Values of Ethics in Profession

Values± something we pick-up from our family, peer, society we live in, which moulds our personality, our thinking, behavior and attitude. Values -- are a set of principles/standards of behavior that are desirable, important and our society holds them in high esteem Vales ± means ³to be of worth´ and µto be strong¶ It means ± something that has a price, precious, dear, and worthwhile, for which suffering, sacrifice and even dying is worth

Corporate Governance
µCorporate governance is not just running the business of the company, but giving a direction to the enterprise, overseeing and controlling the executive actions of the management with satisfying legitimate expectation of accountability and regulation of corporate interest beyond the boundaries¶

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which has been paid by the bank¶. his secretary met him in a state of shock. Gautam.d. On reaching office Sunil wanted to congratulate gautam for the orders.Case study 1 ‡ Sunil.25 crores have been debited to their account leaving very little in the bank. ¶sir. as he entered his chamber. however. Sunil went around finding the facts and he realized that yes. there is no money in the bank as the purchase director had given a cheque of 25 crores to one of the suppliers. was returning after a successful trip to America from where trail orders for their TV sets had been secured through his efforts. the finance director of rank electronics. had started the day well when he got the news that the company¶s m. He really got .

Sunil did a little investigation and found that the order placed and advance payment released is for certain components and will last 6 years. Sunil planned to visit Tiwary and discuss the matter. a party was in full swing. Question ± 1) What action can be taken against Tiwary? 2} How to stop such misuse of power? 3) What system changes should be incorporated? . enjoys the trust and has considerable power. Where as certain component¶s inventory is down to few weeks and have been neglected by Tiwary. Incidentally Tiwary is a relative of MD. When he reached the residence of `Tiwary. Sunil found the supplier of the contract was having a great time.worried how to finance the new order. Purchase director confirmed the transaction. On enquiry Tiwary. Sunil understood everything.

huge profit in cash. After 3 yrs.Case study-2 CEO¶s unethical behavior In order to save tax and increase profits. So less excise and sales tax. the exe was transferred and scam was caught. . CEO landed in jail. CEOs logic was simple ± with less power consumption shown. he will show less production(10%). a CEO spoke to a electricity company executive CEO-please bill us only 10% of our consumption and I will take care of you. Exe ± how much? It was decided 15lakh will be paid to the Exe every month for next 5 years.

‡ Example ± a colleague makes several personal calls from office.Ethics ‡ Derived from µethos¶. Actually it is a manifestation of morals and values in the form decision. which means character. What should you do? ‡ a] talk to him/her and request to refrain ‡ b] inform above ‡ c] keep quite .

norms or principles of what is right or wrong ‡ Human values are the vales of the human being for the human beings and by the human beings ‡ Moral + values + ethics = Human values ‡ Value creation in an organization is by adopting ethical practices and behavior of all personnel especially the key persons (people who matter ) .Moral and Human Values ‡ Moral ± are the standards.

sand and stone chips leads to cost saving at the cost of weakening of the structure. Example ± adding less than prescribed proportion of cement in the mixture of cement. ultimately becomes a habit in corporate life and a clean image vanishes ± CWC scam. ‡ 2] Slowly it becomes a habit.e. BATA . small fraud. if and when exposed wipes out all the good work -. ‡ 3] To enhance the value system organizations has to remain above board ± TATA ‡ 4] Although PR activity improves µimage.g.The problem areas ‡ 1] Slight variation in ethical practices leads to short term profits.

± Australian vendors of CWC are yet to be paid although they have received payments for their services in Beijing Olympics ‡ Share holders . systems followed/practiced in an organization example ± the PF contributions of employees not deposited every month ‡ Business Ethics covers ± a] primary stake holders.. c] customers. f] public. d] consumers. g] suppliers ± e.Business Ethics ‡ Business ethics covers all major and minor activity.[secondary stakeholders] ± {ROI+} . e] environmental players.g. b] secondary stake holders. process.

vendor being relative of management supplies poor quality material -.No test run .specification not followed -.semi processed material -. quality inspection ± before or after -.production process/management -.JIT not followed norms flouted/flashy outside.poor quality packaging -.Important areas ‡ Some of the important areas in Corporate where ethical practices assumes maximum importance ± ‡ i] Production ii] HR iii] Sales and Marketing iv] Finance v] IT Production ± raw material supplied by suppliers ± substandard -.

IT ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Software piracy Espionage Recruiting key persons from rival organization ATM fraud Over pricing of products Over valuation of products/process Example ± AT &T ± 1995-1996 .

machinery Over stocking . building.Finance ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Manipulation of share prices High payment to staff to avoid income tax Improper projection of cost of land.

µa person comes to office late everyday but insists his staff to be on time. Work is workshop. A person is said to be of high integrity when his behavior and action matches.Value crisis in contemporary society ‡ Integrity ± consistent honest behavior develops integrity. -. Even orders fine for late coming¶ . ‡ Integrity is an act of honesty.Does he have the moral right to issue such orders ‡ Work ethics ± are laid down by organizations to be followed by one and all. Service is responsibility. ensures discipline and increases productivity. ± the moral of honesty results in integrity. . A good work ethic creates a good work culture.

membership and service in Lions or Rotary club ‡ Service is a responsibility of human towards other human being. -.g. is to go beyond the call of duty to satisfy the receiver. the civil society ‡ -.Service ‡ Service.Respect towards others.sharing ± courage ‡ -.Caring -. being intangible.Living peacefully ± co-operation -‡ Value of time ± time is money . ‡ E. ± working free for an NGO.

They will never waste time idling. .Professionalism ‡ Any profession gives rise to 2 kinds of practitioner a] one who discharges duty as laid down in rule book b] the other who ensures the responsibility is discharged to the core The western philosophy ± µhave money will travel¶ ± these professionals takes payment and will not let any possibility of complain exit. chit chat or any other non productive work in a time which he is paid for.

‡ The growth of µisms¶ has divided the rural society and urban society. it is fighting the sweeping changes coming from west. consumerism. clan and village community. humanitrism largely amongst middle and elite class . This has slowly replaced our traditional practice of µatthiti deva bhobo¶. rightism etc. feeling for community as one.woved. we are today being absorbed by individualism. Although this group consciousness has remained mostly confined to caste.In India ‡ Societal level -‡ India is a country where traditional family values are inter .

. balance of power between the executive and judiciary and fundamental rights of citizen. ‡ It featured parliamentary democracy. liberty. ‡ These were very different from the prevailing system and societal values. equality and fraternity and a new system of governance was adopted. rule of law.‡ At the time of Independence we gave ourselves a thoroughly enlightened and egalitarian constitution for creating a good and modern society. No attempt was made to examine the underpinning values of the new system. It promised to secure all citizens for justice. to harmonise them with our own value system and to assimilate them into our societal and intellectual temper. legislature and judiciary.

‡ Our strength was our joint family based institution.‡ The contemporary elite had very little or no sensitivity towards the values of the constitution. where values of sharing and caring was inculcated through way of life. ‡ No attempt was made to educate the new generation to develop their social consciousness. material progress mainly it benefited the rich and not-so-rich. this is now crumbling as new generation is on the move of aspiration. democratic temper and attitudes ‡ ³democracy to people means. society. our obligations discharge´ ‡ Last few decades while we achieved economic. . asserting our rights or registering our protests but not accepting responsibility towards community. voicing our demands.

feelings. kindness. human and ethical implications. goals. ³he is a good person´. activities and experiences.‡ Value expresses quantitative significance or importance to ideas. justice. where one has to compromise these values ‡ Another dimension of value crisis at individual levels the rise of ³right consciousness and steep decline of ³duty consciousness´ . ‡ This value system develop affects our attitudes. compassion may decline lucrative career options. ³she is honest´ etc. ‡ We analyse these experiences unconsciously and attach different degree of importance to them ‡ The basis of this evaluation is our system of values. preferences. we ignore social. aspiration and to achieve. ‡ On the other hand those who value morality.

imitative and reactive. . and other intellectual sets the tone ‡ They do critical examination of social and human situations and generate new ideas and solutions to human problems ‡ Unfortunately contemporary intellectuals are mainly critics. philosophers. academicians.Intellectual level ‡ The value climate of a society is closely linked to its intellectual level ‡ Writers. rather than being creative and proactive ‡ The fragmentation of knowledge into almost watertight academic compartments are producing narrowly focused specialists and super specialists.

Mukesh Ambani. Cricketers. fashion statements..Rajiv Gandhi.] ‡ At the intellectual level we do not question the µwest based¶ ruling.Dhoni.g.S. businessman. TV personalities and fiction writers [e. Big B««. fashion statements . M.. values« ‡ At the intellectual level we do not question the west based ruling.‡ This is resulting in intellectual vacuum ‡ Today society values and norms are being dictated by politicians. film stars.

democracy. have been created for the realisation of some values deemed necessary for the common good of the society. ‡ The different socio ± political ideologies like liberalism. . a caring society or a ruthless society. are different ways of realising certain cherised values at the societal level. ‡ The balance between the material and moral values decides the overall goodness of a society.Nature of values ‡ Human value perceptions decide whether it will be a just society. trade and commerce etc. educational institutions. state. ‡ All the social institutions like judiciary. socialism etc. industry. specialised professions.

‡ In India ± existence. goodness and beauty are the ultimate values.‡ In the highly intellectual Greek tradition truth. caused by ignorance and µtrishna¶. knowledge and bliss are ultimate values ‡ In the Buddhist tradition the ultimate goal of life is considered to be liberation from the bondage of ³Dhuka´. This leads to µNIRVANA¶ ‡ Unfortunately the hold of religion on the minds of new generation is getting weaker and is steadily declining. ‡ This is the age of µreasoning¶ which started in early 1800s in Europe at the time of ³Renaissance´ .

‡ Simply thinking or dreaming do not gaurantee good life it wants. it has to create conditions and capabilities to translate the dreams into reality . and the civilization moves up from one tier to next higher tier. to dream and to create visions of a good life.Value spectrum of good life ‡ Creative thinking is one of the most prized endowments of human beings ‡ It helps people to think. It is an on going process ‡ Every generation thinks dreams and finally articulate the ways and means to better their life. ‡ Civilization after civilization has simply vanished from the earth . because they became complacent and stopped dreaming.

bullock cart wheel.‡ There are difference in these dreams over different individuals . ‡ Yet there is a large quantum of commonality in the conceptions of values which constitute a µgood life¶ [ example ± the chariot wheel. the mirror of Europe± aarsi of India] . some more fundamental. groups and culture ‡ Some may be matter of details.

material comfort and conveniences.---------.The good life The need --The want ---. which adds to comfort and joy ‡ A life with continuous struggle for survival is not a good life ‡ A good life is a life that allows relaxation and recreation ‡ Values associated with material aspect/comfort of living are called material values. Next comes ---. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .--------------It must be free of wants and deprivations The basic needs must be fulfilled.------.

Societal values ‡ Good life can be lived only in a good society ‡ Such society provides peace. harmony and general well being with overall growth ‡ This is necessary to ensure social cooperation for production of material and social goods ‡ In a good society everyone is aware of their rights. They are operatives in social structures and the basic social institutions created by society . earning a livelihood and freedom to blossom to their potential [apartment life ± USA life style] ‡ Societal values refers to making a good society.

‡ The quality of individual and collective life of complex modern society very much depends on societal values. ‡ µhuman development¶ means development of a total human personality. . through production and distribution of shareable social goods´. ‡ This definition clearly recognises that main objective as all social arrangements is to seek human development. ‡ ³society is an organisation for co-operative working to seek human development.‡ They affect the manner in which the economic and political activities of the society is carried out and how power and authority are distributed in it.

b] the common economic development ± shared by all. liberties. water. reward. recognition. legal justice is a formal proceedure followed by courts adjucating conflicting claims of litigants. gas «etc. liberties. meeting valid demands. ‡ Legal issues decided as per constitutional and legal provisions. rule of law and democracy ‡ JUSTICE ± on one hand it means people getting their rightful dues. on the other hand the area of law. respect for rights. ‡ Our constitution provides rights. freedom as social goods ‡ The modern search for a µgood society¶ talks of three societal values ± justice. electricity. .‡ µshareable goods¶ means ± a] common physical facilities like road. transportation.

‡ Writers. philosophers and other intellectuals sets the tone. academicians.‡ The value climate of a society is closely linked to its intellectual level. ‡ They do critical examination of social and human situations and generate new ideas and solutions to human problems .

. TV personalities. businessmen. Mandira Bedi. imitative and reactive rather than being creative and pro-active. ‡ Today society values and norms being set by political leaders.‡ Unfortunately contemporary intellectuals are mainly critics.g. fashion statements .) ‡ At the intellectual level we do not question the west based rulin . (e. ‡ The fragmentation of knowledge into almost water tight academic compartments are producing narrowly focused specialists and super specialists. Rajiv Gandhi. Ratan Tata. ‡ Resulting in a intellectual vacuum. Sharukh Khan. film celebrities and even fiction writers.

external behavior and our sense of well ± being. desires. ‡ There should not be any stress. motives and goals.Psychological values ‡ One must possess sound mental health. psychological conflicts. ‡ They collectively shape our personality. . The value determinants of a good life can be grouped into 2 categories. It is the attitudes and myriad of mental processes which covers the world of our feelings. happiness and harmony. maturity for a good life. impulses. ‡ Internal ± These values are concerned with the quality of emotional and mental life of an individual.

nature and life leads to bliss and is called Aesthetic values. ‡ Ethical and moral values occupies the centre stage in good life. A careful cultivation of taste for appreciating beauty in art. his personal conduct and social interrelations must be based on ethical principles.Aesthetic values ‡ Creation and enjoyment of beauty are part of a good life. . ‡ A good person must be a moral person.

Neurobiological approach tries to explain all human emotions. . ‡ They painted a grim picture of animal like instincts. passion and impulses arising out of unconscious state of mind. ‡ All these studies termed human being as a complicated machine or lower level organisms whose behavior is governed by deterministic laws. experiences and action in terms of neural activities within the brain and the nervous system.Humanistic Psychology ‡ Earlier studies were more looking at human behavior and personality instead of positive and healthy aspects. ‡ While behavioral psychology saw human as a black box whose responses could be predicted by observing different responses it exhibits in response to different stimuli.

strengths and values. dignity and value to his existence.‡ But that is not all of a human. also an urge to grow into a full human person. ‡ The individuals become more openly aware of their own feeling and attitudes. which gives meaning. ‡ They have inner capacities. ‡ What about his humanity. ‡ An increasing openness to experience. ‡ The modern branch of humanistic psychology believes individual have freedom to choose and determine their own action. purpose. .

‡ This increasing ability to be open to new experiences prepares him to meet µnew people¶ and µnew problems¶. . ‡ He is able to perceive it as it comes and not in an pre-conceived notion.‡ He also becomes aware of reality as it exists outside his world.

‡ Their µfeels right¶ is more trustworthy guide than others advice. It means ± a flowing. their judgments and achieve greater µpersonhood¶. ‡ They have an internal locus of evaluation for their choices.e. in himself] Some persons have more trust on themselves. . a charging organisation of self and personality An increasing trust in his own organism [i. decisions and standards to live by.Increasing existential living ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Also called µLiving life fully in each moment¶ Such living means absence of rigidity of tight organisation.

Maslow¶s Hierarchy of needs
Self actualisation Aesthetic needs Cognitive needs Esteem needs Societal needs Safety needs Psychological needs

Characteristics of self actualisation person
‡ The highest level of human needs ± ³to become everything one is capable of becoming´ ‡ They have more efficient perception of reality and a more comfortable relation with it. (e.g. politician) ‡ They are good judges of people. They can easily detect fake, spurious and dishonest. ‡ They cheerfully accept themselves, other people and the world for what they are. ‡ They do not feel defensive and do not suffer from inferiority complex.

Mental health
‡ The process of living and growing always involves conflicts, stresses, frustrations and anxieties. ‡ Our quality of life, internal sense of harmony, happiness and wellbeing is inversely dependent on our ability to cope with frustrations.

fancies. (e. feelings.g. buses or trains) They control negative and socially disapproved urges.Characteristics of mental health ‡ Efficient perception of reality ± as described in Maslow¶s needs. . They are not carried away by impulses. crowd burning trucks. ‡ 1] self knowledge ± to understand ourselves. moods. ‡ 3] Control of behavior ± a mentally healthy person¶s behavior is controlled by their conscious. It means we understand our limits. strengths on which to move forward and our weaknesses which needs covering up and rectification. preferences and values ‡ 2]Self analysis requires introspection neutrally. our motives.

trust. Feeling for others. self centered.Affectionate relationship ‡ Quality of life depends on the quality of relationship one builds up. ‡ Cold. possessive persons fails to enjoy good life. a desire to help. love. . ‡ It is built on affection. care.

it gives them joy.Productivity ‡ Mentally healthy person will utilise time and energy in useful and productive activity. satisfaction and a sense of fulfillment. ‡ They are not bored and do not complain of lack of opportunities .

mind and soul.Indian context ‡ Indian perceptions -. passion etc.The Indian ³chitta vritti´ or state of mind seeks to understand and analyse natural inclination. dwesh. where soul is regarded as the core. (hate) and replacing them. so that they can be controlled consciously. ‡ The vedantic tradition recognises body. desire. µraga¶ (anger). ‡ The basic idea is to uplift and refine human personality by overcoming and eliminating negative emotions and disvalues like µtrishna¶ (lust). ‡ The replaced positive value are love. . compassion. ‡ This is known as µchitta suddi¶ (psychological purification).

feels. . ‡ Our consciousness. mental faculties and psychological values derive their strength from the power and qualities of the soul. ‡ Where as modern western thinking do not recognise soul as an object. hence ³Yoga´ as yoga is the way to control waves of mind. and knows. ‡ In order to gain spiritual enlighten the mental thought waves (chitta vritti) must be brought under control.‡ It is the entity which thinks .

philosophy. ‡ It has generated a variety of ideas. religious beliefs and social customs.Cultural level ‡ Indian culture have survived several millennia and has undergone constant changes. ‡ One of the most important characteristics of cultural tradition has been ³tolerance´ ‡ Some consider it as a virtue of ³unity in diversity´ ‡ To others it is contradictory .

‡ The modern attitude of Indian culture brings strong sense of pride. ‡ It is an emotional response satisfying a psychological need for strong cultural identity as also a sense of belongingness. ‡ This identity is with smaller sub ± cultural groups divided by language. duties and responsibilities. ‡ In the Indian µvalue tradition this is known as µdharma¶. religion. . ‡ Conduct in accordance with µdharma¶ gives meaning and worth to human life. or region. ramayan] ‡ Dharma defines and clarifies the virtue of µsadguna¶ and µsadachar¶. which provides the regulating principles for pursuing µartha¶ and µkama¶ and guide for spiritual pursuits.[eg-mahabharat.

Ethos ‡ Derived from Greek word ethos [character]. ‡ Ethics implies knowledge of these basic principles and the responsibility to make the appropriate choice whenever necessary . refers to philosophical science that deals with rightness and wrongness of human action ‡ Ethics refers to most important values and beliefs of an individual/society ‡ The beliefs helps shape character of people in that society. teaching them what is good and what is bad.

.Professional Ethics ‡ It refers to the ethical obligations that people in professional occupation have to follow because of their professional status. resolving and justifying moral judgements concerning engineering. ‡ It encompasses how professionals behave in their professional work and not merely how they conduct themselves. ‡ Engineering ethics is the activity and discipline aimed at understanding the moral values that ought to guide engineering practice.

markets are limited. ‡ Plus globalization. technical backup . finance.Ethics in profession ‡ With the increasing complexity and sophistication brought about by technical about technological advances and knowledge explosion. which means fierce competition to get the maximum of these basic needs. material. liberalisation and privatisation have opened interplay of innumerable actors in the world stage. infrastructure. ‡ On other hand. ‡ It has become necessary to further define and redefine the definition of ethics to suit variety of activities. ‡ . ‡ More often than not organisations indulge in practices which may not be termed as strictly ethical. natural resources.

. ‡ Since they do not experiment with human beings. ‡ Engineering involves applied research and development.Engineering Profession ‡ Engineers experiment with things and processes. ‡ Social experimentation is a research process. ‡ But since there is always a strong human interface in the use of process and results of these experiments benefits the human only. their experiment may not be regarded as social experimentation. ‡ It seeks to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects involved in the process.

. management. ‡ They are technical enablers or facilitators. but they are not sole experimenters. public and stake holders.Responsibilities of Engineers ‡ Engineers are experimenter. ‡ Their responsibilities are shared with colleagues.

its implications and determine who are involved and who are affected. . ‡ He has to be the guardian of public interest. ‡ A engineer has to be sensitive to a range of moral values and relevant responsibilities. breach any confidentiality or tamper with data. ‡ They should not violate any rights.Conscientiousness ‡ It means commitment to live according to certain moral values. ‡ Conscientiousness implies consciousness. ‡ They have to evaluate a given situation.

‡ . Normally one is held responsible for the failure of one¶s duty. answerable or obligated.Accountability ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ It means being responsible. It assumes that there is a duty that one has to discharge . ‡ In extreme they even resigns from their posts. It may be individual or collective. Responsible people are expected to accept moral responsibility for their actions. liable.

‡ Engineers should always act as to treat persons as µend in themselves¶ not as means to ends. self law. while nomos means µlaw¶.or self regulation.e.Moral autonomy ‡ In Greek auto means µself¶. i. ‡ As an experiment an engineer is exercising his identity as a professional societies. ‡ It denotes absence of external constraints plus a positive power of self ± determination. .

‡ This is a continuous process and confidentiality must be maintained.Being informed ‡ An engineer has to show the commitment to obtain and properly assess all the information pertinent to meeting one¶s moral obligations. ‡ The cost benefit analysis of information collection is to be estimated by the engineer. ‡ Conscientiousness is blind without relevant factual information. .

ASCE.Code of ethics ‡ Engineering societies like IEEE. IBM have developed code of ethics for their members and staff engineers some of them are company specifics. ASME etc. . TISCO. plus technologically advanced companies like Texas Instruments. ABET.

It creates for creativity and going beyond existing stardards. they first try to understand . Laws insist on compliance of minimum standards. gather information and deliver Judgement.[Titanic life boats] . ‡ Laws tend to lag behind technology development ( Indian broadcasting law is 100 year + old) ‡ Experimentation is not a standardised activity and general standards cannot always be applied.Awareness of law ‡ With experimentation exposes importance of law and places greater burden on moral responsibility on engineers ± which goes beyond following laws blindly. ‡ Judiciary normally do not have much understanding of engineering technology.

environmental laws. ‡ It is thought as ³ fairly safe or relatively safe´ ‡ The safety norms or standards are mandatory as per various laws e. ISI. ‡ . pollution control. etc.Safety ‡ Safety is an objective as well as subjective matter. values perspective differ. since most often.g.

Safety .

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