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Axial Loading

P F F

Normal Stress: σ = Splice joint: τ ave = Single shear: τ ave =

A A A

F P

Double shear: τ ave = Bearing stress: σ b =

2A td

P P

σ= cos 2 θ , τ = sin θ cosθ

Ao Ao

ultimate load

Factor of Safety = F.S. =

allowable load

δ

Normal strain: ε = Normal stress: σ = Eε Shear stress: τ = Gγ

L

PL PL

Elongation: δ = Rods in series: δ = ∑ i i

AE i Ai Ei

Thermal elongation: δ T = α ( ∆T ) L Thermal strain: ε T = α ( ∆T )

lateral strain

Poisson’s ratio: ν = −

axial strain

σ x νσ y νσ z

Generalized Hooke’s Law: εx = − −

E E E

νσ x σ y νσ z

εy = − + −

E E E

νσ x νσ y σz

εz = − − +

E E E

τ xy τ yz τ xz

γ xy = , γ yz = , γ xz =

G G G

Units: k = 103 M = 106 G = 109 Pa = N/m2 psi = lb/in2 ksi = 103 lb/in2

∑ xA i i i

y=

∑ yA i i i

∑A i i ∑A i i

Parallel Axis Theorem: I x ' = I x + Ad , where d is the distance from the x–axis to the x’–axis

2

y

1 3

Iz = bh

12 h

1 z

I y = hb3

12

b

Torsion:

ρφ cφ

γ= γ max =

L L

Tρ Tc

τ= τ max = τ =γG

J J

TL T

φ= solid rod: J = 12 π c 4

JG

hollow rod: J = 12 π ( co4 − ci4 )

Ti Li

Rods in Series: φ = ∑

i J i Gi

y

Pure Bending: x

My Mc M

σx = − σ max = = M M

I I S

y 1 M

εx = − ε y = ε z = −νε x σ = εE =

ρ ρ EI

ρ = radius of curvature

y

General Eccentric Loading: dz

dy

P M y M z

σx = − z + y

A Iz Iy P

P C

! ! ! ! ! ! z x

Mz = dy × P M y = dz × P

dV xd

= − w → VD − VC = − ∫ wdx = − (area under load curve between C and D)

dx xc

dM xd

=V → M D − M C = ∫ Vdx = +(area under shear curve between C and D)

dx xc

VQ VQ

τ ave = q= = shear per unit length Q = Ay

It I

Stress Transformation

σ x +σ y σ −σ y

2

+ (τ xy )

2

Principal stresses: σ max,min = ± x

2 2

2τ xy

Principal planes: tan 2θ p =

σ x −σ y

σ x −σ y

Planes of maximum in-plane shear stress: tan 2θ s = −

2τ xy

σ −σ y

2

+ (τ xy ) = R

2

Maximum in-plane shear stress: τ max = x

2

σ +σ y

Corresponding normal stress: σ ' = σ ave = x

2

pr pr

Cylindrical: Hoop stress = σ 1 = Longitudinal stress = σ 2 =

t 2t

pr

Maximum shear stress (out of plane) = τ max = σ 2 =

2t

pr

Spherical: Principal stresses = σ 1 = σ 2 =

2t

σ2 pr

Maximum shear stress (out of plane) = τ max = =

2 4t

Deflections of Beams

1 M ( x) d 2 y dy M ( x)

= = 2 slope = θ ( x ) = =∫ dx + C1

ρ EI dx dx EI

deflection = y ( x ) = ∫ θ ( x ) dx + C2 = elastic curve

Columns

π 2 EI

Pcr =

L2e

For x > a,

replace x with

(L-x) and

interchange a

with b.

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