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Published by Muhammad Arsalan

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Published by: Muhammad Arsalan on Apr 13, 2011
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EXPERIMENT # ________ Date: ______________ BLOOD SUGAR LEVEL OBJECT: To determine the Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) and

two hour Post Prandial Blood Sugar (PPBS) APPARATUS AND MATERIAL: Blood glucose monitoring kit (blood glucometer, lancing device, sterile lancets, disposable test strips) THEORY: The blood sugar concentration or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose (sugar) present in the blood of a human or animal. Normally in mammals, the body maintains the blood glucose level at a reference range between about 3.6 and 5.8 mM (mmol/L, i.e., millimoles/liter) (64.8 and 104.4 mg/dL). The human body naturally tightly regulates blood glucose levels as a part of metabolic homeostasis. The mean normal blood glucose level in humans is about 4 mM (4 mmol/L or 72 mg/dL, i.e. milligrams/deciliter); however, this level fluctuates throughout the day. Glucose levels are usually lowest in the morning, before the first meal of the day (termed "the fasting level"), and rise after meals for an hour or two by a few grams. Blood sugar levels outside the normal range may be an indicator of a medical condition. A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by persistent hyperglycemia from any of several causes, and is the most prominent disease related to failure of blood sugar regulation. A temporarily elevated blood sugar level may also result from severe stress, such as trauma, stroke, myocardial infarction, surgery, or illness. Also, certain drugs can increase or decrease glucose levels. Despite widely variable intervals between meals or the occasional consumption of meals with a substantial carbohydrate load, human blood glucose levels normally remain within the normal range. However, shortly after eating the blood glucose level may rise temporarily up to 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) or a bit more in non-diabetics. The American Diabetes Association recommends a post-meal glucose level less than 180 mg/dl (10 mmol/L) and pre-meal plasma glucose of 90 130 mg/dL (5 to 7.2 mmol/L).

Blood glucose laboratory tests: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Fasting blood sugar (i.e., glucose) test (fbs) Urine glucose test Two-hr postprandial blood sugar test (2-h ppbs) Oral glucose tolerance test (ogtt) Intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivgtt) Glycosylated hemoglobin (hba1c) Self-monitoring of glucose level via patient testing

Blood glucose tests are done to:
y y y

Check for diabetes. Monitor treatment of diabetes. Check for diabetes that occurs during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).

Determine if an abnormally low blood sugar level (hypoglycemia) is present. A test to measure blood levels of insulin and a protein called C-peptide may be done along with a blood glucose test to determine the cause of hypoglycemia. BLOOD GLUCOSE METER: A glucose meter (or glucometer) is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. It is a key element of home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) by people with diabetes mellitus or hypoglycemia. A small drop of blood, obtained by pricking the skin with a lancet, is placed on a disposable test strip that the meter reads and uses to calculate the blood glucose level. The meter then displays the level in mg/dl or mmol/l. PROCEDURE: 1. Firmly insert the test strip into the glucometer test port. The meter will automatically turn on and display the code number. Make sure that the code number on display matches the code number on the test strip vial. 2. With the help of lancing device, prick your finger to ooze out a drop of blood. 3. Place your finger tip on the top edge of the test strip. The blood on your finger will automatically draw into the applying channel of the test strip. (a sample volume of 1.5 uL is required) 4. Within 10 seconds the LCD display window will indicate the result of your blood glucose level. RESULT: Fasting blood sugar level = 81 mg/dL Post prandial blood sugar level = 90 mg/dL

Physiological and pathological variations in the blood sugar level:
Hyperglycemia: An abnormal condition in the body leads to high glucose level in the body
due to different reasons: Diabetes mellitus:Diabetes mellitus, often simply referred to as diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of: Polyuria (frequent urination) Polydipsia (increased thirst) Polyphagia (increased hunger). Diabetes mellitus type Iresults from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin. (Also referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM for short, and juvenile diabetes.) Diabetes mellitus type IIresults from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.(Adult-onset diabetes.) Glycosuria: It is the excretion of glucose in urine. It is due to high glucose level in the blood and may lead to Diabetic nephropathy in which there is damage to the renal tissue due to the excretion of glucose through urine. Diabetic retinopathy: Due to persistent hyperglycemia i.e., high glucose level in the body there is accumulation of glucose crystals in the retina of the eye which leads to the decrease in vision. Gestational diabetes (or gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM) is a condition in which women without previously diagnosed diabetes exhibit high blood glucose levels during pregnancy

Hypoglycemia: is the medical term for a state produced by a lower than normal level of
blood glucose. It can produce a variety of symptoms and effects but the principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose to the brain. Effects can range from mild dysphoria (unpleasant or uncomfortable mood) to more serious issues such as seizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death.

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