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HISTORIC
The earliest Indian history dates back to stone ages of 400000 - 200000 BC. The earliest settlers in India can be classified into two classes, namely Paleolithic man and Neolithic man. Paleolithic man lived on flesh of animals, wild fruits and vegetables. Historians suggest that Paleolithic man belonged to the Negritude race and was short, dark skinned and flat nosed. Remains of implements used by the Paleolithic man were discovered in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Bihar, and southern India. Remains of Neolithic men belonging to the new Stone Age are found all over India. The Neolithic civilization was well advanced over the Paleolithic man. They cultivated land, grew corn and fruits, domesticated animals, made pottery and used fire. They lived in caves and decorated their caves with painting, constructed boats and went to the sea, spun cloths and buried their dead. Copper age and Iron Age succeeded Stone Age. The Indus valley civilization is a splendid example of that period. Valley Civilization: Archeological excavations in Mohanjo-Daro, Harappa (now in Pakistan) and trial excavations in Sind, Baluchistan, Punjab, Gujarat and Rajasthan proved that a highly civilized community flourished in that area around 3000 BC. This civilization was contemporary to the Egyptian, Assyrian, and Babylonian civilizations. Known as Indus Valley Civilization, it flourished more than 1000 years. The civilization was advanced with well-planned cities and buildings built with baked bricks. The streets were laid at right angles with covered drains. Buildings and location were arranged for the different strata of the society. There were public buildings such as the Great Bath at Mohanjo-Daro and huge granaries. Several metals such as copper, bronze, lead and tin were in use They domesticated animals including camel, goats, water buffalo and fouls. The Hardpans cultivated grains such as wheat and barley. Cotton and woolen cloths and earthen vessels were in use. They traded with other parts of India and other contemporary civilizations. The Harappan society was divided according to professions. Indications are there that there was a proper government and the people worshipped deities in male and female forms. By 1700 BC, the Harappan culture was on the decline probably due to repeated flooding or the propagation of the desert. It is also said that invading barbarians could be the reason for declining the Harappan culture. When Aryans arrived in 1500 BC the Harappan culture was partially wiped out. Aryans: 1500 BC had seen the arrival of Aryans to India. They established small agrarian communities throughout Punjab and adopted the agricultural life style prevailed in the area. The horse that came with the Aryans lead to the formation of cavalry and the rapid spread of the Aryan culture through out North India. The Aryans developed a rich tradition and composed Vedas. The caste system evolved during this period. Originally castes were a division of occupation but later transformed to depend on birth. Some Historians say that the caste system existed among the natives and Aryans only adapted to it. During the 6 th century BC Buddhism and Jainism emerged in India. These two religions preached non-violence, tolerance and selfdiscipline. As land became property and the society divided on occupation and caste, conflicts and disorders cropped up. Organized power to deal with these problems lead to formation of village councils, states and even vast empires. Alexander The Great: In 327 BC Alexander of Macedonia conquered a large part of the northwest India. He entered India through the Hindukush. As a great ruler, he developed good relations with the local authorities while establishing his garrisons. While returning back due to the pressure of his war weary soldiers, he left these areas to be ruled by Greek governors. Chandragupta Maurya fought the Macedonians and defeated them. Gradually these states were lost out to Indian states. But the contact between the two cultures put a lasting influence on Indian art and architecture. Mauryan Empire The dissatisfaction against foreign rulers started appearing in 320BC. The early uprisings were crushed by the successors of Alexander. But the uprising continued under a new leader named Chandragupta Maurya. After raising an army and persuading Indians to support his sovereignty he founded Maurya Empire. He went to war with Alexander's representatives and defeated Seleukos and added a large territory of the Macedonian Empire to Mauryan Empire.

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The successor of Chandragupta was his son Bindusara who reigned from 300BC to 273BC. He was a very strong ruler and maintained a friendly relation with the Hellenic west established by his father. Bindusara had many sons and when he died, Asoka, one of his sons, took over. Asoka, the greatest emperor of all, accessed to the throne four years after his father's death and ruled India for 36~37 years. Asoka suppressed a fresh revolt in Taxila and conquered Kalinga. Even though victorious, the Kalinga war was a turning point in Asoka's life. The misery and bloodshed of the war awakened his feelings of repentance and sorrow. It made him devoted to the practice of 'Dharma' ultimately changing his State policies. He embraced Buddhism and spread the teachings of Buddha to his subjects through inscriptions on rocks and pillars, in local dialects, throughout the country. During his reign Buddhism flourished in West Asia and in his southern neighboring countries. The Mauryan Empire broke up after the death of Asoka in 232BC and divided among his sons. Altogether there were ten kings in the Mauryan dynasty. The disintegration of Maurya Empire invited invaders from central Asia seeking fortunes in India. The Mauryan economy was agrarian. The state owned huge farms, farm labors and slaves for cultivation. Income for the state was from taxes levied on agriculture, land, trade and industrial products such as handicrafts. Industries such as arms, agricultural implements, ships for river navigation, weaving, handicrafts and cloth industry flourished during this period. Gupta Empire: The Gupta Empire in 4th century AD is considered as the golden age of Indian history. The Guptas ruled India for more than two centuries. Chandragupta I was the first in the Gupta Dynasty to assume the imperial title of 'Supreme King of Kings'. He strengthened his position by a matrimonial alliance with Lichchhavis. The greatest of all Gupta kings was Samudragupta whose campaign expanded the empire in all directions. Samudragupta was succeeded by Chandragupta II who was also known as Vikramaditya (380 ~ 413AD). He continued the policy of world conquest pursued by his predecessor by military activity and political marriages. Kumaragupta and Skandagupta succeeded him. Skandagupta was able to repel initial conquests by white Huns. But after his death the Huns spread rapidly towards the close of 5th century and the early 6th century. After the fall of Gupta Empire, north India broke into smaller kingdoms and never was really united until the arrival of Moslems. During the Gupta Era, classical art forms emerged and treatises on grammar, mathematics, astronomy, medicine etc. were written. 'Kamasutra', the great work on the art of love, was created during this period. Science and literature registered considerable progress. The great Kalidasa (literature) and Aryabhata (astronomy) lived in this era. The famous Ajanta and Ellora caves were created during this period. Even though the rulers followed orthodox Hinduism, Chinese travelers like Fa Hien recorded peaceful co-existence of religions.

Southern Kingdoms
While turmoil was brewing up and kingdoms were rising and falling in the north, the south India remained comparatively calm and stable. The Pallavas, Cholas and Pandyas shared the power in the Tamil Country. Cheras ruled Kerala and Chalukyas reigned Karnataka. Towards the close of the second century AD, after the death of 'Gauthamiputra Satkarni' the Satavahana Empire broke up into pieces and continued to rule the Andras until 'Ikshvakus' took over. The Pallavas had raised to power in the far south with Kanchi (present Kanchipuram) as capital some where in the 4th century. In the 6th century, Simhavishnu vanquished all his southern neighbors including the ruler of Ceylon and seized the country of Cholas. A great struggle between the Pallavas and their archenemy Chalukyas erupted during the time of Simhavishnu. The struggle continued for generations. By the first half of the 8th century, Chalukyas took over Kanchi. By the end of 9th century AD Aditya Chola defeated Aparajita Pallava and took possession of his kingdom. During the reign of Pallavas, Kanchi became a great center of Brahmanical and Buddhist learning. Many of the famous temples were built during this era. The Pallava artists from Kanchi might have helped to build great temples in Cambodia and Java. The Chalukyas rose to power in Karnata or the Canarese speaking country in the 6th century AD with Vatapi (present Badami) as capital. The real founder of the dynasty was Pulikesin I who performed 'aswamedha yaga' to access to power. His sons extended the empire in all directions.

They went as far as Ganges and asserted their power over Ceylon. But the people drove him out owing to his excesses. parts of the Malay Peninsula and the Indian Archipelego. In 1565 the Sultanate coalition defeated Vijayanagar army in Talikota. Vijayanagar Empire: This kingdom of Hindu alliance was founded in 1336 with capital at Hampi to counter the Muslim power. Malva and Baghalkhand in the north to Tanjore to the south. his minister. Aibak declared himself as the Sultan of Delhi. Rajendra defeated Manipala I of Bengal. 1236. almost all of south India was under its rule. Vijayanagara Empire absorbed it after a brief period. The feud between the neighbours stirred up many bloody battles inflicting defeats on each other. He also occupied the throne of Gazni for forty years after defeating Yildiz. Vijayanagar Empire grew to be the strongest and wealthiest Hindu kingdom for two centuries. overthrew the dynasty. Before his death in 1236. a landmark in history. Vikramaditya II. In 973 Tailia II. Golconda and Ahmadabad. During their reign Mongols plundered Punjab. he captured Mundawar. Bijapur. a descendent from the early Chalukyas. He brought control over different rebellious parts of the Sultanate. But by 1482 Vijayanagar Empire improved as a result of disintegration of Bahmani Sultanate. Kafur conquered the kingdom in early 14th century. Qtub-ud-din Aibak. By 15th century the Bahmani Sultanate was split up into five separate kingdoms with capitals Berar. to the throne. In 1520 king Krishnadevaraya of Vijayanagar conquered Bijapur. Muiz-ud-din Bahram and Ala-ud-din Masud are the rulers who succeeded Razzia. A Pandya king sent an emissary to the Roman Emperor Augustus in the first century BC. Qutub-ud-din Aibak: After the death of Mohamed of Ghur. a younger son of Iltutmish. Delhi Sultanate Mohamed of Ghur's expedition in 1175 against Multan and subsequent invasion of Gujarat. In 1328 Hoysala Empire fell to Mohamed Bin Tughluq. Since he spent most of his time in prayers. Aurengaseb defeated Bahmani rulers and their kingdoms were annexed to the Mughal Empire. Iltutmish: Aram Baksh succeeded him as Sultan Aram Shah. Yildiz and Qabacha. As a result. Vijayanagar Empire and Bahmani Sultanate were founded in the south. Rukh-ud-din Firoze Shah who succeeded Iltutmish was a misfit and was dethroned and killed in Nov. But the decline also started with it. Pandyas occupied the present Madurai and Thirunelveli District with part of old Travancore. Nasir-ud-din Mahmud: By 1246. Peshawar and Lahore and his victory over Rajputs in 1192 laid foundations of Muslim domination in India. After the withdrawal of Tughluq. The empire reached its peak over the following years. Nicobar Islands. A number of uprisings divided the empire internally while the Muslim Sultanates formed a new alliance. Malwa and Ujjain and defeated Malik of Bengal. daughter of Iltutmish. By 850 AD. his slave general annexed different parts of North India during the years followed. By 753 AD. But being a woman she had a tough time and rebellious nobles put her to death in 1240. Giyas-ud-din Balban was running the country. the power of the region was passed on to Muslim rulers or local Chieftains. The Amirs and Nobles accepted Razzia. Qutub-ud-din Aibak built Qutub Minar in Delhi. the Amirs and Maliks crowned Nasir-ud-din Mohamed. . Cholas had risen to power and ruling the south Tamil Country from Tanjore. Under Rajaraja I (985-1018) and his son Rajendra Chola I (1018-1048) Cholas conquered the whole of Tamil Country. The Chola Empire declined after Rajendra Chola Kulathunga. The Rastrakutas Empire extended from south Gujarat. They excelled in trade and learning. But ultimately. The Pandyas annexed the southern part of the empire. In the country between Godavari and the Ganges rose the empires of Kalinga and Orissa. He also vanquished Chalukyas at Musangi.3 Pulikesin II (609-642) consolidated his power in Maharastra and conquered nearly the whole of Deccan. Bahmani Sultanate: The Muslim Bahmani kingdom was founded in 1345 with capital at Gulbarga and later at Bidar north of the Vijayanagar Empire. Ahmednagar. Under the rule of Bukka I. This confined him to Delhi and was assassinated in 1210. But Iltutmish of Ilbari deposed him and accented to the throne. the Chalukya king was overthrown by Dandidurga and laid foundation for a new empire called Rastrakutas. Both were regarded as worthless and incompetent. The Pandya kingdom rose to fame during the 13th century.

the queen burned herself to death. Mohamed came back to Delhi when Timur returned after 15 years. Ghiaz-ud-din Tughluq: Since there were no male descendants for Ala-ud-din. the southern tip of India. His brief reign of four month was enough to alienate the Alai nobles who under the leadership of Ghasi Malik defeated and beheaded him in Delhi. He defeated Ibrahim Lodi in Panipat on April 1527 and occupied Delhi and Agra. Gias-ud-din accented to the throne.1530. Babur was the founder of Mughal Empire in India. The nobles persuaded Malik to sit on the throne under the name of Gias-ud-din Tughluq. In 1325 he died from the collapse of a wooden structure built by his son Jauna. After his death Khursrav ascended to the throne as Nassir-ud-din Khursrav Shah.4 Giyas-ud-din Balban: After the death of Nasir-ud-din. He died in 1287 after a reign of 22 years. When finally Chitor fell. The treacherous Ala-ud-din lured the Sultan into a trap and killed him. Ranthanbhor and Mewar. During his reign ala-ud-din. Babur defeated him at the first battle of Panipat and established the rule of Mughuls in India ending the Sultanate of Delhi. The rulers who succeeded Balban were weak and unworthy. He introduced token coins in copper and brass at par with silver and gold coins in value. Ala-ud-din Khalji: In 1296. In 1414. But because of inadequate arrangements. His expedition between 1307 and 1311 took him up to Cape-Comorin.1556. Improper management led to counterfeiting and as a result. the token coins were withdrawn. he eliminated the supporters of former Sultan. He died in 1351. Qutub-ud-din Mubarak: Ala-ud-din died in 1316. Ala-ud-din proclaimed himself as the Sultan of Delhi. Mohamed Bin Tughluq: After the death of Gias-ud-din. During Nasar-ud-din Mohamed Tughluq's reign (1394-1412). immediately after the murder of Sultan. his kingdom spread across Oxus to Gorga and from Himalayas to Gwalior. When he died on 26th Dec. He was a peace-loving sultan. By 1595 his empire spread from Himalayan to Narmada and from Hudukush to Brahmaputra. He shifted his capital to Devagiri. His well-intentioned reforms created confusion and hardships. Ala-ud-din returned with an enormous booty. his son Jauna declared himself as the Sultan under the name of Mohamed Bin Tughluq. the center of his empire. Thus the whole of India was under the Sultanate of Delhi. During his reign. grandson of Balban and established Khalji Dynasty. He suppressed Afghans in 1527. His passion for the beautiful queen Padmini lead to the siege of Chitor. He introduced many reforms on all walks of life and administration. The Lodis succeeded him. Jalal-ud-din Khalji was 70 when he became Sultan. the boundaries of Delhi Sultanate stretched from Peshwar in the north to Madurai in the south and Sind in the west to Assam in the east. his nephew and son-in-law marched into Devagiri and defeated Raja Ramachandradeva. Humayun returned to Delhi after 15 years with the help of the ruler of Iran and recovered most of the territory he lost before his death in Jan. one of Khursarv's Parvari (low caste convert) associates stabbed him to death. To safeguard his throne. Ala-ud-din conquered Deccan under the command of Malik Kafur. . Ibrahim Lodi was the last ruler of Delhi. In 1320. the capital was moved back. Jalal-ud-din Firoz Shah deposed Muiz-ud-din Khaliqubad. He strengthened the army and subdued rebellions. He crushed the rebellions in Deccan and Bengal. After the death of Feroz Tughluq. Balbans's strong army helped him to check the Mongol advances to India. Humayun: Three days after the death of Babur. He was a weak ruler and in-spite of earlier success in his expeditions against the Afghans and the ruler of Gujarat. In1290. In 1526. His son Qutub-ud-din Mubarak ruled India till 1320. In the 40 years that followed he used power and diplomacy to sub due his opponent and the Rajputs. the Mongol leader Timur invaded India and captured Delhi. Akbar The Great: Akbar was only 13 when he was declared 'Padsha'. Mughal Empire Babur: A descended on his father's side from Timur and on his mother's side from Chingiz Khan. Mohamed Bin Tughluq was a learned ruler but lacked practical judgement. Khizi Khan Sayyid occupied the throne. Feroz Shah Tughluq who succeeded Mohamed Bin Tughluq was a weak personality and could not contain the rebellions those broke out in the Sultanate. his son Humayun ascended to the throne. Ala-ud-din fought with the Mongols and defeated them. He strengthened his army and took up military expeditions and annexed Gujarat. The Afghans of Bengal and Bihar were brought to their knees in 1529. civil wars broke out in the Sultanate. Afghan Chief Sher Khan dethroned his in 1539 and placed himself in Delhi as Sher Shah.

When he died in 1515. combining best parts of all religions he had studied. his empire remained more or less same as what Akbar had left behind. Bassein. He was born in 1627 (or 1630) and his mother Jiji Bhai groomed him by infusing high and inspiring ideas of heroism. In 1605 they captured Amboyna from the . He brought together the Maratha race that was scattered through many Deccani kingdoms. The empire rapidly shrank in extent being reduced only a small district around Delhi. The Decline of Mughals: The Empire was facing challenges from the Marathas and the British. But in the 17th century they were organized into a national state. Aurangaseb: In 1658. It remained the dominant power in the 18 th century. Shahjahan ruled India from Agra. spirituality and chivalry into Shivaji's mind. Unlike his predecessors he integrated Hindus into his empire and used them as advisers and administers. Aurangaseb accented to power. These were Diu. Nadirshah of Iran sacked Delhi in 1739 and exposed the fragility of the power of Mughals. A number of important settlements were gradually established near the sea by the successors of Albuquerque. The empire stared disintegrating with the death of Aurangaseb in 1707. The Portuguese: The discovery of a new route to India by Vasco da Gama who landed in Calicut on the 17th of May 1498 brought the merchants of Portugal to India. He devoted his resources to strengthen his military and expand his empire. Despite many challenges. elevated himself by his unusual bravery and diplomacy. Portuguese were left as the strongest naval power in the west cost of India. The Maratha nation that he built up defied the Mughal Empire during and after Aurangaseb's reign. his son Shahjahan succeeded him and secured his position by deposing all possible contenders to the throne. In 1646 he captured the fortress of Torna. His deep interest in religious matters made him eventually to formulate a religion called 'Deen Ilahi'. the Dutch formed the Dutch East India Company in 1602.5 Akbar was the greatest of all Mughals. the Marathas upheld the national cause under the Yadavas of Devagiri.The imperial dynasty became extinct with Bahadur Shah II who was deported to Rangoon by the British on suspicion of assisting the sepoy mutineers. Arabs were dominating India's sea-borne trade. It is during his reign that many monuments of the Mughal Era were built. The Mughal Empire was split into numerous independent or semi-independent states. Aurengaseb marched into Deccan and annexed Bijapur and Golconda. Shahjahan: After the death of Jahangir. He died on 14th April 1680 at the age of 53 (or 50). Chaul and Bombay. Hugli in Bengal and a major part of Ceylon. a born leader who could throw a spell over all who came in contact with him. The Dutch: With a view to getting direct access to the spice markets in the Southeast Asia. He died there in 1862. Alfonso de Albuquerque came to India in 1503. Shivaji. He died in 1627 while returning to Kashmir. But they lost their authority over the places due to many reasons except Goa. He was an ardent follower of Islam. Like Mohamed Bin Tughluq. Daman. With cunning planning and shrewdness. after imprisoning his father Shahjahan. The inflated taxes and religious intolerance weakened the grip of Mughal Empire. they lost their independence. The Europeans: India had commercial relations with the west from time immemorial. Within three decades of Aurangaseb's death. Jahangir preferred to spend most of his time in Kashmir. Jahangir: Akbar's son Salim succeeded him after his death as Emperor Jahangir. The Marathas The rise of the Maratha power played an important role in the second half of the 17 th century. Since then he raided. In 1674 Shivaji crowned he king at Rajgarh. he always outwitted his enemies and opponents. sacked acquired and annexed many forts and territories. He was a man of culture and wisdom with a sense of fairness. But with the defeat of Ramachandradeva by Ala-ud-din Khalji. Shivaji: Shivaji was the hero of the Maratha national movement. He laid the foundation for Portuguese power in India. Salsette. Levying heavy taxes to fund the military had generated dissatisfaction among the people. Goa. By 7th century AD.Yet Mughal emperors ruled India until 1857. The Maratha power competed with the English for supremacy in India until it was finally crushed in the time of Lord Hastings. The geographical discoveries of the late 15th century produced far-reaching consequences on the trade relations of different countries. San Thome near Madras. Daman and Diu those they held until 1961. he shifted his capital to Aurangabad. In the middle Ages.

They got possession of the last of Portuguese settlements in Ceylon. the French were the last to come to India. It also ended the East India Company rule in India as the British Crown took over. By the middle of 19th century. The British were the ultimate winners in this political manoeuvre In the period between 1740 and 1765. The empire was able to resolve the mutiny in 1859. Thus the British made their presence felt but entirely on commercial terms. In 1765 they concluded a treaty with Bengal where the entire management of administration should be left with a minister who would be nominated by the British and could not be dismissed without their consent. in the battle of Plassey established their supremacy in the east cost. the major part of the subcontinent was under direct British rule while many local rulers were retained as subsidiaries of the British Empire. They conquered Jakarta in 1619 and captured Malacca in 1641. forced changes in the generations old. The European rivalry between the Dutch and the French adversely affected the French in India. The revolt shook up the mighty fabric of the British Empire to its very foundations. India gave a major boost to the Industrial Revolution by being the provider of cheap raw material and capital. Bengal. They have started factories in many places and many commercial treaties were signed with local rulers. In 1673 the French obtained a small village from the Muslim Governor of Valikondapuram and laid the foundation of Pondicherry. The construction of a vast railway network to facilitate transport by the British also brought the peoples of India in easy reach of each other and helped to spread the idea of Indian unity. They gradually lost their influence and abandoned their factories at Surat. it exposed the weakness of British Empire and changed the political outlook in India. By 1757 India became the British Empire achieved by unrestrained and unscrupulous methods employed by the British with the only intention to expand the Empire by any means. The last and most severe was the revolt of 1857 -1859 in which many grief-stricken princely rulers. Mahe on the Malabar Coast in 1725 and Kariakal in 1739. Orissa and the Coromandal coast. They established factories in Gujarat. A major step towards England's commercial prosperity was taken up on 31st December 1600 by giving the monopoly over eastern trades to The East India Company. The Freedom Movement: The rapid expansion of the British Empire and the means employed to annex and expand. landed aristocracy and peasantry rallied against the British The revolt was the out come of changes in political. well-accustomed life style of Indians and resulted in commotion in different parts of the country. They gradually extended their rule over the entire subcontinent either by direct annexation or acting as suzerain for local rulers.6 Portuguese. The English: The completion of Drake's voyage around the world in 1580 and the victory over the Spanish Armada encouraged some English sea captains to undertake voyages to the eastern waters. Their victory over the Nawab of Bengal in 1757. By 1668 the French established their first factory at Surat followed by another at Machilipatnam in 1669. The French: Though the desire for eastern traffic was displayed itself at a very early period. Bihar. the British continued its commercial activities monopolizing on all trades. they occupied Mauritius in 1721. But they confined themselves to Malay Archipelago while the English. As it . They arrived early in the 17th century and established trading posts along the coasts. This left them completely to the mercy of the Company administratively and militarily. Though initially commercial. Even though the revolt was not an organized National Movement or War of Independence. In 1668 Charles II. at an annual rental of ten-Pound Sterling. Unlike former rulers of India. their trade rivals. militarily and commercially. Many minor uprisings were recorded between 1816 and 1855. Later with turn of tide. socio economical. India was a large captive market for British Industry. who got it from the Portuguese as part of the dowry of his wife Catherine of Braganza. Machilipatnam and Bantam. They allied with the local rulers for consolidating their positions in India. concentrated in India. religious and military. This practically kept the control of Administration in their hands while the Nawab remained merely a figurehead. they steadily increased their influence politically. they developed territorial and political ambitions and manipulated local rivalries and enmities to their advantages. The British Raj: The rivalries developed among the European countries influenced the policies of their counter parts in India. Commercial interest drew Dutch to India as well. transferred Bombay to the company. They engaged the French in battles and ultimately defeated them.

as he was on his way to his evening prayer meeting. partitioning of the country was inevitable to achieve freedom. fasting and meditation and advocated non-violence. creed. Back in India. But Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. the most charismatic leader of the century. His 'swaraj' movement advocated the boycott of British goods and revival of cottage industries. In 1893 he went to South Africa on a job assignment. mobilized the people into an invincible force against the British in the freedom struggle. millions of people were forced to move to and from India and Pakistan and communal riots erupted. The Indian Constitution adopted safeguards to protect its entire people from all forms of discrimination on grounds of caste. On January 30. Modern India: India achieved independence on August 15. Mahatma Gandhi: Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born in Porbander on October 2. An unpopular attempt to partition Bengal in 1905 resulted in mass demonstrations against it. They set up an educational system to serve the purpose. Mahatma formerly resigned from politics being replaced as leader of Indian National Congress by Jawaharlal Nehru. India became a Republic on 26th January 1950. But it also helped the Indians to familiarize with the intellectual and social values of the West. Mahatma Gandhi was the most remarkable and charismatic leader of the 20th century. resulted in a massacre of Indians in Amritsar by British soldiers. Ideas of democracy. Mahatma pleaded to the people to live in communal harmony and fasted till the riots ceded. The leadership of freedom movement was passed on to this class and Indian National Congress was formed in 1885. In 1935 British granted India limited home rule. government agencies schools etc. religion. or sex. perhaps in history. A demonstration against Rowlett Acts. In 1939 Gandhi again returned to active politics because of the pending Federation of Indian principalities with the rest of India. The British Government had agreed to independence and initiated a number of constitutional moves to affect the transfer of power. People boycotted public offices. In 1931 he ceased the campaign after British heeded to his demands. After his release in 1924. the right to assemble peacefully. the British engaged the local elite to help them. It guarantees to all its Citizens freedom of speech and expression. After completing his contract in South Africa. He was jailed many times and in 1914 he was able to achieve many concessions from South African Government. Opposition to British rule began to increase at the turn of the century. Gandhi proclaimed an organized campaign of non co-operation. Gandhi became a leader in the struggle for home rule. Educated in London. Gandhi struggled for the elementary rights for Indians. But he was again drawn in the main stream of freedom movement. And people called him 'Mahatma'. In 1922 he was again arrested and imprisoned. After the partition. Gandhi returned to India. 1948. During the 20 years he was in South Africa. In 1934. In 1921 Indian National congress gave Gandhi complete executive authority including the power to nominate his successor. India also remained within the British Commonwealth Nations. a Hindu fanatic. he returned to India to practice law. In 1930 Gandhi proclaimed a new campaign calling on the Indian masses to refuse to pay tax for salt. By 1944 the Indian struggle for independence reached its final stages. In the campaign he marched to the sea with thousands of followers and made salt by evaporating seawater in defiance to the British.7 was impossible for a few foreigners to administer a vast country like India. Launching of the Swedeshi Movement brought the freedom movement to the common man by leaders like Bala Gangadhar Tilak and Aurabindo Ghose. He preached passive resistance. Gandhi withdrew from active politics and concentrated on communal unity. Bankim Chandra and Vidyasagar. During his campaigns he fasted for long periods several times and fast was an effective measure against the British. When the British Government failed to amend the act. individual freedom and equality gained momentum among Indian thinkers like Raja Ram Mohan Roy. Gandhi became the international symbol of free India. Mahatma was against partitioning the country but he ultimately has to agree. He lived a spiritual and ascetic life of prayers. He traveled throughout India preaching 'Ahimsa'. Nathuram Gods assassinated him. 1947 and adopted the system of parliamentary democracy. He launched his movement of passive resistance against the British gaining millions of followers. which gave sweeping powers to the colonial authorities. The Indian National Congress began to push for a measure of participation in the Government of the country. 1869. freedom of conscience and . Because of various developments. race.

is the head of the State Government. But one-third of the members will retire on expiration of every second year. linguistic and artistic fields. Both the Houses should meet at least twice in every year. The Chief Minister. . The Lok Sabha elects its own Speaker and Deputy Speaker The Rajya Sabha has 238 representatives of states who are elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of each State. ignore or reject all attempts to radically change or destroy them. subject to general consideration of public security and morality. Today: Since Independence India made considerable progress in agricultural productions and industrialization. science etc. Rajya Sabhs and the Legislative Assemblies. Indian culture is unique because of its diversity and variety in physical. the cave paintings of Ajantha and Ellora using earth and vegetable dyes (I-V Century AD). Members are elected directly by the people through the universal adult franchise. The President appoints other ministers on the advice of the Prime Minster. Indian Parliament consists of two houses. The Neolithic man's drawings on the walls of his cave dwellings represent the oldest examples of Indian painting. The President appoints the Prime Minister. racial. An independent Judiciary is the guardian and interpreter of the Constitution. religious. Supreme Court is the highest tribunal in the country while High Courts are for the States. the Houses of people known as the Lok Sabha and the Council of States known as Rajya Sabha. But if the Bill is passed again by both Houses the President cannot withhold his accent. Service executives are selected on merit by annual entrance examinations those are open to all. There is a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to aid and advice the President. India is now one of the top 10 industrial powers in the world. The Governor appoints other Ministers on Chief Minister's recommendation. from the pre-historic age. wall paintings in the temple of Tanjavoor (I Century AD) and the Kalankari art forms in the Vidharba temple present the refinement in techniques and process. Legislative Assembly: Members to the State Legislative Assembly or Vidhan Sabha are also chose by universal adult franchise. Under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. computer science and many other scientific and industrial fields. Twelve members are nominated by the President on the ground of having special knowledge in literature. Very few countries in the world has a social and religious structure which withstood invasions and persecution and yet kept its identity by being resilient enough to absorb. Every legalization requires the approval of both Houses. In India religion is a way of life being an integral part of Indian tradition. Many dances. The Rajya Sabha is not subjected to dissolution. India's cultural heritage dates back to 5000 years. Normally the Prime Minister will be the leader of the majority Party in the Lok Sabha. He can withhold his assent and return the bill with his suggestions. The Governor heads the State Assembly and is appointed by the President. the country followed a policy of non-alignment. The Lok Sabha unless dissolved will continue for five years. Union: The President is the Head of State who is elected for five years by the members of an Electoral College consisting of the elected members of Lok Sabha. Unsociability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. India made long strides in development of space technology. The President's assent is required before a Bill becomes law.8 worship. There is also a Vice-President elected for five years by the members of Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. Elections are conducted under the supervision of the Election Commission. Paintings on pots discovered from the Harappan Civilization (3000 BC). Vice-President is the ex-officio chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Painting: Painting flourished as an art form. the leader of the majority party. One has to have background knowledge of Indian mythology to enjoy and appreciate the Indian Arts. an autonomous body. The Civil Services execute Government policies fairly and freely. Lok Sabha has 543 elected members representing the whole country. theatrics and folklore are religious and based on Indian mythology and folk legends.

Apart from classical dances. a great comprehensive work on the science and technique of Indian drama. A suitable dance form usually accompanies festival and religious songs. Dance is performed with Abhinaya (expression). sorrow. 'Panchathantra' (five strategies) is a book of edifying tales. yet easily understood. in Sanskrit. Popular musical instruments such as Sitar. folklore and nature. disgust. Basically there are two dominant styles of music in India. an incarnation of Lord 'Vishnu' was composed in 24000 verses. the fifth Veda on Natya (action) as a mode of recreation for all class of the society by incorporating words from Rig Veda. 'Vishnu Sharma' (100-500 AD) wrote it and its contents did had an influence on the West Asia and medieval Europe. With the help of tale and shrutis the musician can create numerous variations in feelings. by Sage 'Valmiki' around 4th century BC. There are a number of classical dance forms such as 'Bharatnatyam'. 'Kathakali'. Mahabharatha is a glorious work of high literary and philosophical value. dancing and dramatic representation has an intimate relationship. Sage Bharata who perfected the dramatic art and wrote Natya Shastra. hands and facial movements) and Natya (the dramatic element).9 Indian art is an art of social. work songs. fear. marriage songs etc. which follows ragas. According to Natya Shastra. Theatre: Indian tradition of theatre is rich and evolved with the ancient rituals and seasons of the country. and Mythology. It is believed that Lord Brahma created Natyaveda. Tabala. . legends. There are many kinds of folklore depending on its content such as festival songs. 'Manipuri'. music from Sama Veda. 'Kuchipudi'. Drama gradually moved from defecting mythological themes to social issues of today. India is also rich in folk idioms. painting is also revolving around gods. composed it. a great work of literature. common man was presented with the Ithihasas. tales and shrutis. Indian dance is a blend of Nirtta (the rythemic movement of the body without any expression of emotion). an epic and a legend believed to have been written around 4th century BC. is the most sacred and holy of all books written in Sanskrit next only to 'Bhagvat Gita'. which changed with evolving civilizations in all areas of artistic expressions. It is a poem. action from Yajur Veda and emotion from Adharva Veda. many features and underlying philosophy are the same. courage. 'Kathak'. compassion. anger. Garba of Gujarat. All Dances are structured around 'nava rasas’ (the common emotions of happiness. Like any other art form. Ramayana. Cinema and serials on the mini screen are nothing but offshoots of this age-old culture. to be applied to tackle a situation. The story of 'Rama'. MUSIC: As in dance. often referred as the Homer of India. It had integrated indigenous and outside influences but kept a unique identity of its own. Folk songs are simple in terms of verses and music unlike the classical music. Most Indian dances take their themes from Indian mythology and folk legends. Puranas. dance and music enacted the first drama to the audience of 'Devas'. Literature: The first known written work of Indian literature is the 'Ramayana'. rasa (emotion) and mudras (hand formations). It contains five books each teaching a strategy. 'Mahabharatha' is the largest literary work in the world. wonder and serenity) with limited adaptation to local requirements. Nirtya (the combination of rhythm with expression through eyes. Dance has played an important role in the birth of theatre. It consists of 100. Veena. It was essentially oral in nature and there is no form or technique that can either create or render folklore. through fairy tales. FOLKLORE: No ancient civilization can boast of literature without folklore. political and religious influences. It is one of the oldest and resilient cultures on earth. The expressions of dances are perhaps most developed. and Shehnai etc are the contribution of India to the world. the South Indian Carnatic music and the North Indian Hindustani music. Chauu dance of Bihar. The 'raga' the basic musical mode is rendering the seven musical notes. Elders passed on this art form orally to the younger generations. 'Tale' binds the music altogether. the nine emotions are basic to the Indian music. Through the styles are distinct. Foreign influences due to invasions are more evident in Hindustani music. Bangra of Punjab and Banjara of Andra Pradesh are a few of them. Inventions of various musical instruments are attributed to the gods and goddesses. Through the medium of drama. 'Mohiniyattam' and 'Odissi' each representing the culture of a particular region of the country. Dance: Indian dancing is a way of communication using the body as a medium.000 verses and Sage 'Vyasa'.

for the year 1997. K. a 5 . Every Indian language has its share of enrichment in Indian literature. kurmas. Shashi Tharoor is another writer who won the Commonwealth Writers Prize. 'Gitanjali'. Cuisine: Indian cuisine is diversified in its varieties similar to its cultures. together and added to enhance the basic flavor of a particular dish. Amitav Gosh has won the Prix Medici Estranger. II century AD). Vegetable dishes are prepared based on the main dish with which they are served. Kamala Das (poetry). and the Sahitya Academy Award. But men at the villages are still fond of more comfortable and traditional dresses like 'kurtas'. Women in Rajastan wear traditional colorful and glass embedded cholis with a form of pleated skirts known as 'lehanga'. 'Meghadootham'. 'Bana Bhatta' (Autobiographical elements. Rice is served with vegetable curries. Many of these spices are noted for their medicinal values and are also used as appetizers and digestive. Thousands of variations of dishes are prepared in the different parts of the country everyday. As India has a very long coastal area. Arundhathi Roy won the Booker Prize for her first novel. Meat dishes are more common in North India while more vegetables are eaten in the South. biriyanis. many Hindus eat meat now. Narayan (fiction). vegetable side dishes and curd. 'dothis' and pyjamas. 'Kalidasa' (4 th century AD) had enriched Indian literature with his works of 'Abhijnanasakuntalam'. Women folk in India wear 'sari'. Kushwant Singh (fiction) and A. Spices are always freshly ground to the required combination called Massalas. The sari was in India from time immemorial and is considered as the national dress of Indian woman. silk or one of the numerous manmade synthetic yarns. Like in any other country. dishes prepared with fish are also popular. They cover their head with a long cotton cloth called 'duppatta'. milk flour and ghee. a top French literary award. 'Raghuvamsam' and 'Kumarasambhavam'. Generally the men wore more conventional western cloths like shirts and trousers.10 One of the greatest poets of all times. The essence of Indian cooking lies in the aroma of the spices. . VI century). 'Vishaka Datta' (Political plays. The main ingredients of the sweets and deserts are sugar. which are blended. The style. 'Kameez' is a loose tunic worn over salwar. the fashion revolves around the women whose attire is colorful and distinctive in styles. Dress: The colorful and diversified clothing of Indians from the different parts of the country shall be very much attractive to a foreign traveler in India. 'Salwars' are pyjamas tight at the waist and angles. chapattis or Nan. Chili fits tight to the body. Rice is the staple food of the South while in the North it is supplemented or substituted by pooris. ghee and curd are other two main ingredients in Indian cooking.6 meter long rectangular piece of cloth. When worn with proper style and color combination. K. Mughlai foods comprising of kababs. Mulk Raj Anand (social realism). thighs and angles. races and regions. The earliest literary works were revolving mainly around mythology and religion but gradually started to deal directly with social. The ingredients for the masala vary from region to region. Vikram Seth who won the Commonwealth Writer's prize. Great works are created in every field and to mention them and their authors will be exhaustive. color and texture of the cloth vary and saris are made from cotton. India has produced a number of literary marvels in English as well. rogan josh. VII century) and 'Kalhana' (History. The God of small things. Even though India is known for the Hindu vegetarian tradition. All of his works is still a model for 'Mahakavyas'. Raja Rao received the prestigious Nested International Prize for literature. A 'churidar' is similar to salwar except that it is tighter fitting at hips. 'lungis'. tandoori chicken. The Muslim tradition is more evident in the cooking of meats. XI century) those are only a few who contributed to the development of Indian literature. Dhal(lentil soup) and Dhai (curd) are common throughout India. 'Salwar kamees' which evolved as a comfortable and respectable garment for the women in Kashmir and Punjab is now immensely popular throughout the country. There were many writers like 'Aswa Gosha' (Budhacharitha. published the first Indian English novel in verse (Golden Gate). the dress is amazingly attractive and fashionable. political and economical themes. 'Rabindranath Tagore' won Nobel Prize for his collection of popular poems. Ramanujan (poetry) are only a few of the other literary giants in English. tandoori rotis etc are contribution of Muslims. Verities of sweets representing the style and taste of different regions are available in India. koftas. Sari is worn with 'chili' (short tight blouse). Besides spices. R.

'Upanishads'. legends and heroes. goddesses and other forms of worship. They are short. who are tall. 'Holi'. They are generally referred as Aryans or Indo-Aryans. The mystics of Islam.D. The 'Vedas'. Christianity. and feasting. Buddhism. Shiva destroys all evil and looks after devotees. an offshoot of Hinduism originated in the 5th century. 'Pongal'. They are beardless and yellow in color with snubbed noses. Like other religions. The third class is the primitive tribes living in hills and jungles believed to be the successors of the Negritude races from the Neolithic age. Now over 12% of the population practices Islam. has about 5 million followers in India. Buddhism preached non-violence to all living creatures. originated in India and has the largest followers. healthy and tolerant. Muslim Invaders in the 12th century and Mughals in the 16th and 17th centuries helped Islam to spread in India. helped to spread the message of peace and universal love. dance. Majority of the higher class Hindus belong to this class. Unlike Buddhism. Arab traders brought Islam into India. Enid Milan. the Sufi Saints. Buddhism was founded in about 500 BC. Unlike other faiths. The popular Hindu festivals are 'Deepavali'. The principles of Buddhism won wide acceptance owing to its simplicity and adaptation of sermons to local languages. 'Ganesh Chathurthi'. the only religion that is so diversified in its theoretical premises and practical expressions. an integral part of one's day to day activities. the trinity of 'Brahma' (the Creator). Thomas when he landed in Southern India. PEOPLE: The people of India are very friendly and hospitable. Jainism and Sikhism. flat faces and prominent cheekbones. They mostly live on the Himalayan regions and the mountains of Assam. Jainism. There are festivals and ceremonies associated with gods. The people are hard working. But the fundamental to Hinduism is the concept of trinity. influencing every aspect of life.11 The dress style has many variations depending on the regions and religions. dark skinned and snub nosed. Their languages are different from the first two classes. perhaps. Each religion even has its own pilgrimage sites. In India religion is a way of life. 'Vishnu' (the Preserver) and 'Shiva' (the Destroyer). Sikhism and many other religions. Milad-e-Sherif etc. are celebrated Muslim festivals in India. Buddhism: Buddhism. The class of peoples. fair skinned and long nosed that speaks languages derived from Sanskrit. 'Janamastami'. The peoples of India can be grouped into four broad classes. tolerance and self-discipline. Hinduism.the God Almighty. And the fourth class of peoples has strong Mongolian features. Islam arrived in India with Muslim traders and later with Muslim invaders and Mughuls. There are numerous gods and goddesses worshiped by Hindus all over India. Common practices through ages had influenced most faiths and all communities share many festivals that mark each year with music. Islam: In the eighth century A. Islam. The peoples living in the Southern part of the peninsula whose features are somewhat different from those of the first group and speak languages not originated from Sanskrit and generally known as the Dravidians form the second class. It professed universal brotherhood and submission only to 'Allah' . It will not take long before you find yourself in conversation with them. and 'Shiv Rathri'. one cannot trace this religion to a specific founder or a particular holy book as its scriptural guide. Janis. The Sikhs are another religion originated in India and there are over 18 million Sikhs predominantly in Punjab. HINDUISM: Hinduism is.the concept. another religion originated in India. one of the world's oldest faiths. Today there are 30 million Christians in India. customs and religious practices of Islam are unique. These peoples are also regarded as the dissidents of the Mongoloids from Neolithic Age RELIGIONS: India is a secular democracy and is the home to Hinduism. It is evident on the apparels worn by the Indians. The fact that many Indians speak English will makes it easy to communicate. 'Dussehra'. Brahma is the creator of life and the universe. one may worship one or other deity or believe in the 'supreme spirit' and yet can be a good Hindu. Buddha's . Vishnu guides the cycle of life and protects the world. those emerged from Hinduism . and the 'Bhagvath Gita' can all be described as the sacred text of Hindus. Christianity was brought to India by the apostle ST.

The South Indian languages. On Baisakhi day of 1699 at Ananthpur. Bengali. denounces caste system and believes in equality of all. which are distinctly different from the Indic languages and include Tamil. single horned Indian rhino. Thomas. But English is widely spoken and used. 200 plus species of birds and about 30. Kashmiri. are known as the Dravidian group. the Royal Bengal Tiger. Marathi. Indian wild life comprises of the Asian elephant. the Deccan plateau of volcanic ancestry. to the world as Agra the city of Taj Mahal. dating back to the time of Mahabaratha. Much of the modern influences in the Indian society can be attributed to Christianity. Tamil. Sindhi. Malayalam. Agra is situated on the west bank of River Yamuna. Francis Xavier in 1544 followed by many missionaries from different countries. Guru Govind created a new brotherhood called Khalsa (Pure Ones). Indian languages have different origins. Even though there are 1600 dialects in India. Sikhism: Guru Nanak founded the Sikh religion in the 16 th century. Telugu and Urdu. the main languages beside Hindi and English are Assamese.” Known. Hindi is the official language of India. Law protects much of the fauna. The languages evolved from the Indo-European group of languages are known as Indic languages. Gujarat. It focuses on the purification of the souls by right conduct. Bartholomew who was the first Christian missionary to arrive in India. The faith also advocates non-violence. monkeys and wild goats. Kannada. Punjabi etc belong to this group. Jainism: Jainism was a contemporary faith of Buddhism. He spent his entire life preaching his gospel of universal tolerances based on all that was good in Hinduism and Islam. However. the only lions outside Africa. Sanskrit. lizards and crocodiles. The Himalayan foothills are dense with deciduous trees and shrubs. Agra has its roots. India had setup 66 National Parks. Telugu etc. The tropical forests in east are in contrast to the pine and coniferous woodland of the western Himalayas. massive gate. Malayalam. Gujarat. . Christianity: It is believed that Christianity reached India when St. Mahavira preached the Jain philosophy around same time of Buddhism. Punjabi. history indicates that Christian missionary activities started with St. fern and grass. AGRA Agra: “We have been walking up a long wide avenue with arcades of shops on either side and tide of wall people in between. and the dense luxuriant forests of the Western Ghats all provide fascinating variations in habitats. The influence of the faith decreased gradually and at present there are about 7 million followers in India. right faith and right knowledge. India Flora & Fauna: India has a very rich flora and fauna . Guru Nanak exhorted his followers to discard hypocrisy. perhaps. Christian missionaries helped to build schools and colleges all over India and spread the message of faith and goodwill in the country.000 species of insects.” “ Never before have I been so overwhelmed by the sheer beauty of a structure as to get goose bumps just looking at it. 333 wild life Sanctuaries and 35 zoological gardens in the country. he was an advocate of pure monotheistic doctrine of the Upanishads. bamboos. In addition to the above. Jainism rose against the undesirable practices prevalent in Hinduism at that time. It preaches for the renunciation of worldly desires and self-conquest to perfect wisdom. Birds range from the colorful peacocks and parrots to large stock of migrant water birds. selfishness and falsehood. Oriya. Today Jainism has a following of more than 3 million in India. Others believe that it was St. The genetic plain. Next we passed through and ancient. Marathi. from scrubs to deciduous forests and thick tropical jungles to cool temperate woods. Languages: India's original 14 states were formed mainly on language barriers. large variety of deer. Born as a Hindu. Sikhism advocates monotheism. 204 km south of Delhi. While advocating a middle path. The reptile population includes a wide range of snakes. To protect wild life. one of the apostles of Jesus Christ arrived and spent a few years in South India. It is estimated that there are over 500 species of mammals. the wild buffalo (Indian Bison) many leopards and smaller cat species. there are hundreds of species of fish and reptiles. Indian flora has a great range of varieties from the coniferous to the ever green. and suddenly it was there before us – The Taj mahal – to me the most beautiful and romantic building in the whole world.12 teachings enlightened millions of people in the Far East and the South East Asia.

Shatabdi Express. most of the palaces and buildings inside Agra Fort and the Taj Mahal. Taxis and autorikshas are available in large numbers at the airport. Babar and Humayun started building the present Agra. The modern township is on the south. The city rose to its magnificence during the reign of Mughuls. Many reasonably priced and clean tourist restaurants are available in Taj Ganj and Sadar. 400) to the most luxurious (Rs.5km long and 20 ft. By Rail: Agra's railway station is Agra Cantonment. Emperor Shahjahan made many additions to it. Sikander Lodi made Agra his capital in 1501. Jaipur. Most of the buses leave Agra from here. Continental. The star hotels are on the open south side of Taj. The throne room with the inlaid carvings and panels of marble with floral motifs indicate a distinct Shajahan style. History In 1475 Raja Singh Badal laid foundation for the city of Agra. In this tower Shahjahan spent his last seven years as a prisoner until he died in 1666. in 1648. Delhi. Express and air-conditioned bus services are available from Delhi. Other Mail and Express trains are also available from other states. For those who are looking for class. Agra has a magnificent fort and many other monuments from the Mughul era. This marble mosque is one of the stunningly beautiful mosques in India. 22. Moti Masjid: Shahjahan built the Moti masjid (Pearl Mosque) between 1646 and 1653. Most of the cheaper hotels are in the crowded part of Taj Ganj and Sadar.13 The old part of the town. Buses are less expensive in comparison with train and air services. Jehangir's Palace: Akbar built this palace for his favorite son Jehangir. Rest houses and catering facilities are available enroute of journey. This is the largest private residence in the fort. All hotels and restaurants are within 10km from airport or railway station. which are major attractions to the tourists. The British merged Agra and Avadh to form United Province. is where the main market place is. Indian. Taj Express and Inter-city Express from Delhi take 2-3 hours to reach Agra. The 'Kheria' airport is only 6km away from the city center. north of the fort. Places of interest inside the fort are: Diwan-I-Am: Shahjahan built this public audience hall in 1628 where the Emperor heard the petitions of the public. There are tourist bungalows and private accommodations available at reasonable rates. The palace has a blend of Hindu and central Asian architectural styles. Many National Highways connect Agra to all major Indian cities. In1761 Agra fell to Jats who did much of the damages to the city. By Road: 'Idgah' is the main bus terminal in Agra. Akbar shifted his capital to Agra in 1599 and ruled India from there till his death in 1605. Other important places to see inside the fort are: Hammam-i-Shahi (Royal Bath) Nagina Masjid (Gem Mosque) . Lucknow. City Tour: Agra Fort: Emperor Akbar built the fort in 1565 AD as a military establishment. restaurants of the star hotels are always there. Diwan-I-Khas: Shahjahan built this hall of private audience where he received head of states and other important dignitaries. How to Reach Agra is connected to Delhi and neighboring cities by air. There are excellent train services from New Delhi. rail and road. It was the capital of Mughul Empire until the capital was shifted to Red Fort. The Marathas came in 1770 and Agra went through several changes before British took over in 1903. Musamman Burj: Also known as Saman Burj. during 16th -17th century. this octagonal two-storied tower was also built by Shahjahan for his queen Mumtaz Mahal. By Air: It is only 30 minutes' hop from Delhi. Amar Singh gate towards the south is the only entrance to the fort and many buildings inside the fort are closed to public. The fort wall is 2.75-300) and standard (Rs. Mughulai and Chinese dishes are served in many of them.000). In the post independent India the united province was re-named Uttar Pradesh. Though Akbar built the fort. high surrounded by a 10m wide moat. The famous peacock throne was kept in this hall before being moved to Delhi by Aurangazeb. even going so far as to plunder Taj. Agra reached its zenith of prosperity during the reign of Shahjahan who built Jama masjid. Hotels & Restaurants Hotels and restaurants to cater everyone's budget and taste are available in Agra ranging from the cheapest (Rs.600-2. Gwalior and Jhansi. not to mention the Taj Mahal.

Diwan-I-Am. This structure has perfect blending of Hindu. This striking marble structure is very similar to the tomb of Jehangir she built near Lahore. It is spread over 40 sq. Itmad-ud-Daula: Empress Noor Jahan built this mausoleum in memory of her father Mirza Giazud-din Beg who was the chief minister of Emperor Jehangir. Bharatpur is known as one of the finest water bird sanctuaries in the world. completed it.000 people inhabit this deserted capital. Muslim. Mathura: Mathura on the banks of River Yamuna is the birthplace of Lord Krishna. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary:(Keoladeo Ghana National Park) 57km from Agra. Experts were brought in even from Europe. This place has a row of beautiful arches and doorways those make it a photographer's delight. terracotta images. coins and bronze objects those date back between 5th century BC and 12th century AD are worth probing through. But he was forced to abandon the capital because of water shortage and he shifted the capital to Lahore for a brief period. Mathura has been a sacred pilgrimage censure for many centuries. the sandstone domes has striking marble patterns. Situated on the opposite bank of River Yamuna. Fatehpur Sikri mosque was said to be built in lines of the holy mosque in Mecca. a poet and a high ranking officer in the court of Shahjahan. Any visitor to Agra must have a go at Fatehpur Sikri. Panch mahal. A total of 20. this was the first Mughal structure built totally from marble with extensive use of pietra dura. are the other places of interest to see in Fatehpur Sikri. Ram Bagh: Emperor Babur laid out this earliest Mughal Gardens in 1526AD. Entrance to the mosque is through the Buland Darwaza that is 54m high. the city is well preserved as it was built. The Taj in the moonlight is the most bewitching experience. The major attraction is the migrating Siberian Cranes in the winter months. It is believed that Babur was temporarily buried here before laid to rest at Kabul in Afghanistan. The garden is located about 4km north of Itimad-ud-Daula.000 people worked on this glorious monument. Perhaps this was the forerunner of the Taj Mahal. Now about 30. this bird sanctuary is situated on the Delhi-Jaipur Highway.km of swampy and light wooded terrain. Buddhist and Jain motifs. But its close-up is even better. Fatehpur Sikri: 37km from the city of Agra is this ghost city that was once the capital of Mughal India. Designed by Persian architect Ustad Isa. Though there are no minarets. this square tomb surmounted by a single huge dome is the mausoleum of Afzal Khan. Diwan-I-Khas etc.14 Zanana Meena Bazar (Ladie’s Market for Mughul ladies) Khas Mahal (Emperor's sleeping chamber) Sheesh Mahal (Mirror Palace) Shahjahani Mahal (Shahjahan's Palace) Akbari Mahal (Akbar's Palace) The Taj Mahal: Emperor Shahjahan built Taj Mahal as the final resting-place for his beloved Queen Mumtaz Mahal. An inscription over the main gate indicates that the mosque was built in the name of Jahanara. Thanks to the archeological department of India. an incarnation of Lord Vishnu. Travel Information . the Sufi saint who blessed Akbar to have a male offspring. To the north of the mosque is the mausoleum of Saleem Chtisti. his son. Jahangir modified the structure that contributed to the distortion of the original architectural design. Christian. The exterior of the tomb is covered with brightly colored enameled tiles. The Taj is amazingly graceful from any angle. Jama Masjid: Shahjahan built this mosque in 1648. Akbar built the city between 1571 and 1585. The city is a fine example of culmination of Mughal and Hindu architecture. the daughter of Shahjahan who was imprisoned by Aurangazeb with Shahjahan. Sikendra: Akbar the great. the greatest of all Mughal emperors is laid to rest in the midst of a large garden about 10km away from Agra. The government museum with a vast collection of superb sculptures. Accommodation is available at the forest lodge within the sanctuary or at several hotels and motels. the magnificent memorial of pure white marble took 22 years to complete. Chini ka Rauza: Situated about one km north of Itimad-ud-Daula. Akbar started building his Mausoleum and Jahangir.

Agra is also popular for its Id Melas and the colourful Tazias taken out on Muharram. Constructed mainly of wood. Any tourist can start his tour from Bangalore with its ancient forts. Booking offices of all international airlines are located in Bangalore. and Lalbagh express connect Bangalore to Chennai. temples. To this day these areas bear their old names such as Chickpet (little town). gardens and shopping. The presence of many parks and botanical gardens gave the name of ' Garden city ' to Bangalore. which lent their names to different areas inside the fort. How to Reach: Bangalore is accessible by air. Inside the fortress walls. But . All important tourist attraction in Karnataka can be reached with in a day's journey from Bangalore. The City Railway Station is the main terminal in Bangalore. History The modern city of Bangalore ('Bengaluru') was founded by Kempe Gowda. But ancient inscriptions pointing to the existence of a village called 'Bengaluru' prior to the 10th century AD. and Kochi etc. BANGALORE Bangalore: the fifth largest city in India is the capital of Karnataka. its intricately sculptured arches and minarets are worth perusing. The Main bus terminal in the city is opposite City Railway Station. The Taj Mahotsav festival is held in Shilpgram about 1km from the eastern gate of taj.15 Festivals: Agra celebrates Muslim festivals such as Eid-ul-Fitr. The Fort: Kempe Gowda built the original mud structure in 1537. The airport is 6km from the city center. Bombay. the Vijayanagar Chieftain of Yelahanga. is also popularly celebrated here. Delhi. Hotels to cater everybody’s taste and vim’s are available. Lal Bagh has rare collection of tropical and sub-tropical trees. plants and herbs to quench the thirst of search for scenic beauty by both layman and horticulturist. In 1687 the Moghuls captured Bangalore from the Sultan of Bijapur and gave it on lease and later sold to King Chikkadevaraya Wodiyar of Mysore. It was the stronghold of Hyderali and Tipu Sultan. It is held in an open-air emporium. Halipet (cotton market) etc. Bridavan. has an expanding list of hotels ranging from the exclusive to the very ordinary. It was the strong hold of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan and witnessed several fierce battles. In 1761 Hyder Ali rebuilt the fort in stone. Hyder Ali was the force behind laying out the park in 17 th century. rail and road from every important city and other states in India. Diwali. In 1761 Hyderali rebuilt the fort with stone. Mysore State was acceded to the Indian Union in 1947 with Bangalore as its capital. Dodda pet (big town). the city grew into a commercial haven divided into localities ('Pet') where individual trades dominated each area. In 1973 Mysore State was renamed Karnataka. Tipu Sultan used it as his summer residence and named it Tashk-e-Jannat meaning the envy of heaven. The 19th century saw Bangalore growing into an administrative center and a prime residential area. Hyderabad. Lal Bagh Spread over 240 acres of flowering glory. It is one of several beautiful palaces they built all over the state. By Road: Major National Highways connects Bangalore to Chennai and Mumbai Other cities and towns of the state and neighboring states are also connected by road. the festival of light. Panaji. a fine example of 18th century Indian military architecture. The festival is held in February. The walls and ceilings are covered with paintings though faded through the centuries. Kempe Gowda built a mud fort in his city with 8 gates. over 400years ago. Tipu's Summer Palace: The construction of the palace began by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan completed it in 1791. The festival features live performance of music and dance in various styles by popular artists. Eid-ul-Adha and Muharrum with congregational prayers. Chennai. Many restaurants and fast food chains are also available in different cadre. Several super fast trains such as Shatabhi. Hotels: Bangalore being an important tourist and growing business center. Taragupet (grain market). By Rail: Bangalore is connected to all major Indian cities by rail. In 1807 the British shifted their cantonment from Srirangapatnam to Bangalore. the fort measures 730m (N-S) by 550m(E-W). Built in an oval shape. By Air: Regular flights operate from Bangalore to Calcutta. Other national festivals are also celebrated in Agra like any other region of the country. Trivandrum. Kempe Gowda also built several temples including Gavi Gangeswara Temple at Gavipuram and the Bull temple at Basavanagudi.

is in the Old Poor House Road.000 sq. is situated in Basavanagudi. a rare phenomenon. It is the only grand Gothic style basilica in the state. On Makara Sankranti day. Gandhi Bhavan gives an introduction to the Gandhian way of life through books. geology. earlier known as Sangian Jamia Masjid. Photostat copies of his letters displayed. lotus pools and fountains. Gangadhareswara Cave Temple: Situated in Gavipuram and dedicated to Lord Shiva. The rock is situated adjacent to Lal Bagh. The paintings have retained their colour in spite of their age. Bangalore Palace resembles the Windsor castle. In 1840. 'damara'.a unique feature. books and lectures. Constructed in 1887 in lines of Medieval Castles of England and Normandy. It is believed that the source of the river Vishwa Bharathi originates from the feet of the Nandi. France and Persia. to several personalities are interesting to read. Attara Kacheri literally meaning 'Eighteen Courts'. through window. Mary's Basilica It is believed that Abbe Dubois. A lush grassy expanse with flowerbeds. a French missionary built the church in 1882. Cubbon Park: In 1864 Sir Richard Shankey. . Lal Bagh is artistically landscaped with expansive lush lawns. The park was named after the longest serving Commissioner of Bangalore . The mosque stands high with its raised prayer hall adorned with granite pillars. Some of the displays date back over 500. this is one of India's most magnificent public buildings. between the hones of the Nandi to finally touch the 'Sivalinga' between 5. Vidhan Soudha: The granite building towering over Cubbon park houses the Secretariat and the Legislative Assembly. Built in a Neo-Dravidian style. Bull temple: The temple built by Kempe Gowda. The life of Gandhi is displayed in photographs. sculpture and numismatics. flowerbeds. symposia. today houses the High Court and several lower courts of Karnataka. Bugle Rock: The name came to the rock because of Kempe Gowda's watchtower that stands on it used to warn the people of the city to the advent of intruders by a bugle call. Attara Kacheri: A two-storied building of brick and stone painted in red. A 'Killedar' built the mosque during the Mughal conquest of the south. The church is situated in Russell Market Square and has stained glass windows from Paris. Cubbon Park is a haven for thousands of strollers and breeze seekers. Venkataramanaswamy Temple: Maharaja Chikka Devaraya Wodiyar built this 300 years old temple. shady bowers and flowering trees. Chitrakala Parishat: It is a treasure house of Karnataka's classical art and has a collection of rare traditional paintings and thousands of leather puppets those are used mainly in folklore. Attara Kacheri was built in 1867 to house the secretariat. the remarkable feature of the temple is the set of four monolithic pillars bearing the Saivite emblem of 'trisul'.00PM and 6. St. laid out the Cubbon Park. the museum houses sections on natural history. art. On Sunday evenings when floodlit.00PM . Lal Bagh had a magnificent glass house built in line of London's Crystal Palace. the rays of the setting sun glide under a stone arch. which displays some fine aspects of Dravidian temple art. is 3000 million years old and had attracted world geological interests. January and August are the best time to visit to see the garden bursting with full bloom. a typical example of the Dravidian-style temple. The huge rock.Sir Mark Cubbon. The temple has a huge monolithic bull 4. the god of fire. old South Indian jeweler and the exhibits associated with Tipu Sultan's unceasing fight against the British. ft spread through four stories. It has an impressive tower and typically Gothic pointed arches. Bangalore Palace: Set in the middle of the greenery of a sprawling garden is the Maharaja's Bangalore Palace.16 Tipu Sultan was responsible for enriching the vast collection by importing several specimens from Afghanistan. The building has a total plinth area of over 500. Government Museum: An 1877 building with splendid Corinthian columns. 'suryapana' and 'chandrapana'. the chief engineer of Mysore.years to early Indian civilization of Mohenjedaro. The temple is situated near the palace of Tipu Sultan. Gandhi Bhavan: Situated in Kumara Kripa Road. it presents a breathtaking picture. The museum has rare finds from Neolithic period. Jumma Masjid: This oldest mosque in the city.5m tall and 6m long. The temple has a rare idol of 'Agni'.

Extended over an area of 125 acres. as the city of silks. It is one of the largest monolithic statutes in the world. George Town grew in the area of fort and neighboring villages ultimately becoming the oldest Municipality of India in 1668. a deer pen and a prehistoric animal park. Chennai is a coastal city with the second largest beach in the world.Mysore road.Nov. Follow the link for more information. Mysore is a popular tourist centre with a very comfortable climate. one of the three famous Hoysala temples. Nehru Planetarium. In the summer the temperature reaches up to 42 degree C (month of May). British launched a campaign against French. elephant headed Lord Ganesh from the west. The climate is hot and humid. Safari vans are available for the visitors to tour the park to view the animals at close quarters. Other places of interest: Aquarium. Chennapattinam. Chennai is the forth-largest city in India. the statue stands 17m tall and is visible from 30km away. the temple has idols of Lord Kesava (main shrine). elephant. Ramohally: Ramohally is famous for the 400-year-old Baniyan Tree spread over four acres of land. It is a popular health resort of today. the southern division of British Imperial India. the lake was constructed in the 2nd century by Kempe Gowda II. The city grew into modern day Madras City merging all neighboring areas. Chennai is the Capital of Tamil Nadu. History: Chennaipattinam was a popular trading center for spices and clothes for more than 2000 years. Portuguese and Dutch arrived in the 16th century followed by the British and French. In Madraspattnam they started construction of Fort St. Known world wide as Madras until recently. The temples dedicated to Gangadhareswara and Hanna Devi are located on top of a 4600ft hill whose silhouette looks like the Nandi Bull from the east. Banerghetta National Park: About 20km from Bangalore in the densely forested hilly area where wild animals like bison. panther etc.17 Usoor Lake: Located in the old cantonment area. It was also the place where assorted royalty retired to escape the din of battle and heat of summer. George. Sravanabelagola is a great Jain Centre. Mansoon falls in Sept. lion. Thousands of pilgrims flock to see the gigantic statue of Jain Saint. Around the City Mysore: Known. Sravanabelagola: An unspoiled township between the Indragiri hills and Chandragiri hills. Somanathpur is 137km from Bangalore. . The temple has a star shaped grand plan with triple shrine. Nandi Hills: Located 60km from Bangalore. a serpentarium. It has a crocodile farm. CHENNAI Madras: A city of Contrasts and diversities. a Sivalinga from the south and a cobra with spread out hood from the north. a pet’s corner. Mark's cathedral. Dedicated to Lord Vishnu. Lord Gomateswara also known as Bahubali. Jami Masjid etc. as 'Dakshina Kasi' (Southern Varanasi) Sivaganga is a pilgrim centre of great importance. sandalwood and palaces. evolved from the age-old name. Finally the French were forced to withdraw to Pondicherry. The park is open everyday from 900hrs to 1700hrs except on Tuesdays. Muthyala Maduvu (Pearl Valley): A popular picnic spot with a 300 feet high waterfall Pearl Valley is 44km from Bangalore. In 1639 the British East India Company established a settlement in the fishing village of Madraspattnam that they leased from the local Nayaks. In the 19th century the city became the seat of Madras Presidency. St.Feb. Sivaganga: Often popularly referred. a series of war known as the Carnatic Wars. The statue was anointed in 981 AD. There are several Jain temples and monasteries on the Chandragiri Hills those are worth visiting. Somanathpur: The abode of Prassanna Chennakeswara Temple. After . Karnataka folk Museum. The winter (Dec. During the 17th and 18th centuries Europeans competed for supremacy in India and Briton became the ultimate gainer. Carved from a single block of stone. it was a place of prominence in the early years of last century.) is slightly less hot than the summer. roam freely. a range of craggy hills. the city was renamed Chennai. It is a major tourist attraction and has a boat club too. The place is 20km from Bangalore in the Bangalore . Under the command of Robert Clive.. are worth seeing. It is 160km from Bangalore. Lord Janardhana (northern shrine) and Lord Venugopala (southern shrine). But the breeze blowing from the sea makes the climate bearable. Bal Bhavan.

rail. The building houses the High Court. zoology. Both air terminals are located at Meenambakkom. Domestic airlines operate daily flights to all major cities of the country from the domestic terminal. Buddhist and Jain faiths. Collection of South Indian musical instruments and jewelry is worth seeing. tiled marble floors and a high sky blue dome decorated with gold stars. The top range hotels are situated mainly in and around Anna Salai. and road or even by sea. The city has representation of almost all airlines of the world. indeed. Valluvar Kottam: A befitting memorial for the poet-sage Thiruvalluvar. The fort has a six-meter tall wall that withstood many sieges by Mughals in 1701. Andrew's Church was built by the British East India Company around 1821. Interstate buses operate at regular intervals from Chennai. The relics from the 2nd century AD Buddhist site 'Amaravati' and the prehistoric South India are the most prized possessions of the museum. The city is connected to other cities and towns of the state and the country. a replica of the famed temple chariot of 'Thiruvaroor'. This is one of the oldest surviving temples in Chennai. the temple is dedicated to Lord Krishna. . The life size statue of the sage sits in the 33m chariot with 1330 couplets of Thirukkural inscribed on the panels. With ornate white Doric columns. Development Center for Musical Instruments: The center has a collection of ancient and modern Indian musical instruments. Sea: Chennai has a major seaport. Air: Chennai has one of the four major international airports of India. has beautiful domes. Government Museum: One of the finest museums in India. George is the first bastion of British power in India. Many major international airlines have regular direct flights to Chennai. Wellesly House and Clive Corner. this is the most beautiful church in Chennai. botany. In addition. St. How to Reach: Chennai is one of the four metros in India. Hotels: Hotels and restaurants to cater everyone's budget and taste are available in Chennai ranging from the cheapest to the most luxurious. Chennai has a local electric train network to connect different points of the city. Many private operators are available for domestic and interstate transportation. The budget and mid-range hotels are mainly situated around Egmore. The Vijayanagar rulers renovated it in the 16th century. Trains operate from Egmore Junction to different parts of the state while interstate trains originate from Chennai Central Station. 100 to 199 and 20% for those cost above. High Court: This imposing Indo-Saracenic style building. Andrew's Church: Known as the queen of Scottish churches in the East. Dutch and French occupied the temple at various times. built in 1892. Many passenger vessels dock at Chennai Harbor. Fort St. the Government Museum has sections devoted to geology. St. The fort now houses the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. The museum has a vast collection of carvings of Hindu. It is a must see for music lovers. Road: Road networks of Tamil Nadu Transport Corporation make it easy to access the tiniest village by comfortable and deluxe buses. Sri Parthasarathy Temple: Built by the Pallavas in the 8th century. During the 16th and 17th centuries. It can be reached by air.18 independence in 1947 it became the capital of Madras State that was renamed Tamil Nadu. Fort St. Very recently Madras was renamed Chennai. Mary's Church built in1678-80 was the first English church in Chennai. anthropology. the Small Cause's Court and the City Civil Court. George: Built in 1654 and remodeled in 1749. St. The bronze gallery that has a superb collection of ancient icons and modern bronzes that should not be missed at any cost. Nicobar Islands. Glimpses of old Chennai and memorabilia of British and French East India Companies. Rail: Chennai is the headquarters of Southern Railway. a division of Indian Railway. There are reminders in the church of Robert Clive who married here in 1753. Normally hotels charge 15% on rooms those cost Rs. Advance booking is recommended since demand for rooms will be high Hotel tax in Tamil Nadu is among the highest in the country. Marathas in 1741 and Hyder Ali during the late 18 th century. sculpture and numismatics. top range hotels charge 5 to 10 percent service charges. was built in 1976. Passenger services are operated from Chennai to neighboring countries and to Andaman. this temple was the scene of many battles and Golconda. a grand central cupola and many stained glass windows. British and Muslim Administrations etc can be seen at Fort Museum.

The beach is situated near Adayar and the sea is safe for swimming. Thousand Lights Mosque: A beautiful cream-colored multi-domed mosque that was originally built in 1800 by Nawab Umdat-ul-Umrah for assemblage of Shias during Muharrum mourning. Guindy National Park: Perhaps this is the world's only game reserve within the city limits. Little Mount has an ancient Portuguese church built in 1551. At the summit of the mount there is an old. Thomas. Thomas Mount: It is on this mount where the pursuers caught St. Horticultural Gardens (Cathedral road) Kalaskeshtra: founded in 1936 by Rukmini Davi Arundale. The aquarium is situated at the beginning of the beach. the Jain teacher of 6th century BC. pythons. The beach drive runs between magnificent stately buildings like the Chetpauk Palace. P. St. Olcott chose Adayar as the headquarters of the spiritual society originally founded in USA. Icehouse etc. goddesses and saints depict important 'Puranic' legends. vipers etc. Theosophical Society: in 1886 Madame H. Rajasthan and Mughal paintings from 16th and 17th century and Indian handicrafts from 11th and 12th century are displayed here. from 8th century onwards. It is where they killed him. the Corporation Stadium and My Lady's garden. By this church there is a perennial spring reputed to possess curative powers. The snake-park has a collection that includes king cobras. Thomas when he fled Little Mount.19 Marina Beach: The beach runs for 13km and it is the second longest beach in the world. Thomas. Elliot's Beach: A calmer and quieter beach. Bronzes from 10 th and 13th century. this architecturally splendid Wallajah Mosque is located on Queiad-eMilleth high road. Today the cave has an Alter with the image of St. . this church is the oldest church in Chennai. Thiruvalliswarar Temple (Padi). civet cat. This national park's population includes spotted deer. black buck. Annadurai and M. The basilica has an enormous stained glass window and a beautiful one-meter statue of Virgin Mary that was brought from Portugal in 1543. handicrafts and bronze. But Vijayanagar Kings rebuilt the present temple in the 16th century. The magnificent 37m carved 'Gopuram' of gods. The last occasion it bled was in 1704. Anna & MGR Samadhis: The evergreen garden memorials of Late C. It is one of the country's finest dance schools. Birla Planetarium MGR Film City Annamalai Hall: A mini-museum of South Indian musical instruments. relic filled church built around 1523 by the Portuguese. Shantinath Jain Temple: This is a gleaming two-storied white Jain Temple built in the modern line of temple art. monkeys and reptiles. jackal. Blavatsky and Col. It is believed that the family of Nawab Wallajah was instrumental in building of the mosque. There are many beautifully sculptured marble idols including that of Mahavira. Kapaleswar Temple: This ancient Siva Temple's fragmented inscriptions dates back to 1250 AD. National Art Gallery: The Art Gallery has a fine collection of paintings. like Adhispurishvarar Temple (Thiruvotriyur). the cathedral is said to house the remains of Apostle St. Other Places of Interest in Chennai are The Corporation Campus: The campus has the Victoria Public Hall. Marundiswarar Temple (Thiruvanmiyur) etc. The collection is housed in a Mughal style building. An Inscription in the church attributes its construction to a Franciscan monk in 1516 AD. University of Madras. The temple is situated in Mylapore. G. N. pleasant and ideal for lazy lounging and picnicking. on one side and a very wide sandy beach on the other. Little Mount: It was where St. Big Mosque: built in 1789. Ramachandran (former Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu) are located at the beginning of Marina. It has a 90 years old library with valuable collections of oriental manuscripts both in palm-leave and parchment. Luz Church: Dedicated to Our Lady of Light. Thomas chose a small cave to lead his Spartan life often praying on top of the hill and preach to the crowd. The park also has a snake park and an amusement park for the children. Many Chola Temples. One of the relics is a stone cross that is said to be bleeding periodically. There are shrines of all faiths in its grounds. Santhome Cathedral: Built in 1504 and rebuilt in 1608 and 1893.

are a must visit in Madurai.October and is marked with traditional displays of handmade dolls. The 40 days dance festival (25th Dec. Tirumalai Nayak Mahal. the city is situated on the banks of River Kavery. Mariamman Teppakulam etc. The festival falls on the month of . sheaves of paddy. The exquisite silk sarees and cloths made from pure mulberry silk yarn is world famous and the best in the country. one of them said to be the longest corridor in the world. . Art gallery. Palaces. museum. Gandhi Memorial. The Ganesa Puja is performed with fervor and gaiety. the world's largest bas-relief. Churches. Places of interest in Ooty are botanical gardens. situated in the Nilgiris. turmeric. sunset and moonrise from the same spot will be a unique experience. golf course etc.. newly prepared jaggery. Sugarcane. Kanyakumari is one of the most popular tourist spot.) is a popular event no tourist must miss. is 120km from Madurai. Killiam Falls. two thousand years ago. It is where the British and the French fought the Carnatic wars. Kanyakumari: Located in the southern tip of Indian peninsula. Sri Ramanathaswamy temple has magnificent sculptures and spectacular corridors. The Nandi Bull. It is a major Hindu pilgrim center and one of the seven most scared in India. Now Tiruchirapally is a commercial and pilgrim center. The festival is celebrated in the month of January for three days. Yercaud: Another hill station situated amidst coffe plantations and orange groves. Vivekananda Rock Memorial.20 AROUND CHENNAI: Kanchipuram: (76km) Known as Kanchi in the past. It offers spectacular scenic beauty and bracing climate. are places of interest in Kanyakumari.. Mudumalai: Situated in Nilgirisand 60km from Ooty. Navarathri: Another festival that lasts for nine days as the name indicates.Nov. Tanjavur: Once Tanjavur was the capital of Cholas. It generates an atmosphere of gaiety. Sri Meenakshi Sundareswar Temple. Padmanabhapuram. Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma respectively are worshiped. Kavery Peak. Its star shaped lake is popular for boating and fishing. The celebration ends on the ninth day when the idols of Vinayaka will be carried in procession chanting his name and submerged in water in wells. Kodaikanal. Mahendravarma Pallava built this seaport from where ships sailed for countries in Southeast Asia. and orchidarium. Kanchipuram is also well known for its handloom industry. The earth and the cow are also worshiped and offerings were made. Madurai is the cradle of Tamil Culture. Ooty is a very popular hill station that is situated in the Nilgiris. a Chola architectural marvel. ~ 7th Feb. Suchindram etc. The last of the three Tamil Sanghams (Academy) flourished here. Lakshmi and Sarawathy. state and national festivals. school of sculpture. Arjuna's Penance. friendliness and excitement. lighthouse etc. Mamallapuram has renowned Shore Temple and other marvelous stone monuments. are of interest to tourists. Deepavali: This festival of lights is usually celebrated in Oct. the consorts of Lord Shiva. The Brihadeeswara Temple. Earth and the Cow. Kodaikanal: Known as "The Princess among Hill Stations". Topping the tower is a monolithic cupola made from a granite block weighing about 80 tons. Vinayaka Chathurthi: Lord Ganesha or Vinayaka. Museum etc. this ancient city of thousand temples was once the capital city of Pallavas. lakes. The festival ends with 'Kanum Pongal' on the third day when children enjoy watching the celebrations. Udhamandalam: Referred as the "Queen of Hill Stations". Mamallapuram: In the 7th century. The rock fort has splendid Pallava sculptures in the cave temples. Beach. It has a solar physics observatory. vegetables and pulses are offered to the Sun god. Madurai: Often referred as the Athens of East. boat club. Kurinji flowers that blooms once in every 12 years. Kumariamman Temple. stands 216ft tall. Rameswaram: (583km) this is one of the four most sacred Hindu pilgrim centers in India. Pongal: It is the harvest festival of thanks giving to Sun. rivers or ocean.. are of interesting places to visit.. Pagoda Point. it is one of the major wildlife sanctuaries in India. It was a Chola stronghold during the Sangham Age. The goddesses of Durga. Witnessing sunrise. Vattakottai. the elephant headed god is among the most worshiped deities of the State. Tiruchirapally: Popularly known as 'Tiruchi'. Bear's Cave. lake and temples are some of the places of interest Festivals: Chennai celebrates many local. The festival falls in the months of September .

are celebrated harmoniously as in other regions of the country. Good Friday etc. the famous Rajput hero. the eighth city of Delhi. Since then conquerors from the north treated Delhi as the gateway to the Indian subcontinent. had the attention of almost every conqueror in this part of the world. Delhi prospered and peace prevailed. In 1638 Shahjahan shifted the capital to Delhi and built the seventh city of Delhi. Humayun started building the Mughal capital of Dinapana. Eid-ul-Adha. During Akbar's reign Agra was the capital of Mughals. Qutub Minar from the time of Qutub-ud-din is still a dominant structure in Delhi. During the 11th century AD Alaudin-Khalji built a new city called Siri. Chennai. Every dynasty that ruled Delhi left behind some kind of a seal or monument for the world to admire and remember. mosques and gardens. in the hills of South Delhi. His capital Shergarh. Thus in the course of history seven medieval cities were formed. Easter. Delhi had seen the rise and fall of many Kingdoms and Empires. Muslim festivals like Eid-ul-Fitr. the sixth city of Delhi. Bahadur Shah Zafar surrendered to the British. In the coronation Durbar in 1911. through the streets of Mylapore. In the 19th century British East India Company rose into power. and Qutub-ud-din Aibak the first sultan of Delhi improved on it. After the battle of Panipat I in 1526 Mughals established their supremacy over Delhi. History: Delhi. Ghias-ud-din Tughlaq built Tughlaqabad. Prithviraj Chuhan. After independence New Delhi continued as the capital of Union of India. The decline of Mughal Empire began during the reign of Aurengazeb. King Anangpal of Tomar built the first city of Delhi in 1069 AD. Republic day. the third city of Delhi. The forth city of Delhi was Jahanpanah. Muharrum. the Afgan warrior drove him out and established a mighty empire with the best administration system that the city had ever seen. Shahajahanabad by 1648. Delhi was built and demolished time again. But Sher Shah. This magnificent city located northeast of original Tomar city is the second medieval city of Delhi. DELHI Delhi: Built to be the capital. Many monuments of Shahjahanabad remain in old Delhi. King George V formally announced the transfer of British Indian Capital from Calcutta to Delhi. He also built many palaces. once in every year. Sultan Mohamed Tughlaq. situated between the Aravalli hills and the River Yamuna. In 1931. New Delhi was inaugurated as the capital of Imperial India. . National festivals like Independence Day. Birthday of Prophet Mohamed and Christian festivals like Christmas. with repeated invasion and creation of empires and kingdoms. who lived in devotion and penance are taken in a colorful procession. are celebrated throughout the state. The oldest reference to Delhi is made in the Mahabharata that states that Pandavas founded a city called Indraprasta beside the River Yamuna in 1450 BC. When Tughlaq dynasty came into being in 1320. British architects Sir Edward Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker designed New Delhi.21 Aruvathimoovar Festival: The bronze statues of 63 Shivite saints in the magnificent Kapaliswarar temple at Mylapore. Gandhiji's birthday etc. In 1555 Humayun regained power and Mughals ruled Delhi once again. He built the fifth city of Delhi along the banks of River Yamuna. The last of Mughal Emperors. the son of Ghias-ud-din Tughlaq built it between Lalkot and Siri. With Feroz Shah at the helm of reign. extended from purana Quila (old fort) to the edge of Feroz Shah Kotla.

Rail: Delhi is connected to almost every city and town of the country by rail. A few of different ranges of hotels and restaurants are listed below. Jama Masjid: Shahjahan built this mosque in 1658. India Gate: This massive 42m tall structure was built as a memorial to the 90. The structure has names of soldiers engraved allover it. letters. The temple is a must visit for every tourist who comes to Delhi. Visitors are bound to keep silence inside the temple premises. Located near the Indira Gandhi Domestic Airport. this observatory of Maharaja Jai Singh II . Airforce Museum: In this museum one can trace the history of the Indian Airforce. the garden provides an atmosphere of peace and tranquility. religion or nation. creed. All international and domestic hotel chains have representation in Delhi. Road: Delhi is well connected to all major towns and cities of the country with a network of national and state highways. It is from where she ruled India for decades.000 people. photographs and paintings on display provide a fascinating insight to the private life of Indira Gandhi. better be prepared to book and confirm your hotel acommodation well in advance. it is the perfect place one can spend one's time while waiting for the flight. Hotels: New Delhi being the capital of the country has a large number of hotels ranging from luxuary to low budget.1. The tomb is situated amidst avenues of trees. Domestic and international airlines connect Delhi with all parts of the country and the world. the structure harmoniously blends with the nature. An eternal flame burns here in commemoration of the unknown soldiers. race. as trains are the most used mode of transport. with huge concrete astronomical "instruments". Buddha Jayanthi Park: Laid out to commemorate the 2500th anniversary of Lord Buddha's attainment of Nirvana. The park has a Bodhi tree that is a sapling of the original enlightenment tree. Indira Gandhi Memorial: No. Bookings are to be made in advance to avoid the last minute rush. The Indira Gandhi International Airport is a few km further from he domestic terminal. Situated near the red fort in old Delhi. The modestly furnished rooms and the books.22 How to reach: New Delhi being the capital of the country has all infrastructures for domestic and international travel. Dolls Museum: Renowned Cartoonist Shankar started the museum as a personal collection. Now it has a collection of more than 6000 dolls from allover the world.000 Indian soldiers who lost their lives in world war I. the senior wife of emperor Humayun built this mausoleum in mid 16th century. Long distance express trains operate from Delhi to every state capital. If you are planning to start your journey from Delhi. watercourses and flowerbeds. Bahai Temple: A temple built to worship god irrespective of caste. You may have to pay an additional luxuary tax of 10 to 20 percent depending on the type of accommodation you choose. Janthat Mantar: Located near the junction of Parliament street and Conaught Circus. By Air: Delhi's Indira Gandhi Domestic Airport is 16 km from the city. Jama Masjid is the largest mosque in India with a seating capacity of more than 20. This gleaming lotus like marble structure is located on Bahapur Hills. Humayun's Tomb: Haji Begum. A magnificent example of refined early Mughal architecture. Safdarjung Road is where Indira Gandhi lived and died. Some hotels charge 5-10% service charges in addition. This mosque with bulbous domes and tapering minarets those were built with marble and slate is an architectural beauty.

on display throw light into the history of India's independent movement. Purana Quila (Old Fort): This is the sixth city of Delhi. Parliament House: This massive domed structure is almost one kilometer in circumference. his consort. Lodi Gardens: These beautiful gardens have majestic domed tombs of many Sayyid and Lodi sultans. More than 2000 animals. the museum is the first of its kind in India. The garden is open to the public in February and March. In the courtyard of the Quwat-ul-Islam Masjid. Sher Shah built the octagonal Shermandal and the Quila-i-Kuhran Masjid. flowering trees. who drove him out from Delhi. an indication of technological advancement at that period. Indian costumes. selective exhibits from state museums and private collectors enrich the museum’s collection. The observatory has a huge sundial and the observatory was built in 1725. Havell. Tourist can gain access by obtaining a special pass. The National Samadhis: Along the banks of River Yamuna.23 of Jaipur was used to plot the courses of heavenly bodies and predict eclipses. But Sher Shah. Indian musical instruments etc. has been converted into a museum. blossoming shrubs and bushes are ideal places for joggers and those who seek solitude. manuscripts. the temple has a large number of idols representing various gods of Indian pantheon. E. terraces. Humayun started the fort's construction. ponds. Notable exhibits among are the works of Daniells. the first Sultan of Delhi. the zoo spreads over 214 acres. The building houses both Lok Sabha (The Lower House) and Rajya Sabha (The Upper House). Zoological Gardens: One of the finest in Asia. there is a 7m high wrought iron pillar that belonged to the Gupta Age. The temple is located in Mandir Marg and the main deities are Lord Narayana (Lord Vishnu) and Goddess Lakshmi. These well kept gardens with fountains. Nehru Museum and Planetarium: Theen Murthi Bhavan. miniature paintings. Lal Bahadur Shastri. B. medieval art pieces. The museum displays prehistoric exhibits. The garden is laid out with velvet lawns. National Gallery of Modern art: The gallery has an excellent collection of nearly 4000 paintings and sculptures belonging to the School of Modern Art. There is a planetarium in the grounds of Theen Murthi Bhavan. Photograph. Mughal Gardens: It is a part of Rastrapathi Bhavan Estate where the President hosts tea parties for visiting dignitaries. . The Pillar withstood centuries of exposure to the nature without rusting. Birla Mandir: Built in 1938 by the prominent Indian Industrialist R. flowerbeds and fountains. Humayun constructed the massive walls and huge gates. Qutub-udDin Aibak. near Raj Ghat are the burial places of Nehru. newspaper clippings etc. the residence of India's first Prime Minister. started the construction of the 278ft high Qutub Minar and Firoz Shah Tughlaq completed it in 1368. Birla and inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi. completed the city during his reign (1538-1545). Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi. birds and reptiles from different countries are homed here. it is one of the most prominent monuments in Delhi. Qutub Minar: Perhaps the most striking monument of Delhi is Qutub Minar. Janini Roy and Rabindranatna Tagore. The zoo was designed as an open plan where the wildlife enjoys a natural habitat. B. Located south east of India Gate. National Museum: The museum has a collection of artistic treasures of India and Central Asia. Indira Gandhi. Situated near the diplomatic enclave. Established in 1950. Rail Transport Museum: The museum has exhibits those show the 140 years old history of Indian Railway.

photographs and manuscripts are displayed here. mugger-crocodiles etc. The English version starts at 1930 hrs during Nov. Taj Mahal.km. he never really moved his capital to Delhi as his son Aurangaseb kept him in confinement. is where the emperor held private meetings and met dignitaries.24 Raj Ghat: The Samadhi where the mortal remains of Mahatma Gandhi were cremated. The wildlife includes tiger. Jaipur (275km): Jaipur.-Jan. Though the fort was completed in 1648. Tughlakabad: Tughlakabad is the third city of Delhi and is located about 10km east of Qutub complex along the Mahrauli-Badarpur Road. The fort extends for 2km and the walls are 18m high on the riverside and 33m high on the city side. Fatehpur Sikri etc. Rashtrapathi Bhavan: Formerly the Vice-regal Palace. At the end of the street there is a Digambara Jain Gurudwara. The famous peacock throne was in this hall before Nadirsha carted it away to Iran. The main entrance to the fort is through the Lahore gate on the West. This 340-room palace and its gardens cover an area of 330 acres. There is also a bird hospital run by the Jains. this National Park is spread over 520sq. leopards. Sikendra. Shahi Burj: A three-storied octagonal tower that was once Shahjahan's private working area. Personal belongings of Gandhiji. The fort has fortified ramparts. The name derived from the colorfulness of the palace that was lost through the centuries. Around Delhi Agra (203km): This city of Taj is about 200km from Delhi. a sound and light show recreates the events of Indian history. Hawa Mahal etc. The Samadhi is amidst a garden with lawns and fountains. 2100hrs during May-Aug. Sound and Light Show: Every evening. elephant. Ballabgarh is an ideal picnicking. Diwan-i-Khas: The hall of Private audiences. Special permission has to be obtained in advance to visit Rashtrapathi Bhavan. underground chambers.Mathura Road. the shopping center for the ladies of the court. The amber fort. Red Fort: Shahjahan started construction of this massive fort in 1638. Rang Mahal (Palace of Color): It was the residence of the emperor's senior wife.. Opposite to Raj Ghat is the Gandhi Memorial Museum. Naubat Khana (Drum House): It is from where the musicians played for the emperor. it is the official residence of the President of India. Agra Fort. One of the rooms was set up as a sauna. . holidaying and fishing spot. are worth visiting. Moti Masjid: A small masjid built by Aurangaseb in 1659 for his personal use. tall gateways and towers. Hammams: These royal baths next to the Diwan-i-Khas has three rooms with a fountain in the center. Chandini Chowk: This is the main street of old Delhi and a colorful shopping center. are places of Interest. A prominent structure here is the Ghiasudin's Mausoleum that was built with marble and red sandstone. The arrival of princes and dignitaries were heralded from here. You will enter to a covered market known as Chatta Chowk that was once Meena Bazaar. Diwan-i-Am: The hall of Public audiences is where the emperor listened to the grievances of his subjects and disputes are settled. a structure of white marble. the capital of Rajasthan is popularly known as the pink city. and 2030hrs during rest of the year. Corbett National Park (260km): Located on the foothills of the Himalayas. Ballabgarh Lake (56km): A quiet tourist resort located along the Delhi .

soaps and incense Sunder Nagar Market: Near Dr. Singing and dancing accompany the joyous occasion. Near Connaught Place Reasonably priced and good quality items such as wood carvings. Diwali: Diwali. as well as fun and frolic for children of all ages. rare antiques. Rose Show. are burned on the last day of festival. paintings. On this occasion the flower sellers present flowers to the gods and pray for a better flower season next year. leopard. the demon king. Delhi is ablaze with flowers at this time. elephant pageantry. A large number of migratory birds from Europe. It is also a useful meeting ground for gardening enthusiasts. furniture etc. Independent Day Celebrations: Independent Day is celebrated on August 15./Oct. clothes. Jewelry. from all over India are available. carpets and traditional sweets. Boating and fishing in the lake are added attractions. perfumes. Surajkund has an excellent 18-hole golf course. This is one of the two nesting centers of the Siberian Cranes. paintings and jewelry. of which nine days are spent in worship. Santhushti Shopping Center: Chanakyapuri Handicrafts and boutique Hauz Khas Village: Art galleries and boutique Kinari Bazaar: Silk Sarees Chawri Bazaar: Antique copperware and brassware Dariba Kalan Traditional silverware Republic Day Parade: A national festival that no tourist should miss. brassware. . At night crackers are burst to celebrate the return of Lord Rama from exile. Evocative melodies and graceful dances are presented by various prominent artistes of the country. Central Cottage industries Emporium: Janpath. Men and women stain each other by throwing colors at. The march past includes military displays. The park also has the ruins of a 9th century Shiva Temple. The tenth day is a celebration of victory of good over evil. floats representing different states etc. Each emporium sells handicrafts from their respective states. Phoolwalon-ki-Sair: It means the festival of flower sellers. Processions and flag hoisting on the Red Fort mark the celebration. brass works. Chrysanthemum Show and Delhi Flower Show are among them. A Festival representative of communal harmony where large fans decorated with flowers are taken out in a procession. Sohna (56km): The hot sulfur springs located near the Sohna fort is supposed to have medicinal values.. Garden Tourism Festival: Delhi Tourism holds the Garden Tourism Festival at the end of February that is generally spread over three days and generates much enthusiasm amongst the gardening fraternity. Qutub Festival of Classical Music and Dance: The festival is staged around Sharad Pournima in the month of October at the Qutub Minar complex. wild boar etc.25 Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary (285): Located along the Agra . Flower Shows: Delhi also conducts various flower shows in the winter months. this National Park has an annual migrant bird population of more than 500. oils. State Emporiums:(Run by State Governments) Baba Kharak Marg.000 birds.Jaipur Road. Chandni Chowk: Old Delhi. Dussehra: It is a ten days festival. The wildlife includes tiger. Huge effigies of Ravana. Holi: This festival of color is celebrated in March. Mango Festival: The mango festival is held in Delhi during the month of July. Many verities of mangos from the 1100 plus verities those India grow are displayed. textiles. the goddess of wealth and prosperity. Siberia and Central Asia including Saurus Cranes and Flamingos visit the sanctuary during the winter months. Celebrated on the 26th of January when India became a Republic. Main Bazaar: Pahar Gunj Perfumes. celebrated in Sept. It is the most spectacular pageant of Delhi. Zakir Hussain Road Antique’s pieces. Sultanpur bird Sanctuary (46km): This sanctuary near Gurgaon has a large lake. The heroic deeds of Lord Rama who destroyed Ravana are enacted in songs and dance. Surajkund (56km): This is a picnic spot near Delhi. The tourist complex at sohna has good board and lodge facilities.. Sarika Tiger Reserves (240km): The reserve is located on the Aravalli Mountain Range. the festival of lights and fireworks is celebrated throughout the country during OctNov. sambar. People illuminate their houses with rows of earthen lamps to welcome Lakshmi.

.26 Masjid and at Dar-us-Salaam.

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