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Directional Drilling presentation ١

In the name of Allah

An Introduction to
Directional Drilling
(Advanced Drilling Engineering course)

Instructor: Dr. Tabatabaei nejad


Lecturer: Mojtaba Owrangi - 87333102

Master of Petroleum Drilling & Production engineering


Sahand University of Technology
Introduction

1. Definition & Reasons for D.D


2. Reference Systems and Coordinates
3. Types of Directional well trajectories
4. Calculation of a well trajectory
5. Directional Drilling Measurements
6. Deflection Tools
7. Principles of BHA

Directional Drilling presentation ٣


Definition & Reasons for D.D

z Definition :
z The science of directing a well bore along a
predetermined trajectory to intersect a
designated subsurface target.
z Kick off point (KOP):
z The kick off point is defined as the point below
surface location where the well is deflected from
the vertical.
z Target:
Target
z A predetermined point in the reservoir that D.D
should reaches to it.

Directional Drilling presentation ٤


Well classification
Vertical Well Wells with less than 10º deviation

High Inclination Wells between 60 and 85º deviation


Well
Horizontal Well Wells with more than 85º deviation

Extended Reach Horizontal/TVD displacement greater


Well than 2.5
Designer Well Wells with significant turn in the horizontal
plane of 30 to 180 degrees, and turn not
restricted by inclination

Directional Drilling presentation ٥


Directional wells
Radius Build Rate Radius
Classification ( degrees/30 meter ) (meter)

Long Radius 1- 6 1719 – 286


Medium 7 – 30 285 – 57
Radius

Intermediate 30 - 70 56 – 24
Radius

Short Radius 71 - 150 23 - 11.5

Directional Drilling presentation ٦


Reasons for D.D

1. Side-tracking existing well (because of hole problems or fish or


reaching new targets)
2. Restricted surface locations (inaccessible locations)
3. To reach multiple targets
4. To reduce number of offshore platforms
5. Horizontal Drilling
6. To reach thin reservoirs (using horizontal wells)
7. Salt dome drilling (directing the well from the salt dome to avoid
casing collapse problems)
8. To avoid gas or water coning
9. For intersecting fractures
10. Relief wells
11. For controlling vertical wells
12. Shoreline drilling

Directional Drilling presentation ٧


D.D applications

Directional Drilling presentation ٨


D.D applications (multiple targets)

Directional Drilling presentation ٩


D.D applications (relief well)

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D.D applications (side-tracking)

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D.D applications (inaccessible locations)

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D.D applications (shoreline drilling)

Directional Drilling presentation ١٣


D.D applications (salt dome drilling)

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D.D applications (fault drilling)

Directional Drilling presentation ١٥


D.D applications (horizontal well)

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Horizontal well

z Horizontal wells
z The Incl. reaches to 90° through reservoir section
:‫ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد در اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ ﺑﻬﺮه ﺑﺮداري و در ﻣﺨﺎزن ﺧﺎص ﻣﺜﻞ‬z
z Fracture Limestone & Low permeability zone

z Horizontal drain holes:


‫ ﻓﻮﺗﻲ‬30 ‫ ﺧﺎص ﺑﺮاي اﻳﺠﺎد زاوﻳﻪ ﺧﻴﻠﻲ ﺳﺮﻳﻊ و در ﻳﻚ ﺷﻌﺎع‬BHA z

2° per ft z
Deep Kickoff and Build :‫ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﻧﻮع‬ z

Directional Drilling presentation ١٧


Drilling Fluid Selection

z Virtually all of the considerations for choosing


a fluid for drilling a vertical hole apply to
choosing a fluid for a directional hole:
z Formation protection
z Hole cleaning
z Lubricity
z Inhibition
z Fluid weight required
z Economics
z Environmental impact

Directional Drilling presentation ١٨


Reference Systems and Coordinates

z Depth references
z Measured Depth (MD)
z Pipe tally, wire line depth counter, or mud loggers depth
counter
z True Vertical Depth (TVD)
z calculated from the deviation survey data

z Inclination references
z is the angle (in degrees) between the vertical and the well bore
axis at a particular point.

Directional Drilling presentation ١٩


TVD & MD

Directional Drilling presentation ٢٠


Reference Systems and Coordinates

Directional Drilling presentation ٢١


Reference Systems and Coordinates

z Azimuth references
z Magnetic North (measured by MWD)
z True (Geographic) North
z Grid North

z Horizontal departure or displacement


• Horizontal distance between rig location & the target.

Note:

True north = magnetic north ± (declination)

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Reference Systems and Coordinates

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Reference Systems and Coordinates

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Types of Directional well trajectories

1. Build and hold


2. Build-hole-drop (S type)
3. Build-hold-drop-hold (modified S type)
4. Continuous build
5. Deep Kickoff and Build

Directional Drilling presentation ٢٥


Types of Directional well trajectories

Directional Drilling presentation ٢٦


Build and hold

z Features:

z Shallow kick-off point (KOP)


z Build-up section
z Tangent section

z Penetrate target at an angle equal to


the Max buildup angle
z No major changes in incl. & azimuth
After build up section
z Incl: 15 – 55 deg or may be more

z Applications:

z Deep wells with large horizontal


displacements
z Moderately deep wells with moderate
horizontal displacement, where
intermediate casing is not required

Directional Drilling presentation ٢٧


Build-hole-drop (S type) & Build-hold-drop-hold (modified S type)

Modified S type S type

Directional Drilling presentation ٢٨


Build-hole-drop (S type) & Build-hold-drop-hold (modified S type)

z Features: z Applications:
z Shallow KOP
z Build-up section z Multiple pay zones
z Tangent section z Reduces final angle in
reservoir
z Drop-off section z Lease or target limitations
z Well spacing requirements
z There are several z Deep wells with small
variations: horizontal displacements
z Build, hold &drop back to
vertical (illustrated above) z Disadvantages:
z Build, hold, drop & hold
(illustrated above) z Increased torque & drag
z Build, hold & continuous z Risk of key seating
drop through reservoir z Logging problems due to
inclination

Directional Drilling presentation ٢٩


Continuous build

z Features:
z Decrease in torque & drag KOP
z Lowest risk of key seating
z Continuous build rate
Build Section

z Applications:
z This type occurs when Target
using down-hole motors
with bent sub.

Directional Drilling presentation ٣٠


Deep Kickoff and Build

z Features:
z Deep KOP
z Build-up section
z Short tangent section (optional)

z Applications:
z Salt dome drilling
z Sidetracking
z Appraisal wells to assess the extent of a
newly discovered reservoir

z Disadvantages:
z Formations are harder so the initial
deflection may be more difficult to
achieve
z Harder to achieve desired tool face
orientation with down hole motor
deflection assemblies (more reactive
torque)
z Longer trip time for any BHA changes
required
z Build up rate is more difficult to control

Directional Drilling presentation ٣١


Calculation of a well trajectory
(build-hold where X3 < r1)
z Radius of curvature:
180 1
r1 = ×
π q
q= build rate (deg/100 ft)

z Maximum inclination angle, ɵ, when


X3<r1 :
⎡ r1 ⎤ ⎛ r − X3 ⎞
θ = arc sin ⎢ ⎥ − arc tan ⎜⎜ 1 ⎟⎟
⎢⎣ ( r1 − X 3 ) 2 + ( D 3 − D1 ) 2 ⎥⎦ ⎝ D 3 − D1 ⎠

z The length of arc, section DC:


π
× r1 × θ Or LDC =
L DC =
θ
180 q

z Horizontal departure at the end of


build section:
X 2 = r1 (1 − cos θ )

Directional Drilling presentation ٣٢


Calculation of a well trajectory
(build-hold where X3 < r1)
z The total measured depth:
D M = D1 + θ
q + r1
tan Ω

z TVD at the end of build section:

D 2 = D 1 + r1 ⋅ sin θ
z Measured depth at CP section:
CP′
CP = CP′ = ( D′ − D1 − r1 ⋅ sinθ )
cos θ
z Another way of expressing maximum
inclination angle, in term of r1, D1, D3
and X3 for X3<r1 is:
D − D1
θ = arc tan( 3 )−
r1 − X 3
⎧⎪ ⎛ D − D1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎫⎪
arc cos ⎨ ( r1
D 3 − D1
)× sin ⎡⎢arc tan ⎜⎜ 3

⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎬
⎪⎩ ⎣ ⎝ 1
r X 3 ⎠⎦ ⎪ ⎭

Directional Drilling presentation ٣٣


Calculation of a well trajectory
(build-hold where X3 > r1)

z The maximum inclination angle, ɵ can be calculated


by:
⎛ D 3 − D1 ⎞
θ = 180 − arc tan ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ −
⎝ X 3 − r1 ⎠
⎧⎪ ⎛ r1 ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ D 3 − D1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎫⎪
arc cos ⎨ ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ × sin ⎢ arc tan ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎬
⎪⎩ ⎝ D 3 − D1 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ X 3 − r1 ⎠ ⎦ ⎪⎭

Directional Drilling presentation ٣٤


Calculation of a well trajectory
(S type)
r1<X3 & r1+r2<X4 r1<X3 & r1+r2>X4

D4 − D1 ⎛ D −D ⎞
θ = arc tan( )− θ = 180 − arc tan⎜⎜ 4 1
⎟⎟ −
r1 + r2 − X 4 ⎝ 4
X − ( r1 − r2 ⎠
)
⎧⎪ ⎡ ⎛ D4 − D1 ⎞⎤ ⎫⎪ ⎧⎪⎛ r + r ⎞ ⎡ ⎛ D4 − D1 ⎞⎤ ⎫⎪
arc cos⎨ ( r1 + r2
D 4 − D1
)
× sin ⎢arc tan⎜⎜
+ −
⎟⎟⎥ ⎬ arc cos⎨⎜⎜ 1 2 ⎟⎟ × sin ⎢arc tan⎜⎜
⎪⎩⎝ D4 − D1 ⎠ ⎣ ⎝ X − ( r + r )
⎟⎟⎥ ⎬
⎠⎦ ⎪⎭
⎪⎩ ⎣ ⎝ 1 2
r r X 4 ⎠⎦ ⎪⎭
4 1 2

Directional Drilling presentation ٣٥


Example 1- Design of D.D

Design a directional well with the following


restrictions:
¾ Total horizontal departure= 4500 ft
¾ True vertical depth (TVD)= 12500 ft
¾ Depth of KOP= 2500 ft
¾ Rate of build of inclination angle= 1.5
deg/100ft
¾ Type 1 well (build-hold)

A. Determine the maximum hole angle?


B. What is the total measured depth?

Directional Drilling presentation ٣٦


Example 1- Design of D.D

Ans.
z r1=(180/Л)*(1/q)=(180/Л)*(100/1.5)= 3820 ft
Because r1<X3:
⎛D −D ⎞
θ = 180 − arc tan ⎜⎜ 4 1
⎟⎟ −
⎝ X 4 − r1 ⎠

z ⎧⎪⎛
arc cos ⎨⎜⎜
r1 ⎞
⎪⎩⎝ D 4 − D1 ⎠


⎛ D − D1 ⎞ ⎤ ⎫⎪
⎟⎟ × sin ⎢ arc tan ⎜⎜ 4
⎝ X 4 − r1
⎟⎟ ⎥ ⎬
⎠ ⎦ ⎪⎭
⇒ ɵ=26.29 deg

D1=2500 ft , D3=12500 ft , X3=4500 ft, r1=3820 ft


z Total measured depth:

D M = D1 + θ
q + r1
tan Ω DM=2500+1753+9264=13517 ft

Directional Drilling presentation ٣٧


Survey Calculation Methods

• Various procedures have been developed to


estimate the well bore trajectory as it is being
drilled. Eighteen methods are known for
computing surveys, but the 3 most widely used
methods are the tangential, angel-averaging and
minimum curvature methods.

• The normal method for determining the well path


is to ascertain the coordinates by using some
type of surveying instrument to measure the
inclination and direction at various depths
(stations) and then to calculate the trajectory.

Directional Drilling presentation ٣٨


Survey Calculation Methods

Below is a list of the most used methods:


1. Acceleration method
2. Average angle method
3. Angle-averaging method
4. Backward station method
5. Balanced tangential method
6. Circular arc method
7. Compensated acceleration method
8. Mercury method
9. Minimum curvature method
10. Quadrant method
11. Radius of curvature method
12. Secant method
13. Tangential method
14. Terminal angle method
15. Trapezoidal method
16. Vector averaging method

Directional Drilling presentation ٣٩


Survey Calculation Methods

Directional Drilling presentation ٤٠


Survey Calculation Methods

z Tangential method:
method
z (Backward station method) or (Terminal angle method)
z the tangential method uses only the inclination and direction
angles at lower end of the course length.
⎧ n

⎪ n ∑ i
L = L
z It is inaccurate among other methods:

Li = DMi . sin(α i ). cos(ε i ) ⎫ ⎪ i =1

⎪ ⎪ n
M i = DMi . sin(α i ). sin(ε i )⎬ ⇒ ⎨M n = ∑ M i
Di = DMi . cos(α i ) ⎪ ⎪ i =1
⎭ ⎪ n
Li= latitude north/south
Mi= latitude east/west
⎪ Dn = ∑ Di
Di= TVD segment αi= inclination angle ⎩ i =1
DMi= course length εi= direction angle

Directional Drilling presentation ٤١


Example 2- tangential method

Use the following survey data to determine the trajectory coordinates


for tangential method?

Measured depth, ft Hole angle, deg Azimuth


3000 2 N 28 E
3300 4 N 10 E
3600 8 N 35 E
3900 12 N 25 E
5000 15 N 30 E
6000 16 N 28 E
7000 17 N 50 E
8000 17 N 20 E
9000 17 N 30 E
10000 17 N 25 E

Directional Drilling presentation ٤٢


Survey Calculation Methods

Average angle Or Angle Averaging Method:


• the angle averaging method is the simple average of the
angles at the top and bottom of course length.

α i + α i −1 ε i + ε i −1 ⎫ ⎧ n

Li = DMi . sin( ). cos( ) ⎪ ⎪ Ln = ∑ Li


2 2
⎪ ⎪ i =1

α i + α i −1 ε i + ε i −1 ⎪ ⎪ n
M i = DMi . sin( ). sin( ) ⎬ ⇒ ⎨M n = ∑ M i
2 2 ⎪ ⎪ i =1
α i + α i −1 ⎪ ⎪ n
Di = DMi . cos( ) ⎪ ⎪ Dn = ∑ Di
2 ⎭ ⎩ i =1

Directional Drilling presentation ٤٣


Example 3- Average angle method

Determine the trajectory coordinates for the corrected survey points


given below:

Measured depth (ft) inclination angle (deg) direction angle


7100 0 0
7200 10.1 S68W
7300 13.4 S65W
7400 16.3 S57W
7500 19.6 S61W

Note:
For the first point the direction should not be averaged, it means that at
MD= 7200 we use dir. = 248 instead of 124.
For the first point the inclination should be averaged, so for
MD=7200 the incl. = 5.05.

Directional Drilling presentation ٤٤


Survey Calculation Methods

Minimum curvature method


and
Radius of curvature method:

The minimum curvature method


uses the angles at A1 and A2

and assumes a curved well bore


over the course length

not a straight line.

Directional Drilling presentation ٤٥


Survey Calculation Methods

z β is in [radian] and if it is less than 0.25


radian, it is reasonable to set F=1.0

cos β i = cos (α i − α i −1 ) − {sin α i −1 . sin α i (1 − cos (ε i − ε i −1 ))}⎪
⎪ ⎧ n
β
F = ⎛⎜ 2 ⎞⎟. tan ⎛⎜ i ⎞⎟ ⎪ ⎪ Ln = ∑ Li
⎝ βi ⎠ ⎝ 2⎠ ⎪ ⎪ i =1
⎪ ⎪
⎛ D Mi ⎞ ⎪ n
Mi = ⎜ ⎟.(sin( α i −1 ). sin (ε i −1 ) + sin α i . sin ε i ).Fi ⎬⇒ ⎨M n = ∑ M i
⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎪ ⎪ i =1
⎪ ⎪
Li = ⎛⎜ Mi ⎞⎟.(sin( α i −1 ). cos (ε i −1 ) + sin α i . cos ε i ).Fi
n
D
⎝ 2⎠ ⎪ ⎪ D n = ∑ Di
⎪ ⎩ i =1

Di = ⎛⎜ Mi ⎞⎟.(cos( α i −1 ) + cos α i ).Fi


D ⎪
⎝ 2⎠ ⎪⎭

Directional Drilling presentation ٤٦


Comparison of accuracy of various calculation methods

Calculation Total vertical depth & North displacement &


method differences from actual (ft) differences from actual (ft)
Tangential 1628.61 -25.38 998.02 +43.09

Balanced tan 1653.61 -0.38 954.72 -0.21

Angle-ave. 1654.18 +0.19 955.04 +0.11

Radius of 1653.99 0.0 954.93 0.0


curvature
Minimum 1653.99 0.0 954.93 0.0
curvature
Mercury 1653.63 -0.37 954.89 0.04

Directional Drilling presentation ٤٧


Directional Drilling presentation ٤٨
Dogleg Severity

z Large angle changes occurring over a short course length can


place high bending stresses on the pipe. In addition, these
doglegs can cause key seating problems. Most operators place
a limit on the amount of angle change allowable over a 100-ft
segment. The limit is 4-6 deg per 100 ft.

100
DL =
L[(sin I1 sin I 2 )(sin A1 sin A2 + cos A1 cos A2 ) + cosI1 cosI 2 ]

† DL: dogleg, deg/100ft


† L: course length
† I1, I2 : Inclination at upper & lower survey, deg
† A1, A2 : direction at upper & lower survey, deg

Directional Drilling presentation ٤٩


Directional Drilling Measurements

z Magnetic single shot instruments


z Magnetic multi shot instruments
z Measurement while drilling (MWD)
z Electromagnetic
z Acoustic
z Pressure pulse
z Pressure pulse modulation
z Cable & DP

Directional Drilling presentation ٥٠


Directional Drilling Measurements

Directional Sensor Hardware


The figure above shows the basic configuration of the Directional Sensor
probe. The directional probe is mounted to the MWD assembly and
keyed into a Non-Magnetic Drill Collar. The nominal length of the sub is
30 feet. The nonmagnetic collar is usually referred to as Monel.

Directional Drilling presentation ٥١


Directional Drilling Measurements

z Records
–inclination
–direction
–tool face position
z on sensitized paper or photographic film
Inclination may be determined by
–a float on a liquid
–a pendulum

Directional Drilling presentation ٥٢


Directional Drilling Measurements (Single shot)

z Procedure:
–load film into
instrument
–activate timer
(activate
stopwatch)
–make up the tool
–drop the tool
–retrieve tool (wire
line or drill pipe)

Directional Drilling presentation ٥٣


Magnetic Multi shot Instruments

z Are capable of taking numerous survey records in one run.

z May be dropped down the drill pipe or run on wire line in open hole.
z The unit contains a watch that is spring wound and uses the power of the
spring to operate a timer cam.
z The multishot tool is usually dropped down the drill pipe and
landed in the nonmagnetic drill collar.
z During the trip out, a survey is taken every 90 ft, i.e. every stand.
z More closely spaced stations could be obtained by stopping the
pipe more often, and waiting for a picture.
z A stopwatch at the surface is synchronized with the instrument
watch.

Directional Drilling presentation ٥٤


Magnetic Multi shot Instruments

Directional Drilling presentation ٥٥


MWD (Measurement While Drilling)

z While drilling it is possible to transmit to the surface down hole


information on:
Inclination temperature
Direction weight on bit
tool-face angle torque on bit
gamma ray sonic velocity
Resistivity

z Inclination, direction, and tool-face angle are of particular


interest in directional drilling. A lower cost MWD tool can
be used if only directional drilling information is required.

z Information is typically transmitted through the mud column by:


+ve or - ve pressure pulses, or pressure pulse modulation

Directional Drilling presentation ٥٦


Deflection Tools

z Hole angles are usually kicked off by jetting, whip stocks or some type of bent
sub, down hole motor tools.

z Geology affects the decision as well as the desire to use a steering tool.

1. Jetting:
It was a widely used technique several years ago. It involved the use of a large bit jet
and two smaller jets. After washing 6-8 ft rotary was used to drill the rest of the
joint

2. Whip stock
is a very simple device used to kick off the well.
Separated into 2 categories:
i. Open hole whip stocks
ii. Casing whip stocks

3. Bent subs:
are used with down hole motors. The sub has 1/2 -5/2 degree of bend in it that will
deflect the motor in the desired direction.

Directional Drilling presentation ٥٧


Deflection tools (Jetting)

z Jetting
z A standard soft formation tri-
cone bit, with one very large
nozzle and two smaller ones.

z Important parameter:
z Geology:
z S.S & oolitic limestone (best)
z Unconsolidated S.S & very
soft rock (good)
z Very soft rocks erode too
much (bad)
z As a rough rule of
thumb, ROP>24m/hr
using normal drilling
parameters

z Hydraulic energy
z A rule of thumb: mud
velocity through the
large jet should be at
least 500 ft/sec.

Directional Drilling presentation ٥٨


Deflection tools (Jetting)

Directional Drilling presentation ٥٩


Advantages & Disadvantages Of Jetting

z Advantages z Disadvantages
z Same BHA to change z Only works in soft
trajectory & drilling ahead formation and therefore at
z Simple and cheap method shallow depths.
in soft formations. z high dogleg severities are
z Dogleg severity can be often produced. Deviation
partly controlled from is produced in a series of
surface by varying the sudden changes, rather
number of feet “jetted” than a smooth continuous
each time. change. For this reason, it
z The survey tool is not far
is normal practice to jet
behind the bit. an under gauge hole and
then open it out to full
z Orientation of tool face is gauge, which smoothes
fairly easy off the worst of the
doglegs.

Directional Drilling presentation ٦٠


Deflection tools (Whip stock)

z Some movies about D.D:


1. Movie 1 (bottom trip W.S)
2. Movie 2 (section milling)
3. Movie 3 (section milling)
4. Movie 4 (retrieving a W.S)
5. Movie 5 (cement type W.S)
6. Movie 6 (Casing W.S)

Directional Drilling presentation ٦١


Deflection tools (Whip stock)

Directional Drilling presentation ٦٢


Deflection tools (Whip stock)

z Whip stocks
z Standard removable Whip stock
z used to kick off wells
z Sidetracking
z Disadvantage
z If the whip stock is set on the fill, then whip stock rotate when
drilling starts
z Fill tend to wash away, causing the bit to slide down the side of
the well bore and entire whip stock assembly to rotate
z Critical: when bit leaves the end of W. wedge, if the rock too
soft & circulation too high, bit can lose curvature and continue
straight
z number of “trips” involved.
z whip stock produced a sudden, sharp deflection
z Advantages
z It is a fairly simple piece of equipment which requires relatively
little maintenance and has no temperature limitations.

Directional Drilling presentation ٦٣


Deflection tools (Whip stock)

• Circulating Whip stock


– the drilling mud initially flows through a passage to the bottom of
the whip stock which permits more efficient cleaning of the
bottom of the hole and ensures a clean seat for the tool.
– It is most efficient for washing out bottom hole fills.

z Permanent Casing Whip stock


z used where a “window” is to be cut in casing for a sidetrack
z advantage
z operation usually takes less time.
z disadvantage
z gives a sharp dogleg
z Casing window is too short. Numerous trips & long hours of rotation
can wear or damage the casing, difficult to trip out the BHA through
the casing window

Directional Drilling presentation ٦٤


Deflection tools (Whip stock)

Directional Drilling presentation ٦٥


Down hole motors

z Was developed in 1966, and 2 years later the PDM


began to be used in the US
z PDM & turbine + Bent Sub + Bent Housing or
eccentric stabilizers

turbine motor (left)


and positive
displacement
motor (right)
designs.

Directional Drilling presentation ٦٦


PDM s vs. Turbines

z PDM:
z The directional driller can
use pump pressure as a
weight indicator
z longer bit life
z because of the slower
rotary speed.
z Use a small bend at the
U-joint housing instead of
bent sub
z Turbine:
z operate at higher
temperatures
z DO NOT have a dump
valve.

Directional Drilling presentation ٦٧


Factors Affecting directional behavior of rotary assemblies

z Gauge and placement of stabilizers


z Diameter and length of drill collars
z Weight -on-bit
z Rotary speed
z Bit type
z Formation anisotropy and dip angle of the
bedding planes
z Formation hardness
z Flow rate
z Rate of penetration

Directional Drilling presentation ٦٨


PDM accessories

Directional Drilling presentation ٦٩


PDM accessories

Directional Drilling presentation ٧٠


PDM accessories

Directional Drilling presentation ٧١


PDM accessories

Directional Drilling presentation ٧٢


Turbine accessories

Directional Drilling presentation ٧٣


Principles of BHA (Fulcrum)

z The Fulcrum principle is used


to build angle (increase
borehole inclination)
z Full gauge near bit stabilizer,
followed by 40 to 120ft DC, before
the first string stabilizer, or no string
stabilizer

Directional Drilling presentation ٧٤


Principles of BHA (Fulcrum)

The rate of build will be INCREASED by the following:

• Increasing the distance from the near-bit stabilizer to the first


string stabilizer
• Increase in hole inclination
• Reduction of drill collar diameter
• Increase in weight on bit
• Reduction in rotary speed
• Reduction in flow rate
(in soft formations)

Directional Drilling presentation ٧٥


Principles of BHA (Stabilization)

z The Stabilization (Packed Hole) Principle:


hold angle and direction

three stabilizers in quick succession behind the bit separated by


short, stiff drill collar sections, then the three stabilizers will resist
going around a curve and force the bit to drill a reasonably
straight path

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Principles of BHA (Stabilization)

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Principles of BHA (Pendulum)

Drop angle

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References
z “Applied drilling engineering” Adam T.bourgoyne, spe text book,vol 2.
z “Oil well drilling engineering” H. Rabia, univ. of newcastle,1985.
z “Advanced directional drilling” drilling services, computalog, Texas.
z “Drilling engineering” N.J Adams, pennwell books, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
z “Drilling engineering workbook” baker huges INTEQ,80270H rev. B, Dec
1995.
z “IADC Drilling manual”, e-book version(11),2000.
z “Well engineering & construction” Hussein Rabia, e-book version.
z “Introduction to directional drilling” schlumberger hand out, 1998
z “Directional drilling training manual”, schlumberger handbook, 1996

Directional Drilling presentation ٧٩


Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Directional Drilling presentation ٨٠


Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Directional Drilling presentation ٨١


Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Directional Drilling presentation ٨٢


Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Directional Drilling presentation ٨٣


Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Directional Drilling presentation ٨٤


Attachment- review of 6 calculation methods

Directional Drilling presentation ٨٥


That was all I knew about D.D
Thanks for your attention

Directional Drilling presentation ٨٦

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