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# Clarkson University – ES222, Strength of Materials

## Final Exam – Formula Sheet

Axial Loading
P F F
Normal Stress: σ = Splice joint: τ ave = Single shear: τ ave =
A A A
F P
Double shear: τ ave = Bearing stress: σ b =
2A td

P P
σ= cos 2 θ , τ = sin θ cosθ
Ao Ao

ultimate load
Factor of Safety = F.S. =
allowable load

## Stress and Strain – Axial Loading

δ
Normal strain: ε = Normal stress: σ = Eε Shear stress: τ = Gγ
L
PL PL
Elongation: δ = Rods in series: δ = ∑ i i

AE i Ai Ei
Thermal elongation: δ T = α ( ∆T ) L Thermal strain: ε T = α ( ∆T )
lateral strain
Poisson’s ratio: ν = −
axial strain
σ x νσ y νσ z
Generalized Hooke’s Law: εx = − −
E E E
νσ x σ y νσ z
εy = − + −
E E E
νσ x νσ y σz
εz = − − +
E E E
τ xy τ yz τ xz
γ xy = , γ yz = , γ xz =
G G G

Units: k = 103 M = 106 G = 109 Pa = N/m2 psi = lb/in2 ksi = 103 lb/in2

## Coordinates of the Centroid: x =

∑ xA i i i
y=
∑ yA i i i

∑A i i ∑A i i

Parallel Axis Theorem: I x ' = I x + Ad , where d is the distance from the x–axis to the x’–axis
2
y

1 3
Iz = bh
12 h
1 z
I y = hb3
12
b

Torsion:
ρφ cφ
γ= γ max =
L L
Tρ Tc
τ= τ max = τ =γG
J J
TL T
φ= solid rod: J = 12 π c 4
JG
hollow rod: J = 12 π ( co4 − ci4 )
Ti Li
Rods in Series: φ = ∑
i J i Gi
y

Pure Bending: x

My Mc M
σx = − σ max = = M M
I I S
y 1 M
εx = − ε y = ε z = −νε x σ = εE =
ρ ρ EI
ρ = radius of curvature
y
General Eccentric Loading: dz

dy
P M y M z
σx = − z + y
A Iz Iy P
P C
! ! ! ! ! ! z x
Mz = dy × P M y = dz × P

## Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams

dV xd
= − w → VD − VC = − ∫ wdx = − (area under load curve between C and D)
dx xc

dM xd
=V → M D − M C = ∫ Vdx = +(area under shear curve between C and D)
dx xc

## Shear Stress in Beams

VQ VQ
τ ave = q= = shear per unit length Q = Ay
It I

Stress Transformation

σ x +σ y  σ −σ y 
2

+ (τ xy )
2
Principal stresses: σ max,min = ±  x 
2  2 
2τ xy
Principal planes: tan 2θ p =
σ x −σ y
σ x −σ y
Planes of maximum in-plane shear stress: tan 2θ s = −
2τ xy

σ −σ y 
2

+ (τ xy ) = R
2
Maximum in-plane shear stress: τ max =  x 
 2 
σ +σ y
Corresponding normal stress: σ ' = σ ave = x
2

## Thin Walled Pressure Vessels

pr pr
Cylindrical: Hoop stress = σ 1 = Longitudinal stress = σ 2 =
t 2t
pr
Maximum shear stress (out of plane) = τ max = σ 2 =
2t
pr
Spherical: Principal stresses = σ 1 = σ 2 =
2t
σ2 pr
Maximum shear stress (out of plane) = τ max = =
2 4t
Deflections of Beams
1 M ( x) d 2 y dy M ( x)
= = 2 slope = θ ( x ) = =∫ dx + C1
ρ EI dx dx EI
deflection = y ( x ) = ∫ θ ( x ) dx + C2 = elastic curve

Columns

π 2 EI
Pcr =
L2e

For x > a,
replace x with
(L-x) and
interchange a
with b.