Safavids Shah Abbas I the great Capital Isfahan Like the Ottomans encouraged trade and handicrafts for

internal consumption and long distance trade Had a rich legacy cleaned the administration up Had a great warrior expelled the Portuguese Decline Poor leadership Persecution of religious minorities Were Shi ites Cost of wars and bureaucracy Invaded by Afghan clansmen Besieged Isfahan Last shah desposed in 1773 Desperately weakened the city and the trade Because of their active promotion of Shia Islam and persecution of Sunni Shia is still dominant in Iran Mughals Founder: Babur the Tiger 1523-1530 Turkic origins in Afghanistan Conquered Delhi 1526 Mughal = Persian for Mongol Akbar 1556-1605 Warrior extended boundaries of empire Created centrailized administration Patron of the arts Land grants peasants who worked on them; to ensure their loyalty Encouraged political loyalty entrenched in territories became hereditary Vast majority of population was Hindu Actively promoted Hindu was tried to minimize tensions between the two religions Idea of religious tolerance and cooperation Tried to create a super religion incorporate meeting subjects, petitions, etc Was a great patron of the arts built some of the most enduring monuments Red brick -- built the Taj Mahal, but was made of white marble on the left there is a mirror imge of the Taj Mahal but in red brick Helped women really tried to help economically and socially banned child marriage Were reversed by successors, etc Height of splendor in 1600s Patronized the arts Taj Mahal Consolidated but didn t conquer new territory Rulers became incompetent, were addicted to luxury spending money on luxury #1 destination for European traders Cotton cloth still main commodity Allowed trading ports along coasts significant source of revenues b Was valued in European markets was extremely prosperous Aurangzeb hastened the decline Tried to reverse decline of early 17th century Tried to consolidate and increase tax revenues

Drained the treasury Distracted from peasant revolts in N. India and growing autonomy and corruption of local nobles Territory too large to govern effectively Was a devout Sunni muslim was conservative influenced by schools of Sunni theology wanted to return to the pure version of Islam during the time of Mohammad Akbar tried to create this fusion culture No Mugal emperor had central authority over the Mughal lands Arranged themselves as a confederation of states India remained enormously prosperous regional economy grew too Development of domestic markets was very strong Population grew steadlity Made trading alliances with Europeans Gets control of India regional lords hate each other the British are coming What do they have in common? Autocratic rule Big standing armies inward looking politicies, despite goal of military expansion Agriciutlral economies Ambivalence towards foreign trade

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