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Formula sheet

General Stress- Strain Formulae

σ = Eε
τ = Gγ

εy = −νεx

Transformation Equations for Plane Stress- θ is the angle of the inclined plane
 σ + σ y   σ x −σ y 
σ x1 =  x  +   cos 2θ + τ XY sin 2θ
 2   2 
 σ −σ y 
τ x1 y1 = − x  sin 2θ + τ XY cos 2θ
 2 

For an axially loaded prismatic bar –


PL
δ= where δ = deflection, P = load,
EA
L = length, E = Young’s modulus and A = cross sectional area

For a circular section prismatic bar in torsion


τ max = Gr θ
where G is the shear modulus, r the radius of the bar, and θ = d φ/dx is
the rate of twist
Tr
τ max = and φ is the total angle φ = TL /( GI p ) of twist
Ip
where T is the applied torque, r the radius of the bar and Ip the polar moment of inertia.
4 4
For a circular cylinder of inner diameter di and outer diameter I p = Π (d o - d i )/32 do

For a beam in bending


My
σ =−
I
For a rectangular cross-section beam

bh 3 where b is the width and h depth/height of beam


I =
12
and

3V
τmax =
2A