AUTOMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM & PATH FINDER

A MAJOR PROJECT SUBMITTED IN THE FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
OF

KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY, KURUKSHETRA
BY

NAVNEET KUMAR (1504284) NARENDER KUMAR (1504285) HAPPY YADAV (1504286) UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Mr. SACHIN WADHWA

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING N.C. COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING ISRANA (PANIPAT) JUNE 2008

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

To execute a project honestly is the cherished desire of any would be engineer and to do this we are no exception that we have managed to achieve this at all. We thank the INKOTECH Pvt. Ltd for helping in the Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program and providing this educational opportunity. We also thank Mr. SACHIN WADHWA for his guidance & helping us in all the possible ways. We express our sincere thanks towards our guide for his unstinted support & commitment to make our project see light of today and the college for use of their facilities.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the dissertation report entitled “AUTOMATIC BRAKING AND PATH FINDER” being submitted by: a) NAVNEET KUMAR c) HAPPY YADAV (1504284) (1504286)

b) NARENDER KUMAR (1504285)

In fulfillment for the award of degree of bachelor in technology in Mechanical Engineering at the department of Mechanical Engineering, NEMI CHAND COLLEGE Of ENGG.ISRANA is a record of students own work carried by them under my supervision & guidance.

MR. SACHIN WADWA

(Sr.lecturare) Mechanical Deptt.

Any vehicle when entered without break in proximity area become safe. IR transmitter and receiver pair can be used to realize a proximity detector. one can seek the help of security proximity system. The circuit presented here enables you to detect any object capable of reflecting the IR beam and moving in front of the IR LED photo detector pair up to a distance of about 5 meter from it. . a whole new world of interesting possibilities opens up. Here is a very simple and useful circuit for security purposes.CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION To find auto break when enter accident area by proximity system when the two disciplines (Mechanical &Electronic) are brought together. The project has two main parts an intruder sensor cum transmitter and a receiver.

the hydraulic brakes are activated to provide additional stopping power. where a simple hardware circuit is directly interfaced to other vehicle.Here is a illustrative project. and so on. . the hydraulic brakes are not used. Braking system of vehicles:- The hybrid vehicle brake system includes both standard hydraulic brakes during this phase of braking. With a little modification of the hardware. It can object counter for an assembly line conveyer belt. When more rapid deceleration is required.

and a gyroscopic sensor. the ESC software will brake the necessary wheel(s) (up to three with the most sophisticated systems) so that the car goes the way the driver intends.The sensors can become contaminated with metallic dust and fail to detect wheel slip. two more sensors are added to help the system work: these are a wheel angle sensor. this is not always picked up by the internal ABS controller diagnostic. and by how much. Here. since this will tell the ABS that wheels on the outside of the curve should brake more than wheels on the inside. The theory of operation is simple: when the gyroscopic sensor detects that the direction taken by the car doesn't agree with what the wheel sensor says. The wheel sensor also helps in the operation of CBC. Typical System (No ABS):- .

Typical Layout of System (with ABS) :Typical System (ABS):- .

Components:Sliding Caliper Fixed Caliper .

the duty cycle of the 38kHz a stable multi vibrator is maintained at 10 per cent. IC2 for driving an infrared LED. To save power. .Pressure Control Valves HARDWARE DESCRIPTION The transmitter part consists of two 555 timers (IC1. the infrared detector to sense the transmission.

skilled driver without ABS would find it difficult. • • On high-traction surfaces such as bitumen. is to press the brake pedal as firmly as possible and. followed by (T1) & (T2) transistor. or concrete many ABS-equipped cars are able to attain braking distances better (i. The recommended technique for non-expert drivers in an ABS-equipped car.e.The receiver part have an infrared detector comprising (IC3. IC4. IC7 ) wired for operation and timer. in real world conditions. the 555 (IC4) timer (mono) is turned ‘on’ and it remain ‘on’ as long as the infrared signals are being received. in a typical fullbraking emergency. to match or improve on the performance of a typical driver with an ABS-equipped vehicle. Reduced the risk of run-off-road crashes by 35 percent. IC5. ABS reduces chances of crashing. Even an alert. even through the use of techniques like threshold braking. Effectiveness A 2003 Australian study by Monash University Accident Research Centre found that ABS: Reduced the risk of multiple vehicle crashes by 78 percent. Upon reception of infrared signals to pin-2 of IC-4. . and/or the severity of impact. shorter) than those that would be easily possible without the benefit of ABS.

ABS tends to increase braking distances. On a very slippery surface such as sheet ice or gravel it is possible to lock multiple wheels at once. and this can defeat ABS (which relies on detecting individual wheels skidding). Some manufacturers have therefore implemented Mercedes-Benz's "brake assist" system that determines that the driver is attempting a "panic stop" and the system automatically increases braking . The primary benefit of ABS on such surfaces is to increase the ability of the driver to maintain control of the car rather than go into a skid — though loss of control remains more likely on soft surfaces like gravel or slippery surfaces like snow or ice. In gravel and deep snow.where appropriate. to steer around obstructions. thus letting the wheels repeatedly briefly lock and unlock. Availability of ABS relieves most drivers from learning threshold braking. many are believed to reduce pedal pressure and thus lengthen braking distances. locked wheels dig in and stop the vehicle more quickly. ABS will significantly reduce the chances of a skid and subsequent loss of control. When drivers do encounter an emergency that causes them to brake hard and thus encounter this pulsing for the first time. ABS prevents this from occurring. In such situations. On these surfaces. Some ABS calibrations reduce this problem by slowing the cycling time. contributing to a higher level of accidents than the superior emergency stopping capabilities of ABS would otherwise promise.

ABS significantly improves safety and control for drivers in most on-road situations The ABS equipment may also be used to implement traction control on acceleration of the vehicle. Design and selection of components Given the required reliability it is illustrative to see the choices made in the design of the ABS system. for safeguarding both the passengers and people outside of the car. Proper functioning of the ABS system is considered of the utmost importance. As stated above. The system is therefore built with some redundancy. Nevertheless. also known as ECU (electronic control unit). Manufacturers often offer this as a separately priced option even though the infrastructure is largely shared with ABS. or HCU. which collects data from the sensors and drives the hydraulic control unit. while the subsystem that controls the self-diagnosis is considered soft real-time. and is designed to monitor its own working and report failures. More sophisticated versions of this can also control throttle levels and brakes simultaneously. If. the general working of the ABS system consists of an electronic unit. when accelerating. the tire loses traction with the ground. . the ABS controller can detect the situation and take suitable action so that traction is regained. The entire ABS system is considered to be a hard real-time system.force where not enough pressure is applied. mainly consisting of the valves that regulate the braking pressure for the wheels.

How Automatic-Braking System Work The communication between the ECU and the sensors must happen quickly and at real time. which has been and is still in use in many ABS systems today (in fact. A possible solution is the use of the CAN bus system. this CAN .

for example an inductive sensor. The sensor should be robust and maintenance free. These microcontrollers are also chosen to be power-efficient. The sensors measure the position of the tires. These two microcontrollers interact. The software that runs in the ECU . and consists of a number of valves that control the pressure in the braking circuits. some circuitry and amplifiers are needed (which would also have been the case if the CAN-bus was used). not to endanger its proper working. The communication with the valves of the HCU is usually not done this way. both active simultaneously. All these valves are placed closely together and packed in a solid block. to add some redundancy to the system. usually solenoid valves. The ECU and the HCU are generally very close together. for connecting electronic control units!). The valves. and is thus very robust. to avoid heating of the controller which would reduce durability. This allows for an easy combination of multiple signals into one signal. The central control unit generally consists of two microcontrollers. These position measurements are then processed by the ECU to calculate the wheel-spin. and check each other's proper working. and are generally placed on the wheel-axis. The hydraulic control unit is generally located right next to the ECU (or the other way around).standard was developed by Robert Bosch GmbH. are controlled directly by the ECU. To drive the valves based on signals from the ECU. which can be sent to the ECU. This makes for a very simple layout.

The control system is thus comfortably fast enough. preferably with a large margin. and is limited by the valves. The required calculations to drive the HCU have to be done in time.g. Apart from this. Most notably. The control algorithms. the algorithms that drive the HCU as a function of the inputs. the software also needs to process the incoming information. and the signal processing software. certainly fall in this category. There is also some software that constantly tests each component of the ABS system for its proper working. This is the obvious main task of the entire ABS-system. The system is then limited by the dynamic ability of the valves and the communication. and get a higher priority than the diagnosis and the testing software. the latter being noticeably faster. Choosing a microcontroller that can operate fast enough is therefore the key. e. The requirement for the system to be hard real-time can therefore be reduced to stating that the software should be hard real-time. or control the brakes depending on the recorded wheel spin. the signals from the sensors.has a number of functions. Some software for interfacing with an external source to run a complete diagnosis is also added. As mentioned before the ABS system is considered hard realtime. Parts of automatic braking system:There are four main components to an ABS system: .

The speed sensors. or in some cases in the differential. which are located at each wheel. provide this information .• • • • Speed sensors Pump Valves Controller Speed Sensors The braking system needs some way of knowing when a wheel is about to lock up.

there has to be some way to put that pressure back. the valve blocks the line. In position three. It watches the speed sensors and controls the valves. On some systems. Pump Since the valve is able to release pressure from the brakes. the valve is open. • • In position two.Valves There is a valve in the brake line of each brake controlled by the ABS. the valve has three positions: In position one. the valve releases some of the pressure from the brake. the pump is there to get the pressure back up. and vehicle control . This prevents the pressure from rising further should the driver push the brake pedal harder. when a valve reduces the pressure in a line. methodology for the interpretation of sensor data. route planning. pressure from the master cylinder is passed right through to the brake. isolating that brake from the master cylinder. Controller The controller is a computer in the car. That is what the pump does.

velocity. elevation. azimuth.Radar Signal processing software provided with the Epsilon Lambda Electronics ELSC71-1A 3D radar will produce a data map of the field of view with the range. and signal amplitude for each object detected. The azimuth is known as a function of time because the radar antenna is mechanically scanned across the field of view by a stepper motor. The range .

8 degrees.is found from a beat signal with amplitude. This provides a great deal of information for tasks such as feature tracking. This greatly simplifies various vision tasks. which can be obtained using standard rig calibration techniques [Bouguet]. Vision The vision system will consist of several video cameras. We will interpret abrupt changes of elevation as obstacles for the vehicle to avoid. Objects beyond radar range will also need to be detected. Most points will be attached to the same rigid surface. Still other points in space will belong to miscellaneous objects which may or may not be rigid. and potentially identified. For objects within the range and field of view of the radar. and the elevation angle is found by taking the phase difference between two IF channels. probably other Challenge Vehicles. and geometric reconstruction. such as birds or clouds. We may be able to use the amplitude of a signal return to further classify objects (e. the terrain. The velocity is found by Doppler frequency. and given an especially wide berth. Some will be on opposing vehicles. since the relative change in pose between two instants of time is known. In this case.g. Range resolution is approximately 1 meter. which can be modeled as separate rigid bodies moving in an independent manner. at every instant of time. a point in space. Targets which seem to be moving relative to most of the field of view will be interpreted as moving obstacles. We also know the internal parameters of each camera. the vision system will know the approximate depth and velocity of locations in space. We will know the rigid transformations describing the position and orientation of each camera and the radar system with respect to the vehicle coordinate system and the other cameras. a stronger return would be expected from a metal vehicle than from a desert plant).. tracked. motion estimation/segmentation. and elevation resolution is about 1 degree. projects onto each camera. each rigidly mounted to the vehicle. X. azimuth resolution is 1. but since geometric information .

The other vehicle’s position in space can be updated by tracking the image-plane coordinates of its lights and other areas-of-interest on the image of the vehicle. which will positively indicate the presence of an opposing vehicle. the car-detection software module will attempt to find periodic flashing. such as color segmentation and 2D recognition. Rocky and sandy surfaces will present a difficult problem for image feature . We will also investigate the efficacy of more advanced Level Set tracking methods [Cremers]. Simultaneously. We rely on the vision system to detect negative obstacles. and obstacles which are outside of the radar’s field of view or which could not be seen until they were inside the radar’s minimum range. there are many regions of the image with very regular appearances. The radar will indicate the presence of an obstructing object in its depth map. When this occurs. we will use image-based techniques. the vision system will detect the presence of one or more lights of the specified alert-light color in an invariant color space (such as HSV). In the environment we will be traveling through. Detection of Miscellaneous Objects The radar system should detect most medium and large positive obstacles in its field of view.may not be easily obtained. as well as by using radar data if any. positive obstacles which are significant but too small for the radar to resolve. assuming the object falls within the field and depth of view. Detection of Other Challenge Vehicles The initial detection of a potential vehicle will occur in both the vision and radar systems.

its orientation. and the parameters of the Bayesian network will be learned in a supervised manner. while rocky or uneven terrain must be traversed with more care. Classification of Terrain Understanding of the type of surface on which the vehicle is traveling is essential for determining a safe speed and control technique. Paved roads or dry lakebeds will allow aggressive control at high speed.tracking due to the similarity of appearance of many nearby areas in the images. whereby the signals from the cameras and the radar are jointly interpreted to provide an estimate of the terrain type in the field of view. we can exploit other information about the structure of the environment and a priori knowledge. Luckily. and the lighting conditions. but generally we expect better data from the vision system. it can employ a shape-from-shading and shape-from-shadow system to determine the approximate position and dimensions of obstacles like large rocks or craters. The radar system might provide some information regarding the terrain type from the amplitude of the signal return. Since the system will know the time of day. Our terrain classification system will use Bayesian sensor fusion techniques. Other inputs to the model will be time of day and weather. A statistical model will be trained using recorded data from the cameras and radar. . both of which will influence the lighting conditions of the environment. traditional structure-from-motion schemes will likely fail for the task of detecting dangerous objects. Hence.

the control system will need to know the boundaries of the beaten trail. The output of this planner will be nominal desired headings and target speed as a piecewise-polynomial function of latitude and longitude across the permitted corridor between and around each waypoint pair. a beaten path will be smoother since it will have fewer jagged rocks. From initial experiments with off-road trail video. we have determined that a distinguishable characteristic of the path is its relatively low spatial frequency. little or no vegetation. In particular. and nominal desired headings . In general. it should have an estimate of its current location and heading. Route Planning After the Route Definition Data File is provided. a nominal minimum-cost route from each waypoint to the next will be computed based on map data using a wavefront-propagation path planner. Determining these boundaries will be difficult due to the similarity of appearance of most parts of the images. At all times after the vehicle passes the Departure Line. This information is crucial for short-range control and path generation. which will provide the safest route through the terrain in the absence of other obstacles. knowledge of the local upcoming road geometry can only be determined by on-board sensing. and a somewhat consistent material. and this information will be stored for consideration at the appropriate point in the Route.Determination of Local Road Geometry While the GPS system and maps will provide medium and long-range path planning goals (waypoints).

e. The planner is responsible for providing the PID controller with a “desired” trajectory that is within the limits of the actuators and the vehicle dynamics. in anticipation that the route might be blocked and it might be about to receive an E-Stop signal. If there is no unobstructed path to the nominal computed route within the vehicle’s field of view.g. If the vehicle can neither turn nor progress forward. If space permits. it will come to a stop and wait for an E-Stop. This second algorithm will be adapted to the local planning problem in that it will more finely differentiate (x. at each instant the planner should provide a desired speed and heading. the vehicle will turn to shift its field of view and possibly find another route. the vehicle will slow down. steering linkage position. In any case. turning radius as a function of speed). or for the route to clear. PID control loops for the steering and accelerator/brake will then attempt to correct the current speed and heading. .theta) space and take more account of the vehicle kinematics and dynamics (e.. the planner should not demand a turn which is unsafe at either the current or desired speeds.g.y.version of the wavefront-propagation path planner to find the optimal obstacle-free trajectory that will take it to a point on the sensor horizon with as close as possible to the precomputed nominal desired heading and speed.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Though lot of literature survey has been done for this work. allowing vehicles to operate at headways as short as 2. delivering maximum system capacity by operating with a minimum distance between vehicles. This Automatic Vehicle Control (AVC) system has been developed based on the principles common to all Automatic Train Control (ATC) systems. and to properly switch vehicles toward their destination where a single guideway . custom developed by Raytheon to provide reliable and safe transit of passengers. from that we find out that there is lot of scope of improvement in industrial productivity by Work Study techniques. Problem was the industry generated and for its solution a thorough literature survey has been done.5 seconds at 30 mph. following the new American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Automatic People Mover (APM) standards. Francis (1986) explained that Automatic Vehicle Control Overview PRT 2000™ operates with a highly responsive control system. Some of the main papers are as follows: Edward C. Vehicle motion is continuously monitored and adjusted in real time to safely and efficiently merge streams of traffic where guideway sections join. PRT 2000™ response times are fractions of a second. and specific requirements unique to this application.

Empty vehicles are automatically routed to stations where passenger demand exists. The following figures depict a typical alignment and the partitioning of the control function to the distributed waysides. . responsible for coordinating vehicle activities within fixed regions of the guideway. These vehicle controllers receive direction from and report status to stationary wayside controllers. Every vehicle carries an on-board controller.section diverges into two. PRT2000's™ AVC system is constructed in a three-level hierarchy. An RF data link mounted within the guideway structure allows continuous. highbandwidth communications between the vehicle and wayside.

. threelevel computing hierarchy. Automatic Vehicle Protection (AVP). automated control of vehicles. in accordance with ASCE standards.The wayside controllers are connected to each other via a high-speed fiberoptic network to coordinate vehicles transitioning from one region of guideway to the next. The fiber network extends to a central System Control Center (SCC). Automatic Vehicle Operation (AVO) and Automatic Vehicle Supervision (AVS) functions are provided. providing the System Control Operators with comprehensive status and oversight of the system's behavior. PRT 2000's™ AVC system provides the functions required for the safe. Within this modular.

and the state of its in-vehicle switch. a similar fail-safe architecture uses a hardware watchdog module to inhibit communications with vehicles unless it receives periodic . A fail-safe hardware watchdog module on each vehicle keeps propulsion disabled and emergency braking engaged unless it receives periodic indication that its processors are operating correctly and the suite of safety checks they perform are all satisfied. In the wayside controller. personnel and equipment from potentially hazardous situations. As shown in the inset. AVP autonomously monitors the position and speed of each vehicle. a complete set of AVP functions is provided. In addition. it has precedence over AVO and AVS functions. positive action by AVP is required to allow vehicles to proceed along the guideway. This agreement is a condition for any vehicle motion. AVP is able to revert the system to a safe state whenever a potentially hazardous condition is detected. the state of its doors and door locks. Continuous.Automatic Vehicle Protection AVP protects passengers. All processing associated with AVP is performed in parallel by a pair of redundant safety processors which are cross-checked for agreement. no action is permitted unless AVP can ensure it is safe. The AVP system is based on a principle of permissive action. By reliably monitoring vehicle movement and equipment status within the system. the watchdog must receive regular assurance that communications with the wayside controller is functioning properly.

Vehicle movement is performed such that system capacity is maximized while observing all necessary constraints for safety and ride comfort. In particular. a majority voting scheme provides for safe and reliable operation. AVO moves vehicles throughout the system in accordance with their destinations. supplying it to the wayside controllers as part of its regularly reported status. which serves as the fail-safe monitor for the PRT 2000 control system. operating the in-vehicle switch to pursue a route to the vehicle's destination. and the parking brakes is via request to AVP. Safety-critical equipment sensors are triple redundant. Vehicle destinations change automatically as passenger trips begin and end.indication that its safety processors are operating correctly and that their safety checks are satisfied. Each vehicle carries its current destination with it as it travels. or as vehicles are added to or recalled from . All devices vital to safety are handled directly by AVP hardware and software. AVO operates the vehicles so that hazard protections are not invoked within AVP. the in-vehicle switch. Automatic Vehicle Operation AVO controls vehicles to provide automatic origin to destination passenger service between all stations in the system. and operating vehicle doors for boarding and deboarding. as empty vehicles are distributed. AVP satisfies a request only if it is safe to do so. This requires commanding the propulsion system to move the vehicle along the mainline guideway and within the stations. AVO access to the door locks.

AVO applies the parking brake and holds the vehicle at zero speed until passenger boarding completes. As the vehicle approaches its destination station. First. Routing tables distributed by AVS to the wayside controllers provide the basis for AVO's positioning of the switch. AVS compares system performance against established levels of service and automatically adjusts or controls the system to meet varying patron demands. AVS provides automatic and System Control Operator (SCO) initiated systemwide monitoring and control capabilities.active service. There are three sets of related responsibilities. The System Control Operator can also change vehicle destinations via manual intervention. bypassing all intermediate stations along the way. in situations where there are multiple paths to the destination that may be traversed in approximately equal time. Routing tables are distributed to each of the wayside controllers to specify the current best path to reach each destination. then coordinates the exit of the vehicle from the station back out onto the mainline. all vehicles are given the same direction for a given destination. assigns it a berth and precision aligns it. AVO controls the route that a vehicle takes to reach its destination by commanding its in-vehicle switch assembly either left or right each time the vehicle travels through a diverge region. In most cases. corresponding to the quickest path. However. AVO manages its entrance to the station. the . PRT 2000's off-line passenger stations allow vehicles to travel directly from their origin to their destination.

when an abnormal situation arises. AVS will automatically recall the vehicle from service after completing the current trip. providing the platform . faults. maintaining an active log of vehicle status. AVS provides information to and accepts controls from the SCO to modify the automatic operations of the system or manually intervene in extraordinary circumstances. and controls the attendant ticket processing to initiate trips. trip summary data.in-theloop" controls for fault management. For example. and responding to patron requests for assistance. based on monitored system behavior and performance. AVS may also initiate certain automated fault recovery operations in response to unexpected events. based on demand. the wayside and the vehicles. AVS monitors vehicle traffic and equipment health. and alarms. Second. AVS provides "human. The SCO's role is primarily one of monitoring stations for safety and security. Empty vehicle management instructions are specified for each station. To the degree it can. As part of its system monitoring responsibility. At the same time.system may specify that a percentage goes one way and the remaining percentage goes the other. AVS provides statistical accounting of trips and equipment usage to support ridership analysis and maintenance activities. AVC Hardware Components AVC computer and data communications hardware is distributed between the System Control Center. AVS controls audible and visual interfaces with patrons throughout the course of their interaction with the system. if one of the two redundant traction motors fail. Finally.

This hardware operates in conjunction with resident software and interfaces with other equipment to provide the required system level performance. Only one VCS is active at a time. Vehicle Controller One vehicle controller resides in each vehicle in a dual-redundant configuration. The vehicle controller monitors and controls a myriad of subsystems in the vehicle. display. Two antennas mount on the chassis for bi-directional communication via the guideway antenna located on the left or right side. The non-active VCS operates in a standby mode. and AVS functions. it is automatically reconfigured to continue to operate through hardware and software faults. annunciators. The vehicle controller interfaces to the local wayside controller using its Vehicle Communications (VCOM) RF communication antennas. sensors and actuators and other supporting control/communication equipment by way of resident real-time operating software. AVO. as depicted in the figure below: Each vehicle controller can sense and drive a vehicle's switches. with the active VCS controlling actuators and VCOM communication. Each VCS is an independent computer with a complete complement of I/O.for AVP. The vehicle controller has a dual redundant architecture. containing two independent Vehicle Control Sets (VCS). ready to takeover if the active VCS goes down. .

Interfaces to ticketing equipment. Wayside Controller A wayside controller is configured to communicate to vehicles utilizing up to four separate communications antennas. Within the vehicle controller there is also a set of non-redundant hardware for non-safety-critical functions including controlling the vehicle doors and interfacing to the passengers with a text display and audio board. Redundant hardware allows controllers to operate through single hardware failures. An additional four processors are used to provide safety-critical operations. Each member of a safety .Within a VCS. If either both VCSs or the VCOM is deemed unhealthy. the watchdog module will stop the vehicle using the vehicle's propulsion / brake interlock. Each vehicle carries a permanent unique code as a Vehicle ID which is accessible by software. Each member of the pair communicates with the other and issues a heartbeat at regular intervals to a watchdog module only after insuring its own health and that of its partner. Each single antenna spans a separate region of the guideway. Eight processors typically reside in a wayside controller. Four of the processors provide two redundant pairs that manage all the AVO and AVS functions. configured as two cross-checking pairs. audio and other building equipment are provided. a cross-checking pair of safety processors provides a safetycritical computing environment. This code is contained in an assembly that is permanently mounted in the cabin and is separate from the Controller. station signs. as depicted in the following figure.

the vehicle is brought to a stop. the watchdog shuts down the VCOM region controlled by the wayside controller. and selects one pair to monitor the safe operation of the system. through the absence of heartbeats. The vehicle controller is designed to ensure that when VCOM messages cease. guaranteeing a safe state. . The watchdog module monitors the heartbeats from the four safety processors. If. the watchdog module determines that neither processor pair is healthy.pair communicates with the other and issues a heartbeat at regular intervals to a watchdog module only when it considers both itself and its corresponding processor to be healthy.

Data Communications Two distinct data communications services are provided by the PRT 2000™ AVC system. . Data exchange between the vehicle controller and wayside controller is provided by an RF link that affords a non-contact mechanism for exchange between the moving vehicle and stationary wayside. Wayside to wayside communication is provided by a fiber-optic link that features the range and high-speed data rates required to manage the system. This fiberoptic link is also used by the System Control Center to communicate with all the waysides.

L-selectin is expressed on leukocytes and binds to carbohydrate ligands on endothelium and other leukocytes. The structures of several of these molecules are known from crystals or electron micrographs and equilibrium constants. rapid formation and breakage of adhesive bonds are required for the adhesive contact between the leukocyte and the vessel wall to be maintained and to be translated along the vessel wall during rolling . kinetics. However. Springer (1991) examined the initial step in leukocyte accumulation in inflamed tissue is a rolling interaction on the vessel wall. it has been estimated that as few as two adhesive bonds between the cell and the substrate are sufficient to support rolling . rolling through selectins is highly stable to alterations in selectin density and hydrodynamic . delicately poised between firm adhesion and lack of adhesion.Timothy A.Rolling occurs in a series of steps or jerks that appear to represent receptor-ligand dissociation events From measurements of the dimension of the adhesive contact zone in the direction of flow and the average step distance. and effect of applied force on kinetics are known for several of the molecular interactions Rolling should be an inherently unstable transition state. E-selection and P-selectin are expressed on endothelium and bind carbohydrate ligands on leukocytes. The selectin glycoproteins are limited in expression to vascular cells and are specialized to mediate rolling. The driving force for rolling is the hydrodynamic force of the bloodstream acting on the adherent cell.

it may be important for rolling velocity to be relatively independent of wall shear stress. The velocity of rolling cells varies little in vivo or in vitro despite wide variation in wall shear stress). Even for different postcapillary venules within a single tissue. Rolling enables leukocytes to survey endothelium for signs of inflammation. Most measurements come from studies of the dissociation rate constants for "transiently tethered" cells. .g. leukocytes may roll through a postcapillary venule without developing firm adhesion. It appears that a threshold level of activation must be exceeded before firm adhesion is stimulated. a number of constants critical to an understanding of rolling at the cellular and molecular level have been measured. Therefore. including chemoattractants that can activate firm adhesion through integrins. it ranges from 3-36 dyn/cm2 for 30-40-µm venules in cat mesentery Recently. Rolling velocity will determine the time duration of exposure of a leukocyte to activating stimuli on the vessel wall. and provide directional cues for transendothelial migration Particularly in early or in mild inflammation. This stability in the velocity of rolling leukocytes is likely to be important in the postulated function of rolling as a checkpoint in the process of leukocyte accumulation in inflammation. which varies widely depending on tissue and physiologic and inflammatory state. wall shear stress can vary markedly. and thereby reenter the circulation . and hence should be of key importance in determining whether activation occurs. for proper control of activation of rolling leukocytes.. e.force acting on the cell this force is proportional to and can be calculated from the shear stress at the vessel wall.

. (1993) suggested how to judge between competing work-study projects in order that efforts were wisely and profitably directed. i. Described factor analysis by citing a specific example. Transient tethers have first-order dissociation kinetics and may reflect unimolecular binding and dissociation events. . then dissociate and resume movement at the hydrodynamic velocity. Under these conditions. the lower wall of the flow chamber.Transient tethers occur when leukocytes in a hydrodynamic flow chamber interact with a substrate. Gregson K. leukocytes moving at the hydrodynamic flow velocity will momentarily bind to the substrate and remain almost motionless. that bears selectins or ligands at densities too low to enable rolling .e. Showed that factor analysis could be a useful technique to determine which of a number of possible paths of an investigation were likely to yield the best results.

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Photo diodes had been used as a transmitter and photo transistor as a receiver.CHAPTER 3: WORKING 3. First part transmitter section and second part receiver section. This project had been divided in two part.1 PROCESS IN SENSOR This project was based on photo diodes and photo transistor. .

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The oscillator frequency can be . FIG. 3. This module emits modulated infrared light.TRANSMISSION SECTION:. circuit is energized.Transmitter module uses IC-555 as a stable multivibrator operating at a frequency of around 1 KHz with a PNP transistor in IRED (photo diode) driver stage at the output. The output of IC555 is square wave from Pin No. TRANSMISSION COMPONENT When a vehicle comes nearly person. The module can transmit IR rays up to few meters without use of any external lens. IRED is connected in series for more range and wider directivity. The transmit IR beams modulated at same frequency 1KHz. T1 gets biasing current to out put of IC555 and the IR-LED is connected to T1 collector with R5.

RECEIVER COMPONENT . an infra-red detector module. FIG.Block diagram of the circuit is shown in transmitter section consists of a power supply. as the person moves away. op-amp with noise filter. an oscillator. The same automatically turns ‘off’. The complete schematic diagrams of the transmitter and receiver sections are shown in circuit diagram respectively. RECEIVER SECTION:. time delay circuit. The IRsignal form the transmitter is sensed by the receiver sensor. whereas the receiver section comprises power supply.shifted by adjusting preset VR-1. and an output sage. and an output section. The receiver uses infrared module.

amp. to see if pin number 11 is low.mode and timer. After a are checked to see if the aeroplane has crossed without information to IR beam also. and pin 6 of IC-3 goes high and IC-4 receives input pin-2 form T2. The computer reads its parallel port. witch amplifier to weak signals. 2.. Its output at Pin No 6 troughs high.IC4.This section is divided in a three part. IC-3 is worked on astable pulse which receives at Pin No. IC-4 is worked as a power amp. The receiver uses infrared modules IR-signal from the transmitter is sensed by the sensor and its output PIN 1 goes low and switched IC-3. IC-5 works as a switching. The . collector of T4 is low . whenever a aeroplane passes in front of the radar. modulated at 100 Hz. Pin 6 of IC-5 are high. Pin-3 of IC-4 is A burst output of 38 kHz. Upon reception of infrared signals to pin-2 of IC-4. This fact is displayed on the screen. As soon as The computer reads its collector of T5. IC-5 take input plus at pin-2 and output goes at pin-6 (high). and switching section. the 555 (IC4) timer (mono) is turned ‘on’ and it remain ‘on’ as long as the infrared signals are being received. IC-3 are received input pulse. witch pe-amp. The receiver part have an infrared detector comprising (IC3. followed by pnp (T1) & npn (T2) transistor.IC5. Pin-2 of PC is high output. a software inside the computer starts ticking.IC7 ) wired for operation in Amp. The op-amp are in the set state. Remember.

It can object counter for an assembly line conveyer belt. . The project has two main parts an intruder sensor cum transmitter and a receiver. one can seek the help of security proximity system. and so on. where a simple hardware circuit is directly interfaced to other vehicle. 3. The circuit presented here enables you to detect any object capable of reflecting the IR beam and moving in front of the IR LED photo detector pair up to a distance of about 5 meter from it. second receiver is switched to proximity system. aeroplane is passed signal. IR transmitter and receiver pair can be used to realize a proximity detector. Here is a illustrative project. If.2 WORKING PRINCIPLE Any vehicle when entered without break in proximity area become safe. With a little modification of the hardware. The same arrangement can be turned into a burglar alarm by just modifying the software.computer is switched the gun.

Here. two more sensors are added to help the system work: these are a wheel angle sensor. When more rapid deceleration is required. The theory of operation is simple: when the gyroscopic sensor detects that the direction taken by the car doesn't agree with what the wheel sensor says. this is not always picked up by the internal ABS controller diagnostic. The sensors can become contaminated with metallic dust and fail to detect wheel slip.Braking system of vehicles:- The hybrid vehicle brake system includes both standard hydraulic brakes during this phase of braking. the hydraulic brakes are activated to provide additional stopping power. and a gyroscopic sensor. the ESC software will brake the necessary wheel(s) (up to three with the most sophisticated systems) so that the car goes the way the driver intends. The wheel sensor . the hydraulic brakes are not used.

. since this will tell the ABS that wheels on the outside of the curve should brake more than wheels on the inside. which collects data from the sensors and drives the hydraulic control unit. while the subsystem that controls the self-diagnosis is considered soft real-time. Given the required reliability it is illustrative to see the choices made in the design of the ABS system. or HCU. and is designed to monitor its own working and report failures. The system is therefore built with some redundancy. mainly consisting of the valves that regulate the braking pressure for the wheels.also helps in the operation of CBC. and by how much. Proper functioning of the ABS system is considered of the utmost importance. for safeguarding both the passengers and people outside of the car. The entire ABS system is considered to be a hard real-time system. the general working of the ABS system consists of an electronic unit. As stated above. also known as ECU (electronic control unit).

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a sensor sensing an actual vehicle spacing from a controlled vehicle to a preceding vehicle ahead. the controller comprising. anti-lock brake controller to perform an anti-lock brake control for preventing wheel locking. Vehicle spacing sensor to sense actual vehicle spacing from the controlled vehicle to a preceding vehicle.2 PURPOSE OF AUTOMATIC BRAKING SYSTEM A preceding vehicle following control apparatus includes a sensor sensing an actual vehicle speed.2. A controller controls the vehicle speed or the vehicle spacing in a following control mode with the actuator. and vehicle speed controller to determine the desired vehicle speed in accordance with the actual vehicle speed and the actual vehicle spacing. and starts a deceleration control if an anti-lock brake control is started in the following control mode. a vehicle speed controller to vary the actual vehicle speed of the controlled vehicle in accordance with a desired vehicle speed. The controller cancels the deceleration control when the vehicle spacing becomes greater than a predetermined spacing value 3.3. following control section to perform a preceding vehicle following control by setting a desired vehicle spacing from the controlled vehicle to a preceding . and an actuator for regulating a driving/braking force of the controlled vehicle.1 BETTER CONTROL A vehicle speed sensor to sense an actual vehicle speed of the controlled vehicle.

also automatically tightens seatbelts just before a collision. a world first. Automakers are looking to develop and commercialize a wide range of safety systems to reduce road risks. . the Inspire. deceleration control section to perform a deceleration control determining the desired vehicle speed to decrease the actual vehicle speed of the controlled vehicle. and automatically applies the brakes if it judges that the car may have trouble avoiding an object.2 CUT CAR CRASHES it detects the risk of a crash. The Ministry of Land.vehicle in accordance with the actual vehicle speed and actual vehicle spacing and determining the desired vehicle speed to bring actual vehicle spacing closer to desired spacing. and Transport has taken the lead in encouraging domestic carmakers to develop advanced safety vehicles (ASVs). Honda has fitted it to its new top-of-the-range sedan. 3. and mode change control section to cancel the following control of the following control section and instead compulsorily initiating the deceleration control of the deceleration control section in response to a start of the antilock brake control of the anti-lock brake controller. Infrastructure. which went on sale in June. The Collision Mitigation Brake System (CMS).2. and some of these are now approaching the stage where they are ready for practical use.

2. and (b) the stability of rolling on selections to wide variation in wall shear stress and legend density. Similarly. in contrast to rolling on antibodies (). our data successfully predict the threshold wall shear stress below which rolling does not occur. independent of local homodynamic conditions. ) thereby destabilizing rolling. the speed at which leukocytes roll in vivo has been shown to be almost constant within a wide range of wall shear stress. This may be important to enable rolling leukocytes to be exposed uniformly to activating stimuli on endothelium. However.3 STABLIZATION IN DRIVING Wall shear stress in postcapillary venules varies widely within and between tissues and in response to inflammation and exercise. Furthermore.3. We also find an increase in the number of microvillus tethers to the substrate. rolling velocities on purified selections and their legends in vitro tend to plateau.. in which the number of bonds falls below one. This is a special case of the more general regulation by shear of the number of bonds. i. Wall shear stress increases the rate of dissociation of individual selectin-ligand tether bonds exponentially (. We find that this is compensated by a shear-dependent increase in the number of bonds per rolling step. . force on the cell. This explains (a) the lack of firm adhesion through selections at low shear stress or high legend density.e.

is continuously updated on the display.2. Automatic Braking calculates the optimal speed curve to the defect. With Automatic Braking.3. This often leads to the winder/re-reeler function becoming a bottle-neck in the paper production line. e. the unwinding rate must be reduced to crawl speed well in advance of suspected problem areas in order to avoid missing the defect.. the length to the next stopping position. WINDING EFFICENCY The Automatic Braking System (ABS) supplies the advanced tool required for efficiently locating and correcting defects. It increases winder or re-reeler capacity by optimizing the time to locate the defects to be patched or culled. the operators have the additional facility of virtually unwinding the reel in advance.g. When manual control is used. By taking into consideration both the location of the defect and the limitations of the customer specific winder drive.4 FOR MAX. The status of the unwinding. With the help of the defect classification and high resolution images. . Automatic Braking can be effectively utilized in virtually any paper type or grade. operators are able to easily determine the severity of the defects and thus minimize unnecessary stops. It then automatically slows down the drive to crawl speed or alternately stops the winder or re-reeler at the precise selected defect location.

.2.3.5 PATH FOLLOWER A Path Follower is an invisible thing that follows a path of Interpolation Points and can provide something for a camera to aim it if you want the camera to follow a path with a complicated aiming sequence.

for options 2 and 4. o 3: Camera will adjust its pitch to match those of the points it passes. this 1. i. 2: Camera will adjust its angle to match those of the points it passes.e. o 4: When used with 2 and/or 4. 2. .The Path Follower (9071) takes three parameters: low byte: low byte of tid of first Interpolation Point in path. high byte: high byte of tid of first Interpolation Point in path. parameter would be 6): o o 1: path is linear instead of curved. options: (Add any of the following values. 3. the camera faces in the direction of movement instead of the direction the Interpolation Points are facing .

the new Pathfinder has real character. The obstacle can be properly detected so that the vehicle can take a responsive and appropriate action for avoiding the obstacle. Like every new mid-size SUV. Fortunately. inferring section for an inferring a path of the vehicle in the obstacle detection area. whereas the Armada is the Shrek of its field.An obstacle detection device for a vehicle includes an area determining section for determining a detection area extended forward of a running vehicle and provided for detecting an obstacle. The old Path-finder was a good-looking truck. Very afraid. more powerful. it is bigger inside and out. even though the styling is hardly beautiful. a split section for splitting the area into a plurality of small split zones. a detecting section for detecting an obstacle in each of the small split zones. and a judging section for judging a rank of danger of an obstacle in the detection area. Path-finder would bear a strong family resemblance to the full-size Armada SUV. and heavier. we were afraid. . and it features a third-row seat.

A six-disc in-dash CD changer. Rancho performance dampers.and lower-control-arm front and rear suspension. It also makes 270 horsepower and mates to a five-speed automatic transmission." which uses the traction-control system to move up to 50 percent of the engine torque to any one wheel. and a receivertype hitch is neatly integrated into the rear bumper. Ground clearance varies between 8. but the SE adds running boards. SE Off-Road models with 4wd have hill-descent control and hillstart assist. the awd systems will conquer most The mid-size-SUV market is crowded. it has been tuned to produce good midrange torque. leather seats. You'll definitely notice the 4400-to-4800-pound bulk as it pummels into deep dips. the new one uses body-on-frame construction. and rear A/C. and has good passing performance. All Pathfinders have a standard skid-control system and antilock brakes. Displacing 4. with 80 percent of the peak 291 pound-feet being available below 2000 revs. with coil springs and antiroll bars at both ends. allwheel-drive models also have "Active Braking Limited Slip. Nissan expects that around 30 percent of Pathfinders will be rear-wheel-drive. The Pathfinder is the first recipient of the latest VQ V-6 engine. and it's pretty good on back roads. although the V-6 lacks the low-down steam of a big American V-8. steers well. A navigation system and DVD entertainment system are optional. a power passenger's seat.2 inches. It has upper. The upscale LE has cheesy wood-grain trim. The base XE comes reasonably well equipped.0 liters (in-stead of 3. Off-road.Unlike the old Pathfinder. The five-speed automatic is well matched to the engine. but the Pathfinder is up near the top. This impressive mid-size SUV rides nicely. plus skid plates. but there's a choice of two all-wheel-drive systems: a part-time system that can be shifted on the fly and an on-demand version that shunts up to 50 percent of the torque to the front wheels in case of wheel slippage.5). an easy-clean cargo area. a moonroof. and full length curtain air bags. and dual-zone climate control are included in options packages. depending on the model. adjustable pedals. and an eight-way power driver's seat. Pathfinders can tow up to 6000 pounds.5 and 9. The .

it has been tuned to produce good midrange torque. it is bigger inside and out. and it features a third-row seat. Pathfinder. the new Pathfinder has real character. and heavier.5). Displacing 4. more powerful. Like every new mid-size SUV. but there's a choice of two all-wheeldrive systems: a part-time system that can be shifted on the fly and an ondemand version that shunts up to 50 percent of the torque to the front wheels in case of wheel slippage. depending on the model. with coil springs and antiroll bars at both ends.CHAPTER 4: Future scope of AUTOMATIC BRAKING AND PATH FINDER When we heard that the new Path-finder would bear a strong family Fortunately. Pathfinders will be rear-wheel-drive. It also makes 270 horsepower and mates to a five-speed automatic transmission.and lower-control-arm front and rear suspension.0 liters (in-stead of 3. Inside. the new one uses body-on-frame construction. even though the styling is hardly beautiful. All Pathfinders have a standard skid-control system and antilock brakes. the Pathfinder is spacious and versatile . The Pathfinder is the first recipient of the latest VQ V-6 engine. all-wheel-drive models also have "Active Braking Limited Slip. with 80 percent of the peak 291 pound-feet being available below 2000 revs.2 inches. Ground clearance varies between 8." which uses the traction-control system to move up to 50 percent of the engine torque to any one wheel.5 and 9. It has upper.

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