AC UPS Sizing

Contents
[hide]
y

y

y

y y

1 Introduction o 1.1 Why do the calculation? o 1.2 When to do the calculation? 2 Calculation Methodology o 2.1 Step 1: Collect the AC UPS Loads o 2.2 Step 2: Load Profile, Design Load and Design Energy o 2.3 Step 3: Battery Sizing  2.3.1 Nominal Battery (or DC Link) Voltage  2.3.2 Number of Cells in Series o 2.4 Step 4: UPS Sizing  2.4.1 Overall UPS Sizing  2.4.2 Rectifier / Charger Sizing  2.4.3 Inverter Sizing  2.4.4 Static Switch Sizing 3 Worked Example o 3.1 Step 1 and 2: Collect the AC UPS Loads and Construct Load Profile o 3.2 Step 3: Battery Sizing o 3.3 Step 4: UPS Sizing  3.3.1 Overall Sizing  3.3.2 Rectifier Sizing  3.3.3 Inverter and Static Switch Sizing 4 Computer Software 5 What next?

Introduction
This calculation deals with the sizing of an AC uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system (i.e. rectifier, battery bank and inverter). In this calculation, it is assumed that the AC UPS is a double conversion type with a basic system topology as shown in Figure 1.

AC UPS basic system topology An external maintenance bypass switch and galvanic isolation transformers are other common additions to the basic topology. the manufacturer will independently size the system and it is only necessary to construct the AC UPS load schedule and load profile. The AC UPS sizing calculation determines the ratings for the main AC UPS system components: 1) rectifier. When to do the calculation? The AC UPS sizing calculation can be done when the following prerequisite information is known: . size of battery banks) for preliminary layout purposes. This is particularly useful for sensitive electrical equipment on main power supplies that are prone to voltage / frequency fluctuations or instability.g. In some cases. but these have been omitted from the system as they are irrelevant for the sizing calculation. AC UPS systems are also used as stable power supplies that provide a reasonably constant voltage and frequency output. However the calculation results will also help determine the indicative dimensions of the equipment (e. It is typically a batterybacked system which will continue to operate for a specified amount of time (called the autonomy) after a main power supply interruption.Figure 1 . independent of voltage input. Why do the calculation? An AC UPS system is used to support critical / sensitive AC loads. 2) battery banks and 3) inverter.

The autonomy time is often specified by the Client (i. this will typically be critical instrumentation and control loads such as the DCS and ESD processor and marshalling hardware.e. For commercial facilities. The "Autonomy method" for constructing load profiles is typically used for AC UPS systems. Step 3: Battery Sizing Refer to the Battery Sizing Calculation for details on how to size the battery for the AC UPS system. data / network and telecommunications hardware. rectifier/ charger and static switch Step 1: Collect the AC UPS Loads The first step is to determine the type and quantity of loads that the AC UPS system will be expected to support. telecommunications equipment and sensitive electronics. Design Load and Design Energy Refer to the Load Profile Calculation for details on how to construct a load profile.y y y y UPS loads that need to be supported Input / Output AC voltage Autonomy time(s) Battery type Calculation Methodology The calculation procedure has four main steps: 1) Determine and collect the prospective AC UPS loads 2) Construct a load profile and determine the UPS design load (VA) and design energy (VAh) 3) Calculate the size of the stationary battery (number of cells in series and Ah capacity) 4) Determine the size of the inverter. Sometimes a single autonomy time is used for the entire AC UPS load. critical workstations and HMI's. calculate the design load ( ) and design energy ( ). "IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications" has some guidance (particularly Table 3-2) for autonomy times. which obviously makes the construction of the load profile easier to compute. The following sections provide additional information specific to battery sizing for AC UPS applications. For industrial facilities. UPS loads will mainly be server. IEEE 446. in their standards). Step 2: Load Profile. Nominal Battery (or DC Link) Voltage . Alternatively. The necessary load data should be available from the instrumentation and control engineers.

the battery at float voltage (or boost if applicable) needs to be within the maximum input voltage range of the inverter.max is the inverter maximum input voltage tolerance (%) Vi. the battery at its end of discharge voltage must be within the minimum input voltage range of the inverter. the following factors need to be considered: y y y y DC output voltage range of the rectifier ± the rectifier must be able to output the specified DC link voltage DC input voltage range of the inverter ± the DC link voltage must be within the input voltage tolerances of the inverter. Note that the battery end of discharge voltage should be within these tolerances. Total DC link current (at full load) ± this will affect the sizing of the DC cables and inter-cell battery links.min is the inverter minimum input voltage tolerance (%) Vf is the nominal cell float (or boost) voltage (Vdc) Veod is the cell end of discharge voltage (Vdc) The limits are based on the input voltage tolerance of the inverter. then less batteries in series would be preferable. Select the number of cells in between these two limits (more or less arbitrary. As a maximum. . If physical space is a constraint. Number of battery cells required in series ± this will affect the overall dimensions and size of the battery rack. the DC link voltage is usually selected to be close to the nominal output voltage.The nominal battery / DC link voltage is often selected by the AC UPS manufacturer. though somewhere in the middle of the min/max values would be appropriate). Obviously the smaller the better. if required to be selected. However. Number of Cells in Series The number of battery cells required to be connected in series must be between the two following limits: (1) (2) where Nmax is the maximum number of battery cells Nmin is the minimum number of battery cells Vdc is the nominal battery / DC link voltage (Vdc) Vi. Likewise as a minimum. In general.

dc is the design DC load current (full load) (A) S is the selected UPS rating (kVA) Vdc is the nominal battery / DC link voltage (Vdc) The maximum battery charging current can be computed as follows: where Ic is the maximum DC charge current (A) C is the selected battery capacity (Ah) kl is the battery recharge efficiency / loss factor (typically 1. The design DC load current can be calculated by: where IL. Rectifier / Charger Sizing The rectifier / charger should be sized to supply the inverter at full load and also charge the batteries (at the maximum charge current). select an overall UPS rating that exceeds the design load. Given the design load ( in VA or kVA) calculated in Step 2.Step 4: UPS Sizing Overall UPS Sizing Most of the time.g.1) (pu) tc is the minimum battery recharge time (hours) The total minimum DC rectifier / charger current is therefore: Select the next standard rectifier / charger rating that exceeds the total minimum DC current above. 15kVA UPS) would be selected. For example. then the next size unit (e. so it is possible to simply select the first standard rating that exceeds the design load. Inverter Sizing . if the design load 12kVA. Vendors typically have standard UPS ratings. all you need to provide is the overall UPS kVA rating and the UPS vendor will do the rest.

we shall use the same loads and load profile detailed in the Energy Load Profile Calculation example. the static switch must be rated to continuously supply the UPS loads. Therefore. the inverter can be sized using the design AC load current (based on the selected UPS kVA rating): where IL is the design AC load current (full load) (A) S is the selected UPS rating (kVA) Vo is the nominal output voltage (Vac) Select the next standard inverter rating that exceeds the design AC load current. Worked Example Step 1 and 2: Collect the AC UPS Loads and Construct Load Profile Load profile for this example For this example. the static switch can be sized using the design AC load current (as above for the inverter sizing). Static Switch Sizing Like the inverter. Therefore. The load profile is shown in the figure right and the following quantities were calculated: .The inverter must be rated to continuously supply the UPS loads.

Rectifier Sizing Given a nominal dc link voltage of 120Vdc. we shall use the same battery sizes calculated in the Battery Sizing Calculation] worked example.1 is used.216 VAh Step 3: Battery Sizing For this example. The maximum battery charging current is: A Therefore the total minimum DC rectifier / charger current is: A A DC rectifier rating of 40A is selected. the design DC load current is: A Suppose the minimum battery recharge time is 2 hours and a recharge efficiency factor of 1. A battery capacity of 50 Ah is selected.4 Ah. Step 4: UPS Sizing Overall Sizing Given the design load of 768 VA. The selected number of cells in series is 62 cells and the minimum battery capacity is 44. then a 1 kVA UPS would be appropriate.y y Design load Sd = 768 VA Design energy demand Ed = 3. The design AC load current is: . Inverter and Static Switch Sizing Suppose the nominal output voltage is 240Vac.

A An inverter and static switch rating of 5A is selected. Computer Software .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful