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Directional Drilling presentation

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In the name of Allah

AnAn IntroductionIntroduction toto DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling

Lecturer: Mojtaba Owrangi - 87333102
Master of Petroleum Drilling & Production engineering
Sahand University of Technology

IntroductionIntroduction

1.1. DefinitionDefinition && ReasonsReasons forfor D.DD.D

2.2. ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

3.3. TypesTypes ofof DirectionalDirectional wellwell trajectoriestrajectories

4.4. CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory

5.5. DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements

6.6. DeflectionDeflection ToolsTools

7.7. PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA

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DefinitionDefinition && ReasonsReasons forfor DD DD

DefinitionDefinition :

The science of directing a well bore along a predetermined trajectory to intersect a designated subsurface target.

KickKick offoff pointpoint (KOP):(KOP):

The kick off point is defined as the point below surface location where the well is deflected from the vertical.

Target:Target

A predetermined point in the reservoir that D.D should reaches to it.

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WellWell classificationclassification

 Vertical Well Wells with less than 10º deviation High Inclination Well Wells between 60 and 85º deviation Horizontal Well Wells with more than 85º deviation Extended Reach Well Horizontal/TVD displacement greater than 2.5 Designer Well Wells with significant turn in the horizontal plane of 30 to 180 degrees, and turn not restricted by inclination

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DirectionalDirectional wellswells

 Radius Build Rate ( degrees/30 meter ) Radius Classification (meter) Long Radius 1 - 6 1719 – 286 Medium 7 – 30 285 – 57 Radius Intermediate 30 - 70 56 – 24 Radius Short Radius 71 - 150 23 - 11.5

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ReasonsReasons forfor D.DD.D

1. Side-tracking existing well (because of hole problems or fish or reaching new targets)

2. Restricted surface locations (inaccessible locations)

3. To reach multiple targets

4. To reduce number of offshore platforms

5. Horizontal Drilling

6. To reach thin reservoirs (using horizontal wells)

7. Salt dome drilling (directing the well from the salt dome to avoid casing collapse problems)

8. To avoid gas or water coning

9. For intersecting fractures

10. Relief wells

11. For controlling vertical wells

12. Shoreline drilling

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (multiple(multiple targets)targets)

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (relief(relief well)well)

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (side(side--tracking)tracking)

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (inaccessible(inaccessible locations)locations)

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (shoreline(shoreline drilling)drilling)

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (salt(salt domedome drilling)drilling)

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (fault(fault drilling)drilling)

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (horizontal(horizontal well)well)

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HorizontalHorizontal wellwell

Horizontal wells

The Incl. reaches to 90° through reservoir section :ﻞﺜﻣ صﺎﺧ نزﺎﺨﻣ رد و يرادﺮﺑ هﺮﻬﺑ ﺶﻳاﺰﻓا رد دﺮﺑرﺎﻛ ﻦﻳﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ

Fracture Limestone & Low permeability zone

Horizontal drain holes:

ﻲﺗﻮﻓ 30 عﺎﻌﺷ ﻚﻳ رد و ﻊﻳﺮﺳ ﻲﻠﻴﺧ ﻪﻳواز دﺎﺠﻳا ياﺮﺑ صﺎﺧ BHA

2° per ft Deep Kickoff and Build :عﻮﻧ ﻪﻴﺒﺷ

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DrillingDrilling FluidFluid SelectionSelection

Virtually all of the considerations for choosing a fluid for drilling a vertical hole apply to choosing a fluid for a directional hole:

Formation protection Hole cleaning Lubricity Inhibition Fluid weight required Economics Environmental impact

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

Depth references

Measured Depth (MD) Pipe tally, wire line depth counter, or mud loggers depth counter True Vertical Depth (TVD) calculated from the deviation survey data

Inclination references

is the angle (in degrees) between the vertical and the well bore axis at a particular point.

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TVDTVD && MDMD

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

 Azimuth references Magnetic North (measured by MWD) True (Geographic) North Grid North Horizontal departure or displacement

Horizontal distance between rig location & the target.

Note:

True north = magnetic north ± ( declinatio n )

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

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TypesTypes ofof DirectionalDirectional wellwell trajectoriestrajectories

1. Build and hold

2. Build-hole-drop (S type)

3. Build-hold-drop-hold (modified S type)

4. Continuous build

5. Deep Kickoff and Build

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TypesTypes ofof DirectionalDirectional wellwell trajectoriestrajectories

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BuildBuild andand holdhold

 Features: Shallow kick-off point (KOP) Build-up section Tangent section Penetrate target at an angle equal to the Max buildup angle No major changes in incl. & azimuth After build up section Incl: 15 – 55 deg or may be more Applications:
 Deep wells with large horizontal displacements Moderately deep wells with moderate horizontal displacement, where intermediate casing is not required

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BuildBuild--holehole--dropdrop (S(S type)type) && BuildBuild--holdhold--dropdrop--holdhold (modified(modified SS type)type)

Modified S type
S type

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BuildBuild--holehole--dropdrop (S(S type)type) && BuildBuild--holdhold--dropdrop--holdhold (modified(modified SS type)type)

 Features: Applications: Shallow KOP Build-up section Tangent section Drop-off section Multiple pay zones Reduces final angle in reservoir Lease or target limitations Well spacing requirements Deep wells with small horizontal displacements There are several variations: Build, hold &drop back to vertical (illustrated above) Build, hold, drop & hold (illustrated above) Build, hold & continuous drop through reservoir Disadvantages: Increased torque & drag Risk of key seating Logging problems due to inclination

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ContinuousContinuous buildbuild

Features:

Decrease in torque & drag Lowest risk of key seating Continuous build rate

Applications:

This type occurs when using down-hole motors with bent sub.

KOP
Build Section
Target

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DeepDeep KickoffKickoff andand BuildBuild

 Features: Deep KOP Build-up section Short tangent section (optional) Applications: Salt dome drilling Sidetracking Appraisal wells to assess the extent of a newly discovered reservoir Disadvantages:

Formations are harder so the initial deflection may be more difficult to achieve Harder to achieve desired tool face orientation with down hole motor deflection assemblies (more reactive torque) Longer trip time for any BHA changes required Build up rate is more difficult to control

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CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory (build(build--holdhold wherewhere XX 33 << rr 11 ))

θ

180
1
×
r 1 =
π
q
q= build rate (deg/100 ft)
Maximum inclination angle, ɵ, when
X 3 <r 1 :
r
⎛ r
X ⎞
1
1
3
= arc sin ⎢
⎥ − arc tan ⎜
2
2
(
r
X
)
+
(
D
D
)
D
− D
3
1
1
3
3
1
The length of arc, section DC:
π
Or
L
=
×
r
×
θ
L
=
θ
DC
1
DC
q
180
Horizontal departure at the end of
build section:
X
= r −
(1 cos )
θ
2
1

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CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory (build(build--holdhold wherewhere XX 33 << rr 11 ))

The total measured depth:
r
D
= D + +
θ
1
M
1
q
tan Ω
TVD at the end of build section:
D
= D + r ⋅ sin θ
2
1
1
Measured depth at CP section:
C P ′
CP =
CP′= D′− D − r ⋅ θ
(
sin )
1
1
cos θ
Another way of expressing maximum
inclination angle, in term of r 1 , D 1 , D 3
and X 3 for X 3 <r 1 is:
D
− D
θ
3
1
= arc tan(
) −
r − X
1
3
⎪ ⎨ (
⎪ ⎩
⎛ D D ⎞ ⎤ ⎪ ⎫
)
r
3
1
arc
cos
1
×
sin
arc
tan ⎜
D
− D
3
1
r − X
1
3

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CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory (build(build--holdhold wherewhere XX 33 >> rr 11 ))

The maximum inclination angle, ɵ can be calculated by:

θ

=

180

arc cos

D

3

D

1

 tan ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ r 1 D 3 − D 1

⎟ −

arc

X

3

r

1

⎟ × sin

arc

tan

D ⎞ ⎤ ⎫

1

⎪ ⎬

⎦ ⎭

D

3

X

3

r

1

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CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory (S(S type)type)

r 1 <X 3 & r 1 +r 2 <X 4
r 1 <X 3 & r 1 +r 2 >X 4
− D
D 4
1
θ = arc tan(
) −
r
+
r
X
1
2
4
⎛ D
D ⎞ ⎤ ⎫
r + r
)
4
1
arc
cos
1
2
× sin
arc
tan ⎜
⎧ ⎪ ⎨ (
⎩ ⎪
− D
D 4
1
⎜ r
r
X
⎝ +
⎟ ⎠
1
2
4
D
− D
θ
4
1
= 180
− arc
tan ⎜
⎟ −
X
− ( r −
r
)
⎜ ⎝
4
1
2
⎪ ⎛
r
+ r
⎡ D
− D
⎞ ⎤ ⎫
1
2
1
arc cos
4
×
sin
⎢ arc
tan ⎜
⎟ ⎟
− D
− ( r +
r
)
D 4
⎟ ⎠
⎩ ⎪
1
⎣ X
4
1
2

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ExampleExample 11-- DesignDesign ofof D.DD.D

Design a directional well with the following restrictions:

 Total horizontal departure= 4500 ft True vertical depth (TVD)= 12500 ft Depth of KOP= 2500 ft Rate of build of inclination angle= 1.5 deg/100ft Type 1 well (build-hold)

A. Determine the maximum hole angle?

B. What is the total measured depth?

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ExampleExample 11-- DesignDesign ofof D.DD.D

Ans.

r 1 =(180/Л)*(1/q)=(180/Л)*(100/1.5)= 38203820 ftft Because r1<X3:

θ

=

180

arc cos

arc

D

4

D D

tan

4

X

1

⎟ −

4

r

1

r

1

D

1

⎟ ×

sin

arc

D D ⎞ ⎤ ⎪ ⎫

tan

4

X

1

4

r

1

ɵɵ=26.29=26.29 degdeg

D1=2500 ft , D3=12500 ft , X3=4500 ft, r1=3820 ft Total measured depth:

D

M

θ

= D + +

1

q

r

1

tan Ω

DD MM =2500+1753+9264=13517=2500+1753+9264=13517 ftft

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

 •• VariousVarious proceduresprocedures havehave beenbeen developeddeveloped toto estimateestimate thethe wellwell borebore trtrajectoryajectory asas itit isis beingbeing drilled.drilled. EighteenEighteen memethodsthods areare knownknown forfor computingcomputing surveys,surveys, butbut thethe 33 mostmost widelywidely usedused methodsmethods areare thethe tangentialtangential,, angelangel--averagingaveraging andand minimumminimum curvaturecurvature methods.methods. •• TheThe normalnormal methodmethod forfor determiningdetermining thethe wellwell pathpath isis toto ascertainascertain thethe coordinatescoordinates byby usingusing somesome typetype ofof surveyingsurveying instrumentinstrument toto measuremeasure thethe inclinationinclination andand directiondirection atat variousvarious depthsdepths (stations)(stations) andand thenthen toto calculatecalculate thethe trajectory.trajectory.

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

Below is a list of the most used methods:

1. Acceleration method

2. Average angle method

3. Angle-averaging method

4. Backward station method

5. Balanced tangential method

6. Circular arc method

7. Compensated acceleration method

8. Mercury method

9. Minimum curvature method

12. Secant method

13. Tangential method

14. Terminal angle method

15. Trapezoidal method

16. Vector averaging method

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

TangentialTangential method:method

(Backward station method) or (Terminal angle method)

the tangential method uses only the inclination and direction angles at lower end of the course length.

n

=

n

=

i = 1

n

It is inaccurate among other methods:

i

M

D

i

i

Mi

α

i

ε

i

L

n

L

i

L = D . sin( ). cos( )

= D . sin( ). sin( ) ⎬ ⇒ ⎨ M

Mi

α

i

= D . cos( )

Mi

α

i

ε

i

αi= inclination angle εi= direction angle

i = 1

n

M

D

i = 1

i

D =

n

TVD segment

Li= latitude north/south Mi= latitude east/west

Di=

DMi= course length

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ExampleExample 22-- tangentialtangential methodmethod

Use the following survey data to determine the trajectory coordinates for tangential method?

 Measured depth, ft Hole angle, deg Azimuth 3000 2 N 28 E 3300 4 N 10 E 3600 8 N 35 E 3900 12 N 25 E 5000 15 N 30 E 6000 16 N 28 E 7000 17 N 50 E 8000 17 N 20 E 9000 17 N 30 E 10000 17 N 25 E

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

AverageAverage angleangle OrOr AngleAngle AveragingAveraging Method:Method:

thethe angleangle averagingaveraging methodmethod isis thethe sisimplemple averageaverage ofof thethe anglesangles atat thethe toptop andand bottombottom ofof coursecourse length.length.

n

+

α α

i

i

1

ε

i

+

ε

i

1

L = D . sin(

i

Mi

). cos(

)

⎪ ⎪

L

n

L

i

=

ε

i

2

+

ε

i 1

2

 2 α i + α i − 1 α i 2 + α i − 1

2

)

i

= 1

n

i = 1

n

M

i

= D . sin(

Mi

). sin(

) ⎬ ⇒ ⎨ M

D

n

n

M

=

D i

= D . cos(

Mi

D

i

= 1

i

=

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ExampleExample 33-- AverageAverage angleangle methodmethod

Determine the trajectory coordinates for the corrected survey points given below:

Measured depth (ft)

inclination angle (deg)

direction angle

 7100 0 0 7200 10.1 S68W 7300 13.4 S65W 7400 16.3 S57W 7500 19.6 S61W

Note:

For the first point the direction should not be averaged, it means that at MD=MD= 72007200 wewe useuse dir.dir. == 248248 insteadinstead ofof 124.124. For the first point the inclination should be averaged, so for MD=7200MD=7200 thethe incl.incl. == 5.05.5.05.

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

TheThe minimumminimum curvaturecurvature methodmethod usesuses thethe anglesangles atat A1A1 andand A2A2

andand assumesassumes aa curvedcurved wellwell borebore overover thethe coursecourse lengthlength

notnot aa straightstraight line.line.

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

β is in [radian] and if it is less than 0.25

radian, it is reasonable to set F=1.0

{

sin

cos

F

=

β

 − i − 1 ) − ⎛ ⎜ ⎝ sin( β i 2 α ⎞ ⎟ ⎠ i 1 α i − 1 α i − 1

i

=

2

cos

(

α α

i

β

i

. tan

D

Mi

D

2

2

Mi

.

(

(

sin(

D

Mi

2

(

. cos(

i

1

. sin

i

(

1 cos

(

ε

i

α

α

). sin

.

(

ε

i

1

)

+

(

ε

i

1

)

+

sin

i

. sin

)

M =

i

L =

i

D =

i

α

ε

ε

i

i

)

. F

i

). cos

sin

α

i

. cos

. F

i

) cos

+

i

)

. F

i

α

Directional Drilling presentation

ε

i

1

))}

⎪ ⎪

=

n

i = 1

n

L

i

=

i = 1

n

M

=

i = 1

D

i

L

n

⇒ ⎨ M

D

n

n

i

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ComparisonComparison ofof accuracyaccuracy ofof variousvarious calculationcalculation methodsmethods

 CalculationCalculation Total vertical depth & differences from actual (ft) North displacement & differences from actual (ft) methodmethod TangentialTangential 1628.61 -25.38 998.02 +43.09 BalancedBalanced tantan 1653.61 -0.38 954.72 -0.21 AngleAngle--aveave 1654.18 +0.19 955.04 +0.11 RadiusRadius ofof 1653.99 0.0 954.93 0.0 curvaturecurvature MinimumMinimum 1653.99 0.0 954.93 0.0 curvaturecurvature MercuryMercury 1653.63 -0.37 954.89 0.04

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DoglegDogleg SeveritySeverity

LargeLarge angleangle changeschanges occurringoccurring ovoverer aa shortshort coursecourse lengthlength cancan placeplace highhigh bendingbending stressesstresses onon thethe pipe.pipe. InIn addition,addition, thesethese doglegsdoglegs cancan causecause keykey seatingseating prproblems.oblems. MostMost operatorsoperators placeplace aa limitlimit onon thethe amountamount ofof anglanglee changechange allowableallowable overover aa 100100--ftft segment.segment. TheThe limitlimit isis 44--66 degdeg perper 100100 ft.ft.

DL =

100

L

[(

sin sin

I

1

I

2

)(

sin sin

A

1

A

2

+

A

cos cos

1

A

2

)

+

I

cos cos

1

I

2

]

DL:DL: dogleg,dogleg, deg/100ftdeg/100ft L:L: coursecourse lengthlength II 11 ,, II 22 :: InclinationInclination atat upperupper && lowerlower survey,survey, degdeg AA 11 ,, AA 22 :: directiondirection atat upperupper && lowerlower survey,survey, degdeg

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DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements

MagneticMagnetic singlesingle shotshot instrumentsinstruments MagneticMagnetic multimulti shotshot instrumentsinstruments MeasurementMeasurement whilewhile drillingdrilling (MWD)(MWD)

ElectromagneticElectromagnetic AcousticAcoustic PressurePressure pulsepulse PressurePressure pulsepulse modulationmodulation CableCable && DPDP

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DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements

DirectionalDirectional SensorSensor HardwareHardware

TheThe figurefigure aboveabove showsshows thethe basicbasic configurationconfiguration ofof thethe DirectiDirectionalonal SensorSensor probe.probe. TheThe directionaldirectional probeprobe isis mountedmounted toto thethe MWDMWD assemblyassembly anandd keyedkeyed intointo aa NonNon--MagneticMagnetic DrillDrill Collar.Collar. TheThe nominalnominal lengthlength ofof thethe subsub isis 3030 feet.feet. TheThe nonmagneticnonmagnetic collarcollar isis usuallyusually referredreferred toto asas Monel.Monel.

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DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements

Records

inclination direction tool face position

on sensitized paper or photographic film Inclination may be determined by

a float on a liquid –a pendulum

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DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements (Single(Single shot)shot)

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Directional Drilling presentation

Procedure:

load film into instrument activate timer (activate stopwatch) –make up the tool drop the tool retrieve tool (wire line or drill pipe)

MagneticMagnetic MultiMulti shotshot InstrumentsInstruments

 Are capable of taking numerous survey records in one run. May be dropped down the drill pipe or run on wire line in open hole. The unit contains a watch that is spring wound and uses the power of the spring to operate a timer cam. The multishot tool is usually dropped down the drill pipe and landed in the nonmagnetic drill collar. During the trip out, a survey is taken every 90 ft, i.e. every stand. More closely spaced stations could be obtained by stopping the pipe more often, and waiting for a picture. A stopwatch at the surface is synchronized with the instrument watch.

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MagneticMagnetic MultiMulti shotshot InstrumentsInstruments

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MWDMWD ((MeasurementMeasurement WhileWhile DrillingDrilling))

WhileWhile drillingdrilling itit isis possiblepossible toto transmittransmit toto thethe surfacesurface downdown hoholele informationinformation on:on:

Inclination Direction tool-face gamma ray Resistivity

temperature weight on bit angle torque on bit sonic velocity

Inclination,Inclination, direction,direction, andand tooltool--faceface angleangle areare ofof particularparticular interestinterest inin directionaldirectional drilling.drilling. AA lowerlower costcost MWDMWD tooltool cancan bebe usedused ifif onlyonly directionaldirectional drillingdrilling informationinformation isis required.required.

InformationInformation isis typicallytypically transmittransmittedted throughthrough thethe mudmud columncolumn by:by:

++veve oror -- veve pressurepressure pulses,pulses, oror pressurepressure pulsepulse modulationmodulation

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DeflectionDeflection ToolsTools

 Hole angles are usually kicked off by jetting, whip stocks or some type of bent sub, down hole motor tools. Geology affects the decision as well as the desire to use a steering tool. 1. Jetting:

It was a widely used technique several years ago. It involved the use of a large bit jet and two smaller jets. After washing 6-8 ft rotary was used to drill the rest of the joint

2. Whip stock

is a very simple device used to kick off the well.

Separated into 2 categories:

i. Open hole whip stocks

ii. Casing whip stocks

3. Bent subs:

are used with down hole motors. The sub has 1/2 -5/2 degree of bend in it that will deflect the motor in the desired direction.

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Jetting)(Jetting)

Jetting

 A standard soft formation tri- cone bit, with one very large nozzle and two smaller ones. Important parameter:

Geology:

S.S & oolitic limestone (best) Unconsolidated S.S & very soft rock (good) Very soft rocks erode too much (bad) As a rough rule of thumb, ROP>24m/hr using normal drilling parameters

Hydraulic energy

A rule of thumb: mud velocity through the large jet should be at least 500 ft/sec.

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Jetting)(Jetting)

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AdvantagesAdvantages SameSame BHABHA toto changechange trajectorytrajectory && drillingdrilling aheadahead SimpleSimple andand cheapcheap methodmethod inin softsoft formations.formations. DoglegDogleg severityseverity cancan bebe partlypartly controlledcontrolled fromfrom surfacesurface byby varyingvarying thethe numbernumber ofof feetfeet jettedjettedeacheach time.time. TheThe surveysurvey tooltool isis notnot farfar behindbehind thethe bit.bit. OrientationOrientation ofof tooltool faceface isis fairlyfairly easyeasy

DisadvantagesDisadvantages OnlyOnly worksworks inin softsoft formationformation andand thereforetherefore atat shallowshallow depths.depths. highhigh doglegdogleg severitiesseverities areare oftenoften produced.produced. DeviationDeviation isis producedproduced inin aa seriesseries ofof suddensudden changes,changes, ratherrather thanthan aa smoothsmooth continuouscontinuous change.change. ForFor thisthis reason,reason, itit isis normalnormal practicepractice toto jetjet anan underunder gaugegauge holehole andand thenthen openopen itit outout toto fullfull gauge,gauge, whichwhich smoothessmoothes offoff thethe worstworst ofof thethe doglegs.doglegs.

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

 Some movies about D.D: 1. Movie 1 (bottom trip W.S) 2. Movie 2 (section milling) 3. Movie 3 (section milling) 4. Movie 4 (retrieving a W.S) 5. Movie 5 (cement type W.S) 6. Movie 6 (Casing W.S)

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

Whip stocks

Standard removable Whip stock

used to kick off wells Sidetracking Disadvantage If the whip stock is set on the fill, then whip stock rotate when drilling starts Fill tend to wash away, causing the bit to slide down the side of the well bore and entire whip stock assembly to rotate Critical: when bit leaves the end of W. wedge, if the rock too soft & circulation too high, bit can lose curvature and continue straight number of “trips” involved. whip stock produced a sudden, sharp deflection Advantages It is a fairly simple piece of equipment which requires relatively little maintenance and has no temperature limitations.

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

Circulating Whip stock the drilling mud initially flows through a passage to the bottom of the whip stock which permits more efficient cleaning of the bottom of the hole and ensures a clean seat for the tool.

It is most efficient for washing out bottom hole fills.

Permanent Casing Whip stock used where a “window” is to be cut in casing for a sidetrack advantage

operation usually takes less time.

gives a sharp dogleg Casing window is too short. Numerous trips & long hours of rotation can wear or damage the casing, difficult to trip out the BHA through the casing window

Directional Drilling presentation

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

Directional Drilling presentation

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DownDown holehole motorsmotors

WasWas developeddeveloped inin 1966,1966, andand 22 yearsyears laterlater thethe PDMPDM beganbegan toto bebe usedused inin thethe USUS PDMPDM && turbineturbine ++ BentBent SubSub ++ BentBent HousingHousing oror eccentriceccentric stabilizersstabilizers

turbine motor (left) and positive displacement motor (right) designs.

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM ss vs.vs. TurbinesTurbines

PDM:

The directional driller can use pump pressure as a weight indicator longer bit life

because of the slower rotary speed.

Use a small bend at the

U-joint housing instead of bent sub

Turbine:

operate at higher temperatures DO NOT have a dump valve.

Directional Drilling presentation

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FactorsFactors AffectingAffecting directionaldirectional behaviorbehavior ofof rotaryrotary assembliesassemblies

Gauge and placement of stabilizers Diameter and length of drill collars Weight -on-bit Rotary speed Bit type Formation anisotropy and dip angle of the bedding planes Formation hardness Flow rate Rate of penetration

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM accessoriesaccessories

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM accessoriesaccessories

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM accessoriesaccessories

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM accessoriesaccessories

Directional Drilling presentation

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TurbineTurbine accessoriesaccessories

Directional Drilling presentation

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Fulcrum)(Fulcrum)

TheThe FulcrumFulcrum principleprinciple isis usedused toto buildbuild angleangle (increase(increase boreholeborehole inclination)inclination)

Full gauge near bit stabilizer, followed by 40 to 120ft DC, before the first string stabilizer, or no string stabilizer

Directional Drilling presentation

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Fulcrum)(Fulcrum)

The rate of build will be INCREASED by the following:

Increasing the distance from the near-bit stabilizer to the first string stabilizer

• Increase in hole inclination

• Reduction of drill collar diameter

• Increase in weight on bit

• Reduction in rotary speed

• Reduction in flow rate (in soft formations)

Directional Drilling presentation

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Stabilization)(Stabilization)

TheThe StabilizationStabilization (Packed(Packed Hole)Hole) Principle:Principle:

hold angle and direction

three stabilizers in quick succession behind the bit separated by short, stiff drill collar sections, then the three stabilizers will resist going around a curve and force the bit to drill a reasonably straight path

Directional Drilling presentation

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Stabilization)(Stabilization)

Directional Drilling presentation

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Pendulum)(Pendulum)

DropDrop angleangle

Directional Drilling presentation

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References

 “Applied drilling engineering” Adam T.bourgoyne, spe text book,vol 2. “Oil well drilling engineering” H. Rabia, univ. of newcastle,1985. “Advanced directional drilling” drilling services, computalog, Texas.