange market in the world
Why the US dollar is the most widely traded currency
• • • An investment currency in many capital markets. A reserve currency held by many central banks. A transaction currency in many international commodity markets.
An invoice currency in many contracts. An intervention currency employed by monetary authorities in market operations to influence their own exchange rates.
The Spot Market
• • • • Foreign exchange dealers quote bid (buy) and offer (sell) rates on foreign exchange If the quote is in American terms, the dealer quotes the foreign currency as the number of dollars and cents per unit of the foreign currency If the quote is in European terms, the dealer quotes the number of units of the foreign currency per dollar The numerator is called the “terms currency” and the denominator the “base currency.”
The Forward Market
• If the foreign currency in a forward contract is expected to strengthen in the future (the dollar equivalent of the foreign currency is higher in the forward market than in the spot market), the currency is selling at a premium. If the opposite is true, it is selling at a discount An option is the right, but not the obligation, to trade foreign currency in the future Options can be traded OTC or on an exchange
• A foreign currency future is an exchange-traded instrument that guarantees a future price for the trading of foreign exchange, but the contracts are for a specific amount and specific maturity date
The Foreign Exchange Trading Process
Companies work with foreign exchange dealers to trade currency Dealers also work with each other and can trade currency through: voice brokers electronic brokerage services directly with other bank dealers
Internet trades of foreign exchange are becoming more significant
How Companies Use Foreign Exchange
• The major institutions that trade foreign exchange are the large commercial and investment banks and securities exchanges Commercial and investment banks deal in a variety of different currencies all over the world The CME Group and the Philadelphia Stock Exchange trade currency futures and options
How Companies Use Foreign Exchange
Companies use foreign exchange to settle transactions involving the imports and exports of goods and services, for foreign investments, and to earn money through arbitrage or speculation
5. THE DETERMINATION
• To describe the International Monetary Fund and its role in the determination of exchange rates
To discuss the major exchange-rate arrangements that countries use
To explain how the European Monetary System works and how the euro came into being as the currency of the euro zone
To identify the major determinants of exchange rates To show how managers try to forecast exchange-rate movements
To explain how exchange-rate movements influence business decisions
THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND
Originally organized in 1945 Objectives: To promote international monetary cooperation, exchange stability, and orderly exchange arrangements To foster economic growth and high levels of employment To provide temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance-of-payments adjustment
• The Bretton Woods Agreement set a fixed exchange rate against gold & the US dollar The Jamaica Agreement (1976) eliminated par values against gold and the US dollar and permitted greater flexibility. Voting is through the Quota system
Special Drawing Right
The Special Drawing Right (SDR) is a special asset the IMF created to increase international reserves The value of the SDR is based upon the weighted average of a basket of four currencies: the U.S. dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen, and the British pound.
The world can be divided into: Countries that basically let their currencies float according to market forces with minimal or no Central Bank intervention Countries that do not but rely on heavy Central Bank intervention and control
Anyone involved in international business needs to understand how the exchange rates of countries with which they do business are determined
European Monetary System (EMS): established by the EU (then the EC) in 1979 as a means of creating exchange rate stability within the bloc European Central Bank: established by the EU on July 1, 1998, to set monetary policy and to administer the euro Euro: the common European currency established on Jan. 1, 1999 as part of the EU’s move toward monetary union as called for by the Treaty of Maastricht of 1992
European Monetary Union (EMU): a formal arrangement linking many but not all of the currencies of the EU
African countries are committed to establishing a common currency by 2021, but there are many obstacles to accomplishing this objective
THE DETERMINATION OF EXCHANGE RATES
Currencies that float freely respond to supply and demand conditions free from government intervention The demand for a country’s currency is a function of the demand for its goods and services and the demand for financial assets denominated in its currency Fixed exchange rates do not automatically change in value due to supply and demand conditions but are regulated by their Central Banks
Central banks are the key institutions in countries that intervene in foreignexchange markets to influence currency values The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) in Switzerland acts as a central banker’s bank. It facilitates communication and transactions among the world’s central banks A central bank intervenes in money markets by increasing a supply of its country’s currency when it wants to push the value of the currency down and by stimulating demand for the currency when it wants the currency’s value to rise
Black Markets – The Result of Fixed Exchange Rates
Many countries that strictly control and regulate the convertibility of their currency have a black market that maintains an exchange rate that is more indicative of supply and demand than is the official rate
Fully convertible currencies, often called hard currencies, are those that the government allows both residents and nonresidents to purchase in unlimited amounts Currencies that are not fully convertible are often called soft currencies, or weak currencies They tend to be the currencies of developing countries
To conserve scarce foreign exchange, some governments impose exchange restrictions on companies or individuals who want to exchange money, such as import licensing multiple exchange rates import deposit requirements quantity controls
THAT DETERMINE EXCHANGE RATES
differences in real interest rates confidence in the government’s ability to manage the political and economic environment certain technical factors that result from trading
Forecasting Exchange-Rate Movements
Fundamental forecasting uses trends in economic variables to predict future rates. The data can be plugged into an econometric model or evaluated on a more subjective basis. Technical forecasting uses past trends in exchange rates themselves to spot future trends in rates.
Factors to Monitor
Major factors that managers should monitor when trying to predict the timing, magnitude, and direction of an exchange-rate change include the institutional setting fundamental analysis confidence factors events technical analysis
Business Implications of Exchange-Rate Changes
Exchange rates can affect business decisions in three major areas: Marketing
• • • • • To examine the idea of industry structure, firm strategy, and value creation To profile the features and functions of the value chain framework To appreciate how managers configure and coordinate a value chain To identify the dimensions that shape how managers develop strategy To profile the types of strategies firms use in international business
Industry, Strategy, and Firm Performance
• Managers, as agents of their firms, devise strategies to engage international markets in ways that sustain the company’s boost its profitability and growth Strategy is defined as the efforts of managers to build and strengthen the company’s competitive position within its industry in order to create superior value
• • •
Firm performance is influenced by both the structure of the company’s industry and the insight of managers’ strategic decision making Estimates vary on the degree of influence for both factors Managers need to be familiar with industry- and firm-level conditions in making strategy
The Five Forces Model
• Managers typically anchor analysis of industry structure by modeling the strength and importance of the so-called “five fundamental forces.”: the moves of rivals battling for market share the entry of new rivals seeking market share the efforts of other companies outside the industry to convince buyers to switch to their own substitute products the push by input suppliers to charge more for their inputs the push by output buyers to pay less for products
Events that can change industry structure
• • • • • • Competitors’ moves. Government policies. Changes in economics. Shifting buyer preferences. Technological developments. Rate of market growth.
Strategy and Value
• Strategy is defined as the efforts of managers to build and strengthen the company’s competitive position within its industry in order to create superior value Value is the measure of a firm’s ability to sell what it makes for more than the cost it incurred to make it
• Firms create value either through a low-cost leadership strategy or a differentiation strategy
The Firm as Value Chain
• Interpreting the firm within the context of the value chain provides a strong tool to improve the accuracy of strategic analyses and decisions
WHAT IS VALUE CHAIN?
The value chain lets managers deconstruct the general idea of “create value” into a series of discrete activities The function of the value chain is shaped by how managers opt to configure and then coordinate discrete value activities
Dimensions of the Value Chain
• • Primary activities that create and deliver the product. Support activities that aid the individuals and groups engaged in primary activities. Profit margin reports the difference between the total revenue generated by sales and the total cost of the activities that led to those sales.
Orientation—namely, whether the particular activity takes place upstream or downstream.
Using the Value Chain
• • • Configuration is the way that managers arrange the activities of the value chain. Coordination is the way that managers connect the activities of the value chain. Firms pay close attention to location economics when configuring their value chain Devising a way to coordinate value chain activities must be in ways that leverage a firm’s core competencies
Pressures for Global Integration
• Companies that operate internationally face the asymmetric pressures of global integration versus local responsiveness Change, whether in managers, competencies, industries, or environments, often spurs companies to rethink and reset their value activities
Types of Strategy
• The firm entering and competing in foreign markets can adopt either an: • international multidomestic global transnational strategy
Often, firms use a mix of these four types due to company, industry, and environmental situations
2. COUNTRY EVALUATION
• • • • • • • To grasp company strategies for sequencing the penetration of countries To see how scanning techniques can help managers both limit geographic alternatives and consider otherwise overlooked areas To discern the major opportunity and risk variables a company should consider when deciding whether and where to expand abroad To know the methods and problems when collecting and comparing information internationally To understand some simplifying tools for helping to decide where to operate To consider how companies allocate emphasis among the countries where they operate To comprehend why location decisions do not necessarily compare different countries’ possibilities
Companies lack resources to take advantage of all international opportunities. Companies need to: Determine the order of country entry. Set the rates of resource allocation among countries. • In choosing geographic sites, a company must decide: Where to sell. Where to produce • •
• • Scanning techniques aid managers in considering alternatives that might otherwise be overlooked They also help limit the final detailed feasibility studies to a manageable number of those that appear most promising
Information that is important in Scanning
• Opportunities: Sales expansion - Economic and Demographic Variables Resource acquisition - Cost Considerations
Factors to Consider in Analyzing Risk
• Four broad categories of risk that companies may consider are: political monetary competitive natural disaster
Some Problems with Research Results and Data
• • The amount, accuracy, and timeliness of published data vary substantially among countries Managers should be particularly aware of different definitions of terms, different collection methods, and different base years for reports, as well as misleading responses
Country Comparison Tools
• Companies frequently use several tools to compare opportunities and risk in various countries, such as grids that rate country projects according to a number of separate dimensions and matrices, such as one on which companies plot opportunity on one axis and risk on another When allocating resources among countries, companies need to consider how to treat reinvestments and divestments, the interdependence of operations in different countries, and whether they should follow diversification versus concentration strategies
Allocating Among Locations
• • Companies may reduce the risk of liability of foreignness by moving first to countries more similar to their home countries Companies may contract with experienced companies to handle operations for them, limit the resources they commit to foreign operations, and delay entry to many countries until they are operating successfully in one or a few
Geographic Diversification versus Concentration
Strategies for ultimately reaching a high level of commitment in many countries are: Diversification—goes to many fast and then builds up slowly in each. Concentrations—go to one or a few and build up fast before going to others. A hybrid of the two.
Reinvestment versus Harvesting
• • A company may have to make new commitments to maintain competitiveness abroad. Companies must decide how to get out of operations if: They no longer fit the overall strategy. There are better alternative opportunities.
Non-comparative Decision Making
• • Companies often evaluate entry to a country without comparing that country with other countries This is because they may need to react quickly to proposals, to respond to competitive threats, and because multiple feasibility studies seldom are finished simultaneously
• • • • • • To introduce the ideas of export and import To identify the elements of export and exporting strategies To compare direct and indirect selling of exporting To identify the elements of import and importing strategies To discuss the types and roles of third-party intermediaries in exporting To discuss the role of countertrade in international business
Exports & Imports
• Exporting refers to the sale of goods or services produced by a company based in one country to customers that reside in a different country
Importing is the purchase of goods or services by a company based in one country from sellers that reside in another
Advantages of Exporting
• • • • • Lower investment way to enter foreign markets Lower risk way to enter foreign markets Expands sales Achieves scale economies Diversifies sales
Characteristics of Exporters
• • The probability of a company’s becoming an exporter increases with company size, but the extent of exporting does not directly correlate with size Companies export to increase sales revenues, use excess capacity, and diversify markets
Pitfalls of Exporting
• • • Companies new to exporting (and also some experienced exporters) often make many mistakes One way to avoid mistakes is to develop a comprehensive export strategy that includes an analysis of the company’s resources as well as its export potential Companies can also improve the odds of export success by working with an experienced export intermediary
Designing an Export Strategy
• As a company establishes its export business plan, it must: assess export potential obtain expert counseling select a country or countries where it will focus its exports formulate its strategy determine how to get its goods to market
Types of importers
• • • Those looking for any product around the world to import and sell. Those looking for foreign sourcing to get their products at the cheapest price. Those using foreign sourcing as part of their global supply chain.
Types of imports
• • Industrial and consumer goods to independent individuals and companies. Intermediate goods and services that are part of the firm’s global supply chain.
Strategic Advantages of Imports
• • • • Specialization of Labor Global Rivalry Local Unavailability Diversification of Operating Risks
• • Customs agencies assess and collect duties, as well as ensure that import regulations are adhered to A custom broker helps by valuing products to qualify for: more favorable duty treatment qualifying products for duty refunds through drawback provisions deferring duties by using bonded warehouses and foreign trade zones limiting liability by properly marking an import’s country of origin
Principal types of exporting
• • Direct: goods and services are sold to an independent party outside of the exporter’s home country. Indirect exports: goods and services are sold to an intermediary in the domestic market, which then sells the goods in the export market.
Exporters may deal directly with: agents or distributors in a foreign country indirectly through third-party intermediaries, such as export management companies other types of trading companies
• • • Through distributors who usually deal with retailers instead of end users To retailers and end users Internet marketing is a new form of direct exporting that is allowing many smalland medium-sized companies to access export markets as never before
• Key export documents are: pro forma invoice commercial invoice bill of lading consular invoice certificate of origin shipper’s export declaration export packing list
• • • • Trading companies can perform many of the functions for which manufacturers lack the expertise Exporters can use the services of other specialists, such as freight forwarders, to facilitate exporting These specialists can help an exporter with the complex documentation that accompanies exports Government agencies in some countries, such as the Ex-Im Bank in the United States, provide assistance in: terms of direct loans to importers bank guarantees to fund an exporter’s working capital needs insurance against commercial and political risk
• Countertrade is when goods and services are traded for each other. It is used when a firm exports to a country whose currency creates barriers to efficient trade Common types are: barter, buyback, offset, switch trading, and counter purchase
4. DIRECT INVESTMENT
• • • • • • • To clarify why companies may need to use modes other than exporting to operate effectively in international business To comprehend why and how companies make foreign direct investments To understand the major motives that guide managers when choosing a collaborative arrangement for international business To define the major types of collaborative arrangements To describe what companies should consider when entering into arrangements with other companies To grasp what makes collaborative arrangements succeed or fail To see how companies can manage diverse collaborative arrangements
Why Exporting May Not Be Feasible
1. When production abroad is cheaper than at home 2. When transportation costs to move goods or services internationally are too expensive 3. When companies lack domestic capacity 4. When products and services need to be altered substantially to gain sufficient consumer demand abroad 5. When governments inhibit the import of foreign products 6. When buyers prefer products originating from a particular country
Foreign Direct Investment
• • Control accompanies investment Three primary reasons that spur companies to want a controlling interest: internalization theory
appropriability theory freedom to pursue global objectives
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) approaches
• • • Internalization theory holds that it is sometimes cheaper to handle operations oneself than to contract with another company The idea of denying rivals access to resources (capital, patents, trademarks, and management know-how) is called the appropriability theory When a company has a wholly owned foreign operation, it may more easily have that operation participate in a global strategy.
Methods for Making FDI
• The advantages of acquiring an existing operation include: adding no further capacity to the market avoiding start-up problems easier financing Companies may choose to build if: no desired company is available for acquisition acquisition will lead to carry-over problems acquisition is harder to finance
General Motives for Collaborative Arrangements
• • • • • To Spread and Reduce Costs To Specialize in Competencies To Avoid or Counter Competition To Secure Vertical and Horizontal Links To Gain Knowledge
International Motives for Collaborative Arrangements
• • • • Gain location-specific assets Overcome legal constraints Diversify geographically Minimize exposure in risky environments
Types of Collaborative Arrangements
• • • Companies have a wider choice of operating form when there is less likelihood of competition Internal handling of foreign operations usually means more control and no sharing of profits MNEs want returns from their intangible assets
• Licensing agreements may be: exclusive or nonexclusive used for patents, copyrights, trademarks, and other intangible property Licensing often has an economic motive, such as the desire for faster start-up, lower costs, or access to additional resources
• • • Franchising includes providing an intangible asset (usually a trademark) and continually infusing necessary assets Many types of products and many countries participate in franchising Franchisors face a dilemma: the more standardization, the less acceptance in the foreign country the more adjustment to the foreign country, the less the franchisor is needed
• Management contracts are used primarily when the foreign company can manage better than the owners
• Turnkey operations are: Most commonly performed by construction companies Often performed for a governmental agency
• • • Joint ventures may have various combinations of ownership The type of legal organization may be a partnership, a corporation, or some other form permitted in the country of operation When more than two organizations participate, the joint venture is sometimes called a consortium
• An equity alliance is a collaborative arrangement in which at least one of the collaborating companies takes an ownership position (almost always minority) in the other(s). Equity alliances help solidify collaboration
Problems of Collaborative Arrangements
• The major strains on collaborative arrangements are due to five factors: Relative importance to partners Divergent objectives Control problems Comparative contributions and appropriations Differences in culture
Managing Foreign Arrangements
• The evolution to a different operating mode may: be the result of experience necessitate costly termination fees create organizational tensions
• In technology agreements: seller does not want to give information without assurance of payment
buyer does not want to pay without evaluating information
• When collaborating with another company, managers must: continue to monitor performance assess whether to take over operations
5. THE ORGANIZATION
• • • • • Profile the evolving understanding of the organization of international business Describe traditional and contemporary structures Study the systems used to coordinate and control operations Profile the role of organization culture Examine special situations in the organization of international business
Organization in the International Business
• The organization of international business is challenging due to: • the geographic and cultural distances that separate countries the need to operate differently among countries the large number of uncontrollable factors the high uncertainty resulting from rapid change in the international environment problems in gathering reliable data in many places
Organization in the MNE is an integrated function of its formal structure, coordination and control systems, and the shared values that make up its culture Prevailing environmental and workplace trends pressure managers to question their customary approaches to organizing their companies
• • Vertical differentiation is the matter of how the company balances centralization versus decentralization of decision making Centralization is the degree to which high-level managers, usually above the country level, make strategic decisions and pass them to lower levels for implementation. Decentralization is the degree to which lower-level managers, usually at or below the country level, make and implement strategic decisions. Decision making should occur at the level of the people who are most directly affected and have the most intimate knowledge about the problem.
• Horizontal differentiation describes how the company designs its formal structure to perform three functions: Specify the total set of organizational tasks Divide those tasks into jobs, departments, subsidiaries, and divisions so the work gets done Assign authority and authority relationships to make sure work gets done in ways that support the company’s strategy
• Contemporary structures, like the network or virtual formats, arrange work roles, responsibilities, and relationships in ways that eliminate the horizontal, vertical, or external boundaries that block the development of knowledge-generating and decision-making relationships
Coordination and Control Systems
No matter what sort of structure the MNE uses, it needs to develop coordination and control mechanisms to prevent duplication of efforts, to ensure that headquarters managers do not withhold the best resources from the international operations, and to include insights from anywhere in the organization
• • Coordination can take place via standardization, plans, and mutual adjustment Standardization relies on specifying standard operating procedures: planning relies on general goals and detailed objectives mutual adjustment relies on frequent interaction among related parties
Approaches to Coordination
• Coordination by standardization: Sets universal rules and procedures that apply to units worldwide. Enforces consistency in performance of activities in geographically dispersed units.
Coordination by plan requires interdependent units to meet common deadlines and objectives. Coordination by mutual adjustment requires managers to interact personally with counterparts.
• Companies exercise control through: Market control uses external market mechanisms to establish objective standards.
Bureaucratic control emphasizes organizational authority and relies on rules and regulations. Clan control uses shared values and ideals to moderate employee behavior.
• • • • • • Reports Visits to Subsidiaries Management Performance Evaluations Cost and Accounting Comparisons Evaluative Measurements Information Systems
• The set of fundamental assumptions about the organization and its goals and practices that members of the company share A system of shared values about what is important and beliefs about how the world works.
Importance of Culture
• Key features of a company’s organization culture include: Values and principles of management. Work climate and atmosphere. Patterns of “how we do things around here.” Traditions. Ethical standards.
An organization’s culture often shapes the strategic moves it considers.
Challenges and Pitfalls
• • • Managers from different countries often have values that differ from those endorsed by the company People in an MNE often have slight exposure to the values held by senior managers Evidence suggests that mixing national cultures on teams does not necessarily improve performance
1. MARKETING GLOBALLY.
• • To understand a range of product policies and the circumstances in which they are appropriate internationally To grasp the reasons for product alterations when deciding between standardized versus differentiated marketing programs among countries To appreciate the pricing complexities when selling in foreign markets To interpret country differences that may necessitate alterations in promotional practices To comprehend the different branding strategies companies may employ internationally To discern complications of international distribution and practices of effective distribution
• • • •
To perceive why and how emphasis in the marketing mix may vary among countries
• International marketing strategies depend on companies’ orientations that include: Production Sales Customer Strategic marketing Societal marketing
• • Companies focus primarily on production - either efficiency or high quality - with little emphasis on marketing. Used internationally for certain cases: Commodity sales Passive exports Foreign-market segments or niches
• Sales orientation: a company tries to sell abroad what it can sell domestically and in the same manner on the assumption that consumers are sufficiently similar globally. Customer orientation: the product and method of marketing it are varied Strategic Marketing orientation: combines production, sales, and customer orientations
Social Marketing orientation: Companies consider effects on all stakeholders when selling or making their products.
Segmenting and Targeting Markets
• • The most common way of segmenting markets is through demographics and psychographics Three basic approaches to international segmentation: By country By global segment By multiple criteria
Why Firms Alter Products
• • • • Legal factors are usually related to safety or health protection. Examination of cultural differences may pinpoint possible problem areas. Personal incomes and infrastructures affect product demand. Although some standardization of products would eliminate wasteful alterations, there is resistance because: A changeover would be costly. People are familiar with the “old.”
Potential obstacles in International pricing
• • • • • • Government intervention Market diversity Export price escalation Fluctuations in currency value Fixed versus variable pricing Relations with suppliers
The Push-Pull Mix
• • • Promotion may be categorized as push, which uses direct selling techniques, or pull, which relies on mass media. For each product in each country, a company must determine its promotional budget as well as the mix between push and pull Factors in Push-Pull Decisions: Type of distribution system Cost and availability of media to reach target markets Consumer attitudes toward sources of information Price of the product compared to incomes
Standardization of Advertising Programs
• Advantages of standardized advertising include: • Some cost savings. Better quality at local level. Rapid entry into different countries.
Major problems for standardizing advertising among countries are: Translation Legality Message needs
• • A brand is an identifying mark for products or services. Global branding is hampered by:
language differences expansion by acquisition nationality images laws concerning generic names
Global brands do help develop a global image
• • Distribution is the course - physical path or legal title - that goods take between production and consumption. Distribution reflects different country environments: It may vary substantially among countries.
It is difficult to change.
Choosing Distributors and Channels
• Distribution may be handled internally: When volume is high. When companies have sufficient resources. When there is a need to deal directly with the customer because of the nature of the product. When the customer is global. To gain a competitive advantage.
Some evaluation criteria for distributors include their: Financial capability. Connections with customers. Fit with a company’s product. Other resources.
Trustworthiness. Compatibility with product image.
The Challenge Of Getting Distribution
• Distributors choose which companies and products to handle. Companies: • May need to give incentives. May use successful products as bait for new ones. Must convince distributors that product and company are viable.
Five factors that often contribute to cost differences in distribution are infrastructure conditions, the number of levels in the distribution system, retail inefficiencies, size and operating-hour restrictions, and inventory stock-outs.
The Internet and Electronic Commerce
• Although the Internet offers new opportunities to sell internationally, using the Internet does not negate companies’ needs to develop sound programs within their marketing mix
Managing the Marketing Mix
• The difference between total market potential and companies’ sales is due to gaps:
Usage - less product sold by all competitors than potential. Product line - company lacks some product variations. Distribution - company misses geographic or intensity Coverage.
Competitive - competitors’ sales not explained by product line and distribution gaps.
2. GLOBAL MANUFACTURING
SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT.
• • • • • • To describe different dimensions of global manufacturing strategy To examine the elements of global supply chain management To show how quality affects the global supply chain To illustrate how supplier networks function To explain how inventory management is a key dimension of the global supply chain To present different alternatives for transporting products along the supply chain from suppliers to customers
Supply Chain Management
• Supply chain - the coordination of materials, information, and funds from the initial raw material supplier to the ultimate customer.
• Logistics, or materials management, is that part of the supply chain process that plans, implements, and controls the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from the point of origin to the point of consumption in order to meet customers’ requirements
Global Manufacturing Strategies
• The success of a global manufacturing strategy depends on four key factors: compatibility configuration coordination control
• • The degree of consistency between FDI decisions and a company’s competitive strategy. Some company strategies that managers must consider: Efficiency/cost Dependability Quality
• Three broad categories of manufacturing configuration are: centralized facility regional facilities multidomestic facilities
Coordination and Control
• • Coordinating is the linking or integrating of activities into a unified system. Control can be the measuring of performance so companies can respond appropriately to changing conditions.
• • • • • • EDI (electronic data interchange) ERP (enterprise resource planning) MRP (material requirements planning) RFID (radio frequency ID) E-commerce Private technology exchange (PTX)
• • Quality is defined as meeting or exceeding the expectations of customers. Quality standards can be: general (ISO 9000) industry-specific company-specific (AQL, zero defects, TQM, and Six Sigma)
Total Quality Management
• Total quality management (TQM) is a process that stresses: customer satisfaction
employee involvement continuous improvements The goal of TQM is to eliminate all defects.
• • Sourcing: the process of a firm having inputs supplied to it from outside suppliers (both domestic and foreign) for the production process. Domestic sourcing allows the company to avoid problems related to: language culture currency tariffs, and so forth Foreign sourcing allows the company to reduce costs and improve quality, among other things
• Major outsourcing configurations: Vertical integration. Outsourcing through industrial clusters. Other outsourcing.
Make or Buy Decision
• • Under the make or buy decision, companies have to decide if they will make their own parts or buy them from an independent company Companies go through different purchasing phases as they become more committed to global sourcing
• When a company sources parts from suppliers around the world, distance, time, and the uncertainty of the international political and economic environment can make it difficult for managers to manage inventory flows accurately
The Purchasing Function
• Global progression in the purchasing function: Domestic purchasing only. Foreign buying based on need. Foreign buying as part of a procurement strategy. Integration of global procurement strategy.
Major Sourcing Strategies
• • • • • Assign domestic buyers for foreign purchasing. Use foreign subsidiaries or business agents. Establish international purchasing offices. Assign the responsibility for global sourcing to a specific business unit or units. Integrate and coordinate worldwide sourcing.
Lean Manufacturing and Just-in-Time Systems
• • Lean manufacturing - a productive system whose focus is on optimizing processes through the philosophy of continual improvement. JIT - sourcing raw materials and parts just as they are needed in the manufacturing process.
• • The transportation system links together suppliers, companies and customers Foreign trade zones (FTZs) - special locations for storing domestic and imported inventory in order to avoid paying duties until the inventory is used in production or sold.
3. INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING ISSUES.
• • • To examine the major factors influencing the development of accounting practices in different countries To examine the global convergence of accounting standards To explain how companies account for foreign-currency transactions and translate foreign-currency financial statements
• • •
To discuss different forms of performance evaluation of foreign operations and how foreign exchange can complicate the budget process To explain how arbitrary transfer pricing can complicate performance evaluation and control To introduce the balanced scorecard as an approach to evaluating performance
Accounting for International Differences
• • Accounting standards and practices vary around the world Both the form and the content of financial statements are different in different countries
• • • The accounting process identifies, records, and interprets economic events. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) sets accounting standards in the United States. The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) is an international privatesector organization that sets accounting standards.
Cultural Differences in Accounting
• • • Culture can have a strong influence on the accounting dimensions of measurement and disclosure The cultural values of secrecy and transparency refer to the degree of disclosure of information The cultural values of optimism and conservatism refer to the valuation of assets and the recognition of income
• Financial statements differ in terms of: language currency type of statements (income statement, balance sheet, etc.) financial statement format extent of footnote disclosures the underlying GAAP on which the financial statements are based Major approaches to dealing with accounting and reporting differences:
Mutual recognition. Reconciliation to local GAAP. Recasting of financial statements in terms of local GAAP.
International Accounting Standards and Global Convergence
• Convergence is the process of bringing different national Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) into line with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) issued by the IASB.
Major forces leading to convergence
• • • • • • Investor orientation. Global integration of capital markets. MNEs’ need for foreign capital. Regional political and economic harmonization. MNEs’ desire to reduce accounting and reporting costs. Convergence efforts of standards-setting bodies.
International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS)
• • • • • The IASB is attempting to harmonize accounting standards through issuing International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The EU and other countries have agreed to require IFRS for publicly listed companies. FASB and IASB are trying to converge their standards through a variety of different activities. Enforcement of IFRS is a major concern. The SEC may soon allow U.S.-listed firms to report financial results using IFRS.
Recording Foreign Currency Transactions
• Foreign-currency receivables and payables give rise to gains and losses whenever the exchange rate changes. Transaction gains and losses must be included in the income statement in the accounting period in which they arise. The FASB requires that U.S. companies report foreign currency transactions at the original spot exchange rate and that subsequent gains and losses on
foreign-currency receivables or payables be put on the income statement. The same procedure must be followed according to IFRS.
Translating Foreign-Currency Financial Statements
• • Translation: the process of restating foreign-currency financial statements. Consolidation: the process of combining the translated financial statements of a parent and its subsidiaries into one set of financial statements.
• • • The functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates. The current-rate method applies when the local currency is the functional currency. The temporal method applies when the parent’s reporting currency is the functional currency.
Disclosing Foreign-Exchange Gains and Losses
• With the current-rate method, the translation gain or loss is recognized in comprehensive income rather than net income, and therefore it goes to owners’ equity. With the temporal method, the translation gain or loss is recognized in the income statement.
Management Accounting Issues
• • • Performance evaluation and control The impact of transfer pricing on performance evaluation The use of the balanced scorecard
Performance Evaluation And Control
• Different measures are used to evaluate performance of foreign operations, including ROI, sales, cost reduction, quality targets, market share, profitability, and budget to actual.
When using a budget, management must select a currency to set the budget and a currency to evaluate performance. The most widely used approaches to translate budgets and compare with performance use forecasts of the exchange rate.
Transfer Pricing And Performance Evaluation
• • Transfer pricing refers to prices on intracompany transfers of goods, services, and capital. There are conflicting reasons for setting transfer prices that make it difficult for top management to select the correct price.
The Balanced Scorecard
• • The balanced scorecard is an approach to performance measurement that closely links the strategic and financial perspectives of a business. Using the balanced scorecard helps management avoid using only one measure of performance.
• • • The external and internal factors designed to safeguard the assets of a company and protect the rights of shareholders. Corporate governance practices worldwide are partly a function of the legal environment in the countries where companies operate. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was passed in the United States to improve financial reporting and strengthen internal controls.
4. THE MULTINATIONAL FINANCE FUNCTION.
• • • • • •
To describe the multinational finance function and how it fits in the MNE’s organizational structure To show how companies can acquire outside funds for normal operations and expansion, including offshore debt and equity funds To explore how offshore financial centers are used to raise funds and manage cash flows To explain how companies include international factors in the capital budgeting process To discuss the major internal sources of funds available to the MNE and to show how these funds are managed globally To describe how companies protect against the major financial risks of inflation and exchange-rate movements
The Finance Function
• The corporate finance function acquires and allocates financial resources among the company’s activities and projects. Four key functions are: • Capital structure. Long-term financing. Capital budgeting. Working capital management.
The CFO acquires financial resources and allocates them among the company’s activities and projects. Capital structure of the company is the mix between long-term debt and equity Leverage is the degree to which a firm funds the growth of business by debt. The amount of leverage used varies from country to country.
• • •
Factors that Influence the Choice of Capital Structure
• Choice of capital structure depends on:
tax rates degree of development of local equity markets creditor rights
Companies can use local and international debt markets to raise funds.
Global Capital Markets
• Two major sources of funds external to the MNE’s normal operations are debt markets and equity markets.
• • A Eurocurrency is any currency banked outside its country of origin, but it is primarily dollars banked outside the United States Four major sources of Eurocurrencies: Foreign governments or individuals who want to hold dollars outside the United States Multinational enterprises that have cash in excess of current needs European banks with foreign currency in excess of current needs Countries such as Germany, Japan, and Taiwan that have large balanceof-trade surpluses held as reserves
• A foreign bond is one sold outside the country of the borrower but denominated in the currency of the country of issue A Eurobond, also called a global bond, is a bond issue sold in a currency other than that of the country of issue
Equity Securities and the Euro equity Market
• The three largest stock markets in the world are in New York, Tokyo, and London, with the U.S. markets controlling nearly half of the world’s stock market capitalization. Euro equities are shares listed on stock exchanges in countries other than the home country of the issuing company
American Depositary Receipts (ADRs)
• Most foreign companies that list on the U.S. stock exchanges do so through American Depositary Receipts, which are financial documents that represent a share or part of a share of stock in the foreign company ADRs are easier to trade on the U.S. exchanges than are foreign shares
Offshore Financial Centers
• • • • Offshore financing is the provision of financial services by banks and other agents to nonresidents. Offshore financial centers are cities or countries that provide large amounts of funds in currencies other than their own. OFCs offer low or zero taxation, moderate or light financial regulation, and banking secrecy and anonymity. The OECD is trying to eliminate the harmful tax practices in tax-haven countries.
Capital Budgeting in a Global Context
• Capital budgeting is the process whereby MNEs determine which projects and countries will receive capital investment funds.
Methods of Capital Budgeting
Capital budgeting techniques: Payback period. Net present value of a project. Internal rate of return.
MNEs need to determine free cash flows based on cash flow estimates and tax rates in different countries and an appropriate required rate of return adjusted for risk. Two ways to deal with the variations in future cash flows: determine several different scenarios or adjust the hurdle rate
Internal Sources of Funds
• • Funds are working capital, or current assets minus current liabilities. Sources of internal funds are: Loans. Investments through equity capital. Intercompany receivables and payables. Dividends.
Global Cash Management
• • • Cash budgets and forecasts are essential in assessing a company’s cash needs. Dividends are a good source of intercompany transfers, but governments often restrict their free movement. Multilateral netting is the process of coordinating cash inflows and outflows among subsidiaries so that only net cash is transferred, reducing transaction costs.
Netting requires sophisticated software and good banking relationships in different countries.
Foreign-Exchange Risk Management
• • • Translation exposure arises because the dollar value of the exposed asset or liability changes as the exchange rate changes. Transaction exposure arises because the receivable or payable changes in value as the exchange rate changes. Economic, or operating, exposure arises from effects of exchange-rate changes on: Future cash flows. The sourcing of parts and components. The location of investments. The competitive position of the company in different markets.
• To protect assets from exchange-rate risk, management needs to: Define and measure exposure. Establish a reporting system. Adopt an overall policy on exposure management. Formulate hedging strategies.
Formulating Hedging Strategies
• • Hedging strategies can be operational or financial. Operational strategies include: Using local debt to balance local assets.
Taking advantage of leads and lags for intercompany payments.
Forward contracts can establish a fixed exchange rate for future transactions. Currency options can ensure access to foreign currency at a fixed exchange rate for a specific period of time.
Taxation of Foreign Source Income
• • Tax planning influences profitability and cash flow. Taxation has a strong impact on several choices: Location of operations Choice of operating form, such as export or import, licensing agreement, overseas investment Legal form of the new enterprise, such as branch or subsidiary Possible facilities in tax-haven countries to raise capital and manage cash Method of financing, such as internal or external sourcing and debt or equity Capital budgeting decisions Method of setting transfer prices
International Tax Practices
• Problems with different countries’ tax practices arise from: • Lack of familiarity with laws. Loose enforcement.
With a value-added tax, each company pays a percentage of the value added to a product at each stage of the business process. Corporate tax rates vary from country to country.
Approaches to Corporate Taxation
• In the separate entity approach, governments tax each taxable entity when it earns income. An integrated system tries to avoid double taxation of corporate income through split tax rates or tax credits.
Taxing Branches and Subsidiaries
• • • • Foreign branch income (or loss) is directly included in the parent’s taxable income. Tax deferral means that income from a subsidiary is not taxed until it is remitted to the parent company as a dividend. In a CFC, U.S. shareholders hold more than 50 percent of the voting stock. Active income is derived from the direct conduct of a trade or business. Passive income (also called Subpart F income) usually is derived from operations in a tax-haven country.
• A transfer price is a price on goods and services one member of a corporate family sells to another. The OECD has set transfer pricing guidelines to eliminate the manipulation of prices and, therefore, taxes for MNEs.
Double Taxation and Tax Credit
• The IRS allows a tax credit for corporate income tax U.S. companies pay to another country. A tax credit is a dollar-for-dollar reduction of tax liability and must coincide with the recognition of income. The purpose of tax treaties is to prevent double taxation or to provide remedies when it occurs.
5. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.
• • • • • To discuss the importance of human resource management in international business To profile principal types of staffing policies used by international companies To explain the qualifications of international managers To examine how MNEs select, prepare, compensate, and retain managers To profile MNEs’ relations with organized labor
Human Resource Management (HRM)
• Human resource management refers to activities necessary to staff the organization. HRM is more difficult for the international company than its domestic counterpart due to: Environmental differences. Organizational challenges.
The Strategic Function of International HRM
• Research and anecdotes show that the MNE whose HRM policies support its chosen strategy creates superior value Many MNEs struggle to develop effective HRM policies An expatriate is an employee who leaves her or his native country to live and work in another.
A third-country national is an employee who is a citizen of neither the home nor the host country.
• Three perspectives describe how companies set about staffing their international operations, namely the: • • ethnocentric - fills management positions with home-country nationals polycentric - uses host-country nationals to manage local subsidiaries geocentric approaches - seeks the best people for key jobs throughout the organization, regardless of their nationality
Companies may use elements of each staffing policy but one type normally predominates While executive transferred from headquarters to local operations are more likely to best understand the company’s core competencies, an ethnocentric staffing can result in a narrow perspective in foreign markets
• • Technical competence often is the strongest determinant of who is selected for an international assignment. Adaptiveness refers to a person’s potential for • Self-maintenance and personal resourcefulness. Developing satisfactory relationships. Interpreting the immediate environment.
Top managers in subsidiaries usually assume a greater range of leadership roles and broader duties than do managers of similar-size home-country operations.
• • Expatriate failure is operationally costly and professionally detrimental. The improving sophistication of MNE selection procedures has reduced the rate of expatriate failure. A leading cause of expatriate failure is the inability of a spouse to adapt to the host country.
• • Training and predeparture preparations can lower the probability of expatriate failure. Increasingly, preparation activities include the spouse. Training and predeparture preparations often includes: • general country orientation cultural sensitivity practical skills
MNEs usually anchor training programs to transfer specific information about the host country as well as improve the executive's cultural sensitivity.
• • • • Compensation must neither overly reward nor unduly punish a person for accepting a foreign assignment. The most common approach to expatriate pay is the balance sheet approach. MNEs often provide additional compensation or more fringe benefits to employees who work in remote or dangerous areas. Companies struggle to determine the proper degree to which they should equalize pay for the same job done in different countries.
Repatriation, the act of returning home from a foreign assignment, has many difficulties Repatriation tends to cause dissonance in many areas, most notably Financial. Work. Social.
The principal cause of repatriation frustrations is finding the right job for someone to return to
International Labor Relations
• A labor union is association of workers who have united to represent their collective views for wages, hours, and working conditions. Collective bargaining refers to negotiations between labor union representatives and employers to reach agreement on a work contract.
How Labor Looks At the MNE
• Labor claims it is disadvantaged in dealing with MNEs because: It is hard to get full data on MNEs’ global operations. MNEs can manipulate investment incentives. They can easily move value activities to other countries. Ultimate decision making occurs in another country.
How Labor Responds To the MNE
• Labor tries to strengthen its bargaining power through cross-national cooperation.
Labor may be at a disadvantage in MNE negotiations because the Country bargaining unit is only a small part of MNE activities. MNE may continue serving customers with foreign production or resources.
Falling union membership in many countries foreshadows lower bargaining power for labor, whereas the effort of MNEs to develop integrated labor relations across countries increases their bargaining power.