Cryptography comes from Greek word kryptos, meaning "hidden or secret"; and gráphin means "writing". Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding information. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering. Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce. Cryptology prior to the modern age was almost synonymous with encryption, the conversion of information from a readable state to apparent gibberish. The sender retained the ability to decrypt the information and therefore avoid unwanted persons being able to read it. Since First World War and the advent of the computer, the methods used to carry out cryptology have become increasingly complex and its application more widespread. Modern cryptography follows a strongly scientific approach, and designs cryptographic algorithms around computational hardness assumptions that are assumed hard to break by an adversary. Such systems are not unbreakable in theory but it is infeasible to do so for any practical adversary. Information-theoretically secure schemes that provably cannot be broken exist but they are less practical than computationallysecure mechanisms. An example of such systems is the one-time pad. Alongside the advancement in cryptology-related

technology, the practice has raised a number of legal issues, some of which remain unresolved. Until modern times cryptography referred almost exclusively to encryption, which is the process of converting ordinary information (called plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish (called ciphertext). Decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. A cipher (or cypher) is a pair of algorithms that create the encryption and the reversing decryption. The detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a key. This is a secret parameter (ideally known only to the communicants) for a specific message exchange context.

A "cryptosystem" is the ordered list of elements of finite possible plaintexts, finite possible cyphertexts, finite possible keys, and the encryption and decryption algorithms which correspond to each key. Keys are important, as ciphers without variable keys can be trivially broken with only the knowledge of the cipher used and are therefore useless (or even counterproductive) for most purposes. Historically, ciphers were often

used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks. In colloquial use, the term "code" is often used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in cryptography, code has a more specific meaning. It means the replacement of a unit of plaintext (i.e., a meaningful word or phrase) with a code word (for example, wallaby replaces attack at dawn). Codes are no longer used in serious cryptography² except incidentally for such things as unit designations (e.g., Bronco Flight or Operation Overlord)²since properly chosen ciphers are both more practical and more secure than even the best codes and also are better adapted to computers. Cryptanalysis is the term used for the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information without access to the key normally required to do so; i.e., it is the study of how to crack encryption algorithms or their implementations. Some use the terms cryptography and cryptology interchangeably in English, while others (including US military practice generally) use cryptography to refer specifically to the use and practice of cryptographic techniques and cryptology to refer to the combined study of cryptography and cryptanalysis. English is more flexible than several other languages in which cryptology (done by cryptologists) is always used in the second sense above. The study of characteristics of languages which have some application in cryptography (or cryptology), i.e. frequency data, letter combinations, universal patterns, etc., is called cryptolinguistics.

or literate opponents.. which rearrange the order of letters in a message (e. sender/receiver identity authentication. CLASSIC CRYPTOGRAPHY: The earliest forms of secret writing required little more than local pen and paper analogs. In recent decades.e.. such as those of spies. More literacy. The main classical cipher types are transposition ciphers. which systematically replace letters or groups of letters with other letters or groups of letters (e. interactive proofs and secure computation.. 'hello world' becomes 'ehlol owrdl' in a trivially simple rearrangement scheme).g. military leaders. Encryption was used to (attempt to) ensure secrecy in communications. digital signatures. 'fly at once' becomes 'gmz bu podf' by replacing each letter with the one following it in the Latin alphabet).HISTORY Before the modern era. encryption)²conversion of messages from a comprehensible form into an incomprehensible one and back again at the other end. cryptography was concerned solely with message confidentiality (i. the field has expanded beyond confidentiality concerns to include techniques for message integrity checking. and substitution ciphers. and diplomats. . as most people could not read.g. Simple versions of either have never offered much confidentiality from enterprising opponents. among others. required actual cryptography. rendering it unreadable by interceptors or eavesdroppers without secret knowledge (namely the key needed for decryption of that message).

There is record of several early Hebrew ciphers as well.. The Greeks of Classical times are said to have known of ciphers (e. The earliest known use of cryptography is some carved ciphertext on stone in Egypt (ca 1900 BC). Cryptography is recommended in the books as a way for lovers to communicate without inconvenient discovery.. Another Greek method was developed by Polybius (now called the "Polybius Square"). to communicate with his generals during his military campaigns. and digital watermarks to conceal information. It was named after Julius Caesar who is reported to have used it. More modern examples of steganography include the use of invisible ink. the scytale transposition cipher claimed to have been used by the Spartan military). but this may have been done for the amusement of literate observers. just like EXCESS-3 code in boolean algebra. After the discovery of frequency analysis perhaps by the Arab . Ciphertexts produced by a classical cipher (and some modern ciphers) always reveal statistical information about the plaintext. hiding even the existence of a message so as to keep it confidential) was also first developed in ancient times. concealed a message²a tattoo on a slave's shaved head²under the regrown hair.e. The next oldest is bakery recipes from Mesopotamia. in which each letter in the plaintext was replaced by a letter some fixed number of positions further down the alphabet. Steganography (i. An early example. with a shift of 3. from Herodotus. which can often be used to break them. microdots.An early substitution cipher was the Caesar cipher.g.

. Such classical ciphers still enjoy popularity today. substitution alphabets) for various parts of a message (perhaps for each successive plaintext letter at the limit). though mostly as puzzles (see cryptogram). though there is some indication that it was already known to Al-Kindi.e. He also invented what was probably the first automatic cipher device. most clearly by Leon Battista Alberti around the year 1467. encryption uses a key word. Alberti's innovation was to use different ciphers (i. Al-Kindi (also known as Alkindus). . In the polyalphabetic Vigenère cipher. which controls letter substitution depending on which letter of the key word is used.mathematician and polymath. Al-Kindi wrote a book on cryptography entitled Risalah fi Istikhraj al-Mu'amma (Manuscript for the Deciphering Cryptographic Messages). Essentially all ciphers remained vulnerable to cryptanalysis using the frequency analysis technique until the development of the polyalphabetic cipher. a wheel which implemented a partial realization of his invention. in which described the first cryptanalysis techniques. In the mid19th century Charles Babbage showed that polyalphabetic ciphers of this type remained partially vulnerable to extended frequency analysis techniques. nearly all such ciphers became more or less readily breakable by any informed attacker. in the 9th century.

defection. In medieval times.. which was also used for a kind of steganography. alternatively and more bluntly. encryption has still been often effective in practice. many a would-be cryptanalyst was unaware of the technique. Security of the key used should alone be sufficient for a good cipher to maintain confidentiality under an attack. One of the earliest may have been the scytale of ancient Greece. Johannes Trithemius' tabula recta scheme. as Shannon's Maxim²'the enemy knows the system'. thus making espionage. the inventor of information theory and the fundamentals of theoretical cryptography. It was finally explicitly recognized in the 19th century that secrecy of a cipher's algorithm is not a sensible or practical safeguard of message security. it was further realized that any adequate cryptographic scheme (including ciphers) should remain secure even if the adversary fully understands the cipher algorithm itself. etc. With the invention of polyalphabetic ciphers came more sophisticated aids such as Alberti's own cipher disk. in fact.Although frequency analysis is a powerful and general technique against many ciphers. Breaking a message without using frequency analysis essentially required knowledge of the cipher used and perhaps of the key involved. it was restated by Claude Shannon. and Thomas Jefferson's multi-cylinder. Many mechanical . Different physical devices and aids have been used to assist with ciphers. bribery. burglary. other aids were invented such as the cipher grille. a rod supposedly used by the Spartans as an aid for a transposition cipher. more attractive approaches to the cryptanalytically uninformed. This fundamental principle was first explicitly stated in 1883 by Auguste Kerckhoffs and is generally called Kerckhoffs' principle.

computers allowed for the encryption of any kind of data representable in any binary format. Fig: Enigma Machine THE COMPUTER ERA: The development of digital computers and electronics after World War II made possible much more complex ciphers.. this was new and significant.e. The ciphers implemented by better quality examples of these machine designs brought about a substantial increase cryptanalytic difficulty after WWI.encryption/decryption devices were invented early in the 20th century. unlike classical and mechanical schemes. . among them rotor machines² famously including the Enigma machine used by the German government and military from the late '20s and during World War II. both for cipher design and cryptanalysis. Furthermore. unlike classical ciphers which only encrypted written language texts. Computer use has thus supplanted linguistic cryptography. letters and digits) directly. which generally manipulate traditional characters (i. and several patented. Many computer ciphers can be characterized by their operation on binary bit sequences (sometimes in groups or blocks).

In recent times. Credit card with smart-card capabilities. making cryptanalysis so inefficient and impractical as to be effectively impossible. US) Data Encryption Standard. such as memory or CPU capability)..) have become more attractive in consequence. torture. enlarged. . Extensive open academic research into cryptography is relatively recent.. and vastly larger than that required for any classical cipher. computers have also assisted cryptanalysis. Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman published their key agreement algorithm known as Diffie-Hellman algorithm. which has compensated to some extent for increased cipher complexity. good modern ciphers have stayed ahead of cryptanalysis. fast and requiring few resources. threat. while breaking it requires an effort many orders of magnitude larger. Nonetheless.. and the RSA algorithm was published in Martin Gardner's Scientific American column.However. Alternate methods of attack (bribery. IBM personnel designed the algorithm that became the Federal (i. it is typically the case that use of a quality cipher is very efficient (i.e. burglary. .e. it began only in the mid-1970s. Smart cards combine low cost and portability with the power to compute cryptographic algorithms. The 3-by-5-mm chip embedded in the card is shown..

so there are deep connections with abstract mathematics. combinatorics. Essentially. or this or that assumption about implementation or practical use is met. thus when specifying key lengths. prior to the early 20th century. cryptographic algorithm and system designers must also sensibly consider probable future developments while working on their designs. and finite . The potential effects of quantum computing are already being considered by some cryptographic system designers. and cryptography now makes extensive use of mathematics.Since then. continuous improvements in computer processing power have increased the scope of bruteforce attacks. the required key lengths are similarly advancing. There are no absolute proofs that a cryptographic technique is secure (but see one-time pad). at best. the announced imminence of small implementations of these machines may be making the need for this preemptive caution rather more than merely speculative. cryptography was chiefly concerned with linguistic and lexicographic patterns. computer networks. computational complexity. including aspects of information theory. number theory. and computer security generally. Since then the emphasis has shifted. For instance. such as the integer factorization or the discrete logarithm problems. cryptography has become a widely used tool in communications. abstract algebra. statistics. there are proofs that some techniques are secure if some computational problem is difficult to solve. As well as being aware of cryptographic history. Some modern cryptographic techniques can only keep their keys secret if certain mathematical problems are intractable.

but an unusual one as it deals with active.g. also. civil or chemical engineering) need deal only with neutral natural forces.mathematics generally. Cryptography is. and malevolent opposition (see cryptographic engineering and security engineering). There is also active research examining the relationship between cryptographic problems and quantum physics (see quantum cryptography and quantum computing). intelligent. other kinds of engineering (e. . a branch of engineering..


Hence. Integrity: Assuring the receiver that the received message has not been altered in any way from the original.) Privacy/confidentiality: Ensuring that no one can read the message except the intended receiver. Access-control: A method in which the access to unauthorized users is prohibited. Cryptography not only protects data from theft or alteration. i. both of which are notoriously weak. only the authorized user can have access to its documents. Non-repudiation: A mechanism to prove that the sender really sent this message. the various security requirements for a Cryptographic technique including: Authentication: The process of proving one's identity. .CRYPTOGRAPHY SERVICES Any new design of Cryptographic technique must accomplish the above requisites.e. (The primary forms of host-to-host authentication on the Internet today are name-based or address-based. but can also be used for user authentication.

Key-Management: This method allows negotiating. Security-Audit: With the help of this mechanism a record of all the previous transactions are kept which may provide useful information at a later stage.Availability: This method guarantees that the system services are always available when needed. as well as setup and maintaining keys between the communicating entities. .

Considering the trivial case of Bob and Alice where Bob wants to send a message to Alice. Here an intermediate person. has an access to the information being transferred called as passive attacker. PASSIVE ATTACKS: This kind of attacks is generally carried by a passive intruder who only has an access to the information or message being exchanged. known as an attacker. there are many ways in which the personal information shared between two peoples can be interrupted with.ATTACKS According to the cryptanalyst Kent. Here the intruder has . and can even change the information being exchanged with the help of some technology and is called as an active attacker.

access to the contents only i. he can read the message but cannot tamper with it. So due to the inability to create any changes the intruder is called as a passive attacker. So due to the ability to create any changes the intruder is called as an active attacker. Some other types of attack can also be considered such as: CIPHERTEXT ONLY ATTACK: This is the situation where the attacker does not know anything about the contents of the message. and must work from . ACTIVE ATTACKS: This kind of attacks is generally carried by an active intruder who not only has an access to the information or message being exchanged but can also tamper or manipulate the message being exchanged.e.

The task is to decrypt the rest of the ciphertext blocks using this information. It may also be possible to guess that some ciphertext block contains a common word. This may be done by determining the key used to encrypt the data. or via some shortcut. KNOWN PLAINTEXT ATTACK: The attacker knows or can guess the plaintext for some parts of the ciphertext. In practice it is quite often possible to make guesses about the plaintext. The task is to determine the key used for encryption. as many types of messages have fixed format headers.ciphertext only. Some encryption methods. . CHOSEN PLAINTEXT ATTACK: The attacker is able to have any text he likes encrypted with the unknown key. When such algorithms are used. particularly RSA. Even ordinary letters and documents begin in a very predictable way. are extremely vulnerable to chosen-plaintext attacks. extreme care must be taken to design the entire system so that an attacker can never have chosen plaintext encrypted.

It must be easy to encrypt decrypt with knowledge of secret key. Data that can be read and understood without any special measures is called plaintext or clear text. Encrypting plaintext results in unreadable gibberish called cipher text. For a cipher to be of practical value: 1. You use encryption to make sure that information is hidden from anyone for whom it is not intended.CIPHER A cipher is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption using a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure. The method of disguising plaintext in such a way as to hide its substance is called encryption. The process of reverting ciphertext to its original plaintext is called decryption. It must be difficult to be broken by enemy cryptanalyst. 2. . even those who can see the encrypted data.

Figure: Caesar Cipher These simple ciphers and examples are easy to crack. and ³X´ for ³D´ in the message.CLASSICAL CIPHER Historical pen and paper ciphers used in the past are sometimes known as classical ciphers. For example ³GOOD DOG´ can be encrypted as ³PLSX TWF´ where ³L´. For example ³GOOD DOG´ can be encrypted as ³PLLX XLP´ where ³L´ substitutes for ³O´. and ³W´ substitute for ³O´. ³P´ for ³G´. even without plaintext-ciphertext pairs. Transposition of the letters ³GOOD DOG´ can result in ³DGOGDOO´. ³S´. Simple ciphers were replaced by polyalphabetic substitution ciphers which changed the substitution alphabet for every letter. With even a small amount of known or . They include simple substitution ciphers or Caesar¶s cipher and transposition ciphers. Julius Caesar used to substitute each alphabet key characters down or up accordingly and where the key used by him was 3.

Another advancement in the theory was the transposition cipher where the characters retain their plaintext form but change their positions to create the cipher text. simple polyalphabetic substitution ciphers and letter transposition ciphers designed for pen and paper encryption are easy to crack.estimated plaintext. Figure: Double Transposition .2) and columns (1.2). Consider the plaintext ³attackatxdawn´ and the ciphertext obtained using the transposition algorithm is ³xtawxnattxadakc´ as shown in the figure below.3. In the following example the rows 1-5 and columns 1-3 are permutated to give new set of rows ( and the rows and columns are interchanged according to a key. Here the text is organized into two dimensional tables.

Generally modern ciphers are classified according to their input size based or key based. in this example. BLOCK CIPHER: In cryptography. A block cipher encryption algorithm might take (for example) a 128-bit block of plaintext as input. These algorithms were a bit more complicated than the previous classical ciphers. and output a corresponding 128-bit block of ciphertext. called blocks. and yields the original 128-bit block of plaintext. a 128-bit block of ciphertext together with the secret key.MODERN CIPHER In cryptography several new ways of encrypting the message was further devised. The exact transformation is controlled using a second input ² the secret key. Decryption is similar: the decryption algorithm takes. . a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher operating on fixed-length groups of bits. with an unvarying transformation. INPUT BASED CIPHERS: The most common input size based ciphers are block cipher and stream cipher and are described as follows.

To overcome this issue. typically by an exclusive-or (xor) operation. in this method all blocks are encrypted with the same key. . which degrades security (because each repetition in the plaintext becomes a repetition in the ciphertext). as the encryption of each digit is dependent on the current state. In a stream cipher the plaintext digits are encrypted one at a time. In practice. However. STREAM CIPHER: In cryptography. An alternative name is a state cipher. a stream cipher is a symmetric key cipher where plaintext bits are combined with a pseudorandom cipher bit stream (key stream). modes of operation are used to make encryption probabilistic. the digits are typically single bits or bytes.A message longer than the block size (128 bits in the above example) can still be encrypted with a block cipher by breaking the message into blocks and encrypting each block individually. and the transformation of successive digits varies during the encryption.

Stream ciphers typically execute at a higher speed than block ciphers and have lower hardware complexity.Stream ciphers represent a different approach to symmetric encryption from block ciphers. unvarying transformation. the same starting state must never be used twice. Block ciphers operate on large blocks of digits with a fixed. a block cipher primitive is used in such a way that it acts effectively as a stream cipher. . However. stream ciphers can be susceptible to serious security problems if used incorrectly: see stream cipher attacks ² in particular. This distinction is not always clear-cut: in some modes of operation.

As shown in figure. the same plaintext block will always encrypt to the same cipher text when using the same key in a block cipher whereas the same plaintext will encrypt to different cipher text in a stream cipher. SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY: With secret key cryptography. a single key is used for both encryption and decryption. secret key cryptography is also called symmetric encryption. In general. . The receiver applies the same key (or rule set) to decrypt the message and recover the plaintext. The most widely used amongst them are described as follows.KEY BASED CIPHER: Apart from the block and stream ciphers a more enhanced methods were developed involving the usage of a public and private key. A block cipher is so called because the scheme encrypts one block of data at a time using the same key on each block. Because a single key is used for both functions. Secret key cryptography schemes are generally categorized as being either stream ciphers or block ciphers. Stream ciphers operate on a single bit (byte or computer word) at a time and implement some form of feedback mechanism so that the key is constantly changing. the sender uses the key (or some set of rules) to encrypt the plaintext and sends the cipher text to the receiver.

so N users need N(N-1)/2 keys. As a result the key distribution becomes difficult. The most commonly used algorithms in symmetric key cryptography to encrypt the message are: ‡ DES (Data Encryption Standard) and derivatives: double DES and triple DES ‡ IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm) ‡ Blowfish ‡ RC5 (Rivest Cipher #5) ‡ AES (Advance Encryption Standard) .Figure: Symmetric Key Cryptography It can be seen that symmetric key cryptography requires less time to encrypt a message so its efficiency is high but on the other hand it must also be noted that each pair of users must have a unique key.

The recipient¶s public key should be used during the encryption process to ensure message confidentiality as only the recipient has the necessary secret key to decrypt the message. the message is encrypted using the sender¶s private key the sender cannot deny sending the message as his private key is unique and is only known to him. it is much slower than its symmetric cryptography counterparts. µAsymmetric¶ refers to the fact that different keys are used for encryption and decryption. asymmetric keys are generally around an order of magnitude longer than symmetric keys. Especially for longer messages and keys. . One key is kept secret (µsecret key¶) and the other is made public (µpublic key¶). however.PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY: Public-key cryptography has been said to be the most significant new development in secure communication over a non-secure communications channel without having to share a secret key. Public Key Cryptography or Asymmetric cryptography provides the same message security guarantees as symmetric cryptography. but this comes at a cost. If. Asymmetric cryptography is extremely powerful. in order to achieve comparable security. This is due in part to the fact that. but additionally provides the nonrepudiation guarantee. and are both unique.

A one-way hash function takes variable-length input in . Adleman) ‡ DH (Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Algorithm) ‡ ECDH (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement Algorithm) ‡ RPK (Raike Public Key) HASH FUNCTIONS: The system described above has some problems.Figure: Public Key Encryption Typically used asymmetric key algorithm includes: ‡ RSA (Rivest. Shamir. An improvement on the above scheme is the addition of a one-way hash function in the process. and it produces an enormous volume of data²at least double the size of the original information. It is slow.

PGP uses a cryptographically strong hash function on the plaintext the user is signing. the recipient uses PGP to recompute the digest. 160 bits. a message of any length. say. thus verifying the signature.´ PGP transmits the signature and the plaintext together. This generates a fixed-length data item known as a message digest. signing plaintext is useful if some of the recipients are not interested in or capable of verifying the . Upon receipt of the message. if the information is changed in any way²even by just one bit²an entirely different output value is produced. even thousands or millions of bits²and produces a fixed-length output. PGP can encrypt the plaintext or not. The hash function ensures that. Then PGP uses the digest and the private key to create the ³signature.this case.

or to alter a signed message in any way.signature. As long as a secure hash function is used. Digital signatures play a major role in authenticating and validating the keys of other PGP users. . The slightest change to a signed document will cause the digital signature verification process to fail. there is no way to take someone¶s signature from one document and attach it to another.

it is susceptible to a variety of brute-force attacks CIPHER BLOCK CHAINING: Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode adds a feedback mechanism to the encryption scheme. In CBC. In this mode. CIPHER FEEDBACK (CFB): Cipher Feedback (CFB) mode is a block cipher implementation as a self synchronizing stream cipher. two identical blocks of plaintext never encrypt to the same cipher text. Two identical plaintext blocks. most obvious application: the secret key is used to encrypt the plaintext block to form a cipher text block. CFB mode allows data to be encrypted in units smaller than the block size. the plaintext is exclusively-O Red (XORed) with the previous cipher text block prior to encryption. Although this is the most common mode of block ciphers. each incoming character is . for example.ENCRYPTION MODES The ciphers in use are generally following these four encryption modes: ELECTRONIC CODEBOOK (EBC): Electronic Codebook (ECB) mode is the simplest. which might be useful in some applications such as encrypting interactive terminal input. then. If we were using 1byte CFB mode. will always generate the same cipher text block.

At the receiving side.placed into a shift register the same size as the block.e. everything above and beyond the one byte) are discarded.. encrypted. . OUTPUT FEEDBACK (OFB): Output Feedback (OFB) mode is a block cipher implementation conceptually similar to a synchronous stream cipher. and the block transmitted. the cipher text is decrypted and the extra bits in the block (i. OFB prevents the same plaintext block from generating the same cipher text block by using an internal feedback mechanism that is independent of both the plaintext and cipher text bit streams.

However. is of great importance for ecommerce and other network applications. There are many examples of information on open networks. for example. This is done using a mathematical formula. credit card transactions.APPLICATIONS Cryptography is best known as a way of keeping the contents of a message secret. bank account details. better cryptographic techniques will have to be developed to protect business transactions. which transforms the bits of the message into an unintelligible form. for instance. Sensitive information sent over an open network may be scrambled into a form that cannot be understood by a hacker or eavesdropper. Confidentiality of network communications. The intended recipient has a decryption algorithm for extracting the original message. . which need to be protected in this way. or confidential health or tax records. cryptography allows the network business and customer to verify the authenticity and integrity of their transactions. known as an encryption algorithm. In particular. If the trend to a global electronic marketplace continues. the applications of cryptography go far beyond simple confidentiality.

It allows the sender and receiver to test and guarantee the secrecy of each individual key. the algorithm is used in conjunction with a secret key. Since the key allows access to the encrypted information. as shown in the illustration. . This however presents a dilemma. Only users sharing the same key will be able to decrypt each other's encrypted messages. sometimes called the µCatch 22 of Cryptography¶ ² how can the two parties exchange a key secretly before they can communicate in secret? Even if the sender and receiver found a channel that they believed to be secure. they must first exchange a secret key. Quantum cryptography solves this problem. in the past there has been no way to test the secrecy of each key. it is of paramount importance that it is kept secret and is frequently changed.In order to allow different users to use the same algorithm. Before two parties can send information securely. which is known only by the legitimate users. a long sequence of binary numbers.

The irony is that today.CONCLUSION Cryptography is a particularly interesting field because of the amount of work that is. the best algorithms are those that are wellknown and well-documented because they are also well-tested and well-studied! In fact. secrecy is not the key to the goodness of a cryptographic algorithm. by necessity. The strength of cryptography lies in the choice (and management) of the keys. longer keys will resist attack better than shorter keys. . Regardless of the mathematical theory behind an algorithm. done in secret. time is the only true test of good cryptography. any cryptographic scheme that stays in use year after year is most likely a good one.

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