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Directional Drilling presentation ١
Directional Drilling presentation ١
Directional Drilling presentation ١

Directional Drilling presentation

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In the name of Allah

In the name of Allah An An Introduction Introduction to to Directional Directional Drilling Drilling

AnAn IntroductionIntroduction toto DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling

(Advanced(Advanced DrillingDrilling EngineeringEngineering course)course) Instructor: Dr. Tabatabaei nejad Lecturer:
(Advanced(Advanced DrillingDrilling EngineeringEngineering course)course)
Instructor: Dr. Tabatabaei nejad
Lecturer: Mojtaba Owrangi - 87333102
Master of Petroleum Drilling & Production engineering
Sahand University of Technology
Mojtaba Owrangi - 87333102 Master of Petroleum Drilling & Production engineering Sahand University of Technology

IntroductionIntroduction

1.1. DefinitionDefinition && ReasonsReasons forfor D.DD.D

2.2. ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

3.3. TypesTypes ofof DirectionalDirectional wellwell trajectoriestrajectories

4.4. CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory

5.5. DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements

6.6. DeflectionDeflection ToolsTools

7.7. PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA

Directional Drilling presentation

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DefinitionDefinition && ReasonsReasons forfor DD DD

DefinitionDefinition :

The science of directing a well bore along a predetermined trajectory to intersect a designated subsurface target.

KickKick offoff pointpoint (KOP):(KOP):

The kick off point is defined as the point below surface location where the well is deflected from the vertical.

Target:Target

A predetermined point in the reservoir that D.D should reaches to it.

Directional Drilling presentation

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WellWell classificationclassification

Vertical Well

Wells with less than 10º deviation

High Inclination Well

Wells between 60 and 85º deviation

Horizontal Well

Wells with more than 85º deviation

Extended Reach Well

Horizontal/TVD displacement greater than 2.5

Designer Well

Wells with significant turn in the horizontal plane of 30 to 180 degrees, and turn not restricted by inclination

Directional Drilling presentation

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DirectionalDirectional wellswells

Radius

Build Rate ( degrees/30 meter )

Radius

Classification

(meter)

Long Radius

1 -

6

1719 – 286

Medium

7 – 30

285 – 57

Radius

Intermediate

30 - 70

56 – 24

Radius

Short Radius

71 - 150

23 - 11.5

Directional Drilling presentation

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ReasonsReasons forfor D.DD.D

1. Side-tracking existing well (because of hole problems or fish or reaching new targets)

2. Restricted surface locations (inaccessible locations)

3. To reach multiple targets

4. To reduce number of offshore platforms

5. Horizontal Drilling

6. To reach thin reservoirs (using horizontal wells)

7. Salt dome drilling (directing the well from the salt dome to avoid casing collapse problems)

8. To avoid gas or water coning

9. For intersecting fractures

10. Relief wells

11. For controlling vertical wells

12. Shoreline drilling

Directional Drilling presentation

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications

D.D D.D applications applications Directional Drilling presentation ٨

Directional Drilling presentation

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (multiple(multiple targets)targets)

D.D D.D applications applications (multiple (multiple targets) targets) Directional Drilling presentation ٩

Directional Drilling presentation

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (relief(relief well)well)

D.D D.D applications applications (relief (relief well) well) Directional Drilling presentation ١٠

Directional Drilling presentation

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (side(side--tracking)tracking)

D.D D.D applications applications (side (side - - tracking) tracking) Directional Drilling presentation ١١

Directional Drilling presentation

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (inaccessible(inaccessible locations)locations)

D.D applications applications (inaccessible (inaccessible locations) locations) Directional Drilling presentation ١٢

Directional Drilling presentation

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (shoreline(shoreline drilling)drilling)

D.D D.D applications applications (shoreline (shoreline drilling) drilling) Directional Drilling presentation ١٣

Directional Drilling presentation

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (salt(salt domedome drilling)drilling)

D.D D.D applications applications (salt (salt dome dome drilling) drilling) Directional Drilling presentation ١٤

Directional Drilling presentation

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (fault(fault drilling)drilling)

D.D D.D applications applications (fault (fault drilling) drilling) Directional Drilling presentation ١٥

Directional Drilling presentation

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D.DD.D applicationsapplications (horizontal(horizontal well)well)

D.D D.D applications applications (horizontal (horizontal well) well) Directional Drilling presentation ١٦

Directional Drilling presentation

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HorizontalHorizontal wellwell

Horizontal wells

The Incl. reaches to 90° through reservoir section :ﻞﺜﻣ صﺎﺧ نزﺎﺨﻣ رد و يرادﺮﺑ هﺮﻬﺑ ﺶﻳاﺰﻓا رد دﺮﺑرﺎﻛ ﻦﻳﺮﺘﺸﻴﺑ

Fracture Limestone & Low permeability zone

Horizontal drain holes:

ﻲﺗﻮﻓ 30 عﺎﻌﺷ ﻚﻳ رد و ﻊﻳﺮﺳ ﻲﻠﻴﺧ ﻪﻳواز دﺎﺠﻳا ياﺮﺑ صﺎﺧ BHA

2° per ft Deep Kickoff and Build :عﻮﻧ ﻪﻴﺒﺷ

2° per ft Deep Kickoff and Build : عﻮﻧ ﻪﻴﺒﺷ

Directional Drilling presentation

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DrillingDrilling FluidFluid SelectionSelection

Virtually all of the considerations for choosing a fluid for drilling a vertical hole apply to choosing a fluid for a directional hole:

Formation protection Hole cleaning Lubricity Inhibition Fluid weight required Economics Environmental impact

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

Depth references

Measured Depth (MD) Pipe tally, wire line depth counter, or mud loggers depth counter True Vertical Depth (TVD) calculated from the deviation survey data

Inclination references

is the angle (in degrees) between the vertical and the well bore axis at a particular point.

Directional Drilling presentation

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TVDTVD && MDMD

TVD TVD & & MD MD Directional Drilling presentation ٢٠
TVD TVD & & MD MD Directional Drilling presentation ٢٠

Directional Drilling presentation

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

Reference Reference Systems Systems and and Coordinates Coordinates Directional Drilling presentation ٢١
Reference Reference Systems Systems and and Coordinates Coordinates Directional Drilling presentation ٢١

Directional Drilling presentation

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

Azimuth references

 

Magnetic North (measured by MWD)

True (Geographic) North

Grid North

Horizontal departure or displacement

Horizontal distance between rig location & the target.

Note:

True north = magnetic north ± ( declinatio n )

Directional Drilling presentation

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

Reference Reference Systems Systems and and Coordinates Coordinates Directional Drilling presentation ٢٣

Directional Drilling presentation

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ReferenceReference SystemsSystems andand CoordinatesCoordinates

Reference Reference Systems Systems and and Coordinates Coordinates Directional Drilling presentation ٢٤

Directional Drilling presentation

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TypesTypes ofof DirectionalDirectional wellwell trajectoriestrajectories

1. Build and hold

2. Build-hole-drop (S type)

3. Build-hold-drop-hold (modified S type)

4. Continuous build

5. Deep Kickoff and Build

Directional Drilling presentation

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TypesTypes ofof DirectionalDirectional wellwell trajectoriestrajectories

Types Types of of Directional Directional well well trajectories trajectories Directional Drilling presentation ٢٦

Directional Drilling presentation

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BuildBuild andand holdhold

Features:

 

Shallow kick-off point (KOP)

Build-up section

Tangent section

Penetrate target at an angle equal to

the Max buildup angle No major changes in incl. & azimuth

After build up section Incl: 15 – 55 deg or may be more

Applications:

Deep wells with large horizontal

displacements Moderately deep wells with moderate horizontal displacement, where intermediate casing is not required

with moderate horizontal displacement, where intermediate casi ng is not required Directional Drilling presentation ٢٧

Directional Drilling presentation

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BuildBuild--holehole--dropdrop (S(S type)type) && BuildBuild--holdhold--dropdrop--holdhold (modified(modified SS type)type)

Modified S type S type
Modified S type
S type

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BuildBuild--holehole--dropdrop (S(S type)type) && BuildBuild--holdhold--dropdrop--holdhold (modified(modified SS type)type)

Features:

Applications:

Shallow KOP Build-up section Tangent section Drop-off section

 

Multiple pay zones Reduces final angle in reservoir Lease or target limitations Well spacing requirements Deep wells with small horizontal displacements

 

There are several variations:

Build, hold &drop back to vertical (illustrated above) Build, hold, drop & hold (illustrated above) Build, hold & continuous drop through reservoir

Disadvantages:

 

Increased torque & drag Risk of key seating Logging problems due to inclination

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ContinuousContinuous buildbuild

Features:

Decrease in torque & drag Lowest risk of key seating Continuous build rate

Applications:

This type occurs when using down-hole motors with bent sub.

KOP Build Section Target
KOP
Build Section
Target

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DeepDeep KickoffKickoff andand BuildBuild

Features:

 

Deep KOP

Build-up section

Short tangent section (optional)

Applications:

 

Salt dome drilling

Sidetracking

Appraisal wells to assess the extent of a newly discovered reservoir

Disadvantages:

Formations are harder so the initial deflection may be more difficult to achieve Harder to achieve desired tool face orientation with down hole motor deflection assemblies (more reactive torque) Longer trip time for any BHA changes required Build up rate is more difficult to control

es (more reactive torque) Longer trip time for any BHA changes required Build up rate is
es (more reactive torque) Longer trip time for any BHA changes required Build up rate is
es (more reactive torque) Longer trip time for any BHA changes required Build up rate is
time for any BHA changes required Build up rate is more difficult to control Directional Drilling

Directional Drilling presentation

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CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory (build(build--holdhold wherewhere XX 33 << rr 11 ))

θ

Radius of curvature: 180 1 × r 1 = π q q= build rate (deg/100
Radius of curvature:
180
1
×
r 1 =
π
q
q= build rate (deg/100 ft)
Maximum inclination angle, ɵ, when
X 3 <r 1 :
r
⎛ r
X ⎞
1
1
3
= arc sin ⎢
⎥ − arc tan ⎜
2
2
(
r
X
)
+
(
D
D
)
D
− D
3
1
1
3
3
1
The length of arc, section DC:
π
Or
L
=
×
r
×
θ
L
=
θ
DC
1
DC
q
180
Horizontal departure at the end of
build section:
X
= r −
(1 cos )
θ
2
1

Directional Drilling presentation

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CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory (build(build--holdhold wherewhere XX 33 << rr 11 ))

The total measured depth: r D = D + + θ 1 M 1 q
The total measured depth:
r
D
= D + +
θ
1
M
1
q
tan Ω
TVD at the end of build section:
D
= D + r ⋅ sin θ
2
1
1
Measured depth at CP section:
C P ′
CP =
CP′= D′− D − r ⋅ θ
(
sin )
1
1
cos θ
Another way of expressing maximum
inclination angle, in term of r 1 , D 1 , D 3
and X 3 for X 3 <r 1 is:
D
− D
θ
3
1
= arc tan(
) −
r − X
1
3
⎪ ⎨ (
⎪ ⎩
⎛ D D ⎞ ⎤ ⎪ ⎫
)
r
3
1
arc
cos
1
×
sin
arc
tan ⎜
D
− D
3
1
r − X
1
3

Directional Drilling presentation

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CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory (build(build--holdhold wherewhere XX 33 >> rr 11 ))

The maximum inclination angle, ɵ can be calculated by:

θ

=

180

arc cos

D

3

D

1

 

tan

 

 

r

1

D

3

D

1

⎟ −

arc

X

3

r

1

⎟ × sin

arc

tan

D ⎞ ⎤ ⎫

1

⎪ ⎬

⎦ ⎭

D

3

X

3

r

1

Directional Drilling presentation

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CalculationCalculation ofof aa wellwell trajectorytrajectory (S(S type)type)

r 1 <X 3 & r 1 +r 2 <X 4 r 1 <X 3
r 1 <X 3 & r 1 +r 2 <X 4
r 1 <X 3 & r 1 +r 2 >X 4
− D D 4 1 θ = arc tan( ) − r + r −
− D
D 4
1
θ = arc tan(
) −
r
+
r
X
1
2
4
⎛ D
D ⎞ ⎤ ⎫
r + r
)
4
1
arc
cos
1
2
× sin
arc
tan ⎜
⎧ ⎪ ⎨ (
⎩ ⎪
− D
D 4
1
⎜ r
r
X
⎝ +
⎟ ⎠
1
2
4
⎛ D − D ⎞ θ 4 1 = 180 − arc tan ⎜ ⎟
D
− D
θ
4
1
= 180
− arc
tan ⎜
⎟ −
X
− ( r −
r
)
⎜ ⎝
4
1
2
⎪ ⎛
r
+ r
⎡ D
− D
⎞ ⎤ ⎫
1
2
1
arc cos
4
×
sin
⎢ arc
tan ⎜
⎟ ⎟
− D
− ( r +
r
)
D 4
⎟ ⎠
⎩ ⎪
1
⎣ X
4
1
2

Directional Drilling presentation

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ExampleExample 11-- DesignDesign ofof D.DD.D

Example Example 1 1 - - Design Design of of D.D D.D Design a directional well

Design a directional well with the following restrictions:

Total horizontal departure= 4500 ft

True vertical depth (TVD)= 12500 ft

Depth of KOP= 2500 ft

Rate of build of inclination angle= 1.5

deg/100ft

Type 1 well (build-hold)

A. Determine the maximum hole angle?

B. What is the total measured depth?

Directional Drilling presentation

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ExampleExample 11-- DesignDesign ofof D.DD.D

Ans.

r 1 =(180/Л)*(1/q)=(180/Л)*(100/1.5)= 38203820 ftft Because r1<X3:

θ

=

180

arc cos

arc

D

4

D D

tan

4

X

1

⎟ −

4

r

1

r

1

D

1

⎟ ×

sin

arc

D D ⎞ ⎤ ⎪ ⎫

tan

4

X

1

4

r

1

ɵɵ=26.29=26.29 degdeg

D1=2500 ft , D3=12500 ft , X3=4500 ft, r1=3820 ft Total measured depth:

D

M

θ

= D + +

1

q

r

1

tan Ω

DD MM =2500+1753+9264=13517=2500+1753+9264=13517 ftft

Directional Drilling presentation

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

VariousVarious proceduresprocedures havehave beenbeen developeddeveloped toto estimateestimate thethe wellwell borebore trtrajectoryajectory asas itit isis beingbeing drilled.drilled. EighteenEighteen memethodsthods areare knownknown forfor computingcomputing surveys,surveys, butbut thethe 33 mostmost widelywidely usedused methodsmethods areare thethe tangentialtangential,, angelangel--averagingaveraging andand minimumminimum curvaturecurvature methods.methods.

TheThe normalnormal methodmethod forfor determiningdetermining thethe wellwell pathpath isis toto ascertainascertain thethe coordinatescoordinates byby usingusing somesome typetype ofof surveyingsurveying instrumentinstrument toto measuremeasure thethe inclinationinclination andand directiondirection atat variousvarious depthsdepths (stations)(stations) andand thenthen toto calculatecalculate thethe trajectory.trajectory.

Directional Drilling presentation

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

Below is a list of the most used methods:

1. Acceleration method

2. Average angle method

3. Angle-averaging method

4. Backward station method

5. Balanced tangential method

6. Circular arc method

7. Compensated acceleration method

8. Mercury method

9. Minimum curvature method

10. Quadrant method

11. Radius of curvature method

12. Secant method

13. Tangential method

14. Terminal angle method

15. Trapezoidal method

16. Vector averaging method

Directional Drilling presentation

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

Survey Survey Calculation Calculation Methods Methods Directional Drilling presentation ٤٠
Survey Survey Calculation Calculation Methods Methods Directional Drilling presentation ٤٠

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

TangentialTangential method:method

(Backward station method) or (Terminal angle method)

the tangential method uses only the inclination and direction angles at lower end of the course length.


n

=

n

=

i = 1

n

It is inaccurate among other methods:

i

M

D

i

i

Mi

α

i

ε

i

L

n

L

i

L = D . sin( ). cos( )

= D . sin( ). sin( ) ⎬ ⇒ ⎨ M

Mi

α

i

= D . cos( )

Mi

α

i

ε

i

αi= inclination angle εi= direction angle


i = 1

n

M

D

i = 1

i

D =

n

TVD segment

Li= latitude north/south Mi= latitude east/west

Di=

DMi= course length

Directional Drilling presentation

i

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ExampleExample 22-- tangentialtangential methodmethod

Use the following survey data to determine the trajectory coordinates for tangential method?

Measured depth, ft

Hole angle, deg

Azimuth

3000

2

N 28 E

3300

4

N 10 E

3600

8

N 35 E

3900

12

N 25 E

5000

15

N 30 E

6000

16

N 28 E

7000

17

N 50 E

8000

17

N 20 E

9000

17

N 30 E

10000

17

N 25 E

Directional Drilling presentation

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

AverageAverage angleangle OrOr AngleAngle AveragingAveraging Method:Method:

thethe angleangle averagingaveraging methodmethod isis thethe sisimplemple averageaverage ofof thethe anglesangles atat thethe toptop andand bottombottom ofof coursecourse length.length.

n

+

α α

i

i

1

ε

i

+

ε

i

1

L = D . sin(

i

Mi

). cos(

)

⎪ ⎪

L

n

L

i

=

ε

i

2

+

ε

i 1

2

 

2

α

i

+

α

i

1

α

i

2

+

α

i 1

2

)

i

= 1

n

i = 1

n

M

i

= D . sin(

Mi

). sin(

) ⎬ ⇒ ⎨ M

D

n

n

M

=

D i

= D . cos(

Mi

D

i

= 1

i

=

Directional Drilling presentation

i

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ExampleExample 33-- AverageAverage angleangle methodmethod

Determine the trajectory coordinates for the corrected survey points given below:

Measured depth (ft)

inclination angle (deg)

direction angle

7100

0

0

7200

10.1

S68W

7300

13.4

S65W

7400

16.3

S57W

7500

19.6

S61W

Note:

For the first point the direction should not be averaged, it means that at MD=MD= 72007200 wewe useuse dir.dir. == 248248 insteadinstead ofof 124.124. For the first point the inclination should be averaged, so for MD=7200MD=7200 thethe incl.incl. == 5.05.5.05.

Directional Drilling presentation

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

MinimumMinimum curvaturecurvature methodmethod andand RadiusRadius ofof curvaturecurvature method:method:

TheThe minimumminimum curvaturecurvature methodmethod usesuses thethe anglesangles atat A1A1 andand A2A2

andand assumesassumes aa curvedcurved wellwell borebore overover thethe coursecourse lengthlength

notnot aa straightstraight line.line.

the the course course length length not not a a straight straight line. line. Directional Drilling

Directional Drilling presentation

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SurveySurvey CalculationCalculation MethodsMethods

β is in [radian] and if it is less than 0.25

radian, it is reasonable to set F=1.0

{

sin

cos

F

=

β

i

1

 

)

sin(

β

i

2

α

i

1

 

α

i

1

 

α

i

1

i

=

2

cos

(

α α

i

β

i

. tan

D

Mi

D

2

2

Mi

.

(

(

sin(

D

Mi

2

(

. cos(

i

1

. sin

i

(

1 cos

(

ε

i

α

α

). sin

.

(

ε

i

1

)

+

(

ε

i

1

)

+

sin

i

. sin

)

M =

i

L =

i

D =

i

α

ε

ε

i

i

)

. F

i

). cos

sin

α

i

. cos

. F

i

) cos

+

i

)

. F

i

α

Directional Drilling presentation

ε

i

1

))}

⎪ ⎪

=

n

i = 1

n

L

i

=

i = 1

n

M

=

i = 1

D

i

L

n

⇒ ⎨ M

D

n

n

i

٤٦

ComparisonComparison ofof accuracyaccuracy ofof variousvarious calculationcalculation methodsmethods

CalculationCalculation

Total vertical depth & differences from actual (ft)

North displacement & differences from actual (ft)

methodmethod

TangentialTangential

1628.61

-25.38

998.02

+43.09

BalancedBalanced tantan

1653.61

-0.38

954.72

-0.21

AngleAngle--aveave

1654.18

+0.19

955.04

+0.11

RadiusRadius ofof

1653.99

0.0

954.93

0.0

curvaturecurvature

MinimumMinimum

1653.99

0.0

954.93

0.0

curvaturecurvature

MercuryMercury

1653.63

-0.37

954.89

0.04

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Directional Drilling presentation ٤٨
Directional Drilling presentation ٤٨

Directional Drilling presentation

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DoglegDogleg SeveritySeverity

LargeLarge angleangle changeschanges occurringoccurring ovoverer aa shortshort coursecourse lengthlength cancan placeplace highhigh bendingbending stressesstresses onon thethe pipe.pipe. InIn addition,addition, thesethese doglegsdoglegs cancan causecause keykey seatingseating prproblems.oblems. MostMost operatorsoperators placeplace aa limitlimit onon thethe amountamount ofof anglanglee changechange allowableallowable overover aa 100100--ftft segment.segment. TheThe limitlimit isis 44--66 degdeg perper 100100 ft.ft.

DL =

100

L

[(

sin sin

I

1

I

2

)(

sin sin

A

1

A

2

+

A

cos cos

1

A

2

)

+

I

cos cos

1

I

2

]

DL:DL: dogleg,dogleg, deg/100ftdeg/100ft L:L: coursecourse lengthlength II 11 ,, II 22 :: InclinationInclination atat upperupper && lowerlower survey,survey, degdeg AA 11 ,, AA 22 :: directiondirection atat upperupper && lowerlower survey,survey, degdeg

Directional Drilling presentation

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DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements

MagneticMagnetic singlesingle shotshot instrumentsinstruments MagneticMagnetic multimulti shotshot instrumentsinstruments MeasurementMeasurement whilewhile drillingdrilling (MWD)(MWD)

ElectromagneticElectromagnetic AcousticAcoustic PressurePressure pulsepulse PressurePressure pulsepulse modulationmodulation CableCable && DPDP

Directional Drilling presentation

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DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements

Directional Drilling Drilling Measurements Measurements Directional Directional Sensor Sensor Hardware Hardware

DirectionalDirectional SensorSensor HardwareHardware

TheThe figurefigure aboveabove showsshows thethe basicbasic configurationconfiguration ofof thethe DirectiDirectionalonal SensorSensor probe.probe. TheThe directionaldirectional probeprobe isis mountedmounted toto thethe MWDMWD assemblyassembly anandd keyedkeyed intointo aa NonNon--MagneticMagnetic DrillDrill Collar.Collar. TheThe nominalnominal lengthlength ofof thethe subsub isis 3030 feet.feet. TheThe nonmagneticnonmagnetic collarcollar isis usuallyusually referredreferred toto asas Monel.Monel.

Directional Drilling presentation

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DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements

Records

inclination direction tool face position

on sensitized paper or photographic film Inclination may be determined by

a float on a liquid –a pendulum

Directional Drilling presentation

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DirectionalDirectional DrillingDrilling MeasurementsMeasurements (Single(Single shot)shot)

٥٣
٥٣

Directional Drilling presentation

Procedure:

load film into instrument activate timer (activate stopwatch) –make up the tool drop the tool retrieve tool (wire line or drill pipe)

MagneticMagnetic MultiMulti shotshot InstrumentsInstruments

Are capable of taking numerous survey records in one run.

May be dropped down the drill pipe or run on wire line in open hole.

The unit contains a watch that is spring wound and uses the power of the spring to operate a timer cam.

The multishot tool is usually dropped down the drill pipe and landed in the nonmagnetic drill collar.

During the trip out, a survey is taken every 90 ft, i.e. every stand.

More closely spaced stations could be obtained by stopping the

pipe more often, and waiting for a picture. A stopwatch at the surface is synchronized with the instrument watch.

Directional Drilling presentation

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MagneticMagnetic MultiMulti shotshot InstrumentsInstruments

Magnetic Magnetic Multi Multi shot shot Instruments Instruments Directional Drilling presentation ٥٥

Directional Drilling presentation

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MWDMWD ((MeasurementMeasurement WhileWhile DrillingDrilling))

WhileWhile drillingdrilling itit isis possiblepossible toto transmittransmit toto thethe surfacesurface downdown hoholele informationinformation on:on:

Inclination Direction tool-face gamma ray Resistivity

temperature weight on bit angle torque on bit sonic velocity

Inclination,Inclination, direction,direction, andand tooltool--faceface angleangle areare ofof particularparticular interestinterest inin directionaldirectional drilling.drilling. AA lowerlower costcost MWDMWD tooltool cancan bebe usedused ifif onlyonly directionaldirectional drillingdrilling informationinformation isis required.required.

InformationInformation isis typicallytypically transmittransmittedted throughthrough thethe mudmud columncolumn by:by:

++veve oror -- veve pressurepressure pulses,pulses, oror pressurepressure pulsepulse modulationmodulation

Directional Drilling presentation

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DeflectionDeflection ToolsTools

Hole angles are usually kicked off by jetting, whip stocks or some type of bent sub, down hole motor tools.

Geology affects the decision as well as the desire to use a steering tool.

1.

Jetting:

It was a widely used technique several years ago. It involved the use of a large bit jet and two smaller jets. After washing 6-8 ft rotary was used to drill the rest of the joint

2. Whip stock

is a very simple device used to kick off the well.

Separated into 2 categories:

i. Open hole whip stocks

ii. Casing whip stocks

3. Bent subs:

are used with down hole motors. The sub has 1/2 -5/2 degree of bend in it that will deflect the motor in the desired direction.

Directional Drilling presentation

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Jetting)(Jetting)

Jetting

A standard soft formation tri- cone bit, with one very large nozzle and two smaller ones.

Important parameter:

Geology:

S.S & oolitic limestone (best) Unconsolidated S.S & very soft rock (good) Very soft rocks erode too much (bad) As a rough rule of thumb, ROP>24m/hr using normal drilling parameters

Hydraulic energy

A rule of thumb: mud velocity through the large jet should be at least 500 ft/sec.

rule of thumb: mud velocity through the large jet should be at least 500 ft/sec. Directional

Directional Drilling presentation

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Jetting)(Jetting)

Deflection Deflection tools tools (Jetting) (Jetting) Directional Drilling presentation ٥٩

Directional Drilling presentation

Deflection Deflection tools tools (Jetting) (Jetting) Directional Drilling presentation ٥٩

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AdvantagesAdvantages && DisadvantagesDisadvantages OfOf JettingJetting

AdvantagesAdvantages SameSame BHABHA toto changechange trajectorytrajectory && drillingdrilling aheadahead SimpleSimple andand cheapcheap methodmethod inin softsoft formations.formations. DoglegDogleg severityseverity cancan bebe partlypartly controlledcontrolled fromfrom surfacesurface byby varyingvarying thethe numbernumber ofof feetfeet jettedjettedeacheach time.time. TheThe surveysurvey tooltool isis notnot farfar behindbehind thethe bit.bit. OrientationOrientation ofof tooltool faceface isis fairlyfairly easyeasy

DisadvantagesDisadvantages OnlyOnly worksworks inin softsoft formationformation andand thereforetherefore atat shallowshallow depths.depths. highhigh doglegdogleg severitiesseverities areare oftenoften produced.produced. DeviationDeviation isis producedproduced inin aa seriesseries ofof suddensudden changes,changes, ratherrather thanthan aa smoothsmooth continuouscontinuous change.change. ForFor thisthis reason,reason, itit isis normalnormal practicepractice toto jetjet anan underunder gaugegauge holehole andand thenthen openopen itit outout toto fullfull gauge,gauge, whichwhich smoothessmoothes offoff thethe worstworst ofof thethe doglegs.doglegs.

Directional Drilling presentation

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

Some movies about D.D:

 

1.

Movie 1 (bottom trip W.S)

2.

Movie 2 (section milling)

3.

Movie 3 (section milling)

 

4.

Movie 4 (retrieving a W.S)

5.

Movie 5 (cement type W.S)

6.

Movie 6 (Casing W.S)

Directional Drilling presentation

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

Deflection Deflection tools tools (Whip (Whip stock) stock) Directional Drilling presentation ٦٢

Directional Drilling presentation

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

Whip stocks

Standard removable Whip stock

used to kick off wells Sidetracking Disadvantage If the whip stock is set on the fill, then whip stock rotate when drilling starts Fill tend to wash away, causing the bit to slide down the side of the well bore and entire whip stock assembly to rotate Critical: when bit leaves the end of W. wedge, if the rock too soft & circulation too high, bit can lose curvature and continue straight number of “trips” involved. whip stock produced a sudden, sharp deflection Advantages It is a fairly simple piece of equipment which requires relatively little maintenance and has no temperature limitations.

Directional Drilling presentation

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

Circulating Whip stock the drilling mud initially flows through a passage to the bottom of the whip stock which permits more efficient cleaning of the bottom of the hole and ensures a clean seat for the tool.

It is most efficient for washing out bottom hole fills.

Permanent Casing Whip stock used where a “window” is to be cut in casing for a sidetrack advantage

operation usually takes less time.

disadvantage

gives a sharp dogleg Casing window is too short. Numerous trips & long hours of rotation can wear or damage the casing, difficult to trip out the BHA through the casing window

Directional Drilling presentation

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DeflectionDeflection toolstools (Whip(Whip stock)stock)

Deflection Deflection tools tools (Whip (Whip stock) stock) Directional Drilling presentation ٦٥
Deflection Deflection tools tools (Whip (Whip stock) stock) Directional Drilling presentation ٦٥

Directional Drilling presentation

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DownDown holehole motorsmotors

WasWas developeddeveloped inin 1966,1966, andand 22 yearsyears laterlater thethe PDMPDM beganbegan toto bebe usedused inin thethe USUS PDMPDM && turbineturbine ++ BentBent SubSub ++ BentBent HousingHousing oror eccentriceccentric stabilizersstabilizers

turbine motor (left) and positive displacement motor (right) designs.

turbine motor (left) and positive displacement motor (right) designs. Directional Drilling presentation ٦٦
turbine motor (left) and positive displacement motor (right) designs. Directional Drilling presentation ٦٦

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM ss vs.vs. TurbinesTurbines

PDM:

The directional driller can use pump pressure as a weight indicator longer bit life

because of the slower rotary speed.

Use a small bend at the

U-joint housing instead of bent sub

Turbine:

operate at higher temperatures DO NOT have a dump valve.

of bent sub Turbine: operate at higher temperatures DO NOT have a dump valve. Directional Drilling

Directional Drilling presentation

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FactorsFactors AffectingAffecting directionaldirectional behaviorbehavior ofof rotaryrotary assembliesassemblies

Gauge and placement of stabilizers Diameter and length of drill collars Weight -on-bit Rotary speed Bit type Formation anisotropy and dip angle of the bedding planes Formation hardness Flow rate Rate of penetration

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM accessoriesaccessories

PDM PDM accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٦٩
PDM PDM accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٦٩

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM accessoriesaccessories

PDM PDM accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٧٠

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM accessoriesaccessories

PDM PDM accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٧١
PDM PDM accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٧١

Directional Drilling presentation

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PDMPDM accessoriesaccessories

PDM PDM accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٧٢
PDM PDM accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٧٢

Directional Drilling presentation

PDM PDM accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٧٢

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TurbineTurbine accessoriesaccessories

Turbine Turbine accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٧٣
Turbine Turbine accessories accessories Directional Drilling presentation ٧٣

Directional Drilling presentation

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Fulcrum)(Fulcrum)

TheThe FulcrumFulcrum principleprinciple isis usedused toto buildbuild angleangle (increase(increase boreholeborehole inclination)inclination)

Full gauge near bit stabilizer, followed by 40 to 120ft DC, before the first string stabilizer, or no string stabilizer

by 40 to 120ft DC, before the first string stabilizer, or no string stabilizer Directional Drilling

Directional Drilling presentation

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Fulcrum)(Fulcrum)

The rate of build will be INCREASED by the following:

Increasing the distance from the near-bit stabilizer to the first string stabilizer

• Increase in hole inclination

• Reduction of drill collar diameter

• Increase in weight on bit

• Reduction in rotary speed

• Reduction in flow rate (in soft formations)

• Reduction in rotary speed • Reduction in flow rate (in soft formations) • Directional Drilling

Directional Drilling presentation

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Stabilization)(Stabilization)

TheThe StabilizationStabilization (Packed(Packed Hole)Hole) Principle:Principle:

hold angle and direction

three stabilizers in quick succession behind the bit separated by short, stiff drill collar sections, then the three stabilizers will resist going around a curve and force the bit to drill a reasonably straight path

Directional Drilling presentation

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Stabilization)(Stabilization)

Principles Principles of of BHA BHA (Stabilization) (Stabilization) Directional Drilling presentation ٧٧
Principles Principles of of BHA BHA (Stabilization) (Stabilization) Directional Drilling presentation ٧٧

Directional Drilling presentation

Principles Principles of of BHA BHA (Stabilization) (Stabilization) Directional Drilling presentation ٧٧

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PrinciplesPrinciples ofof BHABHA (Pendulum)(Pendulum)

DropDrop angleangle
DropDrop angleangle

Directional Drilling presentation

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References

“Applied drilling engineering” Adam T.bourgoyne, spe text book,vol 2.

“Oil well drilling engineering” H. Rabia, univ. of newcastle,1985.

“Advanced directional drilling” drilling services, computalog, Texas.