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Published by Akif Jamal

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Published by: Akif Jamal on Apr 14, 2011
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It is the study of the history and methodology of the discipline of history. The term historiography also denotes a body of historical work on a specialized topic. Scholars discuss historiography topically ± such as the ³historiography of Catholicism,´ the ³historiography of early Islam,´ or the ³historiography of China" ± as well as specific approaches such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, at the ascent of academic history, a corpus of historiography literature developed. Furay and Salevouris (1988) define historiography as "the study of the way history has been and is written ² the history of historical writing... When you study 'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians."

Questions studied
Some of the common questions of historiography are: 1. Reliability of the sources used, in terms of authorship, credibility of the author, and the authenticity or corruption of the text. (See also source criticism). 2. Historiographical tradition or framework. Every historian uses one (or more) historiographical traditions, for example Marxist, Annales School, "total history", or political history. The historiography of early Islam refers to the study of the early origins of Islam based on a critical analysis, evaluation, and examination of authentic primary source materials and the organization of these sources into a narrative timeline.

History of Muslim historians
Science of biography, science of hadith, and Isnad Further information: Science of hadith, Prophetic biography, and Biographical evaluation Muslim historical traditions first began developing from the earlier 7th century with the reconstruction of Muhammad's life following his death. Because narratives regarding Muhammad and his companions came from various sources, it was necessary to verify which sources were more reliable. In order to evaluate these sources, various methodologies were developed, such as the "science of biography", "science of hadith" and "Isnad" (chain of transmission). These methodologies were later applied to other historical figures in the Muslim world. Ilm ar-Rijal (Arabic) is the "science of biography" especially as practiced in Islam, where it was first applied to the sira, the life of the prophet of Islam, Muhammad, and then the lives of the four Rightly Guided Caliphs who expanded Islamic dominance rapidly. Since validating the sayings of Muhammad is a major study ("Isnad"), accurate biography has always been of great interest to Muslim biographers, who accordingly attempted to sort out facts from accusations, bias from evidence, etc. Modern practices of scientific citation and historical method owe a great deal to the rigor of the Isnad tradition of early Muslims. The earliest surviving Islamic biography is Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah, written in the 8th century, but known to us only from later quotes and recensions (9th±10th century).

accusing Greece's military government in occupied Turkish territory of atrocities and massacres. and in 1917 he published a memorandum which supported exclusive Jewish political rights in Palestine. Middle East Toynbee was a leading analyst of developments in the Middle East. In 1922 he was influenced by the Palestine Arab delegation which was visiting London. the first volume of his book on universal history. Islamic theologian. after the war he changed to a pro-Turkish position. 1889 ± October 22. . and in the late 1930s he moved away from supporting the Zionist cause and moved toward the Arab camp. 1975) was a British historian whose twelvevolume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations. His subsequent writings show the way he changed his outlook on the subject. He is considered a forerunner of several social scientific disciplines: demography. Muslims had ignored and lost him for centuries until he was rediscovered by the West in the 19th century as one of the greatest philosophers of Islam. Arabic: Ab Zayd µAbdu r-Ra man bin Mu ammad bin Khald n AlHadrami. social scientist and statesman²born in North Africa in present-day Tunisia. a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise. Islamic lawyer. economist. which he believed had "begun to recover its ancient prosperity" as a result. was a synthesis of world history. 1934±1961. alongside the earlier Indian scholar Chanakya. flowering and decline. and he adopted their views. 1406 AD/808 AH) was an Arab Poly Math (walking encyclopedia). the philosophy of history. military strategist.Ibn Khald n Ibn Khald n (full name. and sociology. Toynbee investigated Zionism in 1915 at the Information Department of the Foreign Office. and of social sciences in general. However. May 27. Islamic scholar. Islamic jurist. Ibn Khaldun's life is relatively well-documented. historiography. Ibn Khaldun's ideas were not absorbed by his society. nor were they carried forward by its future generations. mathematician. philosopher. He is best known for his Muqaddimah (known as Prolegomenon in English). This earned him the enmity of the wealthy Greeks who had endowed the chair. 1332 AD/732 AH ± March 19. His support for Greece and hostility to the Turks during the World War had gained him an appointment to the Koraes Chair of Modern Greek and Byzantine History at the University of London. His stance during World War I reflected less sympathy for the Arab cause and a pro-Zionist outlook. He is also considered one of the forerunners of modern economics. and in 1924 he was forced to resign the position. A Study of History. Ibn Khaldun is considered by many to be the father of a number of these disciplines. ² an astronomer. which examined history from a global perspective. for anticipating many elements of these disciplines centuries before they were founded in the West. as he wrote an autobiography Al-Tar f bi IbnKhald n wa Ri latuhu Gharb n wa Sharq n) in which numerous documents regarding his life are quoted word-for-word. Arnold Joseph Toynbee Arnold Joseph Toynbee CH (April 14. He also expressed support for the Jewish colonization of Palestine. By the 1950s he was an opponent of the state of Israel. historian. Kitab al-Ibar. cultural history. nutritionist. hafiz. However.

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