Values of Ethics in Profession

Values± something we pick-up from our family, peer, society we live in, which moulds our personality, our thinking, behavior and attitude. Values -- are a set of principles/standards of behavior that are desirable, important and our society holds them in high esteem Vales ± means ³to be of worth´ and µto be strong¶ It means ± something that has a price, precious, dear, and worthwhile, for which suffering, sacrifice and even dying is worth

Corporate Governance
µCorporate governance is not just running the business of the company, but giving a direction to the enterprise, overseeing and controlling the executive actions of the management with satisfying legitimate expectation of accountability and regulation of corporate interest beyond the boundaries¶

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µTHE STAKE HOLDER¶S-SATISFACTION µTHE SHARE HOLDER¶S- ³ THE EMPLOYEE -³ µTHE PRODUCT USER - ³ µTHE VENDOR -³ µTHE ETHICAL VALUES `THE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY¶

On reaching office Sunil wanted to congratulate gautam for the orders. the finance director of rank electronics. there is no money in the bank as the purchase director had given a cheque of 25 crores to one of the suppliers.d.25 crores have been debited to their account leaving very little in the bank. however. his secretary met him in a state of shock. was returning after a successful trip to America from where trail orders for their TV sets had been secured through his efforts. as he entered his chamber. had started the day well when he got the news that the company¶s m. Sunil went around finding the facts and he realized that yes.Case study 1 ‡ Sunil. ¶sir. He really got . which has been paid by the bank¶. Gautam.

worried how to finance the new order. Sunil did a little investigation and found that the order placed and advance payment released is for certain components and will last 6 years. When he reached the residence of `Tiwary. Question ± 1) What action can be taken against Tiwary? 2} How to stop such misuse of power? 3) What system changes should be incorporated? . Where as certain component¶s inventory is down to few weeks and have been neglected by Tiwary. Purchase director confirmed the transaction. On enquiry Tiwary. Sunil planned to visit Tiwary and discuss the matter. Sunil found the supplier of the contract was having a great time. a party was in full swing. enjoys the trust and has considerable power. Incidentally Tiwary is a relative of MD. Sunil understood everything.

CEO landed in jail.Case study-2 CEO¶s unethical behavior In order to save tax and increase profits. huge profit in cash. the exe was transferred and scam was caught. CEOs logic was simple ± with less power consumption shown. . he will show less production(10%). After 3 yrs. a CEO spoke to a electricity company executive CEO-please bill us only 10% of our consumption and I will take care of you. So less excise and sales tax. Exe ± how much? It was decided 15lakh will be paid to the Exe every month for next 5 years.

Ethics ‡ Derived from µethos¶. ‡ Example ± a colleague makes several personal calls from office. What should you do? ‡ a] talk to him/her and request to refrain ‡ b] inform above ‡ c] keep quite . Actually it is a manifestation of morals and values in the form decision. which means character.

Moral and Human Values ‡ Moral ± are the standards. norms or principles of what is right or wrong ‡ Human values are the vales of the human being for the human beings and by the human beings ‡ Moral + values + ethics = Human values ‡ Value creation in an organization is by adopting ethical practices and behavior of all personnel especially the key persons (people who matter ) .

if and when exposed wipes out all the good work -. sand and stone chips leads to cost saving at the cost of weakening of the structure. ‡ 3] To enhance the value system organizations has to remain above board ± TATA ‡ 4] Although PR activity improves µimage. small fraud. ‡ 2] Slowly it becomes a habit. ultimately becomes a habit in corporate life and a clean image vanishes ± CWC scam.g.e. BATA . Example ± adding less than prescribed proportion of cement in the mixture of cement.The problem areas ‡ 1] Slight variation in ethical practices leads to short term profits.

Business Ethics ‡ Business ethics covers all major and minor activity. ± Australian vendors of CWC are yet to be paid although they have received payments for their services in Beijing Olympics ‡ Share holders . g] suppliers ± e. f] public. d] consumers. b] secondary stake holders..g. systems followed/practiced in an organization example ± the PF contributions of employees not deposited every month ‡ Business Ethics covers ± a] primary stake holders. e] environmental players. c] customers. process.[secondary stakeholders] ± {ROI+} .

semi processed material -.vendor being relative of management supplies poor quality material -.No test run .production process/management -.poor quality packaging -.specification not followed -.JIT not followed -. -.no quality inspection ± before or after -.safety norms flouted/flashy outside.Important areas ‡ Some of the important areas in Corporate where ethical practices assumes maximum importance ± ‡ i] Production ii] HR iii] Sales and Marketing iv] Finance v] IT Production ± raw material supplied by suppliers ± substandard -.

IT ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Software piracy Espionage Recruiting key persons from rival organization ATM fraud Over pricing of products Over valuation of products/process Example ± AT &T ± 1995-1996 .

building. machinery Over stocking .Finance ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Manipulation of share prices High payment to staff to avoid income tax Improper projection of cost of land.

± the moral of honesty results in integrity. Service is responsibility.µa person comes to office late everyday but insists his staff to be on time. Even orders fine for late coming¶ . ensures discipline and increases productivity. ‡ Integrity is an act of honesty.Does he have the moral right to issue such orders ‡ Work ethics ± are laid down by organizations to be followed by one and all. Work is workshop. -.Value crisis in contemporary society ‡ Integrity ± consistent honest behavior develops integrity. . A good work ethic creates a good work culture. A person is said to be of high integrity when his behavior and action matches.

sharing ± courage ‡ -.g. ‡ E.Caring -. the civil society ‡ -. being intangible. is to go beyond the call of duty to satisfy the receiver.Respect towards others. ± working free for an NGO.Service ‡ Service. -.Living peacefully ± co-operation -‡ Value of time ± time is money . membership and service in Lions or Rotary club ‡ Service is a responsibility of human towards other human being.

. chit chat or any other non productive work in a time which he is paid for. They will never waste time idling.Professionalism ‡ Any profession gives rise to 2 kinds of practitioner a] one who discharges duty as laid down in rule book b] the other who ensures the responsibility is discharged to the core The western philosophy ± µhave money will travel¶ ± these professionals takes payment and will not let any possibility of complain exit.

humanitrism largely amongst middle and elite class . it is fighting the sweeping changes coming from west. feeling for community as one. This has slowly replaced our traditional practice of µatthiti deva bhobo¶. clan and village community. rightism etc.In India ‡ Societal level -‡ India is a country where traditional family values are inter .woved. ‡ The growth of µisms¶ has divided the rural society and urban society. Although this group consciousness has remained mostly confined to caste. consumerism. we are today being absorbed by individualism.

‡ It featured parliamentary democracy. No attempt was made to examine the underpinning values of the new system. to harmonise them with our own value system and to assimilate them into our societal and intellectual temper. ‡ These were very different from the prevailing system and societal values. . rule of law. legislature and judiciary.‡ At the time of Independence we gave ourselves a thoroughly enlightened and egalitarian constitution for creating a good and modern society. equality and fraternity and a new system of governance was adopted. It promised to secure all citizens for justice. liberty. balance of power between the executive and judiciary and fundamental rights of citizen.

voicing our demands. this is now crumbling as new generation is on the move of aspiration. where values of sharing and caring was inculcated through way of life. society. ‡ No attempt was made to educate the new generation to develop their social consciousness. ‡ Our strength was our joint family based institution. democratic temper and attitudes ‡ ³democracy to people means. . asserting our rights or registering our protests but not accepting responsibility towards community. our obligations discharge´ ‡ Last few decades while we achieved economic. material progress mainly it benefited the rich and not-so-rich.‡ The contemporary elite had very little or no sensitivity towards the values of the constitution.

‡ This value system develop affects our attitudes. ³he is a good person´. kindness. aspiration and to achieve. ³she is honest´ etc. compassion may decline lucrative career options. feelings. justice. ‡ On the other hand those who value morality. human and ethical implications. where one has to compromise these values ‡ Another dimension of value crisis at individual levels the rise of ³right consciousness and steep decline of ³duty consciousness´ . activities and experiences. ‡ We analyse these experiences unconsciously and attach different degree of importance to them ‡ The basis of this evaluation is our system of values. we ignore social. goals.‡ Value expresses quantitative significance or importance to ideas. preferences.

philosophers. imitative and reactive. rather than being creative and proactive ‡ The fragmentation of knowledge into almost watertight academic compartments are producing narrowly focused specialists and super specialists. and other intellectual sets the tone ‡ They do critical examination of social and human situations and generate new ideas and solutions to human problems ‡ Unfortunately contemporary intellectuals are mainly critics. .Intellectual level ‡ The value climate of a society is closely linked to its intellectual level ‡ Writers. academicians.

businessman.] ‡ At the intellectual level we do not question the µwest based¶ ruling..‡ This is resulting in intellectual vacuum ‡ Today society values and norms are being dictated by politicians.g. values« ‡ At the intellectual level we do not question the west based ruling.Rajiv Gandhi. fashion statements . Mukesh Ambani. Big B««.Dhoni. film stars. fashion statements. Cricketers. M. TV personalities and fiction writers [e.S..

industry. ‡ All the social institutions like judiciary. state. specialised professions. socialism etc. democracy.Nature of values ‡ Human value perceptions decide whether it will be a just society. trade and commerce etc. . educational institutions. are different ways of realising certain cherised values at the societal level. ‡ The different socio ± political ideologies like liberalism. a caring society or a ruthless society. have been created for the realisation of some values deemed necessary for the common good of the society. ‡ The balance between the material and moral values decides the overall goodness of a society.

knowledge and bliss are ultimate values ‡ In the Buddhist tradition the ultimate goal of life is considered to be liberation from the bondage of ³Dhuka´. ‡ In India ± existence. ‡ This is the age of µreasoning¶ which started in early 1800s in Europe at the time of ³Renaissance´ . caused by ignorance and µtrishna¶. This leads to µNIRVANA¶ ‡ Unfortunately the hold of religion on the minds of new generation is getting weaker and is steadily declining. goodness and beauty are the ultimate values.‡ In the highly intellectual Greek tradition truth.

‡ Simply thinking or dreaming do not gaurantee good life it wants. to dream and to create visions of a good life. and the civilization moves up from one tier to next higher tier. it has to create conditions and capabilities to translate the dreams into reality . because they became complacent and stopped dreaming. ‡ Civilization after civilization has simply vanished from the earth .Value spectrum of good life ‡ Creative thinking is one of the most prized endowments of human beings ‡ It helps people to think. It is an on going process ‡ Every generation thinks dreams and finally articulate the ways and means to better their life.

the mirror of Europe± aarsi of India] . bullock cart wheel. some more fundamental.‡ There are difference in these dreams over different individuals . ‡ Yet there is a large quantum of commonality in the conceptions of values which constitute a µgood life¶ [ example ± the chariot wheel. groups and culture ‡ Some may be matter of details.

--------------It must be free of wants and deprivations The basic needs must be fulfilled. Next comes ---.---------.material comfort and conveniences. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .The good life The need --The want ---. which adds to comfort and joy ‡ A life with continuous struggle for survival is not a good life ‡ A good life is a life that allows relaxation and recreation ‡ Values associated with material aspect/comfort of living are called material values.------.

earning a livelihood and freedom to blossom to their potential [apartment life ± USA life style] ‡ Societal values refers to making a good society. They are operatives in social structures and the basic social institutions created by society .Societal values ‡ Good life can be lived only in a good society ‡ Such society provides peace. harmony and general well being with overall growth ‡ This is necessary to ensure social cooperation for production of material and social goods ‡ In a good society everyone is aware of their rights.

through production and distribution of shareable social goods´. ‡ µhuman development¶ means development of a total human personality. ‡ ³society is an organisation for co-operative working to seek human development. . ‡ The quality of individual and collective life of complex modern society very much depends on societal values. ‡ This definition clearly recognises that main objective as all social arrangements is to seek human development.‡ They affect the manner in which the economic and political activities of the society is carried out and how power and authority are distributed in it.

reward. liberties. recognition. b] the common economic development ± shared by all. ‡ Our constitution provides rights.‡ µshareable goods¶ means ± a] common physical facilities like road. freedom as social goods ‡ The modern search for a µgood society¶ talks of three societal values ± justice. rule of law and democracy ‡ JUSTICE ± on one hand it means people getting their rightful dues. on the other hand the area of law. liberties. transportation. water. meeting valid demands. legal justice is a formal proceedure followed by courts adjucating conflicting claims of litigants. gas «etc. . respect for rights. ‡ Legal issues decided as per constitutional and legal provisions. electricity.

‡ They do critical examination of social and human situations and generate new ideas and solutions to human problems . ‡ Writers. philosophers and other intellectuals sets the tone. academicians.‡ The value climate of a society is closely linked to its intellectual level.

‡ Resulting in a intellectual vacuum. fashion statements . businessmen. imitative and reactive rather than being creative and pro-active. Rajiv Gandhi. ‡ Today society values and norms being set by political leaders. Mandira Bedi. Sharukh Khan.g. TV personalities. film celebrities and even fiction writers. Ratan Tata. (e.) ‡ At the intellectual level we do not question the west based rulin ..‡ Unfortunately contemporary intellectuals are mainly critics. ‡ The fragmentation of knowledge into almost water tight academic compartments are producing narrowly focused specialists and super specialists.

‡ There should not be any stress. . The value determinants of a good life can be grouped into 2 categories. maturity for a good life. psychological conflicts. motives and goals. ‡ Internal ± These values are concerned with the quality of emotional and mental life of an individual. external behavior and our sense of well ± being. happiness and harmony. ‡ They collectively shape our personality. It is the attitudes and myriad of mental processes which covers the world of our feelings.Psychological values ‡ One must possess sound mental health. desires. impulses.

‡ A good person must be a moral person. . nature and life leads to bliss and is called Aesthetic values.Aesthetic values ‡ Creation and enjoyment of beauty are part of a good life. A careful cultivation of taste for appreciating beauty in art. his personal conduct and social interrelations must be based on ethical principles. ‡ Ethical and moral values occupies the centre stage in good life.

passion and impulses arising out of unconscious state of mind. ‡ All these studies termed human being as a complicated machine or lower level organisms whose behavior is governed by deterministic laws. ‡ They painted a grim picture of animal like instincts. Neurobiological approach tries to explain all human emotions. experiences and action in terms of neural activities within the brain and the nervous system. ‡ While behavioral psychology saw human as a black box whose responses could be predicted by observing different responses it exhibits in response to different stimuli. .Humanistic Psychology ‡ Earlier studies were more looking at human behavior and personality instead of positive and healthy aspects.

which gives meaning. . ‡ They have inner capacities.‡ But that is not all of a human. ‡ The modern branch of humanistic psychology believes individual have freedom to choose and determine their own action. purpose. ‡ What about his humanity. strengths and values. ‡ An increasing openness to experience. also an urge to grow into a full human person. ‡ The individuals become more openly aware of their own feeling and attitudes. dignity and value to his existence.

‡ He is able to perceive it as it comes and not in an pre-conceived notion. .‡ He also becomes aware of reality as it exists outside his world. ‡ This increasing ability to be open to new experiences prepares him to meet µnew people¶ and µnew problems¶.

in himself] Some persons have more trust on themselves.Increasing existential living ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Also called µLiving life fully in each moment¶ Such living means absence of rigidity of tight organisation. their judgments and achieve greater µpersonhood¶. ‡ Their µfeels right¶ is more trustworthy guide than others advice. It means ± a flowing. . decisions and standards to live by. a charging organisation of self and personality An increasing trust in his own organism [i. ‡ They have an internal locus of evaluation for their choices.e.

Maslow¶s Hierarchy of needs
Self actualisation Aesthetic needs Cognitive needs Esteem needs Societal needs Safety needs Psychological needs

Characteristics of self actualisation person
‡ The highest level of human needs ± ³to become everything one is capable of becoming´ ‡ They have more efficient perception of reality and a more comfortable relation with it. (e.g. politician) ‡ They are good judges of people. They can easily detect fake, spurious and dishonest. ‡ They cheerfully accept themselves, other people and the world for what they are. ‡ They do not feel defensive and do not suffer from inferiority complex.

Mental health
‡ The process of living and growing always involves conflicts, stresses, frustrations and anxieties. ‡ Our quality of life, internal sense of harmony, happiness and wellbeing is inversely dependent on our ability to cope with frustrations.

‡ 3] Control of behavior ± a mentally healthy person¶s behavior is controlled by their conscious. fancies. (e. It means we understand our limits.Characteristics of mental health ‡ Efficient perception of reality ± as described in Maslow¶s needs. feelings. They are not carried away by impulses. . strengths on which to move forward and our weaknesses which needs covering up and rectification.g. ‡ 1] self knowledge ± to understand ourselves. moods. crowd burning trucks. preferences and values ‡ 2]Self analysis requires introspection neutrally. our motives. buses or trains) They control negative and socially disapproved urges.

. a desire to help. ‡ It is built on affection. self centered. ‡ Cold. care. possessive persons fails to enjoy good life.Affectionate relationship ‡ Quality of life depends on the quality of relationship one builds up. Feeling for others. trust. love.

it gives them joy. ‡ They are not bored and do not complain of lack of opportunities . satisfaction and a sense of fulfillment.Productivity ‡ Mentally healthy person will utilise time and energy in useful and productive activity.

µraga¶ (anger). desire. passion etc. ‡ The replaced positive value are love. . dwesh. where soul is regarded as the core. (hate) and replacing them. ‡ The basic idea is to uplift and refine human personality by overcoming and eliminating negative emotions and disvalues like µtrishna¶ (lust).The Indian ³chitta vritti´ or state of mind seeks to understand and analyse natural inclination. ‡ This is known as µchitta suddi¶ (psychological purification). mind and soul. compassion. ‡ The vedantic tradition recognises body.Indian context ‡ Indian perceptions -. so that they can be controlled consciously.

. and knows.‡ It is the entity which thinks . feels. hence ³Yoga´ as yoga is the way to control waves of mind. ‡ Where as modern western thinking do not recognise soul as an object. mental faculties and psychological values derive their strength from the power and qualities of the soul. ‡ In order to gain spiritual enlighten the mental thought waves (chitta vritti) must be brought under control. ‡ Our consciousness.

Cultural level ‡ Indian culture have survived several millennia and has undergone constant changes. religious beliefs and social customs. ‡ One of the most important characteristics of cultural tradition has been ³tolerance´ ‡ Some consider it as a virtue of ³unity in diversity´ ‡ To others it is contradictory . ‡ It has generated a variety of ideas. philosophy.

religion. or region.‡ The modern attitude of Indian culture brings strong sense of pride. ‡ This identity is with smaller sub ± cultural groups divided by language. ‡ Conduct in accordance with µdharma¶ gives meaning and worth to human life. . duties and responsibilities. ramayan] ‡ Dharma defines and clarifies the virtue of µsadguna¶ and µsadachar¶. ‡ In the Indian µvalue tradition this is known as µdharma¶. ‡ It is an emotional response satisfying a psychological need for strong cultural identity as also a sense of belongingness. which provides the regulating principles for pursuing µartha¶ and µkama¶ and guide for spiritual pursuits.[eg-mahabharat.

Ethos ‡ Derived from Greek word ethos [character]. ‡ Ethics implies knowledge of these basic principles and the responsibility to make the appropriate choice whenever necessary . teaching them what is good and what is bad. refers to philosophical science that deals with rightness and wrongness of human action ‡ Ethics refers to most important values and beliefs of an individual/society ‡ The beliefs helps shape character of people in that society.

. ‡ It encompasses how professionals behave in their professional work and not merely how they conduct themselves. ‡ Engineering ethics is the activity and discipline aimed at understanding the moral values that ought to guide engineering practice.Professional Ethics ‡ It refers to the ethical obligations that people in professional occupation have to follow because of their professional status. resolving and justifying moral judgements concerning engineering.

markets are limited. ‡ It has become necessary to further define and redefine the definition of ethics to suit variety of activities. material.Ethics in profession ‡ With the increasing complexity and sophistication brought about by technical about technological advances and knowledge explosion. ‡ On other hand. finance. natural resources. ‡ More often than not organisations indulge in practices which may not be termed as strictly ethical. which means fierce competition to get the maximum of these basic needs. ‡ Plus globalization. technical backup . liberalisation and privatisation have opened interplay of innumerable actors in the world stage. infrastructure. ‡ .

‡ But since there is always a strong human interface in the use of process and results of these experiments benefits the human only. ‡ It seeks to protect the rights and welfare of human subjects involved in the process. ‡ Engineering involves applied research and development. ‡ Social experimentation is a research process. ‡ Since they do not experiment with human beings.Engineering Profession ‡ Engineers experiment with things and processes. . their experiment may not be regarded as social experimentation.

‡ They are technical enablers or facilitators. but they are not sole experimenters. management. public and stake holders. ‡ Their responsibilities are shared with colleagues. .Responsibilities of Engineers ‡ Engineers are experimenter.

‡ He has to be the guardian of public interest. ‡ They should not violate any rights. ‡ A engineer has to be sensitive to a range of moral values and relevant responsibilities. ‡ Conscientiousness implies consciousness. its implications and determine who are involved and who are affected.Conscientiousness ‡ It means commitment to live according to certain moral values. breach any confidentiality or tamper with data. . ‡ They have to evaluate a given situation.

‡ . Responsible people are expected to accept moral responsibility for their actions. It assumes that there is a duty that one has to discharge . Normally one is held responsible for the failure of one¶s duty.Accountability ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ It means being responsible. It may be individual or collective. ‡ In extreme they even resigns from their posts. liable. answerable or obligated.

self law. while nomos means µlaw¶.Moral autonomy ‡ In Greek auto means µself¶. ‡ As an experiment an engineer is exercising his identity as a professional societies. i. . ‡ Engineers should always act as to treat persons as µend in themselves¶ not as means to ends.or self regulation. ‡ It denotes absence of external constraints plus a positive power of self ± determination.e.

.Being informed ‡ An engineer has to show the commitment to obtain and properly assess all the information pertinent to meeting one¶s moral obligations. ‡ The cost benefit analysis of information collection is to be estimated by the engineer. ‡ Conscientiousness is blind without relevant factual information. ‡ This is a continuous process and confidentiality must be maintained.

TISCO. .Code of ethics ‡ Engineering societies like IEEE. ASCE. ASME etc. IBM have developed code of ethics for their members and staff engineers some of them are company specifics. plus technologically advanced companies like Texas Instruments. ABET.

gather information and deliver Judgement. ‡ Judiciary normally do not have much understanding of engineering technology. It creates for creativity and going beyond existing stardards.Awareness of law ‡ With experimentation exposes importance of law and places greater burden on moral responsibility on engineers ± which goes beyond following laws blindly. Laws insist on compliance of minimum standards.[Titanic life boats] . ‡ Laws tend to lag behind technology development ( Indian broadcasting law is 100 year + old) ‡ Experimentation is not a standardised activity and general standards cannot always be applied. they first try to understand .

g. ISI. values perspective differ. environmental laws. ‡ . pollution control. ‡ It is thought as ³ fairly safe or relatively safe´ ‡ The safety norms or standards are mandatory as per various laws e.Safety ‡ Safety is an objective as well as subjective matter. since most often. etc.

Safety .

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