omar furTuxia

albaToba da statistika
magaliTebsa da amocanebSi




(Teoria, magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi,
amocanebi)


Tsu-2011
1

s a r C e v i

albaTobis Teoria
Tavi I. albaTobis Teoriis elementebi ............................................................................
elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce. operaciebi xdomilobebze. albaTobis klasi-
kuri, statistikuri da geometriuli ganmarteba. kombinatorikis elementebi. al-
baTobis gamoTvla kombinatorikis gamoyenebiT.
3
Tavi II. rTuli xdomilebis albaTobebi .........................................................................
albaTobaTa Sekrebis kanoni. sxvaobis albaTobis formula. pirobiTi albaToba.
namravlis albaToba. xdomilebaTa damoukidebeloba. sruli albaTobis formu-
la. baiesis formula. ganmeorebiTi cdebi. bernulisa da puasonis formulebi.
15
Tavi III. SemTxveviT sidideTa maxasiaTeblebi ..........................................................
SemTxveviTi sidide. ganawilebis kanoni. ganawilebis funqcia. ganawilebis simkv-
rive. zogierTi mniSvnelovani ganawileba. kvantili, mediana, moda. maTematikuri
lodini, dispersia. organzomilebiani SemTxveviTi sidide. regresiis funqcia.
momentebi, asimetria, eqscesi. kovariacia. korelaciis koeficienti.
33
Tavi IV. diskretul ganawilebaTa gamoyenebebi ......................................................
binomialuri da puasonis ganawilebebis gamoyenebebi
50
Tavi V. uwyveti tipis ganawilebebi........................................................................................
ganawilebis simkvrive. kvantili, moda, mediana, qveda da zeda kvartili, zeda
o -kritikuli wertili, momentebi (lodini, dispersia, asimetria, eqscesi).
61
Tavi VI. normaluri ganawileba ............................................................................................... 70
Tavi VII. albaTobis Teoriis zRvariTi Teoremebi .............................................
CebiSevis utoloba. did ricxvTa kanoni. CebiSevis Teorema. bernulis Teorema.
centraluri zRvariTi Teorema. liapunovis Teorema. muavr-laplasis lokaluri
da integraluri Teoremebi.
84

statistikuri daskvnebis Teoria
Tavi I. wertilovani da intervaluri Sefasebebi. ndobis intervali
saSualosaTvis ...........................................................................................................................................
wertilovan SefasebaTa saxeebi (Caunacvlebeli, Zalmosili da efeqturi Sefase-
bebi). SerCeviTi momentebi (saSualo, dispersia, Sesworebuli dispersia, standa-
rtuli gadaxra, asimetria, eqscesi). SerCeviTi korelacia. maqsimaluri dasajer-
obis meTodi. momentTa meTodi. ndobis intervali populaciis saSualosaTvis.

94
Tavi II. ndobis intervali bernulis sqemaSi .............................................................
asimptoturi ndobis intervali da SerCevis moculoba populaciis proporciis-
aTvis. ndobis intervali puasonis ganawilebis ucnobi parametrisaTvis.
104
Tavi III. ndobis intervali dispersiisaTvis ...............................................................
ndobis intervali normaluri populaciis dispersiisa da standartuli gadaxr-
isaTvis cnobili da ucnobi saSualoebisaTvis. didi SerCevebis SemTxveva.
108
Tavi IV. hipoTezaTa Semowmeba saSualosaTvis (
2
o cnobilia) ................
ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi. mniSvnelovnebis done. kriteriumis sta-
tistika. kritikuli mniSvneloba. kritikuli are. I da II gvaris Secdomebi. krit-
eriumis simZlavre. hipoTezaTa Semowmeba normaluri populaciis saSualosaTvis
(dipersia cnobilia). SerCevis minimaluri moculoba. P-mniSvnelobis meTodi.
114
Tavi V. hipoTezaTa Semowmeba saSualosaTvis (
2
o ucnobia) ......................
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba normaluri populaciis saSualosaTvis ucnobi dipersiis
SemTxvevaSi. Z da T kriteriumebis gamoyenebis SesaZlo SemTxvevebi.
123
Tavi VI. hipoTezaTa Semowmeba dispersiisaTvis ...................................................... 129
2

statistikuri hipoTezis Semowmeba normaluri ganawilebis dispersiis Sesaxeb
cnobili da ucnobi saSualoebis SemTxvevaSi. P-mniSvnelobis meTodi.
Tavi VII. hipoTezaTa Semowmeba bernulis sqemaSi .................................................
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba bernulis sqemaSi ucnobi albaTobisaTvis (didi da mcire
SerCevebi). hipoTezaTa Semowmeba puasonis ganawilebis ucnobi parametrisaTvis
(mcire SerCevebi). P-mniSvnelobis meTodi.
135
Tavi VIII. ndobis intervali da hipoTezaTa Semowmeba .................................... 140
Tavi IX. oramokrefiani amocanebi populaciaTa saSualoebisaTvis ...
ori damoukidebeli normaluri populaciis saSualoTa Soris gansxvavebis
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba cnobili da ucnobi dispersiebis SemTxvevaSi. hipoTezaTa
Semowmeba aranormaluri populaciebisaTvis (didi moculobis mqone SerCevebi).
ndobis intervalebi saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.
147
Tavi X. oramokrefiani amocanebi populaciaTa saSualoebisaTvis
(mcire SerCevebi). satertvaitis meTodi ............................................................................
ori damoukidebeli aranormaluri populaciis saSualos Soris gansxvavebis hi-
poTezaTa Semowmeba mcire SerCevebis SemTxvevaSi. ndobis intervali saSualoTa
sxvaobisaTvis. satertvaitis meTodi.

157
Tavi XI. oramokrefiani amocanebi populaciaTa dispersiebisaTvis ...
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba ori damoukidebeli normaluri populaciis dispersiebis
Sesaxeb. dispersiaTa tolobis Sesaxeb hipoTezaTa Semowmebis gamartivebuli
procedura. ndobis intervali dispersiaTa fardobisaTvis.
164
Tavi XII. statistikuri daskvnebi dawyvilebuli monacemebisaTvis ....
statistikuri daskvnebi dawyvilebul monacemTa saSualoebis sxvaobebisaTvis
(damokidebuli SerCevebi). P-mniSvnelobis meTodi. ndobis intervali.
171
Tavi XIII. oramokrefiani amocanebi bernulis sqemaSi ......................................
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba warmatebaTa albaTobebisaTvis bernulis cdaTa ori damo-
ukidebeli mimdevrobisaTvis. ndobis intervali
1 2
p p ÷ sxvaobisaTvis.
178
Tavi XIV. Tanxmobis kriteriumebi .........................................................................................
xi-kvadrat Tanxmobis kriteriumis formula. normalurobis hipoTezis Semowmeba.
186
Tavi XV. damoukideblobis Semowmebis xi-kvadrat kriteriumi .............. 193
Tavi XVI. erTgvarovnebis Semowmebis xi-kvadrat kriteriumi .................. 201
Tavi XVII. dawyvilebuli monacemebi, korelacia ...................................................
gabnevis diagrama. misadagebis wiri. regresiis wrfis gantoleba. Sefasebis stan-
dartuli Secdoma. prognozi da saprogrozo intervali. daskvnebi korelaciis
koeficientis Sesaxeb (hipoTezaTa Semowmeba).
206
Tavi XVIII. regresia da korelacia ......................................................................................
martivi wrfivi regresia. regresiis wrfe. umcires kvadratTa meTodi. regresiis
wrfis Sefaseba. determinaciis koeficienti. statistikuri daskvnebi regresiis
koeficientebis Sesaxeb. mravlobiTi regresia. modelis vargisianobis Semowmeba.
statistikuri daskvnebi mravlobiTi modelis parametrebis Sesaxeb. rangobrivi
korelacia. spirmenis rangobrivi korelaciis koeficienti.
222



Tavi XIX. dispersiuli analizi (ANOVA) ......................................................................
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba sami an meti populaciis saSualoTa tolobis Sesaxeb.
238
Tavi XX. sakontrolo werebisa da Sualeduri da saboloo
gamocdebis bileTebis nimuSebi 2007—2009 wlebSi ..............................................

249
danarTi (statistikuri cxrilebi) ....................................................................................... 254
damateba (sagamocdo amocanebi xdomilebebisaTvis)............................................. 263
literatura .................................................................................................................................................. 272

3

a l b a T o b a

Tavi I
albaTobis Teoriis elementebi

eqsperimentis calkeul SesaZlo Sedegs elementaruli xdomileba
ewodeba, xolo maT erTobliobas – elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce da
aRiniSneba O asoTi:
1 2
{ , ,...} e e O= .
savarjiSoebi: I. monetis erTxel agdebisas -- O={g, s}; II. monetis
orjer agdebisas, an ori monetis erTdroulad agdebisas -- O={gg, gs, sg,
ss}; III. monetis samjer agdebisas, an sami monetis erTdroulad agdebisas
-- O= {ggg, ggs, gsg, sgg, gss, sgs, ssg, sss}; IV. monetis n-jer agdebisas
} ), ,..., ( : {
1
s an g = = = O
i n
a a a e e da Sedegebis saerTo raodenoba tolia
n
2 -is; V. erTi saTamaSo kamaTlis gagorebisas -- O={1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}; VI.
vTqvaT, Tavidan vagdebT monetas. Tu mova gerbi, maSin vagorebT saTamaSo
kamaTels; xolo Tu mova safasuri, maSin kidev erTjer vagdebT monetas.
am SemTxvevaSi } , 3 , 2 , 1 { ss sg, g6, g5, g4, g g g = O ; VII. ori saTamaSo kamaTlis ga-
gorebisas -- O={(1,1); (1,2); . . . ; (1,6); (2,1); (2,2); . . . ; (2,6); . . . ; (6,1); . . . ;
(6,6)} anu } 6 ,..., 2 , 1 , : ) , {( = = O j i j i ; VIII. produqciis vargisinobis dadgenisas --
O={“vargisi”, “uvargisi”}; IX. satelefono sadgurSi gamoZaxebaTa raoden-
oba -- O= {0, 1, 2, . . . }; X. Zabva qselSi -- O={[0, 220]}.
diskretul elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrcis nebismier qvesim-
ravles xdomileba ewodeba. Tu eqsperimentis konkretuli Sedegi ekuTv-
nis raime xdomilebas, maSin amboben rom es xdomileba moxda, xolo
romelsac ar ekuTvnis – is xdomileba ar moxda. xdomilebebi aRiniSneba
didi laTinuri asoebiT: ,... , , , D C B A . xdomilebas O = A uwodeben
aucilebel xdomilebas, xolo Ø -- SeuZlebel xdomilebas. A da B
xdomilebis gaerTianeba (an jami) ewodeba iseT xdomilebas, romelic
xdeba maSin, roca am xdomilebebidan erTi mainc xdeba da aRiniSneba
simboloTi B A (an B A+ ). A da B xdomilebis TanakveTa (an namravli)
ewodeba iseT xdomilebas, romelic xdeba maSin, roca es xdomilebebi
erTdroulad xdeba da aRiniSneba simboloTi B A· (an AB). A
xdomilebis sawinaaRmdego xdomileba ewodeba iseT xdomilebas, romelic
xdeba maSin, roca A ar xdeba da aRiniSneba simboloTi A. A da B
xdomilebis sxvaoba ewodeba iseT xdomilebas, romelic xdeba maSin,
roca xdeba A magram ar xdeba B da aRiniSneba simboloTi B A\ . A da
B xdomilebas ewodeba uTavsebadi Tu B A· =Ø.
Tu O-s nebismier elementarul xdomilebas
i
e Seesabameba garkveu-
li ricxvebi ) (
i i
P p e = , romlebic akmayofileben pirobebs: 1 0 s s
i
p da
1
i
i
p =
¯
, maSin am ricxvebs ewodebaT
i
e elementaruli xdomilebebis alb-
4

aTobebi. ( ) : ( )
i
i
A
P A P
e
e
e
=
¯
. Tu ( )
i
P const e = da | | O <·, vRebulobT albaTob-
is klasikur ganmartebas: ( ) | | / | | P A A = O .
xdomilebis statistikur albaTobad iTvleba am xdomilebis fard-
obiTi sixSire ( ) /
N
W A M N = (sadac N – cdaTa saerTo ricxvia, М ki -- A
xdomilebis moxdenaTa ricxvi) an masTan axlos myofi ricxvi (maTematik-
urad zusti formulireba aseTia: ( ) lim ( )
N
N
P A W A
÷·
= ).
geometriuli albaToba. Tu L monakveTze SemTxveviT agdeben wert-
ils, maSin albaToba imisa, rom agdebuli wertili daecema l L c monakve-
Tze: | | / | | L l P = . analogiuri ganmarteba gvaqvs sibrtyeze da sivrceSi.

kombinatorikis elementebi.

gamravlebis principi: Tu asarCevia m obieqti da arsebobs pirveli
obieqtis arCevis
1
n SesaZlebloba, pirveli obieqtis arCevis Semdeg arse-
bobs meore obieqtis arCevis
2
n SesaZlebloba, da a. S., 1 m÷ obieqtis ar-
Cevis Semdeg arsebobs m-uri obieqtis arCevis
m
n SesaZlebloba, maSin
arsebobs am m obieqtis am mimdevrobiT arCevis
1 2 m
n n n × ×···× SesaZlebl-
oba.
magaliTad, Tu mamakacs aqvs 4 perangi da 2 pijaki, maSin am mamakacs
aqvs perangisa da pijakis SerCevis 4 2 8 × = SesaZlebloba (varianti).
namravlis principTan dakavSirebiT xSirad sasargebloa xis msgavsi
(xisebri) diagramis anu dendrogramis gamoyeneba.
magaliTad, dendrogramiT gamosaxuli monetis orjer agdebis Sesa-
bamisi Sedegebis simravle iqneba:

gadanacvlebebi – es aris kombinaciebi, romlebic Sedgenilia mocem-
uli п elementiani simravlis yvela п elementisagan da erTamaneTisagan
ganxsvavdeba mxolod elementebis ganlagebis rigiT. Р
п
= п!.
wyobebi – es aris т elementiani kombinaciebi п gansxvavebuli elem-
entis mqone simravlidan, romelebic erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian an el-
ementebis SemadgenlobiT an elementebis ganlagebis rigiT. !/( )!
т
п
А n n m = ÷ .
5

jufdebebi – es aris п elementiani simravlis daulagebeli т elem-
entiani qvesimravleebi. !/( !( )!)
т
п
С п т п т = ÷ . cxadia, rom !
m m
n n
C m A · = .


albaTobis gamoTvla kombinatorikis gamoyenebiT.

amorCeva dabrunebiT: eqsperimentis yovel nabijze yuTidan amoRebu-
li burTi ukan brundeba. vigulisxmoT, rom burTebi gadanomrilia ricx-
vebiT 1-dan M-mde. ganasxvaveben ori tipis amorCevebs: dalagebuli amorC-
evebi da daulagebeli amorCevebi. dalagebuli amorCevebi aRiniSneba simb-
oloTi (
n
a a ,...,
1
), xolo daulagebeli amorCevebi – [
n
a a ,...,
1
].
dabrunebiT dalagebuli amorCevis SemTxvevaSi:
} ,..., 1 ; ,..., 1 : ) ,..., ( : {
1
n i M a a a
i n
= = = = O e e da
n
M = O| | .
daulagebeli amorCevebi dabrunebiT:
} ,..., 1 ; ,..., 1 : ] ,..., [ : {
1
n i M a a a
i n
= = = = O e e ,
n
n M
C
1
| |
÷ +
= O .
amorCeva dabrunebis gareSe: M n s da amoRebuli burTi ukan ar
brundeba.
dabrunebis gareSe dalagebuli SerCevis SemTxvevaSi:
} ,..., 1 ; ,..., 1 ; , : ) ,..., ( : {
1
n i M a l k a a a a
i l k n
= = = = = = O e e da | |
n
M
A O = .
daulagebeli amorCevebi dabrunebis gareSe:
} ,..., 1 ; ,..., 1 ; , : ] ,..., [ : {
1
n i M a l k a a a a
i l k n
= = = = = = O e e ,
n
M
C = O| |
saboloo suraTi aseTia:

dalagebuli daulagebeli
dabrunebiT

n
M
1
n
M n
C
+ ÷

dabrunebis
gareSe

n
M
A
n
M
C

magaliTad, 3 = M da 2 = n -is SemTxvevaSi Sesabamis elementarul
xdomilebaTa sivrceebs eqnebaT Semdegi saxis struqturebi:

SerCeva

(1,1)(1,2)(1,3)
(2,1)(2,2)(2,3)
(3,1)(3,2)(3,3)
[1,1][2,2][3,3]
[1,2][1,3][2,3]
dabrunebiT

(1,2)(1,3)
(2,1)(2,3)
(3,1)(3,2)
[1,2] [1,3] [2,3]
dabrunebis
gareSe
erToblioba dalagebuli daulagebeli

savarjiSoebi:
6

I. kursze, romelzec sami jgufia, jgufxelebis arCevis yvela SesaZ-
lo variantebis ricxvia
3 2 1
n n n · · , sadac
i
n -- i -ur jgufSi studentebis
raodenobaa (viyenebT namravlis princips);
II. raodenoba yvela SesaZlo kombinaciebis, ramdennairadac SesaZle-
belia m mgzavri ganvaTavsoT n vagonSi tolia
m
n (dalagebuli amorCe-
va dabrunebiT, sadac M n = da n m = );
III. m adamianis dabadebis dReebis yvela SesaZlo kombinacia (im pi-
robiT, rom TiTeuli dabadebis dRe aris romelime 365 dRidan) tolia
m
365 (saqme gvaqvs amorCevasTan dabrunebiT, amasTanave amorCevebi iTvleba
dalagebulad, sadac 365 M = da n m = );
IV. raodenoba yvela SesaZlo kombinaciebis, ramdennairadac SesaZl-
ebelia 5 burTi ganvaTavsoT 5 yuTSi, ise rom erT yuTSi iyos erTi bur-
Ti, tolia 5! (namravlis principis Tanaxmad);
V. partiebis raodenoba, romelic unda Sedges n monawilisagan Sem-
dgar wriul saWadrako turnirSi tolia 2 / ) 1 (
2
÷ = n n C
n
(daulagebeli amo-
rCeva dabrunebis gareSe).

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom simetriuli monetis ori
damoukidebeli agdebisas erTjer mainc mova gerbi.
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi O={gg, gs, sg, ss}; = } {gg P } {gs P = = } {sg P
= 4 / 1 } { = ss P ; A={gg, gs, sg} da 4 / 3 ) ( = A P .
magaliTi 2 (“bednier” bileTebze). 25 sagamocdo bileTidan 5 “bedn-
ieria”, xolo danarCeni 20 – “ara bednieri”. romel students aqvs “bedn-
ieri” bileTis aRebis meti albaToba: vinc pirveli iRebs bileTs, Tu
vinc meore iRebs bileTs?
amoxsna. avRniSnoT pirveli studentis mier aRebuli bileTis nome-
ri i asoTi, xolo meore studentis mier aRebuli bileTis nomeri j aso-
Ti. davuSvaT, rom “bednieri” bileTebis nomrebia: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. maSin cxa-
dia, rom } , 25 ,..., 2 , 1 , : ) , {( j i j i j i = = = O , 600 24 25 | | = · = O da bunebrivia CavTval-
oT, rom yvela elementaruli xdomileba tolalbaTuria: 600 / 1 ) , ( = j i P .
SemoviRoT xdomilebebi:
{ } A= pirvelma studentma aiRo kargi bileTi ,
{ } B= meore studentma aiRo kargi bileTi ,
maSin am xdomilebebs aqvT Semdegi saxe:
} ; 25 ,..., 1 ; 5 ,..., 1 : ) . {( j i j i j i A = = = = da } ; 5 ,..., 1 ; 25 ,..., 1 : ) , {( j i j i j i B = = = = .
advili dasanaxia, rom 120 24 5 | | | | = · = = B A . amitom albaTobis klasik-
uri ganmartebis Tanaxmad:
120 1
( ) ( )
600 5
P A P B = = = .
e. i. orive students aqvs kargi bileTis aRebis erTi da igive albaToba.
7

davaleba. wina amocanaSi vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom mesame stud-
enti amoiRebs “bednier” bileTs.
magaliTi 3 (galtonis dafa). gvaqvs dafaze samkuTxedis formiT da-
lagebuli rgolebi, ise rom wveroSi erTi rgolia, meore rigSi winasg-
an Tanabr manZilebze ori rgoli, mesame rigSi zeda ori rgolidan Tana-
bar manZilebze sami rgoli da a.S. boloSi aris eqvsi rgoli. me-7 rigSi
ki aris bolo 6 rgolidan Tanabar manZilebze 7 Rrmuli. zeda rgolze
agdeben burTs da mas SeuZlia igoraos Tanabari albaTobiT an marjvniv
an marcxniv rgolidan rgolze, rac sabolood sruldeba romelime Rrm-
ulSi CavardniT. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom burTi Cavardeba mexuTe
RrmulSi?

O
O O
O O O
O O O O
O O O O O
O O O O O O
U U U U U U U
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
amoxsna. rogorc vxedavT arsebobs pirvel da me-7 RrmulebSi burT-
is Cavardnis erTaderTi gza (traeqtoria), meore da me-6 RrmulebSi bur-
Tis Cavardnis -- eqvs-eqvsi gza, mesame da mexuTe RrmulebSi – TxuTmet-
TxuTmeti gza da bolos, meoTxe RrmulSi – burTis Cavardnis 20 gza.
gzebis (Sedegebis) sruli raodenobaa 1+6+15+20+15+6+1=64 da yvela es Se-
degi Tanabrad mosalodnelia, vinaidan TiToeuli traeqtoriis gavlisas
burTi ganicdis eqvs dajaxebas rgolebze da yoveli dajaxebisas is Ta-
nabari albaTobebiT gadaadgildeba an marjvniv an marcxniv. Tanabaralb-
aTuri 64 Sedegidan mexuTe RrmulSi Cavardnas xels uwyobs 15 Sedegi da
Sesabamisad, saZebni albaToba iqneba 15/64.
qvemoT moyvanilia galtonis dafaze rgolebis 7 rigis SemTxvevaSi
TiToeul poziciaze burTis moxvedris SesaZlo gzebis ricxvi.

8

magaliTi 4. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom wreSi SemTxveviT Cagdebu-
li wertili ar Cavardeba am wreSi Caxazul wesier eqvskuTxedSi.
amoxsna. davuSvaT, rom wris radiusia R, maSin masSi Caxazuli wes-
ieri eqvskuTxedis gverdic iqneba R. amasTanave, wris farTobia
2
| | R S t = ,
xolo eqvskuTxedis farTobia -- .
2
3 3
| |
2
R s = amitom saZiebeli albaToba
iqneba:
. 174 , 0
2
3 3 2
2
3 3
| |
| | | |
2
2 2
~
÷
=
÷
=
÷
=
t
t
t
t
R
R R
S
s S
P
magaliTi 5. AB monakveTze SemTxveviT agdeben sam wertils , C D
da M. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom AD AC, da AM monakveTebisagan Sei-
Zleba aigos samkuTxedi?
amoxsna. avRniSnoT AD AC, da AM monakveTebis sigrZeebi Sesabamis-
ad y x, da z -iT da elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrcis rolSi ganvixil-
oT sivrcis wertilTa simravle koordinatebiT ) , , ( z y x . Tu CavTvliT,
rom AB monakveTis sigrZe tolia 1-is, maSin elementarul xdomilebaTa
sivrce iqneba kubi, romlis wiboa erTi. amave dros, xelSemwyob elementa-
rul xdomilebaTa simravle (samkuTxedis aqsiomis Tanaxmad )Sedgeba im
wertilebisagan, romelTa koordinatebisaTvis sruldeba samkuTxedis ut-
olobebi: x +y > z, x + z > y, y + z > x. es ki warmoadgens kubis nawils, romel-
ic moWrilia misgan sibrtyeebiT: x + y = z, x + z = y, y + z = x
z
х y
(erT-erTi am sibrtyidan, kerZod x + y = z, moyvanilia naxazze). yoveli ase-
Ti sibrtye kubidan moWris piramidas, romlis moculoba tolia
6
1
1
2
1
3
1
= · · .
Sesabamisad, kubis darCenili nawilis moculoba iqneba
2
1
6
1
3 1 | | = · ÷ = v .
amitom saZiebeli albaToba, ganmartebis Tanaxmad, iqneba
.
2
1
1 :
2
1
| |
| |
| | = = =
V
v
P
magaliTi 6 (Sexvedris amocana). ori piri SeTanxmda garkveul adgi-
lze Sexvdes erTmaneTs 6-dan 7 saaTamde. TiToeuli maTgani SemTxveviT
9

momentSi midis daTqmul adgilas da meores elodeba 20 wuTis manZilze
(Semdeg ki midis). vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom es pirebi Sexvdebian erTm-
aneTs?
amoxsna. avRniSnoT, erT-erTi piris daTqmul adgilze misvlis dro
x + 6 -iT, xolo meore piris -- y + 6 -iT (sadac x da y gamosaxulia saaTeb-
Si). elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrcis rolSi SegviZlia aviRoT im ) , ( y x
wertilTa simravle, romlebic ekuTvnian erTeulovan kvadrats. am SemTx-
vevaSi CvenTvis saintereso wertilTa (xelSemwyob elementarul xdomile-
baTa) simravle iqneba erTeulovani kvadratis im wertilTa simravle, ro-
melTa koordinatebi erTmaneTisagan daSorebulia araumetes 3 / 1 60 / 20 = -
iT:
O · s ÷ = } 3 / 1 | | ); , {( y x y x A .
vinaidan, 3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1 3 / 1 | | + s s ÷ · s ÷ s ÷ · s ÷ x y x x y y x . amitom adv-
ili gasagebia, rom A simravle iqneba erTeulovani kvadratis SigniT
3 / 1 ÷ = x y da 3 / 1 + = x y wrfeebs Soris moqceuli gaferadebuli are (roca
3 / 1 0 s s x , maSin 3 / 1 ÷ = x y wrfis nacvlad qveda sazRvris rolSi iqneba x
RerZi: 3 / 1 0 + s s x y , xolo roca 1 3 / 2 s s x , maSin zeda sazRvari 3 / 1 + = x y
wrfis nacvlad iqneba 1 = y wrfe: 1 3 / 1 s s ÷ y x ).











0 1/3 2/3 1 x
y
1




1/3
O

amitom saZiebeli albaToba iqneba:
9
5
1
3 / 2 3 / 2 1
| |
| |
) ( =
· ÷
=
O
=
A
A P .
magaliTi 7. ramdegi gansxvavebuli sia SeiZleba Sedgenil iqnes 7
sxvadasxva gvarisagan?
amoxsna.
7
7! 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5040 P = = · · · · · · = .
magaliTi 8. SejibrebaSi monawile 10 sportsmenidan pirvel sam adg-
ilze gasuli sami gamarjvebuli ramden sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba ganTa-
vsdes dasajildoebel kvarcxlbekze?
amoxsna. . 720 8 9 10
3
10
= · · = А
magaliTi 9. SesarCev SejibrebaSi monawileobs 10 adamiani, romelT-
agan finalSi gadis sami. finalistebis ramdeni gansxvavebuli sameuli
SeiZleba gamovlindes?
amoxsna. wina magaliTisagan gansxvavebiT, aq finalistebis rigs (da-
lagebas) mniSvneloba ara aqvs. amitom viyenebT jufdebis formulas:
10

. 120
6
10 9 8
! 7 ! 3
! 10
3
10
=
· ·
=
·
= С
magaliTi 10 (damTxvevebze). vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom: a). m Sem-
TxveviT arCeuli adamianis dabadebis dReebi ar daemTxveva erTmaneTs (im
pirobiT, rom yvela dRe tolalbaTuria); b). m SemTxveviT arCeul adami-
anSi moiZebneba ori mainc iseTi, romelTa dabadebis dReebi daemTxveva
erTmaneTs.
amoxsna. a). elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce Seesabameba dalageb-
ul amorCevebs dabrunebiT, sadac 365 M = da n m = , anu | | 365
m
O = ; xolo
xelSemwyobi elementaruli xdomilebebi ki dalagebul amorCevebs dabru-
nebis gareSe, sadac agreTve 365 M = da n m = , amitom maTi raodenobaa --
365
m
A . Sesabamisad, albaTobis klasikuri ganmartebis Tanaxmad, gvaqvs
)
365
1
1 ( )
365
2
1 )(
365
1
1 (
365
) (
365
÷
÷ · · · ÷ ÷ = =
m A
m P
m
m
.
b). sawinaaRmdego xdomilebis albaTobis gamoTvlis wesis Tanaxmad
ki gvaqvs, rom
m
m
A
m Q
365
1 ) (
365
÷ = .
moviyvanoT am albaTobis mniSvnelobebis cxrili zogierTi m-is
SemTxvevaSi:
m 4 16 22 23 40 64 70
Q(m) 0.01636 0.28360 0.47569 0.50730 0.89123 0.99711 0.99916

sainteresoa aRiniSnos, rom (molodinis sawinaaRmdegod!) klasis
moswavleTa raodenoba, romelSic 1/2-is toli albaTobiT moiZebneba ori
moswavle mainc erTi da igive dabadebis dReebiT, arc ise didia: igi to-
lia mxolod 23-is.
magaliTi 11 (mogeba latareaSi). gvaqvs M bileTi gadanomrili ri-
cxvebiT erTidan M-mde, romelTagan n bileTi nomrebiT erTidan n-mde
momgebiania ( n M 2 > ). vyidulobT n cal bileTs. ras udris albaToba imi-
sa, rom am n bileTidan erTi mainc iqneba momgebiani (avRniSnoT es xdom-
ileba A asoTi)?
amoxsna. vinaidan bileTebis amoRebis (yidvis) Tanmimdevrobas ara
aqvs mniSvneloba nayid bileTebSi momgebiani bileTebis arsebobis an ar
arsebobis TvalsazrisiT, amitom elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrces eqne-
ba Semdegi stuqtura:
} ,..., 1 ; , : ] ,..., [ : {
1
M a l k a a a a
i l k n
= = = = = O e e .
Sesabamisad, Cvens mier zemoTmoyvanili cxrilis Tanaxmad
n
M
C = O| | .
xdomilebas (avRniSnoT igi
0
B -iT), rom nayid bileTebSi ar aris mo-
mgebiani bileTebi, eqneba Semdegi struqtura:
} ,..., 1 ; , : ] ,..., [ : {
1 0
M n a l k a a a a B
i l k n
+ = = = = = e e da
n
n M
C B
÷
= | |
0
.
amitom
11

)
1
1 ( )
1
1 )( 1 ( ) (
0
+ ÷
÷ · · ·
÷
÷ ÷ = = =
÷ ÷
n M
n
M
n
M
n
A
A
C
C
B P
n
M
n
n M
n
M
n
n M
.
Sesabamisad, saZebni albaToba iqneba:
0
( ) 1 ( ) 1 (1 )(1 ) (1 )
1 1
n n n
P B P B
M M M n
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ··· ÷
÷ ÷ +
.
Tu magaliTad,
2
n M = da · ÷ n , maSin
1
0
) (
÷
÷e B P (aq e neperis ric-
xvia) da 632 , 0 1 ) (
1
~ ÷ ÷
÷
e B P , sadac krebadobis siCqare sakmaod didia: ukve
roca 10 = n -- 670 , 0 ) ( = B P .
davaleba. wina amocanis pirobebSi vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom nay-
idi n bileTidan zustad m ( n ms ) iqneba momgebiani.
magaliTi 12 (urTierTobis upiratesobaze). davuSvaT klasSi, rome-
lSic 10 moswavlea tardeba gamokiTxva, sadac TiToeulma moswavlem ank-
etaSi unda miuTiTos is sami amxanagi, romelsac aZlevs upiratesobas
cxra amxanagidan. A iyos xdomileba, rom erTerTi moswavle dasaxeleb-
ul iqna yvela SesaZlo cxra anketaSi. ras udris misi albaToba, Tu ank-
etis Sevseba iyo SemTxveviTi, anu anketis Sevsebis nebismieri kombinacia
tolalbaTuria.
amoxsna. calkeuli moswavlisaTvis anketis Sevsebis sxvadasxva kom-
binaciaTa raodenoba tolia
3
9
C -is, xolo 10 anketis Sevsebis variantebis
raodenoba pirveli magaliTis analogiurad tolia
10 3
9
) (C -is. vinaidan er-
Ti anketa SeiZleba Sevsebul iqnes nebismierad, xolo danarCen cxra anke-
taSi erTi pasuxi dafiqsirebulia da danarCeni ori pasuxi ki SeiZleba
nebismierad amoirCes rva SesaZlebeli pasuxidan, amitom elementaruli
xdomilebebis raodenoba A-Si tolia
3 2 9
9 8
| | ( ) A C C = · (Tu wyvilis pirvel
komponents SeuZlia miiRos m gansxvavebuli mniSvneloba, xolo meore
komponents ki pirvelisgan damoukideblad -- n gansxvavebuli mniSvnelo-
ba, maSin aseTi wyvilebis raodenoba namravlis principis Tanaxmad iqneba
-- m n · ). aqedan gvaqvs
9
9
3
9
2
8
10 3
9
9 2
8
3
9
3
1
) (
) (
) (
) ( = =
·
=
C
C
C
C C
A P .
davaleba. wina amocanaSi ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom erTerTi stu-
denti dasaxelebuli iqneba k -jer ( 9 s k ).
magaliTi 13 (or “tuzze”). ganvixiloT preferansis TamaSi, rodesac
kartis Sekvris maRali 32 karti SemTxveviT nawildeba (rigdeba) sam moTa-
maSes Soris, ise rom TiTeuli Rebulobs 10 karts da ori karti inaxeba
“sayidlebSi”. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom “sayidlebSi” aRmoCndeba ori
“tuzi”?
amoxsna. ori kartis sxvadasxva kombinaciebis raodenoba, romelic
SeiZleba aRmoCndes “sayidlebSi” tolia 496
2
32
= C . kartis SekvraSi oTxi
“tuzia”Dda sxvadasxva kombinaciebis raodenoba, romelic mogvcemda or
“tuzs”Atolia 6
2
4
= C . Sesabamisad, saZiebeli albaToba tolia
12

012 , 0
496
6
2
32
2
4
= =
C
C
.
davaleba. davuSvaT wina amocanaSi erTerTma moTamaSem, naxa ra Tav-
isi kartebi, icis, rom mas “tuzi” ara aqvs. Seicvleba Tu ara maSin alba-
Toba imisa, rom “sayidlebSi” ori “tuzia”? gamoTvaleT es albaToba.
magaliTi 14 (mxedvelobiT moZebnaze). davuSvaT gvaqvs N cali Sem-
TxveviT dalagebuli geometriuli figura, romelTa Soris M cali mar-
TkuTxedia ( N M s ). moiTxoveba moiZebnos yvela marTkuTxedi, Tu Zebna wa-
rmoebs elementebis (figurebis) saTiTaod skanirebiT fiqsaciis moculo-
biT erTi elementi, amasTanave xdeba dakvirvebuli elementis poziciis
damaxsovreba da mas Tavidan aRar vubrundebiT. vipovoT albaToba imisa,
rom damkvirvebeli SeZlebs aRmoaCinos yvela M marTkuTxedi araumetes
n dakvirvebisas ( N M n ,..., = )?
amoxsna. yvela SesaZlo elementarul xdomilebaTa raodenoba iqne-
ba
n
N
C = O| | . xelSemwyobi elementaruli xdomilebebi iseTi [
n
a a ,...,
1
] erTo-
bliobebia, romlebSic M adgilas ganTavsebulia marTkuTxedebi (amis
SesaZleblobaTa raodenobaa
M
M
C ), xolo danarCen M N ÷ adgilas ki ara
marTkuTxedebi (amis SesaZleblobaTa raodenobaa
M n
M N
C
÷
÷
). amitom xelSemwy-
obi elementaruli xdomilebebis raodenoba iqneba ·
M
M
C
M n
M N
C
÷
÷
. Sesabamis-
ad, saZiebeli albaToba tolia
M
N
M
n
n
N
M n
M N
n
N
M n
M N
M
M
M
C
C
C
C
C
C C
n P = =
·
=
÷
÷
÷
÷
) ( .

amocanebi

1. saTamaSo “ruleti” Sedgeba 38 toli farTobis mqone seqtorisag-
an, romelTagan 18 Savia, 18 wiTelia da 2 ki mwvane. agdeben burTs, romel-
ic sabolood Cerdeba erT-erT seqtorSi. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom bu-
rTi: a). gaCerdeba wiTel seqtorSi; b). ar gaCerdeba Sav seqtorSi.
2. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli erTi cifri iq-
neba 3-is jeradi.
3. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli ori cifri: a).
ar daemTxveva erTmaneTs; b). daemTxveva erTmaneTs.
4. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli sami cifridan:
a). samive gansxvavebulia; b). samive daemTxveva erTmaneTs; g). ori mainc da-
emTxveva erTmaneTs; d). mxolod ori daemTxveva erTmaneTs.
5. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom ori saTamaSo kamaTlis gagorebisas
qulebis jami iqneba: a). 9 qula; b). 10 qula.
6. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom sami saTamaSo kamaTlis gagorebisas
qulebis jami iqneba: a). 9 qula; b). 10 qula.
7. 60 sagamocdo sakiTxidan studentma icis 50 sakiTxi. ipoveT alba-
Toba imisa, rom studenti upasuxebs orsakiTxiani bileTis orive sakiTxs.
13

8. yuTSi aris 11 wiTeli, 12 yviTeli, 10 TeTri da 17 Savi burTi. ip-
oveT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT amoRebuli burTi iqneba wiTeli an
Savi.
9. 1000 dadebiTi mTeli ricxvidan SemTxveviT irCeven erTs. ipoveT
albaToba imisa, rom es ricxvi iqneba: a). 4-is jeradi; b). erTdroulad 4-
isa da 6-is jeradi.
10. kalaTaSi devs 7 wiTeli da 4 TeTri diski. dabrunebis gareSe
irCeven or disks. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). orive diski wiTelia; b).
orive diski erTi da igive ferisaa; g). diskebi sxvadasxva ferisaa; d). me-
ore diski wiTelia; e). meore diski TeTria.
11. CanTaSi devs 6 wiTeli da 4 mwvane kalkulatori. iReben or kal-
kulators dabrunebis gareSe. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). orive kalk-
ulatori wiTelia; b). orive mwvanea; g). zustad erTi kalkulatori wiTe-
lia; d). erTi mainc kalkulatori wiTelia; e). meore kalkulatori wiTe-
lia.
12. 52 kartidan iReben or karts dabrunebis gareSe. ipoveT albaTo-
ba imisa, rom: a). orive karti suraTebiania ( , , K Q J ); b). arcerTi ar aris
suraTebiani; g). erTi mainc suraTebiania; d). erTi mainc wiTelia.
13. CanTaSi devs 6 wiTeli da 4 mwvane kalkulatori. SemTxveviT iR-
eben erT kalkulators, mis fers iniSnaven da mas abruneben CanTaSi. Sem-
deg SemTxveviT iReben meore kalkulators. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom:
a). orive kalkulatori wiTelia; b). orive mwvanea; g). zustad erTi wiTe-
lia; d). erTi mainc wiTelia; e). meore wiTelia.
14. A yuTi Seicavs 1 wiTel da 1 Sav burTs, B yuTi Seicavs 2 wiT-
el burTs. A yuTidan SemTxveviT iReben 1 burTs da gadaaqvT B yuTSi.
Semdeg B yuTidan SemTxveviT iReben 1 burTs da gadaaqvT A yuTSi. ipov-
eT albaToba imisa, rom am ori gadatanis Semdeg Savi burTi iqneba A yu-
TSi.
15. A yuTi Seicavs 6 wiTel da 2 mwvane burTs, B yuTi Seicavs 4 wi-
Tel da 3 mwvane burTs. agoreben wesier kamaTels. Tu movida luwi qula,
maSin A yuTidan SemTxveviT iReben 1 burTs, xolo winaaRmdeg SemTxveva-
Si B yuTidan SemTxveviT iReben 1 burTs. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a).
amoRebuli burTi wiTelia; b). burTi amoRebuli iyo B yuTidan, Tu cnob-
ilia, rom amoRebuli burTi wiTelia.
16. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom erTeulovan gverdian kvadratSi Sem-
TxveviT SerCeuli wertili am kvadratis uaxloesi gverdidan daSorebu-
li iqneba araumetes 0.15-iT.
17. ori signali mimReb mowyobilobaze T drois manZilze SemTxvev-
iT momentSi miiReba. mowyobiloba maT ganarCevs, Tu isini t droiT mainc
arian dacilebuli erTmaneTs. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom orive signali
miRebuli iqneba?
18. centris garSemo mbrunavi wre gayofilia sami toli farTobis
mqone seqtorad da gadanomrilia cifrebiT 1, 2 da 3. mas atrialeben or-
jer da yoveli gaCerebisas iniSnaven im seqtoris nomers, romelSic moxv-
deba am mowyobilebaze uZravad mimagrebuli isari. ipoveT albaToba imi-
14

sa, rom: a). orive nomeri iqneba erTidaigive; b). arcerTi nomeri ar iqneba
2; g). erTi nomeri mainc iqneba 3; d). arcerTi nomeri araris 2 da orive
erTidaigivea; e). arcerTi nomeri araris 2 an orive erTidaigivea.
19. 36 kartidan A moTamaSes aqvs ori dedofali da erTi mefe. A
moTamaSisagan B moTamaSe SemTxveviT iRebs erT karts da ubrunebs isev
mas. A moTamSe erTmaneTSi urevs am sam karts da Semdeg B moTamaSe
kvlav iRebs erT karts. B moTamaSe igebs Tu mis mier amoRebuli orive
karti iqneba mefe. ipoveT B moTamaSis mogebis albaToba.
20. wesieri tetraedris waxnagebi gadanomrilia cifrebiT 1, 2, 3 da
4. mas agdeben orjer da iweren im cifrs, romliTac tetraedri daecema
iatakze. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). orive cifri iqneba erTidaigive;
b). arcerTi cifri ar iqneba 3; g). erTi cifri mainc iqneba 3; d). arcerTi
cifri ar aris 4 da orive erTidaigivea; e). arcerTi cifri ar aris 4 an
orive erTidaigivea.
21. yuTSi devs 10 burTi gadanomrili 1-dan 10-mde ricxvebiT. ipoveT
albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT amoRebul 6 burTSi aRmoCndeba: a). burTi
# 9; b). burTi # 9 da #10.
22. 200 detalis Semowmebisas standartulebis fardobiTi sixSire
aRmoCnda 0.9. ipoveT standartuli detalebis raodenoba.
23. sibrtyeze, romelic dafarulia a gverdis mqone kvadrtTa bad-
iT, SemTxveviT agdeben monetas radiusiT / 2 r a < . ipoveT albaToba imisa,
rom moneta ar gadakveTs arcerTi kvadratis gverds.
24. sibrtyeze, romelic dafarulia 6 sm-iT daSorebuli paralelu-
ri wrfeebiT, SemTxveviT agdeben wres radiusiT 1 sm. ipoveT albaToba
imisa, rom wre ar gadakveTs arcerT wrfes.
25. SemTxveviT iReben or dadebiT ricxvs, romelTagan TiToeuli ar
aRemateba 2-s. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom maTi namravli ar aRemateba 1-s,
xolo ganayofi ki ar aRemateba 2-s.









pasuxebi:
1. 9/19; 10/19. 2. 3/10. 3. 9/10; 1/10. 4. 18/25; 1/100; 14/50; 27/100. 5. 1/9; 1/12. 6. 25/216;
1/8. 7. 245/354. 8. 14/25. 9. 1/4; 83/1000. 10. 21/55; 27/55; 28/55; 7/11; 4/11. 11. 1/3; 2/15;
8/15; 13/15; 3/5. 12. 11/221; 10/17; 7/17; 77/102. 13. 9/25; 4/25; 12/25; 21/25; 3/5. 14. 2/3. 15.
37/56; 16/37. 18. 1/3; 4/9; 5/9; 2/9; 5/9. 19. 1/9. 20. 1/4; 9/16; 7/16; 3/16; 5/8. 21. 0.6; 1/3.
22. 180. 23.
2 2
( 2 ) / a r a ÷ . 24. 2/3. 25. (1 3ln2) / 8 0.38 + ~ .


15

Tavi II
rTuli xdomilebis albaTobebi

albaTobaTa Sekrebis kanoni: Tu = ·B A Ø , maSin
) ( ) ( ) ( B P A P B A P + = + .
sawinaaRmdego xdomilebis albaToba: ) ( 1 ) ( A P A P ÷ = .
sxvaobis albaTobis formula: Tu B A c , maSin ) ( ) ( ) \ ( B P A P B A P ÷ = .
Tu = ·
j i
A A Ø, roca j i = , maSin:
1 1
( ) ( )
n n
i i
i i
P A P A
= =
=
¯ ¯
.
roca xdomilebebi Tavsebadia: ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( B A P B P A P B A P · ÷ + = .
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B C P A P B P C P A B P A C P B C P A B C = + + ÷ · ÷ · ÷ · + · ·
sazogadod:
1
1 1
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1) ( )
n
n n
n
i i i j i j k i
i i
i i j i j k
P A P A P A A P A A A P A
+
= =
= = = =
= ÷ · + · · ÷··· + ÷ ·
¯ ¯ ¯
.
pirobiTi albaTobis formula
A xdomilebis pirobiTi albaToba pirobaSi, rom adgili hqonda B
xdomilebas, aRiniSneba ) | ( B A P (an ( )
B
P A ) simboloTi da
( | ) : ( ) / ( ) P A B P A B P B = · , Tu 0 ) ( = B P .
1 ) | ( 0 s s B A P ; B A· =Ø ¬ 0 ) | ( = B A P ; A Bc ¬ 1 ) | ( = B A P ;
Tu = ·
j i
A A Ø, roca j i = , maSin:
1 1
[( ) | ] ( | )
n n
i i
i i
P A B P A B
= =
=
¯ ¯
.
namravlis albaTobis formula
( ) ( ) ( | ) ( ) ( | ) P A B P A P B A P B P A B · = · = · .
( ) ( ) ( | ) [ | ( )] P A B C P A P B A P C A B · · = · · · .
sazogadod:
1 2 1 2 1 1 1
( ) ( ) ( | ) ( | )
n n n
P A A A P A P A A P A A A
÷
· ···· · = · ··· ···· · .
damokidebuli da damoukidebeli xdomilebebi
A xdomilebas ewodeba B xdomilebisagan damoukidebeli, Tu
) ( ) | ( A P B A P = an rac igivea ) ( ) ( ) ( B P A P B A P · = · . Tu ) ( ) | ( A P B A P = , maSin
gvaqvs damokidebuli xdomilebebi. Tu A da B xdomilebebi damoukideb-
elia, maSin xdomilebebi A da B agreTve damoukidebelia.
xdomilebaTa erTobliobas
n
A A A ,..., ,
2 1
ewodeba wyvil-wyvilad damo-
ukidebeli Tu: j i A P A P A A P
j i j i
= ¬ · = · ), ( ) ( ) ( .
xdomilebaTa erTobliobas
n
A A A ,..., ,
2 1
ewodeba erToblivad
damoukidebeli Tu ¬ n k s ,
1 2 k
i i i = =··· = :
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 2 1 k k
i i i i i i
A P A P A P A A A P · · · · = · · · · · · .
sruli albaTobis formula
xdomilebaTa erTobliobas
n
A A A ,..., ,
2 1
ewodeba xdomilebaTa sruli
sistema, Tu = ·
j i
A A Ø, roca j i = da O =
=
i
n
i
A
1
(magaliTad, A da A).
16

Tu
n
A A A ,..., ,
2 1
xdomilebaTa sruli sistemaa ( ( ) 0,
i
P A > 1, 2,..., i n = ),
maSin adgili aqvs sruli albaTobis formulas: ) | ( ) ( ) (
1
i
n
i
i
A B P A P B P
¯
=
= .
baiesis formula
Tu
n
A A A ,..., ,
2 1
xdomilebaTa sruli sistemaa, , 0 ) ( >
i
A P n i ,..., 2 , 1 = ,
maSin adgili aqvs baiesis formulas:
1
( ) ( | )
( | )
( ) ( | )
i i
i n
j j
j
P A P B A
P A B
P A P B A
=
=
¯
.
ganmeorebiTi cdebi. bernulis formula
ganvixiloT erTi da igive eqsperimentebis seria, romlebic tardeba
erTi da igive pirobebSi erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad. amasTanave, yov-
el konkretul eqsperimentSi Cven ganvasxvavebT mxolod or Sedegs: gark-
veuli A xdomilebis moxdena (romelsac pirobiTad “warmatebas” uwodeb-
en) da misi ar moxdena -- A (romelsac “marcxs” uwodeben). A xdomilebis
moxdenis albaToba nebismieri eqsperimentisaTvis mudmivia da tolia
p A P = ) ( , sadac 1 0 < < p . Sesabamisad, q p A P A P = ÷ = ÷ = : 1 ) ( 1 ) ( ( 1 = +q p ).
albaTobas imisa, rom n eqsperimentSi A xdomileba moxda k -jer
gamoiTvleba e. w. bernulis formulT:

!
( )
!( )!
k k n k k n k
n n
n
P k C p q p q
k n k
÷ ÷
= =
÷
.
amasTanave, adgili aqvs Tanafardobas:
( )
( 1) ( )
( 1)
n n
n k p
P k P k
k q
÷
+ =
+
.
albaTobebis erTobliobas ( )
n
P k , roca 0,1,..., k n = ewodeba albaTob-
ebis binomialuri ganawileba.
iseT
0
k ricxvs, romlis Sesabamisi albaToba
0
( )
n
P k udidesia ) 0 (
n
P ,
) 1 (
n
P ,..., ) (n P
n
albaTobebs Soris ualbaTesi ricxvi ewodeba. ualbaTesi ri-
cxvi gviCvenebs n damoukidebel cdaSi warmatebaTa ra raodenobaa yvela-
ze ufro mosalodneli. ualbaTesi ricxvi warmoadgens Semdegi utolob-
is mTel amonaxsns:
0
np q k np p ÷ s s + .
puasonis formula
Tanafardobas lim ( ) / !
k
n
np
p k e k
ì
ì
ì
÷
÷
= puasonis formula ewodeba. igi sa-
Sualebas iZleva vipovoT n damoukidebel cdaSi A xdomilebis k -jer
moxdenis albaToba (roca n sakmaod didia, xolo p sakmaod mcire, amas-
Tanave 15 np ì = < ) puasonis miaxloebiTi formuliT: ( ) / !
k
n
p k e k
ì
ì
÷
~ .

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. ganvixiloT ojaxebi, sadac or-ori bavSvia. rogoria
albaToba imisa, rom ojaxSi orive bavSvi vaJia Tu cnobilia, rom: a).
ufrosi bavSvi – vaJia; b). erTi bavSvi mainc – vaJia?
17

amoxsna. aq elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce aseTia
{ } O= vv, vq, qv, qq ,
sadac “v” aRniSnavs vaJs, xolo “q” – qals. CavTvaloT, rom oTxive
Sedegi tolalbaTuria. SemoviRoT xdomilebebi: A -- iyos xdomileba,
rom ufrosi bavSvi -- vaJia, xolo B -- iyos xdomileba, rom umcrosi
bavSvi – vaJia. maSin B A· -- iqneba xdomileba, rom orive bavSvi vaJia,
xolo B A -- ki iqneba xdomileba, rom erTi bavSvi mainc vaJia.
Sesabamisad, saZiebeli albaTobebi iqneba: a). ) | ( A B A P · da b).
) | ( B A B A P · . advili dasanaxia, rom:
2
1
2 / 1
4 / 1
) (
) (
) (
] ) [(
) | ( = =
·
=
· ·
= ·
A P
B A P
A P
A B A P
A B A P ,
3
1
4 / 3
4 / 1
) (
) (
) (
)] ( ) [(
) | ( = =

·
=

· ·
= ·
B A P
B A P
B A P
B A B A P
B A B A P .
magaliTi 2 (saukeTesos SerCevaze). mocemulia m obieqti gadanomr-
ili ricxvebiT m ,..., 2 , 1 , amasTanave ise, rom vTqvaT, obieqti #1 klasifici-
rdeba rogorc “saukeTeso”, . . . , obieqti #m ki rogorc “yvelaze uare-
si”. igulisxmeba rom obieqtebi Semodian drois momentebSi m ,..., 2 , 1 SemTx-
veviTi rigiT (anu yvela SesaZlo m! gadanacvleba tolalbaTuria). damk-
virvebels SeuZlia ori maTganis SedarebiT Tqvas romelia ukeTesi da
romeli uaresi. saWiroa saukeTesos SerCeva im pirobiT rom obieqtebi wa-
rmoidgineba saTiTaod da ukugdebulis damaxsovreba xdeba damkvirvebl-
is mier. ar SeiZleba saukeTesod miCneul iqnes is obieqti, romelic dakv-
irvebuli obieqtebidan erTze mainc uaresia an romelic ukve iqna ukugd-
ebuli. vTqvaT, damkvirvebelma obieqti SearCia k -ur nabijze ( m k s ), anu
daTvalierebuli obieqtebidan ukanaskneli aRmoCnda yvela winaze ukeTe-
si da amitom moxda misi SerCeva. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom amorCeu-
li obieqti iqneba saukeTeso mTeli erTobliobidan rogorc ukve ganx-i-
lul, ise jer kidev ganuxilav obieqtebs Soris?
amoxsna. SemoviRoT xdomilebebi: A iyos xdomileba, rom k -uri ob-
ieqti saukeTeoa yvela arsebul m obieqts Soris da B iyos xdomileba,
rom k -uri obieqti saukeTeoa dakvirvebul k obieqts Soris. gasagebia,
rom mosaZebnia pirobiTi albaToba ) | ( B A P .
vinaidan B Ac , amitom A B A = · da ) ( ) ( A P B A P = · . Sesabamisad, pir-
obiTi albaTobis ganmartebis Tanaxmad
) ( / ) ( ) | ( B P A P B A P =
vinaidan obieqtebis yvela SesaZlo gadanacvlebebi tolalbaTuria,
amitom albaTobis klasikuri ganmartebis Tanaxmad advili dasanaxia, rom
k k
k
B P
1
!
)! 1 (
) ( =
÷
= da
m m
m
A P
1
!
)! 1 (
) ( =
÷
= .
Sesabamisad, m k B A P / ) | ( = .
strategia. SeiZleba damtkicdes, rom saukeTeso obieqtis amorCevis
optimaluri strategia mowyobilia Semdegnairad. avRniSnoT simboloTi
*
m iseTi naturaluri ricxvi, romlisTvisac samarTliania utoloba
18

1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
* *
÷
+ · · · +
÷
< s
÷
+ · · · +
m m m m
.
saukeTeso obieqtis arCevis optimaluri strategia mdgomareobs ima-
Si, rom davakvirdeT da ukuvagdoT pirveli 1
*
÷ m obieqti da Semdeg gava-
grZeloT dakvirveba iseT
*
t momentamde, roca pirvelad gamoCndeba yvela
winamorbedze ukeTes obieqti.
magaliTad, Tu 10 ,..., 1 = m , maSin
*
m -is Sesabamisi mniSvnelobebia:
m
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
m-optimaluri 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 4
sakmaod didi m-isaTvis e m m /
*
~ (sadac e -- neperis ricxvia,
2.718 e ~ ) da saukeTeso obieqtis arCevis albaToba daaxloebiT tolia
1/ 0.368 e ~ (Tumca, erTi SexedviT bunebrivia mogvCveneboda, rom gansaxil-
veli obieqtebis m raodenobis zrdasTan erTad, saukeTeso obieqtis arC-
evis albaToba unda wasuliyo nulisaken). e. i. saukeTeso obieqtis arCev-
is optimaluri strategia mdgomareobs imaSi, rom unda ukuvagdoT obieq-
tebis saerTo raodenobis daaxloebiT mesamedi da Semdeg avirCioT pirve-
li iseTi obieqti, romelic yvela winaze ukeTesia.
magaliTi 3 (“bednier” bileTebze). 25 sagamocdo bileTidan 5 “bedn-
ieria”, xolo danarCeni 20 – “ara bednieri”. romel students aqvs “bedni-
eri” bileTis aRebis meti albaToba: vinc pirveli iRebs bileTs, Tu vinc
meore iRebs bileTs?
amoxsna. es amocana Cven ukve amovxseniT albaTobis klasikuri ganm-
artebis gamoyenebiT. amovxsnaT axla igi elementarul xdomilebaTa sivr-
cis axleburi SemotaniTa da namravlis albaTobis formulis gamoyeneb-
iT. winaswar SemoviRoT Semdegi xdomilebebi: A iyos xdomileba, rom pi-
rvelma studentma aiRo bednieri bileTi, xolo B iyos xdomileba, rom
meore studentma aiRo bednieri bileTi. maSin cxadia, rom elementarul
xdomilebaTa sivrce Sedgeba oTxi xdomilebisagan
} , , , { B A B A B A B A · · · · = O .
albaTobis klasikuri ganmartebis Tanaxmad 5 / 1 25 / 5 ) ( = = A P , xolo
( ) 20/ 25 4/ 5 P A = = . meores mxriv, amocanis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, Tu
cnobilia, rom pirvelma studentma aiRo bednieri bileTi, maSin albaTo-
ba imisa rom meore studenti aiRebs bednier bileTs isev SeiZleba gamov-
iTvaloT albaTobis klasikuri ganmartebiT: am SemTxvevaSi yvela SesaZ-
lo SedegTa raodenobaa 24, xolo xelSemwyob elementarul xdomilebaTa
raodenoba ki mxolod 4 (radgan erTi bednieri bileTi ukve aRebulia) da
Sesabamisad,
6 / 1 24 / 4 ) | ( = = A B P .
analogiurad, 6 / 5 24 / 20 ) | ( = = A B P , 24 / 5 24 / 5 ) | ( = = A B P da
( | ) 19/ 24 P B A = . amitom ori xdomilebis namravlis albaTobis formulis
Tanaxmad gvaqvs:
30 / 1 6 / 1 5 / 1 ) | ( ) ( ) ( = · = · = · A B P A P B A P ; 6 / 1 6 / 5 5 / 1 ) ( = · = ·B A P ;
19

6 / 1 24 / 5 5 / 4 ) ( = · = ·B A P da 30 / 19 24 / 19 5 / 4 ) ( = · = ·B A P
(SevniSnavT, rom Cven aq mxolod sisrulisaTvis gamovTvaleT yvela
SesaZlo pirobiTi da namravlis albaTobebi).
cxadia, rom ) ( ) ( B A B A B · + · = . amitom albaTobaTa Sekrebis kanonis
Tanaxmad
)) ( ( 5 / 1 6 / 1 30 / 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( A P B A P B A P B P = = + = · + · = .
magaliTi 4. yuTSi m burTia, maT Soris n TeTria. vipovoT albaT-
oba imisa, rom yuTidan ori burTis mimdevrobiT dabrunebis gareSe amoR-
ebisas: a). pirveli burTi TeTria; b). meore burTi TeTria; g). orive bur-
Ti TeTria.
amoxsna.
i
A iyos xdomileba, rom i -uri burTi TeTria ( 2 , 1 = i ). maSin
albaTobis klasikuri ganmartebis Tanaxmad:
a). m n A P / ) (
1
= .
garda amisa,
) 1 /( ) 1 ( ) | (
1 2
÷ ÷ = m n A A P da ) 1 /( ) | (
1 2
÷ = m n A A P .
amitom namravlis albaTobis formulis Tanaxmad:
g). ) 1 ( / ) 1 ( ) | ( ) ( ) (
1 2 1 2 1
÷ ÷ = · = · m m n n A A P A P A A P .
analogiurad,
) 1 ( / ) ( ) | ( ) ( ) (
1 2 1 2 1
÷ ÷ = · = · m m n m n A A P A P A A P .
amitom:
b). m n A A P A A P A A A A P A P / ) ( ) ( )] ( ) [( ) (
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
= · + · = · + · = .
magaliTi 5. yuTs aqvs n ujra. albaToba imisa rom burTi aris am
ujrebidan erT-erTSi tolia p -si. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom burTi ar-
is i -ur ujraSi, Tu cnobilia, rom burTi TiTeul ujraSi SesaZlebelia
iyos Tanabari albaTobebiT?
amoxsna.
i
A iyos xdomileba, rom burTi aris i -ur ujraSi. A iyos
am xdomilebebis gaerTianeba
n
i
i
A A
1 =
= . pirobis Tanaxmad
p A P = ) ( da n A A P
i
/ 1 ) | ( = .
amitom
n p n p A A P A P A A P A P
i i i
/ / 1 ) | ( ) ( ) ( ) ( = · = = · = .
magaliTi 6. kartebis nakrebidan (romelSic 36 kartia) SemTxveviT
iReben erT karts. ganvixiloT xdomilebebi: A iyos xdomileba, rom amo-
Rebuli karti “agurisa”, xolo B iyos xdomileba, rom amoRebuli karti
“mefea”. arian Tu ara es xdomilebebi damoukidebeli?
cxadia, rom am SemTxvevaSi
36 | | = O , 4 / 1 36 / 9 ) ( = = A P , 9 / 1 36 / 4 ) ( = = B P da
) ( ) ( 9 / 1 4 / 1 36 / 1 ) ( B P A P B A P · = · = = · .
e.i. es xdomilebebi damoukidebelia.
magaliTi 7. davuSvaT, rom vagorebT or saTamaSo kamaTels. ganvixi-
loT xdomilebebi: A -- pirvel kamaTelze movida kenti qula, B -- meore
20

kamaTelze movida kenti qula, C -- orive kamaTelze mosul qulaTa jami
kentia. gavarkvioT am xdomilebebis damoukideblobis sakiTxi.
cxadia, rom 2 / 1 6 / 3 ) ( ) ( = = = B P A P , xolo 4 / 1 36 / 3 3 ) ( = · = ·B A P .
amitom A da B xdomilebebi damoukideblia.
davaleba. SeamowmeT, rom 2 / 1 ) ( = C P .
SevniSnoT, rom A da B xdomilebidan erT-erTis moxdenis
pirobaSi C xdomileba xdeba maSin da mxolod maSin, roca Sesabamisad,
an pirvel an meore kamaTelze movida luwi qula, anu gvaqvs
Tanafardobebi:
B A C A · = · da B A C B · = · .
A da B xdomilebebis damoukideblobidan gamomdinare xdomilebe-
bi A da B da A da B agreTve damoukideblebia, amitom
4 / 1 ) ( ) ( ) ( = = · B P A P B A P da 4 / 1 ) ( = ·B A P .
Sesabamisad,
4 / 1 ) ( ) ( = · = · B A P C A P da 4 / 1 ) ( ) ( = · = · B A P C B P .
es Tanafardobebi ki, 2 / 1 ) ( = C P albaTobis gaTvaliswinebiT, niSn-
avs, rom damoukideblebia A da C da B da C xdomilebaTa wyvilebic.
davaleba. SeamowmeT, rom xdomilebebi magaliTi 7-dan ar arian erT-
oblivad damoukidebeli.
magaliTi 8. davuSvaT, vagdebT sam monetas. SemoviRoT xdomilebebi:
1
A -- pirveli da meore moneta daeca erTi da igive mxareze;
2
A -- meore da mesame moneta daeca erTi da igive mxareze;
3
A -- pirveli da mesame moneta daeca erTi da igive mxareze.
advili Sesamowmebelia, rom aqedan nebismieri ori xdomileba
damoukidebelia, xolo samive erTad damokidebulia, vinaidan Tu Cven
gvecodineba rom magaliTad,
1
A da
2
A moxda, maSin Cven zustad viciT,
rom
3
A agreTve moxda.
davaleba. SeamowmeT, rom xdomilebebi
1
A ,
2
A da
3
A wyvil-wyvilad
damoukidebelia.
magaliTi 9 (dabadebis dReebze). vipovoT albaToba imisa, konkretu-
li skolis rom 150 moswavlidan erTi mainc dabadebulia mocemul fiqsi-
rebul dRes, magaliTad pirvel seqtembers?
amoxsna. SemoviRoT xdomilebebi:
} 09 . 1 { a dabadebuli studenti uri ÷ = i A
i
, 150 ,..., 2 , 1 = i ;
} 09 . 1 { a dabadebuli n studentida 150 mainc erTi = A .
naTelia, rom
i
A xdomilebebi erToblivad damoukidebelia da
365 / 1 ) ( =
i
A P . garda amisa,
i
i
A A
150
1 =
= da maSasadame, sapovnelia damouki-
debel xdomilebaTa gaerTianebis albaToba. gadavideT sawinaaRmdego
xdomilebaze da visargebloT de-morganis kanoniT. maSin gvaqvs:
21

) ( ) ( 1 ) ( 1 ) ( 1 ) ( 1 ) (
1
150
1
150
1
n i
i
i
i
A P A P A P A P A P A P · · · ÷ = · ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
= =
.
ramdenadac 365 / 1 1 ) ( ÷ =
i
A P , Tu visargeblebT niutonis binomis for-
muliT
¯
=
= +
n
j
j j
n
n
x C x
1
) 1 ( , miviRebT, rom:
· · · + ÷ + ÷ =
4 4
150
3 3
150
2 2
150
)
365
1
( )
365
1
( )
365
1
(
365
150
) ( C C C A P .
vinaidan, 41 , 0 365 / 150 ~ , xolo
4
4 4 4
150
1 150 1 (0, 41)
( ) ( ) 0.005
365 365 24 24
C < ~ < ,
amitom mwkrivis niSancvladobis gamo, Tu gadavagdebT mwkrivis
wevrebs dawyebuli me-5 wevridan (mwkrivebis zogadi Teoriidan
gamomdinare), SesaZlebelia vamtkicoT, rom
2 3
(0.41) (0.41)
( ) 0.41 0.41 0.08 0.01 0.34.
2 6
P A ~ ÷ + ~ ÷ + =
magaliTi 10 (asoebis amocnoba). gvaqvs asoebis ori erToblioba:
I={К, И, З, Н} da II={З, Ч, Н}.
SemTxveviT virCevT erT erTobliobas da arCeuli erTobliobidan
erT asos. amorCeul asos Zalian mcire drois ganmavlobaSi vuCvenebT
damkvirvebels (ise rom mas ar SeuZlia mTlianad aRiqvas aso). rogoria
asos sworad gamocnobis albaToba, Tu damkvirvebelis pasuxia “Н”, roca
is asos gamosaxulebaSi dainaxavs vertikalur xazs da pasuxia “З”, roca
asos gamosaxulebaSi vertikaluri xazi ar aris?
amoxsna. SemoviRoT xdomilebebi:
} 2 , 1 , { = ÷ = i i A
i
erToblioba uri amorCeulia ;
“К”, “И”, “З”, “Н” da “Ч” – iyos xdomileba, rom warmodgenilia Sesa-
bamisad К, И, З, Н da Ч asoebi;
} { upasuxa sworad elma damkvirveb = B .
amocanis pirobebSi cxadia:
2 / 1 ) ( ) (
2 1
= = A P A P ;
( P ―К‖|
1
A )= ( P ―И‖|
1
A )= ( P ―З‖|
1
A )= ( P ―Н ‖|
1
A )=1/4, ( P ―Ч‖|
1
A )=0;
( P ―З‖|
2
A )= ( P ―Ч‖|
2
A )= ( P ―Н‖|
2
A )=1/3, ( P ―К‖|
2
A )= ( P ―И‖|
2
A )=0.
vinaidan
1
A da
2
A qmnian xdomilebaTa srul sistemas, amitom TiToe-
uli asos sworad amocnobis albaToba SegviZlia gamovTvaloT sruli
albaTobis formuliT:
( P ―К‖)= ) (
1
A P ( P ―К‖|
1
A )+ ) (
2
A P ( P ―К‖|
2
A )=1/8;
( P ―И‖)= ) (
1
A P ( P ―И‖|
1
A )+ ) (
2
A P ( P ―И‖|
2
A )=1/8;
( P ―З‖)= ) (
1
A P ( P ―З‖|
1
A )+ ) (
2
A P ( P ―З‖|
2
A )=7/24;
( P ―Н‖)= ) (
1
A P ( P ―Н‖|
1
A )+ ) (
2
A P ( P ―Н‖|
2
A )=7/24;
( P ―Ч‖)= ) (
1
A P ( P ―Ч‖|
1
A )+ ) (
2
A P ( P ―Ч‖|
2
A )=1/6.
22

amocanis pirobebSi cxadia agreTve, rom swori pasuxis pirobiTi
albaTobebi sxvadasxva asoebis warmodgenis SemTxvevaSi Sesabamisad iq-
neba:
( P B|―К‖)= ( P B|―И‖)= ( P B|―Ч‖)=0 da ( P B|―З‖)= ( P B|―Н‖)=1.
vinaidan, “К”, “И”, “З”, “Н” da “Ч” agreTve xdomilebaTa sruli sist-
emaa, amitom sruli albaTobis formula gvaZlevs swori pasuxis albaTo-
bas:
= ) (B P ( P ―К‖) ( P B|―К‖)+ ( P ―Н‖) ( P B|―Н‖)+ ( P ―И‖) ( P B|―И‖)+
+ ( P ―З‖) ( P B|―З‖)+ ( P ―Ч‖) ( P B|―Ч‖)= ( P ―Н‖)+ ( P ―З‖)=7/12.
magaliTi 11 (moTamaSis gakotrebaze). ganvixiloT e. w. “gerbi-safas-
uris” TamaSi: Tu monetis agdebisas mova moTamaSis mier winaswar dasaxe-
lebuli monetis mxare, maSin igi igebs 1 lars, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi ki
agebs 1 lars. vTqvaT, moTamaSis sawyisi kapitali Seadgens x lars da mi-
si mizania miiyvanos es Tanxa a laramde. TamaSi grZeldeba manam sanam
moTamaSe ar miiyvans Tavis Tanxas winaswar gansazRrul a laramde, an
igi ar gakotrdeba (anu waagebs mis xelT arsebul mTel x lars). rogo-
ria albaToba imisa, rom moTamaSe gakotrdeba?
amoxsna. es albaToba damokidebuli iqneba sawyis x kapitalze. aRv-
niSnoT igi ) (x p simboloTi. cxadia, rom igi ganmartebulia nebismieri
a x s s 0 da amasTanave, 1 ) 0 ( = P da 0 ) ( = a P . SemoviRoT xdomilebebi:
} {
1
nabijze pirvel moigo moTamaSem = A ,
} , { gakotrdeba kapitali sawyisi gaaCnia romelsac moTamaSe, x B= .
amocanis pirobebSi gvaqvs:
2 / 1 ) ( ) (
1 1
= = A P A P , ) 1 ( ) | (
1
+ = x p A B P da ) 1 ( ) | (
1
÷ = x p A B P ( 1 1 ÷ s s a x ).
vinaidan,
1
A da
1
A xdomilebaTa sruli sistemaa, amitom sruli al-
baTobis formula ) (x p albaTobisaTvis gvaZlevs Semdeg gantolebas:
) 1 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
) ( ÷ + + = x p x p x p , 1 1 ÷ s s a x
(am tipis gantolebebs maTematikaSi rekurentul gantolebebs
uwodeben). SeiZleba Semowmdes, rom am gantolebis amoxsnas aqvs saxe:
c bx x p + = ) ( ,
sadac b da c -- nebismieri mudmivebia. am koeficientebis mosaZebnad unda
visargebloT sasazRvro pirobebiT 1 ) 0 ( = P da 0 ) ( = a P . maSin miviRebT,
rom
1 = c da 0 = +c ab ,
saidanac, a b / 1 ÷ = da sabolood a x x p / 1 ) ( ÷ = , a x s s 0 .
davaleba. davuSvaT, rom Sesamowmebeli jgufis 1% avadmyofia, xo-
lo danarCeni 99% ki janmrTelia. adamianebis SerCeva xdeba SemTxveviT
da amitom
( ) 1% 0.01 P = = avadmyofi da ( ) 99% 0.99 P = = janmrTeli .
23

vigulisxmoT, rom im SemTxvevaSi, roca testireba utardeba
adamians, romelsac ara aqvs avadmyofoba, maSin 1%-ia albaToba imisa,
rom miviRoT mcdari dadebiTi Sedegi, e.i.
% 1 ) ( = janmrTeli | dadebiTi P da % 99 ) ( = janmrTeli | uaryofiTi P .
dabolos, davuSvaT, rom im SemTxvevaSi, roca testireba utardeba
avadmyof adamians, maSin 1%-ia albaToba imisa, rom miviRoT mcdari
uaryofiTi Sedegi, e.i.
% 1 ) ( = avadmyofi | uaryofiTi P da % 99 ) ( = avadmyofi | dadebiTi P .
gamoTvaleT albaToba imisa, rom: a). adamiani janmrTelia, xolo
testma aCvena uaryofiTi Sedegi; b). adamiani avadmyofia, xolo testma
aCvena dadebiTi Sedegi; g). adamiani janmrTelia, xolo testma aCvena
dadebiTi Sedegi; g). adamiani avadmyofia, xolo testma aCvena uaryofiTi
Sedegi.
ganvixiloT realuri situacia, romelic gviCvenebs erTi SexedviT
moulodnel gansxvavebas ) | ( B A P da ) | ( A B P pirobiT albaTobebs Soris.
imisaTvis, rom gamovavlinoT seriozuli avadmyofobis mqone adamianebi
adreul stadiaze, xdeba adamianebis didi jgufis testireba. miuxedavad
winaswari Semowmebis sargeblobisa, am midgomas gaaCnia uaryofiTi mxare:
Tu adamians sinamdvileSi ar gaaCnia avadmyofoba da sawyisma testma aCve-
na dadebiTi Sedegi (daudgina avadmyofoba), is iqneba stresul mdgomare-
obaSi (rac Tavis mxriv uaryofiTad moqmedebs mis cxovrebaze) sanam uf-
ro warmatebuli testi ar aCvenebs, rom is janmrTelia. am problemis mni-
Svneloba SesaZlebelia kargad gavigoT pirobiTi albaTobebis termineb-
Si.
wina davalebis monacemebSi gamovTvaloT albaToba imisa, rom tes-
ti aCvenebs dadebiT Sedegs. sruli albaTobis formulis Tanaxmad:
( ) P dadebiTi + = ) ( ) ( janmrTeli | dadebiTi janmrTeliP P
( ) ( ) 0.99 0.01 0.01 0.99 0.0198 P P + = · + · = avadmyofi dadebiTi| avadmyofi .
rogorc cnobilia, magaliTis pirobebSi
% 99 ) ( = avadmyofi | dadebiTi P .
gamovTvaloT axla Sebrunebuli pirobiTi albaToba, risTvisac vi-
sargebloT pirobiTi albaTobis ganmartebiTa da namravlis albaTobis
formulebiT. maSin zemoT miRebuli
( ) 0.0198 1.98% P = = dadebiTi
Sedegis Tanaxmad:
=
·
=
(dadebiTi) P
dadebiTi avadmyofi
dadebiTi | avadmyofi
P
P
P
) (
) (
( ( ) 1% 99%
50%
1.98%
P P ·
= = =
avadmyofi)P dadebiTi| avadmyofi
PP1.98%
.
rogorc vxedavT, pirobiTi albaToba imisa rom testi mogvcems da-
debiT Sedegs, pirobaSi rom adamiani avadmyofia tolia 99%-is, maSin ro-
desac pirobiTi albaToba imisa rom adamiani avadmyofia, pirobaSi rom
testma mogvca dadebiTi Sedegi aris mxolod 50%. aq SerCeuli monacemeb-
24

is SemTxvevaSi ukanaskneli Sedegi SeiZleba CaiTvalos miuRebelad: naxe-
vari adamianebis, romelTa testirebam aCvena dadebiTi Sedegi, faqtiurad
aris janmrTeli.
magaliTi 12. yuTSi moTavsebulia ori moneta:
1
A -- simetriuli mon-
eta gerbis mosvlis albaTobiT 1/2, da
2
A -- arasimetriuli moneta gerbis
mosvlis albaTobiT 1/3. SemTxveviT viRebT erT monetas da vagdebT. davu-
SvaT, rom movida gerbi. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom amoRebuli moneta
iyo simetriuli?
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce iqneba:
)} , ( ), . ( ), , ( ), , {(
2 2 1 1
s g s g A A A A = O ,
sadac magaliTad, ) , (
1
g A -- niSnavs, rom amoviReT
1
A moneta da misi agdeb-
is Sedegad movida gerbi. amocanis pirobebSi gvaqvs:
2 / 1 ) ( ) (
2 1
= = A P A P , 2 / 1 ) (
1
= A P | g da 3 / 1 ) | (
2
= A P g .
Sesabamisad, namravlis albaTobis formulis gamoyenebiT
gamoviTvliT:
4 / 1 )} , {(
1
= g A P , 4 / 1 )} , {(
1
= s A P , 6 / 1 )} , {(
2
= g A P da 3 / 1 )} , {(
2
= s A P .
amitom baiesis formulis Tanaxmad
5
3
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) | (
2 2 1 1
1 1
1
=
+
=
A P A P A P A P
A P A P
A P
| g | g
| g
g .
cxadia, agreTve rom 5 / 2 ) | (
2
= g A P .
magaliTi 13 (keTil gamomcdelze I). vTqvaT, Cven Casabarebeli
gvaqvs gamocda da SegviZlia avirCioT nebismieri sami gamomcdelidan.
davuSvaT, CvenTvis cnobilia, rom erTerTi sami gamomcdelidan (ucnobia
romeli) -- “keTilia” da albaToba imisa, rom masTan Caabaro gamocda
tolia 0.4-is, xolo danarCeni ori gamomcdeli “avia” da maTTan gamocdis
Cabarebis albaToba tolia 0.1-is. Cven SemTxveviT avirCieT gamomcdeli da
warmatebiT CavabareT gamocda. rogoria labaToba imisa, rom Cven
avirCieT “keTili” gamomcdeli?
amoxsna. SemoviRoT Semdegi xdomilebebi: A -- amorCeuli gamomcde-
li “keTilia” (maSin A -- iqneba xdomileba, rom amorCeuli gamomcdeli
“avia”) da B -- gamocda Cabarebulia (Sesabamisad, B -- gamocda araa Caba-
rebuli). amocanis pirobebSi gvaqvs:
3 / 1 ) ( = A P , 3 / 2 ) ( 1 ) ( = ÷ = A P A P ;
( | ) 0.4 P B A = , ( | ) 1 ( | ) 0.6 P B A P B A = ÷ = ;
( | ) 0.1 P B A = , ( | ) 1 ( | ) 0.9 P B A P B A = ÷ = .
cnobilia, rom moxda B xdomileba da gamosaTvlelia pirobiTi
albaToba ) | ( B A P . vinaidan, A da A xdomilebebi qmnian srul sistemas,
baiesis formulis Tanaxmad saZiebeli albaToba iqneba:
3
2
) | ( ) ( ) | ( ) (
) | ( ) (
) | ( =
+
=
A B P A P A B P A P
A B P A P
B A P .
25

davaleba. magaliT 13-is pirobebSi gamoTvaleT albaToba imisa, rom
arCeul iqna “avi” gamomcdeli, Tu cnobilia, rom gamocda Cabarebul iqna
warmatebiT?
magaliTi 14 (keTil gamomcdelze II). davuSvaT, rom gamomcdelTan,
romelTanac warmatebiT Caiara gamocdam (ix. magaliTi 13) gamosacdelad
rig-rigobiT mivida kidev ori moswavle. jer gamocda ver Caabara meore
moswavlem, Semdeg mivida mesame da manac ver Caabara gamocda. am faqtis
Semdeg romeli hipoTezaa ufro dasajerebeli: es gamomcdeli “keTilia”
Tu “avi”?
amoxsna. avRniSnoT ) (A P
i
(Sesabamisad, ) (A P
i
) simboloTi albaToba
(aposterioruli) imisa, rom es gamomcdeli “keTilia” (Sesabamisad, “avia”)
mas Semdeg rac gamocdil iqna i -uri studenti, 3 , 2 , 1 = i . Cven ukve davadgi-
neT, rom 3 / 2 ) (
1
= A P . Sesabamisad,
3 / 1 ) ( 1 ) (
1 1
= ÷ = A P A P .
meore moswavlis TvalsazrisiT es albaTobebi warmoadgenen ori
SesaZlo hipoTezis apriorul albaTobebs. amitom, baiesis formulis Tan-
axmad, meore studentis CaWris Semdeg aposterioruli albaTobebi iqneba:
7
4
) ( ) | ( ) ( ) | (
) ( ) | (
) (
1 1
1
2
=
+
=
A P A B P A P A B P
A P A B P
A P da
7
3
) ( 1 ) (
2 2
= ÷ = A P A P .
analogiurad, axla miRebuli albaTobebi ukve iqneba aprioruli
albaTobebi mesame moswavlisaTvis, da amitom saZiebeli aposterioruli
albaTobebi, mas Semdeg rac mesame moswavlem ver Caabara gamocda, gamoi-
Tvleba isev baiesis formuliT:
17
8
) ( ) | ( ) ( ) | (
) ( ) | (
) (
2 2
2
3
=
+
=
A P A B P A P A B P
A P A B P
A P da ) (
17
9
) ( 1 ) (
3 3 3
A P A P A P > = ÷ = .
rogorc vxedavT, eqsperimentis (gamocdis) dawyebis win aprioruli
albaToba imisa. rom arCeuli gamomcdeli “keTilia” toli iyo 1/3-is. eqs-
perimentebis Semdeg am xdomilebis aposterioruli albaToba gaizarda
da gaxda 8/17. miuxedavad amisa, Tu sami eqsperimentis Semdeg misaRebia ga-
dawyvetileba am gamomcdelis Sesaxeb, maSin ufro sarwmunoa CavTvaloT
igi “avad” (vinaidan, ) ( ) (
3 3
A P A P > ).
magaliTi 15. yuTSi 3 TeTri da 5 Savi burTia. yuTidan SemTxveviT
iReben 4 burTs dabrunebiT. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom amoRebuli bur-
Tebidan TeTri burTebis raodenoba meti iqneba Savi burTebis raodenoba-
ze?
amoxsna. Tu warmatebad CavTvliT TeTri burTis amoRebas, maSin pi-
robis Tanaxmad erT cdaSi warmatebis albaToba iqneba 8 / 3 = p . saZiebeli
xdomilebis xelSemwyob uTavsebad SemTxvevebs warmoadgens oTx cdaSi 3
an 4 TeTri burTis amoReba, romelTa albaTobebi bernulis formulis
Tanaxmad Sesabamisad tolia:
1024 / 135 ) 8 / 3 1 ( ) 8 / 3 ( ) 3 (
3 4 3 3
4 4
= ÷ · · =
÷
C P da
4096 / 81 ) 8 / 5 ( ) 8 / 3 ( ) 4 (
0 4 4
4 4
= · · = C P .
26

Sesabamisad, saZiebeli albaToba albaTobaTa Sekrebis kanonis
Tanaxmad iqneba:
4096 / 621 4096 / 81 1024 / 135 = + .
magaliTi 16. davuSvaT vamowmebT defeqturobaze saqonlis partias,
romelic Sedgeba 30 nawarmisagan. cnobilia, rom defeqturi produqciis
wili Seadgens 5%-s. rogoria saqonlis am partiaSi defeqturi produqci-
is ama Tu im ricxvis aRmoCenis albaTobebi?
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi eqsperimentebis ricxvia 30 = n , xolo albaT-
obis klasikuri ganmartebis Tanaxmad 5/100 0.05 p = = (Sesabamisad, 0.95 q = ).
Sesabamisad, gvaqvs:
0 0 30 0 30
30 30
(0) 0.05 0.95 0.95 0.2146 P C
÷
= = = ,
garda amisa,
30 30 30 30
30 30 0.05 30
( 1) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 0.95 19( 1)
k p k k
P k P k P k P k
k q k k
÷ ÷ ÷
+ = = =
+ + +
,
saidanac roca 0 k = :
30
30 0
(0 1) 0.2146 0.3389
19 (0 1)
P
÷
+ = · =
· +
;
roca 1 k = :
30
30 1
(1 1) 0.3389 0.2586
19 (1 1)
P
÷
+ = · =
· +
da a. S. sabolood gveqneba
Semdegi cxrili:

defeqturi nawa-
rmis ricxvi k
albaToba
( )
n
P k
kumulatiuri
albaToba ( ) n P k
0 0.2146 0.2146
1 0.3389 0.5535
2 0.2586 0.8122
3 0.1270 0.9392
4 0.0451 0.9844
5 0.0124 0.9967
6 0.0027 0.9994
7 0.0005 0.9999
8 0.0001 0.999998
9 0.000001 0.999999

am cxrilis Sesabamisi albaTobebis ganawilebis grafiki iqneba:

27

0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0 2 4 6 8 10

kumulatiuri albaTobebis Sesabamisi ganawilebis grafiki iqneba:
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
0 2 4 6 8 10


savarjiSo 1. eqsperimenti mdgomareobs sami saTamaSo kamaTlis gag-
orebaSi. ipoveT alabaToba imisa, rom eqsperimentis 10-jer gameorebisas,
zustad 4 eqsperimentSi mova zustad or-ori “6”?
savarjiSo 2. ramdeni SemTxveviTi cifri unda aviRoT, rom cifri
“5” movides erTjer mainc aranakleb 0.9-is toli albaTobiT?

amocanebi

1. A yuTi Seicavs 8 wiTel da 7 mwvane burTs, B yuTi Seicavs 6 wi-
Tel da 4 mwvane burTs. agoreben wesier kamaTels. Tu movida 3-is jeradi
qula, maSin A yuTidan SemTxveviT iReben 1 burTs, xolo winaaRmdeg Sem-
TxvevaSi B yuTidan SemTxveviT iReben 1 burTs. ipoveT albaToba imisa,
rom: a). amoRebuli burTi mwvanea; b). burTi amoRebuli iyo A yuTidan, Tu
cnobilia, rom amoRebuli burTi mwvanea.
2. ( ) 3/ 4 P A = , ( | ) 1/ 5 P B A = , ( | ) 4/ 7 P B A = . ipoveT: a). ( ) P A B  ; b). ( ) P B ; g).
( | ) P A B .
3. studentma unda gaiaros testireba laboratoriaSi muSaobis das-
awyebad. testirebis gavlis Semdeg studenti tests ukan ar abrunebs. al-
baToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli studenti testirebas gaivlis pi-
rvel cdaze aris 1/3. ganmeorebiTi testirebis SemTxvevaSi CaWris albaT-
28

oba aris wina cdaze CaWris albaTobis naxevari. ipoveT albaToba imisa,
rom studenti: a). gaivlis testirebas araumetes 3 mcdelobis Sedegad; b).
gaivlis testirebas pirvel mcdelobaze, Tu cnobilia, rom man testireba
gaiara araumetes 3 mcdelobiT.
4. ( ) 13/ 25 P A = , ( ) 9/ 25 P B = , ( | ) 5/ 9 P A B = . ipoveT: a). ( ) P A B  ; b). ( | ) P B A ;
g). ( ) P A B  ; d). ( | ) P A B ; e). ( ) P A B  .
5. 12 waxnagian wesier mravalwaxnagaze aRniSnulia ricxvebi 1, 2, . . .
, 12. mocemulia 9 danayofiani firfita, romlis centrSi devs moneta.
L ☻ R
agdeben mravalwaxnagas: Tu movida 2, 3, 5, 7 an 11 qula, maSin monetas gad-
aadgileben TiTo danayofze R-is mimarTulebiT (marjvniv), xolo winaaRm-
deg SemTxvevaSi L-is mimarTulebiT (marcxniv). TamaSi mTavrdeba, roca
moneta miaRwevs an R–s an L (firfitis romelime bolos). ipoveT albaTo-
ba imisa, rom: a). TamaSi damTavrdeba 4 gadaadgilebis Semdeg R-ze; b). Tam-
aSi damTavrdeba 4 gadaadgilebis Semdeg; g). TamaSi damTavrdeba 5 gadaa-
dgilebis Semdeg; d). TamaSis damTavrebas dasWirdeba 6-ze meti gadaadgi-
leba.
6. moyvaruli sinoptikosis Teoriis Tanaxmad Tu erT wels iyo wya-
ldidoba, maSin albaToba imisa, rom igi ganmeordeba momdevno wels aris
0.7, xolo Tu erT wels ar iyo wyaldidoba, maSin albaToba imisa, rom
igi ar iqneba momdevno wels aris 0.6. gasul wels wyaldidoba ar yofi-
la. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom wyaldidoba iqneba: a). momdevno sam wel-
iwads zedized; b). zustad erTjer momdevno sami wlis ganmavlobaSi.
7. albaToba imisa, rom safexburTo klubis I gundis yvela moTamaSe
formaSia aris 0.7. roca I gundis yvela moTamaSe formaSia, klubi sakuT-
ar moedanze igebs albaTobiT 0.9. Tu I gundis yvela moTamaSe ar aris
formaSi, maSin sakuTar moedanze mogebis albaTobaa 0.4. ipoveT albaToba
imisa, rom: a). klubi moigebs sakuTar moedanze; b). I gundis yvela moTama-
Se iyo formaSi, Tu klubma ukanaskneli Sexvedra ver moigo.
8. CanTaSi devs 25 diski, romelTagan nawili TeTria da danarCeni
Savi. CanTidan erTdroulad SemTxveviT iReben or disks. albaToba imisa,
rom amoRebuli diskebi erTi da igive ferisaa emTxveva albaTobas imisa,
rom es diskebi sxvadasxva ferisaa. ramdeni TeTri diskia CanTaSi?
9. ( ) 0.6 P A = , ( ) 0.8 P B = , ( | ) 0.45 P B A = , ( ) 0.28 P B C =  . ipoveT: a). ( ) P A B  ;
b). ( | ) P C B ; g). ( | ) P A B .
10. ( ) 0.75 P A = , ( | ) 0.8 P B A = , ( | ) 0.6 P B A = . ipoveT ( ) P B da ( | ) P A B .
11. klasSi aris 7 biWi da 9 gogona. SemTxveviT SerCeulia am klasis
ori moswavle. A={pirveli moswavle gogonaa}, B={meore moswavle gogo-
naa}. ipoveT: a). ( | ) P B A ; b). ( | ) P B A ; g). ( | ) P B A ; d). ) | ( A B P ; e) ( ) P B .
12. albaToba imisa, rom momavali wlis ivnisis pirveli dRe iqneba
mSrali aris 0.4. Tu ivnisis romelime konkretuli dRe mSralia, maSin
albaToba imisa, rom momdevno dRe iqneba mSrali aris 0.6. sxva SemTxveva-
Si albaToba imisa, rom momdevno dRe iqneba mSrali aris 0.3. ipoveT alb-
aToba imisa, rom: a). ivnisis pirveli ori dRe iqneba mSrali; b). ivnisis
29

meore dRe iqneba mSrali g). sul cota erTi ivnisis pirveli sami dRidan
iqneba mSrali.
13. albaToba imisa, rom momavali wlis ivnisis I dRe iqneba mSrali
aris 0.5. Tu ivnisis romelime konkretuli dRe mSralia, maSin albaToba
imisa, rom momdevno dRe iqneba mSrali aris 0.4. sxva SemTxvevaSi albaTo-
ba imisa, rom momdevno dRe iqneba mSrali aris 0.6. ipoveT albaToba imi-
sa, rom: a). ivnisis pirveli ori dRe iqneba sveli; b). ivnisis meore dRe
iqneba sveli; g). sul cota erTi ivnisis pirveli sami dRidan iqneba sve-
li.
14. 30 students dausves kiTxvebi: uWers is mxars argentinas, brazi-
lias, Tu arcerTs da is caciaa Tu ara. 12 studentma upasuxa, rom is ar-
is cacia da maTgan 4 uWers mxars argentinas, xolo 7 ki brazilias. ara
cacia studentebidan 1 uWers mxars argentinas, xolo 10 ki brazilias.
jgufidan SemTxveviT aarCies 1 studenti. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a).
studenti caciaa; b). studenti arcerT gunds ar uWers mxars; g). studen-
ti caciaa, Tu cnobilia, rom studenti arcerT gunds ar uWers mxars.
15. ( ) 0.3 P A = . B xdomileba damoukidebelia A xdomilebisagan.
( ) 0.4 P B = . C aris xdomileba rom arc A moxda da arc B. ipoveT: a).
( \ ) P A B ; b). ( ) P A B  ; g). ) | ( A C P .
16. isvrian wiTel da lurj kamaTels da maTze mosuli qulebi ikr-
ibeba. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom: a). qulaTa jami iqneba aranakleb 10-
isa, Tu wiTel kamaTelze movida 6 qula; b). qulaTa jami iqneba aranakl-
eb 10-isa, Tu erT kamaTelze mainc movida 6 qula.
17. kolejis studentebis naxevari swavlobs mecnierebas, xolo 30%
ki maTematikas. maT Soris vinc swavlobs mecnierebas 40% swavlobs maTe-
matikas. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli studenti: a).
swavlobs orives: mTematikas da mecnierebas; b). swavlobs maTematikas, ma-
gram ar swavlobs mecnierebas.
18. ( | ) 1/ 5 P D C = , ( | ) 1/ 4 P C D = , ( ) P C D p =  . ipoveT: a). ( ) P C ; b). ( ) P D .
19. ( | ) 1/ 5 P D C = , ( | ) 1/ 4 P C D = , ( ) 1/ 5 P C D =  , ( ) P C D p =  . ipoveT p .
20. stadionis 40 bileTidan 10 aris CrdiloeTis mxare, 14 aRmosavl-
eTis da 16 ki dasavleTis mxare. SemTxveviT iReben erT bileTs da aZlev-
en X -s (adamians saxelad X ). Semdgom, SemTxveviT iReben meore bileTs
da aZleven Y -s da analogiurad mesame bileTs aZleven Z -s. ipoveT alba-
Toba imisa, rom: a). X -s Sexvdeba CrdiloeTis mxare; b). X -s da Y -s Sexv-
deba CrdiloeTis mxare; g). samives Sexvdeba erTi da igive mxare; d). ors
Sexvdeba erTi mxare, xolo mesames sxva mxare.
21. 24 prizidan 4 avtomanqanaa, 8 motocikleti da 12 saaTi. anam, ekam
da elzam moiges TiTo prizi. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). anam moigo
manqana, xolo ekam -- motocikleti an saaTi; b). anam da ekam (orivem) moi-
go manqana, Tu cnobilia, rom elzam moigo manqana; g). anasa da elzas So-
ris erTma mainc moigo manqana; d). anam moigo manqana, xolo ekam ki manqa-
na an motocikleti; e). anam moigo manqana pirobaSi, rom ekam moigo
manqana an motocikleti.
30

22. ( ) A B =C  , ( | ) 1/ 3 P A B = , ( ) 6/ 7 P A = . ipoveT ( ) P B .
23. albaToba imisa, rom konkretuli dRe mSralia aris 3/10. albaT-
oba imisa, rom “dinamo” moigebs mSral dRes aris 3/8, xolo – svel dRes
3/11. a). “dinamom” Semdegi matCi orSabaTs unda Caataros. ras udris alba-
Toba imisa, rom “dinamo” moigebs; b). gasul oTxSabaTs “dinamom” matCi
moigo. ras udris albaToba imisa, rom oTxSabaTs mSrali amindi iyo; g).
gasul SabaTs “dinamom” matCi waago. ras udris albaToba imisa, rom Sab-
aTs sveli amindi iyo.
24. dedamiwis garkveul nawilSi mSrali dReebi ufro metia, vidre
sveli. Tu romelime dRe mSralia, maSin albaToba imisa, rom momdevno
dRe iqneba isev mSrali aris 0.8. Tu romelime dRe svelia, maSin albaTo-
ba imisa, rom momdevno dRe iqneba isev sveli aris 0.6. cnobilia, rom or-
SabaTi sveli dRe iyo. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom imave kviris: a). samSa-
baTi da oTxSabaTi orive iqneba mSrali; b). oTxSabaTi iqneba mSrali.
25. Tu romelime dRe mSralia, maSin albaToba imisa, rom momdevno
dRe iqneba isev mSrali aris 0.8. Tu romelime dRe svelia, maSin albaTo-
ba imisa, rom momdevno dRe iqneba isev sveli aris 0.6. wlis ganmavlobaSi
Catarda 44 kriketis matCi, TiToeuli grZeldeboda sami dRe mimdevrob-
iT, romelTagan I da III dRe iyo sveli. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom II
dRe iyo mSrali.
26. kazinoSi dgas ori A da
'
A saTamaSo magida, romlebic sruliad
erTnairad gamoiyureba. A magidaze mogebis albaToba aris 1/3, xolo
'
A
magidaze – 1/4. a). ipoveT SemTxveviT arCeul magidaze mogebis albaToba;
b). Tqven SemTxveviT airCieT magida da moigeT. ras udris albaToba imisa,
rom Tqven airCieT A magida; g). Tqven SemTxveviT airCieT magida da waag-
eT. ras udris albaToba imisa, rom Tqven airCieT
'
A magida.
27. kazinoSi dgas sami saTamaSo magida A da
'
A tipis, romlebic
sruliad erTnairad gamoiyureba. amasTanave,
'
A tipis magida ori calia.
A tipis magidaze mogebis albaToba aris 1/3, xolo
'
A tipis magidaze –
1/4. a). ipoveT SemTxveviT arCeul magidaze mogebis albaToba; b). Tqven Se-
mTxveviT airCieT magida da moigeT. ras udris albaToba imisa, rom Tqven
airCieT A magida; g). Tqven SemTxveviT airCieT magida da waageT. ras ud-
ris albaToba imisa, rom Tqven airCieT
'
A magida.
28. albaToba imisa, rom gvanca adre gaiRviZebs aris 1/3. Tu gvanca
adre gaiRviZebs, maSin albaToba imisa, rom skolaSi droulad miva aris
3/4. Tu gvanca gvian gaiRviZebs, maSin skolaSi droulad misvlis albaTo-
ba aris 1/5. erT SemTxveviT arCeul dRes gvanca droulad mivida skola-
Si. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom man gvian gaiRviZa.
29. sami erTnairi A, B da C yuTi Sedgeba or-ori ujrisagan. A yu-
Tis TiToeul ujraSi devs TiTo lari, B yuTis TiTeul ujraSi devs
xuT-xuTi lari, xolo C yuTis erT ujraSi devs 1 lari da meoreSi ki 5
lari. SemTxveviT irCeven yuTs, xsnian mis erT ujras da pouloben masSi
5 lars. ras udris albaToba imisa, rom am yuTis meore ujraSi agreTve
devs 5 lari.
31

30. ojaxSi aris ori biWi da ori gogo, romelTagan erTs hqvia eka.
SemTxveviT arCeven or bavSvs. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). orive bavS-
vi gogoa, Tu erTi maTgani gogoa; b). orive gogia, Tu erTi maTgani ekaa.
31. magidas aqvs sami ujra. I ujraSi devs 3 oqros moneta, II-Si – 2
oqrosa da 1 vercxlis moneta, xolo III-Si – 3 oqrosa da 2 vercxlis mo-
neta. SemTxveviT irCeven ujras da iqidan SemTxveviT iReben monetas. ipov-
eT albaToba imisa, rom: a). amoRebuli moneta iqneba oqrosi; b). amorCeu-
li iyo III ujra, Tu amoRebuli moneta oqrosia.
32. kviris samuSao dReebSi juanSeri samsaxurSi dadis matarebliT.
albaToba imisa, rom is miuswrebs 8 saaTian matarebels orSabaTs aris
0.66, xolo sxva samuSao dReebSi ki es albaToba 0.75-ia. SemTxveviT virC-
evT kviris erT samuSao dRes. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom: a). am dRes
juanSeri miuswrebs 8 saaTian matarebels; b). arCeuli dRe iyo orSabaTi,
Tu cnobilia, rom am dRes juanSerma miuswro 8 saaTian matarebels.
33. albaToba imisa, rom zafxulis romelime dRes baTumSi iwvimebs
aris 0.2. albaToba imisa, rom dRis maqsimaluri temperatura wvimian dRes
25 graduss gadaaWarbebs aris 0.3, xolo Tu wvima ar aris – 0.6. vipovoT
albaToba imisa, rom zafxulis SemTxveviT arCeul dRes baTumSi
iwvimebs, Tu cnobilia, rom am dRis maqsimaluri temperatura 25
gradusze metia.
34. sakarnavalo TamaSSi monawile jer agdebs monetas, xolo
Semdeg isvris kamaTels. is igebs prizs im SemTxvevaSi, Tu monetaze
movida gerbi, xolo kamaTelze – samze naklebi qula. vipovoT albaToba
imisa, rom is moigebs prizs.
35. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom kamaTlis samjer agdebisas orjer
mova sami qula.
36. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom kamaTlis oTxjer agdebisas
samjer mova oTxi qula.
37. A da B damoukidebelia. ( ) 0.4 P A = , ( ) 0.7 P A B =  . ipoveT: ( ) P B .
38. agdeben erT wesier kamaTels da meore iseT kamaTels, romelzec
6 qulis mosvlis albaTobaa 1/4. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). wesier
kamaTelze mova 6 qula da arawesierze ar mova 6 qula; b). sul cota erT
kamaTelze mainc mova 6 qula; g). zustad erT kamaTelze mova 6 qula, Tu
cnobilia, rom sul cota erT kamaTelze mainc movida 6 qula.
39. agdeben erT wesier monetas da meore iseT monetas, romelzec
gerbis mosvlis albaTobaa 1/3. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). wesier mo-
netaze mova gerbi da arawesierze ar mova gerbi; b). sul cota erT mone-
taze mainc mova gerbi; g). zustad erT monetaze mova gerbi, Tu cnobilia,
rom sul cota erT monetaze mainc movida gerbi.
40. A da B damoukidebeli xdomilebebia. ( ) 0.4 P A = , ( ) 0.88 P A B =  . ip-
oveT: a). ( ) P B ; b). albaToba imisa, rom romelime A da B xdomilebebidan
moxdeba, magram ara orive.
41. ipoveT alabaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli naTura iqneba
umaRlesi xarisxis, Tu cnobilia, rom naTurebis 4% arastandartulia da
standartuli naTurebis 75% umaRlesi xarisxisaa.
32

42. albaToba imisa, rom oTx damoukidebel cdSi A xdomileba erT-
jer mainc moxdeba aris 15/16. ipoveT calkeul cdaSi A xdomilebis mox-
denis albaToba.
43. erT yuTSi aris 18 TeTri da 2 wiTeli burTi, meore yuTSi – 9
TeTri da 1 wiTeli burTi. II yuTidan SemTxveviT amoRebul burTs deben
I yuTSi. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom amis Semdeg I yuTidan amoRebuli bu-
rTi iqneba TeTri.
44. erT yuTSi aris 3 TeTri da 2 lurji burTi, meoreSi ki 4 TeTri
da 4 lurji burTi. I yuTidan SemTxveviT gadaitanes 2 burTi meoreSi. ip-
oveT albaToba imisa, rom amis Semdeg II yuTidan amoRebuli burTi iqneba
TeTri.
45. 10 yuTidan cxraSi devs 2 wiTeli da 2 mwvane kalkulatori, xo-
lo erTSi ki 5 wiTeli da 1 mwvane kalkulatori. SemTxveviT SerCeuli
yuTidan SemTxveviT SerCeuli kalkulatori aRmoCnda wiTeli. ipoveT al-
baToba imisa, rom kalkulatori amoRebuli iyo yuTidan, romelSic 5 wi-
Teli kalkulatoria.





















pasuxebi:
1. 19/45; 7/19. 2. 3/20; 9/35; 7/12. 3. 26/27; 21/25. 4. 1/5; 5/13; 17/25; 1/2; 21/25. 5. 0.030;
0.146; 0, 0.712. 6. 0.196; 0.288. 7. 0.75; 0.28. 8. 10 an 15. 9. 0.27; 0.35; 0.3375. 10. 0.75;
0.8. 11. 8/15; 7/15; 3/5; 2/5; 9/16. 12. 0.24; 0.42; 0.706. 14. 2/5; 4/15; 1/8. 15. 0.18; 0.58; 0.6.
16. 1/2; 5/11. 17. 1/5; 1/10. 18. 5p; 4p . 20. 0.25; 0.0577; 0.1057; 0.6676. 21. 10/69; 3/253;
43/138; 11/138; 11/69. 22. 3/7. 24. 0.32; 0.56. 25. 2/11. 28. 8/23. 29. 2/3. 30. 1/5; 1/3. 31.
34/45; 9/34. 32. 183/250; 44/183. 33. 1/9. 34. 1/6. 35. 5/72. 36. 5/324. 37. 1/2. 38. 1/8; 3/8;
8/9. 39. 1/3; 2/3; 3/4. 40. 0.8; 0.56. 41. 0.72. 42. 0.5. 43. 9/10. 44. 0.52. 45. 5/32.
33

Tavi III
SemTxveviT sidideTa maxasiaTeblebi

elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrceze gansazRrul ricxviT funqcias
SemTxveviTi sidide ewodeba. SemTxveviT sidides ewodeba diskretuli ti-
pis Tu is Rebulobs calkeul, izolirebul SesaZlo mniSvnelobebs. Sem-
TxveviT sidides ewodeba uwyveti tipis Tu misi SesaZlo mniSvnelobebis
simravle mTlianad avsebs raime ricxviT Sualeds.
cxrils, romelSic CamoTvlilia diskretuli tipis SemTxveviTi si-
didis SesaZlo mniSvnelobebi da maTi Sesabamisi albaTobebi, ganawileb-
is kanoni (an mwkrivi) ewodeba:
x
i
x
1
x
2 ··· x
n ···

p
i
p
1
p
2 ··· p
n
···

aq 1
i
i
p =
¯
. albaTobis statistikuri ganmartebidan gamomdinare:
Teoriuli sixSire ~ erToblivi sixSire × albaToba.
,
( , ) ( )
x a b
P a b P x c c
e( ,
e( , = =
¯
. Tu mocemulia diskretuli tipis SemTxve-
viTi sidide c da raime ricxviTi g funqcia, maSin ( ) g c isev iqneba disk-
retuli tipis SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebis kanoniT:
( )
i
g x
1
( ) g x
2
( ) g x ··· ( )
n
g x ···

i
p
1
p
2
p ···
n
p ···
hipergeometriuli ganawileba. davuSvaT, rom yuTSi N burTia da
maT Soris M TeTria. SemTxveviT, dabrunebis gareSe yuTidan viRebT n
burTs. albaToba imisa, rom amoRebul n burTs Soris zustad k cali
iqneba TeTri gamoiTvleba formuliT:
( ; ; ; ) : ( )
m n m
M N M
n n
N
C C
P N M n m P m
C
u
÷
÷
·
= = = , 0,1,..., min( , ) m M n = .
ricxvTa am mimdevrobas hipergeometriuli ganawileba ewodeba.
geometriuli ganawileba:
1
( )
k
P k pq c
÷
= = ( 1 q p = ÷ ), 1, 2,... k = .
puasonis ganawileba parametriT ì : { } , 0,1, 2,...
!
k
P k e k
k
ì
ì
c
÷
= = = .
SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis funqcia:
( ) : ( ) F x P x c = < ( Sesabamisad, ( ) : ( ) F x P x c = s )
( ) ( ) ( ) P a b F b F a c s < = ÷ (Sesabamisad, ( ) ( 0) ( 0) P a b F b F a c s < = ÷ ÷ ÷ ).
ganawlebis funqciis Tvisebebi:
1). nebismieri x-saTvis 0 ( ) 1 F x s s ;
2). ganawilebis funqcia araklebadia;
3). ganawilebis funqcia uwyvetia marcxnidan (Tu ganawilebis funqc-
ias ganvmartavT rogorc: ( ) : ( ) F x P x c = s , maSin is iqneba marjvnidan uwyve-
ti);
4). ( ) { }
k
k
x x
F x P x c
<
= =
¯
(Sesabamisad, ( ) { }
k
k
x x
F x P x c
s
= =
¯
);
34

5). { } ( 0) ( )
k k k
P x F x F x c = = + ÷ (Sesabamisad,
{ } ( ) ( 0)
k k k
P x F x F x c = = ÷ ÷ , roca ( ) : ( ) F x P x c = s ).
SemTxveviT sidides, romelsac aqvs uwyveti ganawilebis funqcia,
uwodeben uwyvet SemTxveviT sidides. Tu uwyveti SemTxveviTi sididis ga-
nawilebis funqcia ( ) F x warmoebadia, maSin mis warmoebuls SemTxveviTi
sididis ganawilebis simkvrive ewodeba da aRiniSneba ( ) f x -iT:
'
( ) ( ) f x F x = .
( ) 0 f x > ; ( ) 1 f x dx

÷·
=
í
; ( , ) ( )
b
a
P a b f x dx c e( , =
í
; ( ) ( )
x
F x f y dy
÷·
=
í

uwyveti ganawilebis funqciis p rigis kvantili ewodeba iseT
p
x
ricxvs, romlisTvisac ( )
p
F x p = . diskretuli ganawilebis SemTxvevaSi, Tu
1 2 1 2 1 i i i
p p p x p p p p
+
+ +··· + < < + +··· + + , maSin
1 p i
x x
+
= . 1/ 2 p = rigis kvantils
SemTxveviTi sididis an misi ganawilebis funqciis mediana ewodeba da aR-
iniSneba

x . e. i.

1/ 2
x x = . moda ewodeba SemTxveviTi sididis im mniSvnelob-
as (an mniSvnelobebs), romelic Seesabameba ganawilebis simkvrivis loka-
lur maqsimums uwyveti SemTxveviTi sididis SemTxvevaSi an albaTobis
lokalur maqsimums diskretuli SemTxveviTi sididis SemTxvevaSi.
organzomilebiani SemTxveviTi sidide.
diskretuli organzomilebiani ( , ) c n SemTxveviTi sididis ganawileb-
is kanons (anu c da n SemTxveviTi sidideebis erTobliv ganawilebis kan-
ons) aqvs organzomilebiani cxrilis saxe, romelic gvaZlevs SesaZlo
mniSvnelobebis calkeuli komponentebis CamonaTvals da im p(x
i
, y
j
) albaT-
obebs, ra albaTobebiTac miiReba mniSvneloba (x
i
, y
j
):
n
c
x
1
x
2
… x
i
… x
n
y
1
p(x
1
, y
1
) p(x
2
, y
1
) … p(x
i
, y
1
) … p(x
n
, y
1
)
… … … … … … …
y
j
p(x
1
, y
j
) p(x
2
, y
j
) … p(x
i
, y
j
) … p(x
n
, y
j
)
… … … … … … …
y
m
p(x
1
, y
m
) p(x
2
, y
m
) … p(x
i
, y
m
) … p(x
n
, y
m
)

,
( , ) 1
i j
i j
p x y =
¯
; ( ) ( , )
i i j
j
P x p x y c = =
¯
; ( ) ( , )
j i j
i
P y p x y n = =
¯
.
organzomilebiani ( , ) c n SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis funqcia
(an c da n SemTxveviTi sidideebis erToblivi ganawilebis funqcia) ewod-
eba: F( х, у ) = p (c s x, n s y ).
1). 0 ≤ F(x, y) ≤ 1;
2). F(x, y) aris TiToeuli argumentis mimarT araklebadi, marjvnidan
uwyveti funqcia;
3). adgili aqvs zRvrul Tanafardobebs: F(-∞, y) = 0; F(x, - ∞) = 0;
F(- ∞, -∞) = 0; F( ∞, ∞) = 1;
4). F(x, ∞) = F
1
(x); F( ∞, y) = F
2
(y).
SemTxveviT sidideebs ewodeba damoukidebeli, Tu
35

F(x, y) = F
1
(x) F
2
(y).
diskretuli SemTxveviTi sididebi damoukidebelia maSin da mxol-
od maSin, roca
p(x
i
, y
j
)= p(x
i
) p( y
j
), , i j ¬ .
uwyveti organzomilebiani SemTxveviTi sididis erToblivi ganawil-
ebis simkvrive (anu organzomilebiani simkvrive) ewodeba erToblivi gan-
awilebis funqciis Sereul meore rigis kerZo warmoebuls:
y x
y x F
y x f
c c
c
=
) , (
) , (
2
.
1). f(x, y) ≥ 0; 2).
í í
· ÷ · ÷
=
y x
dxdy y x f y x F ) , ( ) , ( ;
3).
í í

· ÷

· ÷
=1 ) , ( dxdy y x f ; 4).
íí
= c
D
dxdy y x f D Y X p . ) , ( ) ) , ((
5).
1
1
( , )
( ) ( , )
( ) ( , )
x
d f x y
dF x dF x
f x f x y dy
dx dx dx
·
·
÷· ÷·
÷·
| |
|
·
\ .
= = = =
í í
í
,
analogiurad,
í
·
· ÷
= . ) , ( ) (
2
dx y x f y f
6). uwyveti SemTxveviTi sidideebi damoukidebelia maSin da mxolod
maSin, roca f(x, y)= f
1
(x) f
2
( y).
diskretuli c SemTxveviTi sididis maTematikuri lodini aRiniSne-
ba Ec simboloTi da ewodeba ricxvs:
( ) ( ) E P
e
c c e e
eO
=
¯
, anu { }
i i i i
i i
E x P x x p c c = = ÷
¯ ¯
.
uwyveti tipis c SemTxveviTi sididis maTematikuri lodini ewodeba
ricxvs
( ) E xf x dx c

÷·
=
í
, (Tu | | ( ) x f x dx

÷·

í
).
a). Ec c const = ÷ ; b). ( ) E E E c n c n ± = ± ; g). ( ) E c cE c c = ; d). ( ) 0 E E c c ÷ = ;
e).
2 2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) E c E E c E c c c c ÷ = ÷ + ÷ ; v).
2 2
( , )
min ( ) ( )
c
E c E E c c c
e ÷· +·
÷ = ÷ ;
z). Tu c da n damoukidebeli SemTxveviT sididebia, maSin
( ) E E E cn c n = · (Sebrunebuli debuleba mcdaria).
SemTxveviTi sididis funqciis maTematikuri lodini:
( ) ( ) { } ( )
i i i i
i i
Eg g x P x g x p c c = = =
¯ ¯
.
Tu c SemTxveviTi sididis SesaZlo mniSvnelobebia
1 2
, , x x ...,
n
x , xo-
lo B raime xdomilebaa ( ( ) 0 P B > ), maSin c SemTxveviTi sididis pirobiTi
maTematikuri lodini B xdomilebis mimarT aRiniSneba ( | ) E B c simbolo-
Ti da ganimarteba Semdegnairad:
36

1
( | ) ( | )
n
i i
i
E B x P x B c c
=
= =
¯
.
cxadia, rom ( | ) E E c c O = da
1
( | ) ( )
( )
B
E B E I
P B
c c = .
c SemTxveviTi sididis n SemTxveviT sidideze regresiis mrudi
(funqcia) ewodeba funqcias ( ) ( | ) R y E y c n = = .
SemTxveviTi sidides ( ) R n (regresiis funqciaSi Casmulia n SemTxv-
eviTi sidide) c SemTxveviTi sididis pirobiT maTematikur lodins uwod-
eben n pirobiT da ( | ) E c n simboloTi aRniSnaven.
SemTxveviTi sididis dispersia.
c SemTxveviTi sididis dispersia Dc ganimarteba Semdegnairad:
2 2 2
( ) ( ) DX E E E E c c c c = ÷ ÷ ÷ .
Ec -s ewodeba c SemTxveviTi sididis meore rigis momenti (TviTon
dispersias uwodeben agreTve – meore rigis centralur moments).
Tu diskretuli tipis c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia
x
i
x
1
x
2 ··· x
n
p
i
p
1
p
2 ··· p
n


maSin
2
1 1
( )
n n
i j j i
i j
DX x x p p
= =
= ÷
¯ ¯
, anu
2 2
1 1
( )
n n
i i j j
i j
DX x p x p
= =
= ÷
¯ ¯
.
I. mudmivis dispersia nulis tolia -- 0 Dc = ;
II.
2
( ) D a b a D c c + = .
III. Tu c da n damoukidebeli SemTxveviTi sidideebia, maSin
( ) D D D c n c n ± = + .
c SemTxveviTi sididis pirobiTi dispersia B xdomilebis mimarT:
2 2 2
( | ) : {[ ( | )] | } ( | ) [ ( | )] D B E E B B E B E B c c c c c = ÷ = ÷ .
bernulis ganawilebas (anu bernulis SemTxveviT sidides) aqvs saxe:
c
1 0
P
p 1 p ÷
aq E p c = da (1 ) D p p c = ÷ .
binomialuri ganawilebis SemTxvevaSi: E np c = da (1 ) D np p c = ÷ .
hipergeometriuli ganawilebis SemTxvevaSi:
n M
E
N
c
·
= da
2
( ) ( )
( 1)
n M N M N n
D
N N
c
· · ÷ · ÷
=
· ÷
.
puasonis ganawilebis SemTxvevaSi: E D c c ì = = .
geometriuli ganawilebis SemTxvevaSi: 1/ E p c = da
2
(1 ) / D p p c = ÷ .
eqsponencialuri ganawileba. c SemTxveviT sidides ewodeba eqsponen-
cialurad ganawilebuli parametriT ì ( 0 ì > ), Tu:
¹
´
¦
> ì
<
=
ì ÷
. 0 ,
, 0 , 0
) (
x e
x
x f
x

am SemTxvevaSi: 1/ Ec ì = da
2
1/ Dc ì = .
37

standartuli gadaxra. momentebi.
c SemTxveviTi sididis saSualo kvadratuli gadaxra (an standart-
uli gadaxra): D oc c = + .
SemTxveviTi sididis standartizacia:
E c c
n
oc
÷
= ( 0 En = , 1 Dn = ).
momentebi, asimetria da eqscesi.
c SemTxveviTi sididis n rigis sawyisi momenti ewodeba sidides
:
n
n
E u c = (
1
: a E u c = = ).
c SemTxveviTi sididis n rigis centraluri momenti ewodeba sidi-
des : ( )
n
n
E a v c = ÷ (
2
2
: D o v c = = ).
eqscesis koeficienti ewodeba sidides:
4
4
4
2 4
( )
3 3
[ ( ) ]
E E
e
E E
v c c
o
c c
÷
= ÷ = ÷
+ ÷
.
asimetriis koeficienti ewodeba sidides:
3
3
3
2 3
( )
[ ( ) ]
E E
E E
v c c
o
o
c c
÷
= =
+ ÷
.
kovariacia. korelaciis koeficienti.
kovariaciis koeficienti an ubralod kovariacia ewodeba sidides:
cov( , ) [( )( )] ( ) E E E E E E c n c c n n cn c n = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ .
1). Tu
c
da
n
damoukidebelia, maSin
cov( , ) 0 c n =
(piriqiT, ara);
2).
cov( , ) D c c c =
;
3).
cov( , ) cov( , ) c n n c =
;
4).
cov( , ) cov( , ) c c c n c n · = ·
;
5).
cov( , ) cov( , ) cov( , ) c n c c c n c ± = ±
;
6).
( ) 2cov( , ) D D D c n c c n n ± = ± +
;
7).
| cov( , ) | D D c n c n s ·
.
korelaciis koeficienti ewodeba sidides:
( ) cov ;
( ; ) :
E E
E
D D
c n
c c n n
p c n
oc on c n
| | ÷ ÷
= ÷ ·
|
\ .
.
a). –1sp(c;n)s1.
b). Tu p(c;n)=1, maSin n=kc+b, sadac k da b— mudmivebia, k>0.
g). Tu p(c;n)= –1, maSin n=kc+b, sadac k da b— mudmivebia, k<0.
d). Tu n=kc+b, (k=0) an c=k
1
n+b
1
(k
1
=0), maSin
p(c;n)=1 roca k
i
>0; p(c;n)= – 1 roca k
i
<0 (i = 1,2).

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:
magaliTi 1. SemTxveviTi sidide iyos monetis samjer agdebisas mos-
ul gerbTa ricxvi. am SemTxvevaSi elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce rva
elementiani simravlea:
38

} { sss ssg, sgs, gss, sgg, gsg, ggs, ggg, = O
da, Sesabamisad, saZiebeli SemTxveviTi sidide iqneba O-ze gansazRruli
Semdegi ricxviTi funqcia:
( c = ggg) 3 ; c c c = = = (ggs) (gsg) (sgg) 2;
c c c = = = (gss) (sgs) (ssg) 1 da c = (sss) 0 .
cxadia es SemTxveviTi sidide diskretuli tipisaa, is Rebulobs
izolirebul mniSvnelobebs, magaliTad, 1-sa da 2-s Soris is ar
Rebulobs arcerT mniSvnelobas.
magaliTi 2. SemTxveviTi sidide iyos ori saTamaSo kamaTlis gagor-
ebisas mosul qulaTa jami. am SemTxvevaSi elementarul xdomilebaTa si-
vrce Sedgeba 36 elementaruli xdomilebisagan:
} 6 ,..., 2 , 1 , : ) , {( = = O j i j i ,
xolo SemTxveviTi sidide calkeul elementarul xdomilebas ) , ( j i (sad-
ac i -- pirvel kamaTelze mosuli qulaa, xolo j -- meore kamaTelze mo-
suli qula) Seusabamebs: ( , ) i j i j c = + (pirvel da meore kamaTelze mosuli
qulebis jami). magaliTad, (1,3) (2, 2) (3,1) 4 c c c = = = . aRniSnuli SemTxveviTi
sididis SesaZlo mniSvnelobebia: 2, 3, . . . , 12. is dikretuli tipisaa.
magaliTi 3. ori msroleli TiTojer esvris samiznes. maT mier sami-
znis dazianebis (mizanSi moxvedris) albaTobebia Sesabmisad 0.6 da 0.7. Se-
mTxveviTi sidide c iyos dazianebul samizneTa raodenoba. SevadginoT
misi ganawilebis mwkrivi.
amoxsna. cxadia, rom c SemTxveviTma sididem SeiZleba miiRos Semd-
egi mniSvnelobebi: 0 (verc erTma msrolelma ver daaziana samizne), 1
(mxolod erTma msrolelma daaziana samizne) da 2 (orive msrolelma
daaziana samizne). vipovoT Sesabamisi albaTobebi.
bunebrivia SegvZlia vigulisxmoT rom pirveli da meore msrolel-
is srolis Sedegebi erTmaneTisagan damoukidebelia. SemoviRoT xdomil-
ebebi: A -- pirvelma msrolelma daaziana samizne da B -- meore msrole-
lma daaziana samizne. mocemulia, rom ( ) 0.6 P A = da ( ) 0.7 P B = . Sesabamisad,
( ) 0.4 P A = da ( ) 0.3 P B = . garda amisa, A da B damoukidebeli xdomilebebia.
damoukidebeli xdomilebebia agreTve: A da B, A da B , A da B.
advili dasanaxia, rom xdomileba – verc erTma msrolelma ver daa-
ziana samizne iqneba B A· , xdomileba -- mxolod erTma msrolelma daaz-
iana samizne iqneba ) ( ) ( B A B A · · da xdomileba -- orive msrolelma daa-
ziana samizne iqneba B A· . gasagebia, rom ) ( B A· da ) ( B A· uTavsebadi
xdomilebebia = · · · ) ( ) ( B A B A Ø.
amitom, damoukidebel xdomilebaTa namravlis albaTobisa da uTav-
sebad xdomilebaTa jamis albaTobis formulebis Tanaxmad gveqneba:
12 , 0 3 , 0 4 , 0 ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 ( = · = · = · = = B P A P B A P X P ;
( 1) {( ) ( )} ( ) ( ) P X P A B A B P A B P A B = = · · · = · + · =
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0,6 0,3 0, 4 0,7 0, 46 P A P B P A P B = + = · + · = ;
39

( ) ( ) ( ) 0, 6 0, 7 0, 42 P A B P A P B · = · = · =
Sesabamisad, c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis mwkrivi iqneba:

i
x
0 1 2
i
p
0.12 0.46 0.42

magaliTi 4. auditoriaSi myofi 15 studentidan 5 vaJia. vipovoT al-
baToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeul 6 students Soris 3 vaJia?
amoxsna. Tu mivusadagebT hipergeometriul ganawilebas, gasagebia,
rom: 15, 5, 6 N M n = = = da 3 k = . amitom saZiebeli albaToba iqneba:
3 6 3 3 3
10 15 10 10 5
6 6
15 15
120 10
(15;5;6;3) 0.239
5005
C C C C
P
C C
÷
÷
·
= = = ~ .
magaliTi 5. saqonlis partiaSi defeqtur nawarmTa ricxvi c Rebu-
lobs mniSvneloba 0-s albaTobiT – 0.3; mniSvneloba 1-s albaTobiT – 0.4;
mniSvneloba 2-s albaTobiT – 0.2 da mniSvneloba 3-s albaTobiT – 0.1 anu
c -s ganawilebis mwkrivs aqvs saxe:
i
x
0 1 2 3
i
p
0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1

gamovTvaloT c -s ganawilebis funqcia da avagoT misi grafiki.
Tu 0 x s , maSin ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 F x P x P c = < = C = ;
Tu 0 1 x < s , maSin ( ) ( ) ( 0) 0.3 F x P x P c c = < = = = ;
Tu 1 2 x < s , maSin ( ) ( ) {( 0) ( 1)} F x P x P c c c = < = = = =
( 0) ( 1) 0.3 0.4 0.7 P P c c = = + = = + = ;
Tu 3 2 s < x , maSin ( ) ( ) {( 0) ( 1) ( 2)} F x P x P c c c c = < = = = = =
( 0) ( 1) ( 2) 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.9 P P P c c c = = + = + = = + + = ;
da bolos, Tu 3 x > , maSin ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 F x P x P c = < = O = .
Sesabamisad, ganawilebis funqciis grafiks eqneba Semdegi saxe:
F(x)
1.0
0.9
0.7

0.3

0 1 2 3 х
40

magaliTi 6. mocemulia SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis funqcia:
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
s s
÷
÷
<
=
. , 1
, ,
, , 0
) (
b x
b x a
a b
a x
a x
x F
(sadac a da b ( a b < ) nebismieri namdvili ricxvebia). vipovoT Sesabamisi
ganawilebis simkvrive. cxadia, rom ganmartebis Tanaxmad:
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
< <
÷
<
=
b x
b x a
a b
a x
x f
, 0
, ,
1
, , 0
) (
rac Seexeba x a = da x b = wertilebs, aq ( ) F x funqcias warmoebuli
ara aqvs da iq SegviZlia ( ) f x ganvmartoT nebismierad, vTqvaT,
( ) ( ) 0 f a f b = = . SemTxveviT sidides, romelsac aqvs aRniSnuli ganawilebis
simkvrive, ewodeba Tanabarad ganawilebuli [ , ] a b monakveTze.
magaliTi 7. davuSvaT, rom naTuris muSaobis dro aris SemTxveviTi
sidide ganawilebis funqciiT ( ) F t , xolo naTuris gamocda grZeldeba na-
Turis mwyobridan gamosvlamde (gadawvamde), Tu es moxdeba gamocdis daw-
yebidan araumetes 100 saaTis ganmavlobaSi, anu
0
100 t = sT momentamde.
vTqvaT, ( ) G t -- aris am gamocdis dros naTuris normalurad muSaob-
is drois ganawilebis funqcia. maSin cxadia, rom:
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
>
s
=
. 100 , 1
100 ), (
) (
t
t t F
t G

( ) G t funqcias aqvs naxtomi
0
t wertilSi, vinaidan Sesabamisi SemTxv-
eviTi sidide Rebulobs
0
t mniSvnelobas albaTobiT
0
1 ( ) 0 F t ÷ > .
magaliTi 8. vipovoT p rigis
p
x kvantili Tanabari ganawilebis
funqciisaTvis.
p ( 0 1 p < < ) rigis
p
x kvantili unda veZeboT rogorc ( ) F x p = gant-
olebis amonaxsni. Tanabari ganawilebis funqciis SemTxvevaSi es gantol-
eba miiRebs saxes:
p
a b
a x
=
÷
÷
,
saidanac cxadia, rom:
( ) (1 )
p
x a p b a a p bp = + ÷ = ÷ + .
roca 0 p = , maSin nebismieri x a s warmoadgens 0 p = rigis kvantils,
xolo 1 p = rigis kvantili iqneba nebismieri x b > ricxvi.
magaliTi 9. mocemulia organzomilebiani SemTxveviTi sididis gana-
wilebis kanoni:
41

n
c
-2 3 6
-0.8 0.1 0.3 0.1
-0.5 0.15 0.25 0.1
vipovoT caklkeuli SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanoni.
amoxsna. cxrilSi moyvanili albaTobebis svetebis mixedviT Sekreb-
iT miviRebT c –s ganawilebis mwkrivs:
c -2 3 6
р 0.25 0.55 0.2
albaTobebis SekrebiT striqonebis mixedviT, miviRebT n –s ganawil-
ebis mwkrivs:
n
-0.8 -0.5
p 0.5 0.5
magaliTi 10. mocemulia c da n damoukidebeli SemTxveviTi sididee-
bis ganawilebis kanoni:
c -2 3 6
n
-0.8 -0.5
р 0.2 0.5 0.3 p 0.4 0.6
vipovoT max{ , } Z c n = SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanoni.
amoxsna. Z SemTxveviTi sididis SesaZlo nmniSvnelobebia: -0.8; -0.5; 3
da 6. gamovTvaloT Sesabamisi albaTobebi. gvaqvs:
( 0.8) {( 2) ( 0.8)} ( 2) ( 0.8) 0.2 0.4 0.08 P Z P P P c n c n =÷ = =÷ · =÷ = =÷ · =÷ = · = ;
( 0.5) {( 2) ( 0.5)} ( 2) ( 0.5) 0.2 0.6 0.12 P Z P P P c n c n =÷ = =÷ · =÷ = =÷ · =÷ = · = ;
( 3) {[( 3) ( 0.8)] [( 3) ( 0.5)]} P Z P c n c n = = = · =÷ = · =÷ =
[( 3) ( 0.8)] [( 3) ( 0.5)] 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.5 P P c n c n = = · =÷ + = · =÷ = · + · = ;
( 6) {[( 6) ( 0.8)] [( 6) ( 0.5)]} P Z P c n c n = = = · =÷ = · =÷ =
[( 6) ( 0.8)] [( 6) ( 0.5)] 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.3 P P c n c n = = · =÷ · = · =÷ = · + · = .
magaliTi 11. gamovTvaloT saTamaSo kamaTelze mosuli qulaTa
ricxvis maTematikuri lodini. gvaqvs:
1 1 1 1 1 1
1 2 3 4 5 6 3.5
6 6 6 6 6 6
Ec = · + · + · + · + · + · = .
magaliTi 12. davuSvaT,
3
( ) 4 g x x x = ÷ da mocemulia c SemTxveviTi si-
didis ganawilebis kanoni:
-2 -1 0 2
0.1 0.3 0.4 0.2
davadginoT ( ) g n c = SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanoni da gamovTva-
loT misi maTematikuri lodini.
cxadia, rom ( 2) (0) (2) 0 g g g ÷ = = = da ( 1) 3 g ÷ = . amitom n SemTxveviTi
sididis SesaZlo mniSvnelobebia 0 da 3. davadginoT misi ganawilebis kan-
oni. amisaTvis gamovTvaloT albaTobebi: { 0} P n = da { 3} P n = . radgan xdom-
ilebebi { 2} c = ÷ , { 0} c = da { 2} c = uTavsebadia, amitom albaTobaTa Sekre-
bis wesis Tanaxmad gveqneba:
{ 0} {{ 2} { 0} { 2}} P P n c c c = = =÷ = = =
42

{ 2} { 0} { 2} 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.7 P P P c c c = =÷ + = + = = + + = .
garda amisa, 3 . 0 } 1 { } 3 { = ÷ = = = c n P P . amitom ( ) g n c = SemTxveviTi sidi-
dis ganawilebis kanons aqvs saxe:
0 3
0.7 0.3
garda amisa, 0 0.7 3 0.3 0.9 En = · + · = .
axla gamovTvaloT ( ) g n c = SemTxveviTi sididis maTematikuri lod-
ini. gveqneba:
( 2) 0.1 ( 1) 0.3 (0) 0.4 (2) 0.2 E g g g g n = ÷ · + ÷ · + · + · =
0 0.1 3 0.3 0 0.4 0 0.2 0.9 = · + · + · + · = .
magaliTi 13. gamovTvaloT puasonis ganawilebis maTematikuri lod-
ini.
Tu visargeblebT warmodgeniT
0
!
m
x
m
x
e
m
·
=
=
¯
, maSin gveqneba:
1
0 1 1
! ! ( 1)!
k k k
k k k
EX k e e k e e e
k k k
ì ì ì ì
ì ì ì
ì ì ì ì
÷ · · ·
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
= = = = =
÷
¯ ¯ ¯
.
e. i. puasonis ganawilebis ì parametri warmoadgens am ganawilebis
maTematikur lodins (saSualo mniSvnelobas).
magaliTi 14. davuSvaT, rom elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce Sedg-
eba sami tolalbaTuri elementaruli xdomilebisagan
1 2 3
{ , , } e e e O= ,
1 2 3
( ) ( ) ( ) 1/ 3 P P P e e e = = = . ganvmartoT c da n SemTxveviTi sidideebi Semdeg-
nairad:
1 2 3
( ) 1, ( ) 0, ( ) 1 c e c e c e = = = ÷ ;
1 2 3
( ) 1, ( ) 0, ( ) 1 n e n e n e = = = .
maSin gasagebia, rom cn c = ,
1 1 1
( ) 1 0 ( 1) 0
3 3 3
E E cn c = = · + · + ÷ · = . Sesabamis-
ad, ( ) E E E cn c n = · . meores mxriv,
2
{ 0} { 0} { 0, 0} ( ) 1/ 3 P P P P c n c n e = = = = = = = = ,
maSin rodesac c da n SemTxveviTi sidideebi rom iyvnen damoukideblebi
{ 0, 0} c n = = xdomilebis albaToba unda yofiliyo
1 1 1
3 3 9
· = .
magaliTi 15. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia

i
x
-1 0 1 2 3
i
p
0.1 0.15 0.3 0.25 0.2

gamovTvaloT misi dispersia.
vinaidan dispersiis gamosaTvlelad gvaqvs ori gansxvavebuli for-
mula, Sesabamisad, gveqneba dispersiis gamoTvlis ori xerxi. moxerxebu-
lia es gamoTvlebi Caiweros cxrilebis saxiT.

43

dispersiis gamoTvlis pirveli xerxi:
i
i
x
i
p
i i
x p
2
( )
i
x Ec ÷
2
( )
i i
x E p c ÷
1 -1 0.10 -0.1 5.29 0.5290
2 0 0.15 0 1.69 0.2535
3 1 0.30 0.3 0.09 0.0270
4 2 0.25 0.5 0.49 0.1225
5 3 0.20 0.6 2.89 0.5780

5
1
1.3
i i
i
E x p c
=
= =
¯


5
2
1
( ) 1.51
i i
i
D x E p c c
=
= ÷ =
¯


dispersiis gamoTvlis meore xerxi:
i
i
x
i
p
i i
x p
2
i
x
2
i i
x p
1 -1 0.10 -0.1 1 0.1
2 0 0.15 0 0 0
3 1 0.30 0.3 1 0.3
4 2 0.25 0.5 4 1
5 3 0.20 0.6 9 1.8

5
1
1.3
i i
i
E x p c
=
= =
¯


5
2 2
1
3.2
i i
i
E x p c
=
= =
¯


2 2
( ) 1.51 D E E c c c = ÷ =


magaliTi 16. davuSvaT, rom c SemTxveviTi sidide simetriula-
daa ganawilebuli nulis irgvliv, e. i. Ec=0. vTqvaT, n=c
2
. maSin
E(cn)=E(c
3
)=0, vinaidan c
3
agreTve, siametriuladaa ganawilebuli nulis
irgvliv. meores mxriv, EcEn=0, vinaidan Ec=0. amitom:
( )
( , ) 0
E E E cn c n
p c n
ocon
÷
= =
.
e. i. korelacia (da maSasadame, kovariacia) SeiZleba iyos nuli, maSinac
ki roca SemTxveviTi sidideebi damokidebulia
magaliTi 17. davuSvaT, rom c da n SemTxveviTi sidideebis erTobli-
vi ganawilebis kanoni mocemulia Semdegi cxriliT:
n
c
1 2
1 1/5 0 1/5
2 0 3/5 3/5
3 1/5 0 1/5
2/5 3/5
cxadia, rom:
1 1/ 5 2 3/ 5 3 1/ 5 2 Ec = · + · + · = ; 1 2/ 5 2 3/ 5 8/ 5 En = · + · = ;

( ) 1 1 1/ 5 2 2 3/ 5 3 1 1/ 5 16/ 5 E cn = · · + · · + · · =
;
( ) 0 E E E cn c n ÷ =
.
44

aqedan gamomdinare, korelaciis koeficienti nulia, maSin rodesac
(iseve rogorc wina magaliTSi) naTelia, rom adgili aqvs n SemTxveviTi
sididis funqcionalur damokidebulebas c SemTxveviT sidideze.
magaliTi 18. c da n SemTxveviTi sidideebis qvemoT moyvanili erTob-
livi ganawilebis kanonis mixedviT gamovTvaloT korelaciis koeficien-
ti p(c;n).
n
c

1 2 3
10 1/36 0 0 1/36
20 2/36 1/36 0 3/36
30 2/36 2/36 2/36 6/36
40 1/36 9/36 16/36 26/36
6/36 12/36 18/36

10 1/ 36 20 3/ 36 30 6/ 36 40 26/ 36 35.83 Ec = · + · + · + · ~
;
1 6/ 36 2 12/ 36 3 18/ 36 2.3 En = · + · + · ~
;
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
10 35,83 1/ 36 20 35.83 3/ 36 30 35.83 6/ 36 Dc = ÷ · + ÷ · + ÷ · +

( )
2
40 35,83 26/ 36 57.64 + ÷ · ~
;
7.6 oc ~
;
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 2,3 6/ 36 2 2.3 12/ 36 3 2.3 1 18/ 36 0.556 Dn = ÷ · + ÷ · + ÷ · ~
;
0.746 on ÷
;
( ) 10 1 1/ 36 20 1 2/ 36 20 2 1/ 36 30 1 2/ 36 30 2 2/ 36 E cn = · · + · · + · · + · · + · · +

30 3 2/ 36 40 1 1/ 36 40 2 9/ 36 40 3 16/ 36 86.94 + · · + · · + · · + · · =
;
( ) ( ) ( , ) 6.94 2.3 35.83 / 7.6 0.746 0.8 p c n = ÷ · · ~
.

amocanebi

1. SemTxveviTi sidide iyos ori kamaTlis agdebisas mosul qulaTa;
a). jami; b). namravli; g). ganayofi; d). sxvaoba; e). sxvaobis moduli. aageT
ganawilebis kanoni.
2. kamaTels agdeben erTjer. 6 qulis mosvlis SemTxvevaSi kamaTels
agdeben meorejer. SemTxveviTi sidide iyos qulaTa jami (Tu I agdebisas
ar movida 6 qula, maSin II Sesakrebad CavTvaloT 0). aageT ganawilebis
kanoni.
3. CanTaSi devs 2 wiTeli da 3 lurji fanqari. CanTidan SemTxveviT
iReben or fanqars dabrunebis gareSe. SemTxveviTi sidide iyos maTSi lu-
rji fanqrebis ricxvi. aageT ganawilebis kanoni.
4. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia:
c 1 2 3 4
P
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
45

gakeTda ori dakvirveba c SemTxveviT sidideze. n SemTxveviTi sidide iy-
os: a). miRebuli qulebidan udidessa da umciress Soris sxvaoba (roca
dakvirvebebi tolia -- 0 n = ); b). qulebis jami; g). qulebis namravli. aageT
n -s ganawilebis kanoni. n -s romeli mniSvnelobaa yvelaze ufro mosalo-
dneli.
5. wesier monetas agdeben orjer. aageT mosul gerbTa ricxvis gana-
wilebis kanoni.
6. or wesier kamaTels agdeben erTdroulad. SemTxveviTi sidide iy-
os miRebuli qulebidan udidessa da umciress Soris sxvaoba (roca dakv-
irvebebi tolia – sxvaoba aris 0). aageT ganawilebis kanoni.
7. wesier kamaTels agdeben erTjer. SemTxveviTi sidide iyos mosu-
li qulis naxevari, roca qula luwia, xolo winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi –
misi gaormagebuli. aageT ganawilebis kanoni.
8. wesier kamaTels agdeben erTjer. SemTxveviTi sidide iyos mosu-
li qulis mesamedi, roca qula 3-is jeradia, xolo winaaRmdeg SemTxveva-
Si – misi gaormagebuli. aageT ganawilebis kanoni.
9. wesier kamaTels agdeben erTjer. SemTxveviTi sidide iyos mosu-
li qulis naxevari, roca qula luwia, xolo winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi –
misi gasammagebuli. aageT ganawilebis kanoni.
10. or wesier kamaTels agdeben erTdroulad. SemTxveviTi sidide
iyos miRebuli qulebidan; a). udidesi; b). umciresi. aageT ganawilebis
kanoni.
11. erTdroulad agdeben or wesier oTxwaxnagas, tetraedrs (waxnag-
ebi samkuTxedebia da gadanomrilia cifrebiT 1, 2, 3, 4). aageT qveda waxna-
gze mosul qulaTa: a). namravlis; b). jamis; g). sxvaobis; d). ganayofis; e).
gaorkecebuli namravlis ganawilebis kanonebi.
12. CanTaSi devs 6 wiTeli da 3 mwvane kalkulatori. CanTidan dabr-
unebis gareSe iReben 2 kalkulators. aageT maTSi mwvane kalkulatorTa
ricxvis ganawilebis kanoni.
13. CanTaSi devs 6 wiTeli da 3 mwvane kalkulatori. CanTidan dabr-
unebis gareSe iReben 3 kalkulators. aageT maTSi wiTel kalkulatorTa
ricxvis ganawilebis kanoni.
14. SemTxveviT iReben erT karts 52 kartidan. Tu amoRebuli karti
tuzia, maSin Cerdebian. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi agrZeleben kartis amoRe-
bas dabrunebis gareSe manam sanam an tuzi ar amova an 4 karti ar iqneba
amoRebuli. aageT amoRebul kartTa raodenobis ganawilebis kanoni.
15. SemTxveviT iReben erT karts 36 kartidan. Tu amoRebuli karti
agurisaa, maSin Cerdebian. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi agrZeleben kartis amo-
Rebas dabrunebis gareSe manam sanam an aguri ar amova an 4 karti ar iqn-
eba amoRebuli. aageT amoRebul kartTa raodenobis ganawilebis kanoni.
16. qvemoT mocemulia c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanoni
c 1 2 3 4 5
P
q
2q 3q 4q 5q
ipoveT: a). q , b). { 3} P c s , g). { 2} P c > .
46

17. kompiuteri daprogramebulia 0-dan 9-is CaTvliT erTniSna ricxv-
ebis misaRebad (c SemTxveviTi sidide) ise, rom kenti cifrebis (1, 3, 5, 7,
9) miRebis albaToba aris luwi cifrebis (0, 2, 4, 6, 8) miRebis albaTobis
naxevari. ipoveT ganawilebis kanoni.
18. kompiuteri daprogramebulia 0-dan 9-is CaTvliT erTniSna ricxv-
ebis misaRebad (c SemTxveviTi sidide) ise, rom 3-is jeradi cifrebis (0,
3, 6, 9) miRebis albaToba aris 3-is ara jeradi cifrebis (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8) mi-
Rebis albaTobis gaormagebuli. ipoveT ganawilebis kanoni.
19. ipoveT p Tu c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia:
c -1 1 2 3 5
P
p
0.2 0.15 0.2 2p
20. { } P k p c = = , sadac 1, 2,3, 4,5, 6, 7,8 k = . ipoveT p .
21. kubis formis saTamaSo kamaTeli mowyobilia ise, rom masze ken-
ti qulis mosvlis albaToba 3-jer metia luwi qulis mosvlis albaToba-
ze. aageT qulaTa ganawilebis kanoni.
22. kubis formis saTamaSo kamaTeli mowyobilia ise, rom masze
nebismieri qulis mosvlis albaToba am qulis proporciulia. aageT
qulaTa ganawilebis kanoni.
23. kubis formis saTamaSo kamaTeli mowyobilia ise, rom masze nebi-
smieri qulis mosvlis albaToba am qulis ukuproporciulia. aageT qul-
aTa ganawilebis kanoni.
24. ipoveT p Tu c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia:
c -2 -1 0 3 4
P
p
0.3 0.12 0.34
2
p
25. 52 kartidan SemTxveviT iReben erT karts dabrunebiT 520-jer.
gamoTvaleT mosalodneli ricxvi (sixSire) imisa, rom mova: a). aguri; b).
tuzi; g). suraTiani karti ( , , K Q J ); d). an tuzi, an aguri, an orive erTad;
e). arc tuzi da arc aguri.
26. kubis formis saTamaSo kamaTeli mowyobilia ise, rom masze lu-
wi qulis mosvlis albaToba 3-jer metia kenti qulis mosvlis albaToba-
ze. am kamaTels agdeben 420-jer. gamoTvaleT mosalodneli ricxvi (sixSi-
re) imisa, rom mova: a). 1 qula; b). luwi qula; g). martivi ricxvi.
27. qvemoT moyvanilia c SemTxveviTi sididis dagrovili albaTuri
ganawilebis kanoni (anu { } P k c s nacvlad { } P k c = -si):
c 0 1 2 3 4 5
{ } P k c s 0.116 0.428 0.765 0.946 0.995 1.000
gakeTda 100 dakvirveba c SemTxveviTi sidideze. gamoTvaleT uaxloes
mTel ricxvamde damrgvalebuli yvela Sedegis mosalodneli sixSire.
28. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanons aqvs saxe:
{ } P k c = =
0.3 (0.7) , 1, 2,3, 4;
, 5;
0, .
k
k
p k
k
¦ · =
¦
=
´
¦
÷
¹
Tu
Tu
yvela danarCeni Tvis

47

ipoveT p da { 3} c = xdomilebis mosalodneli sixSire, roca c SemTxvev-
iTi sidideze tardeba 1000 dakvirveba.
29. yuTSi Zevs 49 erTnairi burTi, romlebic gadanomrilia 1-dan 49-
mde. SemTxveviT irCeven 6 burTs dabrunebis gareSe. ipoveT albaToba imi-
sa, rom aqedan oTxze iqneba luwi qula.
30. monetas agdeben gerbis pirvelad gamoCenamde. vipovoT albaToba
imisa, rom gerbi pirvelad mova meoTxe agdebisas.
31. gamoTvaleT zemoT moyvanili SemTxveviTi sidideebis maTematiku-
ri lodinebi.
32. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia:
c 1 2 3 4
P
0.1 a 0.3 b
cnobilia, rom 3 Ec = . ipoveT a da b .
33. cnobilia, rom arcerTi soko ar cocxlobs momaval wlamde. neb-
ismieri soko momdevno wels iZleva c raodenobis axal sokos. davuSvaT,
rom mimdinare wels xarobs ori soko. vipovoT momaval wels sokoTa n
raodenobis ganawilebis kanoni, gamovTvaloT n -s maTematikuri lodini
da dispersia, Tu SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia:
c 0 1 2
P
0.2 0.6 0.2
m i T i T e b a: SeadgineT damoukidebeli c , c wyvilis erToblivi gana-
wilebis kanoni, n c c = + .
34. gamoTvaleT qvemoT moyvanili ganawilebis kanonebis mixedviT
Sesabamisi SemTxveviTi sidideebis maTematikuri lodini da dispersia:
c 0 1 2 3 4
P
1/8 3/8 1/8 1/4 1/8

c -2 -1 0 1 2 3
P
0.15 0.25 0.3 0.05 0.2 0.05

c 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
P
0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1

c 3 4 5 6 7
P
1/18 5/18 7/18 1/18 4/18
35. wesieri saTamaSo kamaTlis waxnagebze dawerilia cifrebi 1, 2, 2,
3, 3 da 3. avRniSnoT c asoTi kamaTlis erTxel gagorebisas mosuli qu-
la. vipovoT c -s maTematikuri lodini da standartuli gadaxra.
36. wesieri saTamaSo kamaTlis waxnagebze dawerilia cifrebi 1, 2, 2,
3, 3 da 3. avRniSnoT c asoTi kamaTlis orjer gagorebisas mosul qula-
Ta jami. aageT c -s ganawilebis kanoni da gamoTvaleT misi lodini da
dispersia.
48

37. samSeneblo kompanias sTavazoben or A da B proeqts da finans-
urma direqtorma unda urCios kompanias am proeqtebidan romeli unda
airCios. misi SefasebiT A proeqti iZleva 150000 larian mogebas albaTo-
biT 0.5, 250000 larian mogebas albaTobiT 0..2 da 100000 larian wagebas
albaTobiT 0.3. B proeqti iZleva 100000 larian mogebas albaTobiT 0.6,
200000 larian mogebas albaTobiT 0..3 da 50000 larian wagebas albaTobiT
0.1. daadgineT romel proeqts unda dauWiros mxari finansurma direqto-
rma.
m i T i T e b a: SeadareT erTmaneTs ( ) E A da ( ) E B .
38. supermarketSi kvercxebi iyideba yuTebiT, romelSic devs 6 – 6
kvercxi. gatexili kvercxebis c raodenobis ganawilebis kanonia:
c 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
P
0.8 0.14 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0
ipoveT: a). c -s maTematikuri lodini da dispersia; b). gautexavi kvercxe-
bis raodenobis maTematikuri lodini da dispersia.
39. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia:
c 1 2 3 4 5
P a 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2
ipoveT: a da c SemTxveviTi sididis maTematikuri lodini da standartu-
li gadaxra.
40. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia:
c 2 3 4 5 6 7
P
0.05 0.25 a b 0.1 0.3
cnobilia, rom 4.9 Ec = . vaCvenoT, rom a b = da gamovTvaloT c SemTxve-
viTi sididis standartuli gadaxra.
41. wesier saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben manam sanam ar gamoCndeba 6 qu-
la an ar Catardeba 4 agdeba. c iyos Catarebul agdebaTa raodenoba, xo-
lo n -- ki mosuli 6 qulebis raodenoba am TamaSSi. ipoveT: a). c -s ganaw-
ilebis kanoni; b). c -s standartuli gadaxra; g). En .
42. wina amocanis pirobebSi, Tu moTamaSes TamaSis ganmavlobaSi mo-
uvida 6 qula, maSin is igebs 100 lars, xolo Tu TamaSis ganmavlobaSi
ar mova 6 qula, maSin moTamaSe agebs 150 lars. vipovoT moTamaSis mier
mogebuli Tanxis maTematikuri lodini.
43. komiteti, romlis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis 6 mamakaci da 4 qali,
irCevs Tavis 2 warmomadgenels. vigulisxmoT, rom komitetis nebismieri
wevris arCeva Tanabarad SesaZlebelia da avagoT arCeuli qalebis raod-
enobis ganawilebis kanoni. vipovoT arCeuli qalebis mosalodneli ricx-
vi.
44. agdeben wesier oTxwaxnaga piramidas, romelzec aRniSnulia
cifrebi 1, 2, 3 da 4. Semdeg agdeben wesier monetas imdenjer ra cifric
mova piramidis fuZeze. c iyos piramidis fuZeze mosuli qula, xolo n --
49

ki mosuli gerbebis raodenoba. a). aCveneT, rom 4 / 1 } 2 { = = n P ; b). aageT n -s
ganawilebis kanoni; g). aCveneT, rom
1
2
E E n c = ; d). gamoTvaleT Dc .
45. monetas agdeben 5-jer.
c
SemTxveviTi sidide iyos mosul gerbTa
ricxvi, xolo
n
SemTxveviTi sidide ki bolo or agdebaSi mosul gerbTa
ricxvi. avagoT am SemTxveviTi sidideebis erToblivi ganawilebis kanoni
da vipovoT kovariacia.
46 32 kartidan SemTxveviT iReben 2-s.
c
SemTxveviTi sidide iyos am-
oRebuli tuzebis ricxvi, xolo
n
SemTxveviTi sidide ki amoRebuli
mefeebis ricxvi. avagoT avagoT am SemTxveviTi sidideebis erToblivi
ganawilebis kanoni da vipovoT korelaciis koeficienti.






















pasuxebi:
1. a). 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 – 1/36, 1/18, 1/12, 1/9, 5/36, 1/6, 5/36, 1/9, 1/12,
1/18, 1/36. 2. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 – 1/6, 1/6, 1/6, 1/6, 1/6, 1/36, 1/36, 1,36,
1,36, 1,36, 1/36. 3. 0, 1, 2 – 1/10, 3/5, 3/10. 16. 1/15, 2/5/, 4/5. 24. 0.2. 25. 130; 40; 120;
160; 360. 26. 105; 105; 245. 27. 12; 31; 34; 18; 5; 0. 28. 0.468; 103. 32. 0.2; 0.4. 33. 0,1, 2,
3, 4 – 0.04, 0.24, 0.44, 0.24, 0.04; 2; 0.8. 34. 15/8, . ;0.05, . ; 4, 3.6; 46/9, 116/81. 35. 7/3;
0.745. 36. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 – 1/36, 1/9, 5/18, 1/3; 1/4; 14/3; 10/9. 37. ( ) 95000 E A = ,
( ) 115000 E B = ; B. 38. 0.3, 0.51; 5.7, 0.51. 39. 0.2; 2.8, 1.4. 40. 0.15 a b = = ; 1.7. 41. 1, 2,
3, 4 – 1/6, 5/36, 25/216, 125/216; 1.172; 0.5177. 42. -20.56. 43. 0, 1, 2 – 1/3, 8/15, 2/15;
0.8. 44. 0, 1, 2, 3 – 11/48, 7/16, 13/48, 1/16; 7/ 6 En = , 7/ 3 Ec = ; 13/18.

50

Tavi IV
diskretul ganawilebaTa gamoyenebebi

binomialuri ganawileba
•PTu yovel konkretul cdas gaaCnia ori SesaZlo Sedegi (warmateba
da marcxi) da isini urTierTgamomricxavia;
• tardeba cdaTa sasruli raodenoba -- n;
• yoveli cdis Sedegi damoukidebelia yvela danarCeni cdis Sedegi-
sagan;
• calkeul cdaSi warmatebis p albaToba mudmivia;
maSin SemTxveviT sidides, romelic warmoadgens warmatebaTa raode-
nobas n cdaSi uwodeben binomialur SemTxveviT sidides, aRniSnaven
( , ) Bi n p simboloTi da mas aqvs Semdegi ganawilebis kanoni:
{ ( , ) } ( ) (1 )
k k n k
n n
P Bi n p k P k C p p
÷
= ÷ = ÷ , 0,1, ... , k n = .
amasTanave, [ ( , )] E Bi n p np = ; [ ( , )] (1 ) D Bi n p np p = ÷ .

puasonis ganawileba
{ ( ) }
!
k
P Po k e
k
ì
ì
ì
÷
= = , 0,1, 2, ... k = ; [ ( )] E Po ì ì = ; [ ( )] D Po ì ì = .
puasonis ganawileba adeqvaturi modelia im xdomilebebisaTvis, ro-
mlebic:
• xdebian SemTxveviT sivrceSi an droSi;
• xdebian cal-calke (erTdroulad moxdena ar SeiZleba);
• xdebian damoukideblad, da
• xdebian mudmivi intensivobiT (xdomilebaTa raodenoba mocemul
drois intervalSi am intervalis sigrZis proporciulia).

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:
magaliTi 1. mocemulia
1
(8, )
4
Bi c ~ . ipoveT: a). { 6} P c = ; b). { 2} P c s ; g).
{ 0} P c > .
amoxsna. a). visargebloT bernulis formuliT, sadac 8 n = da
1
4
p = .
gvaqvs:
6 6 2 6 2
8
1 3 1 3
{ 6} ( ) ( ) 28 ( ) ( ) 0.00385 0.004
4 4 4 4
P C c = = · · = · · = ~ ;
b).
0 0 8 1 1 7
8 8
1 3 1 3
{ 2} { 0} { 1} { 2} ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4 4 4 4
P P P P C C c c c c s = = + = + = = · · + · · +
2 2 6
8
1 3
( ) ( ) 0.1001 0.2669 0.3114 0.6785 0.679
4 4
C + · · = + + = ~ ;
g). gadavideT sawinaaRmdego xdomilebaze:
0 0 8
8
1 3
{ 0} 1 { 0} 1 ( ) ( ) 1 0.1001 0.8998 0.9
4 4
P P C c c > = ÷ = = ÷ · · = ÷ = ~ .
51

magaliTi 2. mocemulia
1
(3, )
4
Bi c ~ . ipoveT Ec da Dc .
amoxsna.
1 3
3
4 4
E np c = = · = .
1 3 9
(1 ) 3
4 4 16
D np p c = ÷ = · · = .
magaliTi 3. mocemulia (10, 0.3) Bi c ~ . ipoveT: a). Ec da Dc ; b).
{ } P E E c oc c c oc ÷ < < + .
amoxsna. a). 10 0.3 3 E np c = = · = , (1 ) 10 0.3 0.7 2.1 D np p c = ÷ = · · = ;
b). { } {3 2.1 3 2.1} {3 1.44 3 1.44} P E E P P c oc c c oc c c ÷ < < + = ÷ < < + = ÷ < < + =
{1.55 4.44} { 2} { 3} { 4} { 4} { 1} P P P P P P c c c c c c = < < = = + = + = = s ÷ s =
0.8497 0.1493 0.7004 0.7 ÷ = ~ .
magaliTi 4. mocemulia (10, 0.3) Bi c ~ . ipoveT: a). { 2} P c = ; b). { 2} P c s ;
g). { 2} P c > ; d). { 2} c = xdomilebis albaToba, Tu cnobilia, rom { 2} c s .
amoxsna. a).
2 2 8
10
{ 2} (0.2) (0.8) 0.302 P C c = = · · = ;
b). { 2} { 0} { 1} { 2} 0.6778 P P P P c c c c s = = + = + = = ;
g). { 2} 1 { 2} 1 0.6778 0.3222 P P c c > = ÷ s = ÷ = ;
d). unda moiZebnos { 2| 2} P c c = s . pirobiTi albaTobis ganmartebis
Tanaxmad gvaqvs:
{( 2) ( 2}
{ 2| 2}
{ 2}
P
P
P
c c
c c
c
= s
= s = =
s


{( 2) [( 0) ( 1) ( 2)]} { 2} 0.302
0.4456
{ 2} { 2} 0.6778
P P
P P
c c c c c
c c
= = = = =
= = = =
s s
  
.
magaliTi 5. cnobilia, rom ( , ) Bi n p c ~ , 24 Ec = da 8 Dc = . ipoveT n
da p .
amoxsna. vinaidan [ ( , )] E Bi n p np = da [ ( , )] (1 ) D Bi n p np p = ÷ , amitom 24 np =
da 8 (1 ) 24(1 ) np p p = ÷ = ÷ . saidanac 1 1/ 3 p ÷ = anu 2/ 3 p = . Sesabamisad,
24/ 24 3/ 2 36 n p = = · = .
magaliTi 6. cnobilia, rom ( , 0.6) Bi n c ~ . vipovoT cdaTa is minimalu-
ri raodenoba, romlisTvisac { 1} 0.9 P c > > .
amoxsna.
0 0
{ 1} 1 { 0} 1 (0.6) (0.4) 1 (0.4) 0.9
n n
n
P P C c c > = ÷ = = ÷ · · = ÷ > . amitom
gvaqvs: (0.4) 0.1
n
< , anu ln(0.4) ln(0.1) n < . aqedan, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom
ln(0.4) uaryofiTia, davaskvniT, rom
ln(0.4)
2.51
ln(0.1)
n > = . Sesabamisad, cdaTa
saZiebeli minimaluri ricxvi iqneba 3 n = .
magaliTi 7. qvemoT moyvanil situaciebSi miuTiTeT rodisaa puason-
is ganawileba adeqvaturi modeli:
a). im avtomobilebis ricxvi, romlebic gadakveTaven erTzolian
xids Tavisufali moZraobis dros 10 saaTidan 11 saaTamde;
am SemTxvevaSi puasonis ganawileba iqneba kargi modeli, radganac
SeiZleba CavTvaloT, rom manqanebi xids gadakveTaven erTmaneTisagan dam-
oukideblad da drois SemTxveviT momentebSi (moZraoba Tavisufalia),
ori manqana erTdroulad ver gadakveTs xids (xidi erTzoliania) da saS-
52

ualod drois mocemul intervalSi xidze gavlili manqanebis raodenoba
drois intervalis proporciuli iqneba;
b). im avtomobilebis ricxvi, romlebic 9 saaTidan 10 saaTamde Sedi-
an qalaqis centris avtosadgomze;
gasagebia, rom am SemTxvevaSi puasonis ganawileba ver iqneba kargi
modeli, gansakuTrebiT Tu es samuSao dRea -- avtosadgomze iqneba rigebi
da manqanebi ver imoZraveben Tavisuflad da erTmaneTisagan damoukideb-
lad;
g). radiaoqtiuri wyaros mier wamSi gamosxivebuli nawilakebis rao-
denoba;
puasonis ganawileba iqneba kargi modeli mxolod im SemTxvevaSi,
Tu gamosxiveba xdeba damoukideblad da SemTxveviT momentebSi da yove-
li konkretuli gamosxiveba erTnawilakiania.
magaliTi 8. radioaqtiuri wyaros mier wamSi gamosxivebuli nawila-
kebis raodenoba emorCileba puasonis ganawilebas saSualoTi 5. gamoTva-
leT albaToba imisa, rom wamSi gamosxivebuli iqneba: a). 0; b). 1; g). 2; d).
3 an meti nawilaki.
amoxsna. c iyos SemTxveviTi sidide: “radiaqtiuri wyaros mier wam-
Si gamosxivebuli nawilakebis raodenoba”, maSin pirobis Tanaxmad
(5) Po c ~ . visargebloT puasonis ganawilebis kanoniTa da Sesabamisi cxri-
lebiT. maSin:
a).
0
5
5
{ 0} 0.0067
0!
P e c
÷
= = = ;
b).
1
5
5
{ 1} 0.0337
1!
P e c
÷
= = = ;
g).
2
5
5
{ 2} 0.0842
2!
P e c
÷
= = = ;
d). gadavideT sawinaaRmdego xdomilebaze:
{ 3} 1 { 3} 1 { 0} { 1} { 2} P P P P P c c c c c > = ÷ < = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = =
1 0.0067 0.0337 0.0842 0.875 = ÷ ÷ ÷ = .
magaliTi 9. taqsebis firmaSi taqsebze Semosuli gamoZaxebebis rao-
denoba puasonis kanoniTaa ganawilebuli, saSualod 4 gamoZaxeba yovel
30 wuTSi. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). arcerTi gamoZaxeba ar Semova 30
wuTSi; b). erTi gamoZaxeba Semova 1 saaTSi; g). orze naklebi gamoZaxeba
Semova 15 wuTSi.
amoxsna. a). c iyos SemTxveviTi sidide: “taqsebis firmaSi 30 wuTis
ganmavlobaSi Semosuli gamoZaxebebis raodenoba”. maSin cxadia, rom
(4) Po c ~ . Sesabamisad, gvaqvs:
0
4
4
{ 0} 0.0183
0!
P e c
÷
= = = ;
b). n iyos SemTxveviTi sidide: “taqsebis firmaSi 1 saaTis ganmavlo-
baSi Semosuli gamoZaxebebis raodenoba”. vinaidan, pirobidan gamomdinare,
1 saaTSi saSualod 8 gamoZaxeba Semova, amitom (8) Po n ~ . Sesabamisad,
53

1
8
8
{ 1} 0.0027
1!
P e n
÷
= = = ;
g). analogiurad, Tu c aris SemTxveviTi sidide: “taqsebis firmaSi
15 wuTis ganmavlobaSi Semosuli gamoZaxebebis raodenoba”, maSin
(2) Po c ~ . amitom
0 1
2 2
2 2
{ 2} { 0} { 1} 0.406
0! 1!
P P P e e c c c
÷ ÷
< = = + = = + = .
magaliTi 10. V ml tbis wyalSi organuli nawilakebis raodenoba
emorCileba puasonis ganawilebis kanons saSualoTi 0.2V . gamoTvaleT
albaToba imisa, rom: a). 50 ml tbis wyali Seicavs 8-ze nakleb organul
nawilaks; b). 30 ml tbis wyali Seicavs 2-ze met organul nawilaks; g). 10
ml tbis wyali Seicavs zustad 3 organul nawilaks.
amoxsna. a). 50 V = , 0.2 50 10 ì = · = , e. i. (10) Po c ~ . visargebloT puason-
is dagrovili (kumulatiuri) albaTobebis cxriliT:
{ 8} { 7} 0.2202 P P c c < = s = ;
b). 30 V = , 0.2 30 6 ì = · = , e. i. (6) Po c ~ . gadavideT sawinaaRmdego xdom-
ilebaze:
{ 2} 1 { 2} 1 0.0619 0.938 P P c c > = ÷ s = ÷ = ;
g). 10 V = , 0.2 10 2 ì = · = , anu (2) Po c ~ . amitom
{ 3} 0.1804 P c = = .

amocanebi

1. wesier saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben 10-jer. ipoveT albaToba imisa,
rom: a). 3 qula mova 4-jer; b). 4 qula mova 5-jer; g). 3 qula mova 6-jer.
2. yuTSi Zevs 49 erTnairi burTi, romlebic gadanomrilia 1-dan 49-
mde. SemTxveviT irCeven 6 burTs dabrunebiT. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom
aqedan oTxze iqneba luwi qula.
3. c SemTxveviT sidides aqvs binomuri ganawileba parametrebiT
6 n = da 0.2 p = . gamoTvaleT: a). { 3} P c = ; b). { 4} P c = ; g). { 6} P c = ; d). Ec .
4. cnobilia, rom (7, 2/ 3) Bi c ~ . gamoTvaleT: a). { 4} P c = ; b). { 6} P c = ; g).
{ 0} P c = ; d). Ec .
5. cnobilia, rom (9, 0.45) Bi c ~ . opoveT: a). { 3} P c = ; b). { 4 5} P c = an ; g).
{ 7} P c > ; d). Ec .
6. cnobilia, rom (12, 0.7) Bi c ~ . gamoTvaleT: a). { 4} P c < ; b). umciresi
x romlisTvisac { } 0.9 P x c > < .
7. cnobilia, rom (10, 0.5) Bi c ~ . gamoTvaleT: a). {2 5} P c s s ; b).
{ 1 5} P c c s > an .
8. cnobilia, rom (7,1/ 6) Bi c ~ . ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom c aris:
a). zustad 3; b). sul cota 4.
54

9. universitetis studentTa 30%-is asaki meryeobs 16-wlidan 19 wla-
mde. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli 10 studentidan 4-
ze naklebis asaki iqneba 16-wlidan 19 wlamde.
10. sakonditro fabrika amzadebs didi raodenobiT ferad tkbile-
uls. cnobilia, rom saSualod tkbileulis 20% mwvane ferisaa. SekvraSi
aris 20 tkbileuli. igulisxmeT, rom SekvraSi tkbileuli xvdeba SemTxv-
eviT fabrikis mier damzadebuli mTeli produqciidan da gamoTvaleT
albaToba imisa, rom SekvraSi zustad 7 tkbileuli iqneba mwvane.
11. mefrinveleobis fabrikaSi warmoebuli 6 – 6 kvercxi Calagebu-
lia yuTebSi. TiTeuli kvercxis gatexvis albaToba sxva kvercxebisagan
damoukideblad aris 0.1. yuTs davarqvaT cudi, Tu masSi devs sul cota 2
gatexili kvercxi. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli yuTi
cudia.
12. garkveul tropikul kunZulze romelime konkretul TveSi qari-
Sxalis moxdenis albaTobaa 0.08. gamoiyeneT binomialuri ganawileba da
gamoTvaleT albaToba imisa, rom wlis ganmavlobaSi qariSxali iqneba
orze met TveSi.
13. cnobilia, rom dRis garkveul monakveTSi qveynis zrdasruli
mosaxleobis 35% atarebs jinsebs. a). dRis am monakveTSi SeirCa 12 zrdas-
ruli adamiani. gamoiyeneT binomialuri ganawileba da gamoTvaleT alba-
Toba imisa, rom maTgan zustad xuTs acvia jinsi; b). Tu albaToba imisa,
rom erT adamians mainc acvia jinsi aris 0.95, maSin ramdeni adamiania Se-
rCeuli?
14. mefrinveleobis fabrikis mier warmoebul A da B tipis kvercx-
ebs cal-calke awyoben 6 – 6 calad yuTebSi. A tipis kvercxis gatexvis
albaTobaa 1/6, xolo B tipis kvercxis – 1/10. SemTxveviT SerCeul iqna
erTi yuTi A tipis kvercxebiT da erTi yuTi yuTi B tipis kvercxebiT.
ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). TiTeul yuTSi aris zustad erTi gatexi-
li kvercxi; b). orive yuTSi erTad aris 2 gatexili kvercxi.
15. bankma gasca krediti 10 adamianze, romelTagan TiToeulis mier
kreditis daubruneblobis albaToba aris 0.15. ipoveT valis ardambruneb-
el kreditorTa: a). ganawilebis kanoni; b). maTematikuri lodini; g). ual-
baTesi ricxvi.
16. maRaziaSi yovelTviurad gayiduli sarecxi manqanebis ricxvi ga-
nawilebulia (100, 0.25) Bi kanoniT. maRaziis yoveldRiuri xarjebi Seadg-
ens 200 lars. sarecxi manqanis fasia 1000 lari. gamoTvaleT maRaziis yov-
elTviuri mogeba.
17. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia puasonis kanoniT saSualo-
Ti 3. ipoveT: a). { 2} P c = ; b). { 1} P c s ; g). { 3} P c > .
18. mocemulia, rom (3.25) Po n ~ . gamoTvaleT: a). { 3} P n = ; b). { 2} P n s ;
g). ( 2) Pn > .
19. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia puasonis kanoniT saSualo-
Ti 2.4. ipoveT: a). { 3} P c s ; b). { 2} P c > ; g). { 3} P c = .
55

20. avtomagistralze kviraSi saSualod 2 avaria xdeba. CavTvaloT,
rom kviraSi avariaTa ricxvi emorCileba puasonis ganawilebis kanons da
gamovTvaloT albaToba imisa, rom: a). konkretul kviras ar moxdeba ava-
ria; b). konkretul kviras moxdeba 2 avaria; g). or kviraSi moxdeba 3-ze
naklebi avaria.
21. wuTSi saSualod 15 momxmarebeli gaivlis supermarketis sala-
ro-aparatTan Semowmebas. vigulisxmoT, rom gvaqvs miaxloebiT puasonis
ganawileba da gamovTvaloT albaToba imisa, rom: a). 10 wuTian interval-
Si arcerTi momxmarebeli ar gaivlis salaro-aparatTan Semowmebas; b). 15
wuTian intervalSi 3-ze meti momxmarebeli gaivlis salaro-aparatTan Se-
mowmebas.
22. mimdinare wlis ianvris ganmavlobaSi Tqven 15-jer dagpatiJes
wveulebaze. CaTvaleT, rom momavali wlis ianvarSi Tqvens mier miRebul
mopatiJebaTa raodenoba ganawilebulia puasonis kanoniT imave saSualo-
Ti da gamoTvaleT albaToba imisa, rom: a). momavali wlis ianvris konkr-
etul dRes Tqven ar miiRebT arcerT mipatiJebas; b). momavali wlis ianv-
ris Tvis konkretul 7 dRian kviraSi Tqven miiRebT 3-ze met mipatiJebas.
23. teqnikuri momsaxurebis sadgurSi 1 saaTSi Semodis 100 avtomobi-
li. Semosul avtomobilTa raodenoba ganawilebulia puasonis kanoniT.
ipoveT: a). albaToba imisa, rom teqnikuri momsaxurebis sadgurSi 3 wuTis
ganmavlobaSi ar Semova avtomobili; b). drois intervali, romelSic sul
cota 0.25-is toli albaTobiT teqnikuri momsaxurebis sadgurSi ar Semo-
va avtomobili.
24. radioaqtiuri wyaro saSualod wamSi asxivebs 1 nawilaks. CaTva-
leT, rom gamosxivebul nawilakTa raodenoba emorCileba puasonis kan-
ons. a). gamoTvaleT albaToba imisa, rom 4 wamSi gamosxivebuli iqneba 0
an 1 nawilaki; b). gamosxivebis reJimis Secvlis Semdeg albaToba imisa,
rom 4 wamSi gamosxivebuli iqneba 0 an 1 nawilaki aris 0.8. amJamad wamSi
saSualod ramden nawilaks asxivebs radioaqtiuri wyaro?
25. qvemoT moyvanil magaliTebSi miuTiTeT rodisaa puasonis ganawi-
leba adeqvaturi modeli: a). wvimis wveTebis raodenoba, romelic Cvarde-
ba limonaTis biTlSi 1 wuTis ganmavlobaSi; b). satvirTo avtomobilebis
raodenoba, romlebic gadakveTen konkretul adgils gadatvirTul avtom-
agistralze; g). Tvis ganmavlobaSi sadazRvevo kompaniaSi Semosul prete-
nziaTa raodenoba.
26. qvemoT moyvanilia raodenoba gzaze manqanagadavlili zRarbebis
13 kviris ganmavlobaSi: 10 8 9 7 11 5 4 12 7 6 11 3 11. a). gamoTva-
leT am monacemebis saSualo da dispersia da axseniT ra SemTxvevaSi iqn-
eba puasonis ganawileba adeqvaturi modeli; b). gamoiyeneT puasonis gana-
wileba da a) punqtSi gamoTvlili saSualoTi gamoTvaleT albaToba imi-
sa, rom kviraSi manqanagadavlili zRarbebis raodenoba metia an toli 7-
is; g). Tu albaToba imisa, rom kviraSi manqanagadavlili zRarbebis ra-
odenoba metia an toli 7-is iqneboda 0.0244, maSin ramdeni unda iyos
puasonis ganawilebis saSualo.
56

27. martis TveSi Semosuli satelefono zarebis raodenobis ganawi-
lebis kanonia
dReSi Semosuli zarebis
raodenoba ( x)
0 1 2 3 4
dReebis raodenoba 9 12 5 4 1

a). gamoTvaleT fardobiTi sixSireebi; b). gamoTvaleT ganawilebis saSua-
lo da dispersia. axseniT esadageba Tu ara puasonis ganawileba; g). gamo-
iyeneT puasonis ganawileba da wina punqtSi gamoTvlili saSualos mixe-
dviT gamoTvaleT { } P x c = , 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 x = ; d). SeadareT Teoriuli
albaTobebi da fardobiTi sixSireebi. eTanxmebiT Tu ara b) punqtis
daskvnas?
28. mocemulia, rom ( ) Po m c ~ da { 1} 4 { 2} P P c c = = = . ipoveT: a). m; b).
{ 3} P c > ; g). { 4| 3} P c c > > .
29. avtomagistralis me-100 kilometrze SuadRis 10-wamian interval-
Si gavlili manqanebis raodenoba emorCileba puasonis ganawilebas
(0.8) Po c ~ . a). ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom aRniSnul adgils gadakveTs 3,
4 an 5 avtomobili; b). cnobilia, rom aRniSnul adgili gadakveTa 3, 4 an
5 avtomobilma. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom avtomobilebis raodenoba iyo
zustad 4.
30. satelefono sadgurSi 8.00 – 8.05 intervalSi Semosul gamoZaxeb-
aTa raodenoba emorCileba puasonis kanons saSualoTi 2. ipoveT albaTo-
ba imisa, rom: a). SemTxveviT SerCeul samSabaTs satelefono sadgurSi
8.00 – 8.05 intervalSi ar Semova arcerTi gamoZaxeba; b). samSabaTsa da
oTxSabaTs erTad Semova zustad 1 gamoZaxeba imave intervalSi; g). gamoZ-
axeba Semovida samSabaTs, Tu cnobilia, rom samSabaTsa da oTxSabaTs er-
Tad Semovida zustad 1 gamoZaxeba.
31. avtoqarxnis yovelkvireuli mocdenebis raodenoba c ganawileb-
ulia Semdegnairad:
x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
{ } P x c = 0.04 0.24 0.28 0.16 0.16 0.08 0.04

a). ipoveT c -s saSualo; b). ra iqneba mocdenebis erToblivi mosalodneli
raodenoba momavali 48 kviris ganmavlobaSi?
32. maTematikoss daaviwyda paroli da is cdilobs Sevides kompiut-
erSi. kompiuteri mxolod 4 mcdelobis saSualebas iZleva. yoveli mcde-
lobisas, damoukideblad sxva mcdelobebisagan, warmatebis albaTobaa 0.4.
a). ipoveT kompiuterSi warmatebuli SeRwevis albaToba; b). SeadgineT
mcdelobaTa raodenobis albaTuri ganawilebis kanoni.
33. 52 kartidan SemTxveviT iReben sam karts dabrunebis gareSe. Sea-
dgineT amoRebuli tuzebis ricxvis ganawilebis kanoni.
34. yoveli CarTvisas eleqtronuli mowyobiloba gamoyofs 0, 1 an 3
voltis tol Zabvas Sesabamisad 1/2, 1/3 da 1/6 albaTobebiT. c iyos am mo-
wyobilobis ori damoukidebeli CarTvisas gamoyofili Zabvis jami. a). Se-
57

adgineT c -s albaTuri ganawilebis kanoni; b). am mowyobilobis 360-jer
damoukideblad CarTvisas ramdenjer unda velodoT Sedegs 1 volti?
35. damwyebi meisre mizanSi axvedrebs albaTobiT 0.3. ipoveT albaT-
oba imisa, rom mizanSi 6-jer srolisas meisre mizans moartyams 2-jer ma-
inc.
36. nikasa da mis oTx amxanags erTmaneTisagan damoukideblad aqvs
prizis mogebis 0.45-is toli albaToba. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a).
zustad ori xuTi amxanagidan moigebs prizs; b). nika da mxolod erTi mi-
si amxanagi moigebs prizs.
37. agdeben 10 wesier saTamaSo kamaTels. Tqven giTxres, rom erT-er-
Ti agdebis Sedegi aris 6 qula. ras udris albaToba imisa, rom sul co-
ta orjer movida 6 qula.
38. 8.00 saaTidan 22.00 saaTamde garkveul benzingasamarT sadgurze
Semodis saSualod 0.8 avtomobili wuTSi. igulisxmeT, rom Semosvlis
droebi SemTxveviTia da gamoTvaleT albaToba imisa, rom sul cota 2
avtomobili Semova benzingasamarT sadgurze konkretuli erTi wuTis
ganmavlobaSi 8.00 saaTidan 22.00 saaTamde.
39. patara qalaqis saxanZro sadgurSi Ramis gamoZaxebaTa ricxvi mo-
delirdeba puasonis ganawilebiT saSualoTi 4.2 Ramis ganmavlobaSi. a).
ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom konkretul Rames saxanZro sadgurSi Semova
3 an meti gamoZaxeba. b). ras unda akmayofilebdes saxanZro sadgurSi Se-
mosuli gamoZaxebebi, rom is iyos puasonis modelis adeqvaturi?
40. maRazia yidis ori firmis televizors. kviraSi gayiduli sonis
firmis televizorebis saSualo ricxvia 1.8. gayidvebs adgili aqvs erTma-
neTisagan damoukideblad SemTxveviT drois momentebSi. ipoveT albaToba
imisa, rom: a). mocemul kviras gaiyideba zustad 2 sonis firmis televiz-
ori; b). mocemul orkvirian periodSi gaiyideba zustad 4 sonis firmis
televizori.
41. saxlis mepatrones surs baRSi daTesos balaxi. Teslis mobneva
xdeba SemTxveviT da baRis konkretul 1 kv. santimetri farTobis mqone
nawilSi davardnili Teslis raodenoba c warmoadgens puasonis kanoniT
ganawilebul SemTxveviT sidides, romlis saSualo baRis nawilis farT-
obis proporciulia. baRis farTobia 50 kv. metri da iTeseba
6
10 balaxis
Tesli. gamoTvaleT: a). c -s saSualo; b). albaToba imisa, rom 1 kv. sm. far-
Tobis mqone nawilSi ar daecema arcerTi Tesli; g). { 0 4} P c c = > an .
42. firmis TanamSromlebis mier samuSaos Sesrulebisas kviris ganm-
avlobaSi miRebuli tramvebis raodenobis ganawilebaa:
tramvebis raodenoba kviraSi 0 1 2 3 4 da meti
kvireebis raodenoba 31 17 3 1 0

a). axseniT, rodis SeiZleba am ganawilebis modelad CaiTvalos puasonis
ganawileba; b). gamoTvaleT am monacemebis saSualo da dispersia da axse-
niT ratom SeiZleba modelad gamodges puasonis ganawileba; g). gamoTvl-
ili saSualos mixedviT gamoTvaleT puasonis ganawilebis Teoriuli si-
xSireebi imisa, rom kviraSi moxdeba 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 an meti sawarmoo tramva.
58

43. umaRlesi ligis fexburTis matCebSi gatanili burTebis raoden-
obis analizma aCvena, rom SemTxveviT SerCeul matCSi gatanili golebis
raodenobis modelad SeiZleba ganvixiloT puasonis ganawileba
parametriT 2.7. sxvadasxva matCebSi gatanili golebis raodenoba
erTmaneTisagan damoukidebelia. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). matCi
dasruldeba golis gareSe; b). matCSi gatanili iqneba 4 an meti goli.
44. wina amocanis pirobebSi cnobilia, rom SabaT dRes Catarda 11
Sexvedra. a). ipoveT im Sexvedrebis mosalodneli ricxvi, romlebic dasr-
uldeba golis gareSe; b). ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom golebi gatanili
iqneba yvela 11 SexvedraSi; g). rogori ganawileba eqneba 11 SexvedraSi ga-
tanili golebis jamur raodenobas; d). gamoTvaleT albaToba imisa, rom
11 SexvedraSi gatanili iqneba 30 golze meti.

amocanebi gamocdisaTvis

45. eka esvris samiznes 10-jer. yoveli srolisas eka samiznes azian-
ebs albaTobiT 0.4 damoukideblad sxva srolebis Sedegebisagan. c iyos
samiznis dazianebaTa ricxvi. ipoveT: a). c -s saSualo da standartuli ga-
daxra; b). { 2} P c > .
46. agdeben wesier saTamaSo kamaTels, romelzec aRniSnulia cifre-
bi 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. ipoveT mosuli qulis saSualo da dispersia.
47. nikas SeuZlia miznSi moartyas qva albaTobiT 0.4. is isvris qvas
6-jer. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). qva mizans moxvdeba zustad 4-jer;
b). qva samiznes pirvelad moxvdeba mesame gasrolisas.
48. yoveli TamaSisas biWi igebs prizs albaTobiT 0.25. is TamaSobs
10-jer. vigulisxmoT, rom TamaSebi urTierTdamoukidebelia. c iyos moge-
bul prizTa raodenoba. ipoveT: a). Ec ; b). { 2} P c s .
49. dazga awarmoebs qsovils garkveuli dazianebebiT. dazianebebis
raodenoba 1 metr qsovilSi aris SemTxveviTi sidide, romelic emorCile-
ba puasonis ganawilebas saSualoTi 3. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom qsovi-
lis 1 metri Seicavs 5 an met dazianebas.
50. nika da rezo agdeben or-or wesier saTamaSo kamaTels erTdro-
ulad. TiTeul kamaTelze mosuli qulebi ikribeba. ipoveT albaToba imi-
sa, rom: a). nika moagrovebs 9 qulas; b). nika da rezo orive moagrovebs 9
-- 9 qulas; g). nika da rezo moagroveben erTi da igive qulas; d). nikas
mier mogrovili qula aRemateba rezos mier mogrovil qulas.
51. wina amocanis pirobebSi davuSvaT, rom c aris udidesi oTxive
kamaTelze mosuli qulidan. a). aCveneT, rom
4
1
{ } ( )
6
P x x c s = , 1, 2, , 6 x =  ; b).
gadawereT da daasruleT Semdegi ganawilebis kanoni:


x 1 2 3 4 5 6
{ } P x c = 1/1296 15/1296 671/1296
59

g). gamoTvaleT Ec .
52. ori telegrafisti gadascems garkveul teqsts. juanSeri teqst-
is gadacemisas saSualod uSvebs 2.7 Secdomas, xolo RvTisavari 2.5 Secd-
omas. vigulisxmoT, rom TiToeuli telegrafistis mier daSvebuli Secd-
omebis raodenoba emorCileba puasonis ganawilebas. gamoTvaleT albaTo-
ba imisa, rom teqstis gadacemisas: a). juanSeri dauSvebs 2 Secdomas; b).
RvTisavari dauSvebs 3 Secdomas; g). juanSeri dauSvebs 2 Secdomas da
RvTisavari dauSvebs 3 Secdomas.
53. wina amocanis pirobebSi cnobilia, rom garkveuli teqstis gada-
cemisas juanSerma da RvTisavarma erTad dauSves 5 Secdoma. gamoTvaleT
albaToba imisa, rom juanSerma meti Secdoma dauSva, vidre RvTisavarma.
54. warsuli dakvirvebebidan iagom icis, rom fostalionis mier
dRis ganmavlobaSi mis saxlSi motanili werilebis raodenoba ganawile-
bulia puasonis kanoniT saSualoTi 3. a). ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom Sem-
TxveviT SerCeul dRes fostalioni iagos saxlSi moitans or werils; b).
erT dRes iagom dainaxa, rom fostalioni uaxlovdeba mis saxls da Sesa-
bamisad, man icis, rom fostalions moaqvs werili. gamoTvaleT albaToba
imisa, rom am dRes fostalioni moitans or werils.
55. c SemTxveviT sidides aqvs puasonis ganawileba parametriT ì .
albaToba imisa, rom c miiRebs mniSvnelobas 1 an 2 aris p . a). dawereT
p -s gamosaTvleli gamosaxuleba; b). daxazeT p -s grafiki, roca 0 4 ì s s ;
g). ipoveT ì -s is mniSvneloba, roca p miaRwevs maqsimums.
56. c SemTxveviT sidides aqvs puasonis ganawileba parametriT ì da
akmayofilebs Tanafardobas: { 3} { 0} { 1} P P P c c c = = = + = . a). gamoTvaleT ì -s
mniSvneloba; b). gamoTvaleT {2 4} P c s s .
57. satelevizo arxze axal ambebs uCveneben dRis erTi da igive
dros. albaToba imisa, rom goderZi uyurebs axal ambebs konkretul
dRes aris 0.4. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom xuTi momdevno dRis ganmavlo-
baSi goderZi axal ambebs uyurebs ara umetes 3-jer.
58. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanonia:
x 0 1 2 3
{ } P x c = 0.2 a b 0.25
cnobilia, rom 1.55 Ec = . a). ipoveT a da b ; b). ipoveT Dc .
59. c SemTxveviT sidides aqvs puasonis ganawileba parametriT ì . a).
mocemulia, rom { 4} { 2} { 3} P P P c c c = = = + = , ipoveT ì -s mniSvneloba; b). moc-
emulia 3.2 ì = , ipoveT albaTobebi: { 2} P c > da { 3| 2} P c c s > .
60. moTamaSes Seaqvs n lari, irCevs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 da 6 ricxvebidan
erT ricxvs da agdebs sam wesier saTamaSo kamaTels. Tu arCeuli ricxvi
mova samive kamaTelze, maSin is igebs Setanili Tanxis gaoTxmagebuls.
Tu arCeuli ricxvi mova zustad or kamaTelze, maSin is igebs Setanili
Tanxis gasammagebuls. Tu arCeuli ricxvi mova zustad erT kamaTelze,
maSin is igebs Setanili Tanxis gaormagebuls. Tu arCeuli ricxvi ar mo-
60

va arcerT kamaTelze, maSin is arafers igebs. a). gadawereT da daasrul-
eT mogebuli Tanxis raodenobis ganawilebis kanoni:

mogeba
n ÷ n 2n 3n
albaToba 75/216
b). aCveneT, rom moTamaSis mosalodneli mogeba aris
17
216
n ÷ lari; g). ra
Tanxa unda Seitanos moTamaSem, rom misi mosalodneli danakargi iyos 34
TeTri?
61. c SemTxveviT sidides aqvs puasonis ganawileba da { 2} 0.404 P c > = .
ipoveT { 2} P c < .
62. diskretul c SemTxveviT sidides aqvs Semdegi ganawilebis kano-
ni:
, 1, 2, 3, 4,
{ }
0,
k
x
P x x c
¦
=
¦
= =
´
¦
¹
roca
sxvagan.

gamoTvaleT: a). k mudmivis mniSvneloba; b). Ec .







pasuxebi:
1. (10,1/ 6) Bi :
10
(4) P ;
10
(5) P ;
10
(6) P . 2. (6, 24/ 49) Bi :
6
(4) P . 3. 0.0819; 0.0154; 0.0001;
1.2. 4. 0.2561; 0.2048; 0.0005; 14/3. 5. 0.2119; 0.4728; 0.0498; 4.05. 6. 0.0017; 6. 7. 0.6123;
0.3877. 8. 0.0781; 0.0176. 9. 0.6496. 10. 0.0545. 11. 0.1143. 12. 0.0652. 13. 0.2039; 7. 14.
0.1424; 0.2821. 15. (10, 0.15) Bi ; 1.5; 1. 16. 19000. 17. 0.224; 0.1991; 0.5768. 18. 0.2218;
0.3696; 0.8352. 19. 0.7787; 0.6916; 0..209. 20. 0.1353; 0.2707; 0.2381. 21. 0.0821; 0.5162. 22.
0.6065; 0.4634. 23. 0.0067; 49.9wm. 24. 0.0916; 0.206 nawilaki wamSi. 25. ki; ara; ki.
26. 8, 8 ki, vinaidan saSualo = dispersia; 0.6866; 2.8. 27. 0.29, 0.39, 0.16, 0.13,
0.03; 1.23, 1.21, puasoni gamosadegia; 0.29, 0.36, 0.22, 0.09, 0.03; puasoni
misaRebia. 28. 0.5; 0.0144; 0.1217. 29. 0.0472; 0.162. 30. 0.135; 0.0733; 0.5. 31. 2.56; 122.9.
32. 0.8704; 1, 2, 3, 4 – 0.4, 0.24, 0.144, 0.216. 33. 0, 1, 2, 3 – 248/1105, 496/1105,
304/1105, 57/1105. 34. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 – 1/4, 1/3, 1/9, 1/6, 1/9, 1/36; 120. 35. 0.58. 36.
0.337; 0.135. 37. 0.615. 0.615. 38. 0.191. 39. 0.79; gamoZaxebebi unda Semodiodes Sem-
TxveviT, damoukideblad, TiTo-TiTod da mudmivi intensivobiT. 40. 0.268;
0.191. 41. 2; 0.135; 0.188. 42. tramvebi unda xdebodes SemTxveviT, erTmaneTisag-
an damoukideblad, TiToTiTod da mudmivi intensivobiT; 0.5, 0.481, SeiZl-
eba radganac saSualo da dispersia daaxloebiT tolia; 32, 16, 4, 1, 0. 43.
0.067; 0.286. 44. 0.739; 0.465; (29.7) Po ; 0.430.

61

Tavi V
uwyveti tipis ganawilebebi

c SemTxveviT sidides ewodeba uwyveti tipis, Tu misi ganawilebis
funqcia -- ( ): { } F x P x
c
c = s uwyvetia. Tu ganawilebis funqcia warmoidgineba
( ) ( )
x
F x f u du
c c
÷·
=
í
saxiT, maSin ( ) f x
c
funqcias ewodeba uwyveti c SemTxvevi-
Ti sididis ganawilebis simkvrive. simkvrives aqvs Semdegi Tvisebebi:
a). ( ) 0 f x > yoveli x-saTvis;
b). ( ) 1 f x dx
c
·
÷·
=
í
;
g). { , } ( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
P a b F b F a f x dx
c c c
c e( , = ÷ =
í
, sadac , a b ( , aris nebismieri
( , ) a b , ( , ] a b , [ , ) a b , [ , ] a b intervalebidan.
uwyveti SemTxveviTi sididis mediana M aris is mniSvneloba, rome-
lic simkvrivis grafikis qveS moTavsebul farTobs yofs or tol nawil-
ad. maTematikurad is ase ganimarteba:
1
{ } ( ) ( )
2
M
P M F M f x dx
c c
c
÷·
s = = =
í
.
uwyveti SemTxveviTi sididis p -kvantili ewodeba iseT
p
x mniSvnel-
obas, romel mniSvnelobamdec simkvrivis grafikis qveS moTavsebuli far-
T-obi p -s tolia:
{ } ( ) ( )
p
x
p p
P x F x f x dx p
c c
c
÷·
s = = =
í
.
gasagebia, rom
0.5
x M = .
uwyveti SemTxveviTi sididis qveda kvartili,
1
Q (Sesabamisad, zeda
kvartili,
3
Q ) ewodeba
1
4
-kvantils (Sesabamisad,
3
4
-kvantils).
sxvaobas
3 1
Q Q ÷ kvartilTSorisi gabnevis diapazoni ewodeba.
ganawilebis (1 ) o ÷ -kvantils o -zeda kritikuli wertili ewodeba.
uwyveti SemTxveviTi sididis moda m ewodeba argumentis im mniSvne-
lobas, sadac simkvrive aRwevs maqsimums: ( ) max ( )
x
f m f x
c c
= .
uwyveti SemTxveviTi sididis maTematikuri lodini (anu saSualo)
ganimarteba Semdegnairad:
( ) E xf x dx
c
c u
·
÷·
= =
í
.
uwyveti SemTxveviTi sididis dispersia moicema formuliT:
62

2 2 2
( ) D x f x dx
c
c o u
·
÷·
= = ÷
í
.
asimetriis koeficienti a gamoiTvleba formuliT:
3
3
1
( ) ( ) a x f x dx
c
u
o
·
÷·
= ÷
í
.
eqscesis koeficienti e tolia:
4
4
1
( ) ( ) 3 e x f x dx
c
u
o
·
÷·
= ÷ ÷
í
.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
, 1 2;
( ) 3
0,
x x
f x
c
¦
s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

a). SeamowmeT, rom ( ) f x
c
akmayofilebs simkvrivis a) da b) Tvisebas;
b). gamoTvaleT {1.5 2} P c s s .
amoxsna. a). ( ) 0 f x > yoveli x-saTvis, vinaidan
2
0
3
x > , roca
0 x > ; garda amisa,
2 2
2 2 2
1
1
2 2 1
( ) | (2 1 ) 1
3 3 2 3
x
f x dx xdx
c
·
÷·
= = · = · ÷ =
í í
.
b). N
2 2
2
1.5
1.5
2
{1.5 2} ( ) |
3 2
x
P f x dx
c
c s s = = · =
í
2 2
1 1
(2 1.5 ) 1.75 0.583
3 3
· ÷ = · = .
magaliTi 2. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
(1 ), 1 1;
( )
0,
k x x
f x
c
¦ + ÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan,

sadac k mudmivia. ipoveT: a). k ; b). {0.3 0.6} P c s s ; g). {| | 0.2} P c s .
amoxsna. a). visargebloT simkvrivis b) TvisebiT:

1
2 3 1
1
1
1
1 ( ) (1 ) ( ) |
3
f x dx k x dx k x x
c
·
÷
÷· ÷
= = + = + =
í í

3 3
1 1 4 4 8
(1 1 ) [( 1) ( 1) ] ( )
3 3 3 3 3
k
k k k k = + · ÷ ÷ + · ÷ = · ÷ · ÷ = ,
e. i.
8
1
3
k
= . saidanac 3/ 8 k = ;
b).
0.6
2 3 0.6
0.3
0.3
3 3 1
{0.3 0.6} (1 ) ( ) |
8 8 3
P x dx x x c s s = + = + =
í

63

3 3
3 1 3 1
(0.6 0.6 ) (0.3 0.3 ) 0.136
8 3 8 3
= + · ÷ + · = ;
g).
0.2
2 3 0.2
0.2
0.2
3 3 1
{| | 0.2} { 0.2 0.2} (1 ) ( ) |
8 8 3
P P x dx x x c c
÷
÷
< = ÷ < < = + = + =
í

3 3
3 1 3 1
(0.2 0.2 ) [ 0.2 ( 0.3) ] 0.152
8 3 8 3
= + · ÷ ÷ + · ÷ = .
magaliTi 3. savaWro centris gamyidvelTa wliuri xelfasi c , gaz-
omili 1000 larebSi, modelirdeba albaTuri ganawilebis simkvriviT:
7/ 2
, 16;
( )
0,
cx x
f x
c
÷
¦ >
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT: a). c-s mniSvneloba; b). albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli
gamyidvelis wliuri xelfasi moTavsebulia 20 000 larsa da 30 000 lars
Soris.
amoxsna. a).
7/ 2 5/ 2 5/ 2
16
16
2 2
1 ( ) | ( 0) ( 16 )
5 5 2560
c
f x dx cx dx cx c
c
· ·
÷ ÷ · ÷
÷·
= = =÷ · = ÷ ÷ ÷ · · =
í í
,
saidanac 2560 c = ;
b).
30
7/ 2 5/ 2 30
20
20
2
{20 30} 2560 2560 ( ) |
5
P x dx x c
÷ ÷
s s = = · ÷ · =
í

5/ 2 5/ 2
2 2
2560 ( ) 30 2560 ( ) 20 0.365
5 5
÷ ÷
= · ÷ · ÷ · ÷ · = .
magaliTi 4. 100 000 litrebSi gazomili benzinis yovelkvireuli ga-
yidvebi c aRiwereba ori A da B modeliT. A modelis mixedviT:
2 , 0 1;
( )
0,
x x
f x
c
s s ¦
=
´
¹
Tu
sxvagan,

xolo B modelis Tanaxmad:
3 2
12 (1 ), 0 1;
( )
0,
x x x
f x
c
¦ ÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

a). ipoveT pirveli modelis mediana
A
M ; b). aCveneT, rom meore
modelsac igive mediana aqvs,
B A
M M = .
amoxsna. a). ganmartebis Tanaxmad:
2
2
0
0
1
( ) 2 2 | ( )
2 2
A A
A
M M
M
A
x
f x dx xdx M
c
÷·
= = = · =
í í
.
amitom 1/ 2
A
M = ;
b). analogiurad:
3 2 4 6
0
0
1
( ) 12 (1 ) (3 2 ) |
2
B B
B
M M
M
f x dx x x dx x x
c
÷·
= = ÷ = ÷ =
í í

4 6 4 2
3 ( ) 2 ( ) ( ) [3 2 ( ) ]
B B B B
M M M M = · ÷ · = · ÷ · .
64

gavixsenoT, rom
2
1
( )
2
A
M = . meore mxriv, radganac
2
1 1 1 1
( ) [3 2 ] 2
2 2 4 2
· ÷ · = · = , amitom cxadia, rom 1/ 2
B A
M M = = .
magaliTi 5. amocana 3-Si gamoTvaleT wliuri xelfasis: a). mediana;
b). qveda da zeda kvartilebi; g). moda; d). maTematikuri lodini.
amoxsna. a). gvaqvs:
7/ 2 5/ 2 5/ 2
16
16
1 2
( ) 2560 2560 | 1024 1
2 5
M M
M
f x dx x dx x M
c
÷ ÷ ÷
÷·
= = = · · =÷ +
í í
.
amitom medianisaTvis vRebulobT gantolebas:
5/ 2
1024 1 1/ 2 M
÷
÷ + = .
saidanac advilad davaskvniT, rom
5/ 2
2048 M = , anu 21.1 M = . Sesabamisad,
wliuri xelfasis mediana iqneba 21.1 1000 21100 · = lari;
b). ganmartebis Tanaxmad:
1 1
1
7/ 2 5/ 2 5/ 2
16 1
16
1 2
( ) 2560 2560 | 1024 1
4 5
Q Q
Q
f x dx x dx x Q
c
÷ ÷ ÷
÷·
= = = · · = ÷ +
í í
.
Sesabamisad, qveda kvartilisaTvis gvaqvs gantoleba:
5/ 2
1
1024 1 1/ 4 Q
÷
÷ + = , saidanac gvaqvs:
2/5
1
4
(1024 ) 18
3
Q = · = . analogiurad
davrwmundebiT, rom zeda kvartili
3
27.9 Q = ;
g). vinaidan simkvrive klebadia funqciaa intervalze [16, ) +· , amitom
moda iqneba 16 m= . Sesabamisad, wliuri xelfasis modaa 16 1000 16000 · = la-
ri.
d). ganmartebis Tanaxmad:
7/ 2 5/ 2
16 16
( ) 2560 2560 E xf x dx x x dx x dx
c
u c
· · ·
÷ ÷
÷·
= = = · = =
í í í

3/ 2 3/ 2
16 16
2 2 2
2560 ( ) | 0 2560 ( ) 16 | 26
3 3 3
x
÷ · ÷ ·
= · ÷ · = ÷ · ÷ · = .
e. i. gamyidvelTa xelfasis saSualoa
2
26 1000 26700
3
· = lari.
SevniSnavT, rom saSualo metia medianaze, vinaidan ganawileba dade-
biTad asimetriulia.
magaliTi 6. gamoTvaleT moda amocana 4-is B modelSi.
amoxsna. gavawarmooT simkvrive da gavutoloT nuls:
3 2 ' 2 4 2 2
[12 (1 )] 36 60 12 (3 5 ) 0 x x x x x x ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = .
am gantolebis fesvebia: 0, 3/ 5 ÷ da 3/ 5 , romelTagan 0 1 x s s
SualedSi vardeba mxolod 3/ 5 da aq
3 2
12 (1 ) x x ÷ funqcia aRwevs
maqsimums. Sesabamisad, moda aris 3/ 5 0.775 = . amitom gayiduli benzinis
modaa:
0.775 100000 77500 · = litri.
65

magaliTi 7. benzingasamarTi sadguris yovelkvireuli moTxovna ben-
zinze c gazomili 1000 litrebSi modelirdeba simkvrivis funqciiT:
2
120 (1 ), 0 1;
( )
0,
x x x
f x
c
¦ ÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

gamoTvaleT saSualokvireuli moTxovna benzinze.
amoxsna. ganmartebis Tanaxmad:
1 1
2 3 4
0 0
( ) 120 (1 ) 120 ( ) E xf x dx x x x dx x x dx
c
u c
·
÷·
= = = · ÷ = · ÷ =
í í í

4 5 1
0
(30 24 ) | 30 24 6 x x = ÷ = ÷ = .
Sesabamisad, benzingasamarTi sadguris saSualo moTxovna benzinze
kviraSi Seadgens: 6 1000 6000 · = litrs.
magaliTi 8. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
3
(2 ), 0 2;
( ) 4
0,
x x x
f x
c
¦
· ÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT: a). saSualo; b). dispersia; g). { } P u o c u o ÷ < < + .
amoxsna. a).
2 2
2 3
0 0
3 3 3
( ) (2 ) ( )
4 2 4
E xf x dx x x x dx x x dx
c
u c
·
÷·
= = = · · ÷ = ÷ =
í í í

3 4
2
0
3
( ) | 4 3 1
2 16
x x
= ÷ = ÷ = ;
b).
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 3 4
0 0
3 3 3
( ) (2 ) 1 ( ) 1
4 2 4
D x f x dx x x x dx x x dx
c
o c u
·
÷·
= = ÷ = · · ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
í í í

4 5
2
0
3 3 24 1
( ) | 1 (6 ) 0 1 0.2
8 20 5 5
x x
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ = = ;
g). { } {1 0.2 1 0.2} P P u o c u o c ÷ < < + = ÷ < < + =
1 0.2 1 0.2 2 3
2 1 0.2
1 0.2
1 0.2 1 0.2
3 3 3 3
(2 ) ( ) ( ) |
4 2 4 4 4
x x
x x dx x x dx
+ +
+
÷
÷ ÷
= · ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
í í

2 3 2 3
3 (1 0.2) (1 0.2) 3 (1 0.2) (1 0.2)
( ) ( )
4 4 4 4
· + + · ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ÷ =

2 3 2 3
3 (1.447) (1.447) 3 (0.552) (0.552)
( ) ( ) 0.626
4 4 4 4
· ·
= ÷ ÷ ÷ = .
magaliTi 9. mocemulia ganawilebis simkvrive:
0, 0,
( ) cos , 0 / 2,
0, / 2.
x
f x x x
x
t
t
s ¦
¦
= < s
´
¦
>
¹

ipoveT ganawilebis funqcia.
66

amoxsna. visargebloT formuliT: ( ) ( )
x
F x f u du
÷·
=
í
.
Tu 0 u s , maSin ( ) 0 f u = . Sesabamisad, ( ) 0 0
x
F x du
÷·
= =
í
;
Tu 0 / 2 u t < s , maSin
0
0
( ) 0 cos sin
x
F x du udu x
÷·
= + =
í í
;
Tu / 2 x t > , maSin
0 / 2
/ 2
0
0 / 2
( ) 0 cos 0 sin | 1
x
F x du udu du x
t
t
t ÷·
= + + = =
í í í
.
sabolood gvaqvs:
0, 0,
( ) sin , 0 / 2,
0, / 2.
x
F x x x
x
t
t
s ¦
¦
= < s
´
¦
>
¹


amocanebi

1. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
1
(1 ), 0 8;
( ) 8
0,
c x x
f x
c
¦
÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT: a). c mudmivis mniSvneloba; b). { 6} P c > ; g). {4 6} P c s s .
2. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
, 0 3;
( )
0,
cx x
f x
c
¦ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT: a). c mudmivis mniSvneloba; b). { 2} P c s ; g). {1.5 2.5} P c s s ; d). x-is
mniSvneloba, Tu cnobilia, rom { } 0.2 P x c s = .
3. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
, 0 3;
( )
0,
cx x
f x
c
¦ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT: a). c mudmivis mniSvneloba; b). { 1.5} P c s .
4. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
(4 ), 2 2;
( )
0,
c x x
f x
c
¦ ÷ ÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT: a). c mudmivis mniSvneloba; b). { 0} P c > ; g). { 1} P c > ; d). {| | 1} P c > ; e).
{ 0.5 0.5} P c ÷ s s .
5. kompiuteris “kartrijis” muSaobis xangrZlivobaa c saaTi. c Sem-
TxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
¹
´
¦ >
=
÷
. , 0
; 400 ,
) (
2
sxvagan
Tu x cx
x f
c

67

gamoTvaleT c mudmivis mniSvneloba. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom: a). “ka-
rtriji” imuSavebs sul cota 500 saaTi; b). “kartriji” Sesacvleli gax-
deba manam sanam is imuSavebs 600 saaTi; g). ori “kartriji” Sesacvleli
iqneba manam sanam TiToeuli imuSavebs 600-600 saaTi; d). oTxi “kartriji-
dan” ori imuSavebs 600 saaTze mets, xolo ori 600 saaTze naklebs.
6. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
( ) , 0 ;
( )
0,
c x a x a
f x
c
¦ ÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT: a). a da c mudmivis mniSvnelobebi, Tu 3
3
= c a ; b). { / 2} P a c > .
7. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
1
, 0 3;
( ) 9
0,
x x
f x
c
¦
s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sididis: a). mediana; b). qveda da zeda kvartilebi.
8. kompiuteris “kartrijis” saRebavis muSaobis xangrZlivoba c , ga-
zomili saaTebSi, modelirdeba albaTuri ganawilebis simkvriviT:
2
400 , 400;
( )
0,
x x
f x
c
÷
¦ >
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT “kartrijis” muSaobis xangrZlivobis mediana.
9. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2 4, 2 3;
( )
0,
x x
f x
c
÷ s s ¦
=
´
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

a). daxazeT simkvrivis grafiki; b). ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sididis mediana
da moda; g). ipoveT kvartilTSorisi gabnevis diapazoni.
10. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2 1
(1 ), 0 5;
( ) 5 5
0,
x x
f x
c
¦
÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

a). daxazeT simkvrivis grafiki; b). ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sididis mediana
da modaluri mniSvneloba.
11. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
3
(2 ), 0 2;
( ) 4
0,
x x x
f x
c
¦
÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sididis modaluri mniSvneloba.
12. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
(1 ), 0 1;
( )
0,
cx x x
f x
c
¦ ÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

68

a). ipoveT c; b). gamoTvaleT moda; g). dawereT gantoleba, romelsac akma-
yofilebs mediana M.
13. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
1
, 0 3;
( ) 9
0,
x x
f x
c
¦
s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT saSualo da dispersia.
14. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2 4, 2 3;
( )
0,
x x
f x
c
÷ s s ¦
=
´
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

ipoveT saSualo da dispersia.
15. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
1 1
(1 ), 0 8;
( ) 4 8
0,
x x
f x
c
¦
÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

a). daxazeT simkvrivis grafiki; b). ipoveT saSualo da dispersia.
16. sawarmos mier gamoSvebuli silikonis masa c , gazomili kilogr-
amebSi, modelirdeba ganawilebis simkvriviT:
2
3
(4 ), 0 4;
( ) 32
0,
x x x
f x
c
¦
÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

a). daxazeT simkvrivis grafiki; b). ipoveT silikonis masis saSualo da
dispersia.
17. elementebis muSaobis xangrZlivoba c , gazomili saaTebSi, mode-
lirdeba ganawilebis simkvriviT:
4
3000 , 10;
( )
0,
x x
f x
c
÷
¦ >
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

a). daxazeT simkvrivis grafiki; b). ipoveT elementebis muSaobis
xangrZlivobis saSualo da dispersia.
18. kompiuteris “kartrijis” muSaobis xangrZlivoba c , gazomili
saaTebSi, modelirdeba albaTuri ganawilebis simkvriviT:
2
, 400 900;
( )
0,
cx x
f x
c
÷
¦ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan.

a). gamoTvaleT c-s mniSvneloba; b). daxazeT simkvrivis grafiki; g).
ipoveT “kartrijis” muSaobis xangrZlivobis saSualo da dispersia.
19. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis funqciaa:
0, 2,
( ) 0.5 , 2 4,
1, 4.
x
F x x x
x
s ¦
¦
= < s
´
¦
>
¹

69

ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom c SemTxveviTi sidide miiRebs mniSvnelobas,
romelic: a). naklebia 0.2-ze; b). naklebia 3-ze; g). ar aris naklebi 3-ze; d).
ar aris naklebi 5-ze.
20. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis funqciaa:
2
0, 0,
( ) , 0 1,
1, 1.
x
F x x x
x
s ¦
¦
= < s
´
¦
>
¹

ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom 4 damokidebeli dakvirvebis Sedegad c SemT-
xveviTi sidide 3-jer miiRebs mniSvnelobas (0.25, 0.75) Sualedidan.
21. ipoveT ganawilebis simkvrive, Tu ganawilebis funqciaa:
0, 0,
( ) sin , 0 / 2,
1, / 2.
x
F x x x
x
t
t
s ¦
¦
= < s
´
¦
>
¹

22. ipoveT ganawilebis simkvrive, Tu ganawilebis funqciaa:
0, 0,
( ) sin2 , 0 / 4,
1, / 4.
x
F x x x
x
t
t
s ¦
¦
= < s
´
¦
>
¹

23. ipoveT ganawilebis funqcia, Tu ganawilebis simkvrivea:
sin , 0 / 2,
( )
0,
x x
f x
t < s ¦
=
´
¹
sxvagan.

24. ipoveT ganawilebis funqcia, Tu ganawilebis simkvrivea:
1/ 2, 1 2,
( )
0,
x x
f x
÷ < s ¦
=
´
¹
sxvagan.

25. ipoveT [2, 8] monakveTze Tanabrad ganawilebuli SemTxveviTi sid-
idis ganawilebis simkvrive da standartuli gadaxra.



pasuxebi:
1. 1/4; 1/16; 3/16. 2. 1/9; 8/27; 147/324; 1.75. 3. 1/15; 11/40. 4. 3/32; 1/2; 5/32; 5/16; 47/128.
5. 400; 4/5; 1/3; 1/9; 8/27. 6. 3; 1/9; 1/8. 7. 2.38; 2.73; 1.89. 8. 800. 9. --;
1
2 2
2
+ , 2;
1
( 3 1)
2
÷ . 10. --;
5
5 2
2
÷ , 0 . 11. 1. 12. 12; 2/3;
4 3
6 8 1 0 M M ÷ + = . 13. 9/4, 27/80. 14.
8/3, 1/18. 15. --; 8/3, 32/9. 16. --; 2, 4/5. 17. --; 15, 75. 18. 720; --; 584, 19100. 19. 0; 0.5;
0.5; 0. 20. 0.25 (
4
(4, 0.5) : (3) 0.25 Bi P = ). 21.
(0, / 2]
cos ( ) x x
t
; . 22.
(0, / 4]
2cos2 ( ) x x
t
; . 23.
( ) 0, 0; 1 cos , 0 / 2; 1, / 2 F x x x x x t t = s ÷ < s > . 24. ( ) 0, 1 F x x = s ;
2
1/ 2( ) x x ÷ ,
1 2 x < s ; 1, 2 x > . 25.
[2,8]
1
( )
6
x ; ; 3 .
70

Tavi VI
normaluri ganawileba

SemTxveviT sidides ewodeba normaluri da aRiniSneba simboloTi
2
( , ) N a o , Tu mis ganawilebis simkvrives (Sesabamisad, ganawilebis funqci-
as) aqvs saxe:
2
2
2
( )
2
( , )
1
( )
2
x a
N a
f x e
o
o
to
÷
÷
= (Sesabamisad,
2
2
2
( )
2
( , )
1
( )
2
t a x
N a
F x e dt
o
o
to
÷
÷
÷·
=
í
).
standartuli normaluri ganawilebis ( (0,1) N ) simkvrive (Sesabamis-
ad, ganawilebis funqcia) aRiniSneba simboloTi:
2
2
(0,1)
1
( ) : ( )
2
x
N
x f x e m
t
÷
= = (Sesabamisad,
2
2
(0,1)
1
( ) : ( )
2
x t
N
x F x e dt
t
÷
÷·
u = =
í
; garda
amisa, ixmareba aRniSvna:
2
2
0
0
1
( ) :
2
x t
x e dt
t
÷
u =
í
).
cxadia, rom: ( ) ( ) x x m m ÷ = ; ( ) 1 ( ) x x u ÷ = ÷u ;
0
( ) 0.5 ( ) x x u = +u , 0 x > ;
2
( , )
(0,1)
N a a
N
o
o
÷
= ; { (0,1) , } ( ) ( ) P N c d d c e( , =u ÷u ;
2
{ ( , ) , } ( ) ( )
d a c a
P N a c d o
o o
÷ ÷
e( , =u ÷u ;
2
, 0.1 a
p p
x x a
o
o = · + ;
2
,
0.1
a
p
p
x a
x
o
o
÷
= , sadac
2
, a
p
x
o
aris
2
( , ) N a o -is p -kvantili.
Tu 5 . 0 s o , maSin o
o
÷ = u 5 . 0 ) (
0
z ; xolo Tu 5 . 0 > o , maSin
5 . 0 ) (
0
÷ = ÷ u o
o
z , sadac
o
z standartuli normaluri ganawilebis zeda o -
kritikuli wertilia.


magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom standartuli normaluri
SemTxveviTi sidide naklebia 1.18-ze, ( (0,1) 1.18) P N < ?
amoxsna. davxazoT standartuli normaluri ganawilebis simkvrivis
wiri da abscisTa RerZze avRniSnoT 1.18-is Sesabamisi wertili (am SemTxv-
evaSi 1.18 z = ).


71


normaluri ganawilebis cxrilis pirvel svetSi movZebnoT ricxvi
1.1, xolo pirvel striqonSi ki – ricxvi .08.
1.1-is Sesabamisi striqonisa da .08-is Sesabamisi svetis gadakveTaze
vpoulobT ricxvs – 0.8810. amitom saZiebeli albaToba iqneba
( (0,1) 1.18) 0.8810 P N < = anu 88.10%.
magaliTi 2. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom standartuli normaluri
SemTxveviTi sidide naklebia -0.63-ze, ( (0,1) 0.63) P N <÷ ?
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi 0.63 z =÷ da saZiebeli albaToba iqneba
( (0,1) 0.63) ( (0,1) 0.63) 1 (0.63) 1 0.7357 0.2643 P N P N <÷ = > = ÷u = ÷ = anu 26.43%.

magaliTi 3. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom standartuli normaluri
SemTxveviTi sidide metia -1.48-ze, ( (0,1) 1.48) P N > ÷ ?
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi 1.48 z =÷ da gamosaTvlelia normaluri gana-
wilebis wiris qveS -1.48-is marjvniv moTavsebuli aris farTobi.

Tu visargeblebT normaluri ganawilebis simetriulobiTa da ( ) z u
funqciis cxrilebiT, miviRebT:
( (0,1) 1.48) ( (0,1) 1.48) (1.48) 0.9306 P N P N >÷ = < =u = .
SeniSvna. SegviZlia visargebloT sawinaaRmdego xdomilebis albaT-
obis gamosaTvleli formuliT da maSin magaliTi daiyvneba wina magali-
Tze:
( (0,1) 1.48) 1 ( (0,1) 1.48) 1 ( (0,1) 1.48) 1 0.0694 0.9306 P N P N P N >÷ = ÷ s÷ = ÷ <÷ = ÷ = .

72


magaliTi 4. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom standartuli normaluri
SemTxveviTi sidide moTavsebulia SualedSi -1.65-sa da 1.65-s Soris,
( 1.65 (0,1) 1.65) P N ÷ < < ?
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi saZiebeli albaToba iqneba;
( 1.65 (0,1) 1.65) (1.65) ( 1.65) P N ÷ < < =u ÷u ÷ =
(1.65) [1 (1.65)] 2 (1.65) 1 2 0.9505 1 0.9010 =u ÷ ÷u = u ÷ = × ÷ = .
SevniSnavT, rom amoxsnis procedurebi sqematurad gamosaxulia qve-
moTmoyvanil sam naxazze:



magaliTi 5. vipovoT z -is iseTi mniSvneloba, romlis marjvniv stan-
dartuli normaluri ganawilebis wiris qveS moTavsebuli aris farTobi
tolia 0.2000-is?
amoxsna. cxadia, rom es amocana tolfasia z -is iseTi mniSvnelobis
moZebnis, romlis marcxniv normaluri ganawilebis wiris qveS moTavsebu-
li aris farTobi tolia 1-0.2000=0.8000-is. normaluri ganawilebis cxril-
Si vpoulobT 0.8000-sTan yvelaze axlos mdgom ricxvs -- 0.7995-s. es ricx-
vi dgas 0.8-is Sesabamisi striqonisa da .04-is Sesabamisi svetis gadakveTa-
ze. amitom gasagebia, rom z -is saZiebeli mniSvnelobaa 0.84 z = .



73

magaliTi 6. davuSvaT, rom avtomobilis dazianebis SemTxvevaSi ava-
riul gamoZaxebaze reagirebis saSualo dro aris 25 wuTi. CavTvaloT,
rom es sidide ganawilebulia daaxloebiT normalurad da misi standar-
tuli gadaxra tolia 4.5 wuTis. SemTxveviT SerCeul iqna 80 gamoZaxeba.
daaxloebiT ramden maTganze moxdeba regireba 15 wuTze nakleb droSi?
amoxsna. am amocanis amosaxsnelad vipovoT normaluri wiris qveS
15-is marcxniv mdebare aris farTobi.
nabiji 1. davxazoT grafiki da movniSnoT saZiebeli are.
nabiji 2. vipovoT 15-is z mniSvneloba:
15 25 10
2.22
4.5 4.5
X
z
u
o
÷ ÷
= = =÷ =÷ .

nabiji 3. vipovoT 2.22 z =÷ -sa da 0 z = -s Soris mdebare aris farTo-
bi. is tolia 0.4868-is.
nabiji 4. gamovakloT 0.5000-s 0.4868. miviRebT 0.0132-s.
nabiji 5. imisaTvis, rom gavigoT randen gamoZaxebaze moxda reag-
ireba 15 wuTze nakleb droSi, gavamravloT SerCevis moculoba (80) miReb-
ul farTobze (0.0132). maSin miviRebT 1.056-s. maSasadame, 1.056 anu daaxloe-
biT erT gamoZaxebaze moxdeba reagireba 15 wuTze nakleb droSi.
magaliTi 7. cnobilia, rom abiturientebis mxolod 10% SeiZleba
gaxdes studenti. CavTvaloT, rom abiturientebis mier mogrovili quleb-
is mniSvnelobebi normaluradaa ganawilebuli saSualoTi 200 da standa-
rtuli gadaxriT 20. vipovoT is minimaluri qula, romelic saWiroa raTa
abiturienti gaxdes studenti.
amoxsna. vinaidan abiturientebis mier mogrovili qulebis mniSvnel-
obebi normaluradaa ganawilebuli, amitom im qulis mniSvneloba ( X ),
romlis zeviTac abiturienti gaxdeba studenti, aris iseTi ricxvi, rom-
lis marjvniv normaluri wiris qveS moTavsebuli aris farTobi tolia
10%-is anu 0.1000-is:

nabiji 1. imisaTvis, rom vipovoT normaluri wiris qveS 200-sa da
74

X -s Soris mdebare aris farTobi 0.5000-s gamovakloT 0.1000, miviRebT
0.4000-s.
nabiji 2. vipovoT z mniSvneloba, romelic Seesabameba normaluri
ganawilebis cxrilSi 0.4000-s. im SemTxvevaSi, roca cxrilSi ar iZebneba
zustad es mniSvneloba viRebT masTan yvelaze axlos myofs, am SemTxveva-
Si 0.3997-s. Sesabamisi 1.28 z = .
nabiji 3. SevitanoT 1.28 z mniSvnelobis gamosaTvlel formulaSi
( ) / z X u o = ÷ da amovxsnaT X .
1.28
X u
o
÷
=
1.28 20 200 X × + =
25.60 200 225.60 X = + =
226 X = .
e.i. imisaTvis, rom abiturienti gaxdes studenti, man unda moagrov-
os 226 qula.
SeniSvna. im SemTxvevaSi, roca farTobis mniSvneloba vardeba cxri-
lis ori mniSvnelobis zustad SuaSi, maSin viRebT maTi Sesabamisi z mni-
Svnelobebidan ufro dids. magaliTad, Tu farTobis mniSvnelobaa 0.4500,
is imyofeba 0.4495-isa da 0.4505-is SuaSi da z mniSvnelobad viRebT 1.65-s
da ara 1.64-s.
sawyisi mniSvnelobis gamoTvla z mniSvnelobis mixedviT:
X z o u = · + .
magaliTi 8. samedicino gamoklvelis mizniT mkvlevars surs SearCi-
os arteriuli wnevis safuZvelze Sedgenili populaciis SuaSi mdgomi
adamianebis 60%. vigulisxmoT, rom arteriuli wneva ganawilebulia norm-
alurad saSualoTi 120 da standartuli gadaxriT 8. davadginoT SesarCe-
vi adamianebis arteriuli wnevis zeda da qveda sazRvari.
amoxsna. gasagebia, rom SesarCevi adamianebis arteriuli wnevis zeda
da qveda sazRvari iqneba is ori mopirdapire ricxvi, romelTa gareT no-
rmaluri wiris qveS moqceuli TiToeuli kudis farTobia 20%.


2
X 120
1
X
cxadia, rom z mniSvneloba, romelic Seesabameba normaluri ganawi-
lebis cxrilSi 0.5000-0.2000=0.3000 farTobs tolia 0.84-is. SevitanoT igi
X z o u = · + formulaSi. miviRebT, rom
1
0.84 8 120 126.72 X z o u = · + = × + = .
75

meores mxriv, standartuli normaluri ganawilebis saSualos mim-
arT simetriulobis gamo,
2
X -is gamosaTvlelead unda aviRoT 0.84 z =÷ .
Sesabamisad gveqneba:
2
0.84 8 120 113.28 X z o u = · + = ÷ × + = .
e. i. mkvlevarma unda SearCios iseTi adamianebi, romelTa arteriu-
li wneva moTavsebulia 113.8-sa da 126.72-s Soris,
113.28 126.72 X < < .
magaliTi 9. mocemulia
2
(23, ) N c o ~ da { 27} 0.83 P c < = . ipoveT o .
amoxsna. cxadia, rom
23
(0,1) Z N
c
o
÷
= ~ . garda amisa, xdomilebebi
{ 27} c < da
23 27 23
{ }
c
o o
÷ ÷
< eqvivalenturia. amitom
23 27 23 4
{ 27} { } { } 0.83 P P P Z
c
c
o o o
÷ ÷
< = < = < = ,
anu
4
( ) 0.83
o
u = . saidanac, magaliTi 5-is analogiurad:
4
0.9542
o
= da, Sesab-
amisad,
4
4.19
0.9542
o = = .
magaliTi 10. mas Semdeg rac nika Camosvams ekas manqanidan qalaqis
centralur fostasTan, is moZraobs qalaqSi da garkveuli drois Semdeg
brundeba ekas wasayvanad. nikas varaudiT ekas mier fostaSi gatarebuli
dro daaxloebiT normaluradaa ganawilebuli saSualoTi 6 wuTi da
standartuli gadaxriT 1.3 wuTi. ramdeni wuTis Semdeg unda dabrundes
nika fostasTan, rom ar mouwios lodini sul cota 95%-iani garantiiT.
amoxsna. T iyos ekas mier fostaSi gatarebuli dro. maSin
2
(6,1.3 ) T N ~ . t iyos fostasTan ekas Camosmidan nikas ukan dabrunebamde
gasuli dro. mosaZebnia iseTi t , romlisTvisac: { } 0.95 P T t s > . es Tanafar-
doba tolfasia:
6 6
{ } 0.95
1.3 1.3
T t
P
÷ ÷
s > , anu
6
( ) 0.95 (1.645)
1.3
t ÷
u > =u , saidanac
gvaqvs:
6
1.645
1.3
t ÷
> . aqedan advilad miviRebT, rom 8.1385 8.14 t > ~ . maSasadame,
nika ar unda dabrundes 8.14 wuTze adre.
magaliTi 11. biologi agrovebs monacemebs konkretuli saxeobis ka-
qtusis simaRlis Sesaxeb. misi dakvirvebiT kaqtusebis 34.25%-is sigrZe 12
sm-ze naklebia, xolo 18.4%-is sigrZe 16 sm-ze metia. biologma dauSva,
rom simaRle ganawilebulia normalurad. vipovoT am ganawilebis saSua-
lo da standartuli gadaxra.
amoxsna. kaqtusis simaRle avRniSnoT H ,
2
( , ) H N a o ~ . mosaZebnia a
da o . biologis dakvirvebis Tanaxmad: { 12} 0.342 P H < = da { 16} 0.184 P H > = .
Sesabamisad,
12
( ) 0.342
a
o
÷
u = da
16
( ) 1 0.184 0.816
a
o
÷
u = ÷ = .
76

amitom
12
0.407
a
o
÷
=÷ da
16
0.900
a
o
÷
= . saidanac vaskvniT, rom: 13.2 a =
da 3.06 o = .
magaliTi 12. supermarketSi dRis ganmavlobaSi gayiduli citruseb-
is raodenoba modelirdeba normaluri ganawilebiT. aRmoCnda, rom xangr-
Zlivi periodis manZilze dReSi saSualod iyideboda 35 kg. citrusi, xo-
lo 15 kg-ze naklebi gayidul iqna saSualod yoveli 20 dRidan erT dRe-
Si. a). gamoTvaleT gayidvebis standartuli gadaxra o ; b). cnobilia, rom
konkretul dRes gaiyida 53 kg-ze meti citrusi. ipoveT albaToba imisa,
rom am dRes gaiyida 56 kg-ze meti citrusi.
amoxsna. dReSi gayiduli citrusebis raodenoba aRvniSnoT c -Ti. ma-
Sin:
2
(35, ) N c o ~ da
1
{ 15} 0.05
20
P c < = = .
a).
15 35
{ 15} 0.05 ( ) 0.05 P c
o
÷
< = ¬u = ¬
15 35
1.6448 12.2 o
o
÷
¬ =÷ ¬ = ;
b).
{ 56 53} { 56}
{ 56| 53}
{ 53} { 53}
P P
P
P P
c c c
c c
c c
> > >
> > = = =
> >


56 35
1 ( )
1 0.9574
12.2
0.608
53 35
1 0.9299
1 ( )
12.2
÷
÷u
÷
= = =
÷
÷
÷u
.


amocanebi
1. cnobilia, rom (0,1) Z N ~ . normaluri ganawilebis funqciis cxri-
lis gamoyenebiT ipoveT albaTobebi: a). { 1.23} P Z < ; b). { 2.47} P Z s ; g).
{ 0.16} P Z < ; d). { 1.24} P Z > ; e). { 2.38} P Z > ; v). { 0.59} P Z > ; z). { 1.83} P Z > ÷ ; T).
{ 2.06} P Z s ÷ ; i). { 0.07} P Z >÷ ; k). { 1.83} P Z s ÷ ; l). { 2.76} P Z < ÷ ; m). { 0.21} P Z s÷ .
2. cnobilia, rom (0,1) Z N ~ . ipoveT albaTobebi: a). {1.15 1.35} P Z < < ; b).
{1.11 2.22} P Z s s ; g). {0.39 2.42} P Z < < ; d). {0 1.55} P Z s < ; e). { 1.82 2.33} P Z ÷ < < ;
v). { 0.85 2.03} P Z ÷ < s ; z). { 2.51 1.09} P Z ÷ < < ; T). { 0.55 0} P Z ÷ s s ; i).
{ 2.82 1.82} P Z ÷ < <÷ ; k). { 1.75 1.00} P Z ÷ s s÷ ; l). { 2.57 0.12} P Z ÷ < <÷ ; m).
{ 1.96 1.96} P Z ÷ s < .
3. cnobilia, rom (0,1) Z N ~ . ipoveT Sesabamisad s , t , u an v, Tu: a).
{ } 0.67 P Z s < = ; b). { } 0.88 P Z t < = ; g). { } 0.98 P Z u < = ; d). { } 0.85 P Z v < = ; e).
{ } 0.41 P Z s > = ; v). { } 0.12 P Z t > = ; z). { } 0.01 P Z u > = ; T). { } 0.22 P Z v > = ; i).
{ } 0.99 P Z s > = ; k). { } 0.97 P Z t > = ; l). { } 0.85 P Z u > = ; m). { } 0.5 P Z v > = .
4. mocemulia (20,16) N c ~ . ipoveT Semdegi albaTobebi: a). { 26} P c s ; b).
{ 30} P c > ; g). { 17} P c > ; d). { 13} P c < .
77

5. mocemulia (24,9) N c ~ . ipoveT Semdegi albaTobebi: a). { 29} P c s ; b).
{ 31} P c > ; g). { 22} P c > ; d). { 16} P c < .
6. mocemulia (50,16) N c ~ . ipoveT Semdegi albaTobebi: a).
{54 58} P c s s ; b). {40 44} P c < s ; g). {47 57} P c < < ; d). {39 53} P c s < ; e).
{44 56} P c s s .
7. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi 3
da dispersiiT 4. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom c miiRebs uaryofiT mniSvn-
elobas.
8. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi a
( 0) a > da dispersiiT
2
/ 4 a . a). ipoveT { 1.5 } P a c > ; b). ipoveT albaToba imi-
sa, rom c uaryofiTia.
9. mocemulia (44, 25) N c ~ . ipoveT Sesabamisad s , t , u an v, Tu: a).
{ } 0.98 P s c s = ; b). { } 0.77 P t c > = ; g). { } 0.05 P u c > = ; d). { } 0.33 P v c s = .
10. mocemulia (15, 4) N c ~ . ipoveT Sesabamisad s , t , u, v an w, Tu: a).
{ } 0.91 P s c s = ; b). { } 0.57 P t c > = ; g). { } 0.10 P u c s = ; d). { } 0.39 P v c s = ; e).
{15 15 } 0.9 P w w c ÷ < < + = .
11. mocemulia (35.4,12.5) N c ~ . ipoveT Sesabamisad s , t , u an v, Tu: a).
{ } 0.96 P s c < = ; b). { } 0.94 P t c > = ; g). { } 0.29 P u c > = ; d). { } 0.15 P v c < = .
12. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi 32
da dispersiiT
2
o . albaToba imisa, rom c naklebia 33-ze aris 0.64. ipoveT
2
o .
13. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad dispersiiT 18
da { 73} 0.03 P c > = . ipoveT saSualo.
14. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad, { 59} 0.02 P c > =
da { 29} 0.93 P c > = . ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sididis saSualo da standartu-
li gadaxra.
15. mocemulia
2
( , ) N a c o ~ , { 9.81} 0.16 P c > = da { 8.82} 0.01 P c s = . ipoveT
a da o .
16. afTiaqSi wamlis damzadebaze daxarjuli dro ganawilebulia
normalurad saSualoTi 15 wuTi da standartuli gadaxriT 2.8 wuTi. ipo-
veT albaToba imisa, rom wamlis damzadebaze daxarjuli dro: a). 20 wuT-
ze metia; b). 8 wuTze naklebia; g). moTavsebulia 10 wuTsa da 18 wuTs Sor-
is.
17. jgufSi 16 wlis gogonebis simaRle ganawilebulia normalurad
saSualoTi 161.2 sm da standartuli gadaxriT 4.7 sm. ipoveT albaToba im-
isa, rom am jgufidan erTi gogonas simaRle: a). 165 sm-ze metia; b). 150 sm-
ze naklebia; g). moTavsebulia 165 sm-sa da 170 sm-s Soris; d). moTavsebu-
lia 150 sm-sa da 163 sm-s Soris. 16 wlis 500 SerCeuli gogonasaTvis Seaf-
aseT raodenoba im gogonebis, romelTa simaRle gava zemoT moyvanili 4
diapazonidan.
18. avtomobilis SuSis sawmendi rezinis sigrZe ganawilebulia nor-
malurad saSualoT 25 sm da standartuli gadaxriT 0.2 sm. SeafaseT 200
78

cali SuSis sawmendidan ramdenis sigrZes unda movelodeT, rom iqneba: a).
25.3 sm an meti; b). moTavsebuli 24.89 sm-sa da 25.11 sm-s Soris; g). moTavseb-
uli 24.89 sm-sa da 25.25 sm-s Soris.
19. avtomobilis gacveTili samuxruWe xundis Secvlis dro ganawi-
lebulia normalurad saSualoTi 90 wuTi da standartuli gadaxriT 5.8
wuTi. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom xundis Secvlas dasWirdeba: a). 105 wu-
Tze meti; b). 85 wuTze naklebi. daadgineT saSualos mimarT simetriuli
( , ) a b intervali, romelSic moxvdeba xundis Secvlis dro 90%-iani saime-
doobiT.
20. kompaniis mier warmoebuli dRis ganaTebis muSaobis xangrZlivo-
ba ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi 2010 saaTi da standartuli
gadaxriT 20 saaTi. kompaniam gadawyvita gazardos gayidvebis ricxvi, ris-
Tvisac man valdebuleba aiRo sagarantio drois gasvlamde gafuWebuli
nebismieri dRis ganaTeba ufasod Secvalos axliT. vipovoT is sagaran-
tio dro, romlis dawesebis SemTxvevaSi kompanias mouwevs ufasod Secva-
los dRis ganaTebis mxolod 3%.
21. yvavilis foTolis sigrZe ganawilebulia normalurad saSualo-
Ti 18.2 sm da standartuli gadaxriT 2.3 sm. a). ipoveT albaToba imisa,
rom yvavilis foTlis sigrZe moTavsebulia 16 sm-sa da 20 sm-s Soris; b).
yvavilis foTlebis 12% h sm-ze grZelia, xolo 20% l sm-ze moklea. ipo-
veT h da l ; g). SeafaseT yvavilis 500 foTlidan ramdeni iqneba 14 sm-ze
mokle.
22. boTls, romelSic asxia ualkoholo sasmeli, aweria 330 ml. sin-
amdvileSi Camosxmuli ualkoholo sasmelis moculoba ganawilebulia
normalurad standartuli gadaxriT 2.5 ml. ramdeni unda iyos Camosxmu-
li ualkoholo sasmelis moculobis saSualo, raTa darwmunebuli viy-
oT, rom boTlebis sul cota 99%-Si sasmeli meti iqneba 330 ml-ze.
23. fuTas, romelSic iyideba Saqari, aqvs warwera – 1 kg. Saqari. fa-
qtiurad, fuTaSi moTavsebuli Saqris wona ganawilebulia normalurad
saSualoTi 1.08 kg. fuTebis Semowmebam aCvena, rom fuTebis 2.5% naklulia
(Seicavs miTiTebul 1 kg-ze nakleb Saqars). a). ipoveT am ganawilebis sta-
ndartuli gadaxra; b). Tu mocemuli fuTa naklulia, maSin gamoTvaleT
albaToba imisa, rom misi wona saSualoze 3 standartuli gadaxriT nak-
lebia.
24. generatoris muSaobis xangrZlivoba ganawilebulia normalurad
saSualoTi 210 sT. aRmoCnda, rom generatorebis 4% muSaobs 222 saaTze
mets. ipoveT am ganawilebis dispersia.
25. albaTobis gamocdaze studentebis 15% Rebulobs 63 qulaze
mets, xolo 10% -- 32 qulaze naklebs. vigulisxmoT, rom qulebi ganawil-
ebulia normalurad da vipovoT qulebis saSualo da standartuli gada-
xra.
26. mziani saaTebis raodenoba TveSi H garkveul kurortze ganawi-
lebulia normalurad saSualoTi 130 sT. cnobilia, rom { 179} 0.975 P H < = .
a). gamoTvaleT H -is standartuli gadaxra; b). gamoTvaleT
{100 150} P H < < .
79

amocanebi gameorebisaTvis

27. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
(4 ), 0 4,
( )
0, .
k x x
f x
c
÷ s s ¦
=
´
¹
Tu
sxvagan

gamoTvaleT: a). k ; b). { 2.5} P c > ; g). Ec .
28. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
1
, 0 2,
( ) 2
0, .
x x
f x
c
¦
s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan

ipoveT: a). c SemTxveviTi sididis mediana da qveda da zeda kvartili; b).
Ec ; g). Dc .
29. uwyveti U SemTxveviTi sidide Tanabradaa ganawilebuli [0.5, 2.5]
segmentze. ipoveT am SemTxveviTi sididis: a). ganawilebis simkvrive; b). ma-
Tematikuri lodini; g). dispersia.
30. xis naWrebis sigrZe modelirdeba uwyveti Tanabari ganawilebiT,
romlis simkvrivea:
1
, 0.2 0.8,
( )
0, .
U
x
f x k
¦
s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan

ipoveT: a). k ; b). EU ; g). DU . d). SemTxveviT SeirCa sami naWeri. risi to-
lia albaToba imisa, rom maTgan mxolod oris sigrZe iqneba 0.6-ze meti.
31. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
3
, 0 2,
( )
0, .
kx x
f x
c
¦ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan

ipoveT: a). k ; b). EU ; g). DU ; d). ganawilebis mediana; e). albaToba imisa,
rom dakvirveba moTavsebuli iqneba saSualodan erTi standartuli gada-
xris farglebSi; v). albaToba imisa, rom 4 dakvirvebidan 2 iqneba saSual-
oze meti da 2 – saSualoze naklebi.
32. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
( )(2 ), 0 2,
( )
0, .
x a a x x
f x
c
÷ ÷ s s ¦
=
´
¹
Tu
sxvagan

ipoveT: a). a; b). Ec .
33. cnobilia, rom (10,8) N c ~ . ipoveT { 6} P c > .
34. cnobilia, rom (140,56.25) N c ~ . ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom c me-
tia 128.75-ze.
35. garkveuli modelis avtomobili 56 mili/sT siCqariT moZraobis-
as erTi galoni benziniT gadis manZils, romlis saSualo mniSvnelobaa
32.4 mili da standartuli gadaxra 1.4 mili. CavTvaleT, rom saqme gvaqvs
normalur ganawilebasTan da gamoTvaleT albaToba imisa, rom es avtom-
80

obili 56 mili/sT siCqariT moZraobisas erTi galoni benziniT gaivlis
30 milze mets.
36. normalurad ganawilebuli c SemTxveviTi sididis saSualoa 20,
xolo dispersia 4.15. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom 18 21 c < < .
37. farTobi, romlis SeRebvac SeiZleba 1 litri bunebrivi saRebav-
iT ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi 13.2 kv. metri da standartuli
gadaxriT 0.197 kv. metri. farTobi, romlis SeRebvac SeiZleba 1 litri xe-
lovnuri saRebaviT ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi 13.4 kv. metri
da standartuli gadaxriT 0.343 kv. metri. SesaRebia 12.9 kv. metri farTo-
bi. gansazRvreT, romeli saRebavis 1 litri iqneba sakmarisi ufro meti
albaTobiT am farTobis SesaRebad.
38. kvercxis wona c , gazomili gramebSi, ganawilebulia normalur-
ad: (85, 0.36) N c ~ . kvercxebi iyofa sam kategoriad: didi, saSualo da pata-
ra. didi kvercxis wona metia an toli 90 gramze. kvercxebis 25% pataraa.
gamoTvaleT: a). kvercxebis ramdeni procentia didi; b). patara kvercxis
maqsimaluri wona.
39. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi a
da dispersiiT a. cnobilia, rom { 3} 0.2 P c < = . ipoveT a.
40. ori firma, A da B, awarmoebs gamoZaxebis SeCerebis mowyobile-
bas sakomunikacio organizaciisaTvis. gamoZaxebis SeCerebis dro izomeba
nanowamebSi (nwm). a). SeCerebis dro A firmis mier warmoebuli SeCerebis
mowyobilebisaTvis modelirdeba normaluri ganawilebiT saSualoTi 283
nwm da standartuli gadaxriT 8 nwm. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom A fir-
mis mowyobilebisaTvis SeCerebis dro moTavsebulia 275 nwm-sa da 286 nwm-
s Soris; b). B firmis mowyobilebisaTvis SeCerebis dro isev igulisxme-
ba, rom normaluria. aq SeCerebis drois 10% naklebia 274.6 nwm-ze da 7.5%
metia 288.2 nwm-ze. vipovoT am ganawilebis saSualo da standartuli gad-
axra.
41. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi a
da dispersiiT
2
o . mocemulia, rom { 81.89} 0.01 P c > = da { 27.77} 0.1 P c < = . ip-
oveT a da
2
o .
42. cnobilia, rom ( , 4) N a c ~ . ipoveT a, Tu cnobilia, rom Sesabamisi
ganawilebis simkvrivis wiris wves moqceuli aris farTobi 12-dan +·-mde
aris 0.8.
43. danadgari Wris grZel milebs patar-patara milebad. patara mil-
is sigrZe ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi a sm da standartuli
gadaxriT 0.25 sm. a-s mniSvnelobis Secvla SesaZlebelia danadgaris reg-
ulirebis xarjze. a). ipoveT a, romlisTvisac albaToba imisa, rom SemT-
xveviT SerCeuli patara milis sigrZe naklebia 6.5 sm-ze aris 0.1; b). dana-
dgari daregulirda ise, rom 6.4 a = , xolo standartuli gadaxra ar Sec-
vlila. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli patara milis
sigrZe moTavsebulia 6.3 sm-sa da 6.6 sm-s Soris.


81

amocanebi gamocdisaTvis

44. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi
250 da dispersiiT 50. ipoveT misi simkvrivis wiris qveS 180-dan 280-mde mo-
Tavsebuli aris farTobi.
45. garkveuli saxeobis Citis wona ganawilebulia normalurad saS-
ualoTi 0.8 kg da standartuli gadaxriT 0.12 kg. ipoveT albaToba imisa,
rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli am saxeobis Citis wona moTavsebuli iqneba 0.74
kg-sa da 0.95 kg-s Soris.
46. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad da
{ 10} 0.67 P c s = , { 12} 0.937 P c s = . ipoveT Ec .
47. c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
, 0 2,
( )
0, .
kx x
f x
c
¦ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan

a). aCveneT, rom 3/ 8 k = ; b). gamoTvaleT Ec ; g). ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sidi-
dis mediana.
48. saqmiani qali dRis ganmavlobaSi telefonze laparaks andomebs
T saaTs. T SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
3
1
(8 ), 0 2,
( ) 12
0, .
T
x x x
f x
¦
÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan

ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sididis: a). maTematikuri lodini; b). mediana; g).
moda.
49. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
1
(4 ), 0 2,
( ) 4
0, .
x x x
f x
c
¦
÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan

ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sididis mediana.
50. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
2
(2 ), 0 2,
( )
0, .
c x x x
f x
c
¦ ÷ s s
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Tu
sxvagan

ipoveT: a). c mudmivis mniSvneloba; b). albaToba {0.25 0.5} P c s s .
51. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis funqciaa:
0, 0,
( ) sin , 0 / 2,
1, / 2.
x
F x x x
x
c
t
t
s ¦
¦
= s s
´
¦
>
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sididis: a). ganawilebis simkvrive: b). mediana.
82

52. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrivea:
( ) sin f x x
c
= , Tu 0 / 2 x t s s , =0 sxvagan. ipoveT c SemTxveviTi sididis media-
na.
53. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi a
da dispersiiT
2
o . cnobilia, rom { 6.2} 0.9474 P c > = da { 9.8} 0.6368 P c < = .
ipoveT a da
2
o .
54. uwyveti c SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis simkvrive ganmarteb-
ulia [0, ] a intervalze TanafardobiT:
2
/ 2, 0 3,
( )
27/ 8 , 3 .
x x
f x
x x a
c
s s ¦
¦
=
´
< s
¦
¹
Tu
Tu

ipoveT a-s mniSvneloba.
55. birTvis srolis SejibrebaSi monawileobs ori aTleti, ivane da
erekle. TiToeuli aTletisaTvis birTvis srolis manZili ganawilebu-
lia normalurad. ivanesaTvis gasul wels birvTis srolis manZilis saS-
ualo iyo 60.33 m, xolo standartuli gadaxra 1.95 m. a). gasul wels ivan-
esaTvis birvTis srolis manZilis 80% meti iyo vidre x metri. ipoveT x;
b). gasul wels ereklesaTvis birvTis srolis manZilis 80% meti iyo vid-
re 59.5 metri. cnobilia, rom gasul wels ereklesaTvis birvTis srolis
manZilis saSualo iyo 59.39 m. ipoveT misi standartuli gadaxra; mimdina-
re wels ereklesaTvis birvTis srolis manZilis saSualoa 59.5 m, xolo
standartuli gadaxra 3 m. ivanesaTvis Sesabamisi parametrebia 60.33 m da
1.95 m. Sejibrebis dros, Semdeg turSi gasasvlelad aTletma birTvi unda
isrolos sul cota 65 metrze. pirvel turSi TiToeuli aTleti birTvs
isvris 3-jer; g). gansazRvreT romeli aTletis gasvlaa ufro mosalodne-
li Semdeg turSi pirveli srolis Sedegis mixedviT; d). ipoveT albaToba
imisa, rom orive aTleti gava Semdeg turSi.
56. c SemTxveviTi sidide ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi a
da dispersiiT
2
o , ise, rom { 50.32} 0.119 P c > = da { 43.56} 0.305 P c > = . ipoveT
a da
2
o da gamoTvaleT {| | 5} P a c ÷ < .
57. sawarmo yidulobs WanWikebis 44%-s A firmidan, xolo danarCens
B firmidan. TiToeuli firmis mier damzadebuli WanWikebis diametri ga-
nawilebulia normalurad standartuli gadaxriT 0.16 mm. A firmis mier
damzadebuli WanWikebis diametris saSualoa 1.56 mm. B firmis mier damz-
adebuli WanWikebis 24.2%-is diametri naklebia 1.52 mm-ze. a). ipoveT B fi-
rmis mier damzadebuli WanWikebis diametris saSualo; b). ipoveT albaTo-
ba imisa, rom sawarmos sawyobidan SemTxveviT SerCeuli WanWikis diamet-
ri naklebi iqneba 1.52 mm-ze; g). SemTxveviT SerCeuli WanWikis diametri na-
klebia 1.52 mm-ze. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom es WanWiki damzadebulia
B firmaSi; d). B firma dReSi amzadebs 8000 WanWiks. TiTeuli WanWiki iZ-
leva 1.5 larian mogebas, Tu misi diametri moTavsebulia 1.52 mm-sa da 1.83
mm-s Soris. WanWiki, romlis diametri naklebia 1.52 mm-ze unda gadagdon
83

da iZleva 0.85 larian danakargs. dabolos, WanWiki, romlis diametri me-
tia 1.83 mm-ze iyideba, magram mogebas amcirebs 0.5 laramde. gamoTvaleT B
firmis mosalodneli mogeba.
58. albaToba imisa, rom mSeneblobaze miitanen samSeneblo masalebs
( ) 0.85 P A = , albaToba imisa, rom mSenebloba dasruldeba droulad
17 / 11 ) ( = B P . albaToba imisa, rom samSeneblo masalebs miitanen da mSeneb-
loba droulad dasruldeba aris 0.55. a). aCveneT, rom A da B xdomile-
bebi damoukidebelia; b). cnobilia, rom samSeneblo masalebi droulad
miitanes mSeneblobaze. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom mSenebloba ar
dasruldeba droulad.
59. mSeneblobaze muSaobs 10 kaciani jgufi, romelTa Soris 3 eleq-
trikia da 2 santeqnikosi. arqiteqtorma daibara saTaTbirod 5 muSa da
movida SemTxveviT SerCeuli 5 maTgani. a). ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom am
xuTSi moxvdeba 2 eleqtriki da 1 santeqnikosi; b). mSeneblobaze kviraSi
muSaobis saaTebis raodenoba ganawilebulia normalurad saSualoTi 42
sT. jgufis 10% muSaobs kviraSi 48 an met saaTs. ipoveT albaToba imisa,
rom orive santeqnikosi konkretul kviraSi imauSavebs 40 saaTze mets.








pasuxebi:
1. 0.8907; 0.9932; 0.5636; 0.1075; 0.0087; 0.2776; 0.9664; 0.0197; 0.5279; 0.0336; 0.0029;
0.4168. 2. 0.0366; 0.1203; 0.3405; 0.4394; 0.9557; 0.7816; 0.8561; 0.2088; 0.0320; 0.1186;
0.4472; 0.9500. 3. 0.4399; 1.1750; 2.0537; 1.0364; 0.2275; 1.1750; 2.3263; 0.7722; -2. 3263; -
1.8808; -1.0364; 0. 4. 0.9332; 0.0062; 0.7734; 0.0401. 5. 0.9522; 0.0098; 0.7475; 0.0038. 6.
0.1359; 0.0606; 0.7333; 0.7704; 0.8664. 7. 0.0668. 8. 0.1587; 0.0228. 9. 54.27; 40.31; 52.22;
41.80. 10. 17.68; 14.65; 12.44; 14.44; 3.29. 11. 41.6; 29.9; 37.4; 31.7. 12. 7.78. 13. 65.0. 14.
41.5; 8.50. 15. 9.51; 0.298. 16. 0.0371; 0.0062; 0.8209. 17. 0.2094; 0.0086; 0.1788; 0.6405;
105; 4; 89; 320. 18. 13; 84; 121. 19. 0.0049; 0.1943; (80, 100). 20. 1972 sT. 21. 0.614; 20.9,
16.3; 17. 22. 336 ml. 23. 0.041 kg; 0.054. 24. 47. 25. 49.1; 13.4. 26. 25; 0.673. 27. 1/8;
0.141; 4/3. 28. 2 , 1, 3 ; 4/3; 2/9. 29. ( ) 1/ 2
U
f x = , Tu [0.5, 2.5] xe , da =0 sxvagan;
3/2; 1/3. 30. 0.6; 0.5; 0.03; 2/9. 31. 1/4; 1.6; 0.107; 1.68; 0.697; 0.351. 32.
3
6 a = ; 2.73. 33.
0.921. 34. 0.933. 35. 0.957. 36. 0.525. 37. bunebrivi: 0.936 > 0.928. 38. 20.2%; 81 gr. 39.
18.94. 40. 0.488; 281, 5. 41. 47; 15. 42. 10.3. 43. 6.82; 0.444. 44. 0.645. 45. 0.5858. 46.
9.193. 47. 3/2;
2/3
2 . 48. 56/45; 1.294; 1.633. 49. 1.082. 50. 3/4; 0.1133. 51. ( ) cos f x x
c
= , Tu
0 / 2 x t s s , =0 sxvagan; / 6 t . 52. / 3 t . 53. 9.161; 1.827. 54. 54/11. 55. 58.69; 3.41;
ereklesaTvis (0.0334>0.0083); 0.119. 56. 38.41; 10.09; 0.3798. 57. 1.632; 0.312; 0.775;
6587. 58. 6/17. 59. 5/21; 0.44

84

Tavi VII
albaTobis Teoriis zRvariTi Teoremebi

CebiSevis utoloba.
CebiSevis utoloba afasebs SemTxveviTi sididis gadaxras Tavisi
maTematikuri lodinidan. Tu c raime SemTxveviTi sididea, maSin
nebismieri 0 c > ricxvisaTvis samarTliania utoloba:
2
(| | ) 1 / P E D c c c c c ÷ < > ÷ .
did ricxvTa kanoni.
CebiSevis Teorema. vTqvaT, SemTxveviTi sidideebi
1 2
, ,... c c wyvil-
wyvilad damoukidebelia (
i
Ec <·) da arsebobs iseTi ricxvi C, rom
i
D C c s , 1, 2,... i = . maSin nebismieri dadebiTi c ricxvisaTvis sruldeba
utoloba:
1 2 1 2
lim {| | } 1
n n
n
E E E
P
n n
c c c c c c
c
÷·
+ +··· + + +··· +
÷ < = .
am mtkicebulebas did ricxvTa kanons uwodeben.
bernulis Teorema. davuSvaT, m aris n damoukidebel eqsperiment-
Si A xdomilebis moxdenaTa ricxvi, xolo p aris A xdomilebis
moxdenis albaToba calkeul eqsperimentSi. maSin nebismieri 0 c >
ricxvisaTvis samarTliania utoloba
2
(1 )
{| | }
m p p
P p
n n
c
c
÷
÷ > s ( 0 ÷ , roca n÷·).
erTTan ragind axlos myofi albaTobiT SeiZleba vamtkicoT, rom
damoukidebel cdaTa sakmaod didi ricxvisaTvis dakvirvebadi xdomileb-
is moxdenaTa sixSire ragind umniSvnelod gansxvavdeba misi moxdenis al-
baTobisagan calkeul cdaSi.
centraluri zRvariTi Teorema.
did ricxvTa kanoni ar ikvlevs SemTxveviT sidideTa jamis ganawi-
lebis kanonis saxes. es sakiTxi Seiswavleba Teoremebis jgufSi, romleb-
sac centraluri zRvariTi Teorema ewodeba. es Teorema amtkicebs, rom
SemTxveviT sidideTa jamis ganawilebis kanoni, romelTagan calkeul Se-
sakrebs SeiZleba hqondes gansxvavebuli ganawileba, uaxlovdeba normal-
urs SesakrebTa sakmaod didi ricxvis SemTxvevaSi. amiT aixsneba normal-
uri ganawilebis kanonis uaRresad didi mniSvneloba praqtikul gamoyene-
bebSi.
Teorema 1. Tu
1 2
, ,... c c – damoukidebeli SemTxveviTi sidideebis mimd-
evrobaa, erTi da igive ganawilebis kanoniT, maTematikuri lodiniT a da
dispersiiT σ
2
, maSin п –is usasrulod zrdisas
1
n
n k
k
S c
=
=
¯
jamis ganawileb-
is kanoni uaxlovdeba standartul normalur ganawilebis kanons:
lim { } ( )
n
n
S a
P x x
n o
÷·
÷
s =u .
85

Teorema 2 (liapunovis Teorema). Tu c SemTxveviTi sidide warmoad-
gens damoukidebel SemTxveviT sidideTa Zalian didi ricxvis jams, rome-
lTaTvisac Sesrulebulia piroba:
3/ 2
1 1
lim( ) /[ ] 0
n n
k k
n
k k
b D
÷·
= =
| |
=
|
\ .
¯ ¯
,
sadac b
k
– mesame rigis absoluturi centraluri momentia
k
c
SemTxveviTi sididis , xolo D
k
– misi dispersia, maSin c SemTxveviT
sidides gaaCnia ganawileba, romelic axlosaa normalur ganawilebasTan.
Tu SemTxveviTi sidide warmoadgens urTierTdamoukidebel SemTxve-
viT sidideTa Zalian didi raodenobis jams, romelTagan TiToeulis gav-
lena jamze mizerulad mcirea, maSin SemTxveviT sidides gaaCnia ganawil-
eba, romelic axlosaa normalurTan.
Teorema 3 (muavr-laplasis Teorema). Tu tardeba п damoukidebeli
cda, romelTagan TiToeulSi А xdomileba xdeba albaTobiT р, 15 np > ,
maSin samarTliania Tanafardoba:
( ) ( ),
n
S np
p
npq
o | | o
| |
÷
< < ~ u ÷u
|
|
\ .

sadac
n
S – А xdomilebis moxdenaTa ricxvia п cdaSi, q = 1 – p, xolo
2
2
1
( )
2
x t
x e dt
t
÷
÷·
u =
í

Sedegi (muavr-laplasis lokaluri Teorema). muavr-laplasis Teor-
emis pirobebSi ) (k р
n
-- albaToba imisa, rom А xdomileba п cdaSi moxdeba
zustad k –jer, cdaTa didi ricxvis SemTxvevaSi, Tu 15 np > , SeiZleba gam-
oiTvalos Semdegi formuliT:
), (
1
) ( x
npq
k p
n
m · ~
sadac
npq
np k
x
÷
= , xolo
2
2
2
1
) (
x
e x
÷
=
t
m .
magaliTi 1. dadgenilia, rom im adamianebis 94%-s, romelTac gakeTe-
buli aqvT tuberkuliozis sawinaaRmdego acrebi, gamoumuSavdeba Sesabam-
isi imuniteti. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom 100000 tuberkuliozze acri-
li adamianidan 5800 araa daculi tuberkulioziT daavadebisagan?
amoxsna. am amocanis amoxsna marTalia Teoriulad SesaZlebelia be-
rnulis formuliT, sadac 94 . 0 , 06 . 0 , 5800 , 100000 = = = = q p k n , da Sesabamis-
ad,
94200 5800 5800
100000 100000
) 94 . 0 ( ) 06 . 0 ( ) 5800 ( · =C P ,
magram praqtikulad amis gakeTeba Zalian Znelia. am SemTxvevaSi unda vis-
argebloT muavr-laplasis lokaluri formuliT, romelic gvaZlevs:
75 / ) 7 . 2 ( 94 . 0 06 . 0 100000 / )
94 . 0 06 . 0 100000
06 . 0 100000 5800
( ) 5800 (
100000
÷ ~ · ·
· ·
· ÷
~ m m P .
86

Tu axla gavixsenebT, rom ) ( ) ( x x m m = ÷ da visargeblebT standartuli no-
rmaluri ganawilebis simkvrivis cxrilebiT (romlidanac 0104 . 0 ) 7 . 2 ( = m ),
advilad gamoviTvliT, rom
000139 . 0 ) 5800 (
100000
~ P .
magaliTi 2. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom monetis 100-jer agdebisas
gerbTa mosvlis ricxvi aRmoCndeba sazRvrebSi 40-dan 60-mde.
amoxsna. visargebloT muavr-laplasis integraluri TeoremiT. Cvens
SemTxvevaSi 0.5 p = , пр = 100·0.5 = 50. amitom Tu 40 60,
n
S < < maSin
50
2 2
5
n
S ÷
÷ < < .
Sesabamisad, gvaqvs:
( )
50
40 60 2 2 (2) ( 2) 0.9772 0.0228 0.9544.
5
n
n
S
p S p
÷ | |
< < = ÷ < < =u ÷u ÷ = ÷ =
|
\ .

magaliTi 3. magaliTi 2-is pirobebSi vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom
gerbi mova 45-jer.
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi
45 50
1
5
k np
x
npq
÷ ÷
= = = ÷ , amitom
100
1 1 1
(45) ( 1) (1) 0.2420 0.0484.
5 5 5
p m m ~ · ÷ = · = · =


SemoviRoT ganawilebis funqciebisaTvis Semdegi aRniSvnebi:
hipergeometriuli ganawilebis funqcia –
( ; , , )
k s k
t n t
s
k x
n
C C
H x t s n
C
÷
÷
s
·
=
¯
;
binomuri ganawilebis funqcia –
( ; , )
k k n k
n
k x
Bi x p n C p q
÷
s
=
¯
;
puasonis ganawilebis funqcia –
0
( ; )
!
k
k x
x e
k
ì
ì
ì
÷
s s
H =
¯
;
standartuli normaluri ganawilebis funqcia –
2
2
1
( )
2
x t
x e dt
t
÷
÷·
u =
í
;
xi kvadrat ganawilebis funqcia --
2
( ; ) x k ; ;
stiudentis ganawilebis funqcia -- ( ; ) T x k ;
fiSeris ganawilebis funqcia --
1 2
( ; , ) F x k k .
aRsaniSnavia, rom zemoT moyvanili ganawilebebis funqciebs Sor-
is adgili aqvs qvemoT moyvanil sqemaze gamosaxul zRvrul Tanafardob-
ebs:

87
























qvemoT moyvanil naxazze Sedarebulia normaluri da puasonis
ganawilebebi 7 ì = -is SemTxvevaSi:



magaliTi 4. studenti quCaSi Tavis leqtors SeiZleba Sexvdes alb-
aTobiT 0.002. ras udris albaToba imisa, rom 1200 SemTxveviT gamvlels
Soris studenti Sexvdeba Tavis araumetes 3 leqtors?
ì÷·
H(x ì +ì;ì)
k
1
÷·
k÷·
n÷· , p÷0, np÷ì
t/s ÷ p
H(x;t,s,n)
Bi(x;n,p) H(x;ì)
u(x)

T(x;k)
;
2
(x; k)

F(x; k
1
,k)
n÷·, p=const
Bi(x npq+np;n,p
)
k÷·
;
2
(x k 2 +k;x
)
88

amoxsna. SemoviRoT xdomilebebi: } i { leqtors Sexvda studenti =
i
A ,
3 , 2 , 1 , 0 = i . maSin CvenTvis saintereso xdomileba iqneba
i
i
A A
3
0 =
= . cxadia, rom
i
A xdomilebebi wyvil-wyvilad uTavsebadia da Sesabamisad
¯
=
=
3
0
) ( ) (
i
i
A P A P .
amasTanave, TiToeuli
i
A xdomilebis albaTobis gamosaTvlelad unda vi-
sargebloT muavr-laplasis lokaluri formuliT. gvaqvs:
0775 . 0 998 . 0 002 . 0 1200 / )
998 . 0 002 . 0 1200
002 . 0 1200 0
( ) 0 ( ) (
1200 0
~ · ·
· ·
· ÷
= = m P A P ;
1719 . 0 998 . 0 002 . 0 1200 / )
998 . 0 002 . 0 1200
002 . 0 1200 1
( ) 1 ( ) (
1200 1
~ · ·
· ·
· ÷
= = m P A P ;
2505 . 0 998 . 0 002 . 0 1200 / )
998 . 0 002 . 0 1200
002 . 0 1200 2
( ) 2 ( ) (
1200 2
~ · ·
· ·
· ÷
= = m P A P ;
2389 . 0 998 . 0 002 . 0 1200 / )
998 . 0 002 . 0 1200
002 . 0 1200 3
( ) 3 ( ) (
1200 3
~ · ·
· ·
· ÷
= = m P A P .
amitom saZiebeli albaToba iqneba
7388 . 0 2389 . 0 2505 . 0 1719 . 0 0775 . 0 ) ( = + + + = A P .
magaliTi 5. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom wesieri monetis 200-jer
agdebisas gerbi mova aranakleb 95-jer da araumetes 105-jer?
amoxsna. unda visargebloT muavr-laplasis integraluri formul-
iT, sadac 2 / 1 , 105 , 95 , 200 = = = = = q p b a n . gvaqvs:
= ÷ u ÷ u ~
· ·
· ÷
u ÷
· ·
· ÷
u ~ s s ) 707 . 0 ( ) 707 . 0 ( )
5 . 0 5 . 0 200
5 . 0 200 95
( )
5 . 0 5 . 0 200
5 . 0 200 105
( ) 105 95 (
200
S P
52 . 0 1 76 . 0 2 1 ) 707 . 0 ( 2 = ÷ · ~ ÷ u = .
magaliTi 6. qarxnis nawarmis 4% mdare xarisxisaa. ramdeni nawarmi
unda SeirCes produqciis xarisxis Sesamowmeblad, rom albaTobiT 0.9 Se-
gveZlos imis mtkiceba, rom qarxnis nawarmis SemTxveviT SerCeul partia-
Si mdare xarisxis produqciis wilis gansxvaveba 4%-dan absoluturi si-
didiT ar aRemateba 1%-s?
amoxsna. amocanis pirobis Tanaxmad , . iyos qa-
rxnis nawarmis SemTxveviT SerCeul partiaSi mdare xarisxis produqciis
wili. liapunovis Teoremis Tanaxmad SegviZlia vigulisxmoT, rom SemT-
xveviTi sididis ganawileba axlosaa normalurTan da amitom
9 . 0 1 ) / 01 . 0 ( 2 } 01 . 0 | 04 . 0 {| = ÷ u ~ s ÷ o u P .
aqedan 95 . 0 ) / 01 . 0 ( = u o da normaluri ganawilebis cxrilidan vpoulobT,
rom 65 . 1 / 01 . 0 = o .
meores mxriv, n n p p / 96 . 0 04 . 0 / ) 1 (
2
· = ÷ = o

anu n / 96 . 0 04 . 0 · = o . Sesabam-
isad, SegviZlia davweroT gantoleba
65 . 1 / 96 . 0 04 . 0 / 01 . 0 = · n ,
saidanac advilad vipoviT, rom .
89

magaliTi 7. mowyobileba Sedgeba 10 damoukideblad momuSave eleme-
ntisagan, romelTagan TiToeulis mwyobridan gamosvlis albaToba T
droSi aris 0.05. SeafaseT albaToba imisa, rom T droSi mwyobridan gam-
osul elementTa raodenobisa da elementebis mwyobridan gamosvlaTa sa-
Sualo ricxvs Soris gansxvavebis moduli aRmoCndeba: a). 2-ze naklebi; b).
2-ze aranaklebi.
amoxsna. a). aRvniSnoT
n
S simboloTi T droSi mwyobridan gamosul
elementTa raodenoba. cxadia, rom am SemTxveviT sidides aqvs binomialu-
ri ganawileba da amitom:
10 0.05 0.5
n
ES np = = · = da 10 0.05 0.95 0.475
n
DS npq = = · · = .
visargebloT CebiSevis utolobiT. gvaqvs:
2
(| | ) 1 /
n n n
P S ES DS c c ÷ < > ÷ ,
(| 0.5| 2) 1 0.475/ 4 0.88
n
P S ÷ < > ÷ = .
b). ramdenadac | 0.5| 2
n
S ÷ < da | 0.5| 2
n
S ÷ > sawinaaRmdego xdomilebe-
bia, amitom SegviZlia davweroT, rom:
(| 0.5| 2) 1 0.88 0.12
n
P S ÷ > s ÷ = .
magaliTi 8. A xdomilebis moxdenis albaToba TiToeul eqsperimen-
tSi aris 0.5. SevafasoT albaToba imisa, rom 100 damoukidebel eqsperimen-
tSi A xdomilebis moxdenaTa
n
S ricxvi moTavsebulia 40-dan 60-mde.
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi:
100 0.5 50
n
ES np = = · = da 100 0.5 0.5 25
n
DS npq = = · · = .
gasagebia, rom xdomileba 40 60
n
S < < eqvivalenturi xdomilebis:
40 50 50 60 50
n
S ÷ < ÷ < ÷ · 10 50 10
n
S ÷ < ÷ < · | 50| 10
n
S ÷ < .
Sesabamisad, CebiSevis utolobis Tanaxmad SegviZlia davweroT,
rom:
(40 60) (| 50| 10) 1 25/100 0.75
n n
P S P S < < = ÷ < > ÷ = .
magaliTi 9. rogor davadginoT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT SeC-
euli adamiani agrovebs markebs? SeiZleba gamovkiTxoT garkveuli raode-
noba SemTxveviT SerCeuli adamianebis. Tu n gamokiTxulSi
n
S
filatelistia, maSin saZiebeli albaToba n S p
n
/ ~ . ramdeni adamiani unda
gamoikiTxos, rom cdomileba ar aRematebodes 0.005-s, Tu Cven gvinda, rom
swori Sedegi miviRoT albaTobiT 0.95?
amoxsna. amocanis pirobis Tanaxmad 95 . 0 ) 005 . 0 | / (| = s ÷ p n S P
n
. amitom
muavr-laplasis integraluri formula gvaZlevs:
= s ÷ s ÷ = s ÷ = ) 005 . 0 / ) ( 005 . 0 ( ) 005 . 0 | / (| 95 . 0 n np S P p n S P
n n

) 005 . 0 ( ) 005 . 0 ( ) 005 . 0 / ) ( 005 . 0 (
pq
n
pq
n
pq
n
npq np S
pq
n
P
n
÷ u ÷ u ~ s ÷ s ÷ = .
amitom, Tu visargeblebT TanafardobiT ) ( 1 ) ( x x u ÷ = ÷ u , miviRebT,
rom
90

95 . 0 1 ) 005 . 0 ( 2 = ÷ u
pq
n
, anu 975 . 0 ) 005 . 0 ( = u
pq
n
.
saidanac standartuli normaluri ganawilebis funqciis cxrilis gamoy-
enebiT vRebulobT, rom
96 . 1 005 . 0 ~
pq
n
.
Tuki axla gaviTvaliswinebT, rom 4 / 1 s pq , advilad davaskvniT, rom
40 > n .
magaliTi 10. mocemulia, rom (| | ) 0.8 P E c c c ÷ < > da 0.018 Dc = . ipoveT
c .
amoxsna. CebiSevis utolobis Tanaxmad
2
(| | ) 1 / P E D c c c c c ÷ < > ÷ . maSas-
adame, SegviZlia davweroT, rom
2
1 / 0.8 Dc c ÷ = .
SevitanoT am gantolebaSi dispersiis mniSvneloba da amovxsnaT c .
gvaqvs:
2
1 0.018/ 0.8 c ÷ = ,
aqedan, cxadia, rom 0.3 c = .
magaliTi 11. damoukidebel SemTxveviT sidideTa mimdevroba
1 2
, ,... c c
mocemulia ganawilebis kanoniT:

n
c no ÷ 0 no
P
2
1/ 2n
2
1 1/ n ÷
2
1/ 2n

akmayofilebs Tu ara es mimdevroba did ricxvTa kanons?
amoxsna. SevamowmoT CebiSevis Teoremis pirobebi. gasagebia, rom Sem-
TxveviTi sidideebi wyvil-wyvilad damoukidebelia. gamovTvaloT
n
c -is
maTematikuri lodini da dispersia. gvaqvs:
2 2 2
(1/ 2 ) 0 (1 1/ ) (1/ 2 ) 0
n
E n n n n n c o o =÷ + · ÷ + = ;
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
(1/ 2 ) 0 (1 1/ ) (1/ 2 ) (1/ )
n
E n n n n n n n c o o o o = + · ÷ + = = ;
2 2 2
( )
n n n
D E E c c c o = ÷ = .
amrigad, maTematikuri lodinebi sasrulia da dispersiebi Tanabrad
SemosazRrulia. amitom CebiSevis Teoremis Tanaxmad aRniSnuli mimdevro-
ba akmayofilebs did ricxvTa kanons.

amocanebi
1. vigulisxmoT, rom qalaqSi kacebisa da qalebis raodenoba erTidaigi-
vea. risi tolia albaToba imisa, rom 100 SemTxveviTi gamvlelidan 32 qa-
li iqneba?
2. cnobilia, rom detali wundebulia albaTobiT 0.6. ramden wundebul
detals unda velodoT 1000 detalidan albaTobiT 0.9?
91

3. cnobilia, rom mkurnalobis axali meTodiT avadmyofis gamojanmrTel-
ebis albaTobaa 0.8. ramden gamojanmrTelebuls unda velodoT 100 pacien-
tidan albaTobiT 0.75?
4. kalaTburTeli burTs kalaTSi agdebs albaTobiT 0.8. rogoria albaT-
oba imisa, rom igi 20 srolidan ocives Caagdebs?
5. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom wesieri monetis 10-jer agdebisas arcer-
Txel mova gerbi?
6. nika da luka agorebenn or-or wesier saTamaSo kamatels. nika igebs pa-
rtias, Tu 20 gagorebidan 2-jer mova 11-is toli jamuri qula. luka igebs
partias, Tu 10 gagorebidan 2-jer mova 9-is toli jamuri qula. romlis
mogebaa ufro albaTuri?
7. ras udris albaToba imisa, rom wesieri monetis 40-jer agdebisas 25-
jer mova gerbi?
8. teleatelies monacemebiT, sagarantio periodSi saSualod kineskopebis
12% gamodis mwyobridan. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom 46 SemTxveviT Ser-
Ceuli kineskopidan 36 imuSavebs sagarantio periodis manZilze?
9. biWis dabadebis albaTobaa 0.515. risi tolia albaToba imisa, rom 80
axalSobils Soris 42 iqneba biWi?
10. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom 30 gasrolisas samizne daziandeba 8-
jer, Tu cnobilia, rom erTi gasrolisas samiznis dazianebis albaTobaa
0.3.
11. eqsperimentis Catarebisas A xdomilebis moxdenis albaTobaa 0.5. ramd-
enjer unda velodoT A xdomilebis moxdenas 100 eqsperimentSi albaTob-
iT 0.048?
12. 10 burTi SemTxveviT nawildeba 9 yuTSi. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom
I yuTSi aris aranakleb 1100 burTi da araumetes 1200 burTi?
13. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom wesieri saTamaSo kamaTlis 12000-jer ga-
gorebisas eqvsiani mova aranakleb 1900-jer da araumetes 2100-jer?
14. ipoveT iseTi ricxvi b , rom wesieri monetis 1000-jer agdebisas mosul
gerbTa raodenobam
1000
S daakmayofilos piroba b S s s
1000
470 albaTobiT
0.727.
15. I satelefono sadguri emsaxureba 2000 abonents da aerTebs maT II sad-
gurTan. I sadguridan II sadguramde 2000 satelefono xazis gayvana arara-
cionaluria. ramdeni satelefono xazi unda gaviyvanoT I sadguridan II
sadguramde, rom I sadguris 100 abonentidan mxolod erTs, romelic Sem-
TxveviT irCevs laparakis dros II sadguris abonentTan, yvela xazi daxv-
des dakavebuli? albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviTi darekvisas xazi dakave-
bulia aris 1/30.
16. 10 Tofidan 4 Semowmebulia mizanSi srolaSi. Semowmebuli Tofidan
mizanSi moxvedris albaTobaa 0.9, xolo Seumowmebeli Tofidan ki _ 0.3.
SemTxveviT SerCeuli Tofidan moaxdines 200 gasrola. rogoria albaToba
imisa, rom mizanSi moxvedraTa raodenoba
200
S daakmayofilebs pirobas?
17. ipoveT iseTi ricxvi a, rom albaTobiT 0.9 SeiZlebodes imis mtkiceba,
rom 900 axalSobils Soris a-ze meti biWia, Tu cnobilia, rom biWis dab-
adebis albaTobaa 0.515.
92

18. detalebis 80% I xarisxisaa. ramdeni detali unda aviRoT, rom albaT-
obiT 0.996 SegveZlos mtkiceba: albaToba p xdomilebisa _ SemTxveviT Se-
rCeuli detali I xarisxisaa akmayifilebdes pirobas 85 . 0 75 . 0 s s p ?
19. 1000 yuTidan TiToeulSi 5000 TeTri da 5000 Savi burTia. TiToeuli
yuTidan SemTxveviT iReben 3 burTs. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom raode-
noba yuTebisa, saidanac amoRebulia 3 erTnairi feris burTi, aris arana-
kleb 200 da araumetes 310 yuTi?
20. “simensis” mier gamoSvebuli naTurebis 70% umaRlesi xarisxisaa. rog-
oria albaToba imisa, rom “simensis” 1000 naTuridan umaRlesi xarisxis
iqneba aranakleb 682 da araumetes 760 naTura?
21. biWis dabadebis albaTobaa 0.515. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom 1000 ax-
alSobilidan biWi iqneba aranakleb 480 da araumetes 540?
22. albaToba imisa, rom muxis nergi gaixarebs aris 0.8. rogoria albaTo-
ba imisa, rom muxis 400 nergidan gaixarebs aranakleb 250?
23. ramdeni marcvali unada daiTesos amosvlis albaTobiT 0.99, rom amos-
vlis sixSire (amosulebis raodenoba gayofili daTesilebis raodenoba-
ze) gansxvavdebodes 0.95-sagan 0.01-ze naklebiT?
24. albaToba imisa, rom adamiani daiRupeba 21 wlis asakSi aris 0.006.
dazRveulia 20 wlis 1000 adamiani. TiToeulis wliuri Sesatania 15 lari.
dazRveuli adamianis daRupvis SemTxvevaSi ojaxi miiRebs 1200 lars. rog-
oria albaToba imisa, rom wlis bolosaTvis kompaniis gasacemi Tanxa ga-
daaWarbebs sawevro Semonatanebs?
25. SeafaseT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviTi sidide gadaixreba Tavisi
maTematikuri lodinidan aranakleb vidre; a). gaormagebuli standartuli
gadaxra; b). gasammagebuli standartuli gadaxra.
26. xdomilebis moxdenis albaToba TiToeul cdaSi aris 0.25. SeafaseT
albaToba imisa, rom 800 damoukidebel cdaSi am xdomilebis moxdenaTa
ricxvi aRmoCndeba 150-dan 250-mde sazRvrebSi.
27. mocemulia diskretuli SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis kanoni:

c 0.1 0.4 0.6
P
0.2 0.3 0.5
SeafaseT | | 0.4 E c c ÷ < xdomilebis albaToba.
28. damoukidebel SemTxveviT sidideTa mimdevroba
1 2
, ,... c c mocemulia gana-
wilebis kanoniT:
n
c a a ÷
P
/(2 1) n n+ ( 1) /(2 1) n n + +

akmayofilebs Tu ara es mimdevroba did ricxvTa kanons?
29. damoukidebel SemTxveviT sidideTa mimdevroba
1 2
, ,... c c mocemulia gana-
wilebis kanoniT:
n
c 1 n+ n ÷
P
/(2 1) n n+ ( 1) /(2 1) n n + +
93


akmayofilebs Tu ara es mimdevroba CebiSevis Teoremis pirobebs?
30. damoukidebel SemTxveviT sidideTa mimdevroba
1 2
, ,... c c mocemulia gana-
wilebis kanoniT:
n
c
3 ÷
0
3
P
1/3 1/3 1/3

akmayofilebs Tu ara es mimdevroba did ricxvTa kanons?
31. cnobilia, rom wonebis SemTxveviTi cdomilebis saSualo mniSvnelobaa
0.03, xolo dispersia _ 0.0016. a) rogoria albaToba imisa, rom morigi aw-
onvis dros sasworis Cvenebis cdomilebis absoluturi sidide ar aRema-
teba 0.04-s? b) ipoveT 95%-iani saimedoobis intervali wonebis cdomilebi-
saTvis.
32. qarxnis nawarmis 15% mdare xarisxisaa. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom
am qarxnis 1000 nawarmSi mdare xarisxis mqone nawarmis raodenoba Seadg-
ens -s?
33. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom moswavleTa 20%-ma ar icis sagzao moZraobis
wesebi. SemTxveviT SearCies 1600 moswavle. ramdenma moswavlem icis sag-
zao moZraobis wesebi 95%-iani garaantiiT.
34. Zabvis gasazomad iyeneben specialur mowyobilobas. gansazRvreT am
mowyobilobis Secdomis saSualokvadratuli gadaxra, Tu mas ar gaaCnia
sistematuri Secdomebi, ganawilebulia normalurad da albaTobiT 0.8 ar
gadis sazRvrebidan .
35. Tu burTula ar gadis naxvretSi, romlis diametria , magram gadis
naxvretSi, romlis diametria ( ), maSin misi zoma iTvleba misaRe-
bad. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi burTula uvargisia. cnobilia, rom burTul-
is diametri warmoadgens SemTxveviT sidides saSualoTi da
dispersiiT. ipioveT albaToba imisa, rom burTula iqneba uvargi-
si.
36. qarxnis nawarmis 5% mdare xarisxisaa. ramdeni nawarmi unda SeirCes
produqciis xarisxis Sesamowmeblad, rom albaTobiT 0.95 SegveZlos imis
mtkiceba, rom qarxnis nawarmis SemTxveviT SerCeul partiaSi mdare xari-
sxis produqciis wili Seadgens -s?
37. vaCvenoT, rom damoukidebel SemTxveviT sidideTa mimdevroba
1
} {
> n n
c ak-
mayofilebs centralur zRvariT Teoremas, Tu: a)
n n
n
P 2 / ) 2 1 ( } 1 {
÷
÷ = ± = c ,
1
2 / 1 } 2 {
+
= ± =
n n
n
P c , ,... 2 , 1 = n , b) 2 / 1 } { = ± =
ì
c n P
n
.

pasuxebi:
1. 0.00012. 2. 600 ~ . 3. 80 ~ . 4. 0.0132. 5. 0.0017. 6. TiTqmis erTidaigivea. 7. 0.036.
8. 0.972. 9. 0.009. 10. 0.147. 11. 55. 12. 0.26. 13. 0.985. 14. 511. 15. 86. 16. 0.96. 17. 583.
18. 576. 19. 0.131. 20. 0.9991. 21. 0.929. 22. 1 ~ . 23. 31618. 24. 0.00217. 25. 1/ 4 s ; 1/ 9 s .
26. 0.94 > . 27. 0.909 > . 28. ki. 29. ara. 30. ki. 31. 0.5586; [-0.0484, 0.1084]. 32. 0.9239.
33. [1248, 1312]. 34. 1.0156. 35. 0.0456. 36. 456.
94

s t a t i s t i k a

Tavi I
wertilovani da intervaluri Sefasebebi. ndobis
intervali saSualosaTvis

Sefasebis amocana: n moculobis
1
( ,..., )
n
X X X = SerCevis safuZvelze
gavakeToT daskvnebi generaluri erTobliobis ucnobi u parametris Ses-
axeb. SerCevis nebismier
1
( ) ( ,..., )
n n n
T X T X X = funqcias statistika (Sefaseba)
ewodeba. wertilovani Sefasebis amocanaa moiZebnos iseTi statistika
1
( ,..., )
n n
T X X , romlis SerCeviTi mniSvneloba
1
( ,..., )
n n
T x x , garkveuli azriT,
SeiZleba CaiTvalos ucnobi u parametris WeSmariti (realuri) mniSvnel-
obis miaxloebad (Sefasebad) da gamoyenebuli iqnas mis nacvlad. aseT
statistikas (Sefasebas) wertilovani statistika (Sefaseba) ewodeba.
1
( ) ( ,..., )
n n n
T X T X X = Sefasebas ewodeba Caunacvlebeli (anu gadauadgi-
lebadi), Tu ( ) E T X
u
u = .
1
( ) ( ,..., )
n n n
T X T X X = Sefasebas ewodeba Zalmosili (anu Zaldebuli),
Tu
P
n
T
u
u ÷ (
n
T albaTobiT krebadia u -sken), roca n÷·.
Caunacvlebel Sefasebas ewodeba optimaluri (anu efeqturi), Tu
mas sxva Caunacvlebel Sefasebebs Sori gaaCnia umciresi dispersia.
Tu n moculobis SerCeva warmodgenilia variaciuli mwkrivis sa-
xiT, maSin SerCeviTi saSualo ewodeba sidides:

1 1 2 2 1 2
1 2
...
...
k k k
x n x n x n n n n
x x x
n n n n
+ + +
= = + + + .
Tu SerCevidan miRebuli mniSvnelobebi ara dajgufebuli, maSin Se-
rCeviTi saSualo

¯
=
=
n
i
i
x
n
x
1
1
.
SerCeviTi saSualo warmoadgens ucnobi maTematikuri lodinis Ca-
unacvlebel da Zalmosil Sefasebas.
SerCeviTi dispersia ewodeba sidides:
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 1
1
k n
i
i i
i i
n
s x x x x
n n
= =
= ÷ = ÷
¯ ¯
.
Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersia ewodeba sidides:
( )
2
2
' 2
1
1
1 1
n
i
i
n
s s x x
n n
=
= = ÷
÷ ÷
¯
.
Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersia warmoadgens ucnobi dispersiis
Caunacvlebel da Zalmosil Sefasebas.
SerCeviTi standartuli gadaxra (Sesabamisad, Sesworebuli SerCevi-
Ti standartuli gadaxra) ewodeba ariTmetikul kvadratul fesvs SerCev-
95

iTi dispersiidan
2
s s = (Sesabamisad, Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersiid-
an
2
' '
s s = )


SerCeviTi asimetriis
koeficienti
SerCeviTi eqscesis
koeficienti
3
1
2 3
1
1
( )
1
( ( ) )
n
i
i
n
i
i
x x
n
a
x x
n
=
=
÷
=
÷
¯
¯
Ser

4
1
2 4
1
1
( )
3
1
( ( ) )
n
i
i
n
i
i
x x
n
e
x x
n
=
=
÷
= ÷
÷
¯
¯
Ser

SerCeviTi korelaciis koeficienti ewodeba sidides:
xy
x y
xy x y
r
s s
÷
= , sadac
¯
=
=
n
i
i i
y x
n
xy
1
1
;
( )
2
2
1
1
n
x x i
i
s s x x
n
=
= = ÷
¯
; ( )
2
2
1
1
n
y y i
i
s s y y
n
=
= = ÷
¯
.
SerCeviTi parametrebis ganawileba normaluri populaciisaTvis.
davuSvaT, rom
1 2
, ,...,
n
X X X warmoadgens SerCevas normaluri genera-
luri erTobliobidan,
2
( , )
i
X N a o ~ ( 1, 2,..., i n = ), maSin: X da
2
S (
2
'
S ) damou-
kidebeli SemTxveviTi sidideebia;
2
( , / ) X N a n o ~ ;
2 2 2
1
( ) / ( )
n
i
i
a n c o ;
=
÷ ~
¯
;
'2
2
2
( 1)
( 1)
n S
n ;
o
÷
~ ÷ ;
(0,1)
/
X a
Z N
n o
÷
= ~ ;
'
( 1)
/ 1 /
X a X a
T t n
S n S n
÷ ÷
= = ~ ÷
÷
.
maqsimaluri dasajerobis meTodi: vTqvaT, ( , )
i
p x u aris albaToba imi-
sa, rom eqsperimentis Sedegad diskretuli c SemTxveviTi sidide miiRebs
х
i
mniSvnelobas. maqsimaluri dasajerobis funqcia ewodeba u argumentis
funqcias: L (х
1
, х
2
, …, х
п
; u ) = p(x
1
, u )p(x
2
, u )…p(x
n
, u ) ( lnL funqcias maqsimalu-
ri dasajerobis logariTmuli funqcia ewodeba). maqsimaluri dasajerob-
is Sefasebas uwodeben u -s im mniSvnelobas, sadac maqsimaluri dasajero-
bis funqcia (an rac igivea lnL) aRwevs Tavis maqsimums. mis mosaZebnad sa-
Wiroa: 1). vipovoT warmoebuli ln / L u c c ; 2). gavutoloT warmoebuli nuls
(miviRebT e. w. maqsimaluri dasajerobis logariTmul gantolebas) da vi-
povoT kritikuli wertilebi; 3). vipovoT meore warmoebuli
2 2
ln / L u c c ; Tu
is uaryofiTia kritikul wertilSi, maSin es wertili – maqsimumis
wertilia.
uwyveti SemTxveviTi sididis SemTxvevaSi, romlis f(x, u ) ganawilebis
simkvrivis saxe cnobilia, magram igi Seicavs ucnob u parametrs, maqsima-
luri dasajerobis funqcias aqvs Semdegi saxe:

1 2 1 2
( , ,..., ; ) ( , ) ( , ) ( , )
n n
L x x x f x f x f x u u u u = · ··· .
96

ucnobi parametris maqsimaluri dasajerobis Sefasebis sapovnelad
unda CavataroT igive procedurebi, rac diskretul SemTxvevaSi.
momentTa meTodi: momentTa meTodi dafuZnebulia im garemoebaze,
rom sawyisi da centraluri empiriuli momentebi warmoadgenen Sesabamisi
sawyisi da centraluri Teoriuli momentebis Zalmosil Sefasebebs. amit-
om ama Tu im Sefasebis misaRebad Teoriuli momentebi unda gavutoloT
imave rigis Sesabamis empiriul momentebs da amovxsnaT miRebuli gantol-
eba an gantolebaTa sistema.
u ucnobi parametris ¸ (an 1 o ÷ ) saimedoobis mqone anu 100 % ¸ -iani
(an 100(1 )% o ÷ -iani) ndobis intervali ewodeba intervals
1 2
( , ) T T , romlisT-
visac:P
1 2
{ } P T T u ¸ < < = (an 1 o ÷ ), sadac
1
T da
2
T u parametris garkveuli
wertilovani Sefasebebia, (0,1) ¸ e ( (0,1) oe ); o -s mniSvnelovnebis done ew-
odeba; ndobis intervalis sigrZis naxevars Sefasebis sizuste ewodeba.
o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone ndobis intervali normaluri popu-
laciis maTematikuri lodinisaTvis cnobili
2
o dispersiis SemTxvevaSi
aris:
/ 2 / 2
,
z z
X X
n n
o o
o o
| |
÷ · + ·
|
\ .
,
sadac
/ 2
z
o
standartuli normaluri ganawilebis zeda / 2 o -kritikuli we-
rtilia. aq Sefasebis sizustea
/ 2
z
l
n
o
o = · .
Sefasebis winaswar dafiqsirebuli l sizustis uzrunvelsayofad
saWiro SerCevis minimaluri moculobaa:
* 2
/ 2
[( ) ] 1 n z
l
o
o
= + .
o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone ndobis intervals normaluri popu-
laciis maTematikuri lodinisaTvis ucnobi dispersiis SemTxvevaSi aqvs
Semdegi saxe:
' '
1, / 2 1, / 2
( , )
n n
S S
X t X t
n n
o o ÷ ÷
÷ · + · ,
sadac
1, / 2 n
t
o ÷
aris Tavisuflebis 1 n÷ xarisxis mqone stiudentis ganawile-
bis zeda / 2 o -kritikuli wertili.
o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone asimptoturi ndobis intervali (ar-
anormaluri) populaciis saSualosaTvis SerCevis didi moculobis SemT-
xvevaSi ( 30 n > ), roca dispersia cnobilia aris:
/ 2 / 2
( , ) n n X z X z
n n
o o
o o
÷ · + · ,
xolo ucnobi dispersiis SemTxvevaSi ki:
97

' '
/ 2 / 2
( , ) n n
S S
X z X z
n n
o o
÷ · + · .
o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone ndobis intervali (aranormaluri)
populaciis saSualosaTvis, roca o ucnobia da 30 n < :
' '
1, / 2 1, / 2
( , )
n n
S S
X t X t
n n
o o ÷ ÷
÷ · + · .
rodis gamoiyeneba Z an T ganawileba
o cnobiliaTuara ?
÷
diax

/ 2
z
o
*
gamoiyene SerCevis
moculobismiuxedavad

|
ara


30? n > arisTuara
÷
diax

/ 2
'
z
s
o
o daformulaSi gamoiyene
Secvale - iT

|
ara


'
1, / 2 n
t s
o ÷
**
gamoiyene da
formulaSi


*
sidide unda iyos normalurad ganawilebuli roca 30 n < .
**
sidide unda iyos miaxloebiT normaluri.


magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. universitetis reqtors surs Seafasos wels Caricxuli
studentebis saSualo asaki. warsuli gamokvlevebidan cnobilia, rom
standartuli gadaxra aris 2 weli. aRebulia 50 studentisagan Semdgari
SerCeva da misTvis gamoTvlili saSualo tolia 23.2 wlis. ipoveT 95%-
iani ndobis intervali populaciis saSualosaTvis. igulisxmeba, rom asa-
ki daaxloebiT normaluradaa ganawilebuli.
amoxsna. 95%-iani ndobis intervali niSnavs, rom ndobis intervalis
saimedooba
95%
1 0.95
100%
o ÷ = = , anu 0.05 o = . amitom normaluri ganawile-
bis cxrilidan vpoulobT
/ 2 0.025
1.96 z z
o
= = . Sesabamisad, saZiebeli ndobis
intervali iqneba:
2 2
(23.2 1.96 , 23.2 1.96 )
50 50
÷ · + · , (22.6, 23.8) ,
anu 23.2 0.6 ± . amrigad, 50 studentis asakidan gamomdinare, 95%-iani saimed-
oobiT, universitetis reqtors SeuZlia Tqvas, rom studentebis saSualo
asaki moTavsebulia 22.6 welsa da 23.8 wels Soris.
98

magaliTi 2. cnobilia, rom garkveuli medikamentis gamoyenebis Sed-
egad pulsis ricxvi matulobs. cnobilia, rom pulsis ricxvis standart-
uli gadaxra aris 5 dartyma wuTSi. SerCeul iqna am medikamentis 30 momx-
marebeli da maTTvis pulsis ricxvis saSualo aRmoCnda 104 dartyma wuT-
Si. vipovoT 99%-iani ndobis intervali pulsis ricxvis WeSmariti saSua-
losaTvis. igulisxmeba, rom Sesabamisi ganawileba daaxloebiT normalu-
ria.
amoxsna. aq 1 0.99 o ÷ = , anu 0.01 o = . amitom
/ 2 0.005
2.58 z z
o
= = . Sesabamis-
ad, ndobis intervali iqneba:
5 5
104 2.58 104 2.58
30 30
a ÷ · < < + · , anu 102 106 a < < .
maSasadame, 30 momxmareblisagan Sedgenili SerCevis safuZvelze,
99%-iani saimedoobiT, Cven SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom am medikamentis yve-
la momxmareblis pulsis ricxvis saSualo moTavsebulia (cvalebadobs)
102-sa da 106-s Soris.
magaliTi 3. kolejis prezidentma daavala statistikis maswavleb-
els Seafasos kolejis studentebis saSualo asaki. ra moculobis SerCe-
vaa aucilebeli? statistikis maswavlebeli Tvlis, rom saimedooba unda
iyos 99%, raTa Sefaseba iyos swori erTi wlis sizustiT. wina gamokvle-
vebidan cnobilia, rom asakTa standartuli gadaxra aris 3 weli. iguli-
sxmeba, rom asaki daaxloebiT normalurdaa ganawilebuli
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi 1 l = ; 3 o = ; 1 0.99 0.01 o = ÷ = . amitom
/ 2 0.005
2.58 z z
o
= = . Sesabamisad, SerCevis minimaluri moculoba iqneba:
* 2
2.58
[( 3) ] 1 [59.9] 1 60
1
n = · + = + = .
amrigad, imisaTvis, rom maswavlebelma Seafasos studentTa asakis
saSualos WeSmariti mniSvneloba erTi wlis sizustiT 99%-iani saimedoo-
biT, mas sWirdeba sul cota 60 studentisagan Semdgari SerCeva.
magaliTi 4. SemTxveviT SearCies 10 avtomobili da gazomes marjvena
wina saburavis proteqtoris siRrme. saSualo aRmoCnda 0.32 diumi (1 diu-
mi aris 2.54 sm.), xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra -- 0.08 diumi.
ipoveT 95%-iani saimedoobis ndobis intervali proteqtoris siRrmis saS-
ualosaTvis. igulisxmeT, rom sidide miaxloebiT normaluradaa ganawil-
ebuli.
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi
'
10, 0.32, 0.08 n X s = = = . vinaidan populaciiis
is standartuli gadaxra o ucnobia, is unda SevcvaloT SerCevis Seswo-
rebuli standartuli gadaxriT
'
0.08 s = . Tavisuflebis xarisxia
1 10 1 9 n÷ = ÷ = . 1 0.95 0.05 o = ÷ = , / 2 0.05/ 2 0.025 o = = . Sesabamisad t ganawileb-
is zeda kritikuli wertilebis cxrilSi me-9 striqonisa da 0.025-is Sesa-
bamisi svetis gadakveTaze vpoulobT
1, / 2 n
t
o ÷
-is mniSvnelobas:
1, / 2 9,0.025
2.262
n
t t
o ÷
= = . amitom saZiebeli ndobis intervali iqneba:
0.08 0.08
(0.32 2.262 , 0.32 2.262 )
10 10
÷ · + · , anu (0.26, 0.38) .
99

amrigad, 10 moculobis mqone SerCevis safuZvelze SeiZleba davaskv-
naT, rom avtomobilebis wina marjvena saburavebis proteqtorebis siRrm-
is populaciis saSualo 95%-iani saimedobiT moTavsebulia 0.26 diumsa da
0.38 diums Soris. (1 diumi = 2.54 sm)
magaliTi 5. mocemulia generaluri erToblioba garkveuli maxasia-
TebliT, romelic ganawilebulia normalurad 6.25-is toli dispersiiT.
Catarebulia 27 n = moculobis SerCeva da miRebulia maxasiaTeblis saSu-
alo SerCeviTi mniSvneloba 12 x = . vipovoT ndobis intervali, romelic
faravs generaluri erTobliobis gamosakvlevi maxasiaTeblis ucnob maT-
ematikur lodins saimedoobiT 0.99 ¸ = .
amoxsna. gvaqvs: 6.25 2.5 o = = ; 27 n = ; 12 x = ; 1 0.99 0.01 o = ÷ = ;
/ 2 0.005
2.57 z z
o
= = . aqedan vRebulobT saZebn ndobis intervals: (10.76, 13.24).
magaliTi 6. 20 eleqtronaTuris sakontrolo Semowmebisas maTi muS-
aobis saSualo xangrZlivoba aRmoCnda 2000 saaTis toli, xolo Seswore-
buli standartuli gadaxra ki 11 saaTis toli. cnobilia, rom naTuris
muSaobis xangrZlivoba warmoadgens normaluri kanoniT ganawilebul Se-
mTxveviT sidides. ganvsazRvroT am SemTxveviTi sididis maTematikuri
lodinis ndobis intervali saimedoobiT 0.95.
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi 1 0.95 0.05 o = ÷ = . stiudentis ganawilebis
cxrilidan (Tavisuflebis 19-is toli xarisxiT) vpoulobT, rom
1, / 2 19,0.025
2.093
n
t t
o ÷
= = . amitom saZiebeli ndobis intervali iqneba (1994.8,
2005.2).

amocanebi (o cnobilia an 30 n > )

1. ipoveT
/ 2
z
o
(standartuli normaluri ganawilebis / 2 o -zeda
kritikuli wertili): a). 99%-iani; b). 98%-iani; g). 95%-iani; d). 90%-iani da
e). 94%-iani ndobis intervalebisaTvis.
2. gamoTvaleT SerCeviTi saSualo, Sesworebuli standartuli gada-
xra, aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali populaciis saSualosaTvis da ipo-
veT Sefasebis sizuste. populaciis standartuli gadaxraa 11. isargebl-
eT Semdegi SerCeviT:
43 52 18 20 25 45 43 21 42 32
24 32 19 25 26 44 42 41 41 53
22 25 23 21 27 33 36 47 19 20
3. qvemoT moyvanili SerCevis monacemebis mixedviT gamoTvaleT SerC-
eviTi saSualo, Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra da aageT 95%-iani
ndobis intervali populaciis saSualosaTvis:
47.596 68.751 5.838 69.831 28.843 53.107 31.391 48.829 50.706 32.785
62.892 55.105 63.974 56.674 38.362 51.549 31.938 31.851 56.088 48.321
34.906 38.359 72.086 34.009 50.850 43.801 46.127 49.926 54.960 49.671
4. 35 mexuTe klaselis kiTxvis qulebis saSualo aris 82, xolo Ses-
worebuli standartuli gadaxra 15. a). ipoveT 95%-iani ndobis intervali
mexuTe klaselebis kiTxvis qulebis saSualosaTvis; b). ipoveT 99%-iani
100

ndobis intervali mexuTe klaselebis kiTxvis qulebis saSualosaTvis; g).
romeli intervalia ufro ganieri? axseniT ratom.
5. gamoTvaleT SerCeviTi saSualo, Sesworebuli standartuli gada-
xra da aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali evropeli moqalaqis wliuri Se-
mosavlis saSualosaTvis, Tu qvemoT moyvanilia SemTxveviT SerCeuli 50
evropeli moqalaqis Semosavlebi gazomili aTasobiT evroebSi:
84 14 31 72 26 49 252 104 31 8
3 18 72 23 55 133 16 29 225 138
85 24 391 72 158 4340 346 19 5 846
461 254 125 61 123 60 29 10 366 47
28 254 6 77 21 97 6 17 8 82
6. 40 pedagogze dakvirvebam aCvena, rom isini saSualod 12.6 wuTs an-
domeben erTi naweris gasworebas. a). aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali ga-
sworebis drois saSualosaTvis, Tu cnobilia, rom standartuli gadaxra
tolia 2.5 wuTis; b). ramdenad mosalodnelia, rom romelime pedagogma
Tqvas, rom is saSualod 30 wuTs andomebs naweris gasworebas?
7. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 40 Tavdamsxmelis saSualo qula aris 186,
xolo TavdamsxmelTa populaciis standartuli gadaxraa 6. a). aageT 95%-
iani ndobis intervali TavdamsxmelTa populaciis saSualo qulisaTvis;
b). aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali TavdamsxmelTa populaciis saSualo
qulisaTvis im SemTxvevaSi, roca 40 Tavdamsxmelis nacvlad ganixileba
100 Tamdamsxmelisagan Sedgenili SerCeva imave saSualo quliT; g). rome-
li intervalia ufro patara (zusti) da ratom?
8. SemTxveviT SerCeul 49 bavSvze dakvirvebam (romelTa asaki merye-
obda 8-dan 12 wlamde) aCvena, rom isini savaWro centrSi saSualod xarj-
aven 18.5 lars, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 1.56 lari. aag-
eT 90%-iani ndobis intervali 8-dan 12 wlamde asakis bavSvebis mier sava-
Wro centrSi daxarjuli Tanxis saSualosaTvis.
9. gamokvlevebma aCvena, rom aSS-s moqalaqes saSualod Wirdeba 5.9
Tve axali samuSaos mosaZebnad. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali samuSa-
os moZebnis saSualosaTvis, Tu gamokiTxuli 36 samuSaos mZebnelisaTvis
Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 0.8 Tve.
10. qvemoT moyvanilia aSS-s SemTxveviT SerCeul 40 kompaniaSi droe-
biTi samuSao adgilebis raodenoba:
7685 3100 725 850 11778 7300 3472 540 11370 5400
1570 160 9953 3114 2600 2821 6200 3483 8954 8
1000 1650 1200 390 1999 400 3473 600 1270 873
400 713 11960 1195 2290 175 887 1703 4236 1400
gamoTvaleT SerCeviTi saSualo, Sesworebuli standartuli gadax-
ra da aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali droebiTi samuSao adgilebis
saSualosaTvis.
11. 48 SemTxveviT SerCeuli dRis monacemebis mixedviT did hospita-
lSi dRis ganmavlobaSi Semosuli pacientebis saSualod 38% saWiroebs
gadaudebel saswrafo daxmarebas. populaciis standartuli gadaxraa 4.
a). aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali im pacientebis raodenobis saSualos-
101

aTvis, vinc saWiroebs gadaudebel saswrafo daxmarebas; b). aageT 99%-iani
ndobis intervali im pacientebis raodenobis saSualosaTvis, vinc saWir-
oebs gadaudebel saswrafo daxmarebas, Tu populaciis standartuli ga-
daxraa 8 nacvlad 4-sa; g). ratomaa meore SemTxvevaSi ndobis intervali
ufro ganieri?
12. centraluri respublikuri saavadmyofos 84 sxvadasxva adgilas
gazomili xmauris donis saSualo iyo 61.2 decibali, xolo Sesworebuli
standartuli gadaxra 7.9 decibali. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali saa-
vadmyofoSi xmauris donis realuri saSualosaTvis.
13. mkvlevars surs Seafasos dedaqalaqiis policiis oficris saSu-
alo xelfasi. misi mizania, rom Sefasebis saimedooba iyos 95%. cnobi-
lia, rom policiis oficris xelfasis standartuli gadaxraa 1050 lari.
ra moculobis SerCeva dasWirdeba mkvlevars imisaTvis, rom Sefasebis si-
zuste iyos 200 lari?
14. fakultetis dekanats surs Seafasos mowveuli pedagogebis saSu-
alo kvireuli datvirTva. wina gamokvlevis mixedviT standartuli gadax-
ra iyo 2.6 sT. ramdenad didi moculobis SerCevis aReba iqneba saWiro,
Tu dekanats surs 99%-iani saimedoobiT WeSmarit saSualosa da SerCevis
saSualos Soris gansxvaveba ar aRematebodes 1 saaTs.
15. centraluri samxedro hospitalis 117 sxvadasxva oTaxSi xmauris
saSualo done iyo 58 decibali, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadax-
ra 4.8 decibali. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali hospitalSi xmauris
donis WeSmariti saSualosaTvis.
16. sadazRvevo kompania cdilobs Seafasos avadmyofobis dReebis
saSualo raodenoba makdonaldsis qselSi momuSave personalisaTvis. sap-
ilote SemowmebiT dadginda, rom Sesabamisi standartuli gadaxraa 2.5
dRe. ra moculobis SerCevaa saWiro, rom kompaniam 95%-iani saimedoobiT
daadginos intervali, romelic Seicavs avadmyofobis dReebis realur sa-
Sualos maqsimaluri cdomilebiT 1 dRe?
17. restornis mepatrones surs daadginos 99%-iani ndobis interva-
li Sampaniuris fasis realuri saSualosaTvis. ra moculobis unda iyos
SerCeva, rom Sefasebis sizuste iyos 0.1 lari, Tu wina gamokvlevis Tanax-
mad fasis standartuli gadaxra iyo 0.12 lari.
18. samSobiaro saxlis personals surs Seafasos axalSobilTa wo-
na. ra moculobis SerCeva iqneba saWiro, rom 90%-iani saimedoobiT wonis
realuri saSualo moTavsebuli iyos SerCevis saSualosagan 6 unciis (1
uncia = 28.3 gr) farglebSi, Tu cnobilia, rom axalSobilTa wonis stan-
dartuli gadaxraa 8 uncia.

amocanebi (o ucnobia da 30 n < )
19. ipoveT
1, / 2 n
t
o ÷
(Tavisuflebis ( 1 n÷ ) xarisxis mqone stiudentis ga-
nawilebis / 2 o -zeda kritikuli wertili): a). 99%-iani ndobis interva-
lisaTvis, roca 18 n = ; b). 95%-iani ndobis intervalisaTvis, roca 23 n = ;
g). 98%-iani ndobis intervalisaTvis, roca 15 n = ; d). 90%-iani ndobis in-
102

tervalisaTvis, roca 10 n = ; e). 95%-iani ndobis intervalisaTvis, roca
20 n = .
qvemoT moyvanil amocanebSi igulisxmeT, rom yvela sidide ganawi-
lebulia daaxloebiT normalurad:
20. qvemoT moyvanili monacemebisaTvis gamoTvaleT SerCeviTi saSua-
lo, Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra, aageT 95%-iani ndobis interva-
li populaciis saSualosaTvis da ipoveT Sefasebis sizuste:
625 675 535 406 512 680 483 522 619 575.
21. qvemoT moyvanili monacemebis mixedviT gamoTvaleT SerCeviTi sa-
Sualo, Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra da aageT 95%-iani ndobis in-
tervali populaciis saSualosaTvis:
62 81 86 79 73 88 90 98 78 93 87 82 78 59 63 97 93 84.
22. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 20 pacientisis 100 mililitr sisxlSi hem-
oglobinis saSualo Semcvleloba aRmoCnda 16 grami, xolo Sesworebuli
standartuli gadaxra ki 2 gr. aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali WeSmari-
ti saSualosaTvis.
23. meteorologma 15 civi haeris masivze dakvirvebis Sedegad daadg-
ina, rom maTi gavrcelebis saSualo siCqarea 18 mili/sT, xolo standart-
uli gadaxra ki 2 mili/sT. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali realuri
saSualo siCqarisaTvis.
24. Statis warmomadgenels surs Seafasos Statis sakanonmdeblo
organoSi qalebis saSualo ricxvi. man SemTxveviT SearCia 17 Stati da
miiRo Semdegi monacemebi: 5 33 35 37 24 31 16 45 19 13 18 29 15 39
18 58 132. gamoTvaleT saSualos wertilovani Sefaseba, Sesworebuli
standartuli gadaxra da aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali populaciis
saSualosaTvis. ratomaa ndobis intervali ase ganieri?
25. 20 Tinusze dakvirvebam aCvena, rom isini saSualod curaven 8.6
mils saaTSi. SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 1.6. aageT 90%-
iani ndobis intervali WeSmariti saSualosaTvis.
26. SemTxveviT arCeuli 6 spilos saSualo wonaa 12200 funti (1 fun-
ti = 453.6 gr), xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra 200 funti. aag-
eT 95%-iani ndobis intervali WeSmariti saSualosaTvis.
27. regionis 8 skolis saTadarigo maswavleblis yoveldRiuri xel-
fasebia: 60l 56l 60l 55l 70l 55l 60l 55l. ipoveT wertilovani
Sefasebebi da aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali regionSi saTadarigo
maswavleblis yoveldRiuri xelfasebis WeSmariti saSualosaTvis.
28. 28 moqalaqis gamokiTxvis mixedviT maTi amJamindel misamarTze
cxovrebis saSualo xangrZlivobam Seadgina 9.3 weli, xolo SerCevis Ses-
worebuli standartuli gadaxra aris 2 weli. aageT 90%-iani ndobis int-
ervali populaciis saSualosaTvis.
29. avtomaRaziis menejerma daadgina, rom mis 6 TanamSromels avtom-
obilis wylis tumbos Secvla SeuZlia saSualod 18 wuTSi, xolo SerCe-
vis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra aris 3 wuTi. aageT 99%-iani ndob-
is intervali WeSmariti saSualosaTvis.
103

30. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 25 avtomobiliani studenti kviraSi saSua-
lod xarjavs 18.53 laris benzins. SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli
gadaxraa 3 lari. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali realuri saSualosa-
Tvis.
31. stresul situaciaSi myofi 10 kaciani jgufis guliscemis saSua-
lo ricxvi wuTSi Seadgens 126-s, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gada-
xra aris 4. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali stresul situaciaSi myofi
kacebis guliscemis realuri saSualosaTvis.
32. stresul situaciaSi myofi 6 qali guliscemis saSualo ricxvi
wuTSi Seadgens 115-s, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra aris 6.
aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali stresul situaciaSi myofi qalebis gu-
liscemis realuri saSualosaTvis.
33. hospitalis 24 saoperacio oTaxSi xmauris donis saSualo iyo
41.6 decibali, xolo SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 7.5
decibali. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali saoperacio oTaxebSi xmauris
donis realuri saSualosaTvis.
34. aageT 98%-iani ndobis intervali populaciis saSualosaTvis, Tu
misgan aRebuli SerCevaa:
22 24 120 382 50 38 297
29 23 70 56 17 51 38
35. erovnul gamocdaze maTematikaSi 20 abiturientis guliscemis
saSualo iyo 96 dartyma wuTSi, xolo SerCevis Sesworebuli sta-
ndartuli gadaxra ki 5. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali guliscemis
realuri saSualosaTvis.
36. dedaqalaqis 28 axaldaqorwinebulis saSualo wliuri Semosava-
li Seadgens 58219 lars, xolo SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli gada-
xraa 56 lari. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali Semosavlebis realuri
saSualosaTvis.




pasuxebi:
1. 2.58; 2.33; 1.96; 1.65; 1.88. 2. 32.03; 11.01; (28.1, 35.97); 2.01. 3. 46.9709; 14.3582;
(41.8329, 52.1089). 4. (77, 87); (75, 89); II, vinaidan saimedooba ufro didia. 5.
196; 617.3; (52, 340). 6. (11.9,13.3); es Zalian mcire albaTobis mqonea, radgan 30
bevrjer aRemateba 13.3-s. 7. (184, 188); (185, 187); II, vinaidan 100 > 40. 8. (18.13,
18.87). 9. (5.6, 6.2). 10. 3222.4; 3480.1; (2341.5, 4130.3). 11. (37, 39); (35, 41); vinaidan
8 4 > . 12. (59.5, 62.9). 13. 106. 14. 45. 15. (57.4, 58.6). 16. 25. 17. 10. 18. 5. 19. 2.898;
2.624; 2.093; 2.074; 1.833. 20. 563.2; 87.9; (500.4, 626); 27.8. 21. 81.72; 11.58; (75.96, 87.48).
22. (15, 17). 23. (17, 19). 24. 33.4; 28.7; (21.2, 45.6); monacemi 132 araCveulebrivad
didia (“amovardnili” – “outlier” monacemia). 25. (8, 9.2). 26. (11990, 12410). 27.
58.9; 5.1; (55.5, 62.3). 28. (8.7, 9.9). 29. (13, 23). 30. (17.29, 19.77). 31. (123, 129). 32. (109,
121). 33. (38.4, 44.8). 34. (7.9, 165.9). 35. (94, 98). 36. (58197, 58241).

104

Tavi II
ndobis intervali bernulis sqemaSi

ndobis intervali da SerCevis moculoba bernulis sqemisaTvis
(proporciisaTvis): bernulis sqemaSi ucnobi p albaTobis (populaciis
proporciis) wertilovani Sefasebaa fardobiTi sixSire /
n n
w S n = , sadac
1
n
n i
i
S X
=
=
¯
( 1
i
X = , Tu i -ur cdaSi moxda warmateba, da 0
i
X = , Tu i -ur cda-
Si moxda marcxi) – warmatebaTa raodenobaa n damoukidebel cdaSi.
o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone asimptoturi ndobis intervals uc-
nobi p albaTobisaTvis (proporciisaTvis) aqvs Semdegi saxe:
/ 2 / 2
(1 ) (1 )
( , )
n n n n
n n
w w w w
w z w z
n n
o o
÷ ÷
÷ · + · .
populaciis proporciis l sizustis intervaluri SefasebisaTvis
saWiro SerCevis minimaluri moculobaa:
* 2 / 2
[ (1 )( ) ] 1
n n
z
n w w
l
o
= ÷ +
(amasTanave, roca
n
w -s aproqsimacia ucnobia, maSin unda gamoviyenoT
0.5
n
w = , vinaidan namravlis (1 )
n n
w w ÷ maqsimaluria, roca 0.5
n
w = ).
dazustebuli o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone asimptoturi ndobis
intervali ucnobi p albaTobisaTvis aris:
2 2 2 2
/ 2 / 2 / 2 / 2
/ 2 / 2 2 2
2 2
/ 2 / 2
(1 ) (1 )
2 4 2 4
( , )
1 1
n n n n
n n
z w w z z w w z
w z w z
n n n n n n
z z
n n
o o o o
o o
o o
÷ ÷
+ ÷ + + + +
+ +
.
o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone asimptoturi ndobis intervali pua-
sonis populaciis ucnobi ì parametrisaTvis aris:
/ 2 / 2
( , )
n n
n n
X X
X z X z
n n
o o
÷ · + · .

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. moxucebis 500 momvlelisagan Semdgar SerCevaSi 60 mama-
kacia. ipoveT 90%-iani saimedoobis ndobis intervali moxucebis movlis
programaSi monawile mamakacTa WeSmariti proporciisaTvis.
amoxsna. vinaidan 1 0.90 0.10 o = ÷ = , amitom
/ 2 0.05
1.65 z z
o
= = .
garda amisa, 60
n
S = , 500 n = . Sesabamisad, 60/ 500 0.12
n
w = = da
1 1 0.12 0.88
n
w ÷ = ÷ = .
amitom ndobis intervali iqneba:
105

0.12 0.88 0.12 0.88
(0.12 1.65 , 0.12 1.65 )
500 500
× ×
÷ · + · , (0.096, 0.144)
anu
9.6% 14.4% p < < .
amrigad, moxucebis movlis programaSi monawile mamakacebis realu-
ri proporcia 90%-iani saimedoobiT moTavsebulia 9.6%-sa da 14.4%-s Sor-
is.
magaliTi 2. mkvlevars surs 95%-iani saimedoobiT Seafasos im ad-
amianebis proporcia, romlebsac saxlSi aqvT sakuTari kompiuteri. wina
gamokvlevam aCvena, rom gamokiTxulTa 40%-s saxlSi aqvs sakuTari kompi-
uteri. mkvlevars surs 2%-iani sizuste WeSmariti proporciisaTvis. vipo-
voT SerCevis moculobis aucilebeli minimumi.
amoxsna. gvaqvs:
/ 2 (1 0.95)/ 2 0.025
1.96 z z z
o ÷
= = = , 0.02 l = , 0.40
n
w = , 1 0.60
n
w ÷ = .
amitom SerCevis mnimimaluri moculoba iqneba:
2
1.96
[0.40 0.60 ( ) ] 1 [2304.96] 1 2305
0.02
n = × × + = + = .
e. i. unda gamoikiTxos 2305 adamiani.
magaliTi 3. mkvlevars surs 90%-iani saimedoobiTa da 5%-iani sizu-
stiT Seafasos aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis im warmomadgenelTa prop-
orcia, romlebsac aqvT manqanis telefoni.
amoxsna. vinaidan ucnobia
n
w -is Sefaseba, statistikosi irCevs
0.5
n
w = da 1 0.5
n
w ÷ = mniSvnelobebs.
garda amisa, am SemTxvevaSi 0.05 l = , 1 0.90 0.1 o = ÷ = ,
/ 2 0.05
1.65 z z
o
= = .
Sesabamisad,
2
1.65
[0.5 0.5 ( ) ] 1 [272.25] 1 273
0.05
n = × × + = + = .
e. i. unda gamoikiTxos aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis 273 warmomad-
geneli.

amocanebi

1. 1500 gamokiTxuli axalgazrdidan 39%-ma Tqva, rom isini apireben
momaval wels aiRon ufro xangrZlivi Svebuleba. aageT 95%-iani ndobis
intervali im axalgazrdebis realuri proporciisaTvis, romlebic apire-
ben momaval wels ufro xangrZlivi Svebulebis aRebas.
2. dedaqalaqis 100 SemTxveviT SerCeul mcxovrebs Soris 27 msuq-
ania. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali dedaqalaqis mosaxleobaSi msuqani
adamianebis realuri proporciisaTvis.
3. 100 gamokiTxul umuSevars Soris 65% araa dainteresebuli dabr-
undes Zvel samsaxurSi. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali im umuSevrebis
realuri proporciisaTvis, romlebsac ar surT Zvel samsaxurSi dabrun-
eba.
106

4. gamokiTxuli 1015 axalgazrdidan 13% dadebiTad afasebs sakanon-
mdeblo organos saqmianobas. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali im axalga-
zrdebis realuri proporciisaTvis, romlebic ase fiqroben.
5. 200 gamokiTxuli muSidan 168 muSam ganacxada, rom 1 saaTis ganma-
vlobaSi satelefono zarma aranakleb 3-jer gaawyvetina muSaoba. aageT
95%-iani ndobis intervali im muSebis realuri proporciisaTvis, romle-
bsac satelefono zarma aranakleb 3-jer gaawyvetina muSaoba.
6. 120 gamokiTxul pirvelkursel gogonas Soris 18 gogonas ar
surs muSaoba gaTxovebis Semdeg. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali im pir-
velkurseli gogonebis realuri proporciisaTvis, romlebsac ar surT
muSaoba gaTxovebis Semdeg.
7. jandacvis saministros monacemebiT monacemebiT 13-14 wlis mozar-
debidan yoveli mexuTe zogjer eweva sigarets. mTeli qveynis masStabiT
13-14 wlis mozardebSi sigaretis mwevelebis proporciasTan Sesadarebl-
ad ganaTlebis saministrom gamokiTxa 200 13-14 wlis skolis moswavle da
daadgina, rom maTi 23% zogjer eweva sigarets. aageT 99%-iani ndobis in-
tervali skolis 13-14 wlis moswavleebSi sigaretis mwevelTa realuri
proporcisasTvis da SeadareT is jandacvis saministros monacemebs.
8. 80 dakvirvebuli avtosagzao SemTxvevidan 46-is gamomwvevi mizezi
iyo mZRolis mier alkoholis miReba. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali im
avtosagzao SemTxvevebis realuri proporciisaTvis, romelTa gamomwvevi
mizezi iyo mZRolis mier alkoholis miReba.
9. 90 gamokiTxuli ojaxidan 40 flobs erT mainc iaraRs. aageT 95%-
iani ndobis intervali im ojaxebis realuri proporciisaTvis, romlebic
floben erT mainc iaraRs.
10. 500 gamokiTxuli muSidan 45% profkavSirebis wevria. aageT 90%-
iani ndobis intervali im muSebis realuri proporciisaTvis, romlebic
Sedian profkavSirebSi.
11. garkveuli asakobrivi jgufis 100 gardacvlili adamianis kvle-
vam aCvena, rom maTgan 25% gardaicvala kiboTi. aageT 98%-iani ndobis in-
tervali am asakobrivi jgufis gardacvlil adamianebSi im adamianebis
realuri proporciisaTvis, romlebic daiRupnen kiboTi.
12. mkvlevars surs 95%-iani saimedoobiTa da 0.04-is toli sizustiT
Seafasos realuri proporcia im adamianebis, romlebsac umogzauriaT sa-
zRvargareT. ipoveT amisaTvis saWiro SerCevis aucilebeli moculoba, Tu
cnobilia, rom 200 adamianisagan Semdgar SerCevaSi gasul wels sazRvar-
gareT imogzaura 80 adamianma.
13. medikoss surs 99%-iani saimedoobiTa da 2%-is sizustiT Seafas-
os im qalebis realuri proporcia, romlebic Rebuloben vitamins. adre
Catarebuli kvlevis Tanaxmad 180 qalidan 25% Rebulobda vitamins. a). ra
moculobis unda iyos saWiro SerCeva? b). Tu ar iqneboda xelmisawvdomi
SerCeviTi proporcia, maSin ra moculobis SerCevis aReba mogviwevda?
14. gamokvlevam aCvena, rom 55 welze meti asakis 100 qalidan 29%
qvrivia. a). ra moculobis SerCevaa saWiro, raTa 90%-iani saimedoobiTa
da 0.05-is sizustiT SevafasoT 55 welze meti asakis im qalebis realuri
107

proporcia, romlebic qvrivebi arian? b). ra moculobis SerCeva unda avi-
RoT im SemTxvevaSi, roca ara xelmisawvdomi SerCeviTi proporcia?
15. mkvlevars surs 90%-iani saimedoobiTa da 5%-is sizustiT Seafa-
sos im mamakacebis reluri proporcia, romelTa simaRle 5 futsa (1 futi
= 30.48 sm) da 5 diumze (1 diumi = 2.54 sm) naklebia. a). ra moculobis Ser-
Cevaa amisaTvis aucilebeli, Tu cnobilia, rom 300 mamakacidan 30-is sima-
Rle 5 futsa da 5 diumze naklebia; b). b). ra moculobis SerCeva unda av-
iRoT im SemTxvevaSi, roca ar iqneba xelmisawvdomi SerCeviTi propor-
cia?
16. maswavlebels surs 98%-iani saimedoobiTa da 0.03-is sizustiT
Seafasos maRali klasis im moswavleebis realuri proporcia, romlebic
yovel saRamos 1 saaTs mainc mecadineoben. a). ra moculobis unda iyos
saWiro SerCeva, Tuki cnobilia, rom 250 gamokiTxuli moswavlidan 60%
yovel saRamos 1 saaTs mainc mecadineobda; b). ra moculobis SerCeva un-
da aviRoT im SemTxvevaSi, roca ar iqneba xelmisawvdomi SerCeviTi prop-
orcia?
17. ipoveT saimedoobis xarisxi, Tu SerCevis moculobaa 600 da
mkvlevars surs, rom realuri proporciis Sefasebis maqsimaluri cdomi-
leba iyos 4%. amasTanave, cnobilia, rom adrindeli kvlevisas proporcia
iyo 50%.
18. 1015 gamokiTxulidan 68%-s sjera, rom respublikelebi upirates-
obas aniWeben ganaTlebas. ra saimedoobis ndobis intervali unda gamovi-
yenoT, Tuki Sefasebis cdomileba ar unda aRematebodes 3%-s.
















pasuxebi:
1. (0.365, 0.415) anu (36.5%,41.5%). 2. (0.197, 0.343). 3. (0.557, 0.743). 4. (0.109, 0.151). 5.
(0.797, 0.883). 6. (0.086, 0.214). 7. (0.153, 0.307); es Sedegi eTanxmeba jandacvis
saministros monacemebs. 8. (0.467, 0.683). 9. (0.337, 0.543). 10. (0.413, 0.487). 11.
(0.149, 0.351). 12. 577. 13. 3121; 4161. 14. 225; 273. 15. 99; 273. 16. 1448; 1509. 17. 95%.
18. 96%.
108

Tavi III
ndobis intervali dispersiisaTvis

o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone ndobis intervali normaluri popu-
laciis dispersiisaTvis cnobili saSualos SemTxvevaSi aris:
2 2
1 1
2 2
, / 2 ,1 / 2
( ) ( )
,
n n
i i
i i
n n
x a x a
o o
; ;
= =
÷
| |
÷ ÷
|
|
|
|
\ .
¯ ¯
,
xolo ucnobi saSualos SemTxvevaSi ki:
' 2 ' 2
2 2
1, / 2 1,1 / 2
( 1) ( 1)
,
n n
n s n s
o o
; ;
÷ ÷ ÷
| |
÷ ÷
|
|
\ .
.
zogjer gamoiyeneba aRniSvnebi:
2 2
1, / 2
:
n o
; ;
÷
=
marjv.
da
2 2
1,1 / 2
:
n o
; ;
÷ ÷
=
marcx.
.
o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone ndobis intervali normaluri popu-
laciis standartuli gadaxrisaTvis SerCevis didi moculobis SemTxveva-
Si daaxloebiT aris:
' '
' '
/ 2 / 2
( , )
2 2
s s
s z s z
n n
o o
÷ · + · .
SerCeviTi dispersia ewodeba sidides:
( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 1
1
k n
i
i i
i i
n
s x x x x
n n
= =
= ÷ = ÷
¯ ¯
(
¯
=
=
n
i
i
x
n
x
1
1
).
Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersia ewodeba sidides:
( )
2
2
' 2
1
1
1 1
n
i
i
n
s s x x
n n
=
= = ÷
÷ ÷
¯
.
SerCeviTi standartuli gadaxra (Sesabamisad, Sesworebuli SerCevi-
Ti standartuli gadaxra) ewodeba ariTmetikul kvadratul fesvs SerCev-
iTi dispersiidan
2
s s = (Sesabamisad, Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersiid-
an
2
' '
s s = )
magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. ipoveT TambaqoSi nikotinis Semcvlelobis dispersiisa
da standartuli gadaxrisaTvis 95%-iani ndobis intervali, Tu cnobilia,
rom 20 sigaretisagan Sedgenil SerCevaSi nikotinis Semcvlelobis Seswo-
rebuli standartuli gadaxra 1.6 miligramis tolia.
amoxsna. vinaidan am SemTxvevaSi 1 0.95 0.05 o = ÷ = , amitom xi-kvadrat
ganawilebis ori kritikuli mniSvneloba, romelic Seesabameba / 2 0.025 o = -
sa da 1 / 2 0.975 o ÷ = -s da Tavisuflebis xarisxis ricxvs, romelic tolia
1 20 1 19 n÷ = ÷ = , Sesabamisad iqneba:
2
19,0.025
32.852 ; = da
2
19,0.975
8.907 ; = . amitom
saZiebeli ndobis intervali iqneba:
109

2 2
(20 1) (1.6) (20 1) (1.6)
( , )
32.852 8.907
÷ · ÷ ·
, anu (1.5,5.5)
amrigad, Cven SegviZlia 95%-iani saimedoobiT vigulisxmoT, rom
sigaretSi nikotinis Semcvlelobis realuri dispersia moTavsebulia 1.5
miligramsa da 5.5 miligrams Soris.
ndobis intervali standartuli gadaxrisaTvis iqneba:
( 1.5, 5.5) , anu (1.2, 2.3) .
maSasadame, sigaretSi nikotinis Semcvlelobis realuri stand-
artuli gadaxris 95%-iani ndobis intervalia (1.2mg, 2.3mg).
magaliTi 2. CavTvaloT, rom xmauri Sveulmfrenis kabinaSi, garkve-
ul reJimSi momuSave Zravis dros, normaluri kanoniT ganawilebuli Sem-
TxveviTi sididea. SemTxveviT SerCeul 20 SveulmfrenSi gazomes xmis do-
ne (decibalebSi). xmis donis Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersia aRmoCnda
22.5-is toli. vipovoT ndobis intervali, romelic faravs mocemuli
tipis Sveulmfrenebis kabinaSi xmauris sididis ucnob standartul ga-
daxras 98%-iani saimedoobiT.
amoxsna. Tavisuflebis 19-is toli xarisxiTa da (1 0.98) / 2 ÷ = 0.01 =
albaTobis saSualebiT ;
2
–is ganawilebis cxrilidan vpoulobT sidides:
2
19,0.01
36.2 ; = . analogiurad, (1 + 0.98)/2 = 0.99 albaTobis saSualebiT vpoul-
obT:
2
19,0.99
7.63 ; = . Sesabamisad, ucnobi saSualos SemTxvevaSi standartuli
gadaxris ndobis intervalis
' 2 ' 2
2 2
1, / 2 1,1 / 2
( 1) ( 1)
,
n n
n S n S
o o
; ;
÷ ÷ ÷
| |
÷ ÷
|
|
\ .

formulis gamoyenebiT vRebulobT, rom saZiebeli ndobis interva-
lia: (3.44, 7.49).
amocanebi

1. cxrilis saSualebiT ipoveT
2
;
marcx.
da
2
;
marjv.
, Tu: a). 0.05 o = ,
16 n = ; b). 0.1, 5 n o = = ; g). 0.01, 23 n o = = ; d). 0.05 o = , 29 n = ; e). 0.1, 14 n o = = .
qvemoT moyvanil amocanebSi igulisxmeT, rom yvela sidide ganile-
bulia normalurad:
2. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali elementis sicocxlis xangr-
Zlivobis dispersiisa da standartuli gadaxrisaTvis, Tu cnobilia, rom
20 elementiani SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 1.7 Tve.
3. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali avtobusis usafrTxoebis Sesamo-
wmeblad saWiro drois dispersiisa da standartuli gadaxrisaTvis, Tu
cnobilia, rom 20 avtobusis usafrTxoebis Sesamowmeblad saWiro drois
Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 6.8 wT.
4. aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali Zravis zeTis 25 litriani ko-
nteineris wonis dispersiisa da standartuli gadaxrisaTvis, Tu
cnobilia, rom 14 konteinerisaTvis Sesworebuli dispersia aris 3.3.
5. qvemoT moyvanilia vaSlis wvenSi Saqris Semcveloba gramebSi:
110

18.6 19.5 20.2 20.4 19.3
21 20.3 19.6 20.7 18.9
22.1 19.7 20.8 18.9 20.7
21.6 19.5 20.1 20.3 19.9
aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali populaciis dispersiisa da standartu-
li gadaxrisaTvis.
6. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali universitetis meoTxe kursis
studentebis asakis dispersiisa da standartuli gadaxrisaTvis, Tu cno-
bilia, rom 24 studentis asakis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 2.3
w.
7. aageT 98%-iani ndobis intervali drois im Sualedis dispersiisa
da standartuli gadaxrisTvis, romelic sWirdeba satelefono kompanias
zaris swori mimarTulebiT gadarTvisaTvis, Tu cnobilia, rom 15 zaris
SemTxvevaSi am drois Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra tolia 1.6 wT.
8. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali aqciis fasis dispersiisa da
standartuli gadaxrisaTvis Semdegi SerCevis mixedviT:
26.69 13.88 28.37 12 75.37
7.5 47.5 43 3.81 53.81
13.62 45.12 6.94 28.25 28
60.5 40.25 10.87 46.12 14.75
9. avtoteqmomsaxurebis centri akeTebda reklamas, rom zeTis Secv-
lisas klients ar dasWirdeboda 30 wuTze meti lodini. zeTis Secvlis
28 SemTxvevaSi drois Sesworebuli standartuli gadxra iyo 5.2 wuTi.
aageT 95%-iani intervali populaciis standartuli gadaxrisaTvis.
10. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali 12-unciani yavis paketis disper-
siisa da standartuli gadaxrisaTvis, Tu Semowmebul 8 paketSi yavis wo-
na iyo: 12.03 12.1 12.02 11.98 12 12.05 11.97 11.99.
11. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali elementebis muSaobis xang-
rZlivobis standartuli gadaxrisaTvis, Tu cnobilia, rom 200 ele-
mentisaTvis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 18 Tve.

savarjiSoebi gameorebisaTvis

12. statistikis departamentis monacemebiT dedaqalaqis macxovre-
blebs kviraSi saSualod 54 saaTi aqvT televizori CarTuli. mkvlevarma
gamokiTxa 50 moqalaqe da daadgina, rom maT saSualod 43.7 sT aqvT
televizori CarTuli. SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 6.2
sT. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali WeSmariti saSualosaTvis. rogor
esadageba es Sedegi statistikis departamentis monacemebs?
13. parkSi moseirne 36 adamianze dakvirvebam aCvena, rom isini saSua-
lod gadaadgildebian 2.6 km/sT siCqariT. SerCevis Sesworebuli standar-
tuli gadaxraa 0.4 km/sT. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali realuri saSu-
alosaTvis.
111

14. saSualo wona 60 SemTxveviT SerCeuli mikroavtobusis aris 2627
kg, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 400 kg. aageT 99%-iani
ndobis intervali WeSmariti saSualo wonisaTvis.
15. 1500 gamokiTxuli adamianidan Svebulebis ganmavlobaSi saSual-
od 7.5 Rame gaatara sastumroSi, Sesabamisi Sesworebuli standartuli
gadaxra iyo 0.8 Rame. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali realuri
saSualosaTvis.
16. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 25 qalaqgareT macxovreblis gamokiTxvis
mixedviT isini saSualod 18.23 lars xarjaven transportSi, xolo
Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 3 lari. CaTvaleT, rom transportis
xarjebi normaluradaa ganawilebuli da aageT 95%-iani ndobis interva-
li realuri saSualosaTvis.
17. qalaqis garkveul nawilSi 5 Tviani dakvirvebis Sedegad TveSi
saSualod 28 fostalioni iyo dakbenili mawanwala ZaRlebis mier. SerCe-
vis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 3. CaTvaleT, rom dakbenili fo-
stalionebis ricxvi normaluradaa ganawilebuli da aageT 90%-iani ndo-
bis intervali TveSi dakbenili fostalionebis realuri saSualosaTvis.
18. mkvlevars surs Seafasos profesoris saSualo xelfasi 95%-iani
saimedoobiTa da 200 l. sizustiT. ra moculobis SerCeva unda iqnas ganx-
iluli, Tu cnobilia, rom xelfasis standartuli gadaxraa 1050 lari?
19. mkvlevars surs Seafasos universitetis yovelwliuri saSualo
danaxarjebi safosto momsaxurebaze 90%-iani saimedoobiTa da 25 laris
sizustiT. ra minimaluri moculobis SerCeva unda iqnas ganxiluli, Tu
cnobilia, rom safosto danaxarjebis standartuli gadaxraa 80 lari?
20. 1500 gamokiTxuli axalgazrdidan 42% upiratesobas aniWebs ist-
oriuli adgilebis daTvalierebas SvebulebaSi yofnisas. aageT 95%-iani
ndobis intervali im axalgazrdebis realuri proporciisaTvis, vinc upi-
ratesobas aniWebs istoriuli adgilebis daTvalierebas.
21. 200 ubeduri SemTxvevidan, romelic saWiroebs gadaudebel samed-
icino daxmarebas, 40% moxda saxlSi. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali sa-
xlSi momxdari ubeduri SemTxvevebis realuri proporciisaTvis.
22. 100 gamokiTxulidan 85 kmayofilia meriis muSaobiT. aageT 90%-
iani ndobis intervali im adamianebis realuri proporciisaTvis, romleb-
ic kmayofilia meriis muSaobiT.
23. dietologs surs 95%-iani saimedoobiTa da 2%-iani sizustiT Se-
afasos im mozardebis realuri proporcia, romlebic Wamen Zilis win. ra
moculobis SerCeva iqneba amisaTvis aucilebeli, Tu adrindeli kvlevis
Tanaxmad 100 gamokiTxulidan 18% Wamda Zilis win?
24. 200 gamokiTxuli mozardidan 15% regularulad TamaSobda ka-
laTburTs. ra moculobis SerCeva unda aiRos mkvlevarma, Tu misi
survilia 99%-iani saimedoobiTa da 1%-is sizustiT Seafasos im moz-
ardebis realuri proporcia, vinc regularulad TamaSobs kalaTburTs. )
25. 28 forToxlis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 0.34 sm. aag-
eT 99%-iani ndobis intervali forToxlis diametris WeSmariti standar-
tuli gadaxrisaTvis.
112

26. 22 balaxis sakreWi manqanis mier 1 litri benziniT gakreWili
balaxis zolis sigrZis Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersiaa 2.6. aageT 90%-
iani ndobis intervali realuri dispersiisaTvis.
27. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 15 Tovlmavali manqanis batareebis muSaob-
is xangrZlivobis (TveebSi) Sesworebuli dispersia iyo 8.6. aageT 90%-iani
ndobis intervali realuri dispersiisaTvis.
28. dedaqalaqis 28 policiis oficris simaRlis Sesworebuli SerCe-
viTi standartuli gadaxra iyo 1.83 diumi (1 diumi = 2.54sm). aageT 95%-iani
ndobis intervali policiis oficrTa simaRlis realuri standartuli
gadaxrisaTvis.
amocanebi gamocdisaTvis

29. 49 SemTxveviT SerCeuli wignis moyvaruli kviris ganmavlobaSi
wignis SeZenaze saSualod xarjavs 23.45 lars. Sesabamisi Sesworebuli
standartuli gadaxraa 2.8 lari. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali realu-
ri saSualosaTvis.
30. 20 gamokiTxul pacients eqimTan erT viziti saSualod ujdeba
44.8 lari. SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 3.53 lari. CaTva-
leT, rom vizitis Rirebuleba ganawilebulia normalurad da aageT 95%-
iani ndobis intervali eqimTan erTi vizitis Rirebulebis realuri saSu-
alosaTvis.
31. 40 SemTxveviT SerCeuli saskolo avtobusis saSualo wonaa 4150
funti, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 480 funti. aageT
99%-iani ndobis intervali avtobusis wonis realuri saSualosaTvis.
32. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 10 sadazRvevo jgufis saSualo asaki iyo
48.6 weli, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 4.1 weli. aageT
95%-iani ndobis intervali sadazRvevo jgufebis asakis realuri saSua-
losaTvis.
33. respublikur saavadmyofoSi, SemTxveviT SerCeuli 8 kviraze
dakvirvebisas, kviraSi saSualod 438 pacienti mimarTavda saswrafo
daxmarebis ganyofilebas. Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra iyo 16.
CaTvaleT, rom aRniSnuli kategoriis pacientTa ricxvi ganawilebulia
normalurad da aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali pacientTa realuri
saSualosaTvis.
34. dedaqalaqis garkveul ubanSi, 4 Tviani dakvirvebis Sedegad
dadginda, rom TveSi saSualod xdeboba 31 binis qurdoba, xolo Ses-
worebuli standartuli gadaxra iyo 4. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali
TveSi binis qurdobis realuri saSualosaTvis.
35. fakultetis dekans surs Seafasos saaTebis raodenoba kviris ma-
nZilze, romelsac pirvelkurselebi uTmoben swavlas. wina kvlevis stan-
dartuli gadaxra iyo 2.6 sT. ra minimaluri moculobis SerCeva unda iq-
nas ganxiluli, raTa 99%-iani saimedoobiT realuri saSualos gansxvave-
ba SerCeviTi saSualosagan ar arematebodes 0.5 saaTs.
36. sagzao departaments surs 300 laris sizustiT Seafasos gzebis
saremonto samuSaoebze yovelwlirad daxarjuli Tanxis saSualo 90%-
113

iani saimedoobiT. ra minimaluri moculobis SerCevis ganxilva iqneba sa-
Wiro, Tu cnobilia, rom standartuli gadaxraa 900 lari?
37. 75 gamokiTxuli muSidan 53 samsaxurSi yoveldRiurad dadis avt-
obusiT. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali im muSebis realuri proporcii-
saTvis, vinc samsaxurSi dadis avtobusiT.
38. 150 ubeduri SemTxvevidan, romelic moiTxovs gadaudebel samedi-
cino daxmarebas, 36% modis 6 wlamde asakis bavSvebze. aageT 90%-iani
ndobis intervali im ubeduri SemTxvevebis realuri proporciisaTvis,
romlebSic moyvnen 6 wlamde bavSvebi.
39. 90 gamokiTxuli ojaxidan 40 flobs erT mainc televizors. aag-
eT 95%-iani ndobis intervali im ojaxebis realuri proporciisaTvis,
romlebic floben erT mainc televizors.
40. dietologs surs 95%-iani saimedoobiTa da 3% sizustiT daadgi-
nos realuri proporcia im adamianebis, romlebic ar miirTmeven aranair
vaxSams. ra minimaluri moculobis SerCeva dasWirdeba mas, Tu wina kvle-
visas 125 gamokiTxuli adamianidan 15% ar miirTmevda vaxSams.
41. 25 SemTxveviT SerCeuli novelis gverdebis ricxvis Seswor-
ebuli standartuli gadaxraa 9 gverdi. aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali
populaciis standartuli gadaxrisaTvis.
42. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali policiis inspeqtoris mier av-
tomobilis usafrTxoebis Semowmebaze daxarjuli drois dispersiisa da
standartuli gadaxrisaTvis, Tu 27 SemTxveviT SerCeuli avtomobilisaT-
vis am drois Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra iyo 6.8 wuTi. CaTvaleT,
rom dro ganawilebulia normalurad.
43. 20 SemTxveviT SerCeuli avtomobilis mier 1 galoni (1 galoni =
3.38 litri)benzinis gamoyenebis Sedegad gamoyofili mavne nivTierebebis
raodenobis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 2.3 uncia. aageT 90%-iani
ndobis intervali avtomobilebis mier gamoyofili mavne nivTierebebis
standartuli gadaxrisaTvis.





pasuxebi:
1. 6.262, 27.488; 0.711, 9.488; 8.643, 42.796; 15.308, 44.461; 5.892, 22.362. 2. (1.7, 6.2); (1.3,
2.5). 3. (30.9, 78.2); (5.6, 8.8). 4. (1.4, 11.7); (1.2, 3.4). 5. (0.4, 2.25); (0.63, 1.5). 6. (3.5, 9.3);
(1.9, 3). 7. (1.2, 7.7); (1.1, 2.8). 8. (259.343, 772.724); (16.104, 27.798). 9. (4.1, 7.1). 10.
(0.001, 0.008); (0.032, 0.089). 11. (16.2, 19.8). 12. (45.9, 48.7); 54 sT gacilebiT didia,
vidre mosalodneli intervali. 13. (2.5, 2.7). 14. (2494, 2760). 15. (7.46, 7.54). 16.
(16.99, 19.47). 17. (25, 31). 18. 106. 19. 28. 20. (0.395, 0.445) anu (39.5%, 44.5%). 21.
(0.343, 0.457). 22. (0.791, 0.909). 23. 1418. 24. 8487. 25. (0.25, 0.51). 26. (1.5, 5.3). 27. (5.1,
18.3). 28. (1.447, 2.491). 29. (22.79, 24.11). 30. (43.15, 46.45). 31. (3954, 4346). 32. (45.7,
51.5). 33. (418, 458). 34. (26, 36). 35. 180. 36. 25. 37. (0.604, 0.810). 38. (0.295, 0.425). 39.
(0.342, 0.547). 40. 545. 41. (7, 13). 42. (30.9, 78.2); (5.6, 8.8). 43. (1.8, 3.2).
114

Tavi IV
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba saSualosaTvis (
2
o cnobilia)

ganawilebis parametrebis mniSvnelobebis Sesaxeb an ori ganawileb-
is parametrebis sidideebis Sedarebis hipoTezebs, parametruli hipoTeze-
bi ewodeba. hipoTezebs ganawilebis saxis Sesaxeb ki araparametruli hip-
oTezebi ewodeba. hipoTezas, romelic wamoyenebulia SerCeviT monacemebT-
an misi Tanxmobis Sesamowmeblad, nulovani hipoTeza ewodeba da aRiniSn-
eba
0
H -iT (
0
H amtkicebs, rom ar arsebobs gansxvaveba parametrsa da mis
konkretul mniSvnelobas Soris an ar arsebobs gansxvaveba or parametrs
Soris).
0
H hipoTezasTan erTad ixilaven (wamoayeneben) alternatiul anu
sawinaaRmdego hipoTezasac, romelsac
1
H -iT aRniSnaven (
1
H amtkicebs,
rom arsebobs gansxvaveba parametrsa da mis konkretul mniSvnelobas So-
ris an arsebobs gansxvaveba or parametrs Soris). nulovani hipoTeza moi-
cavs tolobis niSans:
kriteriumi:
ormxrivi marjvena calmxrivi marcxena calmxrivi
0 0
: H u u =
0 0
: H u u s
0 0
: H u u >
1 0
: H u u =
1 0
: H u u >
1 0
: H u u <
samarTliani hipoTezis ukugdebas pirveli gvaris Secdoma ewodeba.
pirveli gvaris Secdomis daSvebis albaTobas mniSvnelovnebis done ewo-
deba da o -Ti aRiniSneba. arasamarTliani hipoTezis miRebas meore gvaris
Secdoma ewodeba. misi albaToba aRiniSneba | asoTi. ricxvs 1 | ÷ , rome-
lic tolia albaTobis imisa, rom ar iqneba daSvebuli meore gvaris Sec-
doma, kriteriumis simZlavre ewodeba.
statistikuri hipoTezis Semowmeba normaluri ganawilebis
maTematikuri lodinis Sesaxeb cnobili dispersiis SemTxvevaSi:
2
( , ) N c o ~ · ;
2
Dc o = cnobilia; Ec ucnobia.
hipoTeza:
0 0
: H E a c =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
0
(0,1)
/
X a
Z N
n o
÷
= ~
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
0
/
x a
z
n o
÷
=
alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1 1 0
: H E a a c = > z z
o
> ,
115

1 1 0
: H E a a c = < z z
o
s ÷ ,
1 1
: H E a c =
/ 2
z z
o
s ÷ an
/ 2
z z
o
>
(sadac z
o
aris (0,1) N -is zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli mniS-
vneloba C.V.).
P- mniSvneloba:
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 1
{ | }, : ;
{ | }, : ;
{| | | || }, : .
P Z z H H E a a
P P Z z H H E a a
P Z z H H E a
c
c
c
> = > ¦
¦
= < = <
´
¦
> =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu
=
=
1 1 0
1 1 0
1 1
1 ( ), : ;
( ), : ;
2 [1 (| |)], : .
z H E a a
z H E a a
z H E a
c
c
c
÷u = > ¦
¦
u = <
´
¦
· ÷u =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

gadawyvetileba: Tu ze C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT
o mniSvnelovnebis doniT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara
gvaqvs.
SerCevis minimaluri raodenoba n
-
, romlisTvisac I gvaris Secdom-
is albaTobaa o , xolo II gvaris Secdomis albaToba naklebia | -ze:
2 2 2
1 0
[ ( ) /( ) ] 1 n z z a a
o |
o
-
= + ÷ +
SeniSvna: Tu SerCevis moculoba metia an toli 30-s da standartu-
li gadaxra o ucnobia, kriteriumis statistikad ganixileba:
'
/
X E
Z
s n
c ÷
= .

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. samecniero angariSis Tanaxmad sruli profesoris saS-
ualo wliuri Semosavali aRemateba 42000 lars. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 30
sruli profesoris wliuri Semosavlis saSualo aRmoCnda 43260 lari.
0.05 mniSvnelovnebis donisaTvis SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom
sruli profesoris saSualo xelfasi metia 42000 larze, Tu populaciis
standartuli gadaxraa 5230 lari.
amoxsna. vinaidan SerCevis moculoba 30 > , amitom SegviZlia viguli-
sxmoT, rom saqme gvaqvs daaxloebiT normalur populaciasTan
2
( ,5230 ) N a .
CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 42000 H a s da
1
: 42000 H a > . vinaidan, 0.05 o = da kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia, kriti-
kuli mniSvneloba iqneba 1.65 z
o
= . gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
116

43260 42000
1.32
/ 5230/ 30
x E
z
n
c
o
÷ ÷
= = = .
radganac 1.32 < 1.65 (anu kriteriumis mniSvneloba ar vardeba kriti-
kul areSi), amitom ara gvaqvs safuZveli nulovani hipoTezis uaryofis.
magaliTi 2. mkvlevaris azriT sportuli fexsacmlis saSualo fasi
naklebia 80 larze. man katalogebidan SemTxveviT SearCia 36 wyvili spo-
rtuli fexsacmeli da amowera Sesabamisi fasebi:
60 70 75 55 80 55 50 40 80
70 50 95 120 65 80 85 85 45
75 60 90 90 60 95 110 85 45
90 70 70 90 75 85 80 60 110
aris Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli, rom 0.1 mniSvnelovnebis doniT gavizia-
roT mkvlevaris azri?
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 80 H Ec > ,
1
: 80 H Ec < . radganac, 0.1 o = da kriteriumi marcxena calmxri-
via, kritikuli mniSvneloba iqneba 1.28 z
o
= ÷ . pirobaSi moyvanili nedli
monacemebis mixedviT gamovTvaloT SerCeviTi saSualo da Sesworebuli
SerCeviTi dispersia, gvaqvs:
1
1
75
n
i
i
x x
n
=
= =
¯
da
' 2
1
1
( ) 19.2
1
n
i
i
s x x
n
=
= ÷ =
÷
¯
. Sesa-
bamisad, kriteriumis mniSvneloba iqneba:
'
75 80
1.56
/ 19.2/ 36
x E
z
s n
c ÷ ÷
= = =÷ .
vinaidan kriteriumis mniSvneloba vardeba kritikul areSi, nulova-
ni hipoTeza unda ukuvagdoT. Sesabamisad, Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli
rom gaviziaroT mkvlevaris mosazreba.
magaliTi 3. jandacvis saministros angariSis mixedviT insultis
mkurnalobis saSualo Rirebuleba Seadgens 24672 lars. imis gasarkvevad,
konkretul saavadmyofoSi insultis mkurnalobis saSualo Rirebuleba
aris Tu ar gansxvavebuli, mkvlevarma SemTxveviT SearCia am saavadmyofo-
Si insultis mkurnalobis 35 SemTxveva da mkurnalobis saSualo Rireb-
uleba gamovida 25226 lari. populaciis standartuli gadaxraa 3251 la-
ri. SeuZlia Tu ara mkvlevars 0.01 mniSvnelovnebis doniT amtkicos, rom
am hospitalSi insultis mkurnalobis Rirebuleba gansxvavebulia 24672
larisagan?
amoxsna.
0
: 24672 H Ec = ,
1
: 24672 H Ec = . kritikuli mniSvnelobebia: 2.58
da 2.58 ÷ . kriteriumis mniSvneloba iqneba:
25226 24672
1.01
/ 3251/ 35
x E
z
n
c
o
÷ ÷
= = = .
ramdenadac 1.01 < 2.58 (anu kriteriumis mniSvneloba ar vardeba kri-
tikul areSi), amitom ar arsebobs sakmarisi safuZveli imisa, rom konkre-
tul saavadmyofoSi mkurnalobis Rirebuleba gansxvavebulia.
117

magaliTi 4. mkvlevars surs Seamowmos hipoTeza, rom maSvelebis sa-
Sualo asaki 24 welze metia. man SemTxveviT SearCia 36 maSveli da daadg-
ina, rom maTi saSualo asaki iyo 24.7 weli, xolo Sesworebuli standar-
tuli gadaxra 2 weli. gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli hipoTezis
misaRebad 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT? ipoveT P-mniSvneloba.
amoxsna.
0
: 24 H Ec s ,
1
: 24 H Ec > . kriteriumis mniSvneloba iqneba:
24.7 24
2.1
2/ 36
z
÷
= = .
gamovTvaloT P-mniSvneloba: 1 ( ) 1 0.9821 0.0179 P z = ÷u = ÷ = . vinaidan
P o s , amitom
0
H unda ukuvagdoT, anu sakmarisi safuZveli arsebobs imi-
sa, rom maSvelis saSualo asaki metia 24 welze.
SevniSnavT, rom Tu 0.01 o = , maSin ar gveqneboda
0
H -is uaryofis sa-
fuZveli.
magaliTi 5. meteorologis azriT qalaqSi qaris saSualo siCqarea
8km/sT. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 32 dRis monacemebiT qaris saSualo siCqare
aRmoCnda 8.2 km/sT, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 0.6km/sT.
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara safuZveli ar daveTanxmoT
meteorologs? gamoiyeneT P-mniSvnelobis meTodi.
amoxsna.
0
: 8 H Ec = ,
1
: 8 H Ec = . gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
8.2 8
1.89
0.6/ 32
z
÷
= = .
vipovoT P-mniSvneloba: 2 [1 (| |)] 2 (1 0.9706) 0.0294 P z = · ÷u = · ÷ = . vinaidan,
P o > , amitom
0
H ar unda uarvyoT, anu ara gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli
rom ar gaviziaroT meteorologis azri.
magaliTi 6. dakvirvebebis ra minimaluri raodenobaa saWiro imisaT-
vis, rom miRweul iqna 0.05-is toli mniSvnelovnebis done da 0.9-is toli
simZlavre ( , 49) N c ~ · normaluri populaciis saSualos Sesaxeb ZiriTadi
0
: 8 H Ec = hipoTezis Semowmebisas
1
: 11 H Ec = alternativis winaaRmdeg.
amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi 0.05 o = ; 1 0.9 0.1 | = ÷ = ;
0
8 a = ;
1
11 a = ;
2
49 o = .
normaluri ganawilebis cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom 1.64 z
o
= da 1.29 z
|
= .
amitom Sesabamisi formulis ZaliT 48 n
-
= .

amocanebi

1. isargebleT standartuli normaluri ganawilebis cxriliT da
ipoveT kritikuli mniSvneloba (an mniSvnelobebi) roca: a). 0.01 o = , krit.
ormxrivia; b). 0.05 o = , krit. marj. calmxrivia; g). 0.05 o = , krit. marc. ca-
lmxrivia; d). 0.1 o = , krit. marc. calmxrivia; e). 0.05 o = , krit. ormxrivia;
v). 0.04 o = , krit. marj. calmxrivia; z). 0.01 o = , krit. marc. calmxrivia;
T). 0.1 o = , krit. ormxrivia; i). 0.02 o = , krit. marj. calmxrivia; k).
0.02 o = , krit. ormxrivia.
118

2. CamoayalibeT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi Semdegi
winadadebebisaTvis: a). avtobusis mZRolebis saSualo asaki 39 welia; b).
eqimis saSualo wliuri Semosavali Seadgens 25000 lars; g).
telewamyvanis saSualo asaki 25 welze metia; d). morbenalis saSualo
guliscema naklebia 85 dartymaze wuTSi; e). studentis saSualo qula
statistikaSi naklebia 56; v). aqciis saSualo fasi 250 larze metia; z).
mamakacis saSualo pensia aRemateba 75 lars TveSi; T). 1000 gramian
brinjis fuTaSi devs sul cota 950 grami brinji.
3. mkvlevari fiqrobs, rom soflis saSualo biujeti Seadgens 25000
lars. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli
uarvyoT mkvlevaris mosazreba, Tu SemTxveviT SerCeuli 40 soflis biuj-
eti aTasobiT larebSi Semdegia:
16.7 17.6 26.5 6.3 16.5 11.9 23.7 14.3 94 4.7
11.6 26.5 5.6 58.6 3.2 14.2 3.5 10.9 11.8 15.2
30.1 19.7 11.7 38.8 36.3 4.8 7.9 14.2 18 24.5
69.2 8.5 19.2 5 15.3 41 27.1 10.3 3.7 13.6
4. statistikis departamentis monacemebiT dedaqalaqSi sastumros
erTi nomris saSualo Rirebuleba Seadgens 69.21 lars. am hipoTezis Sesa-
mowmeblad mkvlevarma SemTxveviT SearCia sastumros 30 nomeri da daadg-
ina, rom maTi saSualo Rirebulebaa 68.43 lari, xolo Sesworebuli stan-
dartuli gadaxra ki 3.72 lari. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu
ara sakmarisi safuZveli uarvyoT hipoTeza?
5. qarxnis menejeris azriT muSebis saaSualo saaTobrivi anazRaur-
eba 9.78 larze naklebia. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 18 muSis saSualo saaTobr-
ivi xelfasi aRmoCnda 9.6 lari, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gada-
xra ki 1.42 lari. CaTvaleT, rom xelfasi normaluradaa ganawilebuli.
0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli davada-
sturoT menejeris mosazreba?
6. mkvlevaris SefasebiT didi biznesis saSualo Semosavali 24 mil-
ionze metia. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi saf-
uZveli davadasturoT mkvlevaris Sefaseba, Tu SemTxveviT SerCeuli 50
kompaniis Semosavlebi (gazomili milionebSi) Semdegia:
178 122 91 44 35 61 56 46 20 32
30 28 28 20 27 29 16 16 19 15
41 38 36 15 25 31 30 19 19 19
24 16 15 15 19 25 25 18 14 15
24 23 17 17 22 22 21 20 17 20
7. gayinuli kerZis mwarmoebeli firmis direqtori acxadebs, rom ke-
rZis saSualo kaloriuloba aris 800, xolo standartuli gadaxra ki 25.
mkvklevarma Seamowma 12 kerZi da daadgina, rom maTi saSualo kaloriul-
oba iyo 873. gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli 0.02 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT uarvyoT direqtoris mtkicebuloba? CavTvaloT, rom kaloriulo-
ba kerZSi ganawilebulia normalurad.
8. samgzavro TviTmfrinavebis saSualo asaki Seadgens 14 wels. didi
aviakompaniis SemTxveviT SerCeuli 36 TviTmfrinavis saSualo asaki aRmo-
119

Cnda 11.8 w. , xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 2.7 w. 0.01 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom am kompaniis
TviTmfrinavebis saSualo asaki naklebia vidre populaciis saSualo?
9. dietologis gancxadebiT misi dietiT pacientebi 20 kviris manZi-
lze saSualod ikleben 24 funts. Sesabamisi standartuli gadaxraa 5
funti. dietologs surs miiRos ukeTesi Sedegi da amcirebs marilis mox-
marebas. axali meTodis gamoyenebiT 40 SemTxveviT SerCeuli pacienti 20
kviraSi saSualod iklebs 16.3 funts. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
SeiZleba Tu ara iTqvas, rom dieta Seicvala?
10. statistikosis mtkicebiT latareis myidveli adamianebis saSua-
lo asaki aris 70 weli. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sak-
marisi safuZveli uarvyoT es mtkicebuleba, Tu SemTxveviT SerCeuli la-
tareis bileTebis myidveli 30 adamianis asakis monacemebia:
49 80 24 61 79 68 63 72 46 65
76 71 90 56 70 71 71 67 52 82
74 39 49 69 22 56 70 74 62 45
11. gamokiTxvis Tanaxmad 55 welze meti asakis qalebi dReSi saSua-
lod xarjaven 1660 kalorias. imis Sesamowmeblad, jandacvis sferoSi
momuSave qalebi xarjaven Tu ara imave raodenobis kalorias, SemTxveviT
SerCeul iqna jandacvis sferoSi momuSave 55 w. meti asakis 43 qali da
aRmoCnda, rom maT mier dReSi daxarjuli kaloriebis saSualoa 1446,
xolo standartuli gadaxra ki 56 kal. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
SeiZleba Tu ara imis mtkiceba, rom jandacvis sferoSi dasaqmebuli
qalebis mier daxarjuli kaloriebis saSualo gasxvavdeba populaciis
saSualosagan?
12. firmis menejeris mtkicebiT ganaTebis muSaobis saSualo xangrZ-
livobaa 36 Tve. standartuli gadaxra Seadgens 8 Tves. SemTxveviT SerCe-
uli 50 ganaTebis muSaobis saSualo xangrZlivoba aRmoCnda 32 Tve. SeiZ-
leba Tu ara am mtkicebis uaryofa 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT?
13. uZravi qonebis agentis mtkicebiT dedaqalaqSi saxlebis saSua-
lo gasayidi fasia 60000 lari. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu
ara sakmarisi safuZveli uarvyoT agentis mtkiceba, Tu dedaqalaqSi Sem-
TxveviT SerCeuli 36 gayiduli saxlis fasebia (aTasobiT larebSi):
9.5 54 99 94 80 29 121.5 184.75 15
164.45 6 13 188.4 121 308 42 7.5 32.9
126.9 25.225 95 92 38 60 211 15 28
53.5 27 21 76 85 25.225 40 97 284
14. pacientebis garkveuli jgufis sisxlSi qolesterinis
saSualo done Seadgens aranakleb 240 miligrams, xolo standartuli ga-
daxraa 18 miligrami. SemTxveviT SerCeul 40 pacients misces axali
preparati, romelic gankuTvnilia sisxlSi qolesterinis donis dasa-
wevad. am preparatis miRebis Semdeg aRniSnuli pacientebis sisxlSi
qolesterinis saSualo done aRmoCnda 229 miligrami. 0.01 o = mniSvne-
lovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli ganvacxadoT, rom
axali preparati amcirebs qolesterinis dones?
120

15. miuTiTeT unda ukuvagdoT Tu ara nulovani hiopoTeza mocemuli
P-mniSvnelobis mixedviT, Tu: a). P-mniSv. = 0.258, 0.05 o = , krit. calmxri-
via; b). P-mniSv. = 0.0684, 0.1 o = , krit. ormxrivia; g). P-mniSv. = 0.0153,
0.01 o = , krit. calmxrivia; d). P-mniSv. = 0.0232, 0.05 o = , krit. ormxrivia;
e). P-mniSv. = 0.002, 0.01 o = , krit. calmxrivia.
16. dekanatis mtkicebiT studentebis saxelmZRvaneloebis saSualo
fasi metia 27.5 larze. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 50 saxelmZRvanelos saSualo
fasi aRmoCnda 39.3 lari, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 5
lari. ipoveT kriteriumis P-mniSvneloba. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
unda ukuvagdoT Tu ara nulovani hipoTeza?
17. avtobusebis firmis menejeris mtkicebiT 50 mili/sT siCqariT mo-
Zraobisas saskolo avtobusis saSualo samuxruWe manZili Seadgens 264
futs (1 futi = 30.48sm). mkvlevaris mier SemTxveviT SerCeuli 20 saskolo
avtobusis saSualo samuxruWe manZili aRmoCnda 262.3 futi, xolo Seswo-
rebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 3 futi. mkvlevaris azriT saSualo sam-
uxruWe manZili naklebia 264 futze. CaTvaleT, rom samuxruWe manZili
ganawilebulia normalurad. ipoveT P-mniSvneloba. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovne-
bis doniT unda ukuvagdoT Tu ara nulovani hipoTeza?
18. gasamravlebeli mowyobilobis (“qseroqsis”) maRaziis menejeris
azriT erTi adamianis mier gamravlebuli gverdebis saSualo raodenoba
dReSi naklebia 40 gverdze. qvemoT moyvanilia SemTxveviT SerCeuli 50
momxmareblis mier dRis ganmavlobaSi gamravlebuli gverdebis raodeno-
ba. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli da-
vadasturoT menejeris mosazreba? isargebleT hipoTezaTa Semowmebis P-
mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
2 2 2 5 32 5 29 8 2 49
21 1 24 72 70 21 85 61 8 42
3 15 27 113 36 37 5 3 58 82
9 2 1 6 9 80 9 51 2 122
21 49 36 43 61 3 17 17 4 1
19. televizorebis firmis menejeris mtkicebiT maTi televizorebis
muSaobis saSualo xangrZlivoba metia 84 Tveze. populaciis standartu-
li gadaxra aris 10 Tve. SemTxveviT SearCies 100 televizori da Seamowm-
es. SerCevis saSualo aRmoCnda 85.1 Tve. SeamowmeT hipoTeza, rom televiz-
orebis muSaobis saSualo xangrZlivoba metia 84 Tveze da gamoTvaleT
P-mniSvneloba. miRebuli P-mniSvnelobis mixedviT 0.01 o = mniSvnelovne-
bis doniT unda ukuvagdoT Tu ara nulovani hipoTeza?
20. specialuri gayvanilobis mavTulis gamZleobis simtkice aris
800 funti. populaciis standartuli gadaxraa 12 funti. mkvlevarma Seam-
owma SemTxveviT SerCeuli 20 mavTuli da daadgina, rom maTi saSualo si-
mtkicea 793 funti. SeiZleba Tu ara imis uaryofa, rom gamZleobis simtki-
cea 800 funti? ipoveT P-mniSvneloba. miRebuli P-mniSvnelobis mixedviT
0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT unda ukuvagdoT Tu ara nulovani hipoTe-
za? CaTvaleT, rom sidide normaluradaa ganawilebuli.
121

21. gasul wels dedaqalaqis samedicino muSakebis saSualo saaTob-
rivi anazRaureba iyo 6.32 lari. populaciis standartuli gadaxraa 0.54
lari. mimdinare wels SemTxveviT SerCeuli 50 samedicino muSakis saSua-
lo saaTobrivi anazraureba Seadgens 6.51 lars. P-mniSvnelobis mixedviT,
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom saS-
ualo ar Seicvala.
22. avtomobilebis dileris rekomendaciiT 30000 km-is gavlis Semdeg
gadacemaTa kolofi saWiroebs SekeTebas. imis gasarkvevad, momxmareble-
bi iTvaliswineben Tu ara dileris rekomendacias, man SemTxveviT SearCia
40 momxmarebeli da daadgina, rom gadacemaTa kolofis SekeTebis momen-
tisaTvis avtomobilebis saSualo ganarbeni iyo 30456 km. Sesworebuli
standartuli gadaxra ki 1684 km. P-mniSvnelobis gamoTvliT, 0.1 o = mniS-
vnelovnebis doniT, daadgineT akeTeben Tu ara gadacemaTa kolofis Seke-
Tebas 30000 km-is gavlis Semdeg avtomflobelebi. migaCniaT Tu ara Tqven,
rom o -s mniSvneloba 0.1 daaxloebiT mniSvnelovnebis donis tolia?
23. avtomobilistis mtkicebiT is dReSi saSualod gadis 60 km-s.
qvemoT moyvanilia avtomobilistis mier Tvis ganmavlobaSi yoveldRi-
urad gavlili manZilebi. davuSvaT, rom populaciis standartuli
gadaxraa 13.42 km. gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli uarvyoT avto-
mobilistis mtkicebuleba 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT. isargebleT P-
mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
72 45 36 68 69 71 57 60 83 26
60 72 58 87 48 59 60 56 64 68
42 57 57 58 63 49 73 75 42 63





















122


pasuxebi:
1. 2.58 ± ; 1.65; -2.58; -1.28; 1.96 ± ; 1.75; -2.33; 1.65 ± ; 2.05; 2.33 ± . 2.
0
: 39 H Ec = ,
1
: 39 H Ec = ;
0
: 25000 H Ec = ,
1
: 25000 H Ec = ;
0
: 25 H Ec s ,
1
: 25 H Ec > ;
0
: 85 H Ec > ,
1
: 85 H Ec < ;
0
: 56 H Ec > ,
1
: 56 H Ec < ;
0
: 250 H Ec s ,
1
: 250 H Ec > ;
0
: 75 H Ec s ,
1
: 75 H Ec > ;
0
: 950 H Ec > ,
1
: 950 H Ec < . 3.
0
: 25000 H Ec = ,
1
: 25000 H Ec = ;
. . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 1.59 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
0
H . 4.
0
: 69.21 H Ec = ,
1
: 69.21 H Ec = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ;
. . 1.15 TV z ÷ = ÷ ;
0
H . 5.
0
: 9.78 H Ec > ,
1
: 9.78 H Ec < ; . . 1.28 CV =÷ ; . . 0.54 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
0
H . 6.
0
: 24 H Ec s ,
1
: 24 H Ec > ; . . 1.65 CV = ; . . 1.85 TV z ÷ = ;
1
H . 7.
0
: 800 H Ec = ,
1
: 800 H Ec = ; . . 2.33 CV =± ; . . 10.12 TV z ÷ = ;
1
H . 8.
0
: 14 H Ec > ,
1
: 14 H Ec < ;
. . 2.33 CV =÷ ; . . 4.89 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
1
H . 9.
0
: 24 H Ec = ,
1
: 24 H Ec = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ;
. . 9.73 TV z ÷ = ÷ ;
1
H . 10.
0
: 70 H Ec = ,
1
: 70 H Ec = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 2.59 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
1
H .
1.
0
: 1660 H Ec = ,
1
: 1660 H Ec = ; . . 1.65 CV =± ; . . 25.06 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
1
H . 12.
0
: 36 H Ec = ,
1
: 36 H Ec = ; . . 2.58 CV =± ; . . 3.54 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
1
H . 13.
0
: 60000 H Ec = ,
1
: 60000 H Ec = ;
. . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 1.78 TV z ÷ = ;
0
H . 14.
0
: 240 H Ec > ,
1
: 240 H Ec < ; . . 2.33 CV =÷ ;
. . 3.87 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
1
H . 15. ara; ara; ara; ki; ki. 16.
0
: 27.5 H Ec s ,
1
: 27.5 H Ec > ;
. . 2.55 TV z ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.0054; ki. 17.
0
: 264 H Ec > ,
1
: 264 H Ec < ;
. . 2.53 TV z ÷ =÷ ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.0057; ki. 18.
0
: 40 H Ec > ,
1
: 40 H Ec < ;
. . 2.45 TV z ÷ = ÷ ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.0071; ki. 19.
0
: 84 H Ec s ,
1
: 84 H Ec > ;
. . 1.1 TV z ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.1357; ara. 20.
0
: 800 H Ec = ,
1
: 800 H Ec = ;
. . 2.61 TV z ÷ = ÷ ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.009; ki. 21.
0
: 6.32 H Ec = ,
1
: 6.32 H Ec = ;
. . 2.49 TV z ÷ =÷ ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.0128;
1
H . 22.
0
: 30000 H Ec = ,
1
: 30000 H Ec = ;
. . 1.71 TV z ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.0872;
1
H ; ki. 23.
0
: 60 H Ec = ,
1
: 60 H Ec = ;
. . 0.03 TV z ÷ = ÷ ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.976; ara.
















123

Tavi V
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba saSualosaTvis (
2
o ucnobia)

statistikuri hipoTezis Semowmeba normaluri ganawilebis
maTematikuri lodinis Sesaxeb ucnobi dispersiis SemTxvevaSi:
( , ) N c ~ · · ; Dc ucnobia; Ec ucnobia.
hipoTeza:
0 0
: H E a c =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
0
'
( 1)
/
X a
T T n
S n
÷
= ~ ÷
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
0
'
/
x a
t
s n
÷
=
alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1 1 0
: H E a a c = >
1, n
t t
o ÷
> ,

1 1 0
: H E a a c = <
1, n
t t
o ÷
s÷ ,
1 1
: H E a c =
1, / 2 n
t t
o ÷
s÷ an
1, / 2 n
t t
o ÷
>
(sadac
1, n
t
o ÷
aris Tavisuflebis 1 n÷ xarisxis mqone stiudentis ganawil-
ebis zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli mniSvneloba C.V.).
P- mniSvneloba:
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 1
{ | }, : ;
{ | }, : ;
{| | | || }, : .
P T t H H E a a
P P T t H H E a a
P T t H H E a
c
c
c
> = > ¦
¦
= < = <
´
¦
> =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu
=
=
1 1 0
1 1 0
1 1
1 ( ), : ;
( ), : ;
2 [1 (| |)], : .
T
T
T
F t H E a a
F t H E a a
F t H E a
c
c
c
÷ = > ¦
¦
= <
´
¦
· ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

gadawyvetileba: Tu t e C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
rodis gamoiyeneba Z an T ganawileba
o cnobiliaTuara ?
÷
diax

/
X E
Z
n
c
o
÷
= gamoiyene
|
ara


30? n > arisTuara
÷
diax


|
ara



gamoiyene
n S
E X
T
/
'
c ÷
=
124


'
, 1
/
X E
T n
S n
c ÷
= = ÷
*
gamoiyene T.x.
*
populacia unda iyos daaxloebiT normalurad ganawilebuli.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. jandacvis ministris mtkicebiT eqimis saSualo wliuri
Semosavali Seadgens 24000 lars. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 10 eqimis wliuri
Semosavlis saSualo aRmoCnda 23450 lari, xolo Sesworebuli
standartuli gadaxra ki 400 lari. gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli
ministris mtkicebis uarsayofad 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT?
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 24000 H Ec = ,
1
: 24000 H Ec = . pirobis Tanaxmad, gvaqvs: 23450 x = ,
'
400 s = ,
10 n = . stiudentis ganawilebis cxrilidan, 0.05 o = -isa da Tavisuflebis
1 9 n÷ = xarisxisaTvis, vpoulobT saWiro kritikul mniSvnelobebs:
1, / 2
2.262
n
t
o ÷
÷ =÷ da
1, / 2
2.262
n
t
o ÷
= . kriteriumis mniSvneloba ki iqneba:
'
23450 24000
4.35
/ 400/ 10
x E
t
s n
c ÷ ÷
= = = ÷ .
vinaidan, 4.35 2.262 ÷ <÷ , amitom nulovani hipoTeza unda ukuvagdoT,
anu Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli ministris mtkicebis uarsayofad.
magaliTi 2. ganaTlebis ministris mtkicebiT saTadarigo maswavleb-
lis saSualo xelfasi dReSi naklebia 60 larze. gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi
safuZveli ministris mtkicebis misaRebad 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT,
Tu SemTxveviT SerCeul 8 skolaSi dafiqsirda Semdegi monacemebi: 60 56
60 55 70 55 60 55.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 60 H Ec > ,
1
: 60 H Ec < . SerCevis moculobaa 8 n = . stiudentis ganawilebis
cxrilidan, 0.1 o = -isa da Tavisuflebis 1 7 n÷ = xarisxisaTvis, vpoulobT
saWiro kritikul mniSvnelobas:
1,
1.415
n
t
o ÷
÷ =÷ . kriteriumis mniSvnelobis
gamosaTvlelad, winaswar gamovTvaloT SerCeviTi saSualo da
Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra:
1
1
58.88
n
i
i
x x
n
=
= =
¯
da
' 2
1
1
( ) 5.08
1
n
i
i
s x x
n
=
= ÷ =
÷
¯
. amitom:
'
58.88 60
0.624
/ 5.08/ 8
x E
t
s n
c ÷ ÷
= = =÷ .
vinaidan, kriteriumis mniSvneloba ar vardeba kritikul areSi,
nulovani hipoTeza ar unda ukuvagdoT, anu Cven ar gvaqvs sakmarisi
safuZveli ministris mtkicebis dasadastureblad.
magaliTi 3. vipovoT P-mniSvneloba, Tu kriteriumis mniSvneloba
stiudentis ganawilebisaTvis (T kriteriumis statistikis t kriteriumis
125

mniSvneloba) aris 2.056, SerCevis moculobaa 11 da kriteriumi marjvena
calmxrivia.
amoxsna. stiudentis ganawilebis zeda kritikuli wertilebis
cxrilSi Tavisuflebis 11 1 10 ÷ = -is toli xarisxis gaswvriv movZebnoT
iseTi ori mniSvneloba, romelTa Soris vardeba (moeqceva) 2.056. es
mniSvnelobebia: 1.812 da 2.228. vinaidan, kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia,
SevxedoT striqons warweriT ―One tail, o ‖ da vipovoT o -s ori
mniSvneloba, romelic Seesabameba 1.812-sa da 2.228-s. es mniSvnelobebia: 0.05
da 0.025. Sesabamisad, P-mniSvneloba swored maT Sorisaa moTavsebuli:
0.025 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.05. magaliTad, Tu 0.05 o = , maSin Cven unda
ukuvagdoT
0
H , radganac P-mniSvneloba < 0.05; magram, Tu 0.01 o = , maSin
0
H -is uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, radganac P-mniSvneloba > 0.025 >
0.01.
SeniSvna: P-mniSvnelobis povna SeiZleba specialuri kalkulator-
iT an kompiuteruli programiT. am magaliTSi kalkulatoriT ga-
moTvlili P-mniSvneloba = 0.033.
magaliTi 4. vipovoT P-mniSvneloba, Tu kriteriumis mniSvneloba
stiudentis ganawilebisaTvis ( T kriteriumis statistikis t kriteriumis
mniSvneloba) aris 2.983, SerCevis moculobaa 6 da kriteriumi ormxrivia.
amoxsna. stiudentis ganawilebis zeda kritikuli wertilebis
cxrilSi Tavisuflebis 6 1 5 ÷ = -is toli xarisxis gaswvriv movZebnoT
iseTi ori mniSvneloba, romelTa Soris vardeba (moeqceva) 2.983. es mni-
Svnelobebia: 2.571 da 3.365. vinaidan, kriteriumi ormxrivia, SevxedoT
striqons warweriT ―Two tail, o ‖ da vipovoT o -s ori mniSvneloba,
romelic Seesabameba 2.571-sa da 3.365-s. es mniSvnelobebia: 0.05 da 0.02.
Sesabamisad, P-mniSvneloba swored maT Sorisaa moTavsebuli: 0.02 < P-
mniSvneloba < 0.05. magaliTad, Tu 0.05 o = , maSin Cven unda ukuvagdoT
0
H ,
radganac P-mniSvneloba < 0.05; magram, Tu 0.01 o = , maSin
0
H -is uaryofis
safuZveli ara gvaqvs, radganac P-mniSvneloba > 0.02 > > 0.01.
SevniSnavT, rom aq kalkulatoriT gamoTvlili P-mniSvneloba aris
0.031.
magaliTi 5. eqimebis azriT morbenali adamiani ufro met Jangbads
moixmars vidre saSualod yvela adamiani. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 15 mo-
rbenalisaTvis Jangbadis moxmarebis saSualo iyo 40.6 ml/kg, xolo
Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 6ml/kg. Tu yvela adamianis
saSualo moxmareba Seadgens 36.7ml/kg, gvaqvs Tu ara sakmao safuZveli
davujeroT eqimebs 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT?
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 36.7 H Ec s ,
1
: 36.7 H Ec > . gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
'
40.6 36.7
2.517
/ 6/ 15
x E
t
s n
c ÷ ÷
= = = .
gamovTvaloT P-mniSvneloba: stiudentis ganawilebis cxrilSi
1 14 n÷ = -is gaswvriv 2.517 vardeba 2.145-sa da 2.624-s Soris, romelebic
126

Seesabameba 0.025 o = -sa da 0.01 o = -s (kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia).
amitom 0.01 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.025. e. i. P-mniSvneloba < o (vinaidan
0.025 < 0.05) da nulovani hipoTeza unda ukuvagdoT, anu Cven gvaqvs
sakmarisi safuZveli gaviziaroT eqimebis mtkicebuleba.

amocanebi

1. isargebleT stiudentis ganawilebis cxriliT da ipoveT kritiku-
li mniSvneloba (an mniSvnelobebi) roca: a). 10 n = , 0.05 o = , kriteriumi ma-
rjvena calmxrivia; b). 18 n = , 0.1 o = , kriteriumi ormxrivia; g). 6 n = ,
0.01 o = , kriteriumi marcxena calmxrivia; d). 9 n = , 0.025 o = , kriteriumi
marjvena calmxrivia; e). 15 n = , 0.05 o = , kriteriumi ormxrivia; v). 23 n = ,
0.005 o = , kriteriumi marcxena calmxrivia; z). 28 n = , 0.01 o = , kriteriumi
ormxrivia; T). 17 n = , 0.02 o = , kriteriumi ormxrivia.
2. ipoveT P-mniSvnelobis sazRvrebi qvemoT moyvanili kriteriumis
mniSvnelobebisaTvis: a). 2.321 t = , 15 n = , kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia;
b). 1.945 t = , 28 n = , kriteriumi ormxrivia; g). 1.267 t = ÷ , 8 n = , kriteriumi ma-
rcxena calmxrivia; d). 1.562 t = , 17 n = , kriteriumi ormxrivia; e). 3.025 t = ,
24 n = , kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia; v). 1.145 t = ÷ , 5 n = , kriteriumi ma-
rcxena calmxrivia; z). 2.179 t = , 13 n = , 0.01 o = , kriteriumi ormxrivia; T).
0.665 t = , 10 n = , 0.02 o = , kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia.
qvemoT moyvanil amocanebSi igulisxmeT, rom populacia daaxloeb-
iT normaluradaa ganawilebuli.
3. ekvatoris samxreTiT zafxulis TveebSi mosuli naleqebis saSua-
lo Seadgens 11.52 diums (1 diumi = 2.54 sm). 2000 wels mkvlevarma SemTxvev-
iT SeraCia ekvatoris samxreTiT mdebare 10 qalaqi da daadgina, rom mos-
uli naleqebis saSualo aris 7.42 diumi. SerCevis Sesworebuli standart-
uli gadaxra Seadgens 1.3 diums. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeuZlia
Tu ara mkvlevars daaskvnas, rom 2000 wels mosuli naleqebis saSualo
naklebia 11.52 diumze?
4. mwvaneebis azriT msoflioSi daculi teritoriebis (nakrZaleb-
is) farTobebis saSualo naklebia vidre 2000 akri (1 akri = 0.4 ha). SemTx-
veviT SerCeuli 5 daculi teritoriis farTobebi gazomili akrebSi Semd-
egia: 959 1187 493 6249 541. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu
ara sakmarisi safuZveli daveTanxmoT mwvaneebis mosazrebas?
5. uZravi qonebis agentis mtkicebiT dedaqalaqSi mcire biznesis
ofisis xarjebis saSualoa 800 lari. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 10 mcire
biznesisaTvis ofisis xarjebis saSualom Seadgina 863 lari, xolo
Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra iyo 20 lari. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli ukuvagdoT uZravi qonebis
agentis mtkicebuleba?
6. wlis ganmavlobaSi avadmyofobis gamo qarxnis erTi TanamSroml-
is mier gacdenili samuSao saaTebis saSualoa 48 saaTi. gacdenaTa raod-
enobis Sesamcireblad qarxnis direqtorma TanamSromlebs daavala monaw-
127

ileoba mieRoT gajansaRebis programaSi. erTi wlis Semdeg, SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 18 TanamSromlis gacdenili saaTebis saSualom Seadgina 41 sT,
xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra iyo 5 sT. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovn-
ebis doniT gaamarTla Tu ara gajansaRebis programam?
7. mSeneblobis saministros mtkicebulebiT dedaqalaqSi Senobebis
saSualo simaRlea sul cota 700 futia. 0.025 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli ukuvagdoT mSeneblobis saministros
mtkicebuleba, Tu SemTxveviT SerCeuli 10 Senobis simaRleebia:
485 511 841 725 615
582 616 635 535 520
8. uZravi qonebis agentis mtkicebiT saofise farTis 1 kv. metris sa-
Sualo saijaro gadasaxadi dedaqalaqSi Seadgens 17.63 lars. mkvlevarma
SemTxveviT SearCia 15 ofisi da daadgina, rom maTi saijaro gadasaxadis
saSualoa 18.72 lari, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 3.64
lari. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb,
rom ar arsebobs gansxvaveba saijaro gadasaxadebs Soris.
9. uZravi qonebis agentis mtkicebiT samTaxiani binis saSualo saij-
aro gadasaxadi dedaqalaqSi Seadgens 750 lars. mkvlevarma SemTxveviT
SearCia 12 samoTaxiani bina da daadgina, rom maTi saijaro gadasaxadis
saSualoa 732 lari, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 17 la-
ri. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli uk-
uvagdoT agentis mtkicebuleba?
10. mwarmoeblis mtkicebiT axal TovlisgadamamuSavebel manqanas
SeuZlia danaxarjebis Semcireba. misi mtkicebiT 10 tona Tovlis axali
manqaniT gadamuSavebisas 1 tonis gadamuSavebis Rirebulebam Seadgina 5.75
lari, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki aris 1.05 lari. Zveli
manqanis SemTxvevaSi 1 tona Tovlis gadamuSavebis saSualo Rirebuleba
iyo 6.62 lari. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT akeTebs Tu ara axali manqa-
na fulis ekonomias?
11. Tbilgazis mtkicebiT mcire kompaniebis gazis saSualo danaxar-
ji TveSi ar aRemateba 350 lars. kompaniebis mflobelebi ki eWvoben, rom
gazis danaxarji ufro metia. SemTxveviT SeirCa 12 mcire kompania da aRm-
oCnda, rom maTi saSualo danaxarji iyo 358 lari, xolo Sesworebuli
standartuli gadaxra ki 16 lari. SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gazis saSualo danaxarji metia 350 lar-
ze.
12. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb,
rom raionebSi manqanis garecxvis saSualo fasia 3 lari, Tu cnobilia,
rom SemTxveviT SerCeul 5 raionSi manqanis garecxvis saSualo fasi iyo
3.7 lari, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 0.3 lari.
13. gamokiTxvis Tanaxmad, martoxela adamianebis saxlSi telefoni
TveSi saSualod 37-jer rekavs. am hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad mkvlevarma
gamokiTxa 29 martoxela adamiani da daadgina, rom telefonis zarebis
saSualo iyo 34.9, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 6. 0.05 o =
128

mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara safuZveli ukuvagdoT aRniSnuli
hipoTeza? gamoiyeneT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
14. studentebis azriT SabaTi saRamos barSi gatareba saSualod ar
unda dajdes 30 larze meti. TavianTi mosazrebis Sesamowmeblad maT Sem-
TxveviT SearCies 16 studenti da SeekiTxnen Tu ramdeni daxarjes gasul
SabaT saRamos barSi. aRmoCnda, rom SerCeviTi saSualo aris 31.17 lari,
xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 5.51 lari. 0.05 o = mniSvnel-
ovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara safuZveli daveTanxmoT studentebis mosaz-
rebas? isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
15. gasuli wlebis gamocdilebidan gamomdinare maswavlebels sje-
ra, rom gamocdaze studentebis saSualo qula aris 75. gamoiyeneT P-mni-
Svnelobis meTodi da 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT, rom
studentebis saSualo qula isev aris 75, Tu cnobilia, rom mimdinare
wels 20 SemTxveviT SerCeuli studentis qulebia:

80 68 72 73 76 81 71 71 50 65
63 71 70 76 75 69 70 72 70 74







pasuxebi:
1. 1.833 ± ; 3.365 ÷ ; 2.145 ± ; 2.771 ± ; 1.740 ± ; 2.306; -2.819; 2.583 ± . 2. (0.01,0.025); (0.05,
0.1); (0.1, 0.25); (0.1, 0.2); P-mniSvneloba < 0.005); (0.1, 0.25); P-mniSvneloba =
0.05; P-mniSvneloba > 0.25. 3.
0
: 11.52 H Ec > ,
1
: 11.52 H Ec < ; . . 1.83 CV =÷ ;
. . 9.97 TV t ÷ =÷ ; ki. 4.
0
: 2000 H Ec > ,
1
: 2000 H Ec < ; . . 3.747 CV =÷ ; . . 0.104 TV t ÷ =÷ ;
ara. 5.
0
: 800 H Ec = ,
1
: 800 H Ec = ; . . 2.262 CV =± ; . . 9.96 TV t ÷ = ; ki. 6.
0
: 48 H Ec > ,
1
: 48 H Ec < ; . . 1.333 CV =÷ ; . . 5.94 TV t ÷ =÷ ; ki. 7.
0
: 700 H Ec > ,
1
: 700 H Ec < ;
. . 2.262 CV =÷ ; . . 2.71 TV t ÷ =÷ ; ki. 8.
0
: 17.63 H Ec = ,
1
: 17.63 H Ec = ; . . 2.145 CV =± ;
. . 1.16 TV t ÷ = ;
0
H . 9.
0
: 750 H Ec = ,
1
: 750 H Ec = ; . . 3.106 CV =± ; . . 3.67 TV t ÷ =÷ ; ki.
10.
0
: 6.62 H Ec > ,
1
: 6.62 H Ec < ; 10 n = ; . . 1.383 CV =÷ ; . . 2.62 TV t ÷ =÷ ; ki. 11.
0
: 350 H Ec s ,
1
: 350 H Ec > ; . . 1.796 CV = ; . . 1.732 TV t ÷ = ;
0
H . 12.
0
: 3 H Ec = ,
1
: 3 H Ec = ; . . 2.776 CV =± ; . . 5.22 TV t ÷ = ;
1
H . 13.
0
: 37 H Ec > ,
1
: 37 H Ec < ;
. . 1.88 TV t ÷ = ÷ ; 0.025 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.05; radganac P o < , amitom
0
H un-
da ukuvagdoT. 14.
0
: 30 H Ec = ,
1
: 30 H Ec = ; . . 0.85 TV t ÷ = ; 0.2 < P-mniSvneloba
< 0.5; radganac P o > , amitom
0
H ar unda ukuvagdoT. 15.
0
: 75 H Ec = ,
1
: 75 H Ec = ; . . 2.83 TV t ÷ =÷ ; 0.01 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.02; radganac P o > , amit-
om
0
H ar unda ukuvagdoT.
129

Tavi VI
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba dispersiisaTvis

statistikuri hipoTezis Semowmeba normaluri ganawilebis
dispersiis Sesaxeb:

hipoTeza:
2
0 0
: H Dc o =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
2
2
2 1
2
0
'
2
2
0
( )
( ), ;
( 1)
( 1), .
n
i
i
X E
n E
n S
n E
c
; c
o
; c
o
=
¦
÷
¦
¦ ~
¦
´
¦
÷
¦
~ ÷
¦
¹
¯
Tu cnobilia
Tu ucnobia

kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.=
2
1
2
0
2
'
2
0
( )
, ;
, .
( 1)
n
i
i
x E
E
E
n s
c
c
o
c
o
=
¦
÷
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
¦
¦
¹
÷
¯
Tu cnobilia
Tu ucnobia

alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
2
1 0
: H Dc o >
2
,
2
1,
[ , ), ;
[ , ),
n
n
E
E
o
o
; c
; c
÷
¦ +·
¦
´

¦
¹
Tu cnobilia
Tu ucnobia,


2
1 0
: H Dc o <
2
,1
2
1,1
(0, ], ;
(0, ],
n
n
E
E
o
o
; c
; c
÷
÷ ÷
¦
¦
´
¦
¹
Tu cnobilia
Tu ucnobia,

2
1 0
: H Dc o =
2 2
,1 / 2 , / 2
2 2
1,1 / 2 1, / 2
(0, ] [ , ), ;
(0, ] [ , ),
n n
n n
E
E
o o
o o
; ; c
; ; c
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
¦ +·
¦
´

¦
¹


Tu cnobilia
Tu ucnobia

(sadac
2
, n o
; aris
2
( ) n ; ganawilebis zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu
kritikuli mniSvneloba C.V.).
alternativa P- mniSvneloba:
2
1 0
: H Dc o >
2
2
{ ( ) . .}, ;
{ ( 1) . .},
P n TV E
P
P n TV E
; c
; c
¦ >
¦
=
´
÷ >
¦
¹
Tu cnobilia
Tu ucnobia,


2
1 0
: H Dc o <
2
2
{ ( ) . .}, ;
{ ( 1) . .},
P n TV E
P
P n TV E
; c
; c
¦ <
¦
=
´
÷ <
¦
¹
Tu cnobilia
Tu ucnobia,


2
1 0
: H Dc o =
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
< ÷ > ÷ ·
< > ·
=
ucnobia. Tu
cnobilia Tu
c ; ;
c ; ;
E V T n P V T n P
E V T n P V T n P
P
.}), . ) 1 ( { min( .}, . ) 1 ( { min( 2
; .}), . ) ( { min( .}, . ) ( { min( 2
2 2
2 2


130

gadawyvetileba: Tu T.V.eC.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, wi-
naaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. profesors surs gaarkvios, qulebis cvalebadoba Tavis
jgufSi, sadac 23 studentia, aris Tu ara naklebi, vidre populaciis
dispersia 225. profesoris jgufSi qulebis Sesworebuli dispersiaa 198.
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli
vamtkicoT, rom profesoris jgufSi qulebis cvalebadoba naklebia
populaciis dispersiaze? CaTvaleT, rom qulebi normaluradaa
ganawilebuli.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 225 H Dc > ,
1
: 225 H Dc < . vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba: vinaidan
kriteriumi marcxena calmxrivia, 1 0.95 o ÷ = da Tavisuflebis xarisxia
1 22 n÷ = , amitom xi kvadrat ganawilebis zeda kritikuli wertilebis
cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom
2 2
1,1 22,0.95
12.338
n o
; ;
÷ ÷
= = . maSasadame, kritikuli
area . . (0,12.338] CR = . gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
'
2
0
(23 1) 198
. . 19.36
225
( 1)
TV
n s
o
÷ ·
= = =
÷
.
vinaidan, kriteriumis mniSvneloba ar vardeba kritikul areSi,
amitom nulovan hipoTezas vRebulobT, anu ar arsebobs sakmarisi
safuZveli imisaTvis, rom profesoris jgufSi qulebis cvalebadoba
naklebia populaciis dispersiaze.
magaliTi 2. saavadamyofos administratori darwmunebulia, rom
standartuli gadaxra im pacientebis ricxvis, romlebic ambula-
toriulad mkurnaloben dReSi 8-ze metia. pacientebis ricxvi CavTvaloT,
rom ganawilebulia normalurad. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba
Tu ara gaviziaroT administratoris mosazreba, Tu 15 SemTxveviT
SerCeuli dRis monacemebia:
25 30 5 15 18
42 16 9 10 12
12 38 8 14 27
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 64 H Dc s ,
1
: 64 H Dc > . ramdenadac kriteriumis marjvena calmxrivia,
0.1 o = da Tavisuflebis xarisxia 1 14 n÷ = , amitom kritikuli mniSvneloba
iqneba:
2
1,
21.0641
n o
;
÷
= . gamovTvaloT Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra,
gvaqvs:
' 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
( ) ( ) 11.2
1 1
n n n
i i j
i i j
s x x x x
n n n
= = =
= ÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷
¯ ¯ ¯
.
131

amitom kriteriumis mniSvneloba iqneba:
2
2
2
'
2
0
(15 1) (11.2)
. . 27.44
8
( 1)
TV
n s
o
÷ ·
= = =
÷
.
vinaidan, kritikuli mniSvneloba vardeba kritikul areSi
( 27.44 [21.0641, ) e +· ), amitom
0
H unda ukuvagdoT, anu Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi
safuZveli, raTa CavTvaloT, rom populaciis standartuli gadaxra metia
8-ze.
magaliTi 3. sigaretis kompanias surs Seamowmos hipoTeza, rom mis
sigaretSi nikotinis Semcvlelobis dipersia aris 0.644. nikotinis Semcv-
leloba izomeba miligramebSi da igulisxmeba, rom is normalurad gana-
wilebulia. 20 sigaretisgan aRebuli SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli
gadaxraa 1 miligrami. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakma-
risi safuZveli uarvyoT kompaniis hipoTeza?
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 0.644 H Dc = ,
1
: 0.644 H Dc = . am SemTxvevaSi saqme gvaqvs ormxriv kri-
teriumTan. 0.05 o = -isa da Tavisuflebis 1 19 n÷ = xarisxisaTvis xi
kvadrat ganawilebis zeda kritikuli weertilebis cxrilidan vpoulobT,
rom kritikuli mniSvnelobebia:
2 2
1, / 2 19,0.025
32.852
n o
; ;
÷
= = da
2 2
1,1 / 2 19.0.975
8.907
n o
; ;
÷ ÷
= = . kriteriumis mniSvneloba ki iqneba:
2
2
'
2
0
(20 1) (1)
. . 29.5
0.644
( 1)
TV
n s
o
÷ ·
= = =
÷
.
kriteriumis mniSvneloba moTavsebulia or kritikul mniSvnelobas
Soris (8. 907 < 29.5 < 32.852), anu is ar vardeba kritikul areSi. amitom
0
H ar unda ukuvagdoT. Sesabamisad, Cven ara gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli
uarvyoT kompaniis mosazreba.
magaliTi 4. vipovoT P-mniSvneloba, Tu kriteriumis mniSvneloba xi
kvadrat ganawilebisaTvis aris 19.274, SerCevis moculobaa 8 da kriteriu-
mi marjvena calmxrivia.
amoxsna. xi kvadrat ganawilebis zeda kritikuli wertilebis cxri-
lSi Tavisuflebis 8 1 7 ÷ = -is toli xarisxis gaswvriv movZebnoT iseTi
ori mniSvneloba, romelTa Soris vardeba (moeqceva) 19.274. es mniSvnelob-
ebia: 18.475 da 20.278. SevxedoT pirvel striqons da vipovoT o -s ori mni-
Svneloba, romelic Seesabameba 18.475-sa da 20.278-s. es mniSvnelobebia: 0.01
da 0.005. Sesabamisad, P-mniSvneloba swored maT Sorisaa moTavsebuli:
0.005 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.01. magaliTad, Tu 0.01 o = , maSin Cven unda uku-
vagdoT
0
H , radganac P-mniSvneloba naklebia 0.01; magram, Tu 0.001 o = ,
maSin
0
H -is uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, radganac P-mniSvneloba >
0.005 > 0.001.
SevniSnavT, rom aq kalkulatoriT gamoTvlili P-mniSvneloba aris
0.007.
132

magaliTi 5. vipovoT P-mniSvneloba, Tu kriteriumis mniSvneloba xi
kvadrat ganawilebisaTvis aris 3.823, SerCevis moculobaa 13 da kriteriu-
mi marcxena calmxrivia.
amoxsna. xi kvadrat ganawilebis zeda kritikuli wertilebis
cxrilSi Tavisuflebis 13 1 12 ÷ = -is toli xarisxis gaswvriv movZebnoT
iseTi ori mniSvneloba, romelTa Soris vardeba (moeqceva) 3.823. es mni-
Svnelobebia: 3.571 da 4.404. SevxedoT pirvel striqons da vipovoT o -s
ori mniSvneloba, romelic Seesabameba 3.571 -sa da 4.404-s. es mniSvnelobe-
bia: 0.99 da 0.975. rodesac miRebuli mniSvnelobebi ganawilebis marcxena
mxaresaa, 1-s unda gamovakloT o -s es mniSvnelobebi da miviRebT P-mniS-
vnelobis sazRvrebs. es sazRvrebia: 1 – 0.99 =0.01 da 1 – 0.975 = 0.025.
Sesabamisad, 0.01 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.025.
SevniSnavT, rom aq kalkulatoriT gamoTvlili P-mniSvneloba aris
0.014.
SeniSvna: rodesac xi kvadrat kriteriumi ormxrivia, calmxrivi
kriteriumis Sesabamisi orive sazRvari unda gaormagdes. Sesabamisad,
wina magaliTSi: 2· 0.01 < P-mniSvneloba < 2· 0.025, anu 0.02 < P-mniSvneloba
< 0.05.
magaliTi 6. wina gamokvlevebidan mkvlevarma icis, rom manqanis
Semowmebis drois standartuli gadaxraa 16.8 wuTi. 24 SemTxveviT
SerCeuli manqanis Semowmebis drois Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra
aRmoCnda 12.5 wuTi. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara
davaskvnaT, rom standartuli gadaxra Seicvala? isargebleT P-
mniSvnelobis meTodi.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 16.8 H Dc = ,
1
: 16.8 H Dc = . gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
2
2
'
2
0
(24 1) (12.5)
. . 12.733
(16.8)
( 1)
TV
n s
o
÷ ·
= = =
÷
.
gamovTvaloT P-mniSvneloba: Tavisuflebis 1 32 n÷ = xarisxis
gaswvriv xi kvadrat ganawilebis zeda kritikuli wertilebis cxrilSi
12.733 vardeba 11.689-sa da 13.091-s Soris. o -s Sesabamisi mniSvnelobebia:
0.975 da 0.95. vinaidan miRebuli mniSvnelobebi ganawilebis marcxena
mxaresaa, 1-s unda gamovakloT o -s es mniSvnelobebi: 1 0.975 0.025 ÷ = ,
1 0.95 0.05 ÷ = . radganac kriteriumi ormxrivia, miRebuli ricxvebi unda
gaormagdes da miviRebT P-mniSvnelobis sazRvrebs: 0.05 < P-mniSvneloba
< 0.1 (kalkulatoriT gamoTvlili P-mniSvneloba = 0.085).
vinaidan, P-mniSvneloba metia o -ze, amitom nulovani hipoTeza ar
unda ukuvagdoT. Sesabamisad, Cven ar gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli, raTa
davaskvnaT, rom standartuli gadaxra Seicvala.

amocanebi
1. CamoayalibeT SesaZlo ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi da
gamoTvaleT kritikuli mniSvneloba, roca 225 Dc = , Tu: a). 0.05 o = , 18 n = ,
133

kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia; b). 0.1 o = , 23 n = , kriteriumi marcxena
calmxrivia; g). 0.05 o = , 15 n = , kriteriumi ormxrivia; d). 0.1 o = , 8 n = ,
kriteriumi ormxrivia; e). 0.01 o = , 17 n = , kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia;
v). 0.025 o = , 20 n = , kriteriumi marcxena calmxrivia; z). 0.01 o = , 13 n = ,
kriteriumi ormxrivia; T). 0.025 o = , 29 n = , kriteriumi marcxena
calmxrivia.
2. ipoveT P-mniSvnelobis sazRvrebi qvemoT moyvanili
2
; krite-
riumis mniSvnelobebisaTvis: a).
2
29.321 ; = , 16 n = , kriteriumi marjvena
calmxrivia; b).
2
10.215 ; = , 25 n = , kriteriumi marcxena calmxrivia; g).
2
24.672 ; = , 11 n = , kriteriumi ormxrivia; d).
2
23.722 ; = , 9 n = , kriteriumi
marjvena calmxrivia; e).
2
13.974 ; = , 28 n = , kriteriumi ormxrivia; v).
2
10.571 ; = , 19 n = , kriteriumi marcxena calmxrivia; z).
2
12.144 ; = , 6 n = ,
kriteriumi ormxrivia; T).
2
8.201 ; = , 23 n = , kriteriumi ormxrivia;
qvemoT moyvanil amocanebSi igulisxmeT, rom sidideebi normaluria
an daaxloebiT normaluradaa ganawilebuli.
3. dietologis mtkicebiT sxvadasxva saxis erT magidis kovz sirof-
Si kaloriebis ricxvis standartuli gadaxra aris 60. 0.1 o = mniSvnelo-
vnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ar am mtkicebulebis uaryofa, Tu SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 18 sxvadasxva saxis sirofis erT kovzSi kaloriebis ricxvia:
53 210 100 200 100 220
210 100 240 200 100 210
100 210 100 210 100 60
4. SerCeul iqna 18 TiTo kologramiani Saqris fuTa. awonvis Sedeg-
ad aRmoCnda, rom Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersia Seadgens 6.5-s.
0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipopTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom
populaciis dispersia metia 6.2-ze.
5. kopaniis menejeris mtkicebiT maT mier gamoSvebul iogurtSi Saq-
ris Semcvlelobis dispersia ar aRemateba 25 grams. SemTxveviT SerCeul
20 iogurtSi gazomes Saqris Semcvleloba da aRmoCnda, rom Sesworebuli
SerCeviTi dispersia tolia 36-is. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba
Tu ar am mtkicebulebis uaryofa?
6. wina kvlevebis Tanaxmad mkvlevari Tvlis, rom pirvelkursel
studentTa wlovanebebis dispersia Seadgens 1.6-s. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 50
pirvelkurselis wlovanebebis Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersia
aRmoCnda 2.3. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara pirvelkursel
studentTa wlovanebebis dispersia 1.6-ze meti?
7. kopaniis menejeris mtkicebiT im satelefono saubrebis xang-
rZlivobebis standartuli gadaxra, romelic mas sWirdeba firmis
saqmeebis mosawesrigeblad, ar aRemateba 1.2 wuTs. menejeris SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 15 satelefono saubris xangrZlivobis Sesworebuli
standartuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 1.8 wuTi. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
SeamowmeT hipopTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom standartuli gadaxra ar
aRemateba 1.2-s. isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
134

8. plastikatis boTlSi moTavsebuli 12 uncia (1 uncia = 28.3 gr)
kaustikuri sodis wonis dasaSvebi standartuli gadaxra ar aRemateba
0.03 uncias. isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT da 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT dasaSvebia Tu ara populaciis sta-
ndartuli gadaxra, Tu SemTxveviT SerCeul 8 sodis boTlSi sodis
wonebi iyo:
12.03 12.1 12.02 11.98
12 12.05 11.97 11.99
9. qvemoT moyvanilia samSeneblo kompaniis mier Sesyiduli 12
foladis mavTulis winaaRmdegobebis maCveneblebi. mavTulis partiis
dawuneba xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, roca Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra
metia 2-ze. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara safuZveli
daviwunoT mavTulebis partia?
2001 1998 2002 2000 1998 1999
1997 2005 2003 2001 1999 2006













pasuxebi:
1.
0
: 225 H Dc s ,
1
: 225 H Dc > , . . 27.587 CV = ;
0
: 225 H Dc > ,
1
: 225 H Dc < ,
. . 14.042 CV = ;
0
: 225 H Dc = ,
1
: 225 H Dc = , . . 5.629 CV = , 26.119;
0
: 225 H Dc = ,
1
: 225 H Dc = , . . 2.167 CV = , 14.067;
0
: 225 H Dc s ,
1
: 225 H Dc > , . . 32 CV = ;
0
: 225 H Dc > ,
1
: 225 H Dc < , . . 8.907 CV = ;
0
: 225 H Dc = ,
1
: 225 H Dc = , . . 3.074 CV = ,
28.299;
0
: 225 H Dc > ,
1
: 225 H Dc < , . . 15.308 CV = . 2. (0.01, 0.025); (0.005, 0.01); (0.01,
0.025): P-mniSvneloba < 0.005; (0.025, 0.05); (0.1, 0.2); (0.05, 0.1); P-mniSvneloba <
0.01. 3.
0
: 60 H o = ,
1
: 60 H o = ; . . 8.672 CV = , 27.587;
2
. . 19.707 TV ; ÷ = ;
0
H . 4.
0
: 6.2 H Dc s ,
1
: 6.2 H Dc > ; . . 33.409 CV = ;
2
. . 17.823 TV ; ÷ = ;
0
H . 5.
0
: 25 H Dc s ,
1
: 25 H Dc > ; . . 27.204 CV = ;
2
. . 27.36 TV ; ÷ = ; ki. 6.
0
: 1.6 H Dc s ,
1
: 1.6 H Dc > ;
. . 55.758 CV = ;
2
. . 70.438 TV ; ÷ = ; ki. 7.
0
: 1.2 H o s ,
1
: 1.2 H o > ;
2
. . 31.5 TV ; ÷ = ; P-
mniSvneloba < 0.005 < o ;
1
H . 8.
0
: 0.03 H o s ,
1
: 0.03 H o > ;
2
. . 14.381 TV ; ÷ = ;
0.025 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.05 = o ; ara. 9.
0
: 2 H o s ,
1
: 2 H o > ; . . 24.725 CV = ;
2
. . 22.02 TV ; ÷ = ; ara.
135

Tavi VII
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba bernulis sqemaSi

statistikuri hipoTezis Semowmeba bernulis sqemaSi ucnobi
p albaTobis Sesaxeb (didi moculobis SemTxvevaSi):

hipoTeza:
0 0
: H p p =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
0
0 0
(1 ) /
X p
Z
p p n
÷
=
÷
(
n
n
S
X w
n
÷ ÷ )
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
0
0 0
(1 ) /
x p
z
p p n
÷
=
÷

alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1 0
: H p p > z z
o
> ,

1 0
: H p p < z z
o
s ÷ ,
1 0
: H p p =
/ 2
z z
o
s ÷ an
/ 2
z z
o
> ,
sadac z
o
aris (0,1) N -is zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli mni-
Svneloba C.V. (aq igulisxmeba, rom: 5 np > da 5 nq > . Tuki am pirobebidan
erTi mainc ar sruldeba, maSin kritikuli mniSvneloba unda vipovoT bi-
nomialuri ganawilebis cxrilidan).
P- mniSvneloba:
1 0
1 0
1 0
1 ( ), : ;
( ), : ;
2 [1 (| |)], : .
z H p p
P z H p p
z H p p
÷u > ¦
¦
= u <
´
¦
· ÷u =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

gadawyvetileba: Tu ze C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
SeniSvna. mcire moculobis SerCevisaTvis (kerZod, Tu 30 n < ) kri-
teriumis statistikad gamoiyeneba
0
( , )
n
S Bi n p ~ . magaliTad, calmxrivi
marjvena alternativis dros C.R. { }
n
S c
o
= > , sadac c
o
mTeli dadebiTi
ricxvi unda SeirCes pirobidan, rom:
0 0 0
{ | } (1 )
n
k k n k
n n
k c
P S c H C p p
o
o
o
÷
=
> = ÷ =
¯
.
Tu aseTi c
o
ar arsebobs, maSin c c
o
= -s arCeven pirobidan
0 0
{ | } { 1| }
n n
P S c H P S c H o > s < > ÷ ,
an rac igivea:
0 0 0 0
1
(1 ) (1 )
n n
k k n k k k n k
n n
k c k c
C p p C p p o
÷ ÷
= = ÷
÷ s < ÷
¯ ¯
.
136

hipoTezis Semowmeba puasonis populaciis ì parametris
Sesaxeb (mcire moculobis SerCevebisaTvis):

puasonis populaciis ì parametris Sesaxeb hipoTezis Semowmebisas
mcire moculobis SerCevis SemTxvevaSi, iyeneben P-mniSvnelobis meTods.
hipoTeza:
0 0
: H ì ì =
alternativa:
1 0
: H ì ì =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
0
( ) Po ì H~
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.: t (puasonis SemTxveviTi sididis dak-
virvebuli mniSvneloba)
P- mniSvneloba:
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
1
0
0
0
, ;
, .
2 { | } 2
!
2 { | } 2 (1 )
!
k
k
k
k
P H e
k
P
P H e
k
t
ì
t
ì
t
t t ì
ì
t ì
ì
÷
=
÷
÷
=
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
>
¦
¹
· Hs = · · s
=
· H> = · ÷ ·
¯
¯
Tu
Tu

Tu P o s , maSin amboben, rom Sedegi (laparakia t -ze) statistik-
urad mniSvnelovania da
0
H hipoTezas uaryofen, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
ki – is statistikurad umniSvneloa da nulovan hipoTezas ar uaryofen.
didi moculobis SemTxvevaSi aqac iyeneben normalur aproqsimacias,
kerZod, im faqts, rom
2 2 2
0 0
( ) / [ (0,1)] (1) N ì ì ; H÷ ~ ~ .

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. davuSvaT Catarebulia 50 damoukidebeli eqsperimenti, А
xdomilebis moxdenis fardobiTi sixSire aRmoCnda 0.12. mniSvnelovnebis α
= 0.01 donisaTvis SevamowmoT nulovani Н
0
: р = 0.1 hipoTeza alternatiuli
Н
1
: р > 0.1 hipoTezis winaaRmdeg.
amoxsna. vipovoT kriteriumis mniSvneloba
(0.12 0.1) 50
0.471.
0.1 0.9
z
÷
= =
·

kritikuli are iqneba marjvena calmxrivi, xolo kritikuli mniSvneloba
unda vipovoT pirobidan
( . .) 1 0.01 0.99 CV u = ÷ = .
normaluri ganawilebis funqciis cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom 2.33 z
o
= .
vinaidan, z z
o
< , amitom miiReba hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom 0.1 p = .
magaliTi 2. ganaTlebis inspeqtoris SefasebiT maRali klasis
moswavleebis 15% tovebs skolas. gasul wels, SemTxveviT SerCeuli
maRali klasis 200 moswavlidan 38-ma datova skola. 0.05 o = mniSvnel-
137

ovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli ukuvagdoT inspeqtoris
mosazreba?
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 0.15 H p = ,
1
: 0.15 H p = . vinaidan, 0.05 o = da kriteriumi ormxrivia, kri-
tikuli mniSvnelobebia:
/ 2
1.96 z
o
÷ =÷ da
/ 2
1.96 z
o
= . garda amisa, gvaqvs:
0
0.15 p = , 200 n = ,
38
0.19
200
n
x w = = = . amitom kriteriumis mniSvneloba iqneba:
0
0 0
0.19 0.15
1.58
(1 ) / 0.15 0.85/ 200
x p
z
p p n
÷ ÷
= = =
÷ ·
.
rogorc vxedavT, kriteriumis mniSvneloba ar vardeba kritikul
areSi, amitom nulovan hipoTezas ar ukuvagdebT. amrigad, Cven ara gvaqvs
sakmarisi safuZveli inspeqtoris mosazrebis sawinaaRmdegod.
magaliTi 3. prokuroris mtkicebiT advokatebis 25%-ze meti iyenebs
reklamas. 200 SemTxveviT SerCeul advokatze dakvirvebam aCvena, rom 63
maTgani ama Tu im formiT iyenebda reklamas. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli gaviziaroT prokuroris
mtkicebuleba?
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 0.25 H p s ,
1
: 0.25 H p > . gvaqvs:
0
0.25 p = , 200 n = ,
63
0.315
200
n
x w = = = .
gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
0
0 0
0.315 0.25
2.12
(1 ) / 0.25 0.75/ 200
x p
z
p p n
÷ ÷
= = =
÷ ·
.
gamovTvaloT P-mniSvneloba:
1 ( ) 1 (2.12) 1 9830 0.0170 P z = ÷u = ÷u = ÷ = .
radganac P-mniSvneloba < o (0.017 < 0.05), amitom
0
H unda ukuvagd-
oT. maSasadame, Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli gaviziaroT prokuroris
mosazreba imis Sesaxeb, rom advokatebis 25%-ze meti iyenebs reklamas.

amocanebi

1. satelefono kompaniis SefasebiT maTi momxmareblebis 40%-s gaaC-
nia lodinis reJimis mqone mowyobileba. am hipoTezis Seamowmeblad Seir-
Ca 100 momxmarebeli da gairkva, rom maT 37%-s aqvs lodinis reJimis mqone
mowyobileba. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi saf-
uZveli ukuvagdoT kompaniis mosazreba?
2. saTamaSoebis mwarmoeblis azriT 14 wlamde asakis bavSebis sul
cota 23%-s aqvs sasrialo gorgolaWebiani dafa. 14 wlamde asakis 40 bav-
Svian SerCevaSi sasrialo dafa aRmoaCnda 7 bavSvs. gvaqvs Tu ara sakmari-
si safuZveli 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT uarvyoT saTamaSoebis mwar-
moeblis mosazreba?
138

3. samSobiaro saxlis warsuli Canawerebis mixedviT ara dRenaklu-
li bavSvebis saSualo wona metia vidre 7 funti da 2 uncia (1 funti =
453.6 gr; 1 uncia = 28.3 gr). mimdinare wels 100 dabadebuli bavSvidan 23-is
wona meti iyo vidre 7 funti da 2 uncia. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli vamtkicoT rom proporcia Seicvala?
4. kriminalistebis kvlevis mixedviT xanZrebis sul cota 40% gamo-
wveulia 21 wlamde axalgazrdebis mier. mkvlevaris dakvirvebis mixedviT
80 xanZridan 30 gamowveuli iyo 21 wlamde axalgazrdis mier. 0.1 o = mniS-
vnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli ukuvagdoT krimin-
alistebis mosazreba?
5. ukanaskneli kvlevis mixedviT aviakatastrofaSi moyolili adami-
anebis araumetes 32% iRupeba. 100 adamianisagan Semdgar SerCevaSi, romle-
bic moyvnen aviakatastrofaSi, 38 daiRupa. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
unda uarvyoT Tu ara kvlevis Sedegi?
6. statistikis departamentis monacemebiT dedaqalaqis mcxovrebTa
63%-s gaaCnia avtomopasuxe. kompania “magTis” 143 gamokiTxuli TanamSrom-
lidan 85-s aqvs avtomopasuxe. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT
hipoTeza, rom avtomopasuxis mflobelTa proporcia “magTis” TanamSrom-
lebs Soris igivea rac dedaqalaqis mcxovreblebs Soris.
7. statistikuri angariSis mixedviT srulwlovani mosaxleobis 17%
gasul wels daeswro warmodgenas operaSi. am hipioTezis Sesamowmeblad
mkvlevarma gamokiTxa 90 adamiani da daadgina, rom maTgan gasul wels
operas daeswro 22. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza,
rom realuri proporcia Seadgens 17%-s.
8. ukanaskneli kvlevis mixedviT pirvelkurseli studentebis sul
cota 15% Warbwoniania. 80 SemTxveviT SerCeul pirvelkursels Soris 9
aRmoCnda Warbwoniani. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakma-
risi safuZveli uarvyoT kvlevis Sedegi?
9. kvlevis mixedviT universitetis studentebis araumetes 25%
universitetamde misasvlelad gadis 10 km-ze mets. SeTxveviT SerCeuli
100 studentidan aRmoCnda, rom 30 universitetamde misasvlelad gadis 10
km-ze mets. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT kvlevis Sedegebis
siswore. isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
10. satelefono kompaniis gancxadebiT misi momxmareblebis 30%-ze
mets aqvs 2-ze meti telefoni. am gancxadebis dasadastureblad kompaniam
SemTxveviT SearCia 200 momxmarebeli da daadgina, rom maTgan 72-s aqvs 2
telefonze meti. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi
safuZveli davadasturoT kompaniis gancxadeba? isargebleT P-mniSvnelo-
bis meTodiT.
11. kriminalistebis mtkicebiT mkvlelobebis 10% Cadenilia qalebis
mier. gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
ukuvagdoT es mtkicebuleba, Tu 67 SemTxveviT SerCeuli mkvlelobidan 10
aRmoCnda qalebis mier Cadenili? gamoiyeneT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
12. monetis 9-jer agdebisas 3-jer movida gerbi. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovne-
bis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom moneta arawesieria (miTiTe-
139

ba: isargebleT binomialuri ganawilebis cxriliT da ipoveT 2 { 3} P c s ,
roca 0.5 p = da 9 n = ).
13. gasul wels TviTmfrinavis mgzavrebis 20% mgzavrobda pirveli
klasiT. mimdinare wels SemTxveviT SerCeuli 15 mgzavridan 5-ma imgzavra
pirveli klasiT. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskv-
naT, rom proporcia Seicvala?

























pasuxebi:
1.
0
: 0.4 H p = ,
1
: 0.4 H p = ; . . 2.58 CV =± ; . . 0.612 TV z ÷ =÷ ; ara. 2.
0
: 0.23 H p > ,
1
: 0.23 H p < ; . . 1.65 CV =÷ ; . . 0.83 TV z ÷ =÷ ; ara. 3. 23 . 0 :
0
= p H , 23 . 0 :
1
= p H ;
. . 2.58 CV =± ; . . 2.9 TV z ÷ =÷ ; ki. 4.
0
: 0.4 H p > ,
1
: 0.4 H p < ; . . 1.28 CV =÷ ;
. . 0.457 TV z ÷ =÷ ; ara. 5.
0
: 0.32 H p s ,
1
: 0.32 H p > ; . . 1.65 CV =+ ; . . 1.29 TV z ÷ =+ ; ara.
6.
0
: 0.63 H p = ,
1
: 0.63 H p = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 0.88 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
0
H . 7.
0
: 0.17 H p = ,
1
: 0.17 H p = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 1.88 TV z ÷ = ;
0
H . 8.
0
: 0.15 H p > ,
1
: 0.15 H p < ;
. . 1.65 CV =÷ ; . . 0.94 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
0
H . 9.
0
: 0.25 H p s ,
1
: 0.25 H p > ; . . 1.15 TV z ÷ = ; P-
mniSvneloba = 0.1251 > o ;
0
H . 10.
0
: 0.3 H p s ,
1
: 0.3 H p > ; . . 1.85 TV z ÷ = ; P-
mniSvneloba = 0.0322 < o ;
1
H . 11.
0
: 0.1 H p = ,
1
: 0.1 H p = ; . . 1.34 TV z ÷ = ; P-
mniSvneloba = 0.1802 > o ;
0
H . 12. ara. 13. ara.
140

Tavi VIII
ndobis intervali da hipoTezaTa Semowmeba

Tu hipoTezis Semowmebis amocanaSi xdeba nulovani hipoTezis
uaryofa, maSin imave mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone ndobis intervali
populaciis parametrisaTvis ar moicavs parametris hipoTetur
mniSvnelobas.
Tu hipoTezis Semowmebis amocanaSi ar xdeba nulovani hipoTe-
zis uaryofa, maSin imave mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone ndobis
intervali populaciis parametrisaTvis moicavs parametris
hipoTetur mniSvnelobas.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

mgaliTi 1. Saqari dafasoebulia 5 funtian (1 funti = 453.6 gr)
fuTebSi. kontroliors eWvi aqvs, rom fuTaSi ar aris 5 funti Saq-
ari. 50 Saqris fuTisagan Semdgari SerCevis saSualo aRmoCnda 4.6
funti, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 0.7 funti.
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara safuZveli davaskvnaT,
rom fuTaSi saSualod ar aris 5 funti Saqari? aageT 95%-iani ndo-
bis intervali WeSmariti saSualosaTvis.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTeze-
bi:
0
: 5 H Ec = ,
1
: 5 H Ec = . am ormxrivi kriteriumis Sesabamisi kritiku-
li mniSvnelobebia:
/ 2 0.025
1.96 z z
o
÷ =÷ =÷ da
/ 2 0.025
1.96 z z
o
= = . kriterium-
is mniSvneloba iqneba:
'
4.5 5 0.4
4.04
0.099 50 / 0.7/
x E
z
n s
c ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = =÷ .
radganac 4.04 1.96 ÷ <÷ , amitom nulovani hipoTeza unda ukuvag-
doT, anu Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli, raTa davaskvnaT, rom fu-
TaSi saSualod ar aris 5 funti Saqari.
avagoT 95%-iani ndobis intervali saSualosaTvis:
/ 2 / 2
' '
x z E x z
n n
s s
o o
c ÷ · < < + · ,
4.6 1.96 4.6 1.96
50 50
0.7 0.7
Ec ÷ · < < + · ,
4.4 4.8 Ec < < .
rogorc vxedavT, 95%-iani ndobis intervali (anu ndobis inte-
rvali mniSvnelovnebis doniT 0.05 o = ) saSualosaTvis Ec ar moic-
avs saSualos hipoTetur mniSvnelobas 5 Ec = .
magaliTi 2. mkvlevari amtkicebs, rom specialuri dietiT gam-
okvebili zrdasruli Rori saSualod iwonis 200 funts. 10 aseTi
Rorisagan Sedgenili SerCevis saSualo wona aRmoCnda 198.2 funti,
xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 3.3 funti. 0.05 o = mni-
141

Svnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara safuZveli davujeroT mkvlev-
ars? aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali realuri saSualosaTvis.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTeze-
bi:
0
: 200 H Ec = ,
1
: 200 H Ec = . radganac populaciis standartuli gada-
xra ucnobia da 30 n < , amitom unda gamoviyenoT T testi. am SemTxv-
evaSi ormxrivi kriteriumis Sesabamisi kritikuli mniSvnelobebia:
1, / 2 9,0.025
2.262
n
t t
o ÷
÷ =÷ =÷ da
1, / 2 9,0.025
2.262
n
t t
o ÷
= = . kriteriumis mniSvneloba
iqneba:
'
198.2 200 1.8
1.72
1.0436 10 / 3.3/
x E
t
n s
c ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = ÷ .
Sesabamisad, nulovani hipoTeza ar unda ukuvagdoT, anu ara
gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli uarvyoT mkvlevaris mosazreba, rom Ro-
ris saSualo wonaa 200 funti.
avagoT 95%-iani ndobis intervali saSualosaTvis:
/ 2 / 2
' '
x t E x t
n n
s s
o o
c ÷ · < < + · ,
198.2 2.262 198.2 2.262
10 10
3.3 3.3
Ec ÷ · < < + · ,
195.8 200.6 Ec < < .
rogorc vxedavT, 95%-iani ndobis intervali (anu ndobis inte-
rvali mniSvnelovnebis doniT 0.05 o = ) saSualosaTvis Ec moicavs
saSualos hipoTetur mniSvnelobas 200 Ec = .

amocanebi

1. Txilamurebis maRaziis menejeris mtkicebiT zamTris
Tveebis ganmavlobaSi misi maRaziis saSualo dRiuri brunva
Seadgens 1800 lars. SemTxveviT SerCeuli zamTris 10 dRis saSualo
dRiuri brunva aRmoCnda 1830 lari. populaciis standartuli
gadaxraa 200 lari. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara
safuZveli uarvyoT menejeris mtkicebuleba? aageT 95%-iani ndobis
intervali saSualosaTvis. aris Tu ara ndobis intervalis
interpretacia TanxvedraSi hipoTezis Semowmebis SedegTan? ig-
ulisxmeT, rom sidide ganawilebulia normalurad.
2. samgzavro avtobuss saSualod gadayavs 42 mgzavri. gasul
wlebSi populaciis standartuli gadaxra Seadgenda 8-s. mimdinare
wels SemTxveviT SerCeuli 10 avtobusis mgzavrTa saSualo
aRmoCnda 48. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara
davaskvnaT, rom saSualo igivea? aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali
saSualosaTvis. aris Tu ara ndobis intervalis interpretacia
TanxvedraSi hipoTezis Semowmebis SedegTan? igulisxmeT, rom
sidide ganawilebulia normalurad.
142

3. uZravi qonebis agentis mtkicebiT sakuTari saxlebis
komunaluri gadasaxadebis saSualo TveSi Seadgens 86 lars.
warsuli kvlevis Tanaxmad populaciis standartuli gadaxraa 6
lari. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 15 saxlis mflobelis saSualo
gadasaxadi aRmoCnda 84 lari. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
SeamowmeT agentis mtkicebuleba. aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali
saSualosaTvis. aris Tu ara ndobis intervalis interpretacia
TanxvedraSi hipoTezis Semowmebis SedegTan? igulisxmeT, rom
sidide ganawilebulia normalurad.
4. erTadgiliani naviT mdinaris dinebis mimarTulebiT
gacurvis saSualo dro sportsmenebisaTvis Seadgens 47 wuTs.
vinaidan gazafxulze dinebis siCqare ufro swrafia, SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 10 sportsmenis saSualo dro aRmoCnda 42 wuTi. wina
kvlevebidan cnobilia, rom standartuli gadaxra Seadgens 7 wuTs.
0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SevamowmoT hipoTeza, rom swrafi
dinebis dros saSualo gansxvavebulia. aageT 90%-iani ndobis
intervali saSualosaTvis. aris Tu ara ndobis intervalis
interpretacia TanxvedraSi hipoTezis Semowmebis SedegTan? igu-
lisxmeT, rom sidide ganawilebulia normalurad.
5. wina kvlevebis Tanaxmad pirvelkurseli studentebi kviraSi
saSualod 22 saaTs xarjaven swavlaze. standartuli gadaxra
Seadgens 4 saaTs. mimdinare wels gamokiTxes 60 studenti da
aRmoCnda, rom maT mier kviris ganmavlobaSi swavlaze daxarjuli
drois saSualo Seadgenda 20.8 saaTs. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza, rom swavlaze daxarjuli drois
saSualo Seicvala. aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali
saSualosaTvis. aris Tu ara ndobis intervalis interpretacia
TanxvedraSi hipoTezis Semowmebis SedegTan?

amocanebi gamocdisaTvis

6. meteorologis mtkicebiT aSS-s qalaqebSi umaRlesi
temperaturis saSualo Seadgens 98-s (farengeitiT). 0.05 o = mniSvne-
lovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara safuZveli ukuvagdoT meteorologis
mosazreba, Tu cnobilia, rom SemTxveviT SerCeul 50 qalaqSi
umaRlesi temperaturis monacemebia:
97 94 96 105 99 96 80 95 101 97
101 87 88 97 94 98 95 88 94 94
99 99 98 96 96 97 98 99 92 97
99 108 97 98 114 91 96 102 99 102
100 93 88 102 99 98 80 95 101 61

7. kvlevis Tanaxmad mweveli adamiani saSualod dReSi eweva 14 cal
sigarets. am hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad SemTxveviT SeirCa 40 mweveli
da aRmoCnda, rom isini dReSi saSualod 18 cal sigarets eweodnen.
143

SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra iyo 6. 0.05 o = mniSvne-
lovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara safuZveli CavTvaloT, rom
mwevelebis mier dReSi moweuli sigaretis ricxvi sinamdvileSi
gansxvavebulia 14-sagan?
8. skolis konsultants surs Seamowmos mosazreba imis
Sesaxeb, rom im moswavleebis saSualo asaki, romlebic Tavs
anebeben swavlas, Seadgens 16.3 wels. SemTxveviT SeirCa 32 moswavle,
romlebmac Tavi daanebes swavlas da aRmoCnda, rom maTi saSualo
asaki iyo 16.9 weli. populaciis standartuli gadaxra Seadgens 0.3-
s. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara safuZveli uarvyoT
aRniSnuli mosazreba? isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
9. mkvlevars surs Seamowmos aris Tua ara dedaqalaqis
mosaxleobis saSualo asaki 61.2 weli. 22 SemTxveviT SerCeuli
moqalaqis saSualo asaki aRmoCnda 59.8 weli, xolo Sesworebuli
SerCeviTi standartuli gadaxra ki 1.5 weli. 0.01 o = mniSvnel-
ovnebis doniT gansxvavdeba Tu ara realurad saSualo asaki 61.2
wlisagan? igulisxmeT, rom sidide daaxloebiT normaluradaa
ganawilebuli.
10. zafxulis TveebSi temperaturis saSualo aSS-s CrdiloeT
nawilSi Seadgens 67-s (farengeitiT). mimdinare wels SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 10 qalaqis saSualo temperatura aRmoCnda 69.6, xolo
Sesworebuli SerCeviTi standartuli gadaxra ki 1.1. 0.1 o = mniSvne-
lovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom mimdinare wlis
zafxuli ufro Tbili iyo vidre saSualod?
11. winandeli kvlevis mixedviT mkvlelobis msxverplTa saSu-
alo asaki ar aRemateba 23.2 wels. mimdinare wels SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 18 mkvlelobis msxverplTa saSualo asaki aRmoCnda 22.6
weli, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 2 weli. 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom mimdinare
wels msxverplTa saSualo asaki gaizarda? igulisxmeT, rom sidide
daaxloebiT normaluradaa ganawilebuli. isargebleT P-
mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
12. gaeros monacemebiT msoflios 10 popularuli erovnuli
muzeumis damTvalirebelTa saSualo ricxvi gasul wels Seadgenda
6 milion adamians. mimdinare wels, qvemoT moyvanili am 10 muzeumis
damTvalirebelTa ricxvis monacemebis mixedviT, 0.02 o = mniSvnel-
ovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom mimdinare wels
damTvalirebelTa saSualo Seicvala (monacemebi gamosaxulia
milionebSi):

4.7 17.2 14 6.1 6.1
4.9 9.3 9.4 6.4 6.1

13. universitetis finansuri daxmarebis departamenti
imedovnebs, rom studentTa sul cota 30% miiRebs ama Tu im saxis
144

finansur daxmarebas. imis gasarkvevad, sworia Tu ara es mosazreba,
SemTxveviT SerCeul iqna 60 studenti da aRmoCnda, rom maTgan 15
miiRo finansuri daxmareba. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
SevamowmoT hipoTeza, rom studentTa sul cota 30% miiRebs
finansur daxmarebas.
14. wina kvlevis Tanaxmad srulwlovani adamianebis sul cota
60% sauzmeze miirTmevs kvercxs kviraSi oTxjer mainc. am
mosazrebis Sesamowmeblad dietologma SemTxveviT SearCia 100
srulwlovani adamiani da daadgina, rom maT Soris 54% sauzmeze
miirTmevs kvercxs kviraSi oTxjer mainc. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT eTanxmeba Tu ara dietologis Sedegi wina kvlevis Sedegs?
15. samSeneblo kompaniis mtkicebiT binis myidvelTa 80%-s
surs binaSi qondes buxari. am mosazrebis Sesamowmeblad
mkvlevarma SemTxveviT SearCia 30 binis myidveli da daadgina, rom
maTgan 20-s surda binaSi qonoda buxari. 0.02 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT SeamowmeT kompaniis mtkicebulebis siswore.
16. “nokias” distributoris mtkicebiT 13 – 16 wlis asakis mo-
zardebis 65%-s aqvs maTi firmis telefoni. am mosazrebis
Sesamowmeblad mkvlevarma SemTxveviT SearCia 80 mozardi da
daadgina, rom maTgan 57-s hqonda “nokias” firmis telefoni. 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara ukuvagdoT
distributoris mosazreba? isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
17. fexburTis federaciis prezidentis mtkicebiT
fexburTelebis saSualo wona Seadgens 225 funts (1 funti = 453.6
gr). am mosazrebis Sesamowmeblad, mkvlevarma SemTxveviT SearCia 50
fexburTeli da daadgina, rom maTi saSualo wona iyo 230 funti,
xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 15 funti. 0.01 o = mni-
Svnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT prezidentis mtkicebuleba.
isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
18. filmebis redaqtoris mtkicebiT videofilmebis
xangrZlivobis standartuli gadaxra Seadgens 3.4 wuTs. SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 24 videofilmis xangrZlivobis Sesworebuli
standartuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 4.2 wuTi. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom SerCevis standartuli
gadaxra gansxvavebulia redaqtoris mtkicebulebisagan?
19. “Jigulis” mier moxmarebuli sawvavis standartuli
gadaxra Seadgens 4.3 litrs. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 20 “Jigulis” mier
moxmarebuli sawvavis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra aRmoCnda
2.6 litri. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara
davaskvnaT, rom SerCevis standartuli gadaxra naklebia 4.3
litrze? isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
20. uZravi qonebis agentis mtkicebiT dedaqalaqis centrSi 1
kv. metri saofise farTis saijaro gadasaxadis standartuli
gadaxra Seadgens 95 lars. 0.02 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZ-
145

lia Tu ara agentis mtkicebulebis uaryofa, Tu SemTxvevT
SerCeuli 18 saofise farTis 1 kv. metris saijaro gadasaxadebia:

400 345 325 395 400 300
375 435 495 525 290 460
425 250 200 525 375 390

21. saRebavebis firmis menejeris mtkicebiT garkveuli
saRebavis gaSrobis drois standartuli gadaxra Seadgens 18 wuTs.
xuTma sxvadasxva testirebam aCvena rom saRebavis gaSrobis drois
Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra Seadgens 21 wuTs. 0.05 o = mniS-
vnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza standartuli gadaxris
Sesaxeb?
22. sociologs surs Seamowmos sworia Tu ara, rom garkveuli
profesiis qalebi pirvel Svils aCenen 28.6 wlis asakSi. 0.05 o = mni-
Svnelovnebis doniT ra daskvna unda gamoitanos sociologma, Tu
mas eqneba SemTxveviT SerCeuli 36 qalis mier pirveli Svilis
gaCenis asakis Semdegi monacemebi:
32 28 26 33 35 34 29 24 22
25 26 28 28 34 33 32 30 29
30 27 33 34 28 25 24 33 25
37 35 33 34 36 38 27 29 26

23. uZravi qonebis agentis mtkicebiT axali saxlis yidvisas
damatebiTi xarjebis saSualo Seadgens 6500 lars. SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 40 gayiduli saxlis myidvelis damatebiTi xarjebis
saSualom Seadgina 6600 lari. populaciis standartuli gadaxraa
120 lari. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT agentis
mtkicebuleba.
24. kolejis administrators surs Seamowmos aris Tu ara
studentis mier swavlisaTvis Tavis danebebis saSualo asaki 21
weli. man aiRo bolo 17 wlis monacemebi da yoveli wlisaTvis
daTvala swavlisaTvis Tavis danebebis saSualo asaki, romelic
moyvanilia qvemoT. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara
hipoTezis uaryofa?

12 18 24 16 21 20 18 19 19
22 25 16 18 19 19 20 23

25. taqsebis firmis menejeris mtkicebiT maTi taqsistebis
muSaobis staJis saSualo Seadgens sul cota 12.4 wels. SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 15 taqsistis muSaobis staJis saSualo aRmoCnda 11.2 weli,
xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra ki 2 weli. 0.1 o = mniS-
vnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara sinamdvileSi staJis saSualo
ufro naklebi, vidre amas amtkicebs menejeri?
146




pasuxebi:
1.
0
: 1800 H Ec = ,
1
: 1800 H Ec = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 0.47 TV z ÷ = ;
0
H ;
1706.04 Ec < < 1953.96 < ; 1800 (1706.04,1953.96) e . 2.
0
: 42 H Ec = ,
1
: 42 H Ec = ; . . 1.65 CV =± ; . . 0.47 TV z ÷ = ;
1
H ; 43.83 52.17 Ec < < ;
42 (43.83,52.17) e . 3.
0
: 86 H Ec = ,
1
: 86 H Ec = ; . . 2.58 CV =± ; . . 1.29 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
0
H ; 80 88 Ec < < ; 86 (80,88) e . 4.
0
: 47 H Ec = ,
1
: 47 H Ec = ; . . 1.65 CV =± ;
. . 2.26 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
1
H ; 38.35 45.65 Ec < < ; 47 (38.35, 45.65) e . 5.
0
: 22 H Ec = ,
1
: 22 H Ec = ; . . 2.58 CV =± ; . . 2.32 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
0
H ; 19.47 22.13 Ec < < ;
22 (19.47, 22.13) e . 6.
0
: 98 H Ec = ,
1
: 98 H Ec = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 2.02 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
1
H . 7.
0
: 14 H Ec = ,
1
: 14 H Ec = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 4.22 TV z ÷ = ;
1
H . 8.
0
: 16.3 H Ec = ,
1
: 16.3 H Ec = ; . . 11.3 TV z ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba < 0.01; ki. 9.
0
: 61.2 H Ec = ,
1
: 61.2 H Ec = ; . . 2.831 CV =± ; . . 4.378 TV t ÷ =÷ ; ki. 10.
0
: 67 H Ec s ,
1
: 67 H Ec > ; . . 1.383 CV = ; . . 7.47 TV t ÷ = ; ara. 11.
0
: 23.2 H Ec s ,
1
: 23.2 H Ec > ; . . 1.27 TV t ÷ =÷ ; 0.75 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.9; ara. 12.
0
: 6 H Ec = ,
1
: 6 H Ec = ; . . 2.821 CV =± ; . . 1.835 TV t ÷ = ; ara. 13.
0
: 0.3 H p > ,
1
: 0.3 H p < ; . . 1.65 CV =÷ ; . . 0.85 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
0
H . 14.
0
: 0.6 H p > ,
1
: 0.6 H p < ;
. . 1.28 CV =÷ ; . . 1.22 TV z ÷ =÷ ; ki. 15.
0
: 0.8 H p = ,
1
: 0.8 H p = ; . . 2.33 CV =± ;
. . 1.83 TV z ÷ =÷ ;
0
H . 16.
0
: 0.65 H p = ,
1
: 0.65 H p = ; . . 1.17 TV z ÷ = ; P-
mniSvneloba = 0.242 > o ;
0
H . 17.
0
: 225 H Ec = ,
1
: 225 H Ec = ;
. . 2.36 TV z ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.0182;
0
H . 18.
0
: 3.4 H o = ,
1
: 3.4 H o = ;
. . 11.689 CV = da 38.076;
2
. . 35.1 TV ; ÷ = ; ara. 19.
0
: 4.3 H o > ,
1
: 4.3 H o < ;
2
. . 6.95 TV ; ÷ = ; 0.005 < P-mniSvneloba <0.01 < o ; ki. 20.
0
: 95 H o = ,
1
: 95 H o = ; . . 6.408 CV = da 33.409;
2
. . 15.0212 TV ; ÷ = ; ara. 21.
0
: 18 H o = ,
1
: 18 H o = ; . . 11.143 CV = da 0.484;
2
. . 5.44 TV ; ÷ = ;
0
H . 22.
0
: 28.6 H Ec = ,
1
: 28.6 H Ec = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 2.14 TV z ÷ = ;
1
H . 23.
0
: 6500 H Ec = ,
1
: 6500 H Ec = ; . . 1.96 CV =± ; . . 5.27 TV z ÷ = ;
1
H . 24.
0
: 21 H Ec = ,
1
: 21 H Ec = ;
. . 2.921 CV =± ; . . 2.06 TV t ÷ =÷ ;
0
H . 25.
0
: 12.4 H Ec > ,
1
: 12.4 H Ec < ;
. . 1.345 CV =÷ ; . . 2.324 TV t ÷ =÷ ;
0
H .







147

Tavi IX
oramokrefiani amocanebi populaciaTa saSualoebisaTvis
H
ori damoukidebeli populaciis saSualos Soris
gansxvavebis hipoTezaTa Semowmeba I

2
1 1
( , ) N a c o ~ da
2
2 2
( , ) N a n o ~ an orive SerCevis moculoba metia an to-
li 30-ze; c da n damoukidebelia;
2
1
o da
2
2
o cnobilia.
1
,...,
n
X X da
1
,...,
m
Y Y
ori SerCevaa Sesabamisad c da n populaciebidan.
kriteriumi:
ormxrivi marjvena calmxrivi marcxena calmxrivi
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
an
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ s

0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
an
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ >
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ >
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ <
hipoTeza:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
1 2
2 2
1 2
( ) ( )
(0,1)
/ /
n m X Y a a
Z N
n m o o
÷ ÷ ÷
= ~
+

kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
1 2
2 2
1 2
( ) ( )
/ /
n
m
x y a a
z
n m o o
÷ ÷ ÷
=
+

alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ > z z
o
> ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ < z z
o
s ÷ ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
/ 2
z z
o
s ÷ an
/ 2
z z
o
>
(sadac z
o
aris (0,1) N -is zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli
mniSvneloba C.V.).
P- mniSvneloba:
0 1 1 2
0 1 1 2
0 1 1 2
{ | }, : 0;
{ | }, : 0;
{| | | || }, : 0.
P Z z H H a a
P P Z z H H a a
P Z z H H a a
> ÷ > ¦
¦
= < ÷ <
´
¦
> ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu
=
=
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 ( ), : 0;
( ), : 0;
2 [1 (| |)], : 0.
z H a a
z H a a
z H a a
÷u ÷ > ¦
¦
u ÷ <
´
¦
· ÷u ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

gadawyvetileba: Tu ze C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT
o mniSvnelovnebis doniT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara
gvaqvs.
(1 ) o ÷ saimedoobis ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis:
148

2 2 2 2
/ 2 1 2 1 2 / 2 1 2
( ) / / ( ) / / n n
m m
x y z n m a a x y z n m
o o
o o o o ÷ ÷ + < ÷ < ÷ + + .

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. erTi normaluri populaciidan, romlis standartuli
gadaxraa 5, aRebulia 40 moculobis mqone SerCeva. SerCeviTi saSualo Se-
adgens 102-s. pirvelisagan damoukidebeli meore normaluri populaciid-
an, romlis standartuli gadaxraa 6, aRebulia 50 moculobis mqone SerC-
eva. am ukanasknelis SerCeviTi saSualoa 99. 0.04 o = mniSvnelovnebis don-
iT SeamowmeT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba saSualoebs Soris.
amoxsna. gvaqvs: ( , 25) N c ~ · , ( ,36) N n ~ · , 40 n = , 50 m= , 102 n x = , 99
m
y = .
CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = . alternativa ormxrivia, amitom kritikuli are iqneba
0.02 0.02
. . ( , ] [ , ) ( , 2.055] [2.055, ) CR z z = ÷· ÷ +· = ÷· ÷ +·   . gamovTvaloT kriteriumis
mniSvneloba. gvaqvs:
1 2
2 2
1 2
( ) ( ) 102 99
. . 2.59
25/ 40 36/ 50
/ /
n
m
x y a a
TV z
n m o o
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = = =
+
+
.
vinaidan, 2.59 > 2.055 (anu . . . . TV CR e ), amitom ZiriTad hipoTezas ukuva-
gdebT 0.04 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT.
gamovTvaloT P-mniSvneloba. P-mniSvneloba = 2[1 (2.59)] 0.0016 ÷u = .
vinaidan, P-mniSvneloba < 0.04 o = , amitom P-mniSvnelobis meTodiTac
igive daskvna gamogvaqs: 0.04 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT ukuvagdebT
0
H
hipoTezas.
magaliTi 2. mdinaris marjvena sanapiroze SemTxveviT SerCeuli 100
ojaxis saSualo Semosavali aRmoCnda 100 29980 x = lari, xolo marcxena
sanapiroze SemTxveviT SerCeuli 100 ojaxis saSualo Semosavali ki
100
28650 y = lari. pirveli populaciis standartuli gadaxraa
1
4740 o = ,
xolo meoris
2
5365 o = . 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara
davaskvnaT, rom mdinaris marjvena sanapiroze saSualo Semosavlebi uf-
ro maRalia, vidre marcxenaze? aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali saSual-
oTa sxvaobisaTvis.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ > . gvaqvs: 100 n m = = ,
0.05
1.645 z z
o
= = . kriteriumis
mniSvneloba iqneba:
1 2
2 2
1 2
( ) ( ) 29980 28650
. . 1.86
4740/100 5365/100
/ /
n
m
x y a a
TV z
n m o o
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = = =
+
+
.
vinaidan,
0.05
z z > , amitom ZiriTadi hipoTeza unda ukuvagdoT, anu
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom mdinaris mar-
jvena sanapiroze saSualo Semosavlebi ufro maRalia, vidre marcxenaze?
149

avagoT ndobis intervali. tolobidan 90% (1 ) 100% o = ÷ · , vaskvniT,
rom 0.1 o = . Sesabamisad,
/ 2 0.05
1.645 z z
o
= = . amitom, gvaqvs:
2 2 2 2
/ 2 1 2 1 2 / 2 1 2
( ) / / ( ) / / n n
m m
x y z n m a a x y z n m
o o
o o o o ÷ ÷ + < ÷ < ÷ + + ,
1 2
4740 5365 4740 5365
29980 28650 1.645 29980 28650 1.645
100 100
a a
+ +
÷ ÷ < ÷ < ÷ + ,
1 2
1330 1.645 10.05 1330 1.645 10.05 a a ÷ · < ÷ < + · ,
1 2
1313.5 1346.5 a a < ÷ < .
vinaidan ndobis intervali ar moicavs nuls, Cveni unda miviRoT ga-
dawyvetileba nulovani hipoTezis ukugdebis Sesaxeb, rac TanxvedraSia
hipoTezis Semowmebisas miRebul SedegTan.

Hori damoukidebeli populaciis saSualos Soris gansxvavebis
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba II

2
1 1
( , ) N a c o ~ da
2
2 1
( , ) N a n o ~ ; c da n damoukidebelia;
2 2 2
1 2
o o o = = ucn-
obia.
1
,...,
n
X X da
1
,...,
m
Y Y ori SerCevaa Sesabamisad c da n populaciebid-
an.
hipoTeza:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
1 2
'
,
( ) ( )
( 2)
1/ 1/
n m
n m
X Y a a
T T n m
S n m
÷ ÷ ÷
= ~ + ÷
+
,
aq
' 2 ' 2 ' 2 2 2
, 1 2
1 1
1 1
[( 1) ( 1) ] [ ( ) ( ) ]
2 2
n m
n n
n m i i
i i
S n S m S X X Y Y
n m n m
= =
= ÷ + ÷ = ÷ + ÷
+ ÷ + ÷
¯ ¯
,
2
, 2
2
( 2) ( 2)
n m
S
n m n m ;
o
+ ÷ ~ + ÷ .
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
1 2
'
,
( ) ( )
1/ 1/
n
m
n m
x y a a
t
s n m
÷ ÷ ÷
=
+

alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ >
2, n m
t t
o + ÷
> ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ <
2, n m
t t
o + ÷
s÷ ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
2, / 2 n m
t t
o + ÷
s÷ an
2, / 2 n m
t t
o + ÷
>
(sadac
2, n m
t
o + ÷
aris Tavisuflebis 2 n m + ÷ xarisxis mqone stiudentis
ganawilebis zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli mniSvneloba
C.V.).

150

P- mniSvneloba:
0 1 1 2
0 1 1 2
0 1 1 2
{ | }, : 0;
{ | }, : 0;
{| | | || }, : 0.
P T t H H a a
P P T t H H a a
P T t H H a a
> ÷ > ¦
¦
= < ÷ <
´
¦
> ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu
=
=
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 ( ), : 0;
( ), : 0;
2 [1 (| |)], : 0.
T
T
T
F t H a a
F t H a a
F t H a a
÷ ÷ > ¦
¦
÷ <
´
¦
· ÷ ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

gadawyvetileba: Tu t e C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT
o mniSvnelovnebis doniT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara
gvaqvs.
(1 ) o ÷ saimedoobis ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis:
' '
2, / 2 , 1 2 2, / 2 ,
( ) 1/ 1/ ( ) 1/ 1/ n n
n m n m n m n m m m
x y t s n m a a x y t s n m
o o + ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ + < ÷ < ÷ + + .

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. erTi normaluri populaciidan aRebulia 10 n = mocul-
obis SerCeva, romlisTvisac 23 n x = ,
'
1
4 s = da misgan damoukidebeli meore
normaluri populaciidan aRebulia 8 m= moculobis SerCeva, romlisTv-
isac 26
m
y = ,
'
2
5 s = . orive populaciis dispersiebi tolia. 0.05 o = mniSvne-
lovnebis doniT SeamowmeT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba saSualoebs Soris.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = . kriteriumi ormxrivia. kritikuli mniSvnelobe-
bia:
2, / 2 16,0.025
. . 2.12
n m
CV t t
o + ÷
=± =± =± . vipovoT saerTo dispersiis Sefaseba:
'2 '2 '2
, 1 2
1 1
[( 1) ( 1) ] (9 16 7 25) 19.94
2 10 8 2
n m
s n s m s
n m
= ÷ + ÷ = · · + · =
+ ÷ + ÷
.
gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
1 2
'
,
( ) ( ) (23 26) 0
. . 1.42
1/ 1/ 19.94 1/10 1/ 8
n
m
n m
x y a a
TV t
s n m
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = = =÷
+ · +
.
vinaidan . . . . TV CR e , amitom ZiriTadi hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli
ara gvaqvs, anu saSualoebs Soris gansxvaveba ar aris arsebiTi.
magaliTi 2. ori damoukidebeli populaciidan, romelTa dispersie-
bi tolia, aRebulia 15-is toli moculobis SerCevebi da gamoTvlilia
saSualoebi da Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersiebi: 132.45 n x = ,
'2
1
123 s = ;
128.06
m
y = ,
'2
2
95 s = . igulisxmeT, rom populaciebi normaluradaa ganawile-
buli da SeadareT erTmaneTs maTi saSualoebi. aageT 95%-iani ndobis in-
tervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ < . kriteriumi marcxena calmxrivia, amitom kriti-
151

kuli mniSvneloba iqneba:
2, 28,0.05
. . 1.7
n m
CV t t
o + ÷
=÷ =÷ =÷ . vipovoT saerTo dispe-
rsiis Sefaseba:
'2 '2 '2
, 1 2
1 1
[( 1) ( 1) ] (14 123 15 95) 109
2 15 15 2
n m
s n s m s
n m
= ÷ + ÷ = · · + · =
+ ÷ + ÷
.
gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
1 2
'
,
( ) ( ) (132.45 128.06) 0
. . 1.15
1/ 1/ 109 1/15 1/15
n
m
n m
x y a a
TV t
s n m
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = = =
+ · +
.
radganac 1.15 > - 1.7, amitom nulovani hipoTezis uaryofis
safuZveli ar gagvaCnia, anu ara gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli CavTvaloT,
rom meore populaciis saSualo ufro metia vidre pirvelis.
avagoT ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis. SevitanoT mon-
acemebi Sesabamis formulaSi:
' '
2, / 2 , 2, / 2 ,
(( ) 1/ 1/ ,( ) 1/ 1/ ) n n
n m n m n m n m m m
x y t s n m x y t s n m
o o + ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ + ÷ + + ,
(4.39 1.7 109 1/15 1/15, 4.39 1.7 109 1/15 1/15) ÷ · + + · + ,
( 2.09,10.87) ÷ .
ramdenadac ndobis intervali moicavs nuls, Cveni ara gvaqvs safuZ-
veli nulovani hipoTezis ukugdebis, rac eTanxmeba hipoTezis Semowmebis-
as miRebul Sedegs.

Hori damoukidebeli populaciis saSualos Soris gansxvavebis
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba III

populaciebi araa normaluri, magram orive SerCevis moculoba me-
tia an toli 30-ze ( 30 n > , 30 m> ) da dispersiebic ucnobia.
1
,...,
n
X X da
1
,...,
m
Y Y ori SerCevaa Sesabamisad c da n populaciebidan.
hipoTeza:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
1 2
' 2 ' 2
1 2
( ) ( )
(0,1)
/ /
as
n m X Y a a
Z N
S n S m
÷ ÷ ÷
= ~
+

(simbolo
as
~ niSnavs, rom sidide miaxloebiT normaluradaa ganawi-
lebuli;
' 2 2
1
1
1
: ( )
1
n
n
i
i
S X X
n
=
= ÷
÷
¯
,
'2 2
2
1
1
: ( )
1
m
m
i
i
S Y Y
m
=
= ÷
÷
¯
)
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
1 2
' 2 ' 2
1 2
( ) ( )
/ /
n
m
x y a a
z
s n s m
÷ ÷ ÷
=
+

alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ > z z
o
> ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ < z z
o
s ÷ ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
/ 2
z z
o
s ÷ an
/ 2
z z
o
>
152

(sadac z
o
aris (0,1) N -is zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli mni-
Svneloba C.V.).
P- mniSvneloba:
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 ( ), : 0;
( ), : 0;
2 [1 (| |)], : 0.
z H a a
P z H a a
z H a a
÷u ÷ > ¦
¦
= u ÷ <
´
¦
· ÷u ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

gadawyvetileba: Tu ze C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT
o mniSvnelovnebis doniT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara
gvaqvs.
(1 ) o ÷ saimedoobis ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis:
'2 '2 '2 '2
/ 2 1 2 1 2 / 2 1 2
( ) / / ( ) / / n n
m m
x y z s n s m a a x y z s n s m
o o
÷ ÷ + < ÷ < ÷ + + .
SeniSvna: im SemTxvevaSic, roca Cven vamowmebT hipoTezas imis Sesax-
eb, rom saSualoTa Soris gansxvaveba aris ara nuli, aramed raime konkr-
etuli ricxvi (
1 2
a a c ÷ = ), kriteriumis statistikad isev ganixileba stat-
istika:
1 2
' 2 ' 2
1 2
( ) ( )
(0,1)
/ /
as
n m X Y a a
Z N
S n S m
÷ ÷ ÷
= ~
+
.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. saerTaSoriso statistikuri asociaciis monacemebiT
londonSi sastumros oTaxis saSualo Rirebuleba aris $88.42, xolo par-
izSi ki $80.61. davuSvaT, rom TiToeul SemTxvevaSi aRebulia 50 sxvadasx-
va sastumros monacemi da Sesworebuli SerCeviTi standartuli gadaxre-
bia Sesabamisad $5.62 da $4.83. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara
arsebiTi gansxvaveba saSualoebs Soris? aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali
saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = . vipovoT kritikuli mniSvnelobebi:
/ 2 0.025
. . 1.96 CV z z
o
= ± = ± = ± .
gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
1 2
' 2 ' 2 2 2
1 2
( ) ( ) (88.42 80.61) 0
7.45
/ / 5.62 / 50 4.83 / 50
n
m
x y a a
z
s n s m
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
+ +
.
vinaidan, 7.45 > 1.96, amitom nulovani hipoTeza unda ukuvagdoT, anu
saSualoebs Soris gansxvaveba arsebiTia.
avagoT ndobis intervali. am SemTxvevaSi 95% (1 ) 100% o = ÷ · , saidanac
0.025 o = . Sesabamisad,
/ 2
z
o
. amitom ndobis intervali iqneba:
2 2
1 2
(88.42 80.61) 1.96 5.62 / 50 4.83 / 50 a a ÷ ÷ + < ÷ <
153

2 2
(88.42 80.61) 1.96 5.62 / 50 4.83 / 50 < ÷ + + ,
1 2
5.76 9.86 a a < ÷ < .
ramdenadac ndobis intervali ar moicavs nuls, Cveni unda miviRoT
gadawyvetileba nulovani hipoTezis ukugdebis Sesaxeb, rac eTanxmeba hip-
oTezis Semowmebisas miRebul Sedegs.
magaliTi 2. mkvlevars surs Seamowmos hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom
kolejSi sportuli Sejibrebebis saSualo ricxvi vaJebisaTvis ufro me-
tia vidre gogonebisaTvis. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara
sakmarisi safuZveli gaviziaroT es mosazreba, Tu SejibrebaTa raodenob-
ebis monacemebia (isargebleT P-mniSvnelovnebis meTodiT):
vaJebi gogonebi
6 11 11 8 15 6 8 11 13 8
6 14 8 12 18 7 5 13 14 6
6 9 5 6 9 6 5 5 7 6
6 9 18 7 6 10 7 6 5 5
15 6 11 5 5 16 10 7 8 5
9 9 5 5 8 7 5 5 6 5
8 9 6 11 6 9 18 13 7 10
7 7 5 10 7 11 4 6 8 7
10 7 10 8 11 14 12 5 8 5
9 5 11 5 8 7 8 5 7 10
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ s ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ > . TiToeuli monacemebisaTvis gamovTvaloT SerC-
eviTi saSualo da Sesworebuli SerCeviTi standartuli gadaxrebi:
50
50
1
1
8.6
50
i
i
x x
=
= =
¯
,
50
50
1
1
7.9
50
i
i
y y
=
= =
¯
;
50
' 2
1
1
1
: ( 8.6) 3.3
50 1
i
i
s x
=
= ÷ =
÷
¯
,
50
' 2
2
1
1
: ( 7.9) 3.3
50 1
i
i
s y
=
= ÷ =
÷
¯
.
Sesabamisad, kriteriumis mniSvneloba iqneba:
1 2
' 2 ' 2 2 2
1 2
( ) ( ) (8.6 7.9) 0
1.06
/ / 3.3 / 50 3.3 / 50
n
m
x y a a
z
s n s m
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
+ +
.
vipovoT P-mniSvnelovneba: P-mniSvnelovneba = 1 (1.06) 0.1446 ÷u = . vin-
aidan 0.1446 > 0.1, amitom ZiriTadi hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli ara
gvaqvs, anu ara gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli vamtkicoT, rom vaJebisaTvis
sportuli Sejibrebebis saSualo metia vidre gogonebisaTvis.

amocanebi
1. mkvlevars surs Seamowmos aris Tu ara amerikis mTavari mdinaree-
bis saSualo sigrZe igive rac evropis mTavari mdinareebis saSualo sig-
rZe. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli
uarvyoT es mosazreba, Tu cnobilia, rom SemTxveviT SerCeuli mTavari
mdinareebis sigrZeTa monacemebia:
154

amerika evropa
729 329 450 330 481 532 1776 1224
329 600 1243 525 877 447 824 634
850 532 710 300 565 675 724 357
560 332 2315 410 1122 634 326 580
800 1310 605 926 567 932 1124 405
310 375 545 470 454 820 505 496
434 360 865 1036 230 626 210 252
447 652 360 722 600 1575 2290
430 1979 259 425
2. Semowmebul iqna gafantuli skleroziT daavadebul adamianTa
ori 120 da 34 kaciani jgufis unarebi. pirvel jgufSi Sediodnen is adam-
ianebi visac uvlida sakuTari meuRle, xolo meoreSi ki is adamianebi vi-
sac uvlida ucxo adamiani. miRebuli Sedegebia: 120 2 x = ,
'
1
0.6 s = ;
34
1.7 y = ,
'
2
0.7 s = . 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba am ori
jgufis saSualoebs Soris?
3. mkvlevars surs gaarkvios aris Tu ara mweveli adamianis pulsi
ufro maRali vidre aramwevelis. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 100 mwevelisa da
100 aramwevelis gamokvlevis Sedegebia Sesabamisad: 100 90 x = ,
'
1
5 s = ;
100
88 y = ,
'
2
6 s = . SeuZlia Tu ara mkvlevars 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT daaskvn-
as, rom mweveli adamianis pulsi ufro maRalia vidre aramwevelis?
4. statistikosis mtkicebiT testis Sesrulebisas fsiqologiis
mimarTulebis studentebis saSualo qula ufro maRalia vidre
ekonomikis mimarTulebis studentebis. SemTxveviT SerCeuli TiToeuli
mimarTulebis 50 – 50 studentis testirebis Sedegad Sesabamisad aRmo-
Cnda, rom: 50 118 x = ,
'
1
15 s = ;
50
115 y = ,
'
2
15 s = . gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safu-
Zveli 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT davadasturoT es mtkicebuleba?
5. 0.02 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb,
rom saavadmyofoebis derefnebSi xmauris done (gazomili decibalebSi)
ufro maRalia, vidre oTaxebSi, Tu Sesabamisi SerCeviTi maxasiaTeblebia:
84 61.2 x = ,
'
1
7.9 s = ;
34
59.4 y = ,
'
2
7.9 s = .
6. uZravi qonebis agents surs Seadaros saxlebis gayidvis fasebi
qalaqis CrdiloeT da samxreT nawilebSi. kvlevis Sedegad miRebuli Ser-
CeviTi maxasiaTeblebia: 35 63255 x = ,
'
1
5602 s = ;
40
59102 y = ,
'
2
4731 s = . gvaqvs Tu
ara sakmarisi safuZveli 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT ukuvagdoT hipo-
Teza, rom saxlebis gayidvis fasebis saSualo erTi da igivea?
7. Semowmebul iqna qalTa ori jgufis codnis done. pirvel jgufSi
Sediodnen isini vinc institutis damTavrebidan ramodenime TveSi Tavi
daanebes samuSaos TavianTi profesiis mixedviT, xolo meore jgufSi ki
isini vinc darCnen samuSaoze TavianTi profesiis mixedviT. kvlevis Sede-
gad miRebuli SerCeviTi maxasiaTeblebia: 103 3.16 x = ,
'
1
0.52 s = ;
225
3.28 y = ,
155

'
2
0.46 s = . 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom
codnis done pirvel jgufSi ufro maRalia?
8. qvemoT moyvanilia dedaqalaqidan da regionebidan SemTxveviT Se-
rCeuli 30 – 30 abiturientis mier erovnul gamocdebze mogrovili qule-
bi. gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli vamtkicoT, rom dedaqalaqis abitu-
rientebis qulebis saSualo metia vidre regionebis?
regionebi dedaqalaqi
656 594 636 642 683 626 531 643 582 637
642 682 617 721 701 624 630 630 540 606
614 632 753 698 649 570 623 710 587 543
631 626 584 609 642 547 609 673 699 598
532 597 698 705 636 703 525 624 615 730
580 691 715 634 749 504 515 613 527 518
9. kolejis administratoris mtkicebiT kolejis wliuri danaxarji
vaJebis sportze metia vidre qalebis sportze. qvemoT moyvanili monacem-
ebis mixedviT, gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT davadasturoT administratoris mtkicebuleba?
vaJebi
13351 22220 11456 12244 8383 8796 7551 5254 6576 3377
10128 14029 10160 16175 623 5544 5811 7550 1664 7656
10652 15048 11480 10126 8811 7120 9119 5472 9505 8033
11015 12371 11267 12703 9732 8605 2063 6670 6797 7040
12919 13763 12403 5286 9571 9544 8725 9463 7723 9626
qalebi
10333 11248 14698 7654 7054 6869 933 9883 6959 6030
12745 16249 11597 9331 7300 7874 6989 5232 8478 7058
12016 10248 13371 5468 6407 6909 6502 6815 9959 9907
10082 11041 10353 7055 8324 9110 9277 5933 3991 5832
11324 10127 7435 8917 8411 7235 8903 6925 5922 6502
10. aris Tu ara gansxvaveba SemTxveviT SerCeuli kviris ganmavloba-
Si taqsebis ori kompaniis TiToeuli taqsis mier gavlili manZilebis sa-
Sualoebs Soris, Tu Sesabamisi SerCevebis maxasiaTeblebia: 35 837 x = ,
'
1
30 s = ;
40
753 y = ,
'
2
40 s = . CaTvaleT, rom populaciebi normaluria; mniSvne-
lovnebis doned aiReT 0.05 o = da isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
11. qalTa ori jgufs SesTavazes kiTxvari, raTa gaerkviaT sakuTari
Tavisadmi pativiscemis xarisxi. pirvel jgufSi Sediodnen isini vinc ins-
titutis damTavrebidan ramodenime TveSi Tavi daanebes samuSaos Tavian-
Ti profesiis mixedviT, xolo meore jgufSi ki isini vinc darCnen samuS-
aoze TavianTi profesiis mixedviT. kvlevis Sedegad miRebuli SerCeviTi
maxasiaTeblebia: 103 3.05 x = ,
'
1
0.75 s = ;
225
2.96 y = ,
'
2
0.75 s = . 0.05 o = mniSvnelov-
nebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom am jgufebSi TviTpativis-
cemis xarisxi sxvadasxvaa? isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
12. dekanats ainteresebs aris Tu ara adgilobriv da Camosul
studentTa asakis saSualoebs Soris gansxvaveba. qvemoT moyvanilia
156

TiToeuli jgufidan SemTxveviT SerCeuli 50 - 50 studentis asakTa
monacemebi. mniSvnelovnebis doned aiReT 0.05 o = da isargebleT P-
mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
adgilobrivi studentebi
22 25 18 19 26 22 19 25 20 30
19 19 21 23 27 26 26 18 19 19
23 24 18 29 21 21 26 27 18 19
23 21 28 26 19 22 18 22 26 18
32 18 20 18 24 19 23 22 18 20
Camosuli studentebi
18 23 26 19 29 20 20 20 18 30
26 23 21 25 19 23 22 35 21 18
18 22 19 19 19 22 28 22 19 36
23 25 25 21 18 27 20 24 20 18
19 27 19 35 24 20 32 20 19 22
13. ori jgufis testirebisas miRebuli qulebis mixedviT gamoTvli-
li Sesabamisi SerCeviTi maxasiaTeblebia: 36 83.6 x = ,
'
1
4.3 s = ;
36
79.2 y = ,
'
2
3.8 s = . aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.
14. ori sxvadasxva dasaxelebis sigaretis SemTxveviT SerCeul 30 –
30 RerSi nikotinis Semcvlelobis donis mixedviT gamoTvlili Sesabami-
si SerCeviTi maxasiaTeblebia: 30 28.6 x = ,
'
1
5.1 s = ;
30
32.9 y = ,
'
2
4.4 s = . aageT
99%-iani ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.
15. ori saxis elementis SemTxveviT SerCeuli partiebis Semowmebis
mixedviT gamoTvlili Sesabamisi SerCeviTi maxasiaTeblebia: 27 9.2 x = ,
'
1
0.3 s = ;
30
8.8 y = ,
'
2
0.1 s = . CaTvaleT, rom sidideebi normaluradaa ganawile-
buli da aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.


pasuxebi:
1.
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = ; . . 2.58 CV =± ; . . 0.856 TV z ÷ =÷ ; ki. 2.
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = ; . . 1.65 CV =± ; . . 2.27 TV z ÷ = ; ara. 3.
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > ;
. . 1.65 CV =+ ; . . 2.56 TV z ÷ = ; ki. 4.
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > ; . . 2.33 CV =+ ; . . 1 TV z ÷ = ;
ara. 5.
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > ; . . 2.05 CV =+ ; . . 1.12 TV z ÷ = ;
0
H . 6.
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = ; . . 2.58 CV =± ; . . 3.44 TV z ÷ = ; ki. 7.
0 1 2
: H a a > ,
1 1 2
: H a a < ; . . 1.65 CV =÷ ;
. . 2.01 TV z ÷ = ÷ ; ara. 8.
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > ; . . 1.65 CV =+ ; . . 3.3 TV z ÷ = ; ara. 9.
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > ; . . 2.33 CV =+ ; . . 1.09 TV z ÷ = ; ara. 10.
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = ;
. . 10.36 TV z ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba < 0.002 < o ; ki. 11.
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = ;
. . 1.01 TV z ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.3124; ara. 12.
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = ;
. . 0.76 TV z ÷ =÷ ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.4472;
0
H . 13.
1 2
2.8 6 a a < ÷ < . 14.
1 2
7.3 1.3 a a ÷ < ÷ < ÷ . 15.
1 2
0.3 0.5 a a < ÷ < .
157

Tavi X
oramokrefiani amocanebi populaciaTa saSualoebisaTvis
(mcire SerCevebi). satertvaitis meTodi

Hori damoukidebeli populaciis saSualos Soris gansxvavebis
hipoTezaTa Semowmeba (mcire SerCevebi) IV

1
,...,
n
X X da
1
,...,
m
Y Y ori SerCevaa damoukidebeli c da n populacie-
bidan, romelTa dispersiebi gansxvavebulia; erT-erTi an orive SerCevis
moculoba naklebia 30-ze.
hipoTeza:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
1 2
' 2 ' 2
1 2
( ) ( )
( )
/ /
n m X Y a a
T T k
S n S m
÷ ÷ ÷
= ~
+
,
sadac Tavisuflebis xarisxi min( 1, 1) k n m = ÷ ÷ .
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
1 2
' 2 ' 2
1 2
( ) ( )
/ /
n
m
x y a a
t
s n s m
÷ ÷ ÷
=
+

alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ >
, k
t t
o
> ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ <
, k
t t
o
s÷ ,
1 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
, / 2 k
t t
o
s÷ an
, / 2 k
t t
o
>
(sadac
, k
t
o
aris Tavisuflebis k xarisxis mqone stiudentis ganawilebis
zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli mniSvneloba C.V.).

P- mniSvneloba:
0 1 1 2
0 1 1 2
0 1 1 2
{ | }, : 0;
{ | }, : 0;
{| | | || }, : 0.
P T t H H a a
P P T t H H a a
P T t H H a a
> ÷ > ¦
¦
= < ÷ <
´
¦
> ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu
=
=
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 ( ), : 0;
( ), : 0;
2 [1 (| |)], : 0.
T
T
T
F t H a a
F t H a a
F t H a a
÷ ÷ > ¦
¦
÷ <
´
¦
· ÷ ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

gadawyvetileba: Tu t e C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT
o mniSvnelovnebis doniT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara
gvaqvs.
(1 ) o ÷ saimedoobis ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis:
) / / , / / (
2 '
2
2 '
1 2 / .
2 '
2
2 '
1 2 / .
m s n s t y x m s n s t y x
k m
n
k m
n + + ÷ + · ÷ ÷
o o
.
158

SeniSvna: saSualoTa Sesaxeb tolobis Sesamowmeblad T kriterium-
is gamoyenebamde winaswar unda gamoviyenoT F kriteriumi, raTa gavarkvi-
oT aris Tu ara dispersiebi toli. am ukanasknelis gamosayeneblad ki au-
cilebelia populaciebi iyos normaluri an daaxloebiT normaluri.

satertvaitis (Satterthwaite) meTodi
1
,...,
n
X X da
1
,...,
m
Y Y ori SerCevaa damoukidebeli c da n populacie-
bidan, romelTa dispersiebi gansxvavebulia.
hipoTeza:
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
m S n S
a a Y X
T
m
n
/ /
) ( ) (
2 '
2
2 '
1
2 1
+
÷ ÷ ÷
= ,
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
1 2
' 2 ' 2
1 2
( ) ( )
/ /
n
m
x y a a
t
s n s m
÷ ÷ ÷
=
+
.
Tu mocemuli o mniSvnelovnebis donisaTvis T statistikis dakvir-
vebuli mniSvneloba t akmayofilebs Semdeg utolobas
2 / ]. [ 2 / ]. [ o o c c
t t t s s ÷ ,
sadac [ ] c aRniSnavs c ricxvis mTel nawils, xolo c gamoiTvleba
Semdgi wesiT
) 1 /( ) / ( ) 1 /( ) / (
) / / (
2 2 '
2
2 2 '
1
2 2 '
2
2 '
1
÷ + ÷
+
=
m m s n n s
m s n s
c ,
maSin o mniSvnelovnebis doniT
0 1 2
: 0 H a a ÷ = hipoTezis uaryofis safuZve-
li ara gvaqvs, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, mas uarvyofT.
1 o ÷ saimedoobis mqone ndobis intervals aqvs Semdegi saxe:
) / / , / / (
2 '
2
2 '
1 2 / ]. [
2 '
2
2 '
1 2 / ]. [
m s n s t y x m s n s t y x
c m
n
c m
n + + ÷ + · ÷ ÷
o o
.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. fermeruli meurneobebis saSualo farTobi indianas
StatSi Seadgens 191 akrs (1 akri = 0.4 ha), xolo aiovas StatSi ki 199
akrs. davuSvaT, rom es monacemebi miRebulia Sesabamisad 8-isa da 10-is
toli SerCevebidan da Sesabamisi Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxrebia
38 akri da 12 akri. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara davas-
kvnaT, rom fermeruli meurneobebis saSualo farTobi am or StatSi gan-
sxvavebulia? igulisxmeba, rom populaciebi normaluria. aageT 95%-iani
ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.
amoxsna. winaswar SevamowmoT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb aris Tu ara po-
pulaciaTa dispersiebi toli. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli
hipoTezebi:
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = . am SemTxvevaSi
2 '2 '2 2
1 2
38 12 s s = > = . Sesaba-
misad, Tavisuflebis xarisxebia: 8 – 1 = 7 da 10 – 1 = 9. amitom kritikuli
159

mniSvneloba iqneba:
, , / 2 7,9,0.025
. . 4.2
k l
CV F F
o
= = = . gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mni-
Svneloba:
' 2 ' 2 2 2
1 2
. . / 38 /12 10.03 TV f s s ÷ = = = . radganac 10.03 > 4.2, amitom
nulovani hipoTeza unda ukuvagdoT, anu populaciaTa dispersiebi
gansxvavebulia. Sesabamisad, saSualoTa Sesaxeb tolobis Sesamowmeblad
unda visargebloT T kriteriumiT.
CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = . radganac kriteriumi ormxrivia da dispersiebi gansxvavebulia,
amitom Tavisuflebis xarisxi tolia min(8 1,10 1) 7 k = ÷ ÷ = . Sesabamisad, kri-
tikuli mniSvnelobebia
, / 2 7,0.025
. . 2.365
k
CV t t
o
=± =± =± . gamovTvaloT kriteriu-
mis mniSvneloba:
1 2
' 2 ' 2 2 2
1 2
( ) ( ) (191 100) 0
. . 0.57
/ / 38 / 8 12 /10
n
m
x y a a
TV t
s n s m
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = = = ÷
+ +
.
rogorc vxedavT kriteriumis mniSvneloba ar Sedis kritikul are-
Si, amitom nulovan hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, anu Cven
ara gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli raTa davaskvnaT, rom saSualoebi gansxva-
vebulia.
avagoT ndobis intervali. amisaTvis saWiro sidideebi SevitanoT
Sesabamis formulaSi. gvaqvs:
2 2 2 2
1 2
38 12 38 12
(191 199) 2.365 (191 199) 2.365
8 10 8 10
a a ÷ ÷ · + < ÷ < ÷ + · + ,
1 2
41.02 25.02 a a ÷ < ÷ < .
magaliTi 2. mkvlevars surs Seamowmos aris Tu ara kerZo
klinikaSi eqimis wliuri Semosavali ufro maRali vidre saxelmwifo
klinikaSi. man SemTxveviT SearCia TiToeuli kategoriis 10 da 8 eqimi da
Sesabamisi SerCeviTi maxasiaTeblebi aRmoCnda: 10 26800 x = ,
'
1
600 s = ;
8
25400 y = ,
'
2
450 s = . 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara davas-
kvnaT, rom kerZo klinikaSi Semosavali ufro maRalia vidre
saxelmwifoSi? igulisxmeT, rom populaciebi daaxloebiT normaluria.
isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
amoxsna. winaswar gavarkvioT aris Tu ara populaciaTa dispersiebi
toli. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = . gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
' 2 ' 2 2 2
1 2
. . / 600 / 450 1.78 TV f s s ÷ = = = .
vipovoT P-mniSvneloba. 10 – 1 = 9 da 8 – 1 = 7 Tavisuflebis xaris-
xis mixedviT fiSeris ganawilebis cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom P-mniSvne-
loba > 0.2. Sesabamisad, P-mniSvneloba > 0.01 o = , amitom nulovani hipoT-
ezis uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, anu populaciaTa dispersiebi to-
lia.
160

gadavideT saSualoebis Sesaxeb hipoTezaTa Semowmebaze. Camovayali-
boT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > . gamovTv-
aloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
1 2
' 2 ' 2
1 2
( ) ( )
. .
( 1) ( 1) 1 1
2
n
m
x y a a
TV t
n s m s
n m n m
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = =
÷ + ÷
+
+ ÷

2 2
(26800 25400) 0
5.47
(10 1) 600 (8 1) 450 1 1
10 8 2 10 8
÷ ÷
= =
÷ · + ÷ ·
· +
+ ÷
.
vipovoT P-mniSvneloba. Tavisuflebis 10 + 8 – 2 = 16 xarisxis mixe-
dviT stiudentis ganawilebis cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom P-mniSvneloba
naklebia 0.005-ze. Sesabamisad, P-mniSvneloba < 0.01 o = . amitom Cven ukuva-
gdebT nulovan hipoTezas, anu Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli
davaskvnaT, rom kerZo klinikaSi eqimis saSualo Semosavali ufro didia
vidre saxelmwifo klinikaSi.
magaliTi 3. davuSvaT, rom Seiswavleba qolesterinis Semcveloba
gulis daavadebiT gardacvalebuli adamianebis memkvidreebSi. davuSvaT,
rom 100 aseT bavSvze dakvirvebam mogvca qolesterinis saSualo done
207.3 mg/dl, xolo standartuli gadaxraa 35.6 mg/dl. garda amisa, daakvi-
rdnen qolesterinis doneebs im bavSvebSi, romelTa mSoblebic cocxle-
bia da ara aqvT gulis daavadeba. aseTnairad SerCeuli 74 bavSvis monac-
emebis mixedviT qolesterinis saSualo done aRmoCnda 193.4 mg/dl, xolo
standartuli gadaxra –17.3 mg/dl. Cveni amocanaa o = 0.05 mniSvnelovnebis
donisaTvis SevamowmoT hipoTeza populaciebis saSualoebis tolobis Se-
saxeb.
amoxsna. davuSvaT, rom populaciebi ganawilebulia normalurad,
magram maTi parametrebi ucnobia. es amocana gavyoT or etapad: pirvel
etapze SevamowmoT hipoTeza dispersiebis tolobis Sesaxeb. Tu
hipoTezas dispersiebis tolobis Sesaxeb ver uarvyofT, Semdeg
SevamowmoT hipoTeza populaciebis saSualoebis tolobis Sesaxeb toli
dispersiebis SemTxvevaSi. im SemTxvevaSi Tu ar dadasturda dispersiaTa
tolobis hipoTeza, saSualoTa tolobis hipoTeza SevamowmoT
satertvaitis meTodiT.
ganvixiloT SerCeviT dispersiaTa Sefardeba da SevadaroT is fiSe-
ris ganawilebis zeda kritikuli wertilis mniSvnelobas
99,73,0.025
F .
100,74
F
statistikis dakvirvebuli mniSvneloba tolia
2 2
100,74
35.6 /17.3 4.23 f = = .
vinaidan cxrilebSi ar aris fiSeris ganawilebis zeda kritikuli
wertilis mniSvneloba --
99,73,0.025
F , amitom gamovTvaloT p -mniSvneloba,
romelic alternativis ormxrivobis gamo tolia
100.74
2 { 4.23} 0.0002 p P F = · > s ,
161

rac imis maCvenebelia, rom Sedegi statistikurad mniSvnelovania da maSa-
sadame, hipoTeza dispersiaTa tolobis Sesaxeb unda uarvyoT.
gadavideT meore etapze. radgan davadgineT, rom populaciaTa disp-
ersiebi gansxvavebulia, viyenebT satertvaitis meTods saSualoTa tolo-
bis Sesaxeb hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad. gamovTvaloT statistikis
dakvirvebuli mniSvneloba, gvaqvs:
4 . 3
089 . 4
9 . 13
74 / 3 . 17 100 / 6 . 35
4 . 193 3 . 207
2 2
74 , 100
= =
+
÷
= t .
axla gamovTvaloT Tavisuflebis xarisxis miaxloebiTi mniSvnelo-
ba c:
4 . 151
8465 . 1
718 . 16
73 / ) 74 / 3 . 17 ( 99 / ) 100 / 6 . 35 (
) 74 / 3 . 17 100 / 6 . 35 (
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
= =
+
+
= c ,
da maSasadame, [ ] 151 c = .
vinaidan
100,74 120,0.025 151,0.025
3.4 1.98 t t t = > = > ,

amitom 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT populaciaTa saSualoebis tolobis hipoTezas uarvyofT.


amocanebi
qvemoTmoyvanil amocanebSi yvela sidide normaluria an daaxloeb-
iT normaluri
1. uZravi qonebis agentis mtkicebiT sagadasaxado inspeqtoris
mier Sefasebuli saxlis Rirebuleba Seesabameba saxlis gayidvis fass.
SemTxveviT SerCeuli 10 - 10 saxlisaTvis sagadasaxado inspeqtoris
Sefasebisa da gayidvis fasis mixedviT gamoTvlili Sesabamisi SerCeviTi
maxasiaTeblebi aRmoCnda: 10 83256 x = ,
'
1
3256 s = ;
10
88354 y = ,
'
2
2341 s = . 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara saSualoebs Soris gansxvaveba
mniSvnelovani? aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali saSualoTa
sxvaobisaTvis.
2. mkvlevaris azriT mamrobiTi sqesis eqimis Semosavali metia
vidre mdedrobiTis. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 16 mamrobiTi sqesis eqimisa da
20 mdedrobiTi sqesis eqimis Semosavlebis mixedviT gamoTvlili
SerCeviTi maxasiaTeblebia: 16 23800 x = ,
'
1
300 s = ;
18
23750 y = ,
'
2
250 s = . 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara davadasturoT mkvlevaris
mosazreba?
3. programirebis pedagogis azriT maTematikis mimarTulebis stud-
ents kompiuteruli programis dawera da Sesworeba SeuZlia ufro swra-
fad vidre biznesis mimarTulebis students. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 12 maT-
ematikis (Sesabamisad, 18 biznesis) mimarTulebis studentis mier konkret-
uli programis daweraze da Sesworebaze daxarjuli drois saSualo aR-
moCnda 36 wuTi (Sesabamisad, 39 wuTi), xolo Sesabamisi Sesworebuli sta-
ndartuli gadaxrebia: 4 wuTi da 9 wuTi. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
SeiZleba Tu ara davadasturoT pedagogis mosazreba?
162

4. mkvlevaris SefasebiT studenti gogonebi saswavlo wlis ganmav-
lobaSi ufro met dReebs acdenen vidre vaJebi. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 16
studenti gogonas (Sesabamisad, 22 studenti vaJis) mier wlis ganmavloba-
Si gacdenili dReebis saSualom Seadgina 3.9 dRe (Sesabamisad, 3.6 dRe),
xolo Sesabamisi Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxrebia: 0.6 dRe da 0.8
dRe. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara daveTanxmoT mkvle-
varis Sefasebas?
5. klinikis administrators ainteresebs aris Tu ara binaze eqimis
yoveldRiuri gamoZaxebebis saSualo ufro meti vidre klinikaSi mosuli
pacientebis saSualo. qvemoTmoyvanili SerCevebis monacemebis mixedviT,
0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeiZleba Tu ara davadasturoT, rom eqim-
is binaze gamoZaxebaTa saSualo metia klinikaSi mosul pacientTa saSua-
loze?
binaze gamoZaxeba klinikaSi mosvla
------------------------------------- --------------------------------------
25 42 57 5 28 37
21 34 44 16 16 48
6. kriminalists surs Seamowmos hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom ugzouk-
vlod dakargul arasrulwlovan adaminTa saSualo metia vidre srulw-
lovanTa saSualo. qvemoTmoyvanili ukanaskneli 5 wlis monacemebis mixe-
dviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli
davadasturoT kriminalistis hipoTeza?
arasrulwlovanebi 65513 65934 64213 61954 59167
srulwlovanebi 31364 34478 36937 35946 38209
7. finansuri deklaraciis mimRebi saxelmwifo firma (Sesabamisad,
kerZo firma) saSualod 10 adamianis momsaxurebas andomebs 21 wuTs (Sesa-
bamisad, 14 adamianis momsaxurebas andomebs 27 wuTs), xolo Sesworebuli
SerCeviTi standartuli gadaxraa 5.6 wuTi (Sesabamisad, 4.3 wuTi). 0.02 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba firmebis momsaxurebis
saSualo droebs Soris? aageT 98%-iani ndobis intervali saSualoTa
sxvaobisaTvis.
8. A tipis 7 sarecxi manqanis saSualo fasia 815 lari, xolo B ti-
pis 9 sarecxi manqanis saSualo fasia 845 lari. Sesworebuli SerCeviTi
standartuli gadaxrebi ki Sesabamisad aris 19 lari da 9 lari. 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom B tipis sarecxi
manqana ufro Zviria?
9. 12 eqimis (Sesabamisad, 27 meddis) dazRvevis saSualo Tviuri pre-
mia Seadgens 56 lars (Sesabamisad, 63 lars), xolo Sesworebuli SerCevi-
Ti standartuli gadaxra eqimisa da meddisaTvis Sesabamisad tolia 3
larisa da 5.75 laris. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara
davaskvnaT, rom meddis sadazRvevo premia ufro metia vidre eqimis? isar-
gebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
10. jandacvis saministros monacemebiT dazRveuli (Sesabamisad,
dauzRvevuli) mSobiare qalebi samSobiaroSi rCebian saSualod 2.3 dRis
(Sesabamisad, 1.9 dRis) ganmavlobaSi. 16 - 16 mSobiare qalisagan Sedgenili
163

ori jgufis samSobiaroSi gatarebuli dReebis Sesworebuli standartu-
li gadaxra qalebis orive kategoriisaTvis Seadgens 0.6 dRes. 0.01 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza saSualoTa tolobis Sesaxeb.
aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis. isargebleT
P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
11. qvemoT moyvanilia dro, romelic sWirdeba 6 – 6 TeTr da yavisf-
er Tagvs, raTa iswavlos martiv labirinTSi garbena. 0.05 o = mniSvnelov-
nebis doniT gaarkvieT iwvevs Tu ara Tagvis feri labirinTSi garbenis
Sesaswavlad saWiro droSi gansxvavebas? aageT 95%-iani ndobis interva-
li saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.
TeTri Tagvi 18 24 20 13 15 12
yavisferi Tagvi 25 16 19 14 16 10




pasuxebi:
1. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 4.03 CV = ; 1.93 f = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = ;
18,0.025
. . 2.101 CV t = =± ; 4.2 t = ÷ ; ki --
1
H ; III).
1 2
7762 2434 a a ÷ < ÷ < ÷ . 2. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 2.62 CV = ; 1.44 f = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > ;
34,0.05
. . 1.65 CV t = = ; 0.55 t = ; ara --
0
H . 3. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 2.72 CV = ;
5.06 f = ;
1
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a > ,
1 1 2
: H a a < ;
11,0.1
. . 1.363 CV t = =÷ ; 1.24 t =÷ ; ara --
0
H . 4.
I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 3.88 CV = ; 1.78 f = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > ;
36,0.01
. . 2.33 CV t = = ; 1.26 t = ; ara --
0
H . 5. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 14.94 CV = ;
1.41 f = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > ;
10,0.01
. . 2.764 CV t = = ; 1.45 t = ; ara --
0
H . 6.
I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 6.39 CV = ; 1.139 f = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a s ,
1 1 2
: H a a > ;
8,0.1
. . 1.397 CV t = = ; 16.252 t = ; ki --
1
H . 7. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 4.19 CV = ;
1.7 f = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = ;
22,0.01
. . 2.508 CV t = =± ; 2.97 t =÷ ; ki --
1
H ; III).
1 2
11.1 0.93 a a ÷ < ÷ < ÷ . 8. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 4.65 CV = ; 4.46 f = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a > ,
1 1 2
: H a a < ;
14,0.05
. . 1.761 CV t = =÷ ; 4.2 t = ÷ ; ki --
1
H . 9. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; 3.67 f = ; 0.02 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.05;
1
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a > ,
1 1 2
: H a a < ; . . 11 d f = ; 4.98 t =÷ ; P-mniSvneloba < 0.005 < o ; ki --
1
H . 10. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; 1 f = ; P-mniSvneloba > 0.2 > 0.01 o = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = ; . . 30 d f = ; 1.89 t = ; 0.05 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.1;
0
H ; III).
1 2
0.15 0.95 a a ÷ < ÷ < . 11. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 7.15 CV = ; 1.23 f = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H a a = ,
1 1 2
: H a a = ;
10,0.025
. . 2.228 CV t = =± ; 0.119 t = ; ara --
0
H ; III).
1 2
5.9 6.5 a a ÷ < ÷ < .
164

Tavi XI
oramokrefiani amocanebi populaciaTa dispersiebisaTvis

hipoTezaTa Semowmeba ori damoukidebeli normaluri
populaciis dispersiebis Sesaxeb

2
1 1
( , ) N a c o ~ da
2
2 2
( , ) N a n o ~ damoukidebelia; orive populaciis para-
metrebi ucnobia.
kriteriumi:
ormxrivi marjvena calmxrivi marcxena calmxrivi

2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o =
2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o =
2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o =

2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o =
2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o >
2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o <

hipoTeza:
2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
' 2 2
1 1
' 2 2
2 2
/
( 1, 1)
/
S
F F n m
S
o
o
= ~ ÷ ÷ -- fiSeris
ganawileba 1 n÷ da 1 m÷ Tavisuflebis xarisxebiT (sadac n da m
SerCevebis moculobebia)
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
' 2
1
' 2
2
s
f
s
=
alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
2 2
1 1 2
: / 1 H o o >
1, 1, n m
f F
o ÷ ÷
> ,
2 2
1 1 2
: / 1 H o o <
o ÷ ÷ ÷
s s
1 , 1 , 1
0
m n
F f ,
2 2
1 1 2
: / 1 H o o =
2 / 1 , 1 , 1
0
o ÷ ÷ ÷
s s
m n
F f an
1, 1, / 2 n m
f F
o ÷ ÷
>
(sadac
, , k l
F
o
aris k da l Tavisuflebis xarisxis mqone fiSeris ganawile-
bis zeda o -kritikuli wertilia anu kritikuli mniSvneloba C.V.).

(1 ) o ÷ saimedoobis ndobis intervali dispersiaTa
2 2
1 2
/ o o
fardobisaTvis
' 2 ' 2 2 2 ' 2 ' 2
1, 1,1 / 2 2 1 1 2 1, 1, / 2 2 1
/ / /
n m n m
F s s F s s
o o
o o
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
· < < · .

dispersiaTa tolobis Sesaxeb hipoTezaTa Semowmebis
gamartivebuli procedura:
hipoTeza:
2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistikis mniSvneloba T.V.:
' 2 ' 2
1 2
' 2 ' 2
1 2
max{ , }
min{ , }
s s
f
s s
=
alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
165

2 2
1 1 2
: / 1 H o o >
, , k l
f F
o
> ,
2 2
1 1 2
: / 1 H o o =
, , / 2 k l
f F
o
>
(sadac
, , k l
F
o
aris k da l Tavisuflebis xarisxis mqone fiSeris ganawile-
bis zeda o -kritikuli wertilia anu kritikuli mniSvneloba C.V.;
1 k n = ÷ da 1 l m = ÷ , Tu
'2 '2
1 2
s s > , da piriqiT, 1 k m = ÷ da 1 l n = ÷ , Tu
'2 '2
1 2
s s < ).
(1 ) o ÷ saimedoobis ndobis intervali dispersiaTa
2 2
1 2
/ o o
fardobisaTvis
2 / , ,
2
2
2
1 2 / , , 2 / 1 , .
/ ) / (
o o o
o o
l k l k k l
F f F f F f · < < = ·
÷
.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. mkvlevars ainteresebs aris Tu ara gansxvaveba mweveli
da aramweveli adamianebis pulsis ricxvTa dispersiebs Soris. SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 26 mwevelisagan da 18 aramwevelisagan Semdgari ori SerCevis
Sesabamisi Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersiebia:
'2
1
36 s = ,
'2
2
10 s = . 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli davaskvnaT,
rom dispersiebi gansxvavebulia? CaTvaleT, rom sidide ganawilebulia
normalurad.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = . visargebloT gamartivebuli proceduriT. vinaidan
kriteriumi ormxrivia,
'2 '2
1 2
s s > da Tavisuflebis xarisxebia 26 – 1 = 25 , 18
– 1 =17, amitom kritikuli mniSvneloba iqneba:
, , / 2 25,17,0.025
. . 2.56
k l
CV F F
o
= = = .
gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
'2 '2
1 2
. . / 36/10 3.6 TV s s = = = . radganac
3.6 > 2.56, amitom ZiriTadi hipoTeza unda ukuvagdoT, anu Cven gvaqvs sakm-
arisi safuZveli davaskvnaT, rom dispersiebi gansxvavebulia.
magaliTi 2. sahaero gadazidvebis centris mtkicebiT amerikis aero-
portebSi mgzavrTa ricxis dispersia ufro metia vidre evropis aeropor-
tebSi mgzavrTa ricxis dispersia. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs
Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli davadasturoT es mosazreba? qvemoT moyvani-
lia SemTxveviT SerCeul aeroportebSi mgzavrebis ricxvi (gazomili mi-
lionebSi). CaTvaleT, rom sidide ganawilebulia normalurad. isargebl-
eT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
amerikis aeroportebi evropis aeroportebi
------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------------
36.8 73.5 60.7 51.2
72.4 61.2 42.7 38.6
60.5 40.1
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o s ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o > . vipovoT TiToeuli jgufis Sesworebuli SerCeviTi
dispersia:
'2
1
246.38 s = ,
'2
2
95.87 s = . amitom kriteriumis mniSvneloba iqneba:
166

'2 '2
1 2
. . / 246.38/ 95.87 2.57 TV s s = = = . vinaidan,
'2 '2
1 2
s s > , amitom 6 1 5 k = ÷ = da
4 1 3 l = ÷ = . fiSeris ganawilebis cxrilidan amoviRoT Semdegi fragmenti:

o 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005
5,3,
F
o

5.31 9.01 14.88 28.24 45.39

vinaidan 2.57 < 5.31, amitom P-mniSvneloba > 0.1. Sesabamisad, P-mniSv-
neloba > 0.01 o = , amitom ZiriTadi hipoTeza ar unda ukuvagdoT, anu
0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT Cven ara gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli davas-
kvnaT, rom amerikis aeroportebSi mgzavrTa ricxis dispersia ufro metia
vidre evropis aeroportebSi mgzavrTa ricxis dispersia.
magaliTi 3. ori damoukidebeli normaluri populaciidan aRebulia
15-is toli moculobis SerCevebi, romelTaTvisac: 132.45 n x = ,
'2
1
123 s = ;
128.06
m
y = ,
'2
2
95 s = . SeamowmeT hipoTeza dispersiaTa tolobis Sesaxeb
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT da aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali disp-
ersiaTa fardobisaTvis.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: / 1 H o o > . visargebloT gamartivebuli proceduriT.
vinaidan,
'2 '2
1 2
s s > , amitom 1 14 k n = ÷ = da 1 14 l m = ÷ = . gamovTvaloT kriteriu-
mis mniSvneloba: 123/ 95 1.3 f = ~ . radganac saqme gvaqvs marjvena calmxriv
alternativasTan, amitom kritikuli area
, , 14,14,0.05
[ , ) [ , ) [2.48, )
k l
F F
o
+· = +· = +· .
ramdenadac 1.3 < 2.48, amdenad nulovani hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli
ara gvaqvs, anu 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom
populaciaTa dispersiebi tolia.
avagoT ndobis intervali. Tanafardobidan (1 ) 100% 95% o ÷ · = gamomd-
inare 0.05 o = , / 2 0.025 o = . amitom saZiebeli intervali iqneba:
14,14,0.025 14,14,0.025
( / , ) f F f F · ,
(1.3/ 2.9,1.3 2.9) · anu (0.45,3.77) .
magaliTi 4. Sesadarebelia ori dazgis muSaobis sizuste. pirvel
dazgaze Catarebulia 25 dakvirveba, xolo meoreze ki 20.
'2
1
3.1 s = ,
'2
2
1.4 s = .
SegviZlia Tu ara 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT davaskvnaT, rom meore
dazga ufro zustia, vidre pirveli (
2 2
1 2
o o > )? aageT 90%-iani ndobis inte-
rvali
2 2
1 2
/ o o fardobisaTvis.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
2 2
0 1 2
: / 1 H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: / 1 H o o > . gvaqvs: 25 n = , 20 m= ;
'2 '2
1 2
s s > , 1 24 k n = ÷ = da
1 19 l m = ÷ = ; kritikuli mniSvneloba
, , 24,19,0.05
. . 2.04
k l
CV F F
o
= = = ; kritikuli
are
24,19,0.05
. . [ , ) [2.04, ) CR F = +· = +· ; kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
. . 3.1/1.4 2.214 TV f = = = .
167

vinaidan . . . . TV CR e , amitom nulovan hipoTezas ukuvaggdebT da
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT vaskvniT, rom meore dazga ufro zustia,
vidre pirveli.
90%-iani ndobis intervali
2 2
1 2
/ o o fardobisaTvis iqneba:
24,19,0.05 24,19,0.05
( / , ) f F f F · = (1.08,4.51).

amocanebi

1. isargebleT fiSeris ganawilebis cxrilebiT da ipoveT kritiku-
li mniSvnelobebi Tu mocemulia ori damoukidebeli normaluri SerCevis
Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersiebi: a).
'2
1
128 s = , 23 n = ;
'2
2
162 s = , 16 m= ;
kriteriumi ormxrivia da 0.01 o = . b).
'2
1
37 s = , 14 n = ;
'2
2
89 s = , 25 m= ; kri-
teriumi marjvena calmxrivia da 0.01 o = . g).
'2
1
232 s = , 30 n = ;
'2
2
387 s = ,
46 m= ; kriteriumi ormxrivia da 0.05 o = . d).
'2
1
164 s = , 21 n = ;
'2
2
53 s = , 17 m= ;
kriteriumi ormxrivia da 0.1 o = . e).
'2
1
92.8 s = , 11 n = ;
'2
2
43.6 s = , 11 m= ; kri-
teriumi marjvena calmxrivia da 0.05 o = .
2. ipoveT P-mniSvneloba F kriteriumis TiToeuli mniSvnelobisaT-
vis: a). 2.97, 9, 14 F n m = = = , kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia; b). 3.32 F = ,
6 n = , 12 m= , kriteriumi ormxrivia; g). 2.28, 12, 20 F n m = = = , kriteriumi ma-
rjvena calmxrivia; d). 3.51, 12, 21 F n m = = = , kriteriumi marjvena calmxri-
via; e). 4.07, 6, 10 F n m = = = , kriteriumi ormxrivia; v). 1.65, 19, 28 F n m = = = ,
kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia; z). 1.77, 28, 28 F n m = = = , kriteriumi marj-
vena calmxrivia; T). 7.29, 5, 8 F n m = = = , kriteriumi ormxrivia.
qvemoT moyvanil amocanebSi igulisxmeba, rom yvela sidide ganawi-
lebulia normalurad:
3. pedagogis mtkicebiT, im SemTxvevaSi, roca leqciebis kursi Serw-
ymulia kompiuteruli damuSavebis komponentTan, studentTa sagamocdo
qulebis dispersia ufro didia, vidre kompiuteruli damuSavebis gareSe.
SemTxveviT SeirCa studentTa ori jgufi. sagamocdo qulebis Sesworebu-
li SerCeviTi dispersia studentebisaTvis, romelTa saleqcio kursi Ser-
wymuli iyo kompiuteruli damuSavebis komponentTan aRmoCnda 103, xolo
meore jgufisaTvis ki 73. TiToeuli SerCeva Sedgeba 20 – 20 studentisag-
an. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara davadasturoT pedag-
ogis mtkicebuleba?
4. momxmarebelTa interesebis damcvelis mtkicebiT A da B kompani-
ebis mier warmoebuli elementebis muSaobis xangrZlivobis dispersiebi
ar gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan. SemTxveviT SerCeuli iqna TiToeuli tip-
is 10 -10 elementi da aRmoCnda, rom Sesabamisad
'2
24
A
s = da
'2
40
B
s = . 0.1 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara davadasturoT momxmarebelTa
interesebis damcvelis mtkicebuleba?
168

5. sagadasaxado inspeqtoris mtkicebiT or A da B qalaqSi dabegv-
risagan Tavisufali Semosavlebis dispersiebi gansxvavebulia. qvemoT mo-
yvanilia am qalaqebSi dabegvrisagan Tavisufali Semosavlebis SerCevebi
(Semosavlebi gazomilia milion dolarebSi). 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis do-
niT SeiZleba Tu ara davadasturoT inspeqtoris mtkicebuleba?
qalaqi A qalaqi B
------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------
113 25 44 31 82 295 12 20
22 23 11 19 11 50 68 16
14 23 19 5 5 12 81 4
8 30 7 2 15 9 2 5
6. saavadmyofos SemTxveviT SerCeul 20 derefanSi xmauris donis
Sesworebuli SerCeviTi standartuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 4.1 decibali, xo-
lo SemTxveviT SerCeul 24 oTaxSi xmauris donis Sesworebuli SerCevi-
Ti standartuli gadaxra ki 7.5 decibali. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
SeiZleba Tu ara imis mtkiceba, rom standartuli gadaxrebi gansxvavebu-
lia?
7. ginekologis mtkicebiT axalSobili vaJebis simaRleTa cvalebad-
oba gansxvavdeba axalSobili gogonebis simaRleTa cvalebadobisagan. Se-
mTxveviT SerCeuli 15 axalSobili vaJis simaRleTa Sesworebuli standa-
rtuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 1.3 diumi (1 diumi = 2.54 sm), xolo SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 15 axalSobili gogonasaTvis ki 0.9 diumi. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovneb-
is doniT SeiZleba Tu ara davadasturoT ginekologis mtkicebuleba?
8. mkvlevars ainteresebs aris Tu ara gansxvaveba dedaqalaqSi Semo-
suli avtomobilebisa da satranzito avtomobilebis ricxvebis cvalebad-
obas Soris. qvemoT moyvanili SerCevebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovneb-
is doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom dispersiebi gansxvavebulia?
ara satranzito satranzito
------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------
3694560 3469431 2855109 2774251 3453745 499043
3768285 4420553 719934 1068107 204369 253956
1838271 1005469 3534092 456123 826710
3358175 1112722 2016046 235752 133619
9. mkvlevaris mtkicebiT arteriuli wnevis cvalebadoba Warbwonian
adamianebSi ufro didia vidre normalurwonian adamianebSi. SemTxveviT
SerCeul 28 Warbwonian adanmianSi arteriuli wnevis Sesworebuli stand-
artuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 6.2 mm. vercx. sv., xolo 25 normalurwonian ad-
amianSi ki 2.7 mm. vercx. sv.. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT
mkvlevaris mtkicebuleba.
10. ganaTlebis saministros mtkicebiT pedagogebis swavlebis staJis
ricxvis cvalebadoba umaRles saswavleblebSi ufro didia vidre saSua-
lo skolebSi. umaRlesi saswavleblis SemTxveviT SerCeuli 26 pedagogis
muSaobis staJis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 2.8 weli,
xolo saSualo skolis 18 pedagogisaTvis ki 1.9 weli. 0.1 o = mniSvnelov-
169

nebis doniT SeuZlia Tu ara mkvlevars daadasturos Tavisi mtkicebule-
bis marTebuleba?
11. mkvlevars surs Seafasos ori popularuli A da B dietis Sed-
egad pacientTa mier dakarguli wonis dispersia. A dietis mimdevari Sem-
TxveviT SerCeuli 10 adamianis mier erT TveSi dakarguli wonebis Seswo-
rebuli standartuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 6.3 funti (1 funti = 453.6 gr),
xolo B dietis mimdevari SemTxveviT SerCeuli 12 adamianis ki 4.8 funti.
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom A die-
tis SemTxvevaSi dakarguli wonis dispersia ufro didia vidre B dietis
SemTxvevaSi?
12. mkvlevaris mtkicebiT indianas StatSi Semavali sagrafoebis fa-
rTobebis dispersia naklebia vidre aiovas StatSi Semavali sagrafoebis
farTobebis dispersia. qvemoT moyvanilia SemTxveviT SerCeuli sagrafoe-
bis farTobebi (gazomili kvadratul kilometrebSi). 0.01 o = mniSvnelovn-
ebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara davadasturoT mkvlevaris mtkicebuleba?
indianas Stati aiovas Stati
-------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------
406 431 305 373 560 640 443 717 571 568
393 430 215 148 384 580 569 568 577 434
396 369 489 306 320 431 779 714 503 615
485 408 293 509 407 416 381 731 501 402
13. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb,
rom denverSi maRali Senobebis simaRleebis dispersia tolia detroitSi
maRali Senobebis simaRleebis dispersiis, Tu saxlebis Sesabamisi SerCev-
ebis futebSi gazomili (1 futi = 30.48 sm) simaRleebia:
denveri detroiti
------------------------------ ------------------------------
714 504 404 620 562 534
698 438 544 472 448 436
408 430 420

14. qvemoT moyvanilia unciebSi gazomili (1 uncia = 28.3 gr) qalebi-
sa da kacebis sportuli fexsacmlebis SerCevebis wonebi. gamoTvaleT Ti-
Toeuli SerCevis Sesworebuli dispersia da SeamowmeT hipoTeza dispers-
iebis tolobis Sesaxeb 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT. isargebleT P-
mniSvnelobis meTodiT.


qalebi kacebi
---------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------
11.9 11.2 11.7 12.8 12.6 10.6 10.3 10.3 9.5 9.3
12.3 13.8 10.8 14.5 14.7 9.6 9.8 11.2 8.8 9.5
9.2 10.4 11.1 13.3 12.9 10.1 9.4 9.5 10.2 11.0

170

15. qvemoT moyvanilia A da B tipis mtversasrutebis SerCevebis
wonebi (gazomili funtebSi). 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT
hipoTeza dispersiebis gansxvavebulobis Sesaxeb.
A tipi B tipi
------------------------------------ --------------------
21 16 23 13 18 24 12
17 17 16 15 17 15 13
15 17 16 20 20 11
17 18
















pasuxebi:
1.
15,22,0.01
. . 3.36 CV F = = ;
24,13,0.01
. . 3.59 CV F = = ;
45,29,0.05
. . 2.03 CV F = = ;
20,16,0.1
. . 2.28 CV F = = ;
10,10,0.05
. . 2.98 CV F = = . 2. 0.025 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.05; 0.05 < P-mniSvneloba <
0.1; P-mniSvneloba = = 0.05; 0.005 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.01; P-mniSvneloba =
0.05; P-mniSvneloba > > 0.1; 0.05 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.1; 0.01 < P-mniSvn-
eloba < 0.02. 3.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o s ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o > ; . . 2.23 CV = ; 1.41 f = ; ara. 4.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 3.18 CV = ; 1.67 f = ; ki. 5.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ;
. . 2.86 CV = ; 7.85 f = ; ki. 6.
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 2.51 CV = ; 3.346 f = ; ki. 7.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 2.53 CV = ; 2.09 f = ; ara. 8.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ;
. . 3.53 CV = ; 1.88 f = ; ara. 9.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o s ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o > ; . . 2.66 CV = ; 5.27 f = ;
1
H . 10.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o s ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o > ; . . 1.84 CV = ; 1.47 f = ; ara. 11.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o s ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o > ;
. . 2.9 CV = ; 1.72 f = ; ara. 12.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o > ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o < ; . . 3.15 CV = ; 1.45 f = ; ara. 13.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 3.87 CV = ; 3.18 f = ;
0
H . 14.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ;
5.32 f = ; P-mniSvneloba < 0.01 < 0.05 o = ;
1
H . 15.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ;
. . 3.5 CV = ; 3.773 f = ;
1
H .
171

Tavi XII
statistikuri daskvnebi dawyvilebuli monacemebisaTvis

statistikuri daskvnebi dawyvilebul monacemTa saSualoebis
sxvaobebisaTvis (damokidebuli SerCevebi)

monacemebi Sedgeba n damoukideblad SerCeuli wyvilisagan
1 1
( , ) X Y ,
. . . , ( , )
n n
X Y , 1,...,
i i i
D X Y i n = ÷ = .
1
,...,
n
D D warmoadgens damoukidebel norma-
lurad ganawilebul SemTxveviT sidideTa mimdevrobas ucnobi parametre-
biT
1 2 D
a a a = ÷ da
2
D
o (aq
1
,...,
n
X X da
1
,...,
m
Y Y -- damokidebuli SerCevebia).
1
1
:
n
n
i
i
D D
n
=
=
¯
,
' 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
( ) [ ( ) ]
1 1
n n n
n
D i i i
i i i
S D D D D
n n n
= = =
= ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷
¯ ¯ ¯
;
1 1
1 1
: ( )
n n
n
i i i
i i
d d x y
n n
= =
= = ÷
¯ ¯
,
' 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
1 1 1
( ) [ ( ) ]
1 1
n n n
n
D i i i
i i i
s d d d d
n n n
= = =
= ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷
¯ ¯ ¯
.
hipoTeza:
0
: 0
D
H a =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
'
( 1)
/
n
D
D
D a
T T n
S n
÷
= ~ ÷
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
'
/
n
D
D
d a
t
s n
÷
= , sadac n d -iT aRniSnulia
n D statistikis dakvirvebuli mniSvneloba.
alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1
: 0
D
H a >
1, n
t t
o ÷
> ,
1
: 0
D
H a <
1, n
t t
o ÷
s÷ ,
1
: 0
D
H a =
1, / 2 n
t t
o ÷
s÷ an
1, / 2 n
t t
o ÷
>
(sadac
1, n
t
o ÷
aris Tavisuflebis 1 n÷ xarisxis mqone stiudentis ganawile-
bis zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli mniSvneloba C.V.).

P- mniSvneloba:
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 ( ), : 0;
( ), : 0;
2 [1 (| |)], : 0.
T
T
T
F t H a a
P F t H a a
F t H a a
÷ ÷ > ¦
¦
= ÷ <
´
¦
· ÷ ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

gadawyvetileba: Tu t e C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT
o mniSvnelovnebis doniT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara
gvaqvs.
(1 ) o ÷ saimedoobis ndobis intervali dawyvilebuli monacemebis sa-
SualoTa
1 2 D
a a a = ÷ sxvaobisaTvis:
172

' '
1, / 2 1, / 2
D D
n n
n D n
s s
d t a d t
n n
o o ÷ ÷
÷ · < < + · .

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. farmacevtis mtkicebiT konkretuli vitamini zrdis aT-
letis mier simZimis awevis SesaZleblobas. SemTxveviT SearCies 8 aTleti
da Seamowmes ra maqsimaluri simZimis aweva SeuZlia TiToeul maTgans
vitaminis miRebamde da vitaminis erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi miRebis Semdeg.
igulisxmeT, rom sidide daaxloebiT normaluria da 0.05 o = mniSvn-
elovnebis doniT SeamowmeT vitaminis efeqturoba.

aTletis # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
vit. miRebamde
i
x
210 230 182 205 262 253 219 216
vit. miRebis Semdeg
i
y
219 236 179 204 270 250 222 216

amoxsna. vitaminis efeqturoba niSnavs, rom vitaminis miRebamde awe-
uli simZime unda iyos arsebiTad (mniSvnelovnad) naklebi, vidre vitamin-
is miRebis Semdeg. Sesabamisad ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi iq-
neba:
0
: 0
D
H a > ,
1
: 0
D
H a < .
gamovTvaloT kritikuli mniSvneloba. aq Tavisuflebis xarisxi iqn-
eba . . 1 8 1 7 d f n = ÷ = ÷ = . amitom
1, 7,0.05
. . 1.895
n
CV t t
o ÷
= = =÷ .
gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba. a). SevavsoT Semdegi cxri-
li:
aTletis
#
vit.
miRebamde,
i
x
vit. miRebis
Semdeg,
i
y
i i i
d x y = ÷
2 2
( )
i i i
d x y = ÷
1 210 219 -9 81
2 230 236 -6 36
3 182 179 3 9
4 205 204 1 1
5 262 270 -8 64
6 253 250 3 9
7 219 222 -3 9
8 216 216 0 0

19
i
d = ÷
¯

2
209
i
d =
¯


b). vipovoT sxvaobaTa saSualo: 375 . 2
8
19
8
1
8
1
8 ÷ =
÷
= · =
¯
= i
i
d d ;
g). vipovoT sxvaobaTa Sesworebuli SerCeviTi standartuli gadax-
ra:
173

' 2 2 2
1 1
1 1 1 1
[ ( ) ] [209 ( 19) ] 4.84
1 8 1 8
n n
D i i
i i
s d d
n n
= =
= ÷ = · ÷ · ÷ =
÷ ÷
¯ ¯
;
d). vipovoT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
'
2.375 0
1.388
/ 4.84/ 8
n
D
D
d a
t
s n
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = ÷ .
vinaidan kriteriumis mniSvneloba ar ekuTvnis kritikul ares --
9,0.05
. . ( , ] ( , 1.895] CR t = ÷· ÷ = ÷· ÷ (-1.388 > -1.895), amitom Cven ara gvaqvs nulovani
hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli, anu ar arsebobs sakmarisi safuZveli,
raTa davaskvnaT, rom vitamini aZlierebs aTletis SesaZleblobebs.
magaliTi 2. dietologs surs gaarkvios Seicvleba Tu ara pacient-
is organizmSi qolesterinis done sakvebSi garkveuli mineralis damateb-
is Sdegad. SemTxveviT SearCies 6 pacienti da Seamowmes qolesterinis
done mineralis miRebamde da mineralis miRebis Semdeg. igulisxmeT, rom
sidide daaxloebiT normaluria. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia
Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom qolesterinis done Seicvala? aageT 90%-iani
ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.

pacientis # 1 2 3 4 5 6
mineralis miRebamde,
i
x
210 235 208 190 172 244
min. miRebis Semdeg,
i
y
190 170 210 188 173 228

amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 0
D
H a = ,
1
: 0
D
H a = .
gamovTvaloT kritikuli mniSvneloba. aq Tavisuflebis xarisxi iqn-
eba . . 1 6 1 5 d f n = ÷ = ÷ = . kriteriumi ormxrivia. amitom kritikuli mniSvnel-
obebia:
1, / 2 5,0.05
. . 2.015
n
CV t t
o ÷
=± =± =± .
gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba. a). SevavsoT Semdegi cxri-
li:
pacientis
#
min.
miRebamde,
i
x
min. miRebis
Semdeg,
i
y
i i i
d x y = ÷
2 2
( )
i i i
d x y = ÷
1 210 190 20 400
2 235 170 65 4225
3 208 210 -2 4
4 190 188 2 4
5 172 173 -1 1
6 244 228 16 256

100
i
d =
¯

2
4890
i
d =
¯

b). vipovoT sxvaobaTa saSualo:
6
6
1
1 100
: 16.7
6 6
i
i
d d
=
= · = =
¯
;
g). vipovoT sxvaobaTa Sesworebuli SerCeviTi standartuli gadax-
ra:
174

' 2 2 2
1 1
1 1 1 1
[ ( ) ] [4890 (100) ] 25.4
1 6 1 6
n n
D i i
i i
s d d
n n
= =
= ÷ = · ÷ · =
÷ ÷
¯ ¯
;
d). vipovoT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
'
16.7 0
1.61
/ 25.4/ 6
n
D
D
d a
t
s n
÷ ÷
= = = .
vinaidan kriteriumis mniSvneloba ar ekuTvnis kritikul ares --
5,0.05 5,0.05
. . ( , ] [ , ) ( , 2.015] [2.015, ) CR t t = ÷· ÷ +· = ÷· ÷ +·   ( 2.015 1.61 2.015 ÷ < < ), amitom
Cven ara gvaqvs nulovani hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli, anu ar arsebobs
sakmarisi safuZveli, raTa davaskvnaT, rom minerali cvlis qolesterinis
dones.
avagoT ndobis intervali. SevitanoT saWiro sidideebi Sesabamis
formulaSi. gvaqvs:
25.4 25.4
16.7 2.015 16.7 2.015
6 6
D
a ÷ · < < + · ,
4.19 37.59
D
a ÷ < < .
rogorc vxedavT 0 Sedis ndobis intervalSi. Sesabamisad, gadwyvet-
ileba emTxveva zemoT miRebuls: Cven ara gavaqvs safuZveli nulovani hip-
oTezis uaryofis.
magaliTi 3. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gaarkvieT Tu ra gavlen-
as axdens sqesi im kursdamTavrebulTaTvis SeTavazebuli xelfasis sidi-
deze, romelTac gaaCniaT erTnairi ganaTleba, asaki da samuSao gamocd-
ileba da aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis, Tu
maTTvis SeTavazebuli dRiuri xelfasebis monacemebia:

wyvilis nomeri 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
qali,
i
X
22 17 21 19 26 23 21 31 25 18
vaJi,
i
Y
25 18 27 17 29 25 19 27 36 23
sxvaobebi,
i
D
-3 -1 -6 2 -3 -2 2 4 -11 -5

amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 0
D
H a = ,
1
: 0
D
H a < . gamovTvaloT sxvaobebis SerCeviTi saSualo da
Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersia. gvaqvs:
10
1
( 3 1 5) 2.3
10
d = · ÷ ÷ ÷··· ÷ =÷ ,
'2 2 2
1
[( 3 2.3) ( 5 2.3) ] 19.78
9
D
s = · ÷ + +··· + ÷ + = .
Sesabamisad, kriteriumis mniSvneloba iqneba:
'
2.3 0
. . 1.635
/ 19.78 / 10
n
D
D
d a
TV t
s n
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = = = ÷ .
ramdenadac kriteriumi marcxena calmxrivia, amitom kritikuli mni-
Svneloba iqneba:
1, 9,0.05
. . 1.833
n
CV t t
o ÷
=÷ =÷ =÷ , xolo kritikuli area:
. . ( , 1.833] CR = ÷· ÷ . rogroc vxedavT, . . . . TV CR e , amitom nulovani hipoTezis
175

uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, anu ar arsebobs sakmarisi safuZveli
raTa davaskvnaT, rom xelfasze gavlenas axdens sqesi.
saZiebeli ndobis intervali iqneba:
9,0.05 9,0.05
19.78 19.78
( 2.3 , 2.3 )
10 10
t t ÷ ÷ · ÷ + · ,
( 2.3 1.4064 1.833, 2.3 1.4064 1.833) ÷ ÷ · ÷ + · ,
(-4.278, 0.278).


amocanebi

qvemoTmoyvanil amocanebSi igulisxmeba, rom yvela sidide ganawil-
ebulia normalurad an daaxloebiT normalurad
1. restoranTa qselis menejerma TanamSromlebs SesTavaza gamajans-
aRebeli programa, raTa Seemcirebina avadmyofobis gamo samuSaos gacden-
aTa ricxvi. qvemoT naCvenebia SemTxveviT SerCeuli 10 muSakis mier Tvis
ganmavlobaSi samuSaos gacdenaTa ricxvi gamajansaRebeli programis gav-
lamde da gavlis Semdeg. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu
ara davaskvnaT, rom programam gaamarTla?

programis gavlamde 2 3 6 7 4 5 3 1 0 0
programis gavlis Semdeg 1 4 3 8 3 3 1 0 1 0

2. im mizniT, rom gaezardaT studentis mier kviraSi damoukidebeli
muSaobis saaTebi, SemTxveviT SearCies 9 studenti da waukiTxes leqcia
ganaTlebis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb cxovrebaSi. qvemoT naCvenebia maTi
kvireuli damoukidebeli muSaobis saaTebi leqciamde da leqciis mosme-
nis Semdeg. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT,
rom leqciis mosmenis Semdeg gaizarda studentis damoukidebeli muSaob-
is saaTebi?
leqciis mosmenamde 9 12 6 15 3 18 10 13 7
leqciis mosmenis Semdeg 9 17 9 20 2 21 15 22 6

3. profesors ainteresebs ra gavlenas axdens savarjiSoebis Sesaxeb
filmi studentis savarjiSos mimarT damokidebulebis xarisxze. SemT-
xveviT SerCeuli 10 studentis gamokiTxvis Sedegebis mixedviT (ufro di-
di ricxvi gviCvenebs damokidebulebis ufro maRal xarisxs), 0.05 o = mni-
Svnelovnebis doniT, gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli davaskvnaT, rom
filmis naxvis Semdeg damokidebuleba Seicvala? aageT 95%-iani ndobis
intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.

filmis naxvamde 12 11 14 9 8 6 8 5 4 7
filmis naxvis Semdeg 13 12 10 9 8 8 7 6 5 5

176

4. mkvlevars ainteresebs axali dietis gavlena sisxlSi natriumis
doneze. SemTxveviT SearCies 10 pacienti da gazomes sisxlSi natriumis
done dietamde da dietis Semdeg. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, gvaqvs
Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli davaskvnaT, rom dietis Semdeg sisxlSi nat-
riumis done Semcirda?

pacienti 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
dietamde 146 138 152 163 136 147 148 141 143 142
Semdeg 135 133 147 156 138 141 139 132 138 131

5. ofisis menejers surs gaarkvios gazrdis Tu ara mdivnebis muSa-
obis siswrafes sabeWdi manqanebis Secvla kompiuterebiT. qvemoT naCvene-
bia 10 mdivnis mier wuTSi dabeWdili sityvebis raodenoba sabeWd manqana-
ze da kompiuterze. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, gvaqvs Tu ara sakmari-
si safuZveli davaskvnaT, rom kompiuterze gadasvla zrdis dabeWdili
sityvebis raodenobas?

mdivani 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
sabeWdi manqana 63 72 85 97 82 101 73 62 58 75
kompiuteri 68 80 95 93 80 106 82 78 65 83

6. mSobliuri enis pedagogs surs gaarkvios Seamcirebs Tu ara gra-
matikis axali programa im gramatikuli Secdomebis raodenobas, rome-
lsac uSveben studentebi orgverdiani Txuzulebis dawerisas. qvemoTmo-
yvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.025 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia
Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom Secdomebis raodenoba Semcirda?

studenti 1 2 3 4 5 6
Secdomebi programamde 12 9 0 5 4 3
Secdomebi programis Semdeg 9 6 1 3 2 3

7. fexsacmlis mwarmoebelis mtkicebiT is sportsmenebi, romlebsac
acviaT misi firmis mier gamoSvebuli fexsacmeli darbian ufro swrafad
vidre sxva sportsmenebi. qvemoTmoyvanili SemTxveviT SerCeuli 8 morbena-
lis siswarafis monacemebis mixedviT, 0.025 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT,
SegviZlia Tu ara davadasturoT mwarmoeblis mtkicebuleba?

morbenali 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
firmis fexsacmeliT 8.2 6.3 9.2 8.6 6.8 8.7 8 6.9
sxva fexsacmeliT 7.1 6.8 9.8 8 5.8 8 7.4 8

8. mkvlevars ainteresebs Seadaros tyupebis pulsTa ricxvi erTman-
eTs. SerCeul iqna tyupebis rva wyvili da maTi pulsTa ricxvis monaceme-
bi wuTSi moyvanilia qvemoT. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara
pulsTa ricxvs Soris gansxvaveba arsebiTi? aageT 99%-iani ndobis
177

intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis. isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTod-
iT.

tyupiscali I 87 92 78 83 88 90 84 93
tyupiscali II 83 95 79 83 86 93 80 86

9. uZravi qonebis agentis mtkicebiT dedaqalaqSi samoTaxiani binis
fasebi Seicvala. qvemoT moyvanilia SemTxveviT SerCeuli 16 binis saeqspe-
rto fasebi (gazomili aTasobiT larebSi) Sesabamisad 2003 da 2008 wleb-
Si. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom bi-
nebis saeqsperto fasebi Seicvala? isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.

2003 2008 2003 2008 2003 2008 2003 2008
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
184 161 116 120 282 297 12 20
414 382 49 52 25 40 37 38
22 22 24 28 141 148 9 9
99 109 50 50 45 56 17 19















pasuxebi:
1.
0
: 0
D
H a s ,
1
: 0
D
H a > ;
9,0.05
. . 1.833 CV t = = ; 1.56 t = ; ara --
0
H . 2.
0
: 0
D
H a > ,
1
: 0
D
H a < ;
8,0.1
. . 1.397 CV t = =÷ ; 2.8 t = ÷ ; ki --
1
H . 3.
0
: 0
D
H a = ,
1
: 0
D
H a = ;
9,0.025
. . 2.262 CV t =± =± ; 0.176 t = ; ara --
0
H ; ( 1.18,1.38) ÷ . 4.
0
: 0
D
H a s ,
1
: 0
D
H a > ;
9,0.05
. . 1.833 CV t = = ; 5.435 t = ; ara --
1
H . 5.
0
: 0
D
H a > ,
1
: 0
D
H a < ;
9,0.1
. . 1.383 CV t = =÷ ; 3.4 t = ÷ ; ki --
1
H . 6.
0
: 0
D
H a s ,
1
: 0
D
H a > ;
5,0.025
. . 2.571 CV t = = ;
2.24 t = ; ki --
0
H . 7.
0
: 0
D
H a > ,
1
: 0
D
H a < ;
7,0.025
. . 2.365 CV t = =÷ ; 0.765 t = ; ara --
0
H . 8.
0
: 0
D
H a = ,
1
: 0
D
H a = ; . . 7 d f = ; 0.978 t = ; o < 0.2 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.5;
0
H . 9.
0
: 0
D
H a = ,
1
: 0
D
H a = ; . . 15 d f = ; 0.5 t = ÷ ; P-mniSvneloba > 0.5 > o ; ara -
-
0
H .
178

Tavi XIII
oramokrefiani amocanebi bernulis sqemaSi

HhipoTezaTa Semowmeba warmatebaTa albaTobebisaTvis bernulis
cdaTa ori damoukidebeli mimdevrobisaTvis

1
,...,
n
X X da
1
,...,
m
Y Y ori damoukidebeli SerCevaa bernulis kanoniT
ganawilebuli populaciidan Sesabamisad warmatebis ucnobi
1
p da
2
p al-
baTobebiT;
1 1
1 q p = ÷ ,
2 2
1 q p = ÷ ;
1
1
n
i
i
S X
=
=
¯
,
2
1
m
i
i
S Y
=
=
¯
;
1
1
S
P
n
= ,
2
2
S
P
m
= ;
1
1
1
1
n
i
i
s
p x
n n
=
= = ·
¯
,
2
2
1
1
m
i
i
s
p y
m m
=
= = ·
¯
; 1 2
n m
P P P
n m n m
= +
+ +
;
1 2
n m
p p p
n m n m
= +
+ +
;
1 Q P = ÷ ; 1 q p = ÷ .
kriteriumi:
ormxrivi marjvena calmxrivi marcxena calmxrivi

0 1 2
: H p p =
0 1 2
: H p p =
an
0 1 2
: H p p s
0 1 2
: H p p =
an
0 1 2
: H p p >

1 1 2
: H p p =
1 1 2
: H p p >
1 1 2
: H p p <

hipoTeza:
0 1 2
: H p p =
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
1 2
1 2
( ) ( )
(0,1)
(1/ 1/ )
as
P P p p
Z N
PQ n m
÷ ÷ ÷
= ~
+

kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
1 2 1 2
( ) ( )
(1/ 1/ )
p p p p
z
pq n m
÷ ÷ ÷
=
+

alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1 1 2
: H p p > z z
o
> ,
1 1 2
: H p p < z z
o
s ÷ ,
1 1 2
: H p p =
/ 2
z z
o
s ÷ an
/ 2
z z
o
>
(sadac z
o
aris (0,1) N -is zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli mniS-
vneloba C.V.).
P- mniSvneloba:
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 ( ), : 0;
( ), : 0;
2 [1 (| |)], : 0.
z H a a
P z H a a
z H a a
÷u ÷ > ¦
¦
= u ÷ <
´
¦
· ÷u ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu
=
gadawyvetileba: Tu ze C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
179

P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT
o mniSvnelovnebis doniT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara
gvaqvs.

(1 ) o ÷ saimedoobis ndobis intervali
1 2
p p ÷ sxvaobisaTvis:
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
/ 2 / 2 1 2 1 2
(( ) , ( ) )
p q p q p q p q
p p z p p z
n m n m
o o
÷ ÷ + ÷ + +
(sadac
1 1
1 q p = ÷ ,
2 2
1 q p = ÷ ).
SezRudvebi:
1 1 2 2
, , , 5 np nq mp mq > .

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. mkvlevarma daadgina, rom 34 mcire klinikidan 12-Si, ise-
ve rogorc 24 didi klinikidan 17-Si, dakavebuli sawolebis wili nakl-
ebia 80%-ze. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Se-
saxeb, rom proporciebi im mcire da did klinikebis romlebSic daka-
vebuli sawolebis wili naklebia 80%-ze erTidaigivea. aageT 95%-iani
ndobis intervali proporciaTa sxvaobisaTvis.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = . aRvniSnoT
1
p (Sesabamisad,
2
p ) simboloTi propor-
cia im mcire (Sesabamisad, im didi) klinikebis romlebSic dakavebuli sa-
wolebis wili naklebia 80%-ze. gvaqvs:
1
1
12
0.35
34
s
p
n
= = = da
2
2
17
0.71
24
s
p
m
= = = .
amitom
1 2
34 24
0.35 0.71 0.5
34 24 34 24
n m
p p p
n m n m
= + = · + · =
+ + + +
, 1 0.5 q p = ÷ = .
vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. radaganac kriteriumi
ormxrivia da 0.05 o = , kritikuli mniSvnelobebi iqneba:
/ 2 0.025
. . 1.96 CV z z
o
= ± = ± = ± .
gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) (0.35 0.71) 0
. . 2.7
0.5 0.5 (1/ 34 1/ 24)
(1/ 1/ )
p p p p
TV z
pq n m
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = ÷
· · +
+
.
vinaidan -2.7 < -1.96 (e.i. . . . . TV CR e ), amitom Cven unda ukuvagdoT
nulovani hipoTeza, anu Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli uarvyoT
hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom proporciebi ar gansxvavdeba.
avagoT ndobis intervali. aq
1 1
1 0.65 q p = ÷ = ,
2 2
1 0.29 q p = ÷ = .
amitom saZiebeli ndobis intervali iqneba:
0.35 0.65 0.71 0.29 0.35 0.65 0.71 0.29
((0.35 0.71) 1.96 , (0.35 0.71) 1.96 )
34 24 34 24
· · · ·
÷ ÷ · + ÷ + · +
,
180

( 0.36 0.242, 0.36 0.242) ÷ ÷ ÷ + ,
( 0.602, 0.118) ÷ ÷ .
vinaidan ndobis intervali moicavs 0-s, gadawyvetileba isev iqneba:
ukuvagdoT nulovani hipoTeza.
magaliTi 2. SemTxveviT SerCeul 50 adamians erTi Tvis ganmavloba-
Si asmevdnen garkveul wamals, ramac gamoiwvia maT 60%-Si qolesterinis
donis Semcireba. sxva SemTxveviT SerCeul 80 adamians erTi Tvis ganmavl-
obaSi asmevdnen sxva wamals, ramac gamoiwvia maT 25%-Si qolesterinis
donis Semcireba. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara proporci-
ebs Soris mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba? amoxseniT rogorc Cveulebrivi, ise
P-mniSvnelobis maTodiT.
amoxsna. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = .
gvaqvs: 50 n = , 80 m= ,
1
60% 0.6 p = = ,
2
25% 0.25 p = = . gamovTvaloT p :
1 2
50 50
0.6 0.25 0.385
50 80 50 80
n m
p p p
n m n m
= + = · + · =
+ + + +
.
Sesabamisad, 1 0.615 q p = ÷ = .
vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. radaganac kriteriumi ormxrivia
da 0.01 o = , kritikuli mniSvnelobebi iqneba:
/ 2 0.005
. . 2.58 CV z z
o
= ± = ± = ± .
gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) (0.6 0.25) 0
. . 3.99
0.385 0.615 (1/ 50 1/ 80)
(1/ 1/ )
p p p p
TV z
pq n m
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = =
· · +
+
.
radganac 3.99 > 2.58 (e.i. . . . . TV CR e ), Cven unda ukuvagdoT nulovani
hipoTeza, anu Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli davaskvnaT, rom proporci-
ebs Soris gansxvaveba mniSvnelovania.
visargebloT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT: normaluri ganawilebis
cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom P-mniSvneloba iqneba:
2 [1 (| |)] 2 [1 (3.99)] 2 (1 0.999) 0.002 z · ÷u = · ÷u = · ÷ = .
vinaidan P-mniSvneloba = 0.002 < 0.01 o = , amitom gadawyvetileba is-
ev iqneba: 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT proporciebs Soris gansxvaveba
mniSvnelovania.

amocanebi

1. muSaTa dasaxlebidan 150 SemTxveviT SerCeul adamians Soris 80-s
awuxebs filtvebis avadmyofoba, xolo 100 SemTxveviT SerCeuli soflis
mosaxlidan 30-s awuxebs filtvebis avadmyofoba. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT aris Tu ara gnsxvaveba am or dasaxlebaSi filtvebis avadmyofob-
is mqone adamianebis proporciebs Soris?
2. gamokiTxvis Tanaxmad SemTxveviT SerCeuli 80 eqimidan 15 mweve-
lia, xolo 50 iuristidan ki sigarets eweva 5. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
181

doniT aris Tu ara eqimebSi mwevelTa proporcia ufro maRali vidre iu-
ristebSi?
3. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 100 momxmareblidan 43 angariSsworebisaTvis
iyenebs “masterqards”, xolo SemTxveviT SerCeuli sxva 100 momxmarebli-
dan 58 angariSsworebisaTvis iyenebs “vizaqards”. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT aris Tu ara gnsxvaveba im momxmarebelTa proporciebs Soris,
romlebic angariSsworebisaTvis iyeneben sxvadasxva tipis sakredito
baraTebs?
4. TbilisSi SemTxveviT SerCeuli 73 fostalionidan erTi kviris
ganmavlobaSi 10 dakbenil iqna mawanwala ZaRlis mier, xolo quTaisSi ki
SemTxveviT SerCeuli 80 fostalionidan 16 dakbenil iqna ZaRlis mier.
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba
proporciebs Soris? aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali proporciaTa
sxvaobisaTvis.
5. gamokiTxvam aCvena, rom gamokiTxuli mamakacebis 83% leqciasTan
SedarebiT upiratesobas aniWebs kompiuterul swavlebas, xolo igive maC-
venebeli qalebisaTvis Seadgens 75%-s. TiToeuli populaciisaTvis aRebu-
li iyo 100 – 100 adamianisagan Semdgari SerCeva. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom mamakacebsa da qalebSi ar
arsebobs gansxvaveba im adamianebis proporciebs Soris, romlebic le-
qciasTan SedarebiT upiratesobas aniWeben kompiuterul swavlebas. aag-
eT 95%-iani ndobis intervali proporciaTa sxvaobisaTvis.
6. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 200 qirurgidan 15%-s miaCnia, rom janmrTe-
lobis dacvaze kontrols unda axorcielebdes saxelmwifo, xolo SemT-
xveviT SerCeuli 200 Terapevtidan ase fiqrobs 21%. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovneb-
is doniT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba proporciebs Soris? aageT 90%-iani
ndobis intervali proporciaTa sxvaobisaTvis.
7. 80 gamokiTxuli amerikelidan 55% Tvlis, rom is mdidaria, xolo
90 gamokiTxuli evropelidan 45% Tvlis, rom is mdidaria. 0.01 o = mni-
Svnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba proporciebs Soris? aageT
99%-iani ndobis intervali proporciaTa sxvaobisaTvis.
8. 200 gamokiTxuli mamakacidan 130 xmarobs usafrTxoebis Rveds,
xolo 300 gamokiTxuli qalidan 63 xmarobs usafrTxoebis Rveds. 0.01 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom mamakacebi
ufro seriozulad ekidebian usafrTxoebas, vidre qalebi. isargebleT P-
mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
9. 80 gamokiTxuli Tbiliselidan 45-s aqvs kondicioneri, xolo 120
gamokiTxuli quTaiselidan 63-s aqvs kondicioneri. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovne-
bis doniT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba proporciebs Soris? aageT 95%-iani
ndobis intervali proporciaTa sxvaobisaTvis.
10. 100 bavSvisgan Semdgar SerCevaSi 30% namyofia cirkSi. sxva 100
bavSvisagan Semdgar SerCevaSi 24% namyofia cirkSi. 0.02 o = mniSvnelovne-
bis doniT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba proporciebs Soris? isargebleT P-
mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
182

11. 200 gamokiTxuli mozardidan 50-s sjera, rom omi Seuqcevadia, ma-
Sin roca 300 asakovani adamianidan 93-s sjera, rom omi Seuqcevadia.
0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba proporciebs So-
ris? aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali proporciaTa sxvaobisaTvis.
12. 50 pirvelkurseli studentidan 8-s aqvs sakuTari avtomanqana,
xolo 75 meoTxekurselidan ki 20-s. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT Segvi-
Zlia Tu ara, rom sakuTari avtomobilis mqone studentebis proporcia
meoTxekurselebSi ufro maRalia? isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.


amocanebi gamocdisaTvis

igulisxmeT, rom sidideebi ganawilebulia normalurad an daaxlo-
ebiT normalurad

13. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 100 – 100 qirurgisa da stomatologis saSu-
alo wliuri Semosavali Seadgens Sesabamisad 54107-sa da 58417 lars. or-
ive SerCevis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxraa 81 lari. 0.1 o = mniSv-
nelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom am populaciaTa
saSualoebi ar gansxvavdeba. aageT 90%-iani ndobis intervali saSualoTa
sxvaobisaTvis.
14. gamokiTxuli martoxela da daqorwinebuli mZRolebis ori jgu-
fis mier kviris ganmavlobaSi ganvlili manZilebis qvemoT moyvanili mon-
acemebis mixedviT 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu ara davas-
kvnaT, rom martoxela mZRolebi saSualod ufro mets gadian kviraSi da-
qorwinebulebTan SedarebiT?

martoxela mZRolebi daqorwinebuli mZRolebi
------------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------------------------
106 119 110 115 108 97 133 139 140 101
110 97 117 114 117 115 113 104 120 108
115 118 116 103 152 136 114 109 119 138
121 122 138 98 147 119 117 113 116 147
132 135 142 99 117 99 102 136 145 113
154 107 86 133 115 113 106 108 115 96
138 116 142 104 140 114 150 135 88 105

15. ganaTlebis inspeqtors ainteresebs Seadaros moswavleebze daxa-
rjuli Tanxebis dispersiebi qalaqad da soflad. Sesabamisi SemTxveviTi
SerCevebidan miRebuli Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersiebia:
'2
1
585 s = ,
'2
2
261 s = (SerCevaTa moculobebia: 18 n = , 16 m= ). 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT aris Tu ara mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba populaciaTa dispersiebs
Soris?
16. mkvlevars surs Seadaros I da II ligis fexburTelebis simaRle-
ebis dispersiebi. TiToeuli ligidan SemTxveviT SearCies 25 – 25 moTama-
183

Se da maTi simaRleebis Sesworebuli SerCeviTi dispersiebi aRmoCnda Se-
sabamisad 2.25 da 4.85. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara mniSvne-
lovani gansxvaveba I da II ligis fexburTelebis simaRleebis dispersiebs
Soris?
17. klinikis intensiuri Terapiis SemTxveviT SerCeul 11 oTaxSi xma-
uris donis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 4.2 decibali,
xolo SemTxveviT SerCeul arasamkurnalo daniSnulebis 24 oTaxSi --
13.2 decibali. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara mniSvnelovani
gansxvaveba klinikis samkurnalo da arasamkurnalo daniSnulebis oTaxe-
bSi xmauris donis standartul gadaxrebs Soris?
18. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 30 dRis ganmavlobaSi dedaqalaqis A sko-
laSi gakveTilebis gacdenaTa Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra aRmoC-
nda 4.9, xolo dedaqalaqis B skolaSi – 2.5. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis do-
niT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom standartuli gadaxrebi gansxv-
avebulia?
19. mkvlevaris varaudiT, rom qarxnis muSakTa mier avadmyofobis ga-
mo weliwadSi gacdenili dReebis raodenobis cvalebadoba ufro metia
vidre klinikis muSakTaTvis. didi klinikis SemTxveviT SerCeuli 42 muSa-
kzisaTvis Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra aRmoCnda 2.1 dRe, xolo
didi qarxnis SemTxveviT SerCeuli 65 muSakisaTvis – 3.2 dRe. SeamowmeT
hipoTeza 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT.
20. 15 saxis sokos sufis saSualo Rirebuleba Seadgens 0.73 lars,
xolo Sesworebuli SerCeviTi standartuli gadaxra ki 0.05 lars. SemTx-
veviT SerCeuli 24 saxeobis qaTmis sufisaTvis analogiuri maxasiaTebl-
ebi Sesabamisad aris 0.91 lari da 0.03 lari. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis do-
niT aris Tu ara fasebs Soris gansxvaveba mniSvnelovani?
21. SemTxveviT SerCeul 25 dRian periodSi A da B saqonelze arse-
buli fasebis monacemebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeiZl-
eba Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom A saqoneli ufro Zviria, vidre B saqoneli?

A saqoneli B saqoneli
---------------------------------------- -----------------------------------------
78 82 68 67 68 70 74 73 60 77
75 73 75 64 68 71 72 71 74 76
62 73 77 78 79 71 80 65 70 83
74 72 73 78 68 67 76 75 62 65
73 79 82 71 66 66 65 77 66 64

22. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 15 evropeli pedagogis saSualo wliuri
Semosavali Seadgens 35270$-s, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra
tolia 3256$-is. analogiuri maxasiaTeblebi SemTxveviT SerCeuli 30 amer-
ikeli pedagogisaTvis Sesabamisad tolia 29512$-isa da 1432$-is. aris Tu
ara mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba Semosavlebs Soris 0.02 o = mniSvnelovneb-
is doniT? aageT 99%-iani ndobis intervali saSualoTa sxvaobisaTvis.
184

23. dedaqalaqis SemTxveviT SerCeuli 16 ojaxis saSualo wliuri
Semosavali aris 54356 lari, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli gadaxra
ki 8256 lari. gareubnis SemTxveviT SerCeuli 12 ojaxis saSualo wliuri
Semosavali Sesadgens 46512 lars, xolo Sesworebuli standartuli
gadaxra tolia 1311 laris. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeiZleba Tu
ara davaskvnaT, rom dedaqalaqis mcxovrebTa wliuri Semosavali metia
vidre gareubanSi mcxovreblebis? isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT?
24. pedagogs surs gazardos 10 studentis sityvebis maragi ucxo en-
aSi. am mizniT igi maT kviraSi erTjer utarebs damatebiT seminarebs. dam-
atebiTi seminarebis Catarebamde da seminarebis Catarebis Semdeg Cata-
rebuli testirebis qvemoTmoyvanili Sedegebis mixedviT, 0.01 o = mniSvne-
lovnebis doniT, SeuZlia Tu ara pedagogs davaskvnas, rom seminarebma
Sedegi gamoiRo?

studentis nomeri 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
seminarebis
Catarebamde
83 76 92 64 82 68 70 71 72 63
seminarebis Semdeg 88 82 100 72 81 75 79 68 81 70

25. Sromis nayofierebis gazrdis mizniT avtonawilebis saamqros me-
nejerma gadawyvita samuSao adgilas samuSao drois ganmavlobaSi CaerTo
msubuqi musika. SemTxveviT SearCies rva muSa da daTvales maT mier
gamoSvebuli detalebis raodenoba musikis CarTvamde da musikis CarTvid-
an erTi kviris Semdeg. qvemoT moyvanili Sesabamisi monacemebis mixedviT,
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeuZlia Tu ara menejers davaskvnas, rom
musikam gazarda Sromis nayofiereba?

muSis nomeri 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
musikis CarTvamde 6 8 10 9 5 12 9 7
musikis Semdeg 10 12 9 12 8 13 8 10

26. 365 dRidan londonSi 207 dRe nisliania, xolo stokholmSi ki
166 dRe. 0.02 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT,
rom nisliani dReebis proporcia am or qalqSi gansxvavebulia? aageT
98%-iani ndobis intervali proporciaTa sxvaobisaTvis.
27. 50 gamokiTxuli dedaqalaqis mcxovrebidan 32 aqvs mikrotalRov-
ani qura, xolo 60 gamokiTxuli gareubanSi mcxovrebidan 24 aqvs mikrot-
alRovani qura. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara vTqvaT,
rom proporciebi erTidaigivea? aageT 95%-iani ndobis intervali pro-
porciaTa sxvaobisaTvis.





185

pasuxebi:
1.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.025
. . 1.96 CV z =± =± ; 3.64 z = ; ki --
1
H . 2.
0 1 2
: H p p s ,
1 1 2
: H p p > ;
0.05
. . 1.65 CV z = = ; 1.36 z = ; ki --
1
H . 3.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.025
. . 1.96 CV z = ± = ± ; 2.12 z =÷ ; ki --
1
H . 4.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.025
. . 1.96 CV z = ± = ± ; 0.99 z =÷ ; ara --
0
H ; (-0.181, 0.055). 5.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.025
. . 1.96 CV z = ± = ± ; 1.39 z = ;
0
H ; (-0.032, 0.192). 6.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.05
. . 1.65 CV z = ± = ± ; 1.56 z =÷ ; ara --
0
H ; (-0.123, 0.003). 7.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.005
. . 2.58 CV z = ± = ± ; 1.302 z = ; ara --
0
H ; (-0.097, 0.297). 8.
0 1 2
: H p p s ,
1 1 2
: H p p > ;
9.9 z = ; P-mniSvneloba < 0.001 < 0.01 o = ;
1
H . 9.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.025
. . 1.96 CV z = ± = ± ; 0.521 z = ; ara --
0
H ; (-0.103, 0.178). 10.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.96 z = ; P-mniSvneloba 0.337 > 0.02 o = ; ara --
0
H . 11.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.005
. . 2.58 CV z =± =± ; 1.45 z =÷ ; ara --
0
H ; (-0.165, 0.045). 12.
0 1 2
: H p p > ,
1 1 2
: H p p < ;
1.41 z = ÷ ; P-mniSvneloba = 0.0793 > o ; ara --
0
H . 13.
0 1 2
: H u u = ,
1 1 2
: H u u = ;
0.05
. . 1.65 CV z =± =± ; 3.76 z =÷ ;
1
H ; (-62, -24.2). 14.
0 1 2
: H u u s ,
1 1 2
: H u u > ;
0.01
. . 2.33 CV z = = ; 0.59 z = ;
0
H . 15.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ;
17,15,0.025
. . 2.86 CV F = = ;
. . 2.24 TV f = = ; ara --
0
H . 16.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ;
24,24,0.05
. . 1.98 CV F = = ;
. . 2.16 TV f = = ; ki --
1
H . 17.
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
1 1 2
: H o o = ;
23,10,0.05
. . 2.77 CV F = = ;
. . 10.365 TV f = = ; ki --
1
H . 18.
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
1 1 2
: H o o = ;
29,29,0.005
. . 2.76 CV F = = ;
. . 3.84 TV f = = ; ki --
1
H . 19.
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o s ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o > ;
64,41,0.1
. . 1.47 CV F = = ;
. . 2.32 TV f = = ;
1
H . 20. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ;
14,23,0.005
. . 3.47 CV F = = ;
. . 2.78 TV f = = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H u u = ,
1 1 2
: H u u = ;
37,0.005
. . 2.74 CV t =± =± ; 14.09 t = ÷ ;
1
H .21. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 1.98 CV = ; . . 1.11 TV f = = ;
0
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H u u s ,
1 1 2
: H u u > ; . . 1.28 CV = ; 1.31 t = ;
1
H . 22. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 2.87 CV = ;
. . 5.17 TV f = = ;
1
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H u u = ,
1 1 2
: H u u = ; . . 2.624 CV =± ; . . 14 d f = ; 6.54 t = ;
1
H ;
III). (3447.8, 8068.2). 23. I).
2 2
0 1 2
: H o o = ,
2 2
1 1 2
: H o o = ; . . 39.7 TV f = = ; P-mniSvneloba
< 0.05;
1
H ; II).
0 1 2
: H u u s ,
1 1 2
: H u u > ; . . 11 d f = ; 3.74 t = ; P-mniSvneloba < 0.005;
1
H . 24.
0
: 0
D
H a > ,
1
: 0
D
H a < ;
9,0.01
. . 2.821 CV t = =÷ ; . . 4.17 TV t ÷ =÷ ; ki --
1
H . 25.
0
: 0
D
H a > ,
1
: 0
D
H a < ;
7,0.05
. . 1.895 CV t = =÷ ; . . 2.73 TV t ÷ =÷ ; ki --
1
H . 26.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.01
. . 2.33 CV z = ± = ± ; 3.03 z = ; ki --
1
H ; (0.027, 0.198). 27.
0 1 2
: H p p = ,
1 1 2
: H p p = ;
0.025
. . 1.96 CV z =± =± ; 2.51 z = ; ara --
1
H ; (0.058, 0.422).





186

Tavi XIV
Tanxmobis kriteriumebi

xi-kvadrat Tanxmobis kriteriumis formula:
2
2
( ) O E
E
;
÷
=
¯
,
sadac O -- dakvirvebuli sixSirea (observed frequency), E -- mosalodneli
sixSire (expected frequency), xolo Tavisuflebis xarisxi tolia kategoria-
Ta (klasTa) raodenobas ( n) gamoklebuli 1 ( . . 1 d f n = ÷ ).
SezRudvebi: 1. monacemebi miRebulia SemTxveviTi SerCevidan; 2. TiT-
oeuli kategoriis mosalodneli sixSire unda iyos meti an toli 5-is
(Tu ukanaskneli piroba ar sruldeba, unda moxdes kategoriis gaerTiane-
ba sxva kategoriasTan ise, rom gaerTianebuli kategoriis mosalodneli
sixSire gaxdes meti an toli 5-is), roca kategoriaTa raodenoba 2-ze
metia (Tu gvaqvs mxolod 2 kategoria, maSin TiToeulis sixSire meti an
toli unda iyos 10-is).
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.
2
2
( )
i i
i
i
o e
e
;
÷
÷ =
¯
.
kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia.
kritikuli mniSvneloba
2
1,
. .
n
CV
o
;
÷
= .
kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are) =
2
1,
[ , )
n o
;
÷

P- mniSvneloba =
2
{ ( 1) . .} P n TV ; ÷ >
gadawyvetileba: Tu kriteriumis mniSvneloba metia an toli kritik-
ul mniSvnelobaze (T.V. >C.V.), maSin nulovan hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, wi-
naaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. maRaziis menejers ainteresebs aniWebs Tu ara momxmare-
beli upiratesobas limonaTis xuTi gansxvavebuli gemodan romelimes. 100
SemTxveviT SerCeuli momxmareblidan 32-ma aarCia alubalis, 28-m marwyv-
is, 16-ma forToxalis, 14-ma feixos da 10-ma yurZnis gemos mqone limonaTi.
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli ukuva-
gdoT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom momxmarebeli ar aniWebs upiratesobas
arc erT gemos?
amoxsna. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu momxmarebeli ar aniWebs upiratesobas
arc erT gemos, maSin unda velodoT, rom yvela gemos sixSire tolia,
anu Cvens SemTxvevaSi mosalodneli sixSireebia: 100/5 = 20. Sesabamisad,
Cven gvaqvs sixSireTa ganawilebis Semdegi cxrili:


187

sixSire alubali marwyvi forToxali feixo yurZeni
dakvirvebuli,
i
o
32 28 16 14 10
mosalodneli,
i
e
20 20 20 20 20
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H : momxmareblebisaTvis mniSvneloba ara aqvs gemos.
1
H : momxmareblebisaTvis mniSvneloba aqvs gemos.
nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. aq Tavisuflebis xaris-
xia 5 – 1 = 4, 0.05 o = . Sesabamisad, xi-kvadrat ganawilebis cxrilidan
vpoulobT, rom
2 2
1, 4,0.05
. . 9.488
n
CV
o
; ;
÷
= = = ..
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
...
2 2 2 2
2
( ) (32 20) (28 20) (16 20)
20 20 20
i i
i
i
o e
e
;
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + +
¯

2 2
(14 20) (10 20)
18
20 20
÷ ÷
+ + = .
nabiji 4. gadawyvetilebis miReba: vinaidan 18 > 9.488, amitom nulova-
ni hipoTeza unda ukuvagdoT, anu Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli raTa Ca-
vTvaloT, rom momxmareblebisaTvis mniSvneloba aqvs limonaTis gemos.
magaliTi 2. statistikis departamentis monacemebiT, im adamianebid-
an vinc erTxel dakarga samuSao, 38% Soulobs axal samuSaos, 32% xdeba
naxevraddasaqmebuli, 23% muSaobs kontraqtis gareSe da 7% iwyebs sakuT-
ar bizness. imis gasarkvevad, es procentebi aris Tu ara mdgradi, gamoki-
Txul iqna A kompaniidan daTxovnili 300 adamiani da aRmoCnda, rom 122
iSova axali samuSao, 85 naxevraddasaqmebulia, 76 muSaobs kontraqtis ga-
reSe da 17 adamianma daiwyo sakuTari biznesi. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis do-
niT SeamowmeT hipoTeza procentebis mdgradobis Sesaxeb. isargebleT ro-
gorc Cveulebrivi, ise P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.misargebleT
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H : meored dasaqmebul adamianTa ganawileba Semdegia: 38% muSaobs
axal samsaxurSi, 32% -- naxevraddasaqmebulia, 23% muSaobs kontraqtis
gareSe da 7% daiwyo sakuTari biznesi.
1
H : ganawileba ar aris iseTi rogorc nulovan hipoTezaSia.
nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. am SemTxvevaSi Tavisuf-
lebis xarisxi . . 4 1 3 d f = ÷ = , 0.1 o = . amitom, xi-kvadrat ganawilebis cxri-
lidan vpoulobT, rom
2 2
1, 3,0.1
. . 6.251
n
CV
o
; ;
÷
= = = ..
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba. mosalodnel sixS-
ireTa mniSvnelobebi gamoiTvleba Semdegnairad:
1
300 0.38 114 e = · = ,
2
300 0.32 96 e = · = ,
3
300 0.23 69 e = · = ,
4
300 0.07 21 e = · = .
Sesabamisad,
...
2 2 2 2 2
2
( ) (122 114) (85 96) (76 69) (17 21)
3.2939
114 86 69 21
i i
i
i
o e
e
;
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + + =
¯
.
188

nabiji 4. gadawyvetilebis miReba: radganac 3.2939 < 6.251, amitom Zir-
iTadi hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, anu procentebi ar aris
mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebuli imisagan, rac Camoyalibebulia nulovan hip-
oTezaSi (procentebi mdgradia).
visargebloT axla P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT: xi-kvadrat ganawileb-
is cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom P- mniSvneloba =
2
{ (3) 3.293} P ; > > 0.1 o =
(radganac
2
3,0.1
6.251 ; = ). Sesabamisad, gadawyvetileba iqneba igive: ZiriTadi
hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
magaliTi 3. universitetis ekologiuri klubis menejeris mtkicebiT
klubis 10%-s Seadgens pirvelkurselebi, 20% -- meorekurselia, 40% -- me-
samekurseli da 30% ki meoTxekurseli. mimdinare wels klubSi iricxeba
14 pirvelkurseli, 19 meorekurseli, 51 mesamekurseli da 16 meoTxekurse-
li. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT menejeris hipoTeza.
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H : ekologiuri klubis Semadgenlobis 10%, 20%, 40% da 30%
Sesabamisad aris I, II, III da IV kurseli.
1
H : ganawileba ar aris iseTi rogorc nulovan hipoTezaSia.
nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba:
2 2
1, 3,0.1
. . 6.251
n
CV
o
; ;
÷
= = = ..
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba. mosalodnel sixS-
ireTa mniSvnelobebia:
1
100 0.1 10 e = · = ,
2
100 0.2 20 e = · = ,
3
100 0.4 40 e = · = ,
4
100 0.3 30 e = · = .
amitom
...
2 2 2 2 2
2
( ) (14 10) (19 20) (51 40) (16 30)
11.208
10 20 40 30
i i
i
i
o e
e
;
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + + =
¯
.
nabiji 4. gadawyvetilebis miReba: radganac 11.208 > 6.251, amitom Zir-
iTad hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, anu Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli uarvyoT
menejeris mtkicebuleba klubis Semadgenlobis Sesaxeb.

normalurobis Semowmebis xi-kvadrat kriteriumi

magaliTi 5. xi-kvadrat kriteriumis gamoyenebiT SeamowmeT c sidi-
de, romlis sixSiruli ganawileba moyvanilia qvemoT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelo-
vnebis doniT, aris Tu ara normalurad ganawilebuli.

klasis sazRvrebi sixSire
89.5—104.5 24
104.5—119.5 62
119.5—134.5 72
134.5—149.5 26
149.5—164.5 12
164.5—179.5 4
189


¯

200
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H : sidide ganawilebulia normalurad.
1
H : sidide ar aris ganawilebuli normalurad.
nabiji 2. vipovoT sididis saSualo da Sesworebuli standartuli
gadaxra. visargebloT Semdegi cxriliT:
sazRvrebi sixSire,
m
f Suawertilebi,
m
x
m m
f x ·
2
m m
f x ·
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
89.5—104.5 24 97 2328 225816
104.5—119.5 62 112 6944 777728
119.5—134.5 72 127 9144 1161288
134.5—149.5 26 142 3692 524264
149.5—164.5 12 157 1884 295788
164.5—179.5 4 172 688 118336
¯

200 24680 3103220
Sesabamisad gvaqvs: 24680/ 200 123.4 x = = da
' 2 2 2
1 1
1 1
( ) / 3103220 24680 / 200 17.03
1 199
n n
m m m m
m m
s f x f x n
n
= =
= · ÷ · = · ÷ =
÷
¯ ¯

nabiji 3. vipovoT klasis sazRvrebSi c sididis moxvedris albaT-
obebi misi normalurad ganawilebulobis daSvebis SemTxvevaSi. amisaTvis,
movaxdinoT c sididis, da Sesabamisad klasis sazRvrebis standartiza-
cia, anu TiToeuli sazRvari gadaviyvanoT e. w. z sazRvarSi
'
x x
z
s
÷
=
formulis mixedviT. maSin sazRvrebi 104.5, 119.5, 134.5, 149.5, 164.5 Seicvleba
Sesabamisad sazRvrebiT: -1.11, -0.23, 0.65, 1.53, 2.41 da normaluri ganawilebis
cxrilis gamoyenebiT gveqneba:
{ 104.5} { 1.11} 0.1335 P P z c s = s÷ = ;
{104.5 119.5} { 1.11 0.23} 0.2755 P P z c s s = ÷ s s÷ = ;
{119.5 134.5} { 0.23 0.65} 0.3332 P P z c s s = ÷ s s = ;
{134.5 149.5} {0.65 1.53} 0.1948 P P z c s s = s s = ;
{149.5 164.5} {1.53 2.41} 0.055 P P z c s s = s s = ; { 164.5} { 2.41} 0.008 P P z c > = > = .
nabiji 4. vipovoT mosalodnel sixSireTa mniSvnelobebi, risTvisac
zemoTmiRebuli albaTobebi gavamravloT 200-ze. mosalodnel sixSireTa
mniSvnelobebia:
1
200 0.1335 26.7 e = · = ,
2
200 0.2755 55.1 e = · = ,
3
200 0.3332 66.64 e = · = ,
4
200 0.1948 38.96 e = · = ;
5
200 0.055 11 e = · = ;
6
200 0.008 1.6 e = · = .
SeniSvna: vinaidan ukanaskneli kategoriis mosalodneli sixSire
naklebia 5-ze, is unda gaerTiandes wina kategoriasTan da sabolood
gveqneba sixSireTa ganawilebis Semdegi cxrili:
i
o
24 62 72 26 16
190

i
e
26.7 55.1 66.64 38.96 12.6
(aq 16 12 4 = + da 12.6 11 1.6 = + )
nabiji 5. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2 2 2 2
2
( ) (24 26.7) (62 55.1) (72 66.64)
26.7 55.1 66.64
i i
i
i
o e
e
;
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + +
¯

2 2
(26 38.96) (16 12.6)
6.797
38.96 12.6
÷ ÷
+ + =
nabiji 6. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. vinaidan kategoriaTa ra-
odenoba gaxda 5 amitom Tavisuflebis xarisxi iqneba . . 5 1 4 d f = ÷ = . Sesaba-
misad,
2 2
1, 4,0.05
. . 9.488
n
CV
o
; ;
÷
= = = .
nabiji 7. gadawyvetilebis miReba: radganac 6.797 < 9.488, amitom nul-
ovani hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, anu c sididis ganawile-
ba SeiZleba CaiTvalos, rom daaxloebiT normaluria.

amocanebi

1. gadaudebeli samedicino samsaxuris xelmZRvanels surs daadgin-
os aris Tu ara Tanabrad ganawilebuli kviris ganmavlobaSi gamoZaxeba-
Ta ricxvi. qvemoT moyvanilia SemTxveviT arCeuli kviris ganmavlobaSi
samsaxurSi Semosul gamoZaxebaTa raodenobebi. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmarisi safuZveli uarvyoT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb,
rom kviris ganmavlobaSi gamoZaxebaTa ricxvi ganawilebulia Tanabrad?
dRe orS. samS. oTxS. xuTS. paras. Sab. kvira
gamoZ. raod. 28 32 15 14 38 43 19

2. bavSvTa sawvimari labadis mwarmoebels surs gaarkvios aniWebs
Tu ara momxmarebeli upiratesobas labadis romelime fers. SemTxveviT
SearCies 50 gayiduli sawvimari labada da CainiSnes maTi feri. monaceme-
bi moyvanilia qvemoT. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT eniWeba Tu ara upir-
atesoba romelime fers?
feri yviTeli wiTeli mwvane lurji
gayidv. raod. 17 13 8 12

3. baris menejers surs gaarkvios aniWebs Tu ara momxmarebeli upi-
ratesobas SarbaTSi romelime xilis gemos. qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis
mixedviT, 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT,
rom momxmarebelTa mier SekveTil SarbaTSi xilis gemo ganawilebulia
Tanabrad?
gemo limoni forToxali marwyvi feixo
Sekv. raod. 12 24 19 9

4. bankis menejers ainteresebs drois romel monakveTs aniWeben ban-
kis klientebi upiratesobas bankSi misasvlelad. SearCies 6 saaTi da qve-
191

moT moyvanilia TiToeuli saaTis ganmavlobaSi bankSi mosuli klienteb-
is raodenobebi. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT Cans Tu ara, rom bankis
klientebi drois romelime monakveTs aniWeben upiratesobas?
dro 10:00 11:00 12:00 13:00 14:00 15:00
klient. raod. 26 33 42 36 24 19

5. aSS-is wiTeli jvris sazogadoebis monacemebiT amerikelTa 42%-s
aqvs O jgufis sisxli, 44%-s – A jgufis sisxli, 10%-s – B jgufis sisx-
li da 4%-s – AB jgufis sisxli. garkveuli sagrafos samedicino
eqspertis mosazrebiT mis sagrafoSi sisxlis jgufis ganawileba igivea
rac zogadnacionaluri. am sagrafodan SemTxveviT SerCeuli 200
adamianis sisxlis jgufis monacemebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT, SeamowmeT eqspertis mosazreba.
jgufi A O B AB
sixSire 58 65 55 22

6. ekonomikisa da biznesis fakultetis dekanatis mtkicebiT studen-
tTa saboloo Sefasebebi garkveul disciplinaSi ganawilebulia Semdegn-
airad: 40% -- A, 30% -- B, 20% -- C, 5% -- D da 5% -- F. gasuli semestris bol-
os am disciplinaSi studentTa mier miRebuli Sefasebebis mixedviT,
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, gansxvavdeba Tu ara am disciplinaSi sab-
oloo Sefasebebi mosalodnelisagan?F
Sefaseba A B C D E
raodenoba 45 52 39 8 6

7. kvlevis Tanaxmad momxmarebelTa 53% arCevs naRdi fulis gadaxd-
as salaroSi, 30% sargeblobs CekebiT, 16% iyenebs sakredito baraTebs,
da 1%-saTvis ara aqvs mniSvneloba ra formiT gadaixdis. didi maRaziis
mepatronem SemTxveviT SearCia 800 myidveli da SeekiTxa maT Tu ra form-
iT arCevdnen gadaxdas. aRmoCnda, rom maT Soris 400 ixdis naRdi fuliT,
210 ixdis CekebiT, 170 sargeblobs sakrediti baraTebiT da 20-saTvis mniS-
vneloba ara aqvs gadaxdis formas. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT Seamo-
wmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom am maRaziis momxmareblebis gadaxdis fo-
rmebTan damokidebuleba emTxveva kvlevis Sedegebs.
8. iaraRis maRaziis menejers surs daadginos Tu romel TveSi amj-
obineben momxmareblebi sanadiro Tofis yidvas. qvemoTmoyvanili gasuli
wlis gayidvebis maCveneblebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT,
SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom arcerT Tves ara aqvs upiratesoba
sanadiro Tofis yidvisas.
Tve seqtemberi oqtomberi noemberi dekemberi
gayidv. raod. 18 23 28 15

9. programuli uzrunvelyofis departamentis menejers mosazrebiT
misi momxmareblebis 50% yidulobs teqstis dasamuSavebel programebs,
25% -- eleqtronuli gaTvlis programebs, da 25% -- monacemTa bazebis
192

programebs. SemTxveviT SerCeul myidvelTa qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis
mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, sworia Tu ara menejeris mosaz-
reba? isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
programa teqstis damuS. eleqtr. gaTv. monac. bazebi
gayidv. raod. 38 23 19

10. sam monetas agdeben 72-jer. mosul gerbTa raodenobis qvemoTmoy-
vanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeamowmeT
hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom monetebi wesieria.
gerbTa raod. 0 1 2 3
sixSire 3 10 17 42


















pasuxebi:
1.
0
H : Tanabaria,
1
H : araTanabaria;
2
6,0.05
. . 12.59 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 28.887 TV ; = = ;
1
H .
2.
0
H : ar eniWeba,
1
H : eniWeba;
2
3,0.1
. . 6.251 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 3.28 TV ; = = ;
0
H . 3.
0
H :
ar eniWeba (Tanabaria),
1
H : eniWeba (Tanabaria);
2
3,0.01
. . 11.345 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 8.625 TV ; = = ; ki --
0
H . 4.
0
H : ar aniWeben,
1
H : aniWeben;
2
5,0.05
. . 11.071 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 12.067 TV ; = = ; ki --
1
H . 5.
0
H : igivea,
1
H :
gansxvavebulia;
2
3,0.1
. . 6.251 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 100.275 TV ; = = ;
1
H . 6.
0
H : igivea,
1
H :
gansxvavebulia;
2
4,0.05
. . 9.488 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 7.872 TV ; = = ; ara --
0
H . 7.
0
H : emTxveva,
1
H : ar emTxveva;
2
3,0.01
. . 11.345 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 36.8897 TV ; = = ;
1
H . 8.
0
H : ara aqvs
upiratesoba,
1
H : aqvs upiratesoba;
2
3,0.05
. . 7.815 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 4.67 TV ; = = ;
0
H . 9.
0
H : sworia,
1
H : arasworia;
2
. . 0.6 TV ; = = ; P-mniSvneloba > 0.1; ki --
0
H . 10.
0
H : wesieria,
1
H : arawesieria;
2
3,0.05
. . 7.815 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 139.4 TV ; = = ;
1
H .
193

Tavi XV
damoukideblobis Semowmebis xi-kvadrat kriteriumi

mowmdeba erTi populaciis ori sxvadasxva A da B niSnis erTmane-
TTan damokidebulebis sakiTxi. A niSani iyofa R kategoriad, xolo B
niSani -- C kategoriad.
nulovani hipoTeza:
0
H : A da B niSnebi damoukidebelia
alternativa:
1
H : A da B niSnebi damokidebelia
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika: xi-kvadrati
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.
2
, , 2
,
,
( )
i j i j
i j
i j
o e
e
;
÷
÷ =
¯
, sadac
, i j
o -- dakvirv-
ebuli sixSireebia, xolo
, i j
e ki mosalodneli sixSireebi;
, ,
,
,
,
i j i j
i j
i j
i j
i j
o o
e
o
×
=
¯ ¯
¯
.
SezRudva: yvela
,
5
i j
e > (winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi vaxdenT dajgufeb-
as), roca cxrili 2X2-ze didia (2X2 cxrilis SemTxvevaSi ki yvela
10
,
>
j i
e ).
kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia.
kritikuli mniSvneloba
2
,
. .
k
CV
o
; = , sadac Tavisuflebis xarisxi
( 1)( 1) k R C = ÷ ÷
kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are) =
2
1,
[ , )
n o
;
÷

P- mniSvneloba = .} . ) ( {
2
V T k P > ;
gadawyvetileba: Tu kriteriumis mniSvneloba metia an toli kritik-
ul mniSvnelobaze (T.V. >C.V.), maSin nulovan hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, wi-
naaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. 200 gamokiTxuli eqTanidan (Sesabamisad, eqimidan) 100
(Sesabamisad, 50) upiratesobas aniWebs axal proceduras, 80 (Sesabamisad,
120) – Zvel proceduras, xolo 20-saTvis (Sesabamisad, 30-saTvis) mniSvnel-
oba ara aqvs romel proceduras gamoiyenebs. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis do-
niT aris Tu ara eqTanisa da eqimis SexedulebebSi gansxvaveba?
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H : proceduraze Sexeduleba damoukidebelia profesiisagan.
1
H : proceduraze Sexeduleba damokidebelia profesiaze.
194

nabiji 2. SevadginoT niSanTa SeuRlebis R C × cxrili:
amjobinebs amjobinebs
jgufi axal proced. Zvel proced. erTidaigivea
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
eqTnebi 100 80 20
eqimebi 50 120 30

am SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs 2 striqoni da 3 sveti ( 2, 3 R C = = ), anu gvaqvs 2 3 ×
SeuRlebis cxrili. am cxrilis i -uri striqonisa da j -uri svetis
gadakveTaze mdgomi elementi ( ( , ) i j blokSi mdgomi elementi) aRvniSnoT
, i j
o -Ti. magaliTad,
1,2
80 o = . Sesabamisad, niSanTa SeuRlebis cxrili sqema-
turad ase gamoisaxeba:
sveti 1 sveti 2 sveti 3
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
striqoni 1
1,1
o
1,2
o
1,3
o
striqoni 2
2,1
o
2,2
o
2,3
o

nabiji 3. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. aq Tavisuflebis xarisxi:
. . ( 1)( 1) (2 1) (3 1) 2 d f R C = ÷ ÷ = ÷ · ÷ = . Sesabamisad, xi-kvadrat ganawilebis cxri-
lidan vpoulobT, rom:
2
2,0.05
. . 5.991 CV ; = = .
nabiji 4. gamovTvaloT striqonebSi da svetebSi mdgomi sidiideebi-
sa da yvela sididis jamebi.
amjobinebs amjobinebs
jgufi axal proced. Zvel proced. erTidaigivea
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
eqTnebi 100 80 20
200 =
¯

eqimebi 50 120 30
200 =
¯


150 =
¯
200 =
¯
50 =
¯
400 =
¯


nabiji 5. TiToeuli ( , ) i j blokisaTvis gamovTvaloT mosalodnel
sixSireTa mniSvnelobebi
, i j
e Semdegi formulis mixedviT:
, i j
e ÷
striqonisjami×svetisjami
mosalodnelimniSvneloba =
mTlianijami
.
magaliTad, (1, 1) blokisaTvis mosalodneli mniSvneloba
1,1
e iqneba:
1,1
( 200 150
75
400
e
·
= = =
(I striqonisjami) × I svetisjami)
mTlianijami
.
analogiurad, danarCeni mosalodneli mniSvnelobebi iqneba:
1,2
100 e = ,
1,3
25 e = ,
2,1
75 e = ,
2,2
100 e = ,
2,3
25 e = .
TvalsaCinoebisaTvis mosalodneli mniSvnelobebi SeiZleba Cavwer-
oT frCxilebSi niSanTa SeuRlebis cxrilis Sesabamis blokSi:
195


amjobinebs amjobinebs
jgufi axal proced. Zvel proced. erTidaigivea
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
eqTnebi 100 (75) 80 (100) 20 (25)
200 =
¯

eqimebi 50 (75) 120 (100) 30 (25)
200 =
¯


150 =
¯
200 =
¯
50 =
¯
400 =
¯

nabiji 6. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
2 2 2
, , 2
,
,
( )
(100 75) (80 100) (20 25)
75 100 25
i j i j
i j
i j
o e
e
;
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + +
¯

2 2 2
(50 75) (120 100) (30 25)
26.67
75 100 25
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + = .
nabiji 7. gadawyvetilebis miReba: vinaidan 26.67 > 5.991, nulovani hi-
poTeza unda ukuvagdoT, anu Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli raTa davask-
vnaT, rom profesiaze Sexeduleba damokidebulia profesiaze – e. i. eqT-
anisa da eqimis Sexeduleba proceduraze gansxvavebulia erTmaneTisagan.
magaliTi 2. sociologs ainteresebs gaarkvios aris Tu ara kavSiri
adamianis sacxovrebel adgilsa da mis mier universitetSi gatarebul
wlebs Soris. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 88 adamianisaTvis niSanTa SeuRlebis
cxrils aqvs Semdegi saxe:
sacxovr. universit. bakalavris magistris
adgili II kurseli xarisxi xarisxi jami
qalaqi 15 12 8 35
qalaqgareT 8 15 9 32
sofeli 6 8 7 21
jami 29 35 24 88
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeuZlia Tu ara sociologs daaskv-
nas, rom adamianis sacxovrebeli adgili dakavSirebulia mis mier
universitetSi gatarebuli wlebis raodenobasTan?
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H : adamianis sacxovrebeli adgili damoukidebelia universitetSi
gatarebuli wlebis raodenobisagan.
1
H : adamianis sacxovrebeli adgili damokidebelia universitetSi
gatarebul wlebis raodenobaze.
nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. radganac Tavisuflebis
xarisxia . . ( 1)( 1) (3 1) (3 1) 4 d f R C = ÷ ÷ = ÷ · ÷ = da 0.05 o = , amitom kritikuli mni-
Svneloba iqneba:
2
4,0.05
. . 9.488 CV ; = = .
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT mosalodneli mniSvnelobebi. gvaqvs:
1,1
35 29
11.53
88
e
·
= = ,
1,2
35 35
13.92
88
e
·
= = ,
1,3
35 24
9.55
88
e
·
= = ,
196

2,1
32 29
10.55
88
e
·
= = ,
2,2
32 35
12.73
88
e
·
= = ,
2,3
32 24
8.73
88
e
·
= = ,
3,1
21 29
6.92
88
e
·
= = ,
3,2
21 35
8.35
88
e
·
= = ,
3,3
21 24
5.73
88
e
·
= = .
nabiji 4. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
2 2 2
, , 2
,
,
( )
(15 11.53) (12 13.92) (8 9.55)
11.53 13.92 9.55
i j i j
i j
i j
o e
e
;
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + +
¯

2 2 2
(8 10.55) (15 12.73) (9 8.73)
10.55 12.73 8.73
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + +
2 2 2
(6 6.96) (8 8.35) (7 5.73)
3.01
6.96 8.35 5.73
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + = .
nabiji 5. gadawyvetilebis miReba: radganac 3.01 < 9.488, amitom soci-
ologs ara aqvs safuZveli nulovani hipoTezis uaryofis, anu sociol-
ogs ara aqvs sakmarisi safuZveli raTa daaskvnas, rom adamianis sacxovr-
ebeli adgili damokidebulia mis mier universitetSi gatarebuli wlebis
raodenobaze.
magaliTi 3. mkvlevars ainteresebs aris Tu ara kavSiri adamianis
sqessa da mis mier miRebuli alkoholis raodenobas Soris. SemTxveviT
SerCeuli 68 adamianisaTvis miRebuli monacemebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvn-
elovnebis doniT, SeuZlia Tu ara mkvlevars daaskvnas, rom miRebuli
alkoholis raodenoba dakavSirebulia sqesTan?
alkoholis moxmareba
sqesi dabali saSualo maRali jami
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mamrob. 10 9 8 27
mdedrob. 13 16 12 41
jami 23 25 20 68
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H : miRebuli alkoholis raodenoba damoukidebelia adamianis sqe-
sisagan.
1
H : alkoholis raodenoba damokidebelia adamianis sqesze.
nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. aq Tavisuflebis xaris-
xia . . ( 1)( 1) (2 1) (3 1) 2 d f R C = ÷ ÷ = ÷ · ÷ = da 0.1 o = . Sesabamisad, kritikuli mniS-
vneloba iqneba:
2
2,0.1
. . 4.605 CV ; = = .
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT mosalodneli mniSvnelobebi. gvaqvs:
1,1
27 23
9.13
68
e
·
= = ,
1,2
27 25
9.93
68
e
·
= = ,
1,3
27 20
7.94
68
e
·
= = ,
2,1
41 23
13.87
68
e
·
= = ,
2,2
41 25
15.07
68
e
·
= = ,
2,3
41 20
12.06
68
e
·
= = .
Sesabamisad, dasrulebul SeuRlebis cxrils eqneba Semdegi saxe:

197

alkoholis moxmareba
sqesi dabali saSualo maRali jami
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mamrob. 10 (9.13) 9 (9.93) 8 (7.94) 27
mdedrob. 13 (13.87) 16 (15.07) 12 (12.06) 41
jami 23 24 20 68
nabiji 4. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
2 2 2
, , 2
,
,
( )
(10 9.13) (9 9.93) (8 7.94)
9.13 9.93 7.94
i j i j
i j
i j
o e
e
;
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + +
¯

2 2 2
(13 13.87) (16 15.07) (12 12.06)
0.283
13.87 15.07 12.06
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + =
nabiji 5. gadawyvetilebis miReba: ramdenadac 0.283 < 4.605, amitom nu-
lovani hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, anu ar arsebobs sakma-
risi safuZveli vamtkicoT, rom alkoholis moxmareba damokidebulia sqe-
sze.
amocanebi

1. swavloben aris Tu ara kavSiri sportsa da sisxlis wnevas Sor-
is. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 210 adamianis qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis mixed-
viT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom
sporti da wneva ar arian damokidebuli.
sisxlis wneva
-----------------------------------------------------
dabali saSualo maRali
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
sportsmeni 34 57 21
ara sportsmeni 15 63 20
2. mkvlevars ainteresebs aris Tu ara damokidebuli moxmarebuli
yavis raodenoba adamianis asakze. 152 SemTxveviT SerCeuli adamianis qvem-
oTmoyvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, aris
Tu ara damokidebuli yavis moxmareba asakze?
yavis moxmareba
-----------------------------------------------------
asaki dabali saSualo maRali
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
21—30 18 16 12
31—40 9 15 27
41—50 5 12 10
51 > 13 9 6

3. mkvlevars ainteresebs aris Tu ara damokidebuli erTmaneTze myi-
dvelis asaki da SeZenili avtomobilis fasi. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 222 av-
tomflobelis qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelov-
198

nebis doniT, aris Tu ara avtomobilis fasi damoukidebeli avtomflobe-
lis asakisagan?
gayidvis fasi
-----------------------------------------------------
asaki araumetes 20000 l-dan -- 30000 l-dan --
20000 l -- 30000 l-mde -- 40000 l-mde
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
21—30 16 25 3
31—40 44 23 15
41—50 31 15 18
51 > 9 11 12

4. mkvlevars ainteresebs damokidebulia Tu ara informaciis miReb-
is saSualebebi adamianis ganaTlebis doneze. gamokiTxuli 400 bakalavri-
sa da magistris qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnel-
ovnebis doniT, SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom informaciis miRebis
gzebi damoukidebelia ganaTlebis donisagan.
televizia gazeTebi sxva saSualebebi
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
bakalavri 159 90 51
magistri 27 42 31

5. universitetis reqtors ainteresebs axdens Tu ara gavlenas leq-
toris samecniero xarisxi studentis Sexedulebaze am leqtoris muSaob-
is xarisxis Sesaxeb. gamokiTxuli studentebis qvemoTmoyvanili monaceme-
bis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeuZlia Tu ara reqtors da-
askvnas, rom studentis Sexeduleba leqtoris muSaobis efeqturobis Ses-
axeb damokidebulia leqtoris samecniero xarisxze?
xarisxi
--------------------------------------------------------------------
Sexeduleba bakalavri magistri doqtori
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
umaRlesi 14 9 4
saSualo 16 5 7
dabali 3 12 16
6. mkvlevars ainteresebs dakavSirebulia Tu ara studentis ojaxu-
ri mdgomareoba mis SefasebasTan statistikaSi. 142 SemTxveviT SerCeuli
studentis qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT, damokidebulia Tu ara studentis Sefaseba statistikaSi mis oja-
xur mdgomareobaze? Sefaseba
------------------------------------------------------------
ojaxuri mdgomareoba A B C D an E
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
martoxela 27 32 16 10
daojaxebuli 14 19 16 8
199

7. ikvleven kavSirs filmis tipsa da mayureblis asaks Soris. qvemo-
Tmoyvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, aris Tu
ara kavSiri filmis tipsa da mayureblis asaks Soris?
asaki dokumenturi komedia misteria
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12—20 14 9 8
21—29 15 14 9
30—38 9 21 39
39—47 7 22 17
48 > 6 38 12

8. ikvleven damokidebulebas avtomobilis tipsa (wamyvani 2 an 4
TvaliT) da myidvelis sqess Soris. SemTxveviT SerCeuli 90 myidvelis
qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT,
SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom myidvelis arCevani damoukidebelia
misi sqesisagan.
sqesi 2 wamyvani Tvali 4 wamyvani Tvali
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mamrobiTi 23 43
mdedrobiTi 18 6

9. ikvlevdnen fexburTis TamaSis dros mayureblebis mier arCeul
sakvebis saxeobas. qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnel-
ovnebis doniT, aris Tu ara mayureblis mier arCeuli sakvebi damoukideb-
eli mayureblis sqesisagan?
sqesi “hoT dogi” araxisi Rvezeli
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mamrobiTi 12 21 19
mdedrobiTi 13 8 25

10. axali preparatis gamokvlevis mizniT SerCeul iqna pacientTa
ori jgufi, romelTagan erTs aZlevdnen axal preparats, xolo meores ki
placebos. qvemoTmoyvanili kvlevis Sedegebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelo-
vnebis doniT, SeiZleba Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom preparati efeqturia? isa-
rgebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
Sedegi
efeqturi araefeqturi
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
preparati 32 9
placebo 12 18

11. wignis gamomcemels ainteresebs aris Tu ara gansxvaveba mamakace-
bisa da qalebis mier wasakiTxad arCeul wignebis tipebs Soris. qvemoTm-
oyvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeamowmeT
200

hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom arCeuli wignis tipi damoukidebelia mkiTxve-
lis sqesisagan. isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.

sqesi mistika romani deteqtivi
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mamrobiTi 243 201 191
mdedrobiTi 135 149 202






















pasuxebi:
1.
0
H : damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
2,0.05
. . 5.991 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 6.789 TV ; ÷ = ;
1
H . 2.
0
H :
damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
6,0.01
. . 16.812 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 15.824 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
0
H . 3.
0
H :
damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
6,0.05
. . 12.592 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 24.004 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
1
H . 4.
0
H : damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
2,0.05
. . 5.991 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 21.347 TV ; ÷ = ;
1
H . 5.
0
H :
damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
4,0.1
. . 7.779 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 19.507 TV ; ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 6.
0
H :
damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
3,0.05
. . 7.815 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 2.218 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
0
H . 7.
0
H :
damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
8,0.1
. . 13.362 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 46.733 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
0
H . 8.
0
H :
damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
1,0.05
. . 3.841 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 11.441 TV ; ÷ = ;
1
H . 9.
0
H :
damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
2,0.1
. . 4.605 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 6.342 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
1
H . 10.
0
H :
araefeqt.,
1
H : efeqt.;
2
. . 10.643 TV ; ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba < 0.005;
1
H . 11.
0
H :
damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
. . 19.43 TV ; ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba < 0.005;
1
H .
201

Tavi XVI
erTgvarovnebis Semowmebis xi-kvadrat kriteriumi

mowmdeba populaciaTa erTgvarovnebis hipoTeza, romelic eqvivale-
nturia hipoTezisa imis Sesaxeb, rom ama Tu im niSnis proporciebi sxvad-
asxva populaciebSi erTidaigivea.
nulovani hipoTeza:
0
H :
1 2 R
p p p = =··· = .
alternativa:
1
H : erTi proporcia mainc gansxvavdeba danarCenebisa-
gan.
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika: xi-kvadrati.
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.
2
, , 2
,
,
( )
i j i j
i j
i j
o e
e
;
÷
÷ =
¯
, sadac
, i j
o -- dakvirv-
ebuli sixSireebia, xolo
, i j
e ki mosalodneli sixSireebi:
, ,
,
,
,
i j i j
i j
i j
i j
i j
o o
e
o
×
=
¯ ¯
¯
.
SezRudva: yvela
,
5
i j
e > (winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi xdeba dajgufeba),
roca cxrili 2X2-ze didia (2X2 cxrilis SemTxvevaSi ki yvela 10
,
>
j i
e ).
kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia.
kritikuli mniSvneloba
2
( 1)( 1),
. .
R C
CV
o
;
÷ ÷
= , sadac R warmoadgens SerCev-
aTa raodenobas, xolo C ki klasebis raodenobaa.
rodesac SeuRlebis cxrilis Tavisuflebis xarisxi erTis tolia
( . . 1 d f = ), gamoiyeneba kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
, , 2
,
,
(| | 0.5)
. .
i j i j
i j
i j
o e
TV
e
;
÷ ÷
÷ =
¯
.
kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are) =
2
1,
[ , )
n o
;
÷
+· .
P- mniSvneloba = .} . ) ( {
2
V T k P > ; , sadac ( 1)( 1) k R C = ÷ ÷ .
gadawyvetileba: Tu kriteriumis mniSvneloba metia an toli kritik-
ul mniSvnelobaze (T.V. >C.V.), maSin nulovan hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, wi-
naaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. mkvlevarma SemTxveviT SearCia 150 damamaTavrebeli kur-
sis studenti sami umaRlesi saswaleblidan (instituridan) da TiToeuls
dausva SekiTxva: “dadis Tu ara igi institutSi Tavisi an mSoblebis manq-
aniT”. gamokiTxvis Sedegebi moyvanilia cxrilis saxiT. 0.05 o = mniSvnel-
ovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom im studentebis
202

proporcia, romlebic institutSi dadian sakuTari an mSoblebis
manqanebiT erTidaigivea samive institutisaTvis.
instituti I instituti II instituti III jami
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ki 18 22 16 56
ara 32 28 34 94
jami 50 50 50 150
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H :
1 2 3
p p p = = (proporciebi erTidaigivea).
1
H : sul cota erTi proporcia mainc gansxvavdeba danarCenebisagan.
nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. Tavisuflebis xarisxi
tolia . . ( 1)( 1) (2 1) (3 1) 2 d f R C = ÷ ÷ = ÷ · ÷ = . amitom xi-kvadrat ganawilebis
cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom 0.05 o = -saTvis kritikuli mniSvneloba iqneba:
2
2,0.05
. . 5.991 CV ; = = .
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT mosalodneli mniSvnelobebi. visargebloT
formuliT:
, i j
e ÷
striqonisjami×svetisjami
mosalodnelimniSvneloba =
mTlianijami
.
1,1
56 50
18.67
150
e
·
= = ,
1,2
56 50
18.67
150
e
·
= = ,
1,3
56 50
18.67
150
e
·
= = ,
2,1
94 50
31.33
150
e
·
= = ,
2,2
94 50
31.33
150
e
·
= = ,
2,3
94 50
31.33
150
e
·
= = .
dasrulebuli SeuRlebis cxrili iqneba:
instituti I instituti II instituti III jami
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ki 18 (18.67) 22 (18.67) 16 (18.67) 56
ara 32 (31.33) 28 (31.33) 34 (31.33) 94
jami 50 50 50 150
nabiji 4. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
2 2 2
, , 2
,
,
( )
(18 18.67) (22 18.67) (16 18.67)
18.67 18.67 18.67
i j i j
i j
i j
o e
e
;
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + +
¯

2 2 2
(32 31.33) (28 31.33) (34 31.33)
1.596
31.33 31.33 31.33
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + = .
nabiji 5. gadawyvetilebis miReba: radganac 1.596 < 5.991, amitom nul-
ovani hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, anu ar arsebobs sakmari-
si safuZveli vamtkicoT, rom proporciebi gansxvavebulia.
magaliTi 2. sami qarxana uSvebs erTidaigive detals. am qarxnebidan
aRebulia Sesabamisad 250, 200 da 150 detali, romelTagan arastandartu-
li aRmoCnda Sesabamisad 10, 9 da 11 detali. SevamowmoT hipoTeza aRniSn-
ul SerCevaTa erTgvarovnebis Sesaxeb 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT.
amoxsna.
203

nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H : SerCevebi erTgvarovania.
1
H : ori SerCeva mainc gansxvavebulia erTmaneTisagan.
nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba:
2 2 2
( 1)( 1), (3 1)(2 1),0.1 2,0.1
. . 4.605
R C
CV
o
; ; ;
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = .
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT mosalodneli mniSvnelobebi. gvaqvs:
1,1
250 570
297.5
600
e
·
= = ,
1,2
250 30
12.5
600
e
·
= = ,
2,1
200 570
190
600
e
·
= = ,
2,2
200 30
10
600
e
·
= = ,
3,1
150 570
142.5
600
e
·
= = ,
3,2
150 30
7.5
600
e
·
= = .
amrigad, dasrulebuli SeuRlebis cxrili iqneba:
standartuli arastandartuli jami
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
I qarxana 240 (297.5) 10 (12.5) 250
II qarxana 191 (190) 9 (10) 200
III qarxana 139 (142.5) 11 (7.5) 150
jami 570 30 600
nabiji 4. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
2 2 2
, , 2
,
,
( )
(240 237.5) (10 12.5) (191 190)
237.5 12.5 190
i j i j
i j
i j
o e
e
;
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + +
¯

2 2 2
(9 10) (139 142.5) (11 7.5)
2.36
10 142.5 7.5
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + = .
nabiji 5. gadawyvetilebis miReba: radganac 2.36 < 4.605, amitom nul-
ovani hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, anu 0.1 o = mniSvnelovne-
bis doniT SerCevebi erTgvarovania.

amocanebi
1. kvlevis Tanaxmad 6-dan 17-wlamde mozardebis 64%-s ar SeuZlia
gadalaxos sabazo Sesabamisobis testi. mkvlevars ainteresebs aris Tu
ara am kategoriis moswavleebis proporcia erTidaigive sxvadasxva skol-
ebSi. testireba Cautarda SemTxveviT SerCeul 120--120 moswavles oTxi
sxvadasxva skolidan. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza
imis Sesaxeb, rom im moswavleebis proporcia, romlebmac gadalaxes Sesa-
bamisobis testi, erTidaigivea.
I skola II skola III skola IV skola
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
gadalaxa 49 38 46 34
ver gadalaxa 71 82 74 86
jami 120 120 120 120
2. sareklamo kompaniam gadawyvita sami sxvadasxva maRaziis 92—92
momxmarebels SesTavazos monawileoba miiRos bazris kvlevis gamokiTxva-
Si. wina kvlevis mixedviT, 38%-ma uari ganacxada aseT gamokiTxvaSi monaw-
ileobis miRebaze. 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza im-
204

is Sesaxeb, rom im momxmareblebis proporcia, romlebic apireben monawi-
leoba miiRon gamokiTxvaSi, erTidaigivea.
I maRazia II maRazia III maRazia
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
miiRebs
monawileobas
52 45 36
ar miiRebs
monawileobas
40 47 56
jami 92 92 92
3. sadazRvevo kompanias ainteresebs icvleba Tu ara asakis mixedviT
proporcia im mZRolebis, vinc dalevis Semdeg jdeba saWesTan. gamokiTx-
ul iqna 4 asakobrivi jgufis 86--86 mZRoli. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis don-
iT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom proporcia im mZRolebis, vinc
kiTxavas: “jdebiT Tu ara nasvami saWesTan” -- upasuxa “diax”, erTidaigi-
vea yvela asakobrivi jgufisaTvis.
asaki 21—29 30—39 40—49 50-ze meti wlis
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
diax 32 28 26 21
ara 54 58 60 65
jami 86 86 96 86
4. gamokvlevis mixedviT 8-dan 17 wlamde mozarebis 59% urCevnia,
rom mama dasaqmebuli iyos biznesSi, vidre iyos partiuli muSaki. SerCe-
ul iqna 60—60 moswavle dawyebiTi, saSualo da maRali klasebidan, raTa
daedginaT maTi damokidebuleba mamis samsaxuris mimarT. 0.1 o = mniSvnel-
ovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom proporciebi im mos-
wavleebis, romelTac urCevniaT, rom mama iyos biznesmeni, tolia.
dawyebiTi saSualo maRali
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
biznesis sferoSi 29 38 51
partiul samuSaoze 31 22 9
jami 60 60 60
5. gamokiTxul iqna 100—100 adamiani qveynis oTxive kuTxeSi. maT
dausves kiTxva: “aqvT Tu ara mudmivi samuSao”. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom proporciebi im adamianebis,
romelTac aqvT mudmivi samuSao, tolia qveynis oTxive kuTxeSi.
aRmosavleTi dasavleTi CrdiloeTi samxreTi
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
diax 43 39 22 28
ara 57 61 78 72
jami 100 100 100 100
6. amerikeli mamebis saSualod 79% sakuTari Svilis gaCenisas imyo-
feba samSobiaro ganyofilebaSi. gamokiTxul iqna 300 amerikeli mama. maT
dausves kiTxva: “imyofebodnen Tu ara samSobiaro ganyofilebaSi meuRl-
is mSobiarobisas”. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT gvaqvs Tu ara sakmari-
si safuZveli ukuvagdoT hipoTeza im mamebis proporciebis tolobis Ses-
205

axeb, romlebic meuRlis mSobiarobisas imyofebodnen samSobiaro ganyof-
ilebaSi?
I samSobiaro II samSobiaro III samSobiaro IV samSobiaro
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ki 66 60 57 56
ara 9 15 18 19
jami 75 75 75 75
7. msoflio jandacvis organizaciis monacemebiT zooparkebSi bavSv-
ebis mier miRebuli tramvebis 55% modis maimunis nakbenze. gamokvleul
iqna 4 sxvadasxva zooparkSi bavSvTa tramvebis 30—30 SemTxveva. 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza proporciebis tolobis Sesax-
eb. isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT.
tramva zooparki A zooparki B zooparki C zooparki D
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
maimunis kbena 15 18 13 16
sxva tramva 15 12 17 14
jami 30 30 30 30
8. sasursaTo maRaziebis qselis mepatrones surs daadginos misi ma-
Raziebis momxmareblebi maRaziaSi wasvlamde winaswar adgenen Tu ara sa-
Wiro produqtebis sias. am mizniT gamokiTxul iqna 288 momxmarebeli.
0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom prop-
orciebi im momxmareblebis, romlebic maRaziaSi wasvlamde adgenen SesaZ-
eni produqtebis sias, tolia samive maRaziisaTvis.
maRazia A maRazia B maRazia C
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
adgens sias 77 74 68
ar adgens sias 19 22 28
jami 96 96 96



pasuxebi:
1.
0 1 2 3 4
: H p p p p = = = ,
1
: H erTi mainc gansx.;
2
3,0.05
. . 7.815 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 5.317 TV ; ÷ = ;
0
H . 2.
0 1 2 3
: H p p p = = ,
1
: H erTi mainc gansx.;
2
2,0.01
. . 9.210 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 8.046 TV ; ÷ = ;
0
H . 3.
0 1 2 3 4
: H p p p p = = = ,
1
: H erTi mainc gansx.;
2
3,0.05
. . 7.815 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 3.4 TV ; ÷ = ;
0
H . 4.
0 1 2 3
: H p p p = = ,
1
: H erTi mainc gansx.;
2
2,0.1
. . 4.605 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 18.06 TV ; ÷ = ;
1
H . 5.
0 1 2 3 4
: H p p p p = = = ,
1
: H erTi mainc gansx.;
2
3,0.1
. . 6.251 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 12.755 TV ; ÷ = ;
1
H . 6.
0 1 2 3 4
: H p p p p = = = ,
1
: H erTi mainc
gansx.;
2
3,0.05
. . 7.815 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 5 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
0
H . 7.
0 1 2 3 4
: H p p p p = = = ,
1
: H erTi mainc gansx.;
2
. . 1.734 TV ; ÷ = ; P-mniSvneloba > 0.1;
0
H . 8.
0 1 2 3
: H p p p = = ,
1
: H erTi mainc gansx.;
2
2,0.1
. . 4.605 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 2.401 TV ; ÷ = ;
0
H .
206

Tavi XVII
dawyvilebuli monacemebi, korelacia

ama Tu im or maxasiaTebels (an or maCvenebels) Soris kavSiris Se-
swavlis mizniT am maxasiaTeblebis dakvirvebuli mniSvnelobebis simrav-
les warmoadgenen wyvilebis simravlis saxiT:
1 1
( , ), x y
2 2
( , ) x y , . . . , ( , )
n n
x y .
am monacemebis mixedviT ageben e. w. gabnevis diagramas Semdegi wesiT: sib-
rtyeze, koordinatTa marTkuTxa sistemaSi, moniSnaven wertilebs, romel-
Ta koordinatebia ( , )
i i
x y , 1, 2,..., i n = .
magaliTi 1. mkvlevars ainteresebs daadginos arsebobs Tu ara kavS-
iri velosipediT wvimian amindSi momxdar msubuq avariaTa ricxvsa da si-
kvdiliT (fataluri SedegiT) damTavrebul avariaTa ricxvs Soris. qvem-
oT moyvanilia 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi wvimian amindSi velosipediT momxd-
ari avariebis monacemebi:

msub. avar.
ricxvi, x
376 650 884 1162 1513 1650 2236 3002 4028 4010
fat. avar.
ricxvi, y
5 20 20 28 26 34 35 56 68 55
avagoT gabnevis diagrama am monacemebisaTvis.
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. sibrtyeze avagoT marTkuTxa koordinatTa sistema da mov-
niSnoT x da y RerZebi.
nabiji 2. avagoT wertilTa wyvilebi sakoordinato sibrtyeze ise
rogorc es qvemoTaa naCvenebi:
gabnevis diagrama
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000
msubuq avariaTa ricxvi
f
a
t
a
l
u
r

a
v
a
r
i
a
T
a

r
i
c
x
v
i


magaliTi 2. avagoT gabnevis diagrama monacemebisaTvis, romelic mi-
iReba 6 SemTxveviT SerCeuli pirovnebis asaksa da arteriuli wnevas So-
ris damokidebulebis Seswavlisas. monacemebis cxrilia:
207

persona asaki, x wneva, y
A 43 128
B 48 120
C 56 135
D 61 143
E 67 141
F 70 152
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. davxazoT sakoordinato sibrtye da movniSnoT x da y
RerZebi.
nabiji 2. movniSnoT TiToeuli wertili grafikze rogorc es qvemo-
Taa naCvenebi:
gabnevis diagrama
110
120
130
140
150
160
30 40 50 60 70 80
asaki
w
n
e
v
a

x da y sidideebs Soris SesaZlebelia arsebobdes ramodenime gans-
xvavebuli tipis damokidebuleba:
1. dadebiTi wrfivi kavSiri arsebobs (gvaqvs) im SemTxvevaSi, rodes-
ac wertilebi daaxloebiT koncentrirebulia aRmavali swori xazis irg-
vliv da erTdroulad orive x da y sididis mniSvnelobebi zrdadia. as-
eTi kavSiri gvaqvs maSin, rodesac x sididis zrdasTan erTad izrdeba y
sididec.
dadebiTi wrfivi kavSiri
0
100
200
300
400
0 50 100 150

2. uaryofiTi wrfivi kavSiri arsebobs im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac wer-
tilebi daaxloebiT koncentrirebulia daRmavali swori xazis irgvliv.
aseTi kavSiri gvaqvs maSin, rodesac x sididis zrdasTan erTad klebul-
obs y sidide da piriqiT.
208

uaryofiTi wrfivi kavSiri
0
100
200
300
400
0 50 100 150

3. arawrfivi kavSiri arsebobs im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac wertilebi
daaxloebiT koncentrirebulia arawrfivi (mrudi) xazis (wiris) irgvliv.
es damokidebuleba aRiwereba Sesabamisi wiris bunebiT.
arawrfivi kavSiri
0
100
200
300
400
0 50 100 150

4. ar aris kavSiri im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac wertilebi uwesrigodaa
mimofantuli, anu ar Cans rom isini raime wiris irgvlivaa koncentrireb-
uli.
ar aris kavSiri
0
200
400
600
0 50 100 150

zemoT moyvanil magaliTSi x (msubuq avariaTa ricxvi) da y (fata-
lur avariaTa ricxvi) sidideebs Soris adgili aqvs wrfiv dadebiT kavS-
irs. wirs, romelic aRwers kavSirs (damokidebulebas) x da y sidideebis
mniSvnelobebs Soris misadagebis wiri ewodeba. am wiris povnis sakiTxebs
swavlobs maTematikuri statistikis nawili, romelsac regresiuli anal-
izi ewodeba. wiris mosaZebnad iyeneben e. w. umcires kvadratTa meTods.
Tu sidideebs Soris gvaqvs wrfivi kavSiri ( ) y x ax b = + , maSin amboben
rom x da y sidideebs Soris wrfivi regresiuli kavSiria da ( ) y x ax b = +
wrfes uwodeben regresiis wrfis gantolebas (xolo am formuliT gamo-
Tvlil
'
( )
i i i
y y x ax b = = + mniSvnelobas prognozi ewodeba). umcires kvadra-
tTa meTodi gvaZlevs, rom am SemTxvevaSi:
209

1 1 1
2 2
1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
n n n
i i i i
i i i
n n
i i
i i
n x y x y
a
n x x
= = =
= =
÷ ·
=
÷
¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯
da
2
1 1 1 1
2 2
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
n n n n
i i i i i
i i i i
n n
i i
i i
y x x x y
b
n x x
= = = =
= =
· ÷ ·
=
÷
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯
.
Sefasebis standartuli Secdoma ewodeba sidides:
' 2
1
( ))
:
2
n
i i
i
y y
s
n
=
÷
=
÷
¯
Sef
,
igi warmoadgens damokidebuli cvladis dakvirvebuli mniSvnelobebis
standartul gadaxras saprognozo mniSvnelobebisagan.
( ) y x mniSvnelobis o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone saprognozo int-
ervali (ndobis intervalis analogi) moicema TanafardobiT:
2, / 2 2, / 2
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
1 ( ) 1 ( )
( ) 1 , ( ) 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
n n n n n n
i i i i
i i i i
n x x n x x
y x t s y x t s
n n
n x x n x x
o o ÷ ÷
= = = =
÷ ÷
÷ + + + + +
÷ ÷
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
Sef Sef
magaliTi 3. menejerma Seagrova monacemebi da daadgina, rom gasam-
ravlebeli manqanis asaksa da TveSi teqnikuri momsaxurebis xarjebs Sor-
is mniSvnelovani kavSiria. regresiis wrfis gantolebaa ( ) 8.13 55.57 y x x = + .
ipoveT Sefasebis standartuli Secdoma, Tu monacemebia:
manqana A B C D E F
asaki, x 1 2 3 4 5 6
xarji, y 62 78 70 90 93 103
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. gavakeToT Semdegi cxrili:
i
x
i
y
'
i
y
'
i i
y y ÷
' 2
( )
i i
y y ÷
1 62
2 78
3 70
4 90
4 93
6 103
nabiji 2. visargebloT regresiis wrfis gantolebiT da gamovTval-
oT saprognozo mniSvnelobebi TiToeuli
i
x -saTvis:
'
: ( ) 8.13 55.57
i i i
y y x x = = + .
gvaqvs:
'
1
63.7 y = ,
'
2
71.83 y = ,
'
3
79.96 y = ,
' '
4 5
88.09 y y = = da
'
6
104.35 y = . SevitanoT
es monacemebi cxrilis Sesabamis svetSi.
nabiji 3. TiToeul
i
y -s gamovakloT Sesabamisi
'
i
y da Sedegebi Sevi-
tanoT Sesabamis svetSi:
'
1 1
1.7 y y ÷ =÷ ,
'
2 2
6.17 y y ÷ = ,
'
3 3
9.96 y y ÷ =÷ ,
'
4 4
1.91 y y ÷ = ,
'
5 5
1.35 y y ÷ ÷ .
nabiji 4. miRebuli sxvavobebi aviyvanoT kvadratSi da SevitanoT
Sesabamis svetSi.
nabiji 5. SevkriboT bolo svetis monacemebi:
210

i
x
i
y
'
i
y
'
i i
y y ÷
' 2
( )
i i
y y ÷
1 62 63.7 -1.7 2.89
2 78 71.83 6.17 38.0689
3 70 79.96 -9.96 99.2016
4 90 88.09 1.91 3.6481
4 93 88.09 4.91 24.1081
6 103 104.35 -1.35 1.8225
jami 169.7392
nabiji 6. gamovTvaloT Sefasebis standartuli Secdoma:
' 2
1
( ))
169.7392
: 6.51
2 6 2
n
i i
i
y y
s
n
=
÷
= = =
÷ ÷
¯
Sef
.
Sefasebis standartuli Secdoma SeiZleba agreTve gamoiTvalos
fomuliT:
2
1 1 1
:
2
n n n
i i i i
i i i
y b y a x y
s
n
= = =
÷ ÷
=
÷
¯ ¯ ¯
Sef
.
magaliTi 4. wina magaliTSi: a). gamoTvaleT Sefasebis standartuli
Secdoma ukanaskneli formulis mixedviT da b). aageT 95%-iani saprogno-
zo intervali 3 wlis gasamravlebeli manqanisaTvis TveSi gasawevi teqni-
kuri momsaxurebis xarjisaTvis.
amoxsna. a).
nabiji 1. SevavsoT qvemoTmoyvanili cxrili:
i
x
i
y
i i
x y
2
i
y
1 62 62 3844
2 78 156 6084
3 70 210 4900
4 90 360 8100
4 93 372 8649
6 103 618 10609
jami 496 1778 42186
nabiji 2. vipovoT Sefasebis standartuli Secdoma:
2
1 1 1
42186 55.57 496 8.13 1778
: 6.48
2 6 2
n n n
i i i i
i i i
y b y a x y
s
n
= = =
÷ ÷
÷ · ÷ ·
= = =
÷ ÷
¯ ¯ ¯
Sef

(gasagebia, rom 6.48 axlosaa wina magaliTSi miRebul 6.51-Tan).
b).
nabiji 1. vipovoT:
i
x
¯
=20,
2
i
x
¯
=82,
20
3.3
6
x = = .
nabiji 2. xarjis prognozi, roca 3 x = : (3) 8.13 3 55.57 79.96 y = · + = .
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT Sefasebis standartuli Secdoma. a). punqtis
mixedviT: 6.48 s =
Sef
.
211

nabiji 4. SevitanoT saWiro monacemebi saprognozo intervalis Tan-
afardobaSi (aq (1 ) 95 100 o ÷ · = , 0.05 o = ; . . 6 2 4 d f = ÷ = ;
2, / 2
2.776
n
t
o ÷
= ):
2 2
2 2
1 6 (3 3.3) 1 6 (3 3.3)
(79.96 2.776 6.48 1 , 79.96 2.776 6.48 1 )
6 6 82 20 6 6 82 20
· ÷ · ÷
÷ · · + + + · · + +
· ÷ · ÷
,
(79.96 2.776 6.48 1.08, 79.96 2.776 6.48 1.08) ÷ · · + · · ,
(60.53, 99.39).
or sidides Soris damokidebulebis xarisxis gasazomad iyeneben e.
w. korelaciis koeficients. arsebobs sxvadasxva saxis korelaciis koefi-
cienti. Cven aq moviyvanT e. w. pirsonis momentTa namravlis korelaciis
koeficients (Pearson product moment correlation coefficient -- PPMC ), romelic
dakavSirebulia cnobili statistikosis karl pirsonis saxelTan.
korelaciis koeficienti, gamoTvlili monacemTa SerCevis mixedviT,
warmoadgens or sidides Soris wrfivi damokidebulebis xarisxisa da mi-
marTulebis sazoms. SerCeviTi korelaciis koeficienti aRiniSneba r aso-
Ti, xolo populaciis mixedviT gamoTvlili korelaciis koeficienti aR-
iniSneba berZnuli p (ro) asoTi.
or x da y sidides Soris kovariaciis koeficienti ( cov( , ) x y ) ganim-
arteba Semdegi TanafardobiT:
1 1
1 1
cov( , ) ( )( )
n n
i i i i
i i
x y x x y y x y xy
n n
= =
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
¯ ¯
,
sadac
1
1
n
i
i
x x
n
=
=
¯
,
1
1
n
i
i
y y
n
=
=
¯
. SerCeviTi korelaciis koeficienti moicema
TanafardobiT:
1
2 2
1 1
1
( )( )
cov( , )
1 1
( ) ( )
n
i i
i
n n
x y
i i
i i
x x y y
x y n
r
s s
x x y y
n n
=
= =
÷ ÷
= = =
÷ ÷
¯
¯ ¯

1
1
2 2
1 1
( )( )
1
( )( )
( ) ( )
n
i i n
i i i
n n
i
x y
i i
i i
x x y y
x x y y
n s s
x x y y
=
=
= =
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= =
÷ ÷
¯
¯
¯ ¯
.
korelaciis koeficientis Tvisebebi:
1. 1 1 r ÷ s s . r -is dadebiTi mniSvneloba miuTiTebs sidideebs Soris
pozitiuri damokidebulebis arsebobaze, xolo uaryofiTi mniSvneloba ki
– uaryofiTze.
2. | | 1 r = maSin da mxolod maSin, roca x da y sidideebs Soris ars-
ebobs wrfivi kavSiri
i i
y ax b = + . amasTanave, Tu 1 r = , maSin 0 a > da Tu
1 r =÷ , maSin 0 a < .
3. korelaciis koeficienti ucvleli rCeba sidideebis wrfivi gard-
aqmnisas.
4. korelaciis koeficienti zomavs sidideebs Soris wrfivi damoki-
debulebis siZlieres. sxva, arawrfivi, Tundac deterministuli kavSiri
korelaciaSi ar aisaxeba.
212

5. rac ufro koncentrirebulia monacemebi raime wrfis midamoSi,
miT ufro didia korelaciis koeficienti.
6. or sidides Soris kavSiri arsebobs, Tu adgili aqvs Tanaf-
ardobas: | | 2/ r n > , sadac n SerCevis moculobaa.
7. Tu mocemulia monacemTa ori simravle
1
,...,
n
x x da
1
,...,
n
y y , maSin
monacemTa axali
i i i
z x y = ± ( 1,..., i n = ) simravlisaTvis SerCeviTi dispersia
ase gamoiTvleba:
2 2 2
2cov( , )
z x y
s s s x y = + ± (Tu cov( , ) 0 x y = , maSin
2 2 2
z x y
s s s = + ).
analogiurad,
' 2 ' 2 ' 2 '
2cov ( , )
z x y
s s s x y = + ± , sadac
'
1
1
cov ( , ) ( )( ) cov( , )
1 1
n
i i
i
n
x y x x y y x y
n n
=
= ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷
¯
.
magaliTi 5. mocemulia ori trestis wliuri saprocento Semosavl-
is monacemebi bolo 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi:

tresti A 8.3 -6.2 20.9 -2.7 33.6 42.8 24.4 5.2 3.1 30.5
tresti B 12.1 -2.8 6.4 12.2 27.8 25.3 18.2 10.7 -1.3 11.4
avagoT gabnevis diagrama da gamovTvaloT korelaciis koeficienti.
amoxsna. A trestis monacemebi gadavzomoT x RerZze, B trestisa ki
y RerZze.
gabnevis diagrama
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
-20 0 20 40 60
A trestis monacemebi
B

t
r
e
s
t
i
s

m
o
n
a
c
e
m
e
b
i

am SemTxvevaSi 16 x = , 12 y = , 17.65
x
s = da 10.51
y
s = . amitom gvaqvs:
1
1
cov( , )
n
i i
i
x y x y xy
n
=
= ÷ =
¯

1
[8.3 12.1 ( 6.2) ( 2.8) 30.5 11.4] 16 12 71.48
10
= · · + ÷ · ÷ +··· + · ÷ · = ,
Sesabamisad,
cov( , ) 71.48
0.39
17.65 10.51
x y
x y
r
s s
= = ~
·
.
213

korelaciis koeficientis es mniSvneloba gvaewmunebs, rom arsebobs
sustad gamoxatuli pozitiuri wrfivi kavSiri A da B trestebis amonag-
ebs Soris, rasac gabnevis diagramac adasturebs.
magaliTi 6. axali produqciis fasis dasadgenad kompaniam SearCia
10 qalaqi, romelTac arsebiTad erTi da igive yidvis potenciali gaaCnia
da gamoitana produqcia bazarze yovel maTganSi sxvadasxva fasad. kompa-
niis mier miRebuli Sedegebi moyvanilia cxrilSi:

qalaqis nomeri 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
fasi, x 15.
0
15.
5
16.
0
16.
5
17.
0
17.
5
18.
0
18.
5
19.
0
19.
5
gayidvis moculoba, y 15 14 16 9 12 10 8 9 6 5
davadginoT gayidvis moculobis fasze damokidebulebis saxe.
amoxsna. avagoT gabnevis diagrama
gabnevis diagrama
0
5
10
15
20
12 14 16 18 20 22
fasi
g
a
y
i
d
v
i
s

m
o
c
u
l
o
b
a

rogorc diagrama gviCvenebs, Cvens winaSea uaryofiTi wrfivi kavSi-
ris tendencia: monacemebi Tavmoyrili arian uaryofiTi daxrilobis mqo-
ne wrfis midamoSi. radganac korelaciis koeficienti zomavs or sidides
Soris arsebuli wrfivi kavSiris siZlieres, unda movelodeT, rom kore-
laciis koeficienti sakmaod axlos iqneba -1-TTan. gamovTvaloT korela-
ciis koeficienti. gvaqvs:
17.25 x = , 1.44
x
s = , 10.4 y = , 3.56
y
s = , cov( , ) 4.75 x y =÷ da
cov( , ) 4.75
0.93
5.13
x y
x y
r
s s
÷
= = ~÷ .
korelaciis koeficientis es mniSvneloba adasturebs gabnevis diag-
ramis daxmarebiT miRebul daskvnas. wrfes, romlis midamoSiac Tavmoyri-
lia dakvirvebuli wyvilebi aqvs saxe:

y ax b = +

, sadac

2 2
cov( , ) 4.75
2.29
1.44
x
x y
a
s
÷
= = ~ ÷ da

10.4 2.29 17.25 49.90 b y ax = ÷ = + · ~

,
214

anu 2.29 49.9 y x =÷ + .
es gantoleba kompanias saSualebas aZlevs axali produqciis fasis
mixedviT gaakeTos prognozi gayidvis SesaZlo moculobis Sesaxeb.
amrigad, korelaciis koeficientis mniSvneloba moTavsebulia -1-sa
da 1-s Soris. Tu or sidides Soris adgili aqvs mkacrad dadebiT wrfiv
damokidebulebas, maSin r -is mniSvneloba axlosaa +1-Tan. Tu or sidides
Soris adgili aqvs mkacrad uaryofiT wrfiv damokidebulebas, maSin r -is
mniSvneloba axlosaa -1-Tan. rodesac or sidides Soris ara gvaqvs wrfi-
vi damokidebuleba, an am sidideebs Soris susti kavSiria, maSin r -is mni-
Svneloba axlosaa 0-Tan. qvemoT moyvanilia korelaciis xarisxis sityvie-
ri daxasiaTebisaTvis miRebuli terminologia da Sesabamisi diagramebi:

srulyofili
uaryofiTi
korelacia
saSualo
uaryofiTi
korelacia

ar aris
korelacia
saSualo
dadebiTi
korelacia
srulyofili
dadebiTi
korelacia
Zlieri
uaryofiTi
korelacia
susti
uaryofiTi
korelacia
susti
dadebiTi
korelacia
Zlieri
dadebiTi
korelacia
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
uaryofiTi korelacia dadebiTi korelacia

Y Y
r=–1 r=1
X X

srulyofili uaryofiTi srulyofili dadebiTi
korelacia korelacia
Y
X
.
. . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
. . .
.

ar aris korelacia

Y
X
.
.
.
.
. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Y
X
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

215

Zlieri uaryofiTi Zlieri dadebiTi
korelacia korelacia
korelaciis koeficientis pirdapiri gamoTvlisaTvis iyeneben form-
ulas:
1 1 1
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
[ ( ) ( ) ] [ ( ) ( ) ]
n n n
i i i i
i i i
n n n n
i i i i
i i i i
n x y x y
r
n x x n y y
= = =
= = = =
÷ ·
=
÷ · ÷
¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
.
magaliTi 7. gamovTvaloT korelaciis koeficientis mniSvneloba 6
SemTxveviT SerCeuli pirovnebis asakisa da arteriuli wnevis monacemebis
mixedviT:
persona A B C D E F
asaki 43 48 56 61 67 70
wneva 128 120 135 143 141 152
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. gavakeToT cxrili ise rogors es qvemoTaa naCvenebi:

persona asaki, x wneva, y
xy
2
x
2
y
A 43 128
B 48 120
C 56 135
D 61 143
E 67 141
F 70 152
nabiji 2. gamovTvaloT xy,
2
x da
2
y gamosaxulebaTa mniSvnelobebi
da SevitanoT cxrilis Sesabamis svetebSi. SevkriboT svetebSi moTavebli
mniSvnelobebi. dasrulebul cxrils eqneba Semdegi saxe:

persona asaki, x wneva, y
xy
2
x
2
y
A 43 128 5.504 1.849 16.384
B 48 120 5.760 2.304 14.400
C 56 135 7.560 3.136 18.225
D 61 143 8.723 3.721 20.449
E 67 141 9.447 4.489 19.881
F 70 152 10.640 4.900 23.104

345 x =
¯
819 y =
¯
47.634 xy =
¯

2
20.399 x =
¯

2
112.443 y =
¯

nabiji 3. miRebuli mniSvnelobebi SevitanoT korelaciis koeficien-
tis formulaSi da gamovTvaloT r :
2 2
6 47.634 345 819
0.897
(6 20.399 345 ) (6 112.443 819 )
r
· ÷ ·
= =
· ÷ · · ÷
.
216

daskvna. korelaciis koeficientis miRebuli mniSvneloba gveubneba,
rom adamianis asaksa da arteriul wnevas Soris arsebobs mkacrad dadeb-
iTi wrfivi damokidebuleba.

daskvnebi korelaciis koeficientis Sesaxeb

SerCeviTi korelaciis koeficienti SeiZleba aviRoT populaciis
korelaciis koeficientis Sefasebad, Tu x da y SemTxveviTi sidideebi
wrfivadaa dakavSirebuli da maTi erToblivi ganawileba normaluria.
hipoTeza:
0
: 0 H p = (sidideebs Soris ar aris korelacia populacia-
Si)
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
2
2
( 2)
1
n
T r T n
r
÷
= ~ ÷
÷

kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.:
2
2
1
n
t r
r
÷
=
÷

alternativa kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are)
1
: 0 H p >
2, n
t t
o ÷
> ,
1
: 0 H p <
2, n
t t
o ÷
s÷ ,
1
: 0 H p =
2, / 2 n
t t
o ÷
s÷ an
2, / 2 n
t t
o ÷
>
(sadac
2, n
t
o ÷
aris Tavisuflebis 2 n÷ xarisxis mqone stiudentis ganawil-
ebis zeda o -kritikuli wertili anu kritikuli mniSvneloba C.V.).
P- mniSvneloba:
0 1
0 1
0 1
{ | }, : 0;
{ | }, : 0;
{| | | || }, : 0.
P T t H H
P P T t H H
P T t H H
p
p
p
> > ¦
¦
= < <
´
¦
> =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu
=
=
1
1
1
1 ( ), : 0;
( ), : 0;
2 [1 (| |)], : 0.
T
T
T
F t H
F t H
F t H
p
p
p
÷ > ¦
¦
<
´
¦
· ÷ =
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu

gadawyvetileba: Tu t e C.R., maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, winaaR-
mdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.

magaliTi 8. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza wina
magaliTSi gamoTvlili korelaciis koeficientis mniSvnelovnebis Sesax-
eb.
amoxsna (standartuli meTodi).
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = .
217

nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. aq 6 n = , e. i. Tavisufleb-
is xarisxia . . 6 2 4 d f = ÷ = da radganac 0.05 o = , amitom stiudentis ganawi-
lebis cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom
2, / 2 4,0.025
. . 2.776
n
CV t t
o ÷
=± =± =± .
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2 2
2 6 2
0.897 4.059
1 1 0.897
n
t r
r
÷ ÷
= = · =
÷ ÷
.
nabiji 4. gadawyvetilebis miReba: vinaidan kriteriumis mniSvneloba
vardeba kritikul areSi, amitom nulovan hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, anu asak-
sa da wnevas Soris aris mniSvnelovani wrfivi kavSiri.
amoxsna ( P-mniSvnelobis meTodi).
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = .
nabiji 2. vipovoT Tavisuflebis xarisxi. vinaidan 6 n = , amitom Tavi-
suflebis xarisxia . . 6 2 4 d f = ÷ = .
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2 2
2 6 2
0.897 4.059
1 1 0.897
n
t r
r
÷ ÷
= = · =
÷ ÷
.
nabiji 4. stiudentis ganawilebis cxrilSi Tavisuflebis 4-is to-
li xarisxisaTvis movZebnoT ori mniSvneloba, romelTa Soris vardeba
kriteriumis mniSvneloba 4.059. aseTi mniSvnelobebia 3.747 da 4.604. maTi
Sesabamisis o -ebis moZebniT vpoulobT, rom Sesabamisad, 0.01 < P-mniSvne-
loba < 0.02.
nabiji 5. gadawyvetilebis miReba: vinaidan P-mniSvneloba < o , amit-
om nulovan hipoTezas ukuvagdebT.
magaliTi 9. dawereT regresiis wrfis gantoleba magaliT 5-Si da
gaakeTeT 50 wlis asakis adamianis arteriuli wnevis prognozi.
amoxsna. gvaqvs: 6 n = ,
6
1
345
i
i
x
=
=
¯
,
6
1
819
i
i
y
=
=
¯
,
6
1
47.634
i i
i
x y
=
=
¯
,
6
2
1
20.399
i
i
x
=
=
¯
. gamovTvaloT regresiis wrfis koeficientebi:
1 1 1
2 2
1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
0.964
( ) ( )
n n n
i i i i
i i i
n n
i i
i i
n x y x y
a
n x x
= = =
= =
÷ ·
= =
÷
¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯
,
2
1 1 1 1
2 2
1 1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
81.048
( ) ( )
n n n n
i i i i i
i i i i
n n
i i
i i
y x x x y
b
n x x
= = = =
= =
· ÷ ·
= =
÷
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯
.
amitom regresiis wrfis gantoleba iqneba:
0.964 81.048 y x = + .
gavakeToT prognozi:
0.964 50 81.048 129.248 129 y = · + = ~ .
maSasadame, 50 wlis adamianis savaraudo arteriuli wneva iqneba 129.
SeniSvna: im SemTxvevaSi, roca korelaciis koeficienti mniSvnelov-
nad ar gansxvavdeba nulisagan, y -is saukeTeso prognozia y -is mniSvnel-
obebis saSualo.
218

amocanebi

1. gamoTvaleT korelaciis koeficienti da gaakeTeT Sesabamisi das-
kvnebi x da y sidideebs Soris kavSiris Sesaxeb:

x 99 150 130 105 219 167 180
y
1200 1000 1050 1150 700 850 900

2. gamoTvaleT korelaciis koeficienti da gaakeTeT Sesabamisi das-
kvnebi x da y sidideebs Soris kavSiris Sesaxeb:

x 40 31 50 53 36 54 36 44
y
32 24 47 50 30 55 33 41

3. sadazRvevo kompania swavlobs kavSirs sicocxlis dazRvevaze ga-
moyofil saxsrebsa ( y ) da ojaxis Semosavlebs ( x) Soris. am mizniT Seis-
wavles 6 klientis Sesabamisi maCveneblebi:

x 45 20 40 40 30 55
y
70 50 60 50 55 105
gamoTvaleT korelaciis koeficienti.

qvemoTmoyvanil amocanebSi 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT Seamowm-
eT hipoTeza korelaciis koeficientis mniSvnelovnebis Sesaxeb.

4. gayidvebis menejers ainteresebs aris Tu ara kavSiri kviris ganm-
avlobaSi garkveul produqciaze radioTi gakeTebul sareklamo gancxad-
ebaTa raodenobasa da am produqciis gayidvis Sedegad amoRebul Tanxas
Soris (Tanxa izomeba aTasobiT larebSi):

gacxadebaTa raodenoba, x 2 5 8 8 10 12
amoRebuli Tanxa, y 2 4 7 6 9 10

5. mkvlevars ainteresebs aris Tu ara kavSiri adamianis asaksa da
mis mier kviris ganmavlobaSi gamajansaRebel varjiSze daxarjul saaT-
ebs Soris:

asaki, x 18 26 32 38 52 59
saaTebi, y 10 5 2 3 1.5 1

6. kvlevis mizania daadginos damokidebuleba adamianis Tviur Semo-
savalsa da mis mier Tvis ganmavlobaSi saxlis gareT sadilobis raoden-
obas Soris:

Semosavali, x 500 1200 1500 945 850 400 540
219

sadilebi, y 8 12 16 10 9 3 7

7. maRaziis menejers ainteresebs aris Tu ara kavSiri gamyidvelis
asaksa da mis mier wlis ganmavlobaSi avadmyofobis gamo gacdenil dRee-
bis raodenobas Soris:
asaki, x 18 26 39 48 53 58
dReebi, y 16 12 9 5 6 2

8. pedagogs ainteresebs ramdenad Zlieri kavSiria studentis testi-
rebis qulasa da mis saSualo Sefasebas Soris:

testis qula, x 98 105 100 100 106 95 116 112
saSualo qula, y 2.1 2.4 3.2 2.7 2.2 2.3 3.8 3.4

9. sadazRvevo kompanias ainteresebs ramdenad Zlieri kavSiria adam-
ianis kvireuli muSaobis saaTebis raodenobasa da mis mier amave period-
Si miRebuli tramvebis raodenobas Soris:

saaTebi, x 40 32 36 44 41
tramvebi, y 1 0 3 8 5

qvemoTmoyvanil amocanebSi 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT Seamowm-
eT hipoTeza korelaciis koeficientis mniSvnelovnebis Sesaxeb da dawer-
eT regresiis wrfis gantoleba.

10. gamokiTxvis Sedegad miRebuli qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis mixe-
dviT gaakeTeT prognozi 30 wliani mowevis staJis mqone adamianis avad
gaxdomaTa raodenobis:
mowevis staJi, x 22 14 31 36 9 41 19
avad gaxdoma, y 20 14 54 63 17 71 23

11. mkvlevars ainteresebs rogor aris damokidebuli adamianis asaki
mis mier kviraSi fizikur varjiSze daxarjuli saaTebis raodenobasTan:


asaki, x 34 22 48 56 62
saaTebi, y 5.5 7 3.5 3 1
12. pedagogs ainteresebs damokidebulebis siZliere studentebis mi-
er “statistika I”-sa da “statistika II”-Si miRebul saboloo Sefasebebs
Soris:
statistika I, x 87 92 68 72 95 78 83 98
statistika II, y 83 88 70 74 90 74 83 99

13. pedagods ainteresebs rogoraa damokidebuli studentis mier
leqciebis gacdenaTa ricxvi mis mier miRebul saboloo Sefasebaze:
220


gacdena, x 10 12 2 0 8 5
Sefaseba, y 70 65 96 94 75 82

qvemoTmoyvanil amocanebSi isargebleT P-mniSvnelobis meTodiT

14. medikoss ainteresebs rogori kavSiria mamis wonasa (funtebSi)
da axalSobili vaJis wonas Soris:

mamis wona, x 176 160 187 210 196 142 205 215
vaJis wona, y 6.6 8.2 9.2 7.1 8.8 9.3 7.4 8.6

15. avtomobilebis dilers ainteresebs aris Tu ara kavSiri gamyidv-
elis muSaobis staJsa da mis mier TveSi gayiduli avtomobilebis raode-
nobas Soris:
staJi, x 3 9 2 5 1
raodenoba, y 5 14 12 21 8

amocanebi gamocdisaTvis

qvemoTmoyvanil 4 amocanaSi aageT gabnevis diagrama, ipoveT korel-
aciis koeficienti, SeamowmeT korelaciis koeficientis mniSvnelovneba
0.05 o = -saTvis, dawereT regresiis wrfis gantoleba, gaakeTeT prognozi.

16. swavloben damokidebulebas mamis asaksa da Svilebis raodenob-
as Soris. gaakeTeT 35 wlis mamis Svilebis raodenobis prognozi, Tu:

asaki, x 19 21 27 20 35 31 32 38
raodenoba, y 1 2 3 0 1 4 3 4

17. mkvlevars ainteresebs kavSiri mZRolis asaksa da weliwadSi mo-
mxdar avto-sagzao SemTxvevaTa raodenobas Soris. gaakeTeT 64 wlis
mZRolis avto-sagzao SemTxvevaTa raodenobis prognozi, Tu:

asaki, x 63 65 60 62 66 67 59
raodenoba, y 2 3 1 0 3 1 4

18. medikoss ainteresebs icodes damokidebuleba bavSvis asaksa da
kbilebze kariesis raodenobas Soris. gaakeTeT kariesis raodenobis pro-
gnozi 11 wlis bavSvisaTvis, Tu:

asaki, x 6 8 9 10 12 14
raodenoba, y 2 1 3 4 6 5

221

19. ikvleven yoveldRiurad miRebuli cximis raodenobis damokideb-
ulebas pacientis qolesterinis doneze. gaakeTeT qolesterinis donis
prognozi 8.5 grami cximis miRebisas, Tu:

cximis raodenoba, x 6.8 5.5 8.2 10 8.6 9.1 8.6 10.4
qolester. done, y 183 201 193 283 222 250 190 218

20. me-18 amocanaSi ipoveT Sefasebis standartuli Secdoma.
21. me-19 amocanaSi ipoveT Sefasebis standartuli Secdoma.
22. me-18 amocanaSi aageT 90%-iani saprognozo intervali 7 wlis ba-
vSvis kariesTa raodenobisaTvis.
23. me-19 amocanaSi aageT 95%-iani saprognozo intervali im pacient-
is qolesterinis donisaTvis, vinc moixmars 10 gram cxims.













pasuxebi:
1. 0.98 r =÷ , Zlieri uaryofiTi korelacia. 2. 0.98 r = , Zlieri dadebiTi ko-
relacia. 3. 0.62 r = . 4.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.988 r = ;
2, / 2 4,0.025
. .
n
CV t t
o ÷
=± =± =
2.776 =± ;
1
H . 5.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.832 r = ÷ ;
1
H . 6.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ;
0.952 r = ;
1
H . 7.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.979 r = ÷ ;
1
H . 8.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ;
0.716 r = ;
1
H . 9.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.814 r = ;
0
H . 10.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ;
0.956 r = ;
1
H ; 1.969 10.944 y x = ÷ ; (30) 48 y = . 11.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.984 r = ÷ ;
1
H ; 0.14 10.199 y x = ÷ + . 12.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.963 r = ;
1
H ; 0.86 10.251 y x = + . 13.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.981 r =÷ ;
1
H ; 2.668 96.784 y x = ÷ + . 14.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ;
0.306 r = ÷ ; 0.2 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.5;
0
H ; r aramniSvnelovania. 15.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.491 r = ; 0.2 < P-mniSvneloba < 0.5;
0
H ; r aramniSvnelovania. 16.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.857 r = ;
1
H ; 0.19 2.818 y x = ÷ ; (35) 3.84 4 y = ~ . 17.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.078 r = ÷ ;
0
H ; korelacia aramniSvnelovania. 18.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ; 0.842 r = ;
1
H ; 0.551 1.918 y x = ÷ ; (11) 4.14 4 y = ~ . 19.
0
: 0 H p = ,
1
: 0 H p = ;
0.602 r = ;
0
H ; korelacia aramniSvnelovania. 20. 1.129. 21. 29.5. 22. (0, 5). 23.
217.5 – dakvirvebul mniSvnelobaTa saSualo.
222

Tavi XVIII
regresia da korelacia

1. martivi wrfivi regresia.
zogadad amocana ase aRiwereba: mocemulia ( , )
i i
x Y , 1, 2,..., i n = wyvile-
bi, romelTa Soris Semdegi damokidebulebaa

0 1 i i i
Y B Bx c = + + , 1, 2,..., i n = ,
sadac
0
B da
1
B ucnobi mudmivebia,
2
(0, )
i
N c o ~ ki normalurad ganawileb-
uli SemTxveviTi sidideebia saSualoTi nuli da ucnobi
2
o dispersiiT.

0 1
y B Bx = + wrfes regresiis wrfe ewodeba.
0
B da
1
B koeficientebs –
regresiis koeficientebi, xolo
i
c SemTxveviT sidides – SemTxveviTi gad-
axra ewodeba.
i
c -- SemTxveviTi sididea, romelic ganapirobebs
0 1
y B Bx = +
wrfidan gabnevas. x cvlads uwodeben amxsnel (damoukidebel) cvlads an
prediqtors, xolo Y -s ki – mopasuxe (damokidebul) cvlads.

1
B koeficients SeiZleba mivceT Semdegi interpretacia: amxsneli x
cvladis erTi erTeuliT cvlileba iwvevs damokidebuli Y cvladis
cvlilebas saSualoD
1
B sididiT.
0
B koeficienti warmoadgens regresiis
wrfis y RerZTan gadakveTis wertils.

E(Y|X=x)
y=B
0
+B
1
x
B
0
x
0
x
0
+1 x
tg o= B
1
o

saWiroa
1 1 2 2
( , ), ( , ),..., ( , )
n n
x Y x Y x Y damoukidebeli dakvirvebebis safuZve-
lze aigos
0
B da
1
B koeficientebisa da
2
o dispersiis Sefasebebi.
2. umcires kvadratTa meTodi.
223

0
B da
1
B koeficientebis
0
b da
1
b Sefasebebs eZeben e. w. umcires
kvadratTa meTodiT:
2
0 1
1
( ) min
n
i i
i
Y b b x
=
÷ ÷ ÷
¯
.
1 1 1
1 2
2
1 1
:
XY
X
n n n
i i i i
i i i
n n
i
i i
SS
SS
n xY x Y
b
n x x
= = =
= =
=
| |
|
\ .
÷
=
÷
¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯
,
0 1 1
1 1
1 1
n n
i i
i i
b Y b x Y b x
n n
= =
= ÷ = ÷
¯ ¯
,
2 2 2
1 1
( )
n n
x i i
i i
SS x x x nx
= =
= ÷ = ÷
¯ ¯
,
1 1
( )( )
n n
i i i i XY
i i
SS x x y y x y nxy
= =
= ÷ ÷ = ÷
¯ ¯
.
0 1
Y b b x
.
= + wrfes ewodeba regresiis wrfis Sefaseba, an umcires
kvadratTa meTodiT agebuli wrfe.
SerCeviTi korelaciis ricxviTi mniSvneloba:
Y X
XY
SS SS
SS
r
·
= .
Sefasebuli regresiis wrfis gantoleba Semdegnairad gadaiwereba:
1
( ) y Y b x x = + ÷ . es wrfe gadis ( , x Y ) wertilze da ¯ = ÷
=
.
n
i
i
i
Y Y
1
0 ) ( .
modeli romelic
0 1
Y B Bx c = + + formuliTaa mocemuli gulisxmobs,
rom gabnevis diagramaze wertilebis gabneva ganpirobebulia Y cvladis
mniSvnelobaTa gabneviT regresiis mrudidan, xolo x cvladis mniSvnel-
obebi ganixileba zust mniSvnelobebad. Tu regresiis wrfis gantolebaSi
x-is nacvlad CavsvamT dakvirvebul
1
,...,
n
x x mniSvnelobebs, maSin Sesabamis
1
0 1 1
,..., Y b b x
.
= +
0 1
n
n
Y b b x
.
= + mniSvnelobebs ewodeba Y cvladis prognozireb-
uli mniSvnelobebi, xolo 1
1 1
,..., n
n n
e Y Y e Y Y
. .
= ÷ = ÷ sidideebs naSTebi ewode-
ba. sidides

2
2
2 2
0 1
1 1 1
: ( ) ( )
n n n
XY
i
i i i i Y
i i i X
SS
SSE e Y Y Y b b x SS
SS
.
= = =


= = ÷ = ÷ + = ÷
¯ ¯ ¯

ewodeba kvadratebis narCeni jami (naSTTa kvadratebis jami, sum of square
for eror).

2 2 2
1 1 1
: : ( ) ( ) ( )
n n n
i i
i i
i i i
SST SSE SSR Y Y Y Y Y Y
. .
= = =
= = + ÷ = ÷ + ÷
¯ ¯ ¯
.
SST (total sum of squares) sidides srul variacias uwodeben, sidide
2
1
: ( )
n
i
i
SSR Y Y
.
=
= ÷
¯
aris gabnevis is nawili, romelis axsnilia regresiis
224

wrfiT (regression sum of squares). SSE aris sruli gabnevis is nawili, ro-
melic ar aixsneba regresiis saSualebiT. ) 1 ( ~
2
2
÷ ;
o
n
SST
; ) 1 ( ~
2
2
;
o
SSR
;
) 2 ( ~
2
2
÷ ;
o
n
SSE
.
1 2 1 n n
SST SSE SSR
÷ ÷
= + .
Y

x
x
i
x
Y Yi ÷
.
Y
i
i Y
.
Y
Y
i

Y
Y
i
– i Y
.

determinaciis koeficienti. regresiis xarisxis dasaxasiaTeblad
SemohyavT e. w. SerCeviTi determinaciis koeficienti:

SST
SSR
Y Y
Y Y
R
n
i
i
n
i
i
=
÷
÷
=
¯
¯
=
=
.
1
2
1
2
2
) (
) (
, |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
SST
SSE
SST
SSR
1
e. i.
2
R warmoadgens regresiiT axsnil gabnevis wils srul gabnevaSi.
mtkicdeba, rom
2
R -- axals arafers iZleva, vinaidan
2 2
R r = , sadac r
SerCeviTi korelaciis koeficientia.
Tu
2
r mcirea, e.i. regresiiT axsnilia xruli gabnevis mcire wili,
maSin mosaZebnia sxva alternatiuli modeli (magaliTad, arawrfivi an
mravlobiTi regresiis modeli), romelic ufro efeqturad axsnida Y
cvladis dakvirvebuli mniSvnelobebis srul gabnevas Tavisi saSualo
mniSvnelobebis mimarT.
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1
( ) ( ) ( )
n n n
i
i i
i i i
Y Y R Y Y r Y Y
.
= = =
÷ = · ÷ = · ÷
¯ ¯ ¯
,
2 2 2
1 1
( ) (1 ) ( )
n n
i
i i
i i
Y Y r Y Y
.
= =
÷ = ÷ · ÷
¯ ¯
.

1. statistikuri daskvnebi regresiis koeficientebis Sesaxeb.
mtkicdeba, rom
0
b da
1
b Sesabamisad
0
B da
1
B parametrebis Caunacv-
lebeli Sefasebebia (
0 0 1 1
, Eb B Eb B = = ) da

225

0
2
2 2 1
0 2
2
1 1
:
n
i
i
b
n n
i i
i i
x
Db
n x x
o o
=
= =
= = ·
| |
÷
|
\ .
¯
¯ ¯
,

1
2 2
1 2
2
1 1
:
b
n n
i i
i i
n
Db
n x x
o o
= =
= = ·
| |
÷
|
\ .
¯ ¯


ucnobi
2
o -is Caunacvlebeli Sefaseba moicema TanafardobiT
2 2 2
1 1
( ) /( 2) ( ( ) ) /( 2) /( 2)
n n
i
i i
i i
S e n Y Y n SSE n
.
= =
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
¯ ¯
.
sidides /( 2) S SSE n = ÷ -- standartuli Secdoma ewodeba.
0
b da
1
b statistikebis dispersiebis Sefasebebia Sesabamisad
0
2
2 2 i
b
X
x
S S
n SS
= ·
·
¯
,
1
2 2
1
b
X
S S
SS
= · .
( 2)
j
j
j j
b
b
b B
T t n
S
÷
= ~ ÷ , 0,1 j = . aqedan gamomdinare igeba ndobis interva-
li
j
B -saTvis. o mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone ndobis intervali
j
B -saTv-
is Semdegi saxisaa:
2, / 2 2, / 2
( , )
j j
j b n j b n
b s t b s t
o o ÷ ÷
÷ · + · .
ganvixiloT ZiriTadi
0
0
:
J j
H B B = hipoTeza
0
1
:
J j
H B B = alternativis
winaaRmdeg. am SemTxvevaSi kriteriumis statistika iqneba
0
( )/ ( 2)
j j
b j j b
T b B S t n = ÷ ~ ÷ .
Tu
j
b
T statistikis dakvirvebuli mniSvnelobisaTvis
j
b
t da o mniSv-
nelovnebis donisaTvis sruldeba piroba :
1, / 2
j
b n k
t t
o ÷ ÷
> , maSin uarvyofT
0
0
:
J j
H B B = hipoTezas (Sesabamisad, vRebulobT
0
1
:
J j
H B B = hipoTezas), wina-
aRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
0
H -is uaryofis safuZveli ar gagvaCnia.
SevniSnavT, rom Tu
1
0 B = , maSin regresiis wrfe abscisTa RerZis pa-
raleluria, e. i. x-is cvlilebiT Y ar icvleba. Tu Cven gvinda, o mniSv-
nelovnebis doniT, davrwmundeT, rom ar arsebobs raime (dadebiTi an uar-
yofiTi) wrfivi kavSiri x da Y sidideebs Soris, nulovani hipoTeza
0 1
: 0 H B = unda Semowmdes ormxrivi
1 1
: 0 H B = alternativis winaaRmdeg. Tu
gvsurs davrwmundeT dadebiTi (Sesabamisad, uaryofiTi) wrfivi kavSiris
arsebobaSi, maSin vixilavT marjvena calmxriv
1 1
: 0 H B > (Sesabamisad, mar-
cxena calmxriv
1 1
: 0 H B < ) alternativas. yvela SemTxvevaSi hipoTezis Sem-
owmeba xdeba
1 1
1 1
: / ( 2)
b b
T T b S t n = = ~ ÷ statistikis gamoyenebiT. gadawyvetile-
bis miRebis wesi ase yalibdeba:
226

a). ormxrivi alternativis
1 1
: 0 H B = SemTxvevaSi
0 1
: 0 H B = hipoTezas
uarvyofT, Tu
1 2, / 2
| |
n
t t
o ÷
> ;
b). marjvena calmxrivi alternativis
1 1
: 0 H B > SemTxvevaSi
0 1
: 0 H B =
hipoTezas uarvyofT, Tu
1 2, n
t t
o ÷
> ;
g). marcxena calmxrivi alternativis
1 1
: 0 H B < SemTxvevaSi
0 1
: 0 H B =
hipoTezas uarvyofT, Tu
1 2, n
t t
o ÷
<÷ , sadac
1
t aris
1
T statistikis dakvirve-
buli mniSvneloba, xolo
2, n
t
o ÷
-- stiudentis ( 2) t n÷ ganawilebis zeda o -
kritikuli wertili.
magaliTi 1. uZravi qonebis kompaniis agnts surs ganWvritos saxl-
is gasayidi fasi. misi azriT saxlis fasi yvelaze mWidro kavSirSia mis
frTobTan. man SemTxveviT SearCia adre gayiduli 15 saxlis monacemebi,
romlebic moyvanilia cxrilis saxiT (sadac x -- saxlis farTobia (× 10
kv. m.), xolo Y -- saxlis gayidvis fasi (1000$)). agentis mizania saxlis
fasis (damoukidebeli fasi) prognozireba misi farTobis (prediqtoris)
mixedviT.
i
x
i
Y
i
x
i
Y
i
x
i
Y
20.0 89.5 14.3 82.5 22.0 112.6
14.8 79.9 27.5 126.3 19.0 120.8
20.5 83.1 16.5 79.3 12.3 78.5
12.5 56.9 24.3 119.9 14.0 74.3
18.0 66.6 20.2 87.6 16.7 74.8
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. SevadginoT gabnevis diagrama
gabnevis diagrama
0
50
100
150
0 10 20 30
saxlis farTobi
s
a
x
l
i
s

g
a
y
i
d
v
i
s

f
a
s
i

aqedan Cans, rom Y cvladis X -isagan damokidebulebaSi ikveTeba
wrfivobis tendencia da SesaZlebelia, rom martivma wrfivma regresiam
kargad aRweros igi. amitom maTematikur modelad SegviZlia avirCioT
0 1 i i i
Y B Bx c = + + .
nabiji 2. gamovTvaloT sidideebi:
227

1
n
i
i
x
=
¯
,
1
n
i
i
Y
=
¯
,
2
1
n
i
i
x
=
¯
,
2
1
n
i
i
Y
=
¯
,
1
n
i i
i
xY
=
¯
.
1
172.6
n
i
i
x
=
=
¯
,
1
1332.6
n
i
i
Y
=
=
¯
,
2
1
5222.24
n
i
i
x
=
=
¯
,
2
1
124618.42
n
i
i
Y
=
=
¯
,
1
25257.97
n
i i
i
xY
=
=
¯
.
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT
0
b -isa da
1
b -is gamosaTvlelad saWiro
sidideebi:
1
1 272.6
18.17
15
n
i
i
x x
n
=
= = =
¯
,
1
1 1332.6
88.84
15
n
i
i
Y Y
n
=
= = =
¯
.
2
2
1
268.19
n
x i
i
SS x nx
=
= ÷ =
¯
,
2
2
1
6230.24
n
Y i
i
SS Y nY
=
= ÷ =
¯
,
1
1040.18
n
xY i i
i
SS xY nxY
=
= ÷ =
¯
.
nabiji 4. gamovTvaloT
0
b da
1
b Sefasebebi:
1
1040.18
3.8786
268.19
xY
x
SS
b
SS
= = = ,
0 1
88.84 3.8786 18.17 18.354 b Y b x = ÷ = ÷ · = .
nabiji 5. davweroT regresiis wrfis Sefaseba:
18.354 3.8786 Y x
.
= + .
miRebuli monacemebi gvaZlevs Semdeg grafikul suraTs :

y = 3.8786x + 18.354
0
50
100
150
0 10 20 30
Y Linear (Y)

daskvna.
1
b -is miRebuli mniSvneloba
1
3.8786 b = , niSnavs, rom saxlis
farTobis yoveli erTi erTeuliT gazrda iwvevs saxlis fasis saSualod
3.8786 1000$ 3878.6$ · = -iT gazrdas.
nabiji 6. gamovTvaloT ESS . gvaqvs:
2 2
(1040.18)
6230.24 21995.88
268.19
xY
Y
x
SS
SSE SS
SS
= ÷ = ÷ = ,
saidanac miiReba ucnobi
2
o dispersiis Sefaseba
228

2
21995.88
168.91
2 13
SSE
S
n
= = =
÷
.
nabiji 7. gamovTvaloT
0
2
b
S da
1
2
b
S :
0
2
2 2
5222.24
168.91 219.26
15 268.19
i
b
X
x
S S
n SS
= · = · =
· ·
¯
,
1
2 2
1 1
168.91 0.6298
268.19
b
X
S S
SS
= · = · = ,
Sesabamisad,
1
0.7936
b
S = .
nabiji 8. gamovTvaloT determinaciis koeficienti:
2
1 0.648
SSE
R
SST
= ÷ = .
determinaciis koeficientis gamoTvlili mniSvneloba gviCvenebs,
rom martivi wrfivi regresiiT aixsneba saxlis gasayidi fasis variaciis
mxolod 64.8%, danarCeni 35.2% auxsneli rCeba. saWiroa SeirCes sxva
modeli (arawrfivi regresia, an mravlobiTi regresia).
magaliTi 2. magaliT 1-Si:
a). avagoT 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis donis mqone ndobis intervali
1
B -saTvis;
b). SevamowmoT
0 1
: 0 H B = hipoTeza
1 1
: 0 H B = alternativis winaaRmdeg.
amoxsna. a). cnobilia, rom
1
1 1
1
: ( 2)
b
b B
T t n
S
÷
= ~ ÷ . stiudentis zeda kriti-
kuli wertilebis cxrilSi vpoulobT
2, / 2 13,0.025
2.16
n
t t
o ÷
= = . amitom saZiebeli
ndobis intervali iqneba:
1
3.88 2.16 0.7936 3.88 2.16 0.7936 B ÷ · < < + · ,
anu
1
2.1658 5.5942 B < < .
b).
1
T statistikis gamoTvlili mniSvneloba
1
t iqneba:
1
1 1
1 13,0.025
3.88 0
4.8891 2.16
0.7936
b
b B
t t
S
÷ ÷
= = = > = .
amitom
0 1
: 0 H B = hipoTezas uarvyofT (vinaidan
1 2, / 2
| |
n
t t
o ÷
> ).
amrigad, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT sarwmunoa mtkiceba, rom
saxlis fassa da mis farTobs Soris arsebobs wrfivi kavSiri.

4. mravlobiTi regresia.
ganvixiloT wrfivi mravlobiTi regresiis modeli

0 1 1 k k
Y B B X B X c = + +··· + + ,
sadac Y -- damokidebuli cvladia,
1
,...,
k
X X -- damoukidebeli cvladebia
(maT amxsnel cvladebs, prediqtorebs, an regresorebs uwodeben), c -- Se-
229

SfoTebaa, romelsac xSirad WeSmarit gadaxras an Secdomas uwodeben. c
SemTxveviTi sididea, romlisTvisac 0 Ec = , xolo
2
0 Dc o = > . igulisxmeba,
rom damoukidebeli
1
,...,
k
X X cvladebis mniSvnelobebi zustadaa cnobili
da gadaxrebi miewereba mxolod Y cvlads.
cxadia, rom Y SemTxveviTi sididis maTematikuri lodini pirobaSi,
rom
1 1
,...,
k k
X x X x = = moicema formuliT:

1 1 0 1 1
( | ,..., )
k k k k
E Y X x X x B Bx B x = = = + +··· + ,
xolo dispersia imave pirobebSi iqneba:

2
1 1
( | ,..., )
k k
D Y X x X x o = = = .
k cvladis
0 1 1 k k
y B Bx B x = + +··· + funqcias WeSmariti regresiis funq-
cia ewodeba, xolo
0 1
, ,...,
k
B B B sidideebs ki – regresiis koeficientebi.
sabolood, mravlobiTi regresiis amocana Semdegnairad aRiwereba:
mocemulia n moculobis SerCeva
1
( , ,..., ), 1, 2,..., ,
i i ki
Y x x i n n k = > , sadac

0 1 1
, 1, 2,...,
i i k ki i
Y B Bx B x i n c = + +··· + + = , (3)
xolo
i
c SemTxveviTi sididea, romelic ganapirobebs
i
Y cvladis ga-
daxras WeSmariti regresiis funqciis
0 1 1i k ki
B Bx B x + +··· + mniSvnelobidan;
2
(0, )
i
N c o ~ , ( ) 0
i j
E c c · = , i j = .
iseve rogorc martivi regresiis SemTxvevaSi, pirvel etapze xdeba
regresiis Teoriuli
0 1
, ,...,
k
B B B koeficientebisa da ucnobi
2
o dispersiis
Sefaseba. regresiis koeficientebis Sefaseba isev warmoebs umcires kvad-
ratTa meTodis gamoyenebiT. mas Semdeg rac miRebulia Teoriuli regres-
iis koeficientebis
0 1
, ,...,
k
b b b Sefasebebi,
0 1 1 k k
Y b b x b x
.
= + +··· + funqcia gansa-
zRvravs regresiis funqciis Sefasebas. sidides
0 1 1
i
i i i i k ki
e Y Y Y b b x b x
.
= ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷··· ÷
naSTi ewodeba.
iseve rogorc martivi regresiis modelSi, ucnobi
2
i
D o c = dispersi-
is Sefaseba eyrdnoba naSTebis (Sesworebebis) kvadratebis jams (sum of
square errors (residuals) – SSE):
2 2
1 1
: ( )
n n
i
i i i
i i
SSE e Y Y
.
= =
= = ÷
¯ ¯
.
vinaidan am gamosaxulebaSi Sedis ( 1) k + Sefasebuli parametri, misi
Tavisuflebis xarisxia ( 1) n k ÷ + da amitom dispersiis Sefasebad iReben
sidides:
2
( 1)
SSE
S MSE
n k
= =
÷ +
.
radganac, daSvebis Tanaxmad
2
(0, )
i
N c o ~ , amitom
i
Y normalurebia da
rogorc maTi wrfivi kombinacia, aseve normaluri iqneba
j
b Sefasebebic.
mtkicdeba, rom: : ( ) / ( ( 1))
j
j j j b
T b B S t n k = ÷ ~ ÷ + .
230

determinaciis koeficienti. davweroT dispersiuli Tanafardoba
¯ ¯ ¯
=
.
=
.
=
÷ + ÷ = ÷
n
i
i
n
i
i
i
n
i
i
Y Y Y Y Y Y
1
2
1
2
1
2
) ( ) ( ) ( .
SemoviRoT aRniSvnebi:
2
1
( )
n
i
i
SST Y Y
=
= ÷
¯
,
2
1
( )
n
i
i
i
SSE Y Y
.
=
= ÷
¯
da
2
1
( )
n
i
i
SSR Y Y
.
=
= ÷
¯
.
maSin gvaqvs:
1 1 n n k k
SST SSE SSR
÷ ÷ ÷
= + , sadac SSR -- aris sruli gabnevis regresiiT
axsnili nawili, SSE -- sruli gabnevis is nawili, romelic ar aixsneba
regresiiT. TiToeul wevrs qveviT miwerili aqvs Tavisuflebis xarisxi.
e. w. mravlobiTi determinaciis koficienti warmoadgens sruli var-
iaciis im nawils, romelic axsnilia mravlobiTi regresiis modeliT:
2
1 ( )
SSE SSR
R
SST SST
= ÷ = .
garda amisa, SemoaqvT e. w. Tavisuflebis xarisxTan SeTanxmebuli (adjust-
ed) determinaciis koeficienti:
2
/( 1)
1
/( 1)
SSE n k
adjusted R
SST n
÷ ÷
= ÷
÷
,
rac aixsneba im garemoebiT, rom Tu damoukidebel cvladTa raodenoba k
Sedarebadia n-Tan,
2
R -is mniSvneloba SeiZleba ararealurad didi gamov-
ides da migviyvanos mcdar daskvnamde. im SemTxvevaSi, roca n mniSvnelov-
nad didia k -sTan SedarebiT, maSin es koeficientebi daaxloebiT tolia,
sazogadog ki
2 2
adjusted R R < .
mtkicdeba, rom
2
R statistika e. w. SerCeviTi mravlobiTi korelac-
iis koeficientis kvadratis tolia
2 2
R r = , romelic warmoadgens SerCevi-
Ti korelaciis koeficients Y da Y
.
SemTxveviT sidideebs Soris:
1
2 2
1 1
( )( )
( ) ( )
n
i i
i
n n
i i
i i
Y Y Y Y
r
Y Y Y Y
.
=
.
= =
÷ ÷
=
÷ · ÷
¯
¯ ¯
.
modelis vargisianobis Semowmeba. modelis vargisianobis Semowmeba
mravlobiTi regresiis SemTxvevaSi mdgomareobs
0 1 2
:
k
H B B B = =··· = hipoTe-
zis SemowmebaSi
1
: H erTi mainc 0, 1, 2,...,
i
B i k = = alternativis winaaRmdeg.
gasagebia, rom Tu
0
H hipoTeza dawunebuli ar iqneba, arc erTi da-
moukidebeli cvladi (regresori) ar aris wrfivad dakavSirebuli Y -Tan
da amitom modeli uvargisia prognozirebis miznebisaTvis. maSin roca,
Tu erTi mainc 0
i
B = , modeli raime TvalsazrisiT mainc gamosadegia.
mtkicdeba, rom nulovani hipoTezis samarTianobisas
/
( , ( 1))
/( ( 1))
SSR k MSR
F F k n k
SSE n k MSE
= = ~ ÷ +
÷ +
.
231

F -statistika SeiZleba Caiweros mravlobiTi determinaciis koefic-
ientis saSualebiT:
2 2
2 2
/ ( 1)
(1 ) /( ( 1)) 1
R k n k R
F
R n k k R
÷ +
= = ·
÷ ÷ + ÷
,
e. i. F -statistika [ ( 1)]/ n k k ÷ + Tanamamravlis sizustiT emTxveva statisti-
kas:
2 2
/(1 ) R R ÷ , romelic warmoadgens axsnili variaciis fardobas auxsne-
lTan da Tu es fardoba sakmarisad didia, bunebrivia uarvyoT
0
H hipoT-
eza
1
H alternativis sasargeblod. Sesabamisad, kritikul are iqneba --
F F >
krit
saxis.
gadawyvetilebis miRebis wesi: Tu F statistikis dakvirvebuli mni-
SvnelobisaTvis f da o mniSvnelovnebis donisaTvis sruldeba piroba
2
, 1, 2
( 1)
1
k n k
n k R
f F
k R
o ÷ ÷
÷ +
= · >
÷
,
maSin uarvyofT
0
H hipoTezas, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
0
H -is uaryofis sa-
fuZveli ar gagvaCnia.

5. statistikuri daskvnebi mravlobiTi modelis parametrebis Se-
saxeb.
Tu
0
H hipoTeza dawunebulia, maSin vamowmebT hipoTezas calkeuli
regresiis koeficientis nulTan tolobis Sesaxeb. amrigad, yoveli j -saT-
vis ( 1, 2,..., j k = ) mowmdeba
0
: 0
j
H B = hipoTeza
1
: 0
j
H B = alternativis winaa-
Rmdeg. am SemTxvevaSi testis statistikaa /
j j
b j b
T b S = , romelsac nulovani
hipoTezis samarTlianobisas aqvs stiudentis ganawileba Tavisuflebis
xarisxiT ( 1) n k ÷ + : / ( ( 1))
j j
b j b
T b S t n k = ~ ÷ + .
gadawyvetilebis miRebis wesi: Tu
j
b
T statistikis dakvirvebuli mni-
SvnelobisaTvis
j
b
t da o mniSvnelovnebis donisaTvis sruldeba piroba
1, / 2
| |
j
b n k
t t
o ÷ ÷
> ,
maSin
0
H hipoTezas uarvyofT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi
0
H -is uaryofis sa-
fuZveli ar gagvaCnia.
o mniSvnelovnebis donis ndobis intervali
j
B koeficientisaTvis
Semdegia:
1, / 2 1, / 2
j j
j b n k j j b n k
b s t B b s t
o o ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ · < < + · , sadac
1, / 2 n k
t
o ÷ ÷
-- Tavisuflebis
( 1) n k ÷ + xarisxis mqone stiudentis ganawilebis zeda / 2 o -kritikuli we-
rtilia.
davubrundeT uZravi qonebis agentis amocanas, romelsac Cven vixil-
avdiT martivi wrfivi regresiis konteqstSi. rogorc vnaxeT, saxlis fas-
is cvalebadobis axsna mxolod farTobis cvalebadobis xarjze ar iZle-
232

va damakmayofilebel Sedegs (determinaciis koeficienti iyo
2
0.648 R = ,
anu axsnilia cvalebadobis mxolod 64.8%). agentma gadawyvita ganexila
mravlobiTi wrfivi regresiis modeli:
0 1 1 2 2 3 3
Y B B X B X B X c = + + + + ,
sadac Y -- saxlis gayidvis fasia ( 1000$ × -Si),
1
X -- saxlis farTobia (×
10 kv. m.-Si),
2
X -- saxlis eqsploataciis xangrZlivobaa (wlebSi), xolo
3
X -- saxlis kuTvnili miwis nakveTis farTobia ( × 100 kv. m.-Si). Segroveb-
uli monacemebi Cawerilia Excel-is davTris furcelSi (qveprograma: Tools/
Data Analysis/Regression):
A B C D E
1
saxlis
nomeri
Y
X
1
X
2
X
3
2 1 89.5 20 5 4.1
3 2 79.9 14.8 10 6.8
4 3 83.1 20.5 8 6.3
5 4 56.9 12.5 7 5.1
6 5 66.6 18 8 4.2
7 6 82.5 14.3 12 8.6
8 7 126.3 27.5 1 4.9
9 8 79.3 16.5 10 6.2
10 9 119.9 24.3 2 7.5
11 10 87.6 20.2 8 5.1
12 11 112.6 22 7 6.3
13 12 120.8 19 11 12.9
14 13 78.5 12.3 16 9.6
15 14 74.3 14 12 5.7
16 15 74.8 16.7 13 4.8
determinaciis koeficienti. mocemuli monacemebi SeviyvanoT kompiu-
terSi Semdegi wesiT: sawyisi (Semavali) monacemebis Y cvladis areSi
CavweroT damokidebuli cvladis ricxviTi mniSvnelobebis misamarTi
$ $2: C $ $17 C , X cvladis areSi -- $ $2: $ $17 D F :


qveprograma Regression gvaZlevs Semdeg amonabeWds:
SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics
Multiple R / SerCeviTi korelaciis
koeficienti
0.957
233

R Square / determinaciis koeficienti 0.916
Adjusted R Square /
SeTanxmebuli determinaciis
koeficienti
0.893
Standard Error / standartuli Secdoma 6.894
Observations / dakvirvebebi 15.000
rogorc vxedavT, am SemTxvevaSi determinaciis koeficienti (R-squa-
re) gamovida
2
0.916 R = anu 91.6%, xolo
2
0.893 adjusted R = anu 89.3%. gavixsen-
oT, rom martivi wrfivi regresiis SemTxvevaSi
2
0.648 R = . amrigad, ori
damatebiTi cvladis Semoyvanam sagrZnoblad gazarda determinaciis
koeficienti, saxlis fasis variaciis 91.6% aixsna sami damoukidebeli
cvladiT da auxsneli darCa mxolod 8.4%.
modelis vargisianobis Semowmeba. kompiutruli amonabeWdis meore
bloki (ANOVA) warmoadgens dispersiuli analizisaTvis saWiro sididee-
bis ricxviT mniSvnelobebs:
ANOVA
dispersiuli
analizi


df Tavisu-
flebis
xarisxi
SS
kvadr. jami
MS
saS. kvadr. gadaxra
F
F statistika
Significance F
mniSvnelovn-
ebis done
Regression 3 SSR=5707.43 MSR=
k
SSR
=1902.479
MSR
f
MSE
= =
40.029
0.000
Residual 11 SSE=522.79 MSE=
1 ÷ ÷k n
MSE
=47.527
Total 14 SST=6230.23
aq bolo svetSi miTiTebulia
0
{ | } P F f H o = > -is ricxviTi mniSvnel-
oba, anu mniSvnelovnebis is minimaluri done, romliTac arsebuli monac-
emebis safuZvelze xdeba
0
H hipoTezis uaryofa.
Tu aviRebT magaliTad, 0.05 o = , maSin
, 1, 3,11,0.05
8.76
k n k
F F
o ÷ ÷
= = da vinaid-
an
3,11,0.05
40.029 8.76 f F = > = , amitom ZiriTad hipoTezas ukuvagdebT 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT da vaskvniT, rom erTi mainc regresiis koeficien-
ti gansxvavebulia nulisagan.
statistikuri daskvnebi mravlobiTi modelis parametrebis Sesaxeb.
amonabeWdis mesame blokidan viRebT informacias ucnobi regresiis
koeficientebis Sefasebis Sesaxeb:

Coefficients
koeficienti
Standard Error
standartuli
Secdoma
t Stat
t testi
P-value
PmniSv
neloba
Lower
95%
Upper
95%
Intercept (b
0
) -16.058 19.071 -0.842 0.418 -58.033 25.917
234

x1 (b
1
) 4.146 0.751 5.520 0.000 2.493 5.800
x2 (b
2
) -0.236 0.881 -0.268 0.794 -2.176 1.703
x3 (b
3
) 4.831 0.901 5.361 0.000 2.848 6.814
aq pirvel svetSi mocemulia
0 1 2 3
, , , b b b b Sefasebebi; meoreSi – maTi
standartuli gadaxrebi,
j
b
s ; mesameSi -- /
j j
b j b
T b S = statistikis dakvirvebu-
li mniSvnelobebi, /
j j
b j b
t b s = ; meoTxe svetSi --
j
b
T statistikebisaTvis p -
mniSvneloebebi Sesabamisi
0
: 0
j
H B = hipoTezis Sesamowmeblad
1
: 0
j
H B =
alternativis winaaRmdeg, xolo bolo or svetSi ki miTiTebulia 95%-ia-
ni ndobis intervalebi
j
B -saTvis.
0
16.058 b = ÷ mniSvneloba miuTiTebs saSualo gasayid fass, roca
1 2 3
0 X X X = = = da misi interpretacia azrs moklebulia;
1
4.146 b = mniSvne-
loba miuTiTebs imaze, rom farTobis yoveli damatebiTi erTeulisaTvis
saxlis gayidvis fasi izrdeba saSualod 4146 dolariT;
2
0.236 b = ÷ mniSvn-
eloba miuTiTebs imaze, rom saxlis eqsploataciis yoveli damatebiTi
wlisaTvis fasi iklebs 236 dolariT;
3
4.831 b = mniSvneloba ki miuTiTebs
imaze, rom miwis nakveTis yoveli damatebiTi 100 kv. metrisaTvis saxlis
fasi izrdeba 4831 dolariT.
testis statistikis
2 2
2
/
b b
T b S = dakvirvebuli mniSvnelobaa
2
0.268 t =÷ ,
xolo p -mniSvnelobaa 0.794, rac imis maCvenebelia, rom nulovani hipoTez-
is uaryofa xdeba mniSvnelovnebis mxolod iseTi o doniT, romelic ar-
anaklebia 0.794-ze. amitom mniSvnelovnebis 0.05 o = doniT (0.05<0.794)
0
H
hipoTezas ar uarvyofT.
3
B -is SemTxvevaSi p -mniSvneloba nulia. e. i. nebismieri 0 o > doniT
(kerZod, roca 0.05 o = )
0 3
: 0 H B = hipoTezas uarvyofT
1 3
: 0 H B = alternat-
ivis winaaRmdeg.
cxrilis Tanaxmad
3
B koeficientis 95%-iani ndobis intervalia
(2.848, 6.814). vnaxoT, rom igive Sedegs miviRebdiT uSualo gamoTvlebiTac.
marTlac, 95%-iani ndobis intervali
3
B koeficientisaTvis iqneba:
1, / 2 1, / 2
j j
j b n k j j b n k
b s t B b s t
o o ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ · < < + · , / 2 (1 0.95) / 2 0.025 o = ÷ = ;
3 3
3 11,0.025 3 3 11,0.025 b b
b s t B b s t ÷ · < < + · ,
11,0.025
2.201 t = ;
3
4.831 0.901 2.201 4.831 0.901 2.201 B ÷ · < < + · .
amitom sabolood miviRebT, rom
3
B koeficientis 95%-iani ndobis interv-
alia (2.848, 6.814).
6. rangobrivi korelacia.
ganvixiloT individTa an obieqtTa erToblioba, romlis yvela wev-
ri xasiTdeba raime ori niSniT. vigulisxmoT, rom ori niSniT daxasiaTe-
235

bis Sedegebi Cawerilia Semdegi saxiT
1 2
1 2
, ,...,
n
n
x x x
y y y
| | | | | |
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
,sadac
i
x da
i
y
aris i -uri obieqtis damaxasiaTebeli niSnebi. am niSnebs SeiZleba arc
hqondeT zusti ricxobrivi mniSvnelobebi, magram SesaZlebeli iyos maTi
ise dalageba, rom TiToeuli niSnis mixedviT yovel obieqts mieces
rigiTi nomeri -- rangi.
magaliTi 1. qvemoT moyvanilia erTi da igive saxis produqciis ran-
Jirebis Sedegebi Catarebuli ori A da B eqspertis mier. I svetSi mocem-
ulia Sesamowmebeli produqciis pirobiTi nomeri, xolo II da III svetSi
A da B eqspertebis Sefasebebi. magaliTad, A eqsperti saukeTesod miiCn-
evs produqciis #3 nimuSs, maSin roca B eqsperti mas meoTxe adgils mi-
awers. ramodenime nimuSis erTnairi Sefasebisas, TiToeuls miewereba Ses-
abamisi rangebis saSualo ariTmetikuli. magaliTad, A eqsperti erTnair-
ad afasebs produqciis #5 da #7 nimuSebs, isini iyofen II-III adgils, ami-
tom orives miewereba (2 3) / 2 2.5 + = -is toli rangi. IV svetSi A eqspertis
rangebi dalagebulia zrdis mixedviT, xolo momdevno V svetSi mas miwe-
rili aqvs igive nimuSisaTvis B eqspertis mier mikuTvnebuli rangi.

produqciis
pirobiTi
nomeri
A eqspertis
Sefaseba
B eqspertis
Sefaseba
A
R
B
R
A B
R R ÷
2
( )
A B
R R ÷
1 4 8 1 4 -3 9
2 9 7 2.5 1 1.5 2.25
3 1 4 2.5 5 -2.5 6.25
4 7 6 4 8 -4 16
5 2.5 5 5 3 2 4
6 8 10 6 2 4 16
7 2.5 1 7 6 1 1
8 6 2 8 10 -2 4
9 5 3 9 7 2 4
10 10 9 10 9 1 1

=
¯
63.5
imisaTvis, rom SeviswavloT A da B eqspertebis kriteriumebs Sor-
is urTierTdamokidebuleba, gamoviyenoT spirmenis e. w. rangobrivi kore-
laciis koeficienti, romelic Semdegi formuliT gamoiTvleba:
( )
2
2
1
6
1
( 1)
n
A B
i
R R
n n
p
=
= ÷ ÷
÷
¯
.
Tu eqspertebis mier gamoyenebul kriteriumebs Soris sruli Tanxvedraa,
maSin ( )
2
1
0
n
A B
i
R R
=
÷ =
¯
da 1 p = ; Tu uaryofiTi kavSiria, maSin 1 p =÷ da Tu
kavSiri ar arsebobs, maSin 0 p = .
ganxilul magaliTSi
2
6
1 63.5 1 0.385 0.615
10 (10 1)
p = ÷ · = ÷ =
· ÷
.
236

spirmenis rangobrivi korelaciis koeficienti gamoiyeneba Semdegi
hipoTezebis Sesamowmeblad:

0
: H niSnebi damoukidebelia, e. i 0 p = ,

1
: H niSnebs Soris dadebiTi kavSiria, e. i. 0 p > .
cnobilia, rom didi moculobis SemTxvevaSi
2
2 / 1 ( 2) t n t n p = ÷ ÷ ~ ÷ .
amitom kriteriumi ase yalibdeba: Tu t statistikis dakvirvebuli t
S
mni-
SvnelobisaTvis da mocemuli o mniSvnelovnebis donisaTvis sruldeba
piroba:
2, n
t t
o ÷
>
S
, maSin
0
H hipoTezas uarvyofT, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi am-
is safuZveli ara gvaqvs. gasagebia, rom ormxrivi alternativis SemTxveva-
Si --
1
: 0 H p = , kritikuli are iqneba:
1 2, / 2
{| | }
n
U t t
o ÷
= > .
magaliTi 2. dRisa da saRamos swavlebis ekonomist studentebs eki-
Txebodnen Tu rogor afaseben isini sxvadasxva profesiis prestiJulobas
8 baliani sistemiT. ipoveT spirmenis rangobrivi korelaciis koeficien-
ti, Tu gamokiTxvis monacemebia:
profesia dRis saRamos
buRalteri 6 3
programisti 7 2
bankis menejeri 2 6
administratori 5 4
statistikosi 1 7
marketingis menejeri 4 8
finansist-analitikosi 3 5
warmoebis menejeri 8 1

amoxsna. am SemTxvevaSi gvaqvs profesiebisagan Sedgenili erToblioba,
xolo niSnebis rolSi ganixileba dRisa da saRamos swavlebis stud-
entTa mier am profesiebis Sefasebebi. gavakeToT Semdegi cxrili:

profesia dRis saRamos
A B
R R ÷
2
( )
A B
R R ÷
buRalteri 6 3 3 9
programisti 7 2 5 25
bankis menejeri 2 6 –4 16
administratori 5 4 1 1
statistikosi 1 7 –6 36
marketingis menejeri 4 8 –4 16
finansist-analitikosi 3 5 –2 4
warmoebis menejeri 8 1 7 49
¯

156

2 2
6
6 156
1 1 0.857
( 1) 8 (8 1)
S
n n
p
p
·
= ÷ = ÷ =÷
÷ · ÷
.


237

amocanebi

1. A da B eqspertebma Seafases 7 saxis erTi da igive produqcia:

A 19 17 15 14 13 10 7
B 16 18 10 14 15 11 5
gamoTvaleT spirmenis rangobrivi korelaciis koeficienti.
2. ipoveT SST , Tu 36 SSR= da 4 SSE = .
3. ipoveT determinaciis koeficienti, Tu 30 SSR= da 10 SSE =
4. rogoraa damokidebuli firmebis mier reklamaze TveSi daxarju-
li Tanxa ( x -- aTasobiT larebSi) gayiduli saqonlis Rirebulebaze ( y -
- aTasobiT larebSi). SeafaseT gayiduli saqonlis Rirebuleba, romelic
gamowveulia reklamaze daxarjuli 4500 lariT, Tu:

firma A B C D E
x 2 4 5 7 3
y
10 40 30 50 20

5. rac ufro dabalia saprocento ganakveTi ( x), miT ufro dabalia
sesxebis daubruneblobis, anu defoltebis ( y ) ganakveTi. aageT 95%-iani
saprognozo intervali defoltebis ganakveTisaTvis, rodesac saprocen-
to ganakveTi 8%-ia, Tu SemTxveviT SerCeuli 9 banki monacemebia:

x
7 6.6 6 8.5 8 7.5 6.5 7 8
y
38 40 35 46 48 39 36 37 44











pasuxebi:
1. 0.714 p = . 2. 40. 3. 0.75.



238

Tavi XIX
dispersiuli analizi (ANOVA)

mowmdeba hipoTeza sami an meti populaciis saSualos tolobis
Sesaxeb. aRebulia R SerCeva
1
1,1 1,
( ,..., )
n
x x , . . . ,
,1 ,
( ,..., )
R
R R n
x x moculobebiT
1 2
, ,...,
R
n n n ;
1 2 R
N n n n = + +··· + ; i -uri SerCevis SerCeviTi saSualo da Seswor-
ebuli SerCeviTi dispersia aRniSnulia Sesabamisad
i x da
'2
i
s simboloeb-
iT;
,
,
i j
i j
x
x
N
=
¯
erT. -- aris erToblivi saSualo;
2
: ( ) i
i
i
SBB n X X = ÷
¯
erT. ,
2 2
/ ( 1) SBB R o ; ~ ÷ ;
'2
: ( 1)
i i
i
SSW n S = ÷
¯
,
2 2
/ ( ) SSW N R o ; ~ ÷ ( ( 1)
i
i
N R n ÷ = ÷
¯
).
nulovani hipoTeza:
0
H :
1 2 R
a a a = =··· = .
alternativa:
1
H : erTi saSualo mainc gansxvavdeba danarCenebisag
an.
mniSvnelovnebis done: o
kriteriumis statistika:
2
2
( 1, )
B
W
S
F F R N R
S
= ~ ÷ ÷ .
kriteriumis mniSvneloba T.V.
2
2
B
W
s
f
s
÷ = , sadac
2
B
s (Sesabamisad,
2
W
s ) ar-
is jgufTa Soris variacia (Sesabamisad, jgufebSi variacia),

2
2
( )
:
1
i
i
i
B
n x x
s
R
÷
=
÷
¯
erT.
,
' 2
2
( 1)
:
( 1)
i i
i
W
i
i
n s
s
n
÷
=
÷
¯
¯
.
kriteriumi marjvena calmxrivia.
kritikuli mniSvneloba
1, ,
. .
R N R
CV F
o ÷ ÷
= .
kritikuli are C.R. (
0
H -is uaryofis are) =
1, ,
[ , )
R N R
F
o ÷ ÷
+· .
P- mniSvneloba = { ( 1, ) . .} P F R N R TV ÷ ÷ > .
SezRudvebi: 1. populaciebi unda iyos normaluri an daaxloebiT
normaluri; 2. SerCevebi unda iyos erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli; 3. popu-
laciaTa dispersiebi unda iyos toli.
gadawyvetileba: Tu kriteriumis mniSvneloba metia an toli kritik-
ul mniSvnelobaze (T.V. >C.V.), maSin nulovan hipoTezas ukuvagdebT, wi-
naaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
P- mniSvnelobis meTodi: Tu P o s , maSin
0
H hipoTezas ukuvagdebT,
winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi amis safuZveli ara gvaqvs.
239

magaliTebis amoxsnis nimuSebi:

magaliTi 1. mkvlevars surs gamoscados maRali arteriuli wnevis
dawevis sami gansxvavebuli meTodi. SemTxveviT SeirCa pacientTa sami
jgufi. I jgufs aZlevdnen garkveul preparats, II jgufs utardeboda spe-
cialuri varjiSebi, xolo III jgufi icavda specialur dietas. oTxi kvi-
ris Semdeg TiToeul pacients gauzomes arteriuli wneva (monacemebi moy-
vanilia qvemoT). 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis
Sesaxeb, rom populaciaTa saSualoebs Soris ar arsebobs gansxvaveba.
preparati varjiSi dieta
----------------------------------------------------------------------
10 6 5
12 8 9
9 3 12
15 0 8
13 2 4
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi saSualo mainc gansxvavdeba danarCenebisa-
gan.
nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. radganac Tavisuflebis
xarisxebia: 1 3 1 R÷ = ÷ da 15 3 12 N R ÷ = ÷ = , amitom fiSeris ganawilebis
cxrilidan vpoulobT, rom
1, , 2,12,0.05
. . 3.89
R N R
CV F F
o ÷ ÷
= = = .
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba.
a). TiToeuli SerCevisaTvis vipovoT SerCeviTi saSualo da Seswor-
ebuli SerCeviTi dispesia. gvaqvs:
1 11.8 x = ,
'2
1
5.7 s = ; 2 3.8 x = ,
'2
2
10.2 s = ; 3 7.6 x = ,
'2
3
10.3 s = .
b). gamovTvaloT erToblivi saSualo:
,
,
10 12 4
7.73
15
i j
i j
x
x
N
+ +··· +
= = =
¯
erT. .
g). gamovTvaloT jgufTa Soris variacia:
2
2 2 2
2
( )
5 (11.8 7.73) 5 (3.8 7.73) 5 (7.6 7.73)
: 80.07
1 3 1
i
i
i
B
n x x
s
R
÷
· ÷ + · ÷ + · ÷
= = =
÷ ÷
¯
erT.
.
d). gamovTvaloT jgufebSi variacia:
' 2
2
( 1)
(5 1) 5.7 (5 1) 10.2 (5 1) 10.3
: 8.73
( 1) 3 (5 1)
i i
i
W
i
i
n s
s
n
÷
÷ · + ÷ · + ÷ ·
= = =
÷ · ÷
¯
¯
.
e). gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
2
80.07
9.17
8.73
B
W
s
f
s
= = = .
nabiji 4. gadawyvetilebis miReba: vinaidan 9.17 > 3.89, amitom
nulovani hipoTeza unda ukuvagdoT, anu 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT
240

Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli davaskvnaT, rom sul cota erTi saSualo
mainc gansxvavdeba danarCenebisagan.
magaliTi 2. marketingis specialists surs gaarkvios aris Tu ara
gansxvaveba momxmareblebis mier sami sxvadasxva supermarketis salarosT-
an rigSi dgomis droebis saSualoebs Soris (monacemebi moyvanilia qvem-
oT). 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara arsebiTi gansxvaveba ri-
gSi dgomis droebis saSualoebs Soris?
maRazia A maRazia B maRazia C
--------------------------------------------------------------------
3 5 1
2 8 3
5 9 4
6 6 2
3 2 7
1 5 3
amoxsna.
nabiji 1. CamovayaliboT ZiriTadi da alternatiuli hipoTezebi:
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi saSualo mainc gansxvavdeba danarCenebisa-
gan.
nabiji 2. vipovoT kritikuli mniSvneloba. aq Tavisuflebis xarisxe-
bia: 1 3 1 R÷ = ÷ da 18 3 15 N R ÷ = ÷ = , amitom fiSeris ganawilebis cxrilidan
vpoulobT, rom
1, , 2,15,0.05
. . 3.68
R N R
CV F F
o ÷ ÷
= = = .
nabiji 3. gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba.
a). TiToeuli SerCevisaTvis vipovoT SerCeviTi saSualo da Seswor-
ebuli SerCeviTi dispesia. gvaqvs:
1 3.33 x = ,
'2
1
3.47 s = ; 2 5.83 x = ,
'2
2
6.17 s = ; 3 3.33 x = ,
'2
3
4.27 s = .
b). gamovTvaloT erToblivi saSualo:
,
,
3 2 3
4.17
18
i j
i j
x
x
N
+ +··· +
= = =
¯
erT. .
g). gamovTvaloT jgufTa Soris variacia:
2
2 2 2
2
( )
6 (3.33 4.17) 6 (5.83 4.17) 6 (3.33 4.17)
: 12.5
1 3 1
i
i
i
B
n x x
s
R
÷
· ÷ + · ÷ + · ÷
= = =
÷ ÷
¯
erT.
.
d). gamovTvaloT jgufebSi variacia:
' 2
2
( 1)
(6 1) 3.47 (6 1) 6.17 (6 1) 4.27
: 4.64
( 1) 3 (6 1)
i i
i
W
i
i
n s
s
n
÷
÷ · + ÷ · + ÷ ·
= = =
÷ · ÷
¯
¯
.
e). gamovTvaloT kriteriumis mniSvneloba:
2
2
12.5
2.69
4.64
B
W
s
f
s
= = = .
nabiji 4. gadawyvetilebis miReba: vinaidan 2.69 < 3.68, amitom nulov-
ani hipoTezis uaryofis safuZveli ara gvaqvs, anu 0.05 o = mniSvnelovneb-
is doniT Cven gvaqvs sakmarisi safuZveli davaskvnaT, rom saSualoebi ar-
sebiTad ar gansxvavdebian.
241

amocanebi

igulisxmeT, rom: populaciebi normaluri an daaxloebiT normalu-
ria; SerCevebi erTmaneTisagan damoukidebelia da populaciaTa dispersie-
bi tolia.
1. menejers ainteresebs aris Tu ara respublikuri saavadmyofos eq-
imebis, eqTanebisa da teqnikuri personalis saSualo asaki gansxvavebuli..
saavadmyofos SemTxveviT SerCeuli TanamSromlebis qvemoTmoyvanili mon-
acemebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeuZlia Tu ara menej-
ers daaskvnas, rom am sami jgufis saSualo asaki gansxvavebulia?
eqimebi eqTnebi teqnikuri personali
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
60 23 33
36 25 28
29 26 35
56 35 29
32 42 23
54 22 41
58
2. kompiuteris sami sxvadasxva tipis SemTxveviT SerCeul diskebSi
aRmoCenili defeqtebis raodenobis qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis mixedviT,
0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara daaskvnaT, rom defeqt-
ebis raodenobis saSualo diskebis am sam jgufSi gansxvavebulia?
diski A diski B diski C
---------------------------------------------------------
0 2 1
1 0 0
0 3 1
2 5 1
3 3 0
2 4 2
0 6 0
1 0 0
1 2 1
0 5 2

3. kolejis sportul programebSi monawile studentebis mier mopo-
vebuli qulebis qvemoTmoyvanili monacemebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelo-
vnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara daaskvnaT, rom am sam jgufSi qulebis
saSualo gansxvavebulia?





242

fexburTi kalaTburTi xelburTi
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3.2 3.8 2.6
2.6 3.1 1.9
2.4 2.6 1.7
2.4 3.9 2.5
1.8 3.3 1.9

4. SemTxveviT SerCeul pacientTa sam jgufs utardeboda mkurnalo-
ba stresis donis dawevis sami gansxvavebuli meTodiT. specialuri mowy-
obilobiT gazomil iqna (procentebSi gamosaxuli) TiToeuli pacientis
daweuli stresis done (monacemebi moyvanilia qvemoT). 0.05 o = mniSvnelo-
vnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara daaskvnaT, rom procentebis saSualo am
jgufebSi gansxvavebulia?
I meTodi II meTodi III meTodi
----------------------------------------------------------------------------
3 12 15
10 12 14
5 17 18
1 13 14
13 18 20
3 9 22
4 14 16

5. SemTxveviT SerCeuli aTletebi dayves sam jgufad da dauniSnes
sami saxis dieta erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi. erTi Tvis gasvlis Semdeg TiT-
oeuli aTletis mier dietebis mixedviT daklebuli kilogramebi moyvani-
lia qvemoT. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara daaskvnaT,
rom dietebi gansxvavebulia?
dieta A dieta B dieta C
------------------------------------------------------------
3 10 8
6 12 3
7 11 2
4 14 5
8
6

6. samomxmareblo JurnalSi WurWlis sarecxi manqanebi iyofa sam ka-
tegoriad: umaRlesi, Zalian kari da kargi. am sami kategoriis manqanebis
qvemoTmoyvanili fasebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, aris
Tu ara manqanebis saSualo fasebi gansxvavebuli?



243

umaRlesi Zalian kargi kargi
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
565 330 350
400 840 379
369 510 280
550 470 320
460 380 400
375 400 450
290
319

7. manqanaTmSenebeli qarxnis muSebi SemTxveviT mimagres oTx asawy-
ob xazs (“konveirs”). TiToeuli muSis mier gakeTebuli defeqturi nawil-
ebis raodenobis qvemoTmoyvanili raodenobebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvn-
elovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara daaskvnaT, rom defeqturi nawilebis
raodenobis saSualo am xazebze erTidaigivea?
I xazi II xazi III xazi IV xazi
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3 8 10 9
2 6 9 15
0 2 8 3
6 0 11 0
4 1 12 2
3 9 15 0
5 7 17 1

8. qvemoTmoyvanili magnitofonis sami tipis kasetis muSaobis xangr-
Zlivobis monacemebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia
Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom muSaobis xangrZlivobis saSualoebi gansxvavebu-
lia?
I tipi II tipi III tipi
----------------------------------------------------------
196 98 94
183 91 106
112 101 85
107 99 102
189 84 101

9. mkvlevars ainteresebs aris Tu ara gansxvaveba oTxi sxvadasxva
tipis balaxis sakreWi manqanis wonebs Soris. 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis do-
niT SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom manqanebis saSualo wonebi gansxva-
vebulia?


244

gazze benzinze eleqtronuli meqanikuri
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
95 73 55 37
101 69 52 24
108 72 51 25
97 71 37 29
101 67 57 22
62 54 17
68 34 17
71 45 22
41 20
53 18
21

10. qvemoT moyvanilia dReRamis sam sxvadasxva monakveTSi
gadaudebeli samedicino daxmarebis oTaxSi SemTxveviT SerCeuli
pacientis mier gatarebuli drois monacemebi (gazomili wuTebSi). 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara daaskvnaT, rom pacientis
daxmarebaze daxarjul droTa saSualoebi am sam jgufSi mniSvnelovnad
gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan?
dila (7--15) naSuadRe (15--23) Rame (23—7)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
12 9 6
18 8 15
18 16 8
21 20 9
19 15 5

amocanebi gamocdisaTvis

11. kompaniis mflobels ainteresebs aris Tu ara gayidvaTa raoden-
oba erTnairad ganawilebuli regionebis mixedviT. man SemTxveviT SearCia
Tveebi da daTvala 5 sxvadasxva regionSi gayidvaTa raodenoba. 0.05 o =
mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeuZlia Tu ara kompaniis mflobels daaskvnas,
rom gayidvaTa raodenoba TiToeul regionSi erTidaigivea?

regioni soxumi zugdidi gori Telavi quTaisi
gayidvebi 324 236 182 221 365

12. jandacvis saministros ainteresebs vin daTanxmdeba nebayofilo-
biT Tavis Tavze gamoscados arteriuli wnevis dasawevi axali preparati.
regionebis mixedviT miRebuli monacemebis qvemoTmoyvanili cxrilis
mixedviT, 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara daaskvnaT,
rom TiToeul regionSi eqsperimentSi monawileobis msurvelTa raode-
noba erTidaigivea?
245

regioni I II III IV
Tanaxmaa 87 62 56 93

13. iusticiis saministros ainteresebs srulwlovani mosaxleobis
Sexeduleba nafic msajulTa institutis SemoRebis mimarT. Catarebuli
gamokiTxvis qvemoTmoyvanili Sedegebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara daaskvnaT, rom Sexeduleba dakavSirebulia ada-
mianis sqesTan?
sqesi eTanxmeba ar eTanxmeba gaurkvevelia
mdedrobiTi 136 16 8
mamrobiTi 114 30 6

14. swrafi kvebis obieqtis menejerma gadawyvita gaarkvios Tu rom-
el souss aniWeben momxmareblebi upiratesobas hamburgeris Wamisas. Cata-
rebuli gamokiTxvis qvemoTmoyvanili Sedegebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvne-
lovnebis doniT, aris Tu ara momxmareblis sasurveli sousis saxeoba
damokidebuli mis sqesze?
sousi
sqesi maionezi “ketCupi” mdogvi
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
mdedrobiTi 25 14 8
mamrobiTi 15 18 10

15. gamokiTxul iqna 40 da 50 wlis investorebi fulis ganTavsebis
gzebis Sesaxeb. miRebuli manacemebis mixedviT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT, aris Tu ara kavSiri investoris asaksa da fulis ganTavsebis
gzebs Soris?
didi mcire saerTaSoriso fuladi
saaqcio saaqcio saaqcio bazris
fondi fondi fondi fondi obligacia
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
40 wlis 20 10 10 15 45
50 wlis 42 24 24 6 24

16. zoologiuri maRaziis mepatrones ainteresebs dakavSirebulia
Tu ara arCeuli cxovelis saxeoba adamianis sqesTan. qvemoTmoyvanili
monacemebis mixedviT, 0.1 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SeamowmeT Sesabamisi
hipoTeza. cxovelis saxeoba
----------------------------------------------------
ZaRli kata Citi
mdedrobiTi 23 4 8
mamrobiTi 32 27 16

17. gamokiTxul iqna 3 maRaziis 200 – 200 momxmarebeli, romlebic
sargebloben sakredito baraTebiT. maT dausves kiTxva “qondaT Tu ara
246

sakredito baraTiT sargeblobisas problemebi?” 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis
doniT SeiZleba Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom proporciebi erTidaigivea?

maRazia I MmaRazia II maRazia III
diax 87 56 43
ara 113 144 157
jami 200 200 200


18. SemTxveviT SearCies kvira da daTvales qalaqis sam sxvadasxva
avtosadgomze yovedRiurad gaCerebul avtomobilTa raodenoba.
SeamowmeT hipoTeza imis Sesaxeb, rom 0.01 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT ar
aris gansxvaveba am avtosadgomebze gaCerebul avtomobilTa raodenobebs
Soris.
avtosadgomi I avtosadgomi II avtosadgomi III
203 319 89
162 321 126
190 271 115
219 194 92
188 342 106
209 423 100
212 199 94

19. mamakacis sami tipis fexsacmelis qvemoTmoyvanili fasebis mixed-
viT, 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT, SegviZlia Tu ara davaskvnaT, rom
fasebis saSualoebs Soris mniSvnelovani gansxvavebaa?

oficialuri yoveldRiuri sportuli
110 80 64
95 100 66
95 135 70
265 90 92
59 80
70
50

20. firmis direqtors ainteresebs aris Tu ara gansxvaveba im droe-
bis saSualoebs Soris, rac misi TanamSromlebis sam jgufs sWirdeba sam-
saxurSi misasvlelad. 0.05 o = mniSvnelovnebis doniT SeuZlia Tu ara fi-
rmis direqtors daaskvnas, rom saSualoebs Soris arsebiTi gansxvavebaa?





247

menejeri gamyidveli mesawyobe
35 9 15
18 3 6
27 12 27
24 6 22
14
8
21
21. qvemoT moyvanilia nawlavis Cxirebis raodenoba sami sxvadasxva
tbis garkveul farTobze 5 dRiani periodis ganmavlobaSi. 0.05 o = mniSv-
nelovnebis doniT aris Tu ara gansxvaveba Cxirebis raodenobis saSualo-
ebSi?
kus tba lisis tba faravnis tba
45 97 33
53 82 35
41 99 31
38 84 28
55 79 26

22. studentebi SemTxveviT gadaanawiles sam jgufSi da TiToeul
jgufs SesTavazes swavlebis gansxvavebuli meTodi. kursis damTavrebis
Semdeg Catarebuli gamocdis Sedegebi moyvanilia qvemoT. 0.05 o = mniSvne-
lovnebis doniT aris Tu ara mniSvnelovani gansxvaveba gamocdis Sedege-
bis saSualoebSi jgufebis mixedviT?

I jgufi II jgufi III jgufi
87 82 97
92 78 90
61 41 83
83 65 92
47 63 91














248


pasuxebi:
1.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,16,0.05
. . 3.63 CV F = = ; . . 5.96 TV f ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 2.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,27,0.05
. . 3.35 CV F = = ; . . 7.456 TV f ÷ = ;
ki --
1
H . 3.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,12,0.1
. . 2.81 CV F = = ;
. . 8.448 TV f ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 4.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,18,0.05
. . 3.55 CV F = = ; . . 19.05 TV f ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 5.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc
gansx.;
2,11,0.05
. . 3.98 CV F = = ; . . 7.75 TV f ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 6.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi
mainc gansx.;
2,17,0.1
. . 2.64 CV F = = ; . . 1.28 TV f ÷ = ; ara --
0
H . 7.
0
H :
1 2 3 4
a a a a = = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
3,24,0.05
. . 3.01 CV F = = ; . . 6.974 TV f ÷ = ; ara --
1
H . 8.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,12,0.1
. . 2.81 CV F = = ; . . 9.16 TV f ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 9.
0
H :
1 2 3 4
a a a a = = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
3,31,0.1
. . 2.28 CV F = = ; . . 234.5 TV f ÷ = ; ki
--
1
H . 10.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,12,0.05
. . 3.89 CV F = = ;
. . 5.877 TV f ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 11.
0
H : erTidaigivea,
1
H : gansxvavebulia;
2
4,0.05
. . 9.488 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 87.14 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
1
H . 12.
0
H : erTidaigivea,
1
H : gansx-
vavebulia;
2
3,0.01
. . 11.345 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 13.38 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
1
H . 13.
0
H : damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
2,0.1
. . 4.605 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 6.163 TV ; ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 14.
0
H : damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
2,0.1
. . 4.605 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 3.05 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
0
H . 15.
0
H : damoukid.,
1
H : damokid.;
2
4,0.05
. . 9.488 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 28 TV ; ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 16.
0
H : damoukid.,
1
H :
damokid.;
2
2,0.1
. . 4.605 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 7.674 TV ; ÷ = ;
1
H . 17.
0
H :
1 2 3
p p p = = ,
1
H : erTi
mainc gansx.;
2
2,0.01
. . 9.21 CV ; = = ;
2
. . 23.89 TV ; ÷ = ; ara --
1
H . 18.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,18,0.01
. . 6.01 CV F = = ; . . 27.02 TV f ÷ = ;
1
H . 19.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,13,0.05
. . 3.81 CV F = = ; . . 0.533 TV f ÷ = ; ara --
0
H .
20.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,12,0.05
. . 3.89 CV F = = ; . . 6.141 TV f ÷ = ; ki
--
1
H . 21.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,12,0.05
. . 3.89 CV F = = ;
. . 65.263 TV f ÷ = ; ki --
1
H . 22.
0
H :
1 2 3
a a a = = ,
1
H : erTi mainc gansx.;
2,12,0.05
. . 3.89 CV F = = ; . . 3.673 TV f ÷ = ; ara --
0
H .









249

Tavi XX
sakontrolo werebisa da Sualeduri da saboloo gamocdebis
bileTebis nimuSebi 2007—2009 wlebSi

varianti 8.12.1.1.
1. dawereT jamis albaTobis formula. (1q.)
2. ganmarteT maCvenebliani ganawileba. (1q.)
3. ganmarteT SemTxveviTi sididis mediana. (1q.)
4. binomialuri ganawilebis lodini da dispersia. (1q.)
5. dawereT maTematikuri lodinis gamosaTvleli formula. (1q.)
6. agdeben erT wesier kamaTels da meore iseT kamaTels, romelzec 6 qulis
mosvlis albaTobaa 1/4. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom wesier kamaTelze mova 6
qula da arawesierze ar mova 6 qula. (2q.)
7. yuTSi moTavsebulia 3 wesieri da imave zomisa da wonis mqone 4 arawesieri
moneta, romelzec gerbis mosvlis albaTobaa 3/8. SemTxveviT amoiRes erTi
moneta da aagdes. ipoveT gerbis mosvlis albaToba. (3q.)
8. mocemulia ori damoukidebeli c da n SemTxveviTi sidideebis ganawilebis
kanonebi. a). ipoveT n -s standartuli gadaxra; (1q.) b). aageT n -s ganawilebis
funqcia; (1q.) g). ipoveT { [ 2, 6)} P ne ÷ ; (1q.) d). aageT c n + SemTxveviTi sididis
ganawilebis kanoni. (1q.)
c
-2 1
n
-4 2 5
P
0.82 0.18
P
0.4 0.1 0.5
9. mocemulia ori c da n SemTxveviTi sididis erToblivi ganawilebis kanoni.
a). gamoTvaleT korelaciis koeficienti; (4q.) b). avagoT min( , ) c n SemTxveviTi
sididis ganawilebis kanoni; (1q.) g). damoukidebelia Tu ara es SemTxveviTi
sidideebi? (1q.)
n c
-3 -1 2
-2 0.25 0.15 0.2
1 0.13 0.05 0.22
10. dawereT normaluri ganawilebis simkvrive, romlis lodinia 3, xolo
standartuli gadaxra 4. (1q.)
11. Tanabari ganawilebis simkvrivea
, [ 1, 4];
( )
0, [ 1, 4].
1/ 5 x
f x
x
e ÷
=
e ÷
¦
´
¹
Tu
Tu
ras udris: a). maTe-
matikuri lodini; (1q.) b). standartuli gadaxra. (1q.)
12. (0,1) N -is 0.77-kvantilia 0.74. ipoveT ( 3,16) N ÷ -is: a). 0.77-kvantili; (1q.) b). 0.23-
kvantili. (1q.)

Sifri:
====================================================================
ekonomikisa da biznesis fakulteti. kolokviumi albaTobis Teoriasa da
maTematikur statistikaSi.

studentis gvari, saxeli _____________________________ kursi _____
Sifri:



250

varianti # 2007.1.1
1. Ada Bdamoukidebelia, ( ) 0.7 P A = ; ( ) 0.8 P B = . ipoveT ( \ ) P A B .
a). 0.1 b). -0.1 g). 0.56 d). 0.14 e). 0.24
2. yuTSi 3 TeTri da 5 Savi burTia. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom dabrunebis
gareSe SemTxveviT SerCeuli sami burTidan 2 TeTria da 1 Savi?
a). 1/56 b). 15/56 g). 15/28 d). 5/28 e). 1/28
3. saTamaSo kamaTels agoreben samjer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom samivejer
mova erTi da igive qula?
a). 1/36 b). 5/9 g). 25/216 d). 1/8 e). 43/216 v). 91/216.
4. saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben orjer. gamoTvaleT ( ) P A B C da ( ) P A B C · · ,
Tu: A--qulaTa jami luwia, B--qulaTa jami 7-ze naklebia, C--meore agdebisas
movida 2.
a). 11/12, 1/9 b). 31/36, 1/6 g). 25/26, 1/18 d). 2/3, 0 e). 4/9, 1/12 v). 7/18, 0
5. saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben orjer. arian Tu ara damoukideblebi: Ada B?
daC? Bda C? arian Tu ara erToblivad damoukidebeli A, BdaC? Tu: A --
pirveli agdebisas movida 1 qula, B -- meore agdebisas movida 6 qula, C --
jamSi movida 7 qula;
a). ki, ara, ki, ara b). ki, ki, ara, ara g). ara, ara, ki, ki; d). ki, ki, ki, ara
6. saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben orjer. gamoTvaleT ( )
B
P A da miuTiTeT aris Tu
ara Ada Bdamoukidebeli, Tu:: A--movida erTi da igive qula, B--qulaTa jami
luwia.
a). 1/3, ara b). 1/6, ki g). 1/2, ara d). 2/5, ara e). 1/6, ki v). 1, ara
7. I, II, III brigada awarmoebs detalebis 30%, 20%. 50%-s, romelTa Soris Sesaba-
misad 1%, 3% da 2% cudia. SemTxveviT aRebuli detali aRmoCnda cudi. rogoria
alaToba imisa, rom is daamzada I brigadam?
a). 0.258 b). 0.613 g). 0..316 d). 0.526 e). 0.185 v). 0.158

#1. 1. albaTobis klasik. ganmarteba. #2. 1. muavr-laplasis lok. form.
2. sruli alb. da baiesis formulebi. 2. ganaw. funqcia: ganm., Tvisebebi.
3. maTematikuri lodini: ganm., Tvisebebi. 3. Tanab. ganaw.: simkv. M da D.
4. B A B P A P || ; 9 / 4 ) ( ; 3 , 0 ) ( = = 4. ( ) 3/ 7 P A = ; ( ) 0, 4 P B = ; || AB
ipoveT ) ( B A P · , ) \ ( B A P . ipoveT ) ( B A P · , ) \ ( B A P .
5. vip. monetis 3-jer agdebisas gerbTa 5. S.s. mniS. -2, 1, 3. alb. 0,2; 0,4; x.
mosvlis g. kan.; gan. f.; M; D da o . vip. x; g. kan.; gan. f.; M; D da o .
6. c mniS. -2, 1, 3. alb. 0,2; 0,5; 0,3. 6. c S.s. mniS. -1, 0, 2. alb. 0,3; 0,3; 0,4.
n S.s. mniS. -1, 0, 2. alb. 0,3;0,3;0,4. n S.s. mniS. -2, 1, 3. alb. 0,2; 0,5; 0,3.
n c|| . ipoveT n
c
3
2
÷ S.s. gan.kan. n c|| . ipoveT } , min{ n c S.s. gan. kan.
7. 4 1 , ) (
4
s s = x ax x f
c
; =0 sxvagan. 7. 5 2 , ) (
3
s s = x ax x f
c
; =0 sxvagan. :
ipoveT: ) ( }, 2 | {| , x F P a
c
c < , Mda D ipoveT: ) ( }, 3 | {| , x F P a
c
c s , Mda D.
8. SerCeviTi dispersia. 8. asimetriis koeficienti.
9. c -s mniS. -2;0;3. n -s mniS. -2;-1;1. 9. c -s mniS. -1;1;2. n -s mniS. -1; 0; 2.
= = = = =
22 21 13 12 11
; 0 ; 01 ; 1 , 0 ; 2 , 0 p p p p p = = = = =
22 21 13 12 11
; 0 ; 2 , 0 ; 0 ; 1 , 0 p p p p p
0 ; 1 , 0 ; 0 ; 6 / 1
32 31 23
= = = = p p p . ? = p 2 , 0 ; 0 ; 1 , 0 ; 7 / 1
32 31 23
= = = = p p p . ? = p
251

# 2008.4.1. 1. sxvaobis albaTobis formula. 2. bernulis formula. 3. xdomileb-
Ta damoukidebloba. 4. manqanaSi 5 adgilia. ramden sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba
ganTavsdes manqanaSi 5 adamiani, romelTagan erTs ara aqvs ufleba daikavs
adgili saWesTan?
5. monetas agdeben xuTjer. rogoria alabaToba imisa, rom gerbi mova kent ri-
xvjer, xolo safasuri luw ricxvjer?
6. saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben orjer. gamoTvaleT ( ) P A B C da ( ) P A B C · ·
albaTobebi A, BdaC xdomilebaTa Semdegi sameulisaTvis: A--mosul qulaTa
jami luwia, B--mosul qulaTa jami 7-ze naklebia, C--meore agdebisas movida 2
qula;
7. I brigada awarmoebs detalebis 30%-s, romelTa Soris 3% wundebulia. II
briga-da awarmoebs imave detalebis 35%-s, romelTa Soris 4% wundeblia. III
brigada awarmoebs detalebis 15%-s, romelTa Soris 1% wundebulia. IV brigada
amzadebs detalebis 20%-s, romelTa Soris 2% wundebulia. erT sawyobSi
mogrovili am detalebidan SemTxveviT aiRes erTi detali da is aRmoCnda
wundebuli. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom es detali daamzada I brigadam?
Sefaseba: #1—6 or-ori qula, #7 – 3 qula. sul 15 qula
#28.10.1. 1. marjvena jibeSi 3 ocTeTriani da 4 aTTeTriani monetaa, marcxena ji-
bSi ki 6 ocTeTriani da 3 aTTeTriani moneta. Mmarjvena jibidan marcxenaSi
SemTxveviT 2 moneta gadades. ipoveT alb-aToba imisa, rom amis Semdeg marcxena
jibidan SemTxveviT amoRebuli moneta aTTeTriania. (3 q.)
2. yuTSi 7 wiTeli da 5 lurji burTia. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom SemTxveviT
amoRebuli sami burTi erTi ferisaa. (3 qula)
3. Ada Bdamoukidebeli xdomilobebia, 3 . 0 ) ( , 5 . 0 ) ( = = B P A P . GgamoTvaleT ) ( B A P + .
(2 qula)
4. agoreben 2 wesier kamaTels, ras udris albaToba imisa, rom musuli
cifrebis jami tolia 8-is, Tu cnobilia rom es jami luwi ricxvia. (2
qula)
5. aagdes sami simetriuli moneta, damoukidebelia Tu ara xdomilobebi
A={pirvel monetaze movi-da gerbi}, B={movida erTi safasuri mainc}. (2 qula)
6. cifrebidan 1,2,3,4,5 jer irCeven erTs, xolo Semdeg darCenili oTxidan
meores. ipoveT albaToba imisa, rom orive amoirCeuli ricxvi kentia. (3 qula)
sagamocdo bileTi #1611. 2.1.
1. qvemoT moyvanili X -is ganawilebis kanonis mixedviT ipoveT: ganawilebis
funqcia (0.5q.) da aageT grafiki (0.5q.); (4 8) P X < s (0.25q.); ganawilebis kanonebi:
max(5, ) X -isa (0.25q.) da 4 9 X ÷ -is (0.25q.); EX (0.25q.); (5 3 ) E X ÷ (0.25q.); DX (0.5q.);
( 5 4 ) D X ÷ + (0.25q.); sul 3 qula
X
3 4 5 10
P P
0.25 0.1 ? 0.3
2. damoukidebel X da Y SemTxveviT sidideTa ganawilebis kanonebis mixedviT
ipoveT: , EX EY (0.25q.); , DX DY (0.25q.); ( 2 ) E XY ÷ (0.25q.); ( 3 4 ) D X Y ÷ + (0.25q.);
max( , ) X Y -is ganawilebis kanoni (0.5q.). sul 1.5 qula
X
-3 -1 2
Y
-2 3
P
0.3 0.35 ?
P
0.4 0.6
3. ipoveT ganawilebis kanonebi: X -is, Y -is (0.5q.) da 2 3 X Y ÷ -is (0.5q.); EX ,
EY (0.25q.), (3 5 ) E X Y + (0.5q.); DX DY (0.5q.); ( ) E XY (0.5q.); cov( , ) X Y (0.25q.);
252

( , ) X Y p (0.5q.); cov(5 , 4 7) X Y ÷ + (0.25q.);Dcov(3 2 , ) X Y Y + (0.25q.);D (4 2 ) D X Y ÷ (0.25q.);
( 3 4, ) X X p ÷ + (0.25q.); damoukidebelia Tu ara X daY ?(0.5q.). sul 5 qula
Y \ X -2 -1 1
-3 0.17 ? 0.15
1 0.23 0.1 0.05
4. dawereT eqsponencialuri ganawilebis simkvrive, Tu EX =0.5. 0.5 qula
5. mocemulia X -is ganawilebis funqcia
4
( ) 0, 2; , 2 x <4;
X
F x x ax = < = s Tu Tu =1,
Tu x > 4 . ipoveT ganawilebis simkvrive da a(1.5q.); EX (0.5q.); DX (0.5q.);
( [2,3)) P X e (0.5q.). sul 3 qula
6.
2
( 5)
18
( ) / 18
x
f x e t
÷
÷
= .ras udris EX (0.25q.), DX (0.25q.), ( 4) P X = ÷ (0.25q.),
( 0) P X < (0.25q.). sul 1 qula
7.
10
10
( ) (0.2) (0.8)
k k k
P X k C
÷
= = ), 0,1,...10 k = . ras udris EX (0.25q.), DX (0.25q.),
( 4) P X = (0.25q.), ( [3,5)) P X e (0.25q.). sul 1 qula.
8. mocemulia SerCeva: -1, 2, 7, 9, 3, -7, 5, 9, 8, -9. ipoveT populaciis saSualos
Caunacvlebeli Sefaseba. (0.5q.) gamoTvaleT eqscesis koeficienti. (0.5q.)
sul 1 qula.
9. normaluri populaciidan aRebulia SerCeva: 18, 12, 22, 15, 30, 16, 39, 38, 35.
2
o =64. avagoT 0.99 saimedoobis ndobis intervali ucnobi saSualosaTvis (nor-
maluri ganawilebis 0.995-kvantilia 2.58). 2 qula
10. normaluri populaciidan ( , 25) N a aRebulia SerCeva: 10, 12, -15, 6, 18, -9, 14, -20,
16. o =0.03 mniSvnelovnebis doniT SevamowmoT
0
: H a =5 hipoTeza
1
: H a =7 -is
winaaRmdeg (
0.97
1.89 x = ). 2 qula
yoveli Teoriuli kiTxva fasdeba 2 quliT:
11. ras ewodeba gadanacvleba, wyoba, jufTeba. dawereT maTi gamosaTvleli for-
mulebi.
12. vTqvaT { }
n
e e e , , ,
2 1
 = O aris mocemuli elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce
da P aris am sivrceze gansazRvruli albaToba. ra ZiriTad Tvisebebs akmayo-
filebs P albaToba?
13. dawereT ori xdomilebis damoukideblobis gansazRvreba. Tu ori A da B
xdomilebisaTvis 4 / 1 ) ( , = P c A B A da 2 / 1 ) ( = P B , daasabuTeT damoukidebelia
Tu ara A da B xdomileba.
14. ras ewodeba ualbaTesi ricxvi. dawereT ualbaTesi ricxvis gamosaTvleli
formula.
15. SemTxveviTi sididis ganawilebis funqcia da misi Tvisebebi.
16. diskretuli SemTxveviTi sididis magaliTebi: bernulis, binomuri da
puasonis ganawilebebi. maTi maTematikuri molodini da dispersia.
17. arakorelirebuli SemTxveviTi sidideebi. kavSiri SemTxveviT sidideTa
arakorelirebulobasa da damoukideblobas Soris.
18. SerCeviTi saSualos maTematikuri molodini da dispersia. SerCeviTi
dispersiis maTematikuri molodini.
19. SefasebaTa agebis meTodi _ momentTa meTodi.
20. intervaluri Sefaseba _ ndobis intervali bernulis sqemaSi warmatebis
ucnobi albaTobisaTvis.

253

sakontrolo wera: varianti 24.2008.12.1.
1. albaTobis klasikuri ganmarteba. 2. sruli albaTobisa da baiesis formul-
ebi. 3. maTematikuri lodini: ganmarteba, Tvisebebi. 4. eqscesis koeficienti. 5.
SemTxveviT sidideTa damoukidebloba.
6. ( ) 0.3 P A = ; ( ) 4/ 9 P B = ; A da B damoukidebelia. ipoveT ) ( B A P · , ) \ ( B A P .
7. mocemulia c SemT. sididis ganawilebis funqcia:
0, 2;
0.4, 2 0;
( )
0.75, 0 3;
1, 3.
x
x
F x
x
x
c
< ÷ ¦
¦
÷ s <
¦
=
´
s <
¦
¦
>
¹
Tu
Tu
Tu
Tu

ipoveTc SemTxveviTi sididis: a). ganawilebis kanoni; b). dispersia.
8. c da n damoukidebeli SemTxveviTi sidideebia ganawilebis kanonebiT:
c
-2 1 3
n
-1 0 2
P
0.2 0.5 0.3
P
0.3 0.3 0.4
ipoveT:
2
3 c n ÷ -s: a). ganaw. kanoni; b). maTematikuri lodini; g).
2
{ 3 0} P c n ÷ > =?
9. mocemulia c SemT. sididis ganawilebis simkvrive:
3
, [2,5];
( )
0, [2,5].
ax x
f x
x
c
¦ e
¦
=
´
e
¦
¹
Tu
Tu

ipoveT: a). a; b). {| | 2} P c < ; g). ganawilebis funqcia ( ) F x
c
; d). Ec ; e). Dc .
10. c SemTxveviTi sididis mniSvnelobebia: -2; 0 da 6, xolo n -si: -2; -1 da 1. ma-
Ti erToblivi ganawilebis kanonia:
11
0.2 p = ;
12
0.1 p = ;
13
0.1 p = ;
21
0 p = ;
22
1/ 6 p = ;
23
0 p = ;
31
0.1 p = ;
32
? p =
33
0 p = . a). gamoTvaleT korelaciis koeficienti; b). aag-
eT max( / 2, ) c n -s ganawilebis kanoni; g). gamoTvaleT (max{ / 2, }) E c n ; d). damouki-
debelia Tu ara es SemTxveviTi sidideebi?

2009 wlis sagamocdo bileTis amocanebis nawili
D. c SemTxveviTi sididis maTematikuri molodini aris 11, xolo dispersia 9-
is tolia. CebiSevis utolobis gamoyenebiT ipoveT c mudmivis mniSvneloba, rom-
lisTvisac sruldeba utoloba: {| 11| } 0.09 P c c ÷ > s .
E. nika eZebs samuSaos. igi imyofeboda gasaubrebaze bankSi da sadazRvevo
kompaniaSi. misi SefasebiT bankSi mas miiReben 0.5 albaTobiT, xolo sadazRvevo
kompaniaSi ki 0.6 albaTobiT. garda amisa, mas miaCnia, rom 0.3-is toli
albaTobiT mas orive es organizacia miiwvevs. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom nika
samuSaos iSovis.
F. studentma 25 sakiTxidan icis 20. maswavlebeli mas aZlevs 3 SekiTxvas. ra
aris albaToba imisa, rom studenti upasuxebs: a) mxolod or SekiTxvas, b) erT
SekiTxvas mainc.
G. fizkulturis maswavlebelma 9 moswavle, romelTagan 7 gogonaa, Caayena
mwkrivSi. ra aris albaToba imisa, rom laSa da giorgi aRmoCndebian erTmaneTis
gverdiT?
H. yuTSi, romelSic 2 burTulaa, CauSves 2 TeTri burTula, ris Semdegac
alalbedze amoiRes 1 burTula. ra aris albaToba imisa, rom amoRebuli
burTula TeTria, Tu tolalbaTuria yvela hipoTeza sawyisi 2 burTulis
ferebis Sesaxeb (igulisxmeba, rom feri aris TeTri an Savi).

254

danarTi (statistikuri cxrilebi)
puasonis ganawilebis cxrilebi ( ( )
!
k
P k e
k
ì
ì
÷
= )

ì = 1.0 ì = 1.5 ì = 2.0 ì = 2.5 ì = 3.0 ì = 3.5 ì = 4.0 ì = 4.5 ì = 5.0
p(0) 0.3679 0.2231 0.1353 0.0821 0.0498 0.0302 0.0183 0.0111 0.0067
p(1) 0.3679 0.3347 0.2707 0.2052 0.1494 0.1057 0.0733 0.0500 0.0337
p(2) 0.1839 0.2510 0.2707 0.2565 0.2240 0.1850 0.1465 0.1125 0.0842
p(3) 0.0613 0.1255 0.1804 0.2138 0.2240 0.2158 0.1954 0.1687 0.1404
p(4) 0.0153 0.0471 0.0902 0.1336 0.1680 0.1888 0.1954 0.1898 0.1755
p(5) 0.0031 0.0141 0.0361 0.0668 0.1008 0.1322 0.1563 0.1708 0.1755
p(6) 0.0005 0.0035 0.0120 0.0278 0.0504 0.0771 0.1042 0.1281 0.1462
p(7) 0.0001 0.0008 0.0034 0.0099 0.0216 0.0385 0.0595 0.0824 0.1044
p(8)

0.0001 0.0009 0.0031 0.0081 0.0169 0.0298 0.0463 0.0653
p(9)

0.0002 0.0009 0.0027 0.0066 0.0132 0.0232 0.0363
p(10)

0.0002 0.0008 0.0023 0.0053 0.0104 0.0181
p(11)

0.0002 0.0007 0.0019 0.0043 0.0082
p(12)

0.0001 0.0002 0.0006 0.0016 0.0034
p(13)

0.0001 0.0002 0.0006 0.0013
p(14)

0.0001 0.0002 0.0005
p(15)

0.0001 0.0002

standartuli normaluri ganawilebis zeda o -kritikuli
wertilebi ( z
o
)



o
0.1 0.05 0.025 0.125 0.01 0.005 0.0025 0.001
z
o
1.28 1.64 1.96 2.24 2.33 2.57 2.81 3.08




255

(0.1) N -is simkvrivis (
2
/ 2
1
( )
2
z
z e m
t
÷
= ) mniSvnelobebi

Z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0.0 .398942 .398922 .398862 .398763 .398623 .398444 .398225 .397966 .397668 .397330
0.1 .396953 .396536 .396080 .395585 .395052 .394479 .393868 .393219 .392531 .391806
0.2 .391043 .390242 .389404 .388529 .387617 .386668 .385683 .384663 .383606 .382515
0.3 .381388 .380226 .379031 .377801 .376537 .375240 .373911 .372548 .371154 .369728
0.4 .368270 .366782 .365263 .363714 .362135 .360527 .358890 .357225 .355533 .353812
0.5 .352065 .350292 .348493 .346668 .344818 .342944 .341046 .339124 .337180 .335213
0.6 .333225 .331215 .329184 .327133 .325062 .322972 .320864 .318737 .316593 .314432
0.7 .312254 .310060 .307851 .305627 .303389 .301137 .298872 .296595 .294305 .292004
0.8 .289692 .287369 .285036 .282694 .280344 .277985 .275618 .273244 .270864 .268477
0.9 .266085 .263688 .261286 .258881 .256471 .254059 .251644 .249228 .246809 .244390
Z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1.0 .241971 .239551 .237132 .234714 .232297 .229882 .227470 .225060 .222653 .220251
1.1 .217852 .215458 .213069 .210686 .208308 .205936 .203571 .201214 .198863 .196520
1.2 .194186 .191860 .189543 .187235 .184937 .182649 .180371 .178104 .175847 .173602
1.3 .171369 .169147 .166937 .164740 .162555 .160383 .158225 .156080 .153948 .151831
1.4 .149727 .147639 .145564 .143505 .141460 .139431 .137417 .135418 .133435 .131468
1.5 .129518 .127583 .125665 .123763 .121878 .120009 .118157 .116323 .114505 .112704
1.6 .110921 .109155 .107406 .105675 .103961 .102265 .100586 .098925 .097282 .095657
1.7 .094049 .092459 .090887 .089333 .087796 .086277 .084776 .083293 .081828 .080380
1.8 .078950 .077538 .076143 .074766 .073407 .072065 .070740 .069433 .068144 .066871
1.9 .065616 .064378 .063157 .061952 .060765 .059595 .058441 .057304 .056183 .055079
Z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2.0 .053991 .052919 .051864 .050824 .049800 .048792 .047800 .046823 .045861 .044915
2.1 .043984 .043067 .042166 .041280 .040408 .039550 .038707 .037878 .037063 .036262
2.2 .035475 .034701 .033941 .033194 .032460 .031740 .031032 .030337 .029655 .028985
2.3 .028327 .027682 .027048 .026426 .025817 .025218 .024631 .024056 .023491 .022937
2.4 .022395 .021862 .021341 .020829 .020328 .019837 .019356 .018885 .018423 .017971
2.5 .017528 .017095 .016670 .016254 .015848 .015449 .015060 .014678 .014305 .013940
2.6 .013583 .013234 .012892 .012558 .012232 .011912 .011600 .011295 .010997 .010706
2.7 .010421 .010143 3z98712 3z96058 3z93466 3z90936 3z88465 3z86052 3z83697 3z81398
2.8 3z79155 3z76965 3z74829 3z72744 3z70711 3z68728 3z66793 3z64907 3z63067 3z61274
2.9 3z59525 3z57821 3z56160 3z54541 3z52963 3z51426 3z49929 3z48470 3z47050 3z45666



256

(0.1) N -is ganawilebis funqciis (
í
t
= u
· ÷
÷ x
t
dt e x
2
2
2
1
) ( ) mniSvnelobebi

x u(x) x u(x) x u (x) x u (x) x u(x) x u(x)
0.00 0.500 0.33 0.629 0.66 0.745 0.99 0.838 1.32 0.906 1.65 0.950
0.01 0.503 0.34 0.633 0.67 0.748 1.00 0.841 1.33 0.908 1.66 0.951
0.02 0.507 0.35 0.636 0.68 0.751 1.01 0.843 1.34 0.909 1.67 0.952
0.03 0.511 0.36 0.640 0.69 0.754 1.02 0.846 1.35 0.911 1.68 0.953
0.04 0.515 0.37 0.644 0.70 0.758 1.03 0.848 1.36 0.913 1.69 0.954
0.05 0.519 0.38 0.648 0.71 0.761 1.04 0.850 1.37 0.914 1.70 0.955
0.06 0.523 0.39 0.651 0.72 0.764 1.05 0.853 1.38 0.916 1.71 0.956
0.07 0.527 0.40 0.655 0.73 0.767 1.06 0.855 1.39 0.917 1.72 0.957
0.08 0.531 0.41 0.659 0.74 0.770 1.07 0.857 1.40 0.919 1.73 0.958
0.09 0.535 0.42 0.662 0.75 0.773 1.08 0.859 1.41 0.920 1.74 0.959
0.10 0.539 0.43 0.666 0.76 0.776 1.09 0.862 1.42 0.922 1.75 0.959
0.11 0.543 0.44 0.670 0.77 0.779 1.10 0.864 1.43 0.923 1.76 0.960
0.12 0.547 0.45 0.673 0.78 0.782 1.11 0.866 1.44 0.925 1.77 0.961
0.13 0.551 0.46 0.677 0.79 0.785 1.12 0.868 1.45 0.926 1.78 0.962
0.14 0.555 0.47 0.680 0.80 0.788 1.13 0.870 1.46 0.927 1.79 0.963
0.15 0.559 0.48 0.684 0.81 0.791 1.14 0.872 1.47 0.929 1.80 0.964
0.16 0.563 0.49 0.687 0.82 0.793 1.15 0.874 1.48 0.930 1.81 0.964
0.17 0.567 0.50 0.691 0.83 0.796 1.16 0.876 1.49 0.931 1.82 0.965
0.18 0.571 0.51 0.694 0.84 0.799 1.17 0.879 1.50 0.933 1.83 0.966
0.19 0.575 0.52 0.698 0.85 0.802 1.18 0.881 1.51 0.934 1.84 0.967
0.20 0.579 0.53 0.701 0.86 0.805 1.19 0.882 1.52 0.935 1.85 0.967
0.21 0.583 0.54 0.705 0.87 0.807 1.20 0.884 1.53 0.936 1.86 0.968
0.22 0.587 0.55 0.708 0.88 0.810 1.21 0.886 1.54 0.938 1.87 0.969
0.23 0.590 0.56 0.712 0.89 0.813 1.22 0.888 1.55 0.939 1.88 0.969
0.24 0.594 0.57 0.715 0.90 0.815 1.23 0.890 1.56 0.940 1.89 0.970
0.25 0.598 0.58 0.719 0.91 0.818 1.24 0.892 1.57 0.941 1.90 0.971
0.26 0.602 0.59 0.722 0.92 0.821 1.25 0.894 1.58 0.942 1.91 0.971
0.27 0.606 0.60 0.725 0.93 0.823 1.26 0.896 1.59 0.944 1.92 0.972
0.28 0.610 0.61 0.729 0.94 0.826 1.27 0.897 1.60 0.945 1.93 0.973
0.29 0.614 0.62 0.732 0.95 0.828 1.28 0.899 1.61 0.946 1.94 0.973
0.30 0.617 0.63 0.735 0.96 0.831 1.29 0.901 1.62 0.947 1.95 0.974
0.31 0.621 0.64 0.738 0.97 0.833 1.30 0.903 1.63 0.948 1.96 0.975
0.32 0.625 0.65 0.742 0.98 0.836 1.31 0.904 1.64 0.949 1.97 0.975

257


2
2
0
0
1
( )
2
z t
z e dt
t
÷
u =
í

funqciis cxrilebi
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
0.0 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120 0.0160 0.0199 0.0239 0.0279 0.0319 0.0359
0.1 0.0398 0.0438 0.0478 0.0517 0.0557 0.0596 0.0636 0.0675 0.0714 0.0753
0.2 0.0793 0.0832 0.0871 0.0910 0.0948 0.0987 0.1026 0.1064 0.1103 0.1141
0.3 0.1179 0.1217 0.1255 0.1293 0.1331 0.1368 0.1406 0.1443 0.1480 0.1517
0.4 0.1554 0.1591 0.1628 0.1664 0.1700 0.1736 0.1772 0.1808 0.1844 0.1879
0.5 0.1915 0.1950 0.1985 0.2019 0.2054 0.2088 0.2123 0.2157 0.2190 0.2224
0.6 0.2257 0.2291 0.2324 0.2357 0.2389 0.2422 0.2454 0.2486 0.2517 0.2549
0.7 0.2580 0.2611 0.2642 0.2673 0.2704 0.2734 0.2764 0.2794 0.2823 0.2852
0.8 0.2881 0.2910 0.2939 0.2967 0.2995 0.3023 0.3051 0.3078 0.3106 0.3133
0.9 0.3159 0.3186 0.3212 0.3238 0.3264 0.3289 0.3315 0.3340 0.3365 0.3389
1.0 0.3413 0.3438 0.3461 0.3485 0.3508 0.3531 0.3554 0.3577 0.3599 0.3621
1.1 0.3643 0.3665 0.3686 0.3708 0.3729 0.3749 0.3770 0.3790 0.3810 0.3830
1.2 0.3849 0.3869 0.3888 0.3907 0.3925 0.3944 0.3962 0.3980 0.3997 0.4015
1.3 0.4032 0.4049 0.4066 0.4082 0.4099 0.4115 0.4131 0.4147 0.4162 0.4177
1.4 0.4192 0.4207 0.4222 0.4236 0.4251 0.4265 0.4279 0.4292 0.4306 0.4319
1.5 0.4332 0.4345 0.4357 0.4370 0.4382 0.4394 0.4406 0.4418 0.4429 0.4441
1.6 0.4452 0.4463 0.4474 0.4484 0.4495 0.4505 0.4515 0.4525 0.4535 0.4545
1.7 0.4554 0.4564 0.4573 0.4582 0.4591 0.4599 0.4608 0.4616 0.4625 0.4633
1.8 0.4641 0.4649 0.4656 0.4664 0.4671 0.4678 0.4686 0.4693 0.4699 0.4706
1.9 0.4713 0.4719 0.4726 0.4732 0.4738 0.4744 0.4750 0.4756 0.4761 0.4767
2.0 0.4772 0.4778 0.4783 0.4788 0.4793 0.4798 0.4803 0.4808 0.4812 0.4817
2.1 0.4821 0.4826 0.4830 0.4834 0.4838 0.4842 0.4846 0.4850 0.4854 0.4857
2.2 0.4861 0.4864 0.4868 0.4871 0.4875 0.4878 0.4881 0.4884 0.4887 0.4890
2.3 0.4893 0.4896 0.4898 0.4901 0.4904 0.4906 0.4909 0.4911 0.4913 0.4916
2.4 0.4918 0.4920 0.4922 0.4925 0.4927 0.4929 0.4931 0.4932 0.4934 0.4936
2.5 0.4938 0.4940 0.4941 0.4943 0.4945 0.4946 0.4948 0.4949 0.4951 0.4952
2.6 0.4953 0.4955 0.4956 0.4957 0.4959 0.4960 0.4961 0.4962 0.4963 0.4964
2.7 0.4965 0.4966 0.4967 0.4968 0.4969 0.4970 0.4971 0.4972 0.4973 0.4974
2.8 0.4974 0.4975 0.4976 0.4977 0.4977 0.4978 0.4979 0.4979 0.4980 0.4981
2.9 0.4981 0.4982 0.4982 0.4983 0.4984 0.4984 0.4985 0.4985 0.4986 0.4986
3.0 0.4987 0.4987 0.4987 0.4988 0.4988 0.4989 0.4989 0.4989 0.4990 0.4990
258

t (stiudentis) ganawilebis zeda o -kritikuli wertilebi (
,n
t
o
)



o
n 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005 0.0025 0.001
1
3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.656 127.321 318.289
2
1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 14.089 22.328
3
1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 7.453 10.214
4
1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 5.598 7.173
5
1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 4.773 5.894
6
1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 4.317 5.208
7
1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 4.029 4.785
8
1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 3.833 4.501
9
1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 3.690 4.297
10
1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 3.581 4.144
11
1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 3.497 4.025
12
1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 3.428 3.930
13
1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 3.372 3.852
14
1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 3.326 3.787
15
1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 3.286 3.733
16
1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 3.252 3.686
17
1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.222 3.646
18
1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.197 3.610
19
1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.174 3.579
20
1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.153 3.552
21
1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.135 3.527
22
1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.119 3.505
23
1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.104 3.485
24
1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.091 3.467
25
1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.078 3.450
26
1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.067 3.435
27
1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.057 3.421
28
1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.047 3.408
29
1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.038 3.396
30
1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.030 3.385


259

t ganawilebis zeda / 2 o -kritikuli wertilebi
, / 2 n
t
o
(orkudiani)

n
A
o
0.80
0.20
0.90
0.10
0.95
0.05
0.98
0.02
0.99
0.01
0.995
0.005
0.998
0.002
0.999
0.001
1 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.820 63.657 127.321 318.309 636.619
2 1.886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 14.089 22.327 31.599
3 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 7.453 10.215 12.924
4 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 5.598 7.173 8.610
5 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 4.773 5.893 6.869
6 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 4.317 5.208 5.959
7 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 4.029 4.785 5.408
8 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.897 3.355 3.833 4.501 5.041
9 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 3.690 4.297 4.781
10 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 3.581 4.144 4.587
11 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 3.497 4.025 4.437
12 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 3.428 3.930 4.318
13 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 3.372 3.852 4.221
14 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.625 2.977 3.326 3.787 4.140
15 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 3.286 3.733 4.073
16 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.584 2.921 3.252 3.686 4.015
17 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.222 3.646 3.965
18 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.197 3.610 3.922
19 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.174 3.579 3.883
20 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.153 3.552 3.850
21 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.135 3.527 3.819
22 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.119 3.505 3.792
23 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.104 3.485 3.768
24 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.090 3.467 3.745
25 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.078 3.450 3.725
26 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.067 3.435 3.707
27 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.057 3.421 3.690
28 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.047 3.408 3.674
29 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.038 3.396 3.659
30 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.030 3.385 3.646

1.282 1.645 1.960 2.326 2.576 2.807 3.090 3.291


260

2
; (xi kvadrat) ganawilebis zeda o -kritikuli wertilebi (
2
,n o
; )


o
n
0.995 0.975 0.20 0.10 0.05 0.025 0.02 0.01 0.005 0.002 0.001
1 0.000039 0.00098 1.642 2.706 3.841 5.024 5.412 6.635 7.879 9.550 10.828
2 0.0100 0.0506 3.219 4.605 5.991 7.378 7.824 9.210 10.597 12.429 13.816
3 0.0717 0.216 4.642 6.251 7.815 9.348 9.837 11.345 12.838 14.796 16.266
4 0.207 0.484 5.989 7.779 9.488 11.143 11.668 13.277 14.860 16.924 18.467
5 0.412 0.831 7.289 9.236 11.070 12.833 13.388 15.086 16.750 18.907 20.515
6 0.676 1.237 8.558 10.645 12.592 14.449 15.033 16.812 18.548 20.791 22.458
7 0.989 1.690 9.803 12.017 14.067 16.013 16.622 18.475 20.278 22.601 24.322
8 1.344 2.180 11.030 13.362 15.507 17.535 18.168 20.090 21.955 24.352 26.124
9 1.735 2.700 12.242 14.684 16.919 19.023 19.679 21.666 23.589 26.056 27.877
10 2.156 3.247 13.442 15.987 18.307 20.483 21.161 23.209 25.188 27.722 29.588
11 2.603 3.816 14.631 17.275 19.675 21.920 22.618 24.725 26.757 29.354 31.264
12 3.074 4.404 15.812 18.549 21.026 23.337 24.054 26.217 28.300 30.957 32.909
13 3.565 5.009 16.985 19.812 22.362 24.736 25.472 27.688 29.819 32.535 34.528
14 4.075 5.629 18.151 21.064 23.685 26.119 26.873 29.141 31.319 34.091 36.123
15 4.601 6.262 19.311 22.307 24.996 27.488 28.259 30.578 32.801 35.628 37.697
16 5.142 6.908 20.465 23.542 26.296 28.845 29.633 32.000 34.267 37.146 39.252
17 5.697 7.564 21.615 24.769 27.587 30.191 30.995 33.409 35.718 38.648 40.790
18 6.265 8.231 22.760 25.989 28.869 31.526 32.346 34.805 37.156 40.136 42.312
19 6.844 8.907 23.900 27.204 30.144 32.852 33.687 36.191 38.582 41.610 43.820
20 7.434 9.591 25.038 28.412 31.410 34.170 35.020 37.566 39.997 43.072 45.315
21 8.034 10.283 26.171 29.615 32.671 35.479 36.343 38.932 41.401 44.522 46.797
22 8.643 10.982 27.301 30.813 33.924 36.781 37.659 40.289 42.796 45.962 48.268
23 9.260 11.689 28.429 32.007 35.172 38.076 38.968 41.638 44.181 47.391 49.728
24 9.886 12.401 29.553 33.196 36.415 39.364 40.270 42.980 45.559 48.812 51.179
25 10.520 13.120 30.675 34.382 37.652 40.646 41.566 44.314 46.928 50.223 52.620
26 11.160 13.844 31.795 35.563 38.885 41.923 42.856 45.642 48.290 51.627 54.052
27 11.808 14.573 32.912 36.741 40.113 43.195 44.140 46.963 49.645 53.023 55.476
28 12.461 15.308 34.027 37.916 41.337 44.461 45.419 48.278 50.993 54.411 56.892
29 13.121 16.047 35.139 39.087 42.557 45.722 46.693 49.588 52.336 55.792 58.301
30 13.787 16.791 36.250 40.256 43.773 46.979 47.962 50.892 53.672 57.167 59.703
31 14.458 17.539 37.359 41.422 44.985 48.232 49.226 52.191 55.003 58.536 61.098
32 15.134 18.291 38.466 42.585 46.194 49.480 50.487 53.486 56.328 59.899 62.487
33 15.815 19.047 39.572 43.745 47.400 50.725 51.743 54.776 57.648 61.256 63.870
34 16.501 19.806 40.676 44.903 48.602 51.966 52.995 56.061 58.964 62.608 65.247
35 17.192 20.569 41.778 46.059 49.802 53.203 54.244 57.342 60.275 63.955 66.619
261

( , ) F n m (fiSeris) ganawilebis zeda o -kritikuli wertilebi (
, , n m
F
o
)

n 0.1 o =
m 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20
1 39.864 49.500 53.593 55.833 57.240 58.906 60.195 61.220 61.740
2 8.5264 8.9999 9.1618 9.2434 9.2926 9.3491 9.3915 9.4248 9.4413
3 5.5384 5.4624 5.3907 5.3426 5.3092 5.2661 5.2304 5.2003 5.1845
4 4.5448 4.3245 4.1909 4.1073 4.0505 3.9790 3.9198 3.8704 3.8443
5 4.0605 3.7798 3.6194 3.5202 3.4530 3.3679 3.2974 3.2379 3.2067
7 3.5895 3.2575 3.0740 2.9605 2.8833 2.7850 2.7025 2.6322 2.5947
10 3.2850 2.9244 2.7277 2.6054 2.5216 2.4139 2.3226 2.2434 2.2007
15 3.0731 2.6951 2.4898 2.3615 2.2729 2.1582 2.0593 1.9722 1.9243
20 2.9746 2.5893 2.3801 2.2490 2.1582 2.0397 1.9368 1.8450 1.7939
30 2.8808 2.4887 2.2761 2.1423 2.0493 1.9269 1.8195 1.7222 1.6674
60 2.7911 2.3932 2.1774 2.0409 1.9457 1.8194 1.7070 1.6034 1.5435

n 0.05 o =
m 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20
1 161.45 199.50 215.71 224.58 230.16 236.77 241.88 245.95 248.01
2 18.513 19.000 19.164 19.247 19.296 19.353 19.396 19.429 19.446
3 10.128 9.5522 9.2766 9.1172 9.0135 8.8867 8.7855 8.7028 8.6602
4 7.7086 6.9443 6.5915 6.3882 6.2560 6.0942 5.9644 5.8579 5.8026
5 6.6078 5.7862 5.4095 5.1922 5.0504 4.8759 4.7351 4.6187 4.5582
7 5.5914 4.7375 4.3469 4.1202 3.9715 3.7871 3.6366 3.5108 3.4445
10 4.9645 4.1028 3.7082 3.4780 3.3259 3.1354 2.9782 2.8450 2.7741
15 4.5431 3.6823 3.2874 3.0556 2.9013 2.7066 2.5437 2.4035 2.3275
20 4.3512 3.4928 3.0983 2.8660 2.7109 2.5140 2.3479 2.2032 2.1241
30 4.1709 3.3159 2.9223 2.6896 2.5336 2.3343 2.1646 2.0149 1.9317
60 4.0012 3.1505 2.7581 2.5252 2.3683 2.1666 1.9927 1.8365 1.7480
262

( , ) F n m (fiSeris) ganawilebis zeda o -kritikuli wertilebi (
, , n m
F
o
)
n 0.01 o =
m 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20
1 4052.2 4999.5 5403.4 5624.6 5763.6 5928.4 6055.8 6157.3 6208.7
2 98.503 99.000 99.166 99.249 99.299 99.356 99.399 99.433 99.449
3 34.116 30.817 29.457 28.710 28.237 27.672 27.229 26.872 26.690
4 21.198 18.000 16.694 15.977 15.522 14.976 14.546 14.198 14.020
5 16.258 13.274 12.060 11.392 10.967 10.455 10.051 9.7222 9.5526
7 12.246 9.5467 8.4513 7.8466 7.4605 6.9929 6.6201 6.3143 6.1554
10 10.044 7.5594 6.5523 5.9944 5.6363 5.2001 4.8492 4.5582 4.4055
15 8.6831 6.3588 5.4169 4.8932 4.5557 4.1416 3.8049 3.5223 3.3719
20 8.0960 5.8489 4.9382 4.4306 4.1027 3.6987 3.3682 3.0880 2.9377
30 7.5624 5.3903 4.5098 4.0179 3.6990 3.3046 2.9791 2.7002 2.5486
60 7.0771 4.9774 4.1259 3.6491 3.3388 2.9530 2.6318 2.3522 2.1978

n 0.005 o =
m 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 15 20
1 16211 19999 21615 22500 23056 23715 24224 24630 24836
2 198.50 199.00 199.17 199.25 199.30 199.36 199.40 199.43 199.45
3 55.552 49.799 47.467 46.195 45.392 44.434 43.686 43.085 42.777
4 31.333 26.284 24.259 23.155 22.456 21.622 20.967 20.438 20.167
5 22.785 18.314 16.530 15.556 14.940 14.200 13.618 13.146 12.903
7 16.235 12.404 10.882 10.050 9.5221 8.8853 8.3803 7.9677 7.7539
10 12.826 9.4270 8.0807 7.3428 6.8723 6.3025 5.8467 5.4706 5.2740
15 10.798 7.7007 6.4760 5.8029 5.3721 4.8473 4.4235 4.0697 3.8826
20 9.9439 6.9865 5.8176 5.1744 4.7616 4.2569 3.8470 3.5020 3.3178
30 9.1796 6.3547 5.2387 4.6233 4.2275 3.7416 3.3439 3.0058 2.8231
60 8.4946 5.7950 4.7290 4.1399 3.7599 3.2911 2.9042 2.5705 2.3872








263

damateba
sagamocdo amocanebi xdomilebebisaTvis

xdomilebebi

1. aageT elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce saTamaSo kamaTlis orjer ga-
gorebisas. gamoyaviT xdomilebebi: A -- mosul qulaTa jami metia 5-ze,
magram naklebia 9-ze; B -- mosul qulaTa jami naklebia 6-ze an metia 8-
ze; C -- mosul qulebSi erTi mainc oTxiania; D -- mosul qulaTa jami
kentia; E -- mosul qulaTa sxvaoba tolia 4-is. miuTiTeT Tavsebad da
uTavsebad xdomilebaTa yvela wyvili.
2. ramdeni elementisagan Sedgeba elementarul xdomilebaTa sivrce: saTa-
maSo kamaTlis samjer agdebisas?
3. a). Tu A da B uTavsebadi xdomilebebia, da A da C agreTve uTavse-
bia, maSin gamodis Tu ara aqedan, rom B da C uTavsebadia? b). Tu A da
B Tavsebadi xdomilebebia, da A da C agreTve Tavsebadia, maSin gamodis
Tu ara aqedan, rom B da C Tavsebadia?
4. aucilebeli da SeuZlebeli xdomilebebis: a). gadakveTa b). gaerTianeba.
5. daamtkiceT, rom Tu A B A C = , maSin B C = araa marTebuli.
6. daamtkiceT, rom Tu A B A C · = · da A=C, maSin B C = araa marTebuli.
7. iwvevs Tu ara xdomileba ( ) A B C · xdomilebas ( ) A B C ?
8. samarTliania Tu ara CarTva [( ) ] [( ) ] ( ) B C B C C C B B B · c · · ?
9. daamtkiceT Tanafardobebi: a). ( ) A B A =O; b). ( ) A B A A B · = · ; g).
( ) A B A A B · = · ; d). ( ) A B A A B = ; e). ) ( ) ( A A A A · O = C ; v).
( ) ( ) A A A A · C = O · .
10. rogor SeiZleba martivad Caiweros Semdegi xdomilebebi:
a). ( ) A B A ; b). ( ) A B A · · ; g). [ ( )] A B A B ; d). [ ( )] B A B A · · · ;
e). ( ) ( ) B B B A A A · ; v). ( ) ( ) B B B A A A · · · · ; z). [ ( )] B A B A · · ;
T). ( ) ( ) B A A A · · ; i). ( ) A B A · ; k). ( ) B A B · · ; l). ( ) B A A · ;
m). ( ) B A B · .
11. daamtkiceT Semdegi Tanafardobebi:
a). ( ) ( ) B A A A B B · = ; b). ( ) ( ) ( ) A A A A B C · O = · ;
g). ( ) ( ) ( ) B A B B B A · = C· ; d). ( ) ( ) ( ) A A A A A ·C = O · ;
e). [ ( )] ( ) ( ) B A B A B B A A · = · · ; v). ( ) A B A A B · = ;
z). ( ) ( ) ( ) A B A B A B · = C ; T). [ ( )] [( ) ] A B A A B B A B · · = · .

kombinatorika

12. manqanaSi 5 adgilia. ramden sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba ganTavsdes man-
qanaSi 5 adamiani, Tu erTs ara aqvs ufleba daikavos adgili saWesTan?
13. manqanaSi 5 adgilia. ramden sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba ganTavsdes man-
qanaSi 4 adamiani, Tu saWesTan adgilis dakaveba SeuZlia or maTgans?
264

14. studentma unda Caabaros 4 gamocda 7 dRis ganmavlobaSi. ramden sxva-
dasxvanairad SeiZleba gamocdebis cxrilis Sedgena, Tu erT dRes ar Se-
iZleba erTze meti gamocdis Cabareba?
15. studentma 6 dReSi unda Caabaros 3 gamocda: maTematika, fizika da
eleqtronika. ramden sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba gamocdebis cxrilis
Sedgena, Tu erT dRes ar SeiZleba erTze meti gamocdis Cabareba da jer
unda Caabaros maTematika, Semdeg fizika da bolos, eleqtronika?
16. 7 adamianidan, romelTa Soris 3 doqtoria, unda Sedges 4 kaciani
komisia, im pirobiT, rom komisiaSi Sediodes erTi mainc doqtori. ramden
sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba Sedges aseTi komisia?
17. 10 adamiani unda ganTavsdes 3 oTaxSi, ise, rom TiToeul oTaxSi iyos
aranakleb 3 adamiani. ramden sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba amis gakeTeba?
18. 8 adamiani unda ganTavsdes 3 oTaxSi, ise, rom TiToeul oTaxSi iyos
aranakleb 2 adamiani. ramden sxvadasxvanairad SeiZleba amis gakeTeba?
19. monetas agdeben 6-jer. ramdeni variantia safasuris an 2-jer an 3-jer
mosvlis?
20. monetas agdeben 7-jer. ramdeni variantia an safasuris 2-jer an gerbis
3-jer mosvlis?
21. monetas agdeben 8-jer. ramdeni variantia erTdroulad safasuris 5-
jer da gerbis 3-jer mosvlis?
22. monetas agdeben 9-jer. sul ramdeni variantia gerbebisa da safasureb-
is mosvlis?
23. monetas agdeben 8-jer. ras ufro meti Sansebi aqvs: safasuris 4-jer
mosvlas, Tu gerbis 5-jer mosvlas da ramdenjer?

albaTobis klasikuri ganmarteba

24. yuTSi 10 wiTeli, 5 TeTri da 4 lurji burTia. SemTxveviT iReben erT
burTs. vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom: a). amoRebulia lurji burTi? b).
araa amoRebuli wiTeli burTi? g). araa amoRebuli TeTri burTi? d). amo-
Rebulia wiTeli an TeTri burTi?
25. rva adamianisagan, romelTa Soris 3 doqtoria da 5 kandidati, unda
SevadginoT sam kaciani komisia. komisiis wevrebi SeirCeva SemTxveviT.
rogoria albaToba imisa, rom komisiaSi moxvdeba: a). sami doqtori? b).
ori doqtori da erTi kandidati? g). erTi doqtori da ori kandidati?
d). sami kandidati?
26. 9 wignidan, romelTa Soris 4 xelovnebazea da 5 deteqtivia,
SemTxveviT irCeven sams. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom: a). samive wigni
iqneba xelovnebaze? b). samive iqneba deteqtivi? g). erTi an ori wigni
iqneba xelovnebaze? d). zustad ori iqneba deteqtivi?
27. monetas agdeben samjer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom gerbi mova: a).
kent ricxvjer? b). luw ricxvjer? g). arc erTxel? d). orjer mainc?
28. monetas agdeben 4-jer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom gerbi mova: a).
kent ricxvjer? b). luw ricxvjer? g). aranakleb orjer? d). erT-jer ma-
inc?
265

29. monetas agdeben oTxjer. rogoria alabaToba imisa, rom safasuri
mova: a). aranakleb samjer? b). aranakleb orjer? g). aranakleb erT-jer?
d). arc erTxel?
30. monetas agdeben oTxjer. rogoria alabaToba imisa, rom gerbi mova: a).
erTjer an arc erTjer? b). an orjer an samjer? g). an erTjer an orjer?
d)/ an erTjer an samjer?
31. monetas agdeben xuTjer. rogoria alabaToba imisa, rom: a). gerbi mova
kent ricxvjer, xolo safasuri luw ricxvjer? b). gerbi mova kent ricx-
vjer? g). gerbi mova luw ricxvjer? d). gerbi mova luw ricxvjer, xolo
safasuri kent ricxvjer?
32. monetas agdeben xuTjer. rogoria alabaToba imisa, rom gerbi mova: a).
aranakleb samjer? b). aranakleb oTxjer? g). an erTjer an orjer? d). an
erTjer an oTxjer? e). an orjer an samjer?
33. saTamaSo kamaTels agoreben orjer. ra ufro albaTuria – jamSi mova:
a). 6 qula Tu 8 qula? b). 5 qula Tu 9 qula? g). 5 qula Tu 6 qula? d). 5
qula Tu 8 qula? e). 6 qula Tu 7 qula? v). 7 qula Tu 5 qula?
34. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom ori saTamaSo kamaTlis gagorebisas mo-
va iseTi qulebi, romlebic orjer gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan?
35. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis orjer gagorebisas
erTjer mainc mova: a). erTiani? b). oriani? g). samiani? d). oTxiani? e). xu-
Tiani? v). eqvsiani?
36. romelia meti da ramdeniT: albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis
erTjer gagorebisas mova 6 qula Tu orjer gagorebisas jamSi mova 6
qula?
37. romelia meti da ramdeniT: albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis
erTjer gagorebisas mova luwi qula Tu orjer gagorebisas jamSi mova
luwi qula?
38. saTamaSo kamaTels agoreben orjer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom mo-
sul qulaTa jami aRmoCndeba: a). kenti ricxvi? b). 4-ze meti da 9-ze nakl-
ebi? g). 3-is jeradi? d). 4-is jeradi? e). 5-is jeradi? v). 6-is jeradi?
39. romelia meti da ramdeniT: albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis
erTjer gagorebisas mova 3-is jeradi qula Tu orjer gagorebisas jamSi
mova 3-is jeradi qula?
40. romelia meti da ramdeniT: albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis
erTjer gagorebisas mova 4-is jeradi qula Tu orjer gagorebisas jamSi
mova 4-is jeradi qula?
41. saTamaSo kamaTels agoreben orjer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom mo-
sul qulaTa namravli aRmoCndeba: a). 12-is toli? b). 3-is jeradi? g). 4-is
jeradi? d). 5-is jeradi? e). 10-is jeradi?
42. saTamaSo kamaTels agoreben samjer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom mo-
va sami waxnagi: a). erTi da igive qulebiT? b). sxvadasxva qulebiT? g). 9-is
toli qulaTa jamiT? d). 10-is toli qulaTa jamiT? e). 5-is jeradi qula-
Ta jamiT?
43. saTamaSo kamaTels agoreben samjer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom mo-
va erTi mainc erTiani?
266

44. saTamaSo kamaTels agoreben samjer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom mo-
va: a). erTjer mainc oriani? b). erTjer mainc samiani? g). erTjer mainc
oTxiani? d). erTjer mainc xuTiani? e). erTjer mainc eqvsiani?
45. saTamaSo kamaTels agoreben samjer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom
arc erTjer ar mova erTiani? igive kiTxva 2, 3, 4, 5 da 6-saTvis.
46. romeli albaTobaa meti da ramdeniT: a). 5 qulis mogroveba saTamaSo
kamaTlis orjer gagorebisas Tu samjer gagorebisas? b). 6 qulis mogrov-
eba saTamaSo kamaTlis orjer gagorebisas Tu samjer gagorebisas? g). 11
qulis mogroveba saTamaSo kamaTlis orjer gagorebisas Tu samjer gago-
rebisas?
47. ori adamiani SeTanxmda, rom erTmaneTs Sexvdes
00
19 -dan
30
19 -mde. rog-
oria Sexvedris albaToba, Tu a). erTi adgilze mosvlis Semdeg icdis 30
wuTs, xolo meore saerTod ar icdis? b). erTi icdis 10 wuTs, xolo meo-
re 5 wuTs?
albaTobis gamoTvlis ZiriTadi formulebi

48. rogori C xdomilebebisaTvis miiRebs jamis albaTobis formula Sem-
deg saxes: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B C P A P B P C P A B = + + ÷ · ? gamosaxeT venis diagram-
iT.
49. rogori C xdomilebebisaTvis miiRebs jamis albaTobis formula Sem-
deg saxes: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) P A B P A P B P A B = + ÷ · ? gamosaxeT venis diagramiT.
50. saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben orjer. gamoTvaleT ( ) P A B da ( ) P A B ·
albaTobebi A da B xdomilebaTa Semdegi wyvilebisaTvis:
a). A -- mosul qulaTa jami kentia, B -- movida erTi da igive qula;
b). A -- mosul qulaTa jami luwia, B -- movida erTi da igive qu-la;
g). A -- mosul qulaTa jami 7-ze metia, B -- mosul qulaTa jami 7-ze
naklebia;
d). A -- mosul qulaTa jami 10-ze naklebia, B -- mosul qulaTa jami 5-ze
metia;
e). A -- mosul qulaTa jami luwia, B -- mosul qulaTa jami 8-ze nakle-
bia;
v). A -- mosul qulaTa jami kentia, B -- mosul qulaTa jami 3-ze nakle-
bia.
51. saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben orjer. gamoTvaleT ( ) P A B C da
( ) P A B C · · albaTobebi A, B da C xdomilebaTa Semdegi sameulebisaTv-
is:
a). A -- mosul qulaTa jami luwia, B -- mosul qulaTa jami 7-ze nakle-
bia, C -- meore agdebisas movida 2 qula;
b). A -- mosul qulaTa jami kentia, B -- mosul qulaTa sxvaobaa 1, C --
mosul qulaTa jami 8-ze naklebia;
g). A -- movida sxvadasxva qula, B -- mosul qulaTa jami 7-ze naklebia,
C -- mosul qulaTa jamia 6;
d). A -- movida erTi mainc erTiani, B -- movida erTi mainc eqvsiani, C --
movida erTi da igive qula;
267

e). A -- movida erTi mainc oriani, B -- pirveli agdebisas movida 2 qula,
C -- mosul qulaTa jami 6-ze naklebia;
v). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida 1 qula, B -- movida erTi da igive qu-
la, C -- mosul qulaTa jamia 6.
52. saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben orjer. gamoTvaleT pirobiTi albaToba
( )
B
P A A da B xdomilebaTa Semdegi wyvilebisaTvis, da miuTiTeT arian
Tu ara isini damoukideblebi:
a). A -- movida erTi da igive qula, B -- mosul qulaTa jami luwia;
b). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida 3 qula, B -- meore agdebisas movida 3
qula;
g). A -- mosul qulaTa sxvaobaa 1, B -- mosul qulaTa jamia 5;
d). A -- mosul qulaTa sxvaobaa 2, B -- mosul qulaTa jamia 8;
e). A -- mosul qulaTa jamia 7, B -- meore agdebisas movida 1 qula;
v). A -- mosul qulaTa jami naklebia 6-ze, B -- mosul qulaTa jami nak-
lebia 10ze.
53. monetas agdeben 4-jer. daamtkiceT, rom A, B da C xdomilebaTa Semd-
egi sameulebi erToblivad damoukidebelia da gamoTvaleT albaTobebi
gadakveTebis: A B · , A C · , B C · , A B C · · :
a). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida gerbi, B -- mesame agdebisas movida ger-
bi, C -- meoTxe agdebisas movida gerbi;
b). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida gerbi, B -- meore agdebisas movida ger-
bi, C -- mesame agdebisas movida gerbi;
g). A -- pirveli ori agdebisas movida gerbi, B -- mesame agdebisas movida
gerbi, C -- meoTxe agdebisas movida gerbi;
d). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida gerbi, B -- meore agdebisas movida ge-
rbi, C -- ukanaskneli ori agdebisas movida gerbi.
54. monetas agdeben 4-jer. daamtkiceT, rom A, B da C xdomilebaTa Semd-
egi sameulebi ar arian erToblivad damoukidebelebi:
a). A -- pirveli ori agdebisas movida gerbi, B -- mesame agdebisas movida
gerbi, C -- ukanaskneli ori agdebisas movida gerbi;
b). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida gerbi, B -- meore agdebisas movida ger-
bi, C -- pirveli ori agdebisas movida gerbi;
g). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida gerbi, B -- pirveli ori agdebisas mo-
vida gerbi, C -- oTxive agdebisas movida gerbi;
d). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida gerbi, B -- pirveli ori agdebisas mo-
vida gerbi, C -- ukanaskneli ori agdebisas movida gerbi.
55. amocana #54-Si moyvanil TiToeuli sameulisaTvis arian Tu ara damo-
ukideblebi A da B? A da C? B da C?
56. saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben orjer. daamtkiceT, rom A, B da C xdomi-
lebaTa Semdegi sameulebisaTvis adgili aqvs wyvil-wyvilad damoukideb-
lobas, magram ara aqvs adgili erToblivad damoukideb-lobas:
a). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida 1 qula, B -- meore agdebisas movida 6
qula, C -- jamSi movida 7 qula;
268

b). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida 1 qula, B -- meore agdebisas movida 1
qula, C -- movida erTi da igive qula;
g). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida 2 qula, B -- meore agdebisas movida 5
qula, C -- jamSi movida 7 qula;
d). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida 1 qula, B -- meore agdebisas movida 6
qula, C -- movida erTi da igive qula;
e). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida 6 qula, B -- meore agdebisas movida 6
qula, C -- jamSi movida 7 qula;
v). A -- pirveli agdebisas movida 6 qula, B -- meore agdebisas movida 1
qula, C -- movida erTi da igive qula.
57. saTamaSo kamaTels agdeben samjer. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom mos-
ul qulaTa jami iqneba; a). 4; b). 5; g). 6; d). 7; e). 8; v). 9; z). 10?
58. eqvsi monadire erTdroulad esvris gadamfren ixvs. sami
maTganisaTvis mizanSi moxvedris albaTobaa 0.4, xolo danarCeni
samisaTvis – 0.6. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom mizanSi moaxvedrebs erTi
monadire mainc?
59. Tu A da B damoukidebeli xdomilebebia, aCveneT, rom maSin damouki-
debelia A da B xdomilebebi.
baiesis formula

60. I brigada awarmoebs detalebis 30%-s, romelTa Soris 1% wundebulia.
II brigada awarmoebs imave detalebis 20%-s, romelTa Soris 3% wundebu-
lia. III brigada awarmoebs detalebis 50%-s, romelTa Soris 2% wundebu-
lia. erT sawyobSi mogrovili am detalebidan SemTxveviT aiRes erTi de-
tali da is aRmoCnda wundebuli. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom es deta-
li daamzada: a). I brigadam; b). II briga-dam; g). III brigadam?
61. amocana #60-is pirobebSi SemTxveviT amoiRes ori detali da orive
aRmoCnda wundebuli. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom es detalebi
daamzada: a). I brigadam; b). II brigadam; g). III brigadam, Tu cnobilia, rom
sawyobSi iyo 1000 detali?
62. amocana #60-is pirobebSi SemTxveviT amoiRes sami detali da samive
aRmoCnda wundebuli. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom es detalebi
daamzada: a). I brigadam; b). II brigadam; g). III brigadam, Tu cnobilia, rom
sawyobSi iyo 1000 detali?
63. avadmyofis gamokvlevis Sedegad gakeTda daskvna, rom mas aqvs erT-er-
Ti ori daavadebidan – an
1
A (hipoTeza
1
A ), an
2
A (hipoTeza
2
A ).
1
( ) 0.4 P A = da
2
( ) 0.4 P A = . eqimma gadawyvita diagnozis dazusteba da daniSna
analizis Catareba, romlis Sedegs warmoadgens dadebiTi an uaryofiTi
reaqcia. Tu pacients aqvs
1
A avadmyofoba, analizma unda mogvces dadebi-
Ti reaqcia albaTobiT 0.9 da uaryofiTi reaqcia – albaTobiT 0.1. Tu ki
pacients aqvs
2
A avadmyofoba, maSin dadebiTi da uaryofiTi reaqciebi
tolalbaTuria. analizi Catarda da man mogvca uaryofiTi reaqcia. rog-
269

oria albaToba imisa, rom es Sedegi ganpirobebulia: a).
1
A avadmyofobiT;
b).
2
A avadmyofobiT?
64. amocana #63-is pirobebSi analizi Catarda orjer da orive
SemTxvevaSi mogvca uaryofiTi reaqcia. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom es
Sedegebi ganpirobebulia: a).
1
A avadmyofobiT; b).
2
A avadmyofobiT?
65. amocana #63-is pirobebSi analizi Catarda orjer da pirvel
SemTxvevaSi mogvca uaryofiTi reaqcia, xolo meore SemTxvevaSi –
dadebiTi. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom es Sedegebi ganpirobebulia: a).
1
A avadmyofobiT; b).
2
A avadmyofobiT?
ganmeorebiTi cdebi

66. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
erTiani mova zustad orjer?
67. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
erTiani mova araumetes orjer?
68. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
erTiani mova aranakleb erTjer?
69. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
erTiani mova aranakleb samjer?
70. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
samjer mova waxnagi luwi quliT?
71. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
orjer mova waxnagi kenti quliT?
72. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
aranakleb orjer mova waxnagi kenti quliT?
73. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
aranakleb samjer mova waxnagi luwi quliT?
74. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
orjer mova waxnagi 3-is ara jeradi quliT?
75. rogoria albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis oTxjer gagorebisas
araumetes orjer mova waxnagi 3-is ara jeradi quliT?
76. albaToba imisa, rom mocemul sawarmoSi eleqtroenergiis dRiuri da-
naxarji ar gadaaWarbebs dadgenil normas, tolia 0.8-is. rogoria
albaToba imisa, rom kviris ganmavlobaSi eleqtroenergiis danaxarji ar
gava normidan oTxi dRis ganmavlobaSi?
77. 76-e amocanaSi vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom kviris ganmavlobaSi eleq-
troenergiis danaxarji ar gava normidan aranakleb xuTi dRe?
78. 76-e amocanaSi vipovoT albaToba imisa, rom kviris ganmavlobaSi eleq-
troenergiis gadaxarjva aRiniSneboda araumetes sami dRis ganmavlobaSi?
79. albaToba imisa, rom naTura ar gadaiwveba 1000 saaTis muSaobis Sedeg-
ad, tolia 0.95-is. risi tolia 500 naTuraSi im naTurebis ualbaTesi ric-
xvi, romlebic ar gadaiwva 1000 saaTis muSaobis Sedegad?
80. aCveneT, rom Tu 1/ 2 p q = = da n -- luwia, maSin warmatebis ualbaTesi
ricxvi tolia maTematikuri lodinis.
270

81. msrolelis mier samiznis dazianebis albaTobaa 0.8. rogoria albaTo-
ba imisa, rom 80 gasrolis Sedegad msroleli daazianebs samiznes: a). zu-
stad 60-jer? b). zustad 64-jer? g). 60-dan 70-mde? d). aranakleb 60-jer?
82. Teslis mocemuli partiidan daTeses 10000 Tesli da naxes, rom aRmo-
cenda 8498 Tesli. amis Sedegad gakeTda daskvna, rom Teslis mocemuli
partiis aRmocenebadoba Seadgens 85%-s ( 0.85 p = ). vipovoT albaToba imisa,
rom mocemuli partiidan daTesili 100 Teslidan aRmocendeba: a). zustad
85 Tesli? b). 60-dan 80-mde? g). 70-dan 90-mde? d). aranakleb 80 Tesli? e).
aranakleb 85 Tesli? v). aranakleb 90 Tesli? z). aranakleb 92 Tesli?
83. gamoTvaleT albaToba imisa, rom saTamaSo kamaTlis gagorebisas erTi
qulis mosvlis fardobiTi sixSire gadaixreba 1/6-sagan ufro metad vid-
re 0.01 c = , Tu saTamaSo kamaTels vagorebT Sesabamisad, 600, 3000, 6000,
12000 da 24000-jer?
84. davuSvaT, rom garkveuli epidemiis dros daavadebis albaTobaa
0.005 p = . rogoria albaToba imisa, rom 1000 adamianidan daavaddeba: a).
araumetes 2 adamiani? b). araumetes 5 adamiani? g). araumetes 10 adamiani?
d). aranakleb 3 adamiani?
85. profilaqtikuri RonisZiebebis gatarebam mosalodneli epidemiis
dros daavadebis albaToba Seamcira
1
0.005 p = -dan
1
0.003 p = -mde. amis
Sedegad ramdenjer gaizarda albaToba imisa, rom 1000 adamianidan daava-
ddeba: a). araumetes 5 adamiani? b). araumetes 2? g). aravin ar daavaddeba?
86. wundebuli produqciis gamoSvebis alabaTobaa 0.04 p = . ramdenjer un-
da SevamciroT wundebuli produqciis procenti imisaTvis, rom 20-jer
gaizardos albaToba imisa, rom 1000 erTeul produqciaSi ar aRmoCndes
arcerTi wundebuli?




















271



pasuxebi:
2. 216. 3. a). ara; b). ara. 4. C; O. 7. ki. 8. ara. 10. a). A B ; b). A B · ; g).
A B ; d). A B · ; e). A B · ; v). A B ; z). A B · ; T). A; i). ( ) A B · ; k). B; l).
( ) B A ; m). B. 12. 96. 13. 48. 14. 840. 15. 20. 16. 34. 17. 4200 (sqema 3-3-4:
3 3
10 7
C C · ).
18. 980 (ganTavsebis sqema: 2-2-4 an 2-3-3:
2 2 2 3
8 6 8 6
C C C C · + · ). 19. 35. 20. 56. 21. 56.
22. 512. 24. a). 4/19; b). 9/19; g). 14/19: d). 15/19. 25. a). 1/56; b). 15/56; g). 15/28; d).
5/28. 26. a). 1/21; b). 5/42: g). 5/6 d). 10/21. 27. a). 1/2; b). 3/8; g). 1/8; d). 1/2. 28. a).
1/2; b). 7/16; g). 11/16; d). 15/16. 29. a). 5/16; b). 11/16; g). 15/16; d). 1/16. 30. a). 5/16;
b). 5/8; g). 5/8; d). 1/2. 31. a). 15/32; b). 1/2; g). 15/32; d). 15/32. 32. a). 1/2; b). 3/16; g).
15/32; d). 5/16; e). 5/8. 34. 1/6. 35. yvela SemTxvevaSi 11/36. 36. metia pirvel
SemTxvevaSi 1/36-iT. 37. orive SemTxvevaSi tolia 1/2-is. 38. a). 1/2; b). 5/9; g).
1/3; d). 1/4; e). 7/36; v). 1/6. 39. orive SemTxvevaSi tolia 1/3-is. 40. metia
orjer gagorebisas 1/12-iT. 41. a). 1/9; b). 5/9; g). 5/12; d). 11/36; e). 1/6. 42. a).
1/36; b). 5/9; g). 25/216; d). 1/8; e). 43/216. 43. 91/216. 44. yvela albaToba tolia
91/216-is. 45. 125/216. 46. a). orjer gagorebisas 1/12-iT; b). orjer
gagorebisas 5/54-iT; 3). samjer gagorebisas 5/72-iT. 47. a). 1/2; b). 31/72. 50. a).
2/3, 0; b). 1/2, 1/6; g). 5/6, 0; d). 1, 5/9; e). 5/6, 1/4; v). 3/4, 1/3. 51. a). 25/26, 1/18; b).
31/36, 1/6; g). 11/12, 1/9; d). 2/3, 0; e). 4/9, 1/12; v). 7/18, 0. 52. a). 1/3, ara; b). 1/6, ki;
g). 1/2, ara; d). 2/5, ara; e). 1/6, ki; v). 1, ara. 53. a). 1/4, 1/4, 1/4, 1/8; b). 1/4, 1/4,
1/4, 1/8; g). 1/8, 1/8, 1/4, 1/16; d). 1/4, 1/8, 1/8, 1/16. 55. a). ki, ki, ara; b). ki, ara,
ara; g). ara, ara, ara; d). ara, ki, ki. 57. a). 1/72; b). 1/36; g). 5/108; d). 5/72; e).
7/72; v). 25/216; z). 1/8. 58. 0.986. 60. a). 0.158; b). 0.316; g). 0.526. 61. a). 0.073; b).
0.439; g). 0.488. 62. a). 0.031; b). 0.557; g). 0.412. 63. a). 1/6; b). 1/12. 64. a). 0.06; b).
0.94. 65. a). 0.35; b). 0.65. 66. 66. 0.116. 67. 0.984. 68. 0.518. 69. 0.016. 70. 1/4. 71. 3/8.
72. 11/16. 73. 5/16. 74. 8/27. 75. 11/27. 76. 0.115. 77. 0.853. 78. 0.968. 79. 475. 81. a). 0.06;
b). 0.11; g). 0.82; d). 0.87. 82. 0.11; 0.08; 0.92; 0.92; 0.5; 0.08; 0.025. 83. 0.73; 0.46; 0.30;
0.14; 0.04. 84. a). 0.125; b). 0.656; g). 0.986; d). 0.735. 85. a). 1.4-jer; b). 3.4-jer; g).
7.5-jer. 86. 4-jer.















272

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