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Alija IZETBEGOVlC

President th,Presidency of Bosnia and Hercegovina

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A Programme for Islamization of Muslims and the Muslim Peoples

Sarajevo. 1990

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THE ISLAMIC DEC L'A RAT ION

A PROGRAMME FOR THE ISLAMIZATION OF MUSLIMS ~NO THE MUSLIM PEOPLES

OUR GOA~: The Islamization of Muslims OUR MOTTO: Believe and struggle

BISMILLAHIRAHMANtRRAHIM!

The Declaration which we today pre~ent to the public is not prescribed reading. intended to demonstrate to foreiqners or

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doubters the superiority of Islam over any particular system or school of thought.

j It is intended tor Muslims who know where they belong and

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who •• hearts clearly tell them which Side they stand on. For such I

as these. this Declaration is a call to understand the inevitable

consequences of that to which their love al)d. allegiance b'lnd them.

The entire Muslim world is in a state of ferment and change.

Whatever whatever form it eventually takes when the initial effects ot these changes is felt. one thing is certain: it will no longer be the world of the first hal.t.,of this century. The age of

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paSSivity and st«gnation has gone forever.

Everyone is trying to make toke advantage ot this time of movement and change. particularly foreign powe~8. both East and West. Instead of their armies. they now use ideas and capital.

and by a new mode of influence are once more endeavouring to

accomplish the some aim: to ensure their presence and keep the Muslim nations in a state of spiritual helplessness and material and political depen4enc •.

China. RUSSia afld the Western countries quar~el as to who among them will extend D4trOftage ~nd to which ~art of th6 Muslim

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SOUTC ••• occupying. first cIa •• geographical position. heir to co1.s.1 culturel ~M·~11l~c.l tr.cU,tions lAnd "the proponent ot

living Islamic thought. cannot long remain in a state of

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vassalage. There is no power which C6n cheek the new Muslim

generation from putting an end to this abnormal state of affairs.

In this conviction, 'We announce" to our friends Gnd enemiea

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Glike t~Gt Muslims Gre determined to toke tho t.t. of tho I~lGmic

world into their own hands and arrange that world according to their own vislon of it.

From this point of vfew. the ideas contained in the Declaration are not absolutely new .. This is rather a synthesis ot ideas heard with increolling frequency in various place. and 'Which are accQrded aboutth. same importance in all ports ofth. Musl~ .

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world. Its novelty lies in that it ••• k. to promote ideos ~cl V

plans into orgonized .ction.

The.struggle towards new goa18 did not begin today. On" the

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contrary. it has already experienced 6hihad4* and its history conT tains page. of the su·ffering of 1isv1ct1ms. Still. this i.

mainl,.· t:.ho pcr-oonol aocl"i·fjc:o of ex~.pt.ioilCll .imllv.hluah,J or

courageous minor qroups in colI ision wi ththe m10hty forOA. (')1 t.hA JahiJiy~ft. The magnitude ot the proble ... end .:its d.ifficulties. however. required tl'te organized action of millions.

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*5hihad~: martyrdom .. JahjJiya: the godless. Period otdarkness prior to Islam. (TransJatori8 note).

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Our message is dedi~~ted to the memory of our comrades who have fallen in the nam' of Islam.

Saraje.vo, 1970 Jumadj-l~wwaJ. 1390

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Do we want the Muslim peoples to break out of th~ circle of dependence~ bdckwardn~ss and poverty?

Do we w~nt them to step cut confidently onch more en the road

to dignity and ~nJigheenm(Jnt, to become the tnalltlJrs of their own destiny?

Do we want burning courage. genius and virtue to burst forth

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again in all their force?

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Then we can clearly show the way which leads to this goal:

The generltting of Islll.m in all rJreas of ptJrson"l snasvtav«! life. in the f4mily and society, through the renewal 'of Islamic religious thought and t~e creationot a united

This gOal may seem remote and improbable. but it is nonethe-

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ieas realistic, becauee it is the only one located within the

bounds of possibility. In contrast. eV6ry non-Islamic programme may seem to be close and ~jthin range of its target. but tor the

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Islamic world this is pure utopia, because these programmes lie in the realm of the impossible.

History demonstrates one tact clearly: Islam is the 3l0g1p idea which has been able to excit$ the imagination ot the

MU81im peoples and to instil in them the necessary measure of

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.d.i.c1p11n.~ 1napiJ" .. tio~ and energy. No otber' 14ea1.for.1gn to

1.1 ••• h •• ever _nag.CS to bold ""ayin any meaningful way either "W ",

in th.' cui tur. or at etat.;··Jev.1. In fact, .11 .tbat 18 great or

noteworthy in the history of the Muslim peoples has been done under the banner of Islam. A few thousand tried warriors of IslGm torced Britain to withdraw from Suez in the 19508, while the

''';combined armies of the Arab nationalist regilDts are now tor the third time losing the batt.le against Ierael. Turkey ~8 an Islamic country ruled the world. Turkey as • plagi~ry of Europe is now a th1rdrate country. like·a hundred others througho~t the world.

Just 1.1ke an 1n<lividual. a people that has accepted Islam 18 tfl.reatterinc~p.bl. ot 1 iving and. dying tor any ot.her id~al. It 1. unthinkablle that • Muslim should sacrifice himself tor any

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king or ruler. no metter Wbo he might be. or for the glory of any

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nation or pArty. »eca~se the strong.at islamic inatinct Tec~n1ze.

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in this a kind of paganh.m and idolatry. A Mus! im can cUe only in

the name of Allah.nd for the glory of Islam. or tlee the

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battlefield.

Per1oc:la of passivity and stagnation in fact mean the absence

.. o~ an Islamic alternative or. unreadiness on the pl1rt of the Mus 1 im population to take the uphill path. They are the negative expre.eion of the spiritual ~nopoly which Islam holds over the Islamic worlc1.

While accepting this .1tuation as an expression of the Will

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of God, W6 positivly state that the I81~ic world cannot be renewed without 18:1am O\" against it. Islam and. its deep-rooted.

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precepts on man's place in the world, the Pur"pose of human life, the relationship betwe6n God and man arid between man and mono remains 4 lasting and irreplaceable ethical. philosophical. ideological and political foundation tor every authentic action

taken toward's rene'Wa 1 and improvement of the stAte ot the Mus 1 im

peoples.

The alternative is starx: either a move towards 151amic re-

newal. or passivity and stagnation. is no third pos.ib11ity.

For the Muslim peoples, there

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MUSLIM

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CONSERV~TIVES AND MODERNISTS

The, idea'ot 1151am:i.c renewal. which understands Islam as capable not only of educating human beings but a180 of ordering the world. will always have two types.of people as its opponent.: .. conserv~~ives who want the old torms. ond.modernists who want someone

else's forma. The former drag Islam back into the past. the

latter push it towards an alien future.

Deepi te differences·, both categories of people have something in common: both see Islam only as a religion. in the European sense of the word. A certain locK of feeling for the finess,. ot language and logic. and an even greater failure to grasp·the

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essence ot Islam and it. role in history and the world. le~ them

to interpret Islamic belief as religion. which for a very special

reason i8 quite.erroneous.

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Although it may seem a reconfirmation of the fundomenta·l truths on the origin of man and his mi •• ion. the Ialamic approach is quite new in one aspect - that of its demand for the conjunction ottaith and knowledge, morals and polities. ideals and interests. By recognizing the existence of two worlds. the natural end the in'terior •. IBlam teaches that it is men who bridges the' chasm between them. Without this oneness, religion tends towards backwardness {the rejection ot 'any kind. of productive

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lite). and knowledge towards atheism,

Starting from the viewpoint that Islam is merely a rel igion.

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conservetives will conclude that Islam should not. and progress-

ives that it cannot. organize the external ~orld. The practical result 18 the same.

The main. if not the only. proponent of the conservative idea in the Muslim world todaY'is the class represented .by the hajj$ and sheikhs 'Who. in contrast to clear ciictates on the nonexistence ot a clergy in Islam. have emerged as an organized. closs whicbhas preempted the interpretation of Islam and set itself up as a~ intermediary between man and the Qu'ran., As clergy, they.are

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th'oloqjans; as theologians. they are invariably dogmatic and. as

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"·the faith has been given once and for ell. in their opinion it has aleo been interpreted once and for all. Therefore the best thing

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to do is to leave everything as it was handed down and defined a

thousand or more years ago. The unavoidable logic of these dogmatists turns'theolo~ists into bitter·enemies of anything new. Any further remodelling of the Sharia as law. in.the sense of applying Qu'ran1c principles to new Situations which continue to emerge from wo~ld developments. is equated with an attack on the integrity of the faith. Perhaps even h.ere there is a love of Islam. but it is the pathological love of narrowminde9 and backward people. ~hose deathllKe embrace has strangled the still living Islamic idea.

It would, however. be wrong to think that Islam has remalr,~d

a closed book in the hands of the theologists. Increasingly

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things tot.l1y·'I~.ignto Isl_ic. learning, inclu4ing .heer super- 8t1tion~ It will ~~ ·1~(U.t.1Y evident to anyone who knows the noture of theology why it h •• been unable to withstand the temptation of mfthology. and ~hy it has seen even in this a certain enrichment of religious thought. The monotheism of the Qu"ran. the purest and most perfect 'in the history of religious learning, has been gradually compromise4, whUe in practice 0 distastelul trade in belief has emerged. Those who cell themselves interpreters and guardians of the faith hove made a career of it· - a very agreeable and profitable one - and without many qualms of conscience have come to accept a state of attairs in which its

message. have not been implemented at all.

~. Theologians hive turned-out to be the wrong people in th.

wrong place.

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Now. when the Mu.l1m world is giving all signs.¥of an

awakening, this class hOB become the e~pression of all that is

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glOomy and scleroti~ in that world. It has shown itself to be quite incapable of taking any kir\d of constructive step toward.s Making the Islamic world toee up to the adversities which press upon it.

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As tar aa the so-called progres.ives. westerners. modernists and whatever e1,s. they are called are concerned. they areth~ . eXemp11tieationot Teal mistortune throughout the Muslim world. as they are Quit. numerous and influential. ~otably in government. education and public lite. Seeing the hajjs and conservatives

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conservatives ·as the personification of Islam. andconvincinq

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others to do likewise. the modernists raise a front against.al)

that the idea represents. These self-styled reformers in the present-day Muslim countries may be recognized by their pride in what they should rather be ashamed of. and their shame in what they sheu 1 d be proud of. These are USU4 11 Y "daddy's sons". . schooled in Europe. from which they return with a deep sense of their own inferiority towards the wealthy West and 0 personal superiority over the poverty-etricKen and bacKward surroundings from which they spring. Lacking an Islamic upbringing and or any

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• ~lritual or moral links with the people. they quiCkly lose their

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elementary criteria and imaq1ne that by destroying local ideas -, customs and convictions. while introducing alien ones, they will build America - for which tbey have an eXaggerated admira-tion - overnight on their home soil. Instead of standards. they introduce the cult of a standard; instead ot developing the potential of thefr own world. they develop desires, thus opening the way to corruption. primitivism and moral chaos":"· They cannot see that the power of the.Western worla doee not lie in how it lives. but in how it works: that its strength is not in fashion, godlessness. night clubs. a younger generation out ot control. but in the extraordinary diligence. persistence. knowledge end responsibility ot its people.

The main ~roblem. theretore. is not that our westerners used

~l ientonns. but that they did not Know how to use them. or - to put it better - that they did not have a suffiCiently developed

and took over inst.ead the harmful # lSuffocatingbyproduct of an- .

other civilization.

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Amon; the prop. of dou))tful ve 1 ue whi'cb ... ·we.t.rner take.,

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home with him ere to be found various ·'revolutionary" idees, reform progrannes and similar "rescue d~rines" which will "solve all problelQS'l, 1unong these "reforms" dye examples ot unbelievable

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shortsightedness and improvization.

Thua.~or example. Mustafa Kerna,1 Attaturk. who was obviously a greater military leader than a cultural reformer and whose services to Turkey should be reduced to their proper measure, in one of his reforms prohibited the wearing of the fez, It soon became evident that changing the shape of their caps co.nnot change ""ho.t is in people's heads or habits.

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Many nations outside the Western sphere haVe been facing the

problem of how to relate to this civilization tor over a c~tUry: whether to opt for outright rejection. c~utious adjustment or total unae l ect tve. .. ·cceptance·, The tr~gedy or triumph of many of them has hung on how they have responded to this fateful question.

There are reforms which reflect the wisdom of a particular nation and others which signify betrayal of itself. The examples of Japan and Turkey ore classics of modern history in this respect,

In the late nineteenth and early twentjeth centuries. both countries provided a picture of very sif9:ilar ttcomparable"

countries.

Both wrre ancient empires, each with its o~n

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phy~iognomy and place in history. Soth tound themselves at approximately the same Javel Of development; both had a glorious past, which indicated both great privilege and a heavy burden. In a word. their chonces tor the future were about equal.

tThen followed the well-known reforms in both countries. In order to continue to 1 rve in 1 ts own woy and not in another. Japan

tried to unite tradition and progress. Turkey's modernists chose the opposite path. Today. Turkey is a third-rate country. while

. Japan has elimbed to a pinnacle among the nations of tbe world.' The difference 1n the philosophy of Japanese and Turkish re=r= is nowhere more evident ,than in the question of the

a I-p~abet.

I While Turkey aboliBhed Arabic writing. Which because of its simplicity and just twenty-eight characters is one of the most perfect and widespread of alphabets. Japan rejected daaonds by its Romaya to introduce the Romon script. It retained its complicated system which subttequent to the reton:D!J. contained 880 Chinese ideograms in addition to 46 character~. No one i= illiterate in modern-day Japan. while in Turkey - torty years After the introduction of R6man letters - over half the popul&tion cannot read or wrlte. a result which should cause the blind to regain their Sight.

And that is not all. It soon ~ecame evident that what was issue was not simply the alphabet as a means of register. The

true reasons. and thus the consequences. were much deeper and mure significant. The essence of all human civilization OM Pt'~1rese

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wr.1ti:ng . :.tbe way :1n which' tb.· nation end endur •• in .

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ht_.torY.~" abOlS.hing ,the Arabic' alpbalMt. aU ~h.:. w •• lth ,of. the

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p..t.::.~~~ .. rv.d in the.WT.1.tten word. Wes lerg.l~10fJt toTUr~.Y.

and l7/·:i"~i·ngl. a~tth. country was 1.vell.d~to 'the 'br:ink'~':J(t,

barbariani_. With Ii .eries of other "parallel" reforms, the new Turkish gen.ration found it •• lf with' no spirituel prop. in a kind of spiritual vacuum., Turkey had lost the remembrance of its past.

Whom 4i4 this profit?

The supporters ot moderni~ in the Islamic world •. then, were not ~1 •• men who sprang from the people. who would know how to implement in a novel way the old ideal. and values under changed circumstanc... They roae up against the value. th.mselve,-an4 often with icY cynicism andastoundino shorts1ahtedneas. tramDled

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on What. the people held sacred, destroying lite .and transpl,nting

an imitation in ita stead. As a consequence of such bar~~1ty in Turkey and elsewhere, plag1~ry natiQns emerged, or are !n .process

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of _.rging:· countries where •. ph~1tual confusion reign., fe,tUre-

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le.8 :an4.w1th.no .ense of where t~ey are going •. Everything'in

tbem is der1votive and artificial, lacking in torce and enthusi.sm, like the fa1s. glamour of.their Europeanized citi ••. ·

Can a country unsure of its identity. of where its roots lie. have .. clear p1ctur.Of where it 18 bound or what it should be

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striving for?

The example ot some of Attaturk's,retormsmay seem drastic.

At the same time. they represent a pattern for the W$$tern

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approach to problems of the Islamic world and the way in which westerners think to "«;orrectn it. This invariably means alienation. fleeing- from real problems .. from painstaking work on the true moral and educational elevation of the people. an orientation towards the ex~ern.l and the superficial.

What was meant by the independence of a Muslim country in which the administration of public life tell into the hands of this type of person? How dId they make use of that freedom?

By acceptino foreign modes of thought and by seeking political support from foreigners. whether East or West. each of t~ese countries voluntarily, through the mouths of their neW ,iministrators, ~cquie8ced to re-enslavement.. A spiritual and

'material independence was cr.at.~. embrccing Gnalien phjl0.ophy. an alien way of lite, alien aid. alien capital and alien support. These countries formally achieved independence. but they d.id not achieve real freed.om. sinc:e freedom of any kind i. pr1mari.ly spiritual. The independence of· a people which hAS not first won this ia 800n reduced to an anthem end a flog. two very minor

factors for true independence.

The struggle tor true'independence of the Muslim peoples. then. must begin anew everywhere.

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THE ROOTS OF HELPLESSNESS

These two types - conservatives and modernists -provide the key to understanding the current state of the Muslim peoples.

..... desi~.4.tion or rejection of 1.1_1~ thought. . . - .. -:

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. 1be hi.tory .of· :Ii.l· .. _i8 not only~·. or even ·matnly. the hi.tory

of a pr.ogr •• s1ve affirmation of I.1am· in re.l 1 i te •. It 1 •. just os much a story of incomprehension, neglect. betrayal and abu •• of this idea. Thus the history of each and every ~lim people 1. simultaneously a chronology of brilliant achievements and

~ "ictori •• , of grievous mistake. end de.feat •• All our lucce.s6. and failures, polit1ca1 end moral. are only the reflection of our acceptance of Islam and how we have applied it to life. A weakening 1n the influence of Islam on the practical life of the people ha. alway. been accompanied by their aegradation and that of social-and political institution •.

The entire history of Islam. from ita first beginning. to our

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day. unfolded under the inexor&ble·influence of thi. coinc\dence.

Somethihg of the unalterable fate of the Muslim peoples a~ o~e of the laws of Islamic history is to be found in this parallel.

Two characteristic momenta in Iel_1c h1st·ory - one from. the ag8 of it. ascendaney. one fra. the age of 4.c04.n08 - very clearly illustrate this eftect·.

MuhalrlDad (peace be upon him) ·cUed in 632 A.D. Less than e hundred years later. the spiritual and political power 9f Islam

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extended over a huge area. from the Atlantic Ocean to the river

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Indus and to China. from Lake Ara1 to the lower reaches of the Nile. Syria was conquered in 634. D~cus fell in 635, Ctesiphon

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in 637. India and Egypt were r.a~hed In 641. Carthaqe in 647. Samarkand in 676. Spain 1n 710. Muslims were at the gat •• of Constantinople in 717.' and in 720 in southern France. There were mosqu.es 1n Shantung by 700 end about ~36. Islam arrived in Jov a.

Thts unique expansion. ·to which no other can be compared . before or eince. provided a space for the development of Islamic civilization in three spheres of culture: .Spain. the Middle· East and India. a period of history covering abo~t one thousand years.

What do Muslims mean in the contemporary world?

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The guest ion could be phrased another way: how tar are we Musl im?

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The answers to these questions are linked .

We are enslaved: at one point in 1919. no single 1nde-

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pendent Muslim country existed. ~ state ot affairs never regis-

terecl ei ther betor~ or a.fter that .d.ate.

W. are uneducated: in the period ~tween two world Wars. no Musllm country had 0 literacy rate of over 50 per cent. At independence. 75 per cent of the people of Pakistan. 80 per cent of Alger1an8.;~nd 90 per cent of Nigerions could nei ther rea.d nor write. (In' contrast, no one in Islamic Spain of the tenth and eleventh ~.nturi.s. according to Draper. was illiterate.)

We are poor: gross national income per capita in 1966 in Iran was 220 dollars. in Turkey 240. in Malasia 250.1n Pakistan 90. 'in Afghanistan 8~. in Indonesia 70, a. against 3000 in the US~. Th~ share ot induatry in the national income of JDOst Muslim count.r ree varies between 10 and 20 per cent. The number ot calorie. In the

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either .i •• I")'!,·or~. *,811 •• oci.ty .. hUturn.4 into tbe

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opposit. •. ·· In'eontrad1ct1bn'to the Ou'ranic c~nct 1I ••• thot this

wealth should not..rema1n·witb1n the circle of the :rich mono you"

~Qu·r.n 39/7). property gradually passed into the hands of a small number. Prior·to agrorian reform in Iraq in 1958. out of 22 million dunum* of arable lend. about 18 million dunum (82 per cent) were held by. the great landowners. MeanWhile, 1.4 million peasants had no land at all.

Thia was the stete of a.ffairs which SCIIIe have called wi.th roason .. the night of Islamft• In fact. that night began with the twilight of our heort8. All" that ha. happened to us or is happening to ~ today. 1 •. only the echo and. repetition of ~hat has

previously happened within ourselves (Ou-ran. 13/12). ~

w. ae MueU. c.~not be subjugated. uneducated. ..trO'gecl

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from one another. We cannot be ren~gade8 from 1.1... All our

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defeat •• from' the first at Uhud to the latest on Sinai. confirm

thie.

Tbe phenomenon .of tn- abandonment of Islam. moet frequently .een in the suppr •• a10n of Xelam1cthought from active ·and vigilant life and its reduction to transience and passivity. can be most clearly obe.~ed by taking the au 'ran. the central ·truth of Isl~1c ideolOgy and practice.

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*dunU0; obout onettenth of a hectare (transl.tor'6 note)

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It should be remarked that every advance ot the Islamic peoples, every age of refinement. began with the affirmation ot the Qu'ran. The expansion of early Islam. whose miraculous course I have already mentioned and which in the course of two generations brought it to the shores ot the Atlantic Ocean in the West and to the outer reaches of' China in the East. i8 not the only. but is the most glorious example. All mAjor swings in ·the course of Islamic history confirm this parallel.

WhAt was the position ot the OU'ron ot the time precea.i,ng the age of stagnation and retreat?

Devotion to the Book did not cease, but it lost its active cha.'acter while retaining what was 1,rrotiona 1 and mystic. The

," Ou'ran lost its authority as law while gaining in sanctity as an

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object. In stu4y and interpretation. wisdom yielded to hair-

splitting. essence to form and grandeur of thought to the skill of recitation. Under the constant influence of theological formalism. the Qu'ran was read les8 and .Ilearned" (recited) more, while commandments on struggle. upriOhtnt~S •• personal and materiel socrifice - harsh and repellont to our inertia - dissolved and vanished in the ~leasant sound of the Qu'ranic text learnt ott by heart. This unnatural state of aftairs came to be accepted as the norm. because it suited an ever more fiYmerous group of Muslims

Who could neither break with the Qu'ran nor 8wnmon the strength to order their live. according to its dictates.

The psychological explanation of the exaggerated importance given to recital of the Qu'ran may be found in this fact. The

Qutran is recltect. interpreted and recited. then stu¢1ed end

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One .eri-t.f.if~: ~~*~boUsand. ~i' ilai.t;·~~l.~-:i.\~j. '

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order :not to bave to apply .: it onee.

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ac1.nee ho •. · been, estal:>11.~.d. on how .,~he au'ran should 'be-

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pronounce~ 80 as to avoid the issue of how to practice it in'daily

·lite. Ultimately. the' Qu'ran has been tu~ne4' into naked sound

without visible sense or meaning.

All the real :ity of the Muslim world. with its discrepancy

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between worc! and deed: its debau-ebery. dir-t •.. in-justice and cowafcd.-

ice;1ts monumental. empty m<S&Qu_; its great white turbans, devoid of ideals or courage: its bypocritical Islamic catchphr.se8 end religious posing: this faith without belief is but the external reflection of the fundamental contradiction in which the Ou Iran found itself. - in Which burning 6Uegianc. to the Book was gradually combined with total neglect of its principle. in

practice.

The situation of the Qu'ren i. the firat and most 1mpor~nt

cause of backwardness and helplesene •• ~o~ the Muslim peoples. A~other cause of universal 1mport.ne~ is edueation, or rather th. system of upbringing in the brOAdest .ense.

'Por centu~i.S now ou.rpeoplea have be.n deprived of educot.d. people. lnstead. they have two other types, equally undesirable: the un.ducated and the wrongly educated. In no Muslim country do ",obov. a system of education sufficiently CSeveloped and thus

\

capable ot responding to the mor61 understanding of Islam and the n •• 48 of the people. Our Tulers either n,glected. this most sensitive institution of any society. or left it up to strang.re.

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-21-

.

The school. to which foreigners donated money and personnel. and

~

thereby curricula and ideology, did not educate Muslims. not,even

nationalists. In them. our budding intellectuAls were injected with the "virtues" ot obedience, submission and admiration for the might and wealth of the foreigner: in th~m foreign tutors fostered a vassal .. ntality in the intelligentsia, which would in the future replace them with extraordinary success. because the 'lo.tter would f.el the.elves to be foreigner. in their own country

, '

and behave accor4ingly. It would be most informative to discover

the .number of schools and colleges which are held. directly or in41rectlY. by foreigners. and to reflect on the reosons tor this

,.

extraordinary generosity. The curricula ot'th~.e institutions should be gone into in depth and examined tor content. perhaps even more so for what they fail to contain. It would 800n be clear that tbe reat que.tion is not whether our intelligentsia wishes to find a path to 1 ts people, to thei~ rea 1 .inel1nat ion. and intereat •• bQt Whether, constituted .s it 1 •• it can find that path at all. Whlt''''i. at stake are the values and 1d.als which have been imposed on' it, and the psychological gap which ha. been

. .

created. Iron chains are no longer necessary t.o 'keep our peopl •• in sul::ais81on. The Silken corda ot this alien "education" ha.ve

.

the same power. paralyzing the minds and will of the educated.

While education 1 •• 0 conceiv,.d. foreign Wielder. of power and their va •• als in MUSlim countrie. need have no tear tor their position.. Instead of being a source ot rebellion and re.istance. this system of education i8 their ~ •• t ally.

this

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", lb •. tragic ',., Mbreen the int.\hiP.~~~., .,nd the peopl ••

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which ill-one,of the d .. k •• t'feature. of our: overallpos1tion. is ·re~entr.nched from the other side. Sensing the alien and non-

"!;

Islamic character of tbeschools on offer. the people instinctive-

ly reject~em. so that the e8trangement becomes mutual. Absurd accusations ore constructed. as to the d.isinclination of Muslim

.

environments towarels school and education. In feet. it' is clear'

that this is not Cl question of rejecting sebool. as such .. but of rejecting alien schools. which have lost 'every spiritual link with Islam and the ,people.

INDIFFERENCE OF THE JllSLIM MASSES

the about-turn effected by modernist. in a series of Muslim,

\ countries Was. almost .. a rule. anti-rAl igiou •• nd led by ;:,loSiPms

on the de-clericalization of political and aocial life. j:'ro~~hi8 aspect it is, reminiscent, of the struggle between the awakening

. ' ,

national state. end the church in Europe on the threshold of the Modern Age. "But whet _ant pro,gress and constitutionaUt~ for the West ~ ,represented an uDIlatural, proce •• In. the Islamic world.', one whlch was incaP4ble of effecting con8tructiye change. J)ecler·icelizatlon and qation.U_ had no positive a.pect. here. and were in

fact merely a negation.

. ,

the reflection of a pervasive spiritual sterility.

Foreign in origin and metter. they were

Wtth them, the

curtain rose on the last act in the dra-a pi the Muslim world. From the situation which ensued. this act could be called: tie dual

e

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Every renaissance occurs as the result of creative contact.

affinity or internal coneord between the thinking and leading elements in a. society on the one hend , and the populace at large

on the other. The leading group represents ~ill and thought. the people the heart and blood of any great undertaking. Without the

cooperation or at least consent of the ordinary man. all action remains superficial. lacking in strike force. The sluggishness of the masses ean be overcome it it is merely the consequence ot a

natural resistance to hard work. danger and struggle. It is impossible to overcome if it represents a rejection o.t the very ide1s ot the struggle. becauseitper5ce1ves that ideal as op~osed to the most intimate wiehes and feelings of the masses.

\

It is the latter case Which may be observed. to a greater or

lesser extent. in 011 Muslim countries where modernists attempt to

implement their prograDQes. They flatter and threaten. plead and goad. organize an4 reorganize. chang. name. and personalities. but run up against the stubborn rejection a.nd indifference of ordinary people. Who make up the majority of the nation. Habib Bourgiba - mentioned here simply 4S being representative of a widespread

.

tendency - wears European clothes. speaks French at home. isolates

Tunisia not only trom the I~lGmic but also (~m the Arab world.

restrjcts religioue training. calls tor the abolition of the Ramadan tast "as fasting reduces productivity". while he himself drinks orange juice in public 1n order to set a suitable example.

After a,ll th:i s. h~ ,",onder. at the pa.s.ivi ty ana lock of support n the part of the Tunision masse, for his "learned" reforms.

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this. type of bl1ndne.":'"

'I'M Musli. people. will never .6CC.pt anything Which i8

......

of ide •• and laws but has transcended into love and feeling . . who rises up agolnst I.I6m will reap nothing but hatred and

re.istance.

By their acts. modernists heve created I atate of interne 1', conflict and contusion in which eny-~rogramme - Islamic or foreign - becomes impracticaple. The masses want IslamiC action. but cannot carry it through without the intelligentsia. An alienated intelligentsia impose. a programme. but cannot find enough people prepared to contribute blood. sweat end enthuSiasm for this paper ideal. The opposing force. cancel each other out and a stage of powerle.sn ••• and paralysis set. in.

TheTe is an order. a dynamic. I prosperity. a progress ihiCh could be brought about on this ground and in this part of the

.. . .

. world. but this 18 not the order. progress or prosperity. of Europe or America. The inditterenceof the Muslim masses is not 1ndit- • terence at all. It i. the way in which tOlk-Islam defend. it.elf again8t outside, alien e.ssault'. Wherever there was the' least prospect of an Islamic struggle. the ordinary man proved his re.dine.s to tight. sutter and die. This was the example given by Turkey in the liberation struggle against Greece. following defeat in,World War I. the heroic resistance in Libya against Italian

,.

occupation. and the recent examples of struggle age'inst the

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-

i'

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-25-

.

'Britiah in Suez. the war for the liberation of Algeria, tor the

retention of Indonesia and tor Islamic influence 1n Pakistan. Wherever the masses had to be aroused_ Islamic slogans were used. bowever temporarily and insinceTely. Where there 1. Islam. there

.

i. no indifference.

The .. niteat reelings of the MUslim ~~ •• es ne.d an idea which would move and direct. them, but this cannot 'be just any idea. It .ust be one which corre.ponds to their deepest f •• lings. It can only. therefore_ be .n Islamic idea.

. ..

Tbere is no chance that the Muslim mosses and their present, in~llectual and political leadership could agree on someone among

.f .

th" renouncing his ideal, regardless of how long this state of

I

expectation and indeciSion may last. There is only on~ possible

way out: the tormet1on and grouping of a new intelligentsia which thinks and fee18 Islam. This intelligentsia would then fly the flag Of the IslamiC order and. togethtr with the Muslim sa ••••• take .ction to bring it about.

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, ~IGION AND THE LAW

The 181em1~r4.r:· what doe. this aeon. translated into the language thought, spoken and felt ~·our generation?

. The briefest definition··ot 'the ·lel_ic order defines it ••..• unity o~ religion an4 l.w, upbringing and power. 1d.a1 and interest. the spiritual c~ity and tne state. willingness and

force.

Aa a synthesis of the •• ca.ponents. the Islamic .order posits two fundamental assumptiOns: an ~.l .. ic society and Islamic

.

governance.

The first 1. the matter and the second the form of

'J '.r,·

the IsI.mic order. An Isl .. 1c society without an Isiamic authority· ie incomplete and without power; Islamic governone, without an Islamic society i. either utopia or violence.

Generally speaking. i MUsli. does not exist 'as a 801e 1n-

dividual. If he wishes to live and survive .s a Muslim,. he must I create an environment. a community. a system. He must change the world or himself submit to change. History has no instance of any truly Islomic movement which wa. not at the same time a pol itioal movement. Thie is because Islam ia a religion, but it 18 at the same time II philosophy. a morol system. on order. a style. An atmosphere - in a word. An integrated way of lite. One cannot

I

believe in I.lam and aet. do business. enjoy one IS leisure or rule

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-27-

,

in ~ non-Islamic way. This state of discordance creates hypocrisy

(praising God in the mosque. betraying Him outside it). or unhappy

II

people full of conflict (unable either to break with the Qu'ren or to tind tho etrongth to fight and change th. Circumstances in which they live). or a monk-like, eccentric type of individual (who withdraws from the world because the world is not Islamic), or. ultimately. those who in their dilemma break with IslAm and accept lite and the world as find them. or rather. as others have made them.

The Islamic order 1s • SOCiety freed of this conflict. • framework oC relations in which the' Muslim finds bimselt in

A .

c~lete harmony with his surroundings.

,.

r To the question: What is a Muslim society? we would say 1·t is a cOlllftuni ty composed ot· Mus1 ims. and we think that this says it all. or almost all.

The meaning of this 4et1nition is that there is.no system of institutions. relationships and law. disparate trom the people who are its object of which it could be said: this is an Islamic system. No system ie.Islamic or non-Islamic ot itselt. It i •

.

~nly so because ot the people who compos. it.

A European believes that SOCiety is ordered by the rule of laws. Since Plato's "Republic", And the various utopian idea Which followed up to the Most recent - Marxism - the European spirit has been seerching for one sche~. one pattern. Which. by Simply altering the relationships between people or groups, would give birth tiO the ideal society.

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real lawe. and much ' more religion, and requirement for practical actiOn ~n ,k •• p.ing with this rei ig1on~

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:'1 iultipl lefty 01 'law. anet a 'complex legislature 1. usually. a

sure sign,that something i.rotten in a society and that it should sto~ passing la"s and start e4ucating people. When the rott.n-

n •• s of the environment surp ••••• & certain pOint. the law ~comes i.potent. It then falls either into the 'Jande of corrupt .', executors of Justice. or become. the subjec~of open or conc •• led trickery on the part of a corrupt environment.

Wine. gambling and sorcery - oncewidesprea4 and deeply

. ,

rooted vic.s throughout the entire Middle East - were eliminated

tor & lengthy period from an enormous region by a, s1·ngl. Ayet of the 'Qu'ran, and by a ~ingle explanation: God hadforbid4en them. Ae soon a. "81'19ion weakened. intoxication and superstition )

J r.~u~n$d with unabated vigou~. to whiQh the inQomparably hig,er

level ot culture ~y now obtaining oftered no obstacle. America IS Proh1bit'ion Low. proclaimed in ,the name of contemporary sc'ience and implemented with all the force, 01 oneot the most highly orgo.n1ze4 cOIIIINn1t18s in the world. eve~t\1allY had to be abandoned in the t forties. after thirteen year. ot futUe attempts. full of violence and crime. An attempt to introduce prohibition into Scandinavian countries ended in Similar failure.

This and many similar 8xamples cl.arly deMOnstrate that Q SOCiety can be improved only in the nome of God and by educating J

man, We should take the one road which surely lead. to this

..

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objective.

While in principle confirming the spiritual. interior

,

approach in all of its manifestations. Islam. however. did not

content .its.lf with that, It endeavoure4 to tear the devil'.

. .

weapon out of his bands. If. in what concerns man'. relationship

.,;,\:i~

with the world. Islam did not start with man., it would not;)). a

religion; if it were to remain at that. it would be simply a religion. merely repeating Jesus's teaching on the ideal and .terna 1 aspect 0 f IMn' • be i ng • Through Muhannacl. (p.ace be upon him) and the .Qu'ran. Islam addressed. the real man. the outside world. nature. in order to evolve .s & teaching on the complete

Ao

manland on 011 •• pects of life. Feith allied itself to the law,

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, .

edueation and upbringing to power, Thus Islam became an order.

ISLAM IS NOT JUST A RELIGION

I'n tht. particular, which _rks an inc1isp~t.»le turning point in the evolution of religious teaching, Islam differ. from 'all other religions, doctrines and philosophies. It provides a new

point of Ob8.rv.~ion end a special approach. reflecting it. entirely original phl1osPhy·, The lynchpin of this ph.1losophy 1. tM requirement that man must simultaneously live an interior ana exterior, lDorol and" Boeial, spiritual and physical life. or more precisely. that he must willingly and in full awaren ••• accept both thee_ aspect. of lite •• th, hYmen definition and meaning of, his life on earth (Ou'ran 28/17)., Tran.latin; thi. requirement into the language of everyday lite. we could say: he who believes

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,traat

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work and xnowledge. Who.e v.i.ion otthe worl~ not only .• llows but

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. ,demands that temple and t.ct~ stand. a14. ,"I:Jy, .• i4e.,Who considers

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that people ahoulcS'not only be fed and educated. but:,th,t their

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" . . .

lite on earth ahou14 be fac11it.t.4 and promoted. en4 thot there

is no reason to sacr1fi~eith.r of these objective. to the other - thi. man belong. to,Islam.

.

This,. together with fa1t,h in God. ia the moin mes •• ge ot th'e

~ Qulran. and in it is all of Islam. All e18e is mere development and explanation. This aspect of Islam. besides containing the p~1nciple of the Isl~ic oreler. the conjunction ot religion anc1 politics. l.ads to other significant conclusions of enormous ' fundamental and practical importance.

First dnd foremost ot. these conclusions i8 certainly the

incompatibility of Islam with non-IslAmic neither peace nor coexistence between the

\ systems. There can be

<Ii

Islamic religion anJ

The failure of

non-Islamic soeialand ~o11ticol institution ••

, ..

these institutions to functlon and'the 1nstobittty of the regimes in Muslim countries, manifest in frequent change and. coup", d'et(tt~ f is most otten the consequence of 'their • priori opposItion to Isl~m. as the fundamental anc1foremost f •• ling of the peoples in these countries. By clo'1mi~ the right to order its own world it-

\

on the part of any foreign 1deology on that terrain.

selt. Islam obviously exc~ude8 the right or possibility of action

There is,

therefore, no lay principle. and the state should both reflect and ,

support reljgious moral concepts .

..

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-31-

Every tJge and .v_ry genera t i,on h4S the task of jmpl ementIng the message olIs14m in new torms and by new IDBanlS.

1bere are immutable Islamic principl.s which order relations bet .... en P6ople. but ther,,::ls no 1111_de itcon~ic. social or politjcal structure which cannot b. ch~ng.d.

This is only the first and most 1mportont concluSion in approachi~ Islam as an integrated order. The remaining three.

. ..

equally importent but 1e88 preclusive. ere:

A First: by opting for this world. Islam has opted for the best PO~~ible ordering of that world. Nothing which can Make the world a better place may be rejected out. of hand as non-Islamic~

Second: to be open to nature means to be open to learning.

In order to be Islamic,any solution must fulfil two conditions: it must be maximally efficient and maximally· humone. It must therefor. reflect the reconc:!1 iatton of rel.ig1cn and science in its highest form;

Third: by po~nt1ng to one link betwe.n religion and learning, morals and policy. the individual· end the collective, the spiritual and the material - question. Which divide the contemporary world - Islam regain:s its role .a the inte.r.medl'ary of ideas, and the Islamic world A8 intermediary among nations in 0 divided world. By promising "religion without mysticism and learning without atheism", Islam can interest all people, no matter who they are.

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Ther' are illlNtabl.;,:la·lfillic principles which define the re-. lat.ion~hip between man ancJ _n •. and be~ween _n and the COIIIDUnity,

.' ., " .

but' there' ~re no fixed Islamic economic. social or political

..... . ..

structure. which have been hande4 down once anet tor 611. Islamic

sources contain no description of such a system. The way in which Mus 1 ilDS wi 11 carry on an economy. organize 8ocie.ty and rule in the future will therefore 41ffer tram the way in wbjch they carrie4'on an economy. organized .ociety or ruled in the paat.~ Every age and. each generation ha& the task of find1ng new way. _nam.ana of impl.~nting the basiC me •• ag~. of Islam, which ore unchanging and eternal. in A world which i. not eternal and subject to constant change.

Our generationmu.t accept that risk and make the attempt.

- ~

Aware of the inevitable imperfection of defini.tions of this

"

kind, and restricting ~UT8elves to principles which at this ~ment

seem to be of greGter·importance. I present them here in the following order:

1.

,( MAN AND THE COMMUNl'l'Y)

Islamic society is an organized community of believers.

There 18 n~ purely scient1fic# revolutionary. socialist or other SOlely external ealvotion for men and SOCiety. Any salvation

\

which does not imply a turning towards the interior lite. the

reshaping of man. hi. spiritual 'rebirth - impossible without G04 _

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is fallacioul.

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An Islamic society connot be founded simply on sociol or economic interest. nor on any other external, technical besis. As a community of believers, its nucleus contains a religiou. and emotional factor of belonging. 1111s,elelDent'lDay be most clearly .een in the Jam'aa.* as the fundament of Islamic SOCiety.

In contrast to a 8ociety. as an abstract community with externol relationship. omong it. member •. the J~'a 1. an

, .

internait tangible community, founded on spiritual membersbip.

where contact between people is maintained by directt personal acquaintance. This is MOn to m.n. not an anonymous member of 80~.ty ,towards another equally ano~ou. member of the same society. As a me.ns ot recognition among people and of bringing

I

them closer together. the Jama'a contributes to the solidarity and

internal harmony of society, while helping' to free the spirit of the loneliness and alienation resulting from tec~r:t0logy end growing urbanization.

a..ides this, the Ja~'. create. a kina of public opinion which Acts without the use of torce. but ,nonetheless efficiently.

,~ .

against potential Violators of social and moral norms. In the

J~'a. no one i8 alone. and this 1. so in a double sense: he 1. not alon~o do Whatever he likes, nor is he olone, left to himself to tina his own motal and material support. If one Muslim doe. not teel the closene •• of others, that Muslim society has taUed .

....... ------~-

*JtiH 'a: Muslims. the Musil 1m soci.ty (tran!Jlt!tor '6 not.)

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. ,.:.I.l_",,,anta .an t~ offer ~i •. bend 'to ~n .• ,.~~ur.l1y and:r· .' ~,i'" .

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sincerely. ,UntSl' .... thi. :ts·ecCCIIDpliabed.. nothing bas rea'l1y been

v, -. • e' ••

. .

achieved. Islam doe. not·agre. to t)'ae perpetuatt'on of • sitUation

in wbich the state must intervene by force ,to4.fencl people frOID "

one onother.

Thi8.1.~ a situation wh1~b lsi .... , accept . only.

, .

conditionally and temporarily. Foree};enc1 the law are only' the· tools of ju·stiee. Justic.1tseff i. to b. found in the human

heart. or it does not exist.

2. (EQUALITY OF PEOPLE)

lYo facts of major impor'tark:e - the onene.s of the Deity and

.':

the equality of IMn - have been 10.14 4~ 80 clearly ancS explicit-

ly by th.'Qu'ran~ that they allow of only a single. literal interpret(lti~n: there is no god but the One Goc1: there is no cho.~n.

people. race. or class - all people are equal. . ."

Islam cannot accept t:he clivisi'on ancl grouping of peoPle;~ according to external. objective measures such as class. As a

..

religious and moral movement. j't find. uJ:)acc:eptobl. any d1fferent~ iation between people which d~e8 not include moral criteria.

People must be distinguished. - if they are inde.d different - primarily by what they really are. which meons by their spiritual and ethical value (Qu'ran, Surah 49/13). All just people. regardless of how they earn their bread. by. day. belong to the same community. just as blackguards and wrongdoers of all kinds belong to the Bame "elass", regardless of their tJolitical affinities or place in the work process.

-35-

/'

Class distinction is equally unjust# morally ana humanly

unacceptable. as natiodal and other division and differentiation among people.

3.

(THE SRonmRHOOD OF MUSLIMS)

·t".:··

"Muslims are brethren" (Qu'ran. 49/10). In this message. the Qu'ran points to the goal, which because of it. distance. provides a source ot inspiration tor "a ~onltant" surge forwords. Enormous chonges must take place within people and without. in order to re'ce the distance on the road to the brotherhood so proclaimed·.·

~ In this principle, we •• e both the authorization and obligation of the Islamic community to establish" appropriate institutions and undertake specific meaSUTes. so that th. relationship between Muslims and real life mdY assimilate an increasing number of the elements and leatures of brotherhood. The number and kind of me.sures. initiatives and laws. wh1~h 0 truly Islamic administration could ·introduce by referring to the prinCiple of brotherhood of all Muslims. ie practically unlimited.

I would mention here great differences in social stonding. in property. with feudalism as the most drastiC case. The relotion- .ship betw~en the vassal and hi. feudal overlord is'"not 0 brotherly relatIonship. but one of subjugation and dependence. As such. it

1. indirect contradiction to the Qu'ran and this principle.

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-36-

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. ··.1.1·_. contain. the. principle of the UIJDO, t . ... a t.ndency to-

o • , • • •

warda t~ unification of all HUelt .. in • single community-

rei ig1ou •• cui t.ura1 and. pol ttical. Islam is not ·nationali ty, but _!t.·1' the 8upran.tional1ty o~ this cCIIIIUn1ty..~_c.

All that ·divide. people in this coamunity, whether'related.·to ideas (sect., IlJazhab'. poUt.ical parties etc.). or material (great difference. in wealth, social standing etc.). is opposed to th1'. principle of unity and a. such must be restricted end eli~ated.

Islam i. the first. and pan-Islamism the second point w~ich

. . .

define. the boundary line between Islamic and non-I.l~ic

tendencie. in the Mu.lim world today. The more lsl~ order. a community'.·1nternal. an4 pan-islam1sm its external relations. the more. that comnunity i. Islamic. Islam is its ideology. and pan-

;

Islam1am its policy.

5. (PROPERTY)

Altl:lough Islam recognizes private property, the new Islamic .o~i.ty wi 11 have to unequivoea lly declare that a 11 major sources of social wealth. particularly .natural resources. must be the property of the community and serve the welfare of all its members. Social supervision of source. of wealth is essential in order on the one hahd to prevent the accwmulation of unmerited wealth and individual power, and on the other to ensure a material

//

-31-

-.1

base tor oevelopment programmes in various areas. which the community will undertake 4n keeping with the increasingly greater part played by an organized society. Although differently disposed and implemented. the participation of' society in solving an ever gr •• ter number of 'coaaon tasks is .qual1Y"'gTeat in the USA. the Soviet Union or Sweden. which shows that this is not a question of ideological or political approach. but a necessity which springs trQm the lite of human communities in the contemporary worhi.

Private property is subject to yet another restriction based on1an explicit command of the Qutran - the need to use it for the c'l!mIllon good (Qu'raft. 49/34). Islam, therefore. does not recognize

\

private property as understood by Roman Low. In contrast, private

property in Sharia Law hoa on. priVilege less (JU$ 4but.ndi - the right to abu.e) and one obligation more (that of using wealth tor the cOIIIIOn good). The practical consequences of this ditterenee for 0 truly Islamic government are tar-reaching. Based on this and the dictate of the Qu1ran cited ahove, all ~~!gal and pract1c-

01 meaSur •• may be taken against ibuse or failure to us. private

property. The elimination ot injustice, inequality and particularly luxury and .xtravagance in the midst of misery, as eomethinq which deva.tat •• the community and separate. people, will become at one point the criterion tor t.he survival of the Islamic order and a gauge ot the real value. of the ethical and social standpOints it repre.ent •.

.,'

(Z!f(A"" Mm· INTEREST) :.. . ..

. . . .

... Of all aocielly-cbarg.4 I.·1.1e. r~lat:iONl; one -:c~ndment and . on. prohU)1t1on are specia·tly 8ignificant, tM c-.n4ment .of!

-

Zekat and the prohibition on charging inter •• t.

• -=--

The Zekat evidences the established principle of mutual.·

re.ponsibi 1 ity end eeneern people evince for the .f.t.·Qf anotl'ler.".

. . .

Once pro~l~med. this' principle can beeome the beei. for new and various torms of solicitude in keeping with .ociet~·. rate.of development. its needs and contingencies.

In the Muslim world today, the Zekat is the private affair of

- .

ea~h individual. -In the pre.ent social and religious climate. it has ceased to function. Its absence is evident at every turn. In

the Islamic order, the ·Zekat ia an inat1tutionot public;lawt t·

. .. 4

.whose 'functjoning must be guaranteed ))y all, available lDeans. ~

including the use of fOTce. .

By forbidding the charging ·of interest (Qulran. 218/279). an ~

invariable· norm ot the Islamic order wos established. involving the banning of any income frOm annuitfes and .of parasitiC 11te- . styles, i.e. ·the achievement of wealth purely on ·th.bas1s of landa. contradictory to the moral ·basis on which,the IslamiC pub 1 i e order rests-.

. ';." ~ ..• :+,'

-39-

7.

'(THE REPUBLICM ,PRINCIPLE) ~

t Aport from affairs of property. Isllm does not recOgnize ~ny

principle of inher1t,ance. - nor ony power ,~itll absolute ,prerogat·1ve. To recognize the ~beolut. power of Allah ~an.' .~ absolute denial ·of ,any· other almigbty power (Qu I'ran,' ,7/3 •. :: 12/40) '. "Any sul:nis-

. ,

·s1on of a creature which includes, a -tack. of submission to the

Creator is forbidden" (lIuhaamocl. peace be upon him)_.:. In the

I

hi.tory of the first.' and perhaps 110 far the only ,authentic .:

Islamic order - at the time of-the first four C.l~pbs - three key afpeets of the 'republican pr1nc~pl. ~f government,'may' be

•• en/l'l) an elective head of state.{2) the r •• ponaibility of the head 6f state tow.ro the 'people and' (3) the obi igation of bOth to work onpubl1c affairs end social mattera. The latter is explicitly supported by the Ou~ran '(3/159,42/38), The fjr$t four rulers in Islamic 'history were n.~ ther kings or emperors.- They were chosen by the people. The inherited caliphate was an

l:.:

~

, ,

abondonment of the electorol princ·ipl., 0 cleariy ·defined IslamiC: political institution .

8.

(11IER£ IS NO GOD BUt' THE ONE GOD)

:;";.

In_sotar as we 'consider the .stabUshment of an Islamic order

, -

_I' \ . , .:'

":'.0 ;Jncontroverti))le and invb'aot1»l. ai.~ ·tt.e:,.a.or •••• urecUy do we'

reject the iDIDUnity of public per.onalitt •• , ' regar41 ••• 6f'the1r

. , . .

'. :;}" .. ' ,

~. ~ ,~~,(a.,.

. >',~,. '~""

t'l. : . '

• I. ~ ;. '" • •

, :, ~';i:>'fA~ ;}':f!' ~., ~k;" '

. .

. . . .

.,~:l"., ',>

'" .

. ,,,~. " " .

•.. ,!. "'. '~ .• :'-:~;'7·i~~j~·~! ~'.'. ""':~ .' ",

. . . ~~"'" .

'".1,' .. ,;'. :j,.... . .:/ . - .. ;::<.~ .. ' , .

.... ,.'''' .

.' :, .

-40-

merits or the positions they may occupy. The I.lomic order in this sense is a synthe.illl of absolute authority (relatecl to the programme) and absolute 4emocraey (related to the person).

,

Islam does not recognize any man as al1 ..... ing. a'll-knowing.

infallible and immortal. Muh~cl himself was fallible. and .s such was reprimanded (Qu'ron 80/1-12). From this point of view, the Qutran as a book is realistic·and almost .anti-heroic. The adula.tion accorded to personalities. al frequent th.se days IU5 in the past. both East and West, i8 absolut·.ly for .. ign to Islam as 1't

, ..

represents a type of idolatry (Qu'ran. 9/31). The true gauge of eacb man's value is his personal lif. and tbe ratio between what he contribute. to'th. commu~ity and what h. receive. trom it. All glory and thanks ere due only to God. and the true merit of man can only be judged by Him.

9,. (UPBRINGING) .

As religion is the basis of the Isla.ic society, up~r1nging

is not only one of its functions. but the .tate ot itl eXjstence.

I

This is above all a religious and moral upbringing through the family and then through all .tooe. of .chool1~.

The epee1.1 task of the Islamic order is to tight tor the successtul elimination of 011 forma of ant1~pbr1nging. Isl~ forbids. and the I.l~m1c order will toke specific measures to e 11.1nat.:

-41-

.

- all forms of alcoholization of the people

publ i C Ind •• cret prost i tut i on .

~

- pornograpby of the spoken word. in pictures. on film and

television

- casinoa. night clubs. dane. halls and all other forms of entertaihiiwent incompatible. w·1 th the morel .tenet.. of I.llm.

10 .

. (EDUCATION)

.~ An important part of- this type of integrated upbringing ,18 the schooling of the new gener~t10n. the instilling of habits of wor~ ~n4 training. Along with unity. education ie the second moet decisive factor for tbe faster- empancipation of the Muslim world tram 1~. pr.sent inferior ·position. The Muslim countries do not have sufficient capital. Th~s being 80. they should inveet whet they have in that most profitable of 011 investments. education.

~. ,

There can be no true independence without~the ability to apply and us. the advance of science while continuing to promote it. When it first ~de en appearance, Islam studi.d end .messed without prejudic:e- the col.1ective knowledge left behind by eorlier

_.- civilizations. We do not know why" the Islam of our day shoul.c1 behave d1 tterently toward. the proce ••• aof £uro-AlHrlc~n df\rl11~at1on witt. ~hich it. sheres such a long border.,

Thi.i. not I question, then. of wh.ther or not we ~,~~~~,.'to

. ecce,Pt IJct.?c. _. ~ncl t.Cllt')~l~ .. ~ .~~j:y~%-\~~~ 11

-,; '" .' .;. . ,. . ..

".' "

" ",... "~:',-?~ ", ;-:' "

" ",

f

. "

-42-

if we wi~h to survive - but whether we shall do eo creatively or mechanically. wit~ dignity or with inferiority. The question in this inevitable develOPment is rather if w. will los. or keep our individuality. our culture and our values.

In t.he light of these. facta. we can~~ith certainty say t~at education in the present-day Mus 1 1m world'ia. .. the institution most in need of urgent and radical. qualitative and quant1tive

change. Qualitative - for education to be set fr •• of spiritual. and sometime'·rneterial dependence on strangers and thot it may beqin to serve.for the upbringing ot Muslims as people and members of the Islamic community. Quantitive -.to remove chronic shortages in this respect and in the-shortest po.sibl. time to create condi-t1ons where schoolinq and training will be within the reach ot all youmg people and all strata of the population. In

1

the initial stage •• the mosque con again serve as a school. It

..,

our educotlonal prooranrnes do not fai 1. there is no field ~n which

we Can ~e defeated.

11 .

. (FREEDOM OF CONSCIENCE)

The upbringing of the p.ople. and particulorly means of mass influence - the· pr •••• radiQ. television and i11~ ~ should b. in the hands of people whose Islamic moral and int.l1ectuol authority is indisputable. The media shou.ld not be allowed - as so often

!

happens - to tal!l into the hands of perverted and de~enerate

..-:;

1/,·'· .

.~.~,I

.' ,Ii"."

-43-

people who then transmit the aimlessness and emptine •• of their

i ..

own lives to others. What ar~ we to expect if mosque and TV

transmitter aim contr~dictory me •• ages at the. people?

This. however. doe. not at all meen.that'_ spiritual

cUctatorahip can· be created out .ot the l~lamic order. where' only

.. .

the poWers-that-be would proc.laim truths to fa drab. moss:--produced.

younger gen~rat1on. It only means that there are some~lementary 'standpoints and basic rules of behaviour, which must be. respected

in all circumstances. Because of the proclaimed principle ·of

. .

freedo.m of rel19ion (Ou' ran. 2/266). Is1_ expressly f~rb1d a . any Phy.Jal or psychological enforcement 'in questions of faftb 6·nd.····

,

• .' .~.' ..... :. i-

consc~.nce.rurthe~r •• the principle of ijmd (consensus)

renders this unnece.sary. (liMy people cannot agree in error" -

Muhammad. peace be upon him). How.v~r puritanical 1.1a. may b. from the moral aspect. it. openness to nature and joy makes it

free-thinking. a8 all its history bear. witness.

As it

recognizes God. but no dogma or hierarchy, Islam cannot turn into ,"",- a dictatorship and any form of inqui.ition or spirituel terror is

thereby done away with .

.

-

The Islamic reb,jrth cannot be~in without a r.ligJoua..

revolution, but it cannot ~ eucc ••• /ully continu~ and

OUr road dOfl~ not J>.gin by winning powar.but ptlopl.. ..

-44-

~2.

(ISLAM AND INDEPENDENCE)

There is no Islamic order wi thout independence and freedom •. -;

,;~:j~~ . '::"~if:r

and. vice versa: there is no independence or freedom without Islarn.

The latter has a double sense: tir.t. independence is real and lasting only as the result. of winning spiritual and ideological independence and if 1 t is a" .ign ~hat a people has found. i tae ~ f •

.

discovered its internal strength. without wh1~h the independence

it has gained cannot be meeningtul 'or" longl •• ting. In the affirmation of Islamic thought in practical·Ufe, each Muslim people experience. this identification witb the •• If. a spirit.ual emancipation. as a condition of social 'and political liberation.

Secondly. the r~al support which 0 Musl1mpeople gives to the regime 1n power 1s 1n direct proportion to the lsl~ie cha~aeter of that power. the further the regime is trom I.la~. the )~ss

f. support. it will receive. Un-Islamic regimes remain almost totally

deprived of this support and therefore have to .eek it. willynilly. trom foreigners. The d6pendence into which they sink is a

I

".: .,

direct cons~quence of their non-Islamic orientation.

Th ••• facts determine the chara.cter of the Islmic ord.er as a d~mocracy. not a democracy in form. but a. reality. a$ a consensus of opinion. Thi. kind of4emocracy exist. only where the government turns ideas and action into what the a-opl. feel. where it acts as a direct expression of their will. The establishment of an I91~1c order is in fact 4 8uprome ~ct of democracy. D$Cau ••

it meams the realization of the deepeat inclinations of the Muslim

- ..

peopl •• and the ord1nory man .. One thing 18 certain: regerdless of

what 8Qme of the wealthy and the int~111g.nt8ia may want. the

i.

ordinary man wants Islam and life in hi. own Islamic community.

Democ;racy .her,' Qoe. not come from principles ,and proclamations. but from fecta. The .Islamic order 40e. not use force 8imply ..

~> '. ,~;~~~,::

, because there ,i. no n •• el for it. On the other hanel. the un-'

Islamic order •• ensing the constant re.istance and hostility of the people. find. a solution 1n hflving recourse to force. Its

I 'transformotion into I dictatorship 18 more or less the rule, an unavoidable evil.

"

13.

(WORK AND STRUGGLE)

The Islamic.society muat take upon itself the task of mobilizing bOUrhuman Inc! naturalresouTces and pass measure. which

wi 11 encourage, worle and: activi ty. ,The. survival, power or weakness of an Islamic SOCiety is subject to the' same laws of work and struggle as any other community and enjoys no God-given privileges

in this respect (Qu'ran, 5/5?) .

.

Two things must be .1imi~at.d from the psychology of our

public opinion: belief in miracles and expectancy of help from

other •.

. There are no .ir.cl •• ~ .av. tho •• brought about by people. thr~ugh work and ~J.dg •• ,Th-r.i. no *mdhdJ who will r1el U8 of.

·~hdi: religious l.ader. me •• ieh (tranelator'6 not~)

, "Ji'~~¥:' .'.: ,''it::'::';' ,,;.t> , ' .. ~;: .1. . .

" .... ~ -.

':·~":~f.:)"~ I' '\';:"'.

',-." .J' •

',' ;' "'0\,'

" , .

':"/;

.:- ..

·, ~

-46-

our enemies, banish misery and. sow enlightenment and prosperity os i! by magic. ~hdj is the word tor our own 'laziness. or rather tor the talse hope which grows out of a sense of helplessness in 0 situation when the IDI1gnitude of the difficulties and problems are

out of all proportion to the means ot fighting them at our
.
dispose. 1. I'
~ .)_ ....
. ,-~t·-_:
Relying on the help of others is another form TIt supersti- tion.

~

We have f"-ined the habit of searching tor and. tinding

either unselfish friends or sworn en~mies omong certain nonIslamic countries, anlI call ing this foreign policy·. When we realize that there ore neither real friends nor real .neD!e •. when

we begin to blome ourselves more and the "cunning pions of our,

toes" less for our problems e the Signs wi 11 be th~t we have begun to mature an~ that 0 .. wage. more free of disappointment and mis- · fortune. is at hondo In any case, even if there were people

,

prepAred to give aid without seeking disproportionate politioal

J'

and ~terial favours in return. this would not change our ¥

pOSition. Wealth cannot be imported into a country. It must be earned within it on the basis of work and eftort. What we wish to

4ceomplish we must do alone. No one can - or wanta to - do it tor

us.

This foundation tor this programme of work end activity con be the source ot supreme encouragement. The natural weelth and prospects of the I~lamic world are enormous. Only one part of it - IndoneSia - is the third wealthiest compact territory in the world. after the USA an4 the USSR. ' The Islamic world taken as a whole OcCUpies first place in this regard.

a.

I~-'

·-47-

By announcing a rebirth. We' 'lye not ,nnounein; an age of peace and security. but one of unrest and trial. There are too many things crying out to~be destroyed .. These will not be days of prosper:ity but of self-rftfSpect. A people which is asleep can be awakened only by blows. Whoever wieh •• OUT,;coDnunit)i well. will not try to spare it struggle. danger and misfortune., On the

-

contrarY. he ~111 do his best to ensure that 'that eommunity.begins

to use its own forcies, test a 11 the po.sibi I1ties and" take risks o.s soon as pos.ible - in a 'Word. not to aleep:but, to live. Only ·an alert and active commu~ity can find itself and its own road.

14.

(WOMAN AND 1lIE FAMILY)

t

The position ot woman in Muslim aoe1ety must be changed

everywhere in keeping wi th ·her task ,0$ mother, and natura I educator

-

of the younger generation. An uneducat~d, neglected and unhappy

mother cannot raise sons and daughters capable of instigating and leading the rebirth of the Muslim peoples. Islam must take the initlative ot recognizjng motherhood as II social function. Harems mUst be abolished. No one has the right to ~.f.r to Islam as a reason to Keep women disenfranchised; abuse of this kind must be

t

brought to an end.

Such, attitudes do not represent. Western feminism. which has· dl$played a t.ndency to impose the ~'.'-ff~~ .. wh1_ end. ~~t.~ ~f

.. " " . -'. . . :

a depraved element aJDOng the fe~le aex. Ne1th ... ·1e this equality

in the European sense.

. '.':.'

"\' 'i~"~: '. "

.. ;'0"

. ~' .. ,~ .

, ... ~

.i

.,

of mGn and women. togeth r with the und.rlining.of the differences between them. which should b. pre.erved. The principle of equal values 1. a direct resul ot the rules on equal religious and

-48-

moral duties ~xp11CitlY .ferred to in several place. in the
.J~
,< ...•
Outran (particularly Aye 33/55) .
-- an object
Civilization has rnl& e of woman either tor use or one 4emonding servitude. but it h~~ taken away her individuality. which alone may caus. he to be valued and respected. By neglecting motherhood. it h s deprived woman of her most basic and

.40 ••

irreplaceable function .

. In. the •• times. whe the family is in serious crisis and its value. are being que.tio Ielam reaffirms its 811egiance t.o . this form of human lite. By contributing to the'security of the tUli.ly nest and excluding extern'll and. 1nternalfactors whteh destroy it (alcohol, 1mm rallty. irresponsibility). Islam p~otects

J.'

in a practical way the reol interests of the normal. healt~y

WOm4n. Inst.ad of an abe ract equality. it ensure. women love, marriage and. Children, with all that these three things mean to 0.

. womGn.

FAmily and M4rriage law, a. formulated 1n the early centuries of Islam.n •• ds to be re- xamin.(t· in conformity wi~h present-day requirements and the point reached in the hWlWln~and 80c1al cnnse1ousne... The tendency should be to cu~b polyg.my as much as possible so aa to eventually eliminate it completely from practical lite. while res rioting d1vo~ee and working toward! the more etficient protection of women and children in both CaS8$.

,

i . 4

..':

'1'

r:

" ·1

,<

15. '

(~1 END DOES NOT JUSTIFY THE MEANS)

In the struggl+ fOT the Islamic order. 0.1 1 meon. Gre per-

mi •• ible except one': - crime. No one hGa the tight ,to def;~le the good name of' I.lam\~r, the .t uggl. bY the uncontroJ'led .fj .uperfluou. u •• of forc.~' The I.Jamie coanun1ty should. ,onee more

confirm that ju.tice i. one f ita key.tones.

The au I ren do,s

not command us to'lov. OUT • emi ••• but 1t c.tegoricallyt~ll. U8 I

to be just and to forgiv. (Q 'ron. 4/13!5 ,and 16/126). The use ot

force must comply with this !formUla: the a'jm ;ust:it1 n~rl ••• crime.." noble I

l '

the other hand. theus, of u

inc:iple.

.. the means has become the cause ot m cannot conmand unworthy means: on orthy means may diminish and com-

promi •• any .1Il. '!~ our mora .tT~ngth increases. the need for force d,cline.; to taking sides, th1. is the weapon of the weak. What cannot be cCOlnpl1shed):)y force may be achieved

through generosity, 16/12~. 26/34-35).

a courageous bearing (Qu'Yon.

" '

16.

(M NQIUTIES)

11M .ls1 ... 10 ord.r can only l>e •• tabl i.hed· in countries where Mu.l1 .... repre.ent .t'" _Jor1t of the population,. ,It this is not the ca ••• the IslaNd4 order 1 reduced to mer'.power Ca. the, other element ~ an Iala.1c SOCiety i. mi •• ing) and may turn to

«: ....

··.·d: .... ;_t' •. ,

• <f"'.:.; .... ,

'.-~

-'0-

,': "

violence.

The non-Muslim mine ities within an Islamie state. on condition they are' loyal, enjoy religious freedom and all protection.

Muslim minorities wi hin a non-Islamie c~nity, provided i!-1'i'~~

they aTe guaranteed freed m to practise their fi!igion. to live

and develop normally. are loyal and must fulfil 411 their com-

::(

~ .

mitments to that communit

excep~ those Which harm Islam and

Mus) illlS.

OJ

..' ~

,~

The pOSition of Mus1 m minorities in non-Islamic co~~it1es wi.II always in reality de end'on the strength of the international Islamic community and the estee~ in which it is· held.

17.

(RELATION WITH OTHER COMMUNITIES)

Relations Detween the Islamic and other communities t~rOUghout the world are based on the principles of: 1. Freedom of

religion (Qu'ran 2/256):

. Strength and a decisive and active

defence (Qulran. 6/61-62, 2/39-42. 2/190-192): 3. A ban on wal"S ot aggression and crime (0 'ran. 2/190-192. 42/42); 4. Mutual

coop-

eration and ocquaintancesh p among n4tions (Ou"ran. 49/13)~ 5. Respect for obligations an agreements undertaken (Qutran• 94) and

6. Mutuality and reoiproc·ty (Ou'ran. 9/8).

III

PRE SEN T - A Y PRO B L EMS 0' THE I S LAM leo RDE R

,r

-51-

The'Isl-amic order and political system.

RELIGIOUS OR POLITICAL REVOLUTION?

i,thY,'-' . .

a conjunct2on"~" fo1th with the socia.l :

the road to it lead via re12g1ou.

THE ISLAMIC RENAISSANCE

renewal or political rev lut1on?

The answer to tbis

18 that ta14m1c rebirth cannot .

begin without religious

but it cannot be successfully

continued and completed ithout a political one.

,.~, This answer. which'd fines Islam.ic renaissance •• a twofold

101. but where' religious renewal has a

revolution - mo~al

clear priority - follows rom the principles and nature of Islam, not from the dismal feets characte~18tic of the Muslim world todoy.

These facts speak ot the seriousness ot the moral state ot the Muslim world. ot depr vity. the rule of corruption and 8uper-

I ;.;:

.:t:C.

stition, indolence and hy reign of un-Islamic customs

~

and hab~ts. a callous mat ria11sm and a d1st,urblng absence of

enthu~iesm and ho~.. social or political reformA-

.'_ tion be c1irectly initiate in circumstance. such as these?

Each nation. before

, hi.tory •. ha. had to 1 iva trough e period ~f internel purging and the:tprectical acceptance 0 certain tUn4~m.~'lDOt.l principle •• All power in

•• moro,.~ ",1nnn •••• ·.,Jyery defeat

·"~;~~;;~~10;:.:'·

. .

<~.~ ... .. -~'I'"'.

.' .. / '.;.

. .~

begins as moral fail

-52-

All that i8 desired to be accomplished

must first b. accompl the soul. of men.

What doe8 us renewal mean as & prerequisite tor the

Islamic order? Above all. it means two things: • new consc1ous-

ness and new will.

,~-~~ Religious ren.we 1s a-' clear awareness of the reol purpose> of

lite. why we live and for what we should live.

Is that purpose a

personal or a common tondard. th~ glory and greatness ot my race

practice the

tion of my own personarity or the rule of n our case. religious renewal means in

or nation. the aftf God's law on earth?

ticn" of people who call themselves Muslims.

or whom others usuall call by that n«me. The starting point.of this "Islamizat1on" 1 a firm belief in Gocl .nd the 'strict and. genuine observance of Islomic religious and moral norma on the part ot Muslims.

The other comp()n

readiness to caTTY out the

1 l .

I' 1~p.rat1ve$ imposed b awarenes. of the goal. Religious rWnewal

is therefore. quali y ot moral 1nvolv~nt and, enthusiasm,'.

of mind over m4tter, a atate of live,

psychosis of

practical ide.l1sm 1n which ord1nar~ people become capable of

.

extraorcUnary feats 0 courage ond.acrifice. It 1 •• new quality

of faith and·will in 1eh everyday .. asures of'tbe pos.ible cease to hav.value end in hich the individual and the entire group

. '

rise to a high degree of aacrifice tor their 14eal.

Without this new stat. of spirit and ·f •• Ung it i. impo •• j.blt to accomplish any ~.alch.nge in the present-day Muelim world.

When considering the

the dilenma inevitably arises

, !

- albeit only for a momen - t.hat a shorter way to the Isl~mlc

, ~

order would be by taking ower~ which would then create the

appropriate institutions carry out a sys~ematic religious,

moral ancf'cultural .d.ucat on Of the people. a.~prerequiBite for, bu114ingen Islamic locie y.

This is mere temptat on. History 40es not relete any true

revolution which came fr

power. All began with education and

meant in essence 0 moral ummons.

~j

i !

Besid,s, the formula which 'confide. the establishment of the Is~~ie,ord.Tto some pow. r or other does not, answer the question

a.Jto whence that power Who :is to set 1tup and implement

,

',it.\ and of what. kind of p ople will, it and it. institutions consist? Who will ultima ely check the behaviour of that power

-

itself and how can it be rev.nted from turning monstrous and

self-'erving instead of 8 rving those in whose name it was instituted?

It :is feasible

hange one group 1n power for onother .

this world

. -=-

The tyronny of the one can be

and this 18 on everyday 0 eurr~nce.

traded for

another. the owners of the wealth of able. It 18 possible to change the

names, flag., anthems end slogct.Os" tor the sake of which a 11 this i. done. But it is not' •• ibl. by this means to come one step 'closer to an l.l ... se ord. , a. a new .xp.T1enc~;_of the world, and 0

41 ff.rent ',relationship be world.'

and h1mself.other. and the

, . ~ ,

The idea of eonstan 1 y eo 11 i no on somT~~power or other for help has its rO(l)ts in th natural tendency~t man to avoid the

-54-

initial and hardest phas oneself. It is hard to

of the jihad - ttik, struggle against ;!~~

ring up people, and even harder oneselt.

By d~~:ln1t1on. religiouS renewal means with one's own life. In contrast. viole

someone else in mind. at is what makes

force always have idea so seductive.

Any movement. there ore. which has the Islamic order as .its

''''

all be a~ral mOvement. It must

sense and repret.nt a moral function.

main objective, must

arouse people in the which uplifts and Dlakes

.ople better: Thls".is the clifferenee

~?"8'! .

., .,

between an Islamic movem nt and a politicaliU)arty, which moy

~i

represent a unity of tho g~t and interest. ijijt does not include an

eth1ca-l standard or involve people morally.

The' priori ty gi van 0 re 1 igious renewa 1 has, inter tl J i«,

Second.

souroes.

obvious support

First, ·the ite of any chang. or imp

s th4t interior rebirth is a prerequisvernent in the statl' of a' people (Qu'ran

!'-I'"~:~:~

13/12).

ana the struggle of fir:stlslamic order in that the Ou'r~n in the emphasized. only

confjrmed in practice in early Islam ad, peace be up~n him, to set up the

'~}_J~-

tory. ·This is irid~c"ted by the fact

at thirteen years discussed and

ot be lief and respo,neibi 1 i ty. During

this time it did not begi to consider any

ial or political

~

problem or to formulate a y kind ot SOCial law founded on Islam.

1

,

,

., ..... ' ..........•..... '

0 ...•.•..... '

We expect three .,re

thinds from reI igi,ous rem~wal!

'.

~

,'i;

1. Only rel igiou'ren wal can create the detenninetion.:that

:\

the provisions ofthe~~ra • particularly thoae aimed. aga1n~~. the

more deep-rooted social or which are embarrassing for th,e

wielders of power and . must ~.pplie4·unhes1t.tingIY1lth4·

uncOID-promisingly. R.!"igiO .. renewal mean" that they will b~';'; carried out without violene, or hatred. as all, or a huge majority of the reborn society. will understand and welcome them as the

.. j

",

2. The Islamic renais ance cannot be imagined without people prepared for enorMOUS perso al and material sacrifice. with .>;high deg4,e of mutual tru~t.nd oyal cooperation. What i8 it that can

.".;.

ndments and in the cauae of justice.

.' :

I implementation of God'. c

.•.. ~

;~

,.

ensure that et.tort •• elf .... ritie. and casual ties on one ai~. wi} ~

not be used in

g about the domination and ambition of

another? What can prev.nt reeurrence of the tragedy of moral l

failure. so frequent 1nz',ree nt IslGmic history? Every order

including the Isl_10 one. 111 always re'semble ~r:'. closely, the ... people who estobl ish 1t"'rat er than the principle. they .procl~im.

3. Because of it. col ' •• al hackwardn~ss .. the Ielamie worl.d

will bay. ~.ttempo of education, end industrial-

ization. Aeceler.'ted deve1 pment is always accompanied by symptoms such os; despotism cortuption. destruction of the

;':" ...

f_1ly, tbe.· .quick ancl unwer .nteet atte.1nment of riQhe.,. the coming

to tbe toretront of r .. qurc f~l and unscrupulous individual. ~a.t

" .

urbanization and • bred'i~ w1tb tradition. the vulga~itat1on' ot'"

.o~1al relations. the sprea 'of .alcohOlism. drug.,,:.nd

, , ....

.... r,

"

" .

,':

'''I

~'J

.~".;~j

::" ' ,'- .

I

-56-

I

prostitution. pr1mi~1v1_ God. and the people. de.troy some cases have cle

1nat this flood of anti-culture

constructed religious commandment. by all cl can ensure that civl1'izat1on doe. er mat.rial and technical

demonstrated. can verI into

to barbarianis~ .

iSLAMIC' GOVERNANCE

Stressing the

1ty of the religious and moral renewel it be interpreted to mean - that th.~ about without Islamic governanc'J~

" 1t~

by taking power~tbut

Islamic rebir,th is first a revolution

doe. not mean - nor

IBlami~ order ,can be

,"

This means only that

by Winning in education. and only

We must there

n 1 n po Ii t i 08 •

~ Y'!)

first preachers and then Boldi,rs."aur

V

tbe book. the word. When 'is force

.

weapons are personal .X1_mp

·to be joined to t

The choice ot

is alway. a tangible one and

depends on &~ •• rie. There is. however. a general

rule: the Islamic IftO'U'AIIlMlnt should and can start to toke ov.r,pcwer '!~t\

and numerical1y'etrong enough to be'1iljble

existing non-Islamic government. but al.o 'This differentiation i. impo.lant. , building do not require, an equal deor.e of

"

41 read1nea •.

as soon as it ie

to'overturn

,

to.bui1d.,up 4 ~.w 1.1

because overtur!ning·

psychOlogical and

.. ;

,'.;

,.,.;

: ... :

. !

;- .

. ,

~

delay.

.' ,.r

r" .: .

-57-

To act prematurely i thier.gard'is just os dangerous as to

~ .

. To take power due to a fortunate set of clrcumstonces.

wi thout suff icient moral .nd psychologic&l) prep&ration or the

\

ea •• ntiol minimum of stau ch and well-trained per.onn.l •. means

and not an Islamic revolution. (The

coup d'.e.tt i. a continua of the un-tel.lDie policy on the part

of another group of peopl or 1nth. name'ot other prineiples).

To delay in taking power ans to deprive the Isl~1c:movement of

a powerful means of ing it. ~ime while uftering the un-

Islamic authorities the sibility of dealing a blow to

th~ movement en4 di8persi its personnel. Recent history

,.. .

provldee 8ufficienttragi,' and instructiye ~~ataPle. of the ·latter. \

p~opl.s to .n inferior for .ny hop •.

itl'on and leaves no ro01ll

History is not only the s ory of constant change. but of

of the impossible and the

.

unexpected .

PAKISTAN - AN ISLAMIC REP

When speaking of lsI today the only declared I w. appJaud Pakistan. difficultie •• because it

1c governance, tbe example of Pakistan. cannot ~ omitted.

. .

. . .

.verdl •• s of certoin to111n;8 and

the outcome ot this de.ire to

• . : ",,', .••••.• :. ,. ••• ~. .'.' I ,'.. • •

. . ",. . .,1';' ~. •

:. ;~;"" .:"""::~,ol~"'. " .>~ .: ;';" .

• J .. ,'~' .

..~:~~~<;:<:;~;;:~: .

~ .. _ t~ . ,;.' '. ~. ' .•• ..'

. .,.:

~'" ";',,' .• ' .• : ", I •

'-. ; ... ~;::< ... -

.......

e:5tablish an Islamic orde and beeau:5& those who conceived and

brought it about were cle rly led by an Isl6mic idea.

Pakistan is the drea rehearsal tor the introduction of an

Islamic order under. model'" conditions and at present rates of development. Islamic pro ogonists should learn what should and should not be done from t e example of Pakistan.

The negative experie ce of P6kistan - 6nd negative experiences are always more 1m ortant -·con be summed up in two points; 1. Insuffic~ent u.ni y and structure of~ the organizing "'forces

. ..

.... .:

!

.. ,

Ii .';

who put Iqbal·s idea of P kistan into effect. 5o0n after the birth ot Pakistan~ it was obvious that the Muslim. League had

.

unified ideas on crucial uestions such as the ordering of state

and society. From this pint ot view, the L.ague was hardly more

different elements. without any

gathered together a hodge

"~

than the average. politica party_ Faced with the great di~emma of

exhausted their energies

r dogmatic approach to the implemJntation

Pakistan. it was unable t

maintain unity.

2. A formalistic an of Islamic assumptions in jurists. instead of turni

1n Pakistan. Scholars and

to the burning question of education~

point of djv1~ion Qn Questions of

how rigidly Shari4 crimin 1 and marriage law should be applied. While endless discussions were held as to wh6ther a thief should have his. hand cut otf or imply be sent to prison. an identifiable form of ste41ing ~ corrup ion - became rampant end led to the criSiS which shook the tOI ndations of the state of Pakistan.

The 1eS:50n8 from twe ty years ot Pakist4n's existence are

&.

. ,. ~.''!.,.' .

".. /'.

'-59- .

clear:

Firstly. the struggle t r an lalamio o~der and a thorough reconetruction of Muslim 8~eie y can be led only by tried and true individuals at the head of a resolute and homogeneous organization.' This ne.ed ,ot ·be any kineS' of pol itical party from the arsenale of we.tern demo racy. but rathe.r a moveme~t founded on Islamic·id.eology. requiri g WlDiatakeable moral and ideological eriteriatrom its membership

. Secondly. the struggle or the Islamic order tod.ay 18 for the easentials of Isler. which mans ensuring the reLigious and moral educat:'ion of the people e Ien with the basie elements of social Just1e.. Form at the present moment is of secondary importance.

fA Th1rcUy. the. fUnction of tbe I.lom1e republ i c is not'

\

pr1tnari ly to declare equoli ty UIOng men and the ):)rotherhood of all

Muslims. but to tight tor the implementation of these high-minded prine1.pl.s .. ~wak.ned Islam, her. vel" it aney be. should. grasp .the

. .

f'log of a Juster .social order end make it cleaT that the struggle

begins with war on ignorence. injustic4.and poverty, a "ar which knows neither compromi.e nOT 1tbdrawel. Should it t.il to do 80.

tl:ae flag will be .taken by de tolse saviour. o·t .•

society. in order to bring a t their hypocritical objectlves.

Theae ~e8sons have fa bitt r toste. W.-8till believe in Pakistan end its miSSion 1n th service of internationel.Isiam.

There 1. no Muslim ~.art whicb will not bound at the .mention of

I:' .

• ~tbing .... de.~. "to ua e. Pal< .tan, .• ~.n . i t ,tb18 lOve. 11k.

any oth.r.~~0W8·f.ar and tr ling. Pakistan t.·our greet hope,

N ,.,

" ~.~ .

'., .

full of' trials and. ternptatio s .

-60-

PANISLAMISM AND NATIONALISM

.' , ., ,I

~.

In one ot the erg~nts tor an Isl~ic order of today. we said th~t the tendency to got er together all Muslims ~nd Muslim

communi tie. in the world was

natural function of the Islamic

order. As things stand today. it means a struggle to create e

great IslaMic federation from Moroee~ to Indonesia. from tropical Atrica to Centrol Asia.

We know well that mentio of this vision annoys 4 certain type of person in our midst - people who eatl and consider themselves real iats. All the more reason to emphasize this aim loudly a,nel clearly. We prefe to 19nore this "realism" which condemns Muslim peoples to a ermanently !nfertor pos~tion. leaving no room tor endeavour or hope. Its source is in cowo1fclice

. '

and respect tor the mighty ot this world. The masters. it sa~~. should remain masters. and the vassals. vassals. History, 1S •. ~e

have said. however. is the story of constant change. bUt.

ot the continuous achievement t the impossible and the

unexpecte4. Almost everything contemporary world looked impo

goes to make up, the t1 tty years ago.

Obviously there are two k nds ot realism: ours and that ot the weak and cowardly. We thi 'that there is nothing 'more natural or real than the req~irement at Muslims should unite in various woye in order to solve their appro~ch the creation of certa n supranat~onal structures -

economic. cultural and politic

-61-

...... ; .... : ...

',; -

,

order to achieve coord ina-

tion and mutual action in cer t in important fjelds.This idea. "

~

seems unreal to O\ll' "r'a.l :lsts" (read: weaklings). They sanction

the status quo, which to our u derstanding of realism. i.a glaring ex~pl. of the unnatur I and absurd. We find it. tor instance. absolutely unaecepta Ie and unreal that in th1. day and age of concentration and association, one people.- Arab. - should be broken up into thirteen un;i·ts of state; that. th·e Muslim states

etand on opposite sides on a n questions: . that Muslim Egypt

T. of significant international unconcerned about thesutterings"

of Muslims in Ethiopia or Kashm r: that at the height.of the controntA:ion ot the Arab countrle with Israel. Muslim PerSia

~ ..

moint~jned fr1endly relations W,th the aggressor. ete .. etc. It

anything is unreal. then it is. ot the unity of·Muslims. but it. absence - the ·sto.t. of clivision and· discord.. in tac:t# we find

tod.oy.

There is no historical obj ctive - unless one that is in contradiction to natural 'or' histor'cal facts - Which people cannot

The utopia in which

bring a~ut through joint-will

-

.

they believe and for which the~ strive ceases to be utopia. Our

weaklings. on the other hand. ea neither believe nor work - the explanation tor t.heir degr.cUng 'Ireal i8m". When they say that Muslim unity i. a dream which wi1 never come true. they ere only

.xpr ••• ing the helpl •• sne •• they theme.lv •• f •• 1.

1b11ity i8 not in the real world but in their heart.. The idea

The 1apo.a-

,h., '~., .... !:" "~

of the un1f1eation of all Muett

18 not someone·. invention. nor

••

. ~,.,.':~.:: ... ',;' ,"~

:''''

the vain wish of any reformer 0 ideologist. It is embedded in the Qu' ran under the well-known axiom: "Mus 1 irns are brothers". and has been preserved and renewed '0 men's minds by Islam 'through the common tast. the pilgrimage to eceo and the Kaa'ba as a unique spiri tua 1 shrine, thus creating a constant. identical feeling of belonging and communality throu out the Muslim world. Anyone who has ever gone down among the ordinary people following a disaster in a faraway Muslim country will see for himself just how strong this feeling of sympathy and sol

How is i.t. ·Uten. that this· 'folk pan-Islamism". undoubtedly present in the shape of strong t el1ngs ot the masses. does not

have much effect on the everyday

and practical policy of the

Muslim countries, Why does 'it r main as just a feeling. never rising to real awareness of a c on destiny? How to explain the tact that although news of the s fferings of Muslims in Palestine

,

. or the Crimea. in Sinkiang. Kas 11'" or Ethiopia arOUSe teel jngs of I' dejection and unanimous condemna ion everywhere. at the same ti~e

action is eithe~ lacking feelings which exist.

The answer to this 1 iea in a fact whi ch contradicts the

t at all in proportion to the

feelings of ordinary people:

erate ~ction by leading circles.

trained in the West or under West rn intluence~ has been not pan-

inct and con-sciou$ness of the

Islamic but nationalist.

MUslim peoples have be~n divided nd opposed. In this state of affairs. any significant action w uld be and will

remain impossible,

.....

-63-

Contemporary pan-Islami m is therefore primorily an endeavour to attune consciousness end .el ings. ·1n order for .us to desire

,

Whet ",e are and to reject wh t "'e are not.

This situation 4ete~in • the character a~d fate of nationalis. in the contemporary Musl m world •.

Everywhere in the world nationalism has occurred in ·the shape of a widespread movement of . he people, the affirmation of their inclinations (music. folklor'ancl P4rt1cul e.rly language-). The Nuslimcountrie s , however. u ually evince I .tunted . form of this. or even I Kind ot non-nation 1 or e-nat:l'onal nationalism. The exple.n4tion should be sought n·the one hand in the fact that the

g.n.~~~ f.eling has an-Jst .. iem. and on the otber tbat

,.

Isl_ and as

auch has alway. repre.ente4. anti-Islamic movement. Finding its.it in natUral conflict wi h U ••.. P.opl.'s past and traditions _ Which are always and only lsI 10 - notionalist movements in a' . number of Muslim countries ac ually carry on a kind ot.de-not1onalization. very similar to th ir cOlonialist predecessors. The POSition of the Arab language. for instance. in some Arab

countries ... at l.aet Ie tar .s .the attitude of the nationalist

administration i. concerned not much better than at the time

ot the AnglO-French occupation I~.anything is done in this reapect. it leck enthusia ... 0 it 1. the work of tore •• which have y.t to be born •. (By COIIp .r:i80n. th~ 'Jew •• uee •• sfu) ly introduced an almost forgotten language - Hehrew _ into lara,l).

The r.ason tor this attitu4. t ~rd. Aiabic ~8e1mpJ.: as the

'. ~ .

. '.

' .

__ '!t. ,;;c:?;;:;;

-64-

languaqe of the Ou'ran and 181 mic civilizatiop. it is more the instrument of Islamic than Ara ie. pan-Arabic or othe~ generol-

1zed nationalist teeling .. correctly o~sesseQ

protagonists of" Mtiona 1 ism have

solution: they and their Admin atretion. speak the languaoe of the

previous oceupiers(!) without Islam.

in thcJr own way that nationalist

uslim world there is no patriotism

These conclusions

ideas in the Muslim worlel are fun-Islamic ori'fin. This is most ~pparent in the Middle East. ere the pioneers Qf nationalism are

Syr10nfiotellectuals and Chri Lebanese. educated at the

American Institute (primarily the Syrian Protestant College) and

at the University of·St. An ·examination of the

spiritual and historical r09t of Attaturk's movement-in Turkey. Sukarno's panch~ sil~* in Iod nesia. the Baath party in some Arab countries (particularly some f its off-shoots) and a whole series of nat iona1ist and "revol ut io ary" groups throughout the Musli~

world, confirm this

no "gi ft It for nat ion-

Pan-Islamism has always ~prin~' lim people, while nationalism has

from the very heart always been imported goods.

The Muslim peoples. ther alism. Should we 3hed tears veT this?

Even it we were to ignor for a moment the salient truth that

the principle of a spiritu61 to that of a

nation. we would have to. in iew of the moment at which this

message ie being ~ritten. adv se our peoples not to try to

-----~-------------~-

·p~nch~ sila: five basic prin iples (tr~n~lator'$ not~)

.. ~~,'

.: .. ~~. .'

I '. ~ ,'" ,'.Y"'.'

-65-

attain this liability", Even ",ticns who have lived for centuries 1n national corrrtlunitles will e required in future to gradually

~

adapt to new fonns .of eomnon i fe. on a broader comnunl11 base.

Farsighted people in France a are tod~y advising their

felfow-citizens to feel a lit le 1es8 French or Genno.n •. and a

little more European. ation of the European Economic

Community -although this elai may seem unacceptable at first

sight -. is the most construct in twentieth-century

!

EUropean history. This

victory of the European

structure is the tirst real

S over nationalism. Nationalism has

becocno a luxury. too expensiv fOT small nations, or even for med1um~ized or large ones.

,.

Th' modern world is g development which in a certlSiri woy

bears no comparison with the With its incredibly expensive

programmes of education. pusiness. defence and so on.

this development demands unknown ond ~ngu.ssed at con-

centration of people end and objectlvely spe~king;

offers a chance only eat natlons. or to be mo(e precise.

~ ,

..... -'

to leagues of natj~n8. ions presently rule the world - the

. .

eo. third i80n the way - the

Amerlean and the Soviet

European Union. A eommunity hjch cannot gather together a popul-

ation of 200 mi 11 ion .~nd

dollars in GNP - and

"

the.e figures show signs of g owing ~ cannot keep in ,t.p and will

..

h.ve tQ IIldke do with an infer ,,; govern O.~her8 but wi 1:1 be una

pOSition. It wj:l1 not only not to govern itself. Th. rote ot

~\

.: _::.o , ~. ,,'

..• ,.

: .: :

token by these ebsolute fi

China's development is tor below

-66-

",.r:

that of France or England. but t~anks to en enormous concentration

.,: :,.;

ot people and resources. e

superiority in the

current race. This s1tuat'on meone a chance tor the Muslim world. undeveloped but large.

There is one more thi which urgently calla for concerted eftort on the part ot the slim countries.

The economic and al backwardness of ,the Muslim

countries 1s 4eterlorating rom day to day due to a sudden gr,owth.

. ...

uslim countries - Egypt and Pakistan _

1n their populations.

currently have the highest 1rthrate in the world. According to

come into the world each year. rate. the Muslim.world will

some estimates. 20

It growth continues at the

double within its present rders by the end of the century. Can

we welcome. teed. employ the millions still waitihg to

be born? raphic development. it unaccompfnied

by equally swift economic a d social progress. is full of

inties. Over the past twenty years, hos mainly absorbed any growth in

potential dangers this "demographic

production. 80 that GNP in t tt majority of Muslim countries is

. lese today than two decades go.' This burst of POpulation.

instead of power in a united Muslim ~orld. has

become. source of criSiS despair tor the disparate Muslim

countries,

It :is

lim countries cannot deal Singly with

J'

with this problem. We can ce this situation and simultaneously

..

.- -. ".-

-67-

compensate tor the .lost year. f backwardness Gnd stagnation only through 0. new quality - unity. What the Arobe,· Turk.,. Per.ians or Pakistanis cannot solve on the r own. Muslims can, in one, joint. coordinated effort.

EACh Mu.lim country clnc

it. own freed.om and.

prosperity only if by 4Qingso it .1.0' constructe the freedom and.

" , .

prosperity of .11 MU811 •. W. Ithy Kuwait and Lil>ya.cannot

A s.a of misery. It they do

survive 'as islanclaof prosperi I

. not evince Islamic solidarity

Muslim countr~es. if they are d1recththe •• eountries towards lea4 to the hatred and cillO. S clrryidg out" their 1.1~1c dut acting "in their own greatest j

The alternative faCing tV ry Muslim country 18 cl.ar: either

..

a desire to as.slst neighbour"ing

ed by selfi.hness. will this not

similar behaviour?' And thil WOUld.

de.ired bY the·ir enem1... By

, the wealthy Muslim countries are

. "

to unite with other Muslim cou thus ensuring survival,

.'

progress end the strength to ta temptation, or to lag behind

more and more with every passin day. ev.ntu.l1y falling into a

oreigners. The current historic n: it 1 •. no longer ju.t a fine

. "at.te of dependence moment give unity I

idea on the part ot ide.lSsts • d vi8ionar1ea: unity b •• beeome e •• ential. a necessity. the law of survival -and. condition for .

... . ;" ~~. ..

Tho.e wbo tor Whatever. r.a.on

•• If-respect In the world of t

'.

or 8IOtlv. support the pre •• nt t ctionaI1 __ • ate to .1"1 intent. and

purpose. on the '.1de otth. erae

,I ~~

~'

:' .'. -;

\~' ,,~ .;: ' •. :' ':A ' .: '.~:'

..

CHRISTIANln' AND JUDAISM

For reasons ot space. it is not possible bere to explain the attit.ude ~f Islam towards all major doctrines and systems outs~de

its own sphere. It ls. howev

necessary to explain its attitude

towards the two major Christianity and Judaism. an~ two

ruling world systems: and sociol~m.

As tar as Christianity i concerned. we differentiate between

Christ's teaching ond the ch~ The tormer W$Tegard 6S the

pronunciation::+'""ot God, deforme some pOints. and the 'latter as

an organization. which with i s inevitable· hierarchy. politics, wealth and interests, has bec • not only non-Ial4mic. but anti-

define his attitude towards

Christian. Anyon. who needs

Christio~ity should be asked specify whether he means Christ IS

teaching or the Inquisition, e church in its history has always

I

~wung between these two poles. The more the church is the ~

expre!!lsion ancl interpreter of he ethical teaching of the GosP~s.·

the further it is from the 1sition. and thus closer to Islam.

We applaud the new tendencies 'n the church declared by the last

Vatican Council. because we

that to a certain .xt~nt they eta of Christi~nity. It Christians

come closer to the original

so whsh, the future may otfer n exomple of understanding and ccoper'et ion between two great e 1 igions tor the "'ell-being ot

people and mankind. j4st as past has been the battlefield of

prinCiple, We have lived

her ~ith the Jews for centuries.

Pale.tine initiated Action hich is A. inhumAn and ruthless as it

....

even building a common cult I

"j

with certainty soy what in JUdaic.

. However, under

1S shortsighted and and temporary~stote

I constant tactors and the ge

MUSlims in the World.

the w~le Muslim ~orld. Palef(1ni.n •• or even for Ar' 1:>s. HUslia peoples. To keep JeT

181_ and Muslims. end that We "'ou 1 d lilte

~----------- .... ~

"

·1

-69-

so that in some Cases we connot cUlture is Islamic and what

er.hip of the Zionists, the Jews in

This policy takes only a momentary into account. losing sight of the balance of power between Jews and

gauntlet down to only a que~tion for the It is a que.tion tor all the

the Je'fS ~ould hay •. to conquer

thank GOd - lies beyond their power. tiate between Jews and Zionists. if

.

the Jews themselves summon up the strength to m~ke this ditterence. We bope that the m1litary victories which they have cholked up .gainst the divide Arab regimes (not against the Arabs

and not against MUSlims)" Will not totally darken their under-

.

standing and that they Will at rt to eliminate the confrontation

whieh they themselves ereated, in order to clear the way to •

caaoon lite on Palestinian soj. It, however. they continue .Iong the rood of pride, whiCh at th mo.ent seems more likely. there is

only ont SolUtion . for the .lsl. ic DIOY_nt and .. 1I·Mu .. ll .... in the _lei. to c:ontinue the struggle. to "iden and lengthen' it day by

day, yea.rby year, Whatever the 8 .. crj~jce or~?Wev.r JON! ~.t IDaI' .

~i.I! ""JoICe ,lit;'iil the~ 'hforreed tCi ~~&-~:i~cli~ c~ri;1i~~;::'~9""'.:

.,'.' ", y;.. . " .... '. • ... :. ': ..

':-." -" ":' ~~ .,..:. .

'.' '" '~ .

~ .', '"

.. . H.~.,·

j _. circumstances. They are on y a pract1c~1 conclusion drawn trom

:.~~

:',;

:. ~

I' \

-70-

land. Any bargaining or e

which might •• t at risk the

elementary rights of OUT br there in Polestine is' treachery. wh'ich

could destroy the moral These opinions are Islam towar.ds Christians

em on which our world rests.' .

the reflection 'ot any new policy ot Jews, dictated by a transitory set ot

. . .

Islamic principles on the r cognition of Christianity and Judaism and taken almost World for rd from the Qutran "(OUtran 29/45. 21136, '/47-49).

CAPITALISM AND SOCIALI

Whet are the structural'forms and political Shopes in wh_ich the Islamic tebirth of OUr d lS to ~nitest itselt? Are any ot the torms ot organization and Society, characteristic of WestJrn

C1Vil1zation - r.preeentative democracy .. capitalism. 80cial i~gOOd ·for Islamic SOCiety too. and Will our SOCiety be ineVitably Obliged to proceed through th se and. Similar forms?

Over the past two centur es, the idea has taken firm hold that every country must event ally turn towards representative democracy. Recent dev.lo~nts. particularly in the int.r-war

periOd, have prOved in some cases and shown that

cla8~icel democracy is. not an navoidablestage in the evolution

\

ot the SOCial and political co unity. Similarly. th~. are those

tOd~y who attempt to prove tho soci~11sm is the essential

direction in which human soci. Y is moving. whether it likes it or

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r

.... -_ .. _._---_ _-- --- --- - _-_._ .- -- - -_.- .. -.---.--~ +,,--.

(;139

-71-

in the 8o-cal1edcapltal1et

countries in Europe end ica. however, quite adamantly deny

this prophecy of historic .ssity and point tounexpecled

aspeC~8 of develos-ent.the world. 1n Japan,

I leap has been INd. atr.i frona a ·'.ud.al: economy into ",hat

would in Europ.· be' ca11e4 higher form of cop1tali.tmonopoly.

The patterns people .et in to eyste1Htiaehiat:orical

. to be very reletive; and it any rules society, they are obviously not of thought of the eighteenth and

nin.tetnth centuries: .f

Thie imegina~ determi ism octed. to suppress the conscience

\ . .

of the previous g.Aeration8 beaid.s this, it we. exploited 18 a

_powerful psychological mea of spreading id •••. · In .ffect. th.·

system influenc •• the state a country only to the .~t.nt to

development hove turned' ,

the kind des·cr.ibed by

i

:;i

whicb it instigate. or Source of All wealth.

Iy organize. work. whicb i.tbe real

Freed trom the p-rchosi of historicar n.c ••• tty end thanks

to ~he middle groun4~Whi~ 1 lam occup1e.~ w. con witbout

prejudice n4 bed aid •• of the existing #yetema.

no longer as capitalism end 1.1i ... but •• certeln practices of--

contemporary societie •.

Cepit.Ii_ and i8ociali·

. , I

their pure forma no long.r .xls~~ World war II·l.tt tb .. ·far behind •

. Only a fossilized Marxist pol tical .conomy.,.whSch i •. becoming

'~~!~.·I .c:l.n~~,.}l~~~!~f."~~~ !_.:tbe budMi~,*_;"J_it~~ .. , ..

. . .... <~~~.~;;;,.' ' .. " ... . '.\"': .. " . ::"" : ..... -= .. ):~ .•.

to repeat the original eatement. as it nothing had occurred in the world over the Abst Itty years. Judging by many significant symptoms, the classic at ndardS of whot is capit~list and what

-72-

.ocia11~t will soon

tally inadequate to denote economic and

social phenomena in the

If we 4ccordingly r slogans and terminology

and take only the facts e see in the world about us into account.

we must admit the dinary evolution of the capitalist ~orld

over the past thirty yea s: i ta~ dynamism. its .hi 11 ty to set

=

science and the economy 'n motion. while ensuring a high degree ot

political freedom and Ie al security. On the other hGnd. we cannot ignore th. achieve ents of the socialist Iystem either, particularly in mobilizin material resourCes. in education and 1n eliminating traditional t

In the same way. we

annot lose sight ot the dark an4

unacceptable side of thei occasionally convulse bot The prlSgmatic world organization gives

progress and the deep crises w~ch ..

systems.

ot Islam towards solving questions ot the advantage of being abie to study

I

without prejudice the pos ttve and negative experiences of others.

above all the

Japan. These three coun.tr1es

represent. in prinCiple a practice. three very difterent

approaches to solving entary questions ot pro.perity and

The deve 1 oprnen t

t ce i rem in the past thirty years h_~s

power.

demonstrated the error inh rent in some of the basic assumptions

of Marxism. Here we woul mention three:

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production relations has

1. The controd i cw j 0 between produet:i ve f orees and

jtself to be inevitAble 1n

capitalism. CapitalisM h s not only overcome the contradiction. but haa enahled a hithert unheard ot development and take-ott of prOduct1on. knowledge and labour productivjty:

2. The ~orking eles in leading eapitaljst countries has not opted for a revolution;

3. The relation.ehipetween being and oonsciousness, ubase" \and "superstructure" is no what Ma.rx claimed it would be.· We hfl,e capitaUsm in Sweden nd cap~ta1ism in Argentina. The ditterence. in the ba8~ in these countries are differences of

~

degree; the difference. in their superstrUctures (forma of

Political power_ lew., rel 'gion, ruling philosophy, art and so on) are difterences in essence.

Development in the world, then. has not followed the path mapped out tor it by Marx. The advaneed countries retained capitalism while continuing to develop i,t. Whil,.t. socialism came to POWer in a number. of underd veloped Countries. which trom the pOint of view of Marxism, 1 an inexplicable anomaly.

HOW8hou~we interpret the interest evinced by the underdeveloped countries fo~ cert in "forms of Sooialist economy?

In the first place, thi has shown it.elt to be uS.ful When

orgeDfz:ingan·extensive' •. con , epproprieteto countr1e. which

h4ve no·starting »01,nt, . in t at they have neither capital,

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i,'

..' ~ .

.:, "

',. .

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&nvironments ~dapt more eosily to the various types ot restriction (4 les.er degree Oit personal freedom. centralisM. strong government etc.) which always ace pony certain types ot socialism:

thirdly. although outc as a scienee. Gocia1ism has

survived as a myth and

venture. This very important aspect

ot socialism more than expl its greatly growing influence in

Catholic and Latin in comparison with Protestant and

proved successfully in a society I:ldvanced level of

tic spirit of capitalism is more

a developed society. It has been capitalist economy function democratic forms Qt government. an a hiOh degree of personal and

ions such as th.se~ 8cme of theimore economy can actually be consid~ablY impa 1rment of its etf.ic1ency .. ; ·

Ge~anic ones.

In contrast. the

suited to the rat10nalism 0

political lreedom. inhuman aspects of

neutralized without any majo

So the imaginary inevit. bility'of this system or that comes to nothing .. What is. in tac . inevitable is the continuous mobility ot the economy. based on the continued advance of science and technology. The perfecting t the work process and its tools is. it .eems. th, only.activity n wh1ch people "must" engaqe in this dom.in.

Accordingly, neither Islom nor the world at large 18 faced with the ¢11emma ot ~4pitalis or socialism. as any such dilemmA is imaginary and art~fici41. There is. nowever. the question ot choosin~ and constan~ly work! g to perfect a system of relations

.~~.'

,.... . .. ,., ,"

-ns-

,

between proPerty .nd prOduct on. which will be efticient and in h.rmony with the I.I~ie und retanding of .0ci.1 ju.tice: Which

;

w; II stilllUlate work .nel aeti ity in the beet PO •• ibleway and

. .

solve the problems posed by h. jnev1tabledev~10pment of

production and technolOgy.

CONCLUSION

The.. are 80M of the ma n :I d •• a and ••• ent i a 1 eU lell'lDas .of the Ial~lc rebirth. which i8 taking increUina hold of People's minds a. a general tranetormation of the Muslim peopl •• _ moral.

cuI tlkal and pol itjcel. It.. rn1dat of 'al1 the deteat and

J _

diSlI'j>polntment.· the,18I"'ic lrth Ie .. name to inspire ,hoPe end

4

a way out tor In e~ten.jv. reg the world.

~o MusU. for whom adhere to I .• lam 1. ·-not sh.er COinCi-

dence. but rather a progr_ a duty. can reject thl.vision.

but many in their indeCision will enquire: Where are the torce. which will ~ke it come true?

To anSWer this unavoidable qu •• t1on~ W. POint to the new I.I~ie generaUon who 110 I eoo come Of age. 11Ii. generaUon ot

one hundred .allion boy. and I.lam. growing up in

the bitterne •• of defeat'and h iliation. united In a new Islamic patrloti ... Who will refu •• to I Ve on old tame and aUen help and who w1l I gather at'OUnd U ... whie .... n truth. Ute .nd dignity _ bear wlthflltlld the IIt~.ngth to bring .. b(;ut ,th~. 1""' .... lbl. undertaking and to Confront eve' trial. '.

",.. ~.i ..... .: • ~1·("fI;-'··· ""'":iJ"~' \~ ~~;'. 10,'';''. ,~' ., •••••• ~,: -, • .:. r.' , .. ~., -. :.':.:!..~."1'.- .•. ,~ .. ,~"~

" .,..\',; ~,'.,....-;~.'f.., .. ,,?-~ "" ,',. '~.:;:~.", ..• ~ .•. ~.' ~::~~I.""i_> " , . .' TO .",."... .. :J,.

-Y. • ',' • ,'. ~, •••• '" -.' ,. • ~ •

..•. ''':'1'':- •.

!hi. generation could

-76--

ot illusion and error had to be lived through to the end. in order to show the powerlessness of false gods, ot various fathers ot the homeland and saviours ot soc ety. kings'and 6ItJhdis, tor them to beat us on Sinai. endanger I donesia, unsettle Pakistan.~~lk much

t have .appeared be tore . The epoch

- .

ot freedom .. prosperity and p ogress.while creating only tyranny .

.

poverty and corruption - all this was necessary 1n order tor us to

arri ve at a time of sobriety. tor a generation t.o be born to whom

. ..

·i t is clear that all this "'4 but aimless wandering and that there is only one way out tor the I lamic 'World: to turn to its own

• which means I$lam and Muslims.

spiritual and material

. The Islamic world today 's an extraordinary patchwork ot peoples. races. laws and intI enees. but there is one thing ~h1eh is met in every· COrner ot tha 'World with the same respect and

r loyalty: the Qutr~n. one ff)el ng which is the some in Java .. lnd1a.

Algeria or Niger1a: the teeli g of belonging to the general Islamic oommunity. These two loyalties in the elementary feelings ot millions of ordinary people hold reserves of quiet. energy and represent something which is t e same throughout. the Muslim world today. Because of them the Mu lim world is even now an emotional

community ot international dim perhaps the only multi-

national emotional '(but not community .in the world.

As ~n integral part ot feelings and the result ot the

long influence ot Islamic ethi We co~stantly meet, in the torm

ot folk wisdom. with vital apts ot human equality, social

, ',:1 ::l

:! i ,!

,':

'.1 ,.~

,':

justice. tolerance

towards all 11te forms. These

,/.

,...' .:

..

-77-

f facts do not of theme.lve mean 4 better and more humane world.

but they do mean the pro of one. '

These' feeUngs indi that the Muslim world is alive. for

where there is love ao4 ellow-feeling. there 1e not death but life. The Islaaic world is not a desert: it is virgin soil awaiting the plougNlan's hand. Thanks to the •• taet •• our task becomes

real .nd po •• ibl •. It co

turning these feelings. now only

potential fore ... into a tive ones. -Loyalty to the Qulran should grow into c1ete,.ination 0 apply it: the Islamic cOlMlunityof .mations should turn int an organized. aware community. and folk

,.

h~nism into clear idea. which will become the moral and social

character of future laws

transformation; and how shall it be

institutions.

Who wi 11 carry out

40n.1

Every actton taken to.vents is social action.

Every succeasful struggl can only be a joint. organized struggle.

Iaj .,. .

The younger generation ",'11 ~ .. ))1. ,to carry out iteto.sk of

.

trAnsformation only if i a inclination. and idealism are poured

"into an organized moveme t. in which the enthusiasm end personal value of the indiVidual ill be correlated with methods of jOint. c6ordinat.d action. The creation of this movement with a Bingle bestc a1. and programme s an 1rr.~ocabl. condition and starting

point for rebirth in eve

Muslim country.

... ---_.. .......-

.", . ': .

This move~nt will ather together what 1. built. rai •• the unbuilt. elevate and call on people; define aims and find 0 way to attain them. It will in roduce lite, thought and action everywhere. It will bee me the conscience and will ot a world awakening out ot a long. 4eep sleep.

-78-

In .ending we wish clearly

age to all Muslims throughout the world. th~t ther.e is no promised land. no

1

:;.j

~

1

miracle-workers or ~hdj There is only the way ot work. struggle and sacrifice.

In times of trial t us always have in mind two ,things: behind us stands God's ~ .asing and the consent ot our peopl •.

; :\ <

...•.

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