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TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH PICTURES TO

THE KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS


( A Case Study at Madinah Kid’s School Kindergarten Serpong- Tangerang)

This Paper (Skripsi)


Has Fulfilled The Requirement for The Degree of Sarjana (S1) at The English
Department The Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training

By:
LENY
NIM: 102014023751

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2006 M / 1427 H

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TEACHING VOCABULARY THROUGH PICTURES TO
THE KINDERGARTEN STUDENTS
AT MADINAH KID’S SCHOOL BUKIT SERPONG MAS
TANGERANG

A Paper (Skripsi)
Presented to The Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training In Partial Fulfillment of
The Requirements for The degree of Sarjana (S1)

By:
LENY
NIM: 102014023751

Advisor:

Prof.Dr. Hadjid Harna Widagda M.Pd


NIP. 150.011.332

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF TARBIYAH AND TEACHERS TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2006 M / 1427 H

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LEGALIZATION OF EXAMINATION COMMITTEE

A skripsi titled “Teaching Vocabulary Through Pictures to The


Kindergarten Students” At Madinah Kid’s School Bukit Serpong Mas, Tangerang.
Was examined at the examination session of the faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers
Training of Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta on 22 November
2006. This skripsi has fulfilled the requirement for the degree of Sarjana (S1) at the
English Department.

Jakarta, 22 November, 2006

Examination Committee

The Head of Committee The Secretary of Committee

Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada, MA Prof. Dr. H. Aziz Fahrurozzi, MA


NIP. 150 231 356 NIP. 150 202 343

Examiner I Examiner II

Dr. Atiq Susilo, MA Dra. Hidayati M.Pd


NIP. 150 23927 NIP.150 231 927

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In The Name of Allah The Beneficent and The Merciful

Praise be to Allah Lord of The World. May Peace and Bless be upon Prophet

Muhammad SAW.

Thanks to Allah, the writer has finished her skripsi finally, entitled :

“Teaching Vocabulary Through Picture to the Kindergarten Students.” The primary

aim of the skripsi writing is to complete a partial fulfillment of requirements for

sarjana degree in The Tarbiyah Faculty.

This skripsi could not be completed without a great deal of help from many

people, Especially Mr. Prof. Dr. Hadjid Harna Widagda.M.Pd, as advisor who always

guides and suggest the writer to make a good skripsi, from the beginning until the

end. May Allah SWT give His Gracious to you

Her deepest gratitude also goes to those who have helped her in finishing this

skripsi, among others:

1. Prof. Dr. Dede Rosyada M.A., the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher’s

Training.

2. Drs. Nasrun Mahmud M.Pd, the Head of English Department, and Dra. Nida

Husna the Secretary of English Department and staff, who had given her valuable

advice and support to the writer.

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3. All Lectures in English Department who had given motivation, support and

precious knowledge to her during study at UIN SYAHID Jakarta.

4. All staff of Tarbiyah Faculty especially Mr. Rasiin and friends for good

cooperation..

5. Mrs. Maryani ZA, the head of Libraries Tarbiyah Faculty and Staff, thanks for

your pray and support to the writer.

6. The staff ( Mr.Alwi) and officers of central Libraries of UIN Syahid Jakarta,

British Council, AMINEF and American corner, who had given permission to

use their books.

7. Drs.H. M. Hatta M.Pd. M.Ed, The Head of Madinah Kid’s school, and Miss

Riana SPi, Miss Indah And Miss Indiastanti Prasetyo S.Pd also Staff Who had

given permission to made a research,Thank you Very much.

8. Her beloved parents, Mr. Madhani (Father), Nyi Ina (mother), her Beloved

Brothers ( Deny and Noffian) and all of her family also her relatives. Who had

given their materials, pray and motivation to support the writer.

Jakarta, November 2006

The Writer

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TABLE OF CONTENT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.................................................................. i

TABLE OF CONTENT...................................................................... iii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study................................................................. 1

B. Problem identification, Limitation and Formulation ...................... 2

C. Scope of the Study .......................................................................... 3

D. The Significance of the Study......................................................... 4

CHAPTER II: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

A. Vocabulary

1. The Meaning of Vocabulary ............................................ 6

2. The Types of Vocabulary................................................. 8

3. The Use of Vocabulary .................................................... 10

B. Pictures

1. The Meaning of Pictures .................................................. 11

2. The Types of Pictures....................................................... 13

3. The Use of Pictures .......................................................... 16

4. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Pictures Used .... 17

C. Kindergarten Students

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1. The Meaning of Kindergarten.......................................... 18

2. The Age and Characteristics of Kindergarten Students ... 19

3. Madinah Kid’s School ………………………………….. 21

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. The Objective of the Study .................................................. 24

B. The Research Subject............................................................ 24

C. The Place and Time .............................................................. 25

D. The Research Method ........................................................... 25

E. Instrument ............................................................................. 25

F. The Research Implementer .................................................. 25

G. Research Question ................................................................ 26

CHAPTER IV: RESEARCH INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH


OUTCOME

A. The Curriculum and Syllabus.................................................. 26

B. The Classroom Implementation .............................................. 27

a. Presentation Stage ....................................................... 27

b. Practice Stage .............................................................. 28

c. Production Stage ......................................................... 28

d. Teaching Procedures ................................................... 28

C. The Research Investigation ..................................................... 31

D. Research Outcome…………………………………………… 34

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CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion ................................................................................. 36

B. Suggestion .................................................................................. 37

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................... 38

APPENDIX

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

This chapter discusses about: Background of the study, Problem

identification, Limitation of the problems, Statement of the problems, Scope of the

study, and The Significance of the study.

A. Background of the Study

English is one of international languages, which is used throughout the world

and also English is used in many fields of life such as : in Politics, Economics, Social

and Education. Therefore, English as a language in international communication is

clearly needed by many learners to deliver thought and interact in a variety of

situation.

English is one of the foreign languages for Indonesian students, that must be

learnt in school since kindergarten level until University level. English is considered

as a difficult subject for the Indonesian students, because English is completely

different from Indonesian language being look at from the system of structure,

pronunciation and vocabulary.

English teaching involves of four language skills, they are Listening,

Speaking, Reading and Writing. In teaching and learning a language, there are four

aspects that support four language skill above such as : grammar, vocabulary, spelling

and pronunciation that are also taught in English teaching and learning process.

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Vocabulary is one of important aspects in teaching language, as stated by Edward in

his book :

“ Vocabulary is one of the important factor in all language teaching, student

must continually be learning words as they learn structure and as they practice

sound system”. 1

B. Problem Identification, Limitation and Formulation

1. Problem identification

Celce Maria stated :

Research in first and second language acquisition suggest that initial teaching

priorities for language areas should be vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation.2

Therefore, the English teacher has to be able to organize teaching and learning

activities, they have to give materials by using a suitable technique and master the

lesson effectively. Especially in learning vocabulary, teachers must make the students

able to memorize such words in English language and group of new words. The

statements above mean, vocabulary is important to teach and teachers must try to find

the most effective way to teach it.

There are many problems of language teaching that can be identified as

research subjects. We could discuss about methods, material selection, and others. In

this research it is identified that teaching technique for kindergarten level is

1
Edward, David Allen and Rebecca M, Vallete. Classroom Technique. Foreign Language and
English as a Second Language,(New York: Harcout Brave Javanovich 1997), P.149

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challenging. Therefore, in this research the writer want to make a study about how to

teach vocabulary for kindergarten level.

2. Limitation of the problems

To avoid misunderstanding and to clarify the problem, it is necessary to make

limitation of the problem. The writer will give limitation of the problem in teaching

vocabulary by using pictures especially in “ Noun and Verb ”.2

3. Statement of the problems

The writer conducts the study to see how well the pictures encourage students

vocabulary mastery. The statement of the problem can be formulated into the general

research question: “How effective is the use of pictures in teaching vocabulary to

kindergarten students?”. To specific this problem, the specific research question are

formulated as: “How well the pictures encourage the kindergarten students

vocabulary mastery?”

C. Scope of the Study

The study overviews the teaching of English vocabulary through pictures to

young learners in this case to kindergarten students. This will be a report of an

observation conducted at Madinah Kid’s school kindergarten at Serpong –

Tangerang. Which involved one teacher and six students.

2
Marianne, Celce Maria, Current Perspective on Pronunciation: Practice Anchored in Theory
(Teaching Pronunciation as Communication).(Washington DC: Teachers of English to Speaker of
Other Languages, 1987),P.11

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D. The Significance of the Study

The result of this research will be useful for teachers of the kindergarten level

in Indonesia to help them improve their performance in teaching.

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CHAPTER II
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter discusses about: Vocabulary which consists of the meaning of

vocabulary, the types of vocabulary, the use of vocabulary, then The Pictures which

consists of the meaning of pictures, the types of pictures, the use of pictures, the

advantage and disadvantage of pictures and the last is Kindergarten Students which

consists of the meaning of kindergarten, the age and characteristics of kindergarten

students and Madinah kid’s school Profile.

A. Vocabulary

One thing that differentiates human from animals is verbal language or

speaking beside mind to think. Humans can communicate with others through verbal

language, either to apply or to receive the information the animal can not do. When

we observed a child first acquiring speech, we talk of this progress as a matter of

learning new words, we are also likely to feel that the adult speaker with the largest

vocabulary has the best command of English. To think of a language as just a stock of

words is, however quite wrong. Words alone do not make a language; a grammar is

needed to combine them in some intelligible way.

“Yet it is true that the vocabulary is the focus of language. It is in words that

sounds and meaning interlock to allow us to communicate with one another, and it is

a word that we arrange together to make sentences, conversations, and discourse of

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all kinds. Thus we have a paradox in that the most ephemeral part of language is also

the center where meaning, pronunciation and grammar come together.”3

Vocabulary plays an important role because it appears in every language

skills. Vocabulary building is really important in any language learning. She realizes

how important the mastery of vocabulary is, particularly for people who study

English as a foreign Language as stated in the Collier- Macmillan International:

“Once a student has mastered the fundamental grammatical patterns of a

language, his next task into master its vocabulary that he needs. Nobody ever

learns all the words in any language. We know and use the words that suit our

particular purposes and we continue to learn new words as long as we live”4

It is clear enough that everybody who learns a language as a foreign language

is hoped to know and master the vocabulary to improve the language skills.

Vocabulary becomes a major problem in learning English, teachers of kindergarten

emphasizes on this matter earlier. In teaching vocabulary, generally the teacher teach

new words taken from reading text. It means that she integrates vocabulary with

reading. This integration will lead to integrative lesson plan.

1. The meaning of Vocabulary

In some literature, we found the meaning of vocabulary. There are some

definitions of vocabulary. According to Harimurti Kridalaksana,

3
Pyles Thomas and Algeo John, English an Introduction to Language (Harcout Brace Jovanich,
inc.1 1997),p.159
4
Collier- Macmillan International, A Division of The Macmillan Company, The Key to the
English Vocabulary (London: the Macmillan Company, 1991) p.189

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“Vocabulary is a component of language that maintains all of information about

meaning and using word in language.”5

According to Webster’s Ninth Collegiate Dictionary, Vocabulary is:

a. A list or collection of words and phrase usually alphabetically arranged and

explained or defined.

b. A sum or stock of words employed by a language group individual or work or

in a field of knowledge.

c. A list or collection of terms or codes available for use.6

There are some experts who give definition of vocabulary Hatch and Brown

define vocabulary as a list or set of words for a particular language or a list or set of

word that individual speakers of language might use.7

Furthermore Webster Dictionary noted that, vocabulary is:

“A list or collection of words usually alphabetically arranged and explained or

lexicon, stock of words use in language or by class, individual, etc.”8

While according to Roget, Vocabulary is:

5
Harimurti Kridalaksana, Kamus Linguistik, edisi ke-3 (Jakarta;PT Gramedia Pustaka
Utama,1993),p.127
6
Merriem, Webster Ninth Collegiate Dictionary ( New York: Merriem Webster’s
inc.1978),p.1320
7
Evelyn Hatch and Cheryl Brown. Vocabulary, Semantic and Language Education
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,1995)p.1
8
Webster’s, The Largest Abridgment of Webster’s New International Dictionary of English
Language, Webster’s Collage Dictionary. USA: G&G Merriam co,1935),p.1073

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a. An alphabetical list of words often defined or translated, the vocabulary

includes idioms and two words verb.

b. All the word of Language.

c. Specialized expression indigenous to a particular fields, subject, trade or

subculture.9

From the definition above, that vocabulary is a component of language and

numbers of words by a person class, profession, etc. In the communication and every

aspects of life such as in trade, education, business, social, politic, etc.

2. The Types of Vocabulary

Nation has divided vocabulary in the specific reference, such a word.

a. Receptive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to recognize it

when it is heard (What is the sound like?) or when it seen (What does it look

like?) and having an expectation of what grammatical pattern the word will

occurrence. This includes being able to distinguish it from word with a similar

form and being able to judge if the word form sounds right or look right.

b. Productive Vocabulary: Knowing a word involves being able to pronounce the

word, how to write and to spell it, how to use it in grammatical pattern along

with the word in usually collocates with it, it also involves not using the word

too often if it is typically a low frequency word and using it in a suitable

9
Roget’s II, the New Thesaurus: The American Heritage Dictionary ( Boston198
0),p.1036

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situation using the word to stand for the meaning it represents and being able to

think of suitable substitutes for the word if there any.10

Jo Ann Aeborsold and Mary Lee Field Classified Vocabulary into two terms

there are:

a. Active Vocabulary refers to items the learner can use appropriately in speaking

or writing and it is also called as productive vocabulary, although, in fact, it is

more difficult to put into practice. It means that to use the productive

vocabulary, the students are supposed to know how to pronounce it well, they

must know and be able to use grammar of the language target, they are also

hoped to familiar with collocation and understand the connotation meaning of

the words. This type is often used in speaking and writing skill.

b. Passive Vocabulary refers to a language items that can be recognizes and

understood in the context of reading or listening and also called as receptive

Vocabulary.11Passive Vocabulary or comprehension consists of the words

comprehended by the people, when they read and listen.

From the explaining above, we know that every experts in every book is

different in classifying the kinds of vocabulary, because every person has different

ways in showing and telling their opinions and ideas. It means that vocabulary is of

two kinds function and content words.

10
ISP Nation, Teaching and Learning Language (New York: New Burry house,1990),p.29
11
Jo Ann Aeborsold and Mary lee Field, From Reader to Reading Teacher (New York:
Cambridge University Pres,1977),p.139

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3. The Use of Vocabulary

Vocabulary is important in case it could helps the students to enjoy their

classes. One who masters enough vocabulary will find fewer difficulties than those

who have fewer vocabularies. When they read a certain text, they will easily get the

information from it since they can understand every word in the text. On the others

hand, those who lack of vocabulary will face a lot of problems. Mastery of

vocabulary will be useful for the process of achieving language- teaching objectives.

That is the mastery of language skills (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing).

If we want to communicate with others in certain language, we must master

the language they belong to especially to know enough vocabulary of those language.

Yang Zhihong who say that ”Words are the basic unit of language from supports it.

Without vocabulary, one cannot communicate to effectively or express idea. He also

states that having a limited vocabulary is also a barrier.”12

Furthermore, Long and Richards explain that vocabulary like grammar is an

essential component of all uses of language.13

B. Pictures

Pictures are kinds of visual instruction materials might be used more

effectively to develop and sustain motivation in producing positive attitudes towards

English and to teach or reinforce language skills. It is supposed by Tang Li Shing in

12
Yang Zhihong, “Learning Words” English Teaching Forum.Vol.38.No.3 July 2000
13
Tang Li Shing, “English Teaching Forum,XIX,No.4(October: 1981),p.11

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His Article that “ The Picture had an irascible appeal for the children. They created

suspense and surprises as well as interest, all of which are indispensable in teaching

and learning a foreign language.”14

1. The Meaning of Pictures

Jean L. Mckenchnie defines picture in Webster dictionary that “ Picture is an

image, or likeness of an object, person, or scene produce on a flat surface, especially

by painting, drawing or photography.15

Meanwhile according to Andrew Wright, “Picture is not just an aspect of

method but through its representation of place, object, and people, it is essential part

of the overall experiences.16

Vernon S Gerlach stated:

“ Pictures are a two dimension visual representation of person, places, or

things. Photograph prints are most common, but sketches, cartoons, murals, cut outs,

charts, graphs and maps are widely used….”A picture may not only be worth a

thousand words it is may also be worth a thousand years or a thousand miles.

14
Michael H Long and Jack. C. Rhicards, Methodology in TESOL: a Book of Readings,(New
York: Newburry House Publishers,1987),p.105
15
Jean L.Mckenkchnie, Webster New Twentieth Century Dictionary Unabridge(William
Collins Publisher,1980)Second Edition, p.1357
16
Andrew Wright, Picture For Language, learning: Cambridge Handbook for Language
Teacher(USA: Cambridge University Press,1989),p.29

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Through pictures, learner can see people, place and things from areas for outside their

own picture can also represent image from ancient times or portray the future.17

The kinds and numbers of pictures that the teacher should take with him to

carry out the activities in class can be taken from magazines, articles, or others and

should be interactive and interesting to capture the students’ attention the purpose of

using pictures for the students is to give them an opportunity to practices the language

in real context or in situations in which they can make it to communicate their ideas.

The use of pictures are more efficient and practice than words, they are easier

to recall and to remember than words, further more they expose real life situation

although it happened a long time ago. As it has been explained by Vernon, S.Gerlach

and Donald p. Elly,”Picture may not only be worth a thousand miles. Through

pictures, Learner can be shown people, places and things, from areas far outside their

own experiences. Pictures can represent images from ancient times or portray the

future.18

According to Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman,”Pictures can be formed such:

wall charts, commercially- produced flashcards, hand drawn pictures, and of course

illustration from course books and supplementary books.”19

17
Vernon,S,Gerlach and Donald P.Emily, Teaching and Media a Systematic Approach 2nd
(New Jersey: Prentice Hall),1980,p.273
18
Ibid,p.273
19
Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman, Working With Words: A Guide to teaching and Learning
Vocabulary (USA: Cambridge University Press, 1986),,p.103

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From the meaning of pictures above, it indicates that the pictures has

exchanged and represented the real object into a simple device which has displayed a

series of places, object, person, or even experiences.

2. The Types of Pictures

Through picture presentation, people are able to reach outside their minds.

Pictures that they can see always lead to the reality of their minds. But the realities

that have been presented by pictures depend on the types of the pictures.

There are two kinds of pictures that Brazyna Szyke finds especially useful as

teaching aids, they are:

a. Pictures of individual persons or thing may be used mainly at the elementary

level, to introduce or test vocabulary items, for example: a man, and a car.

Portraits, pictures showing people in close details, are useful for intermediate

and advance learners. The students can be asked question about the age and

profession of the model

b. Pictures of situations in which person and object are “in action” between

objects and people can be perfect teaching aid for introducing or reviewing

grammatical or structures.20

20
Brazna Szyke, Using Pictures as Teaching Aids;(English Teaching Forum, Vol.XIX,No.4,
October, 1981)

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Types of Pictures According to Andrew Wright Are:

b. Pictures of single object

c. Picture of person: picture of famous person, pictures of several people and

pictures of people inaction

d. Pictures of places

e. Pictures from history

f. Pictures with a lot of information

g. Pictures of fantasies

h. Pictures of the news

i. Pictures of maps and symbols21

According to Betty Morgan Bowen, there are some types of pictures as their

shapes:

a. Wall charts

b. Wall pictures: is simply a large illustration of scenes or events. It is usually to

be used with the whole of class.

c. Sequence Picture is a series of pictures of a single subject it is function is tell a

story or a sequence of events.

d. Flash cards

 Word Flash cards; card with printed words on it can help up rapidly, the

cards can be used to demonstrate exactly what the teacher wishes.

21
John Pread,” Measuring The Vocabulary Knowledge of Second Language Learners”, REIC
Journal, 19. No.2 (December:1988), p.12

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 Picture Flash cards; useful for the representation of a single concept, such as

an object or in action.

e. Work cards

Includes visual as well as text magazine pictures drawing maps and diagrams

can be important part or work cards at all levels used for vanity of purposes.22

Meanwhile, Noor Azlina Yunus in his book grouped the picture into four

groups:

a. Composite Picture

These are large single pictures, which show a scene (Hospital, beach, canteen,

railway station, street) in Which number of people can be seen doing things

b. A Picture Series

A picture series is a number of related composite pictures linked to form a

series of sequences. Hence, it is main function is to tell a story or sequence of

events.

c. Individual Picture

These are single pictures of objects, person or activities such pictures very in

size from small newspaper pictures and can be mounted singly.

d. Specialized Pictures (Posters, charts, advertisements, brochures)

Wall posters are not designed specifically for teaching, but rather for

advertising or propaganda purposes.23

22
Betty Morgan Bowen, Look Here!, Visual Aids In Language Teaching, London: essential
Language- Teach Series, 1973), p. 13- 31

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The description above teaching some language- learning skills, which the

language teacher helps the student enter to an imaginative experience beyond the

classroom.

3. The Use of Pictures

There are five roles of pictures:

b. Pictures can motivate the students and make him or her want to pay attention

and want to take part.

c. Pictures contribute to the context in which the language is being used. They

bring the world into the classroom.

d. The pictures can be described an objective way or interpreted or responded to

subjectively.

e. Pictures can cue responses to questions or cue substitutions through control

practice.

f. Pictures can stimulate and provide information to be referred to in conversation,

discussion and story telling beside Horse five roles in using picture, there are

six reasons why pictures helpful in teaching learning process.

There are six reasons why using pictorial material:

b. Pictures are useful for presenting new grammatical and vocabulary items.

c. Pictorial material allows for meaningful practice of vocabulary and structures

presented by the teacher.

23
Noor Azlina Yunus, Preparing and using aids for English Language Teaching,(Kuala
Lumpur, Oxford University Press, 1981),p.49

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d. Pictorial material can also provide a stimulus for using the language at the

reproduction and manipulation stages to speak, to read and to write.

e. Pictures can be used for revision from one lesson to another as well as for long

term revision of vocabulary and structures.

f. Pictorial material can be used to supplement whatever textbook the teacher is

using or whatever course he is following. Picture, of course can be used to

provide more practice of the exercises that students have done using the text

book.

g. Pictorial material is easy to collect, to make and to transport.

4. The Advantages And Disadvantages of Picture Used

a. The Advantages of Pictures Used

Following are some opinions concerning with the advantages of using

pictures. According to Vernon, S. Gerlach:

1. They are inexpensive and widely available.

2. They provide common experiences for an entire group.

3. The visual detail make it possible to study subject, which would turn back to

be impossible.

4. They can help you to prevent and correct disconcertion.

5. They offer a stimulus to further study, reading and research visual evidence

is power tool.

6. They help to focus attention and to develop critical judgment.

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7. They are easily manipulated.24

b. The Disadvantages of Pictures Used

There are some disadvantages of pictures used in teaching and learning

process, such as:

1. Students pay attention on the picture more than on learned material.

2. It takes time and costs much to provide attractive pictures.

3. Small and unclear pictures may arouse problems in the teaching learning

process since the students may misunderstand about the pictures.

Possible ways to overcome them are:

1. Teacher should avoid using pictures or photographs attack more attention to

them than to the activity. He also should control the students’ activities

including their attention during the teaching learning process.

2. The teacher should make or choose attractive simple pictures to avoid

wasting time and money.

3. The teacher should make or choose big and clear enough pictures in order to

avoid misunderstanding about the pictures.

C. Kindergarten Students

1. The Meaning of Kindergarten

Kindergarten is an educational program- serving child ages four through six.

The educational programs Kindergarten shares the common objective of helping the

young child’s social, emotional, and academic development. The letter includes the
24
Vernon,S.Gerlach and Donald P. Elly, Op.cit.p.277

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use of language, the development of an initial understanding of mathematics,

beginning of learning in the social sciences and aesthetic appreciation.25 In another

definition, Kindergarten is the next level of education after playgroup before the

children enter elementary school. The program helps the children in entering their

first formal education.26

Even though the kindergarten is not the obligation to every children to follow

this program, but it will help the children to develop their knowledge, creativity,

through their activities in the school. It is same with what said by Friedrich Froebel

(1782- 1852). The first educator opened the first kindergarten in Germany in 1837.

He understood and respected the nature of young children education before their

enter the public school, helping the children education at home but also giving many

chances to them to learn about their self ability, talent, and their environment.27

2. The Age and Characteristics of Kindergarten students

We have known that the age criteria of kindergarten students are between 4 to

6 years old. This is affirmed at the GBPKB 1994 (Garis- Garis Besar Program

Kegiatan Belajar Taman Kanak- Kanak) of education and culture Department of

Indonesia that kindergarten is an educational program for children between the ages

25
Jefferson to Latin, The Encyclopedia Americana,(Danbury, Connecticut: Grollier
Inorporated),1996 Vol.16, p.444
26
Hibanana S. Rahman, Konsep Dasar Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini, (Jakarta: PGTKI Press,
2002),p.35
27
http:/.kompas.com/kompas%2Dcetak/0105/14dikbud/neor09.htm

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of four to six. This also mentioned in the encyclopedia Americana that the

kindergarten is an educational program serving for children ages four through six.

So any child who ages four through six try to join one of educational program

for children that is kindergarten to develop their knowledge and their creativity.

The kindergarten students’, no matter what their cultural and experiential

background, have characteristics in common with other children of their ages and

characteristics that are particularly their own, those are:

a. The Socio- Emotional Development

Children develop socially and emotionally during the kindergarten year. The

development of socio- emotional between the children and their peers.28The

children can show considerable empathy toward people and animals when their

own needs do not conflict with the needs of others. When helpfulness is

noticed, modeled and encouraged by the teacher, helpful behavior is likely to

become more common in the classroom. Kindergarten children are developing

a sense of independent but are also learning to work cooperatively with

others.29

b. The Physical Development

Physical activity is one common characteristic of kindergarten children,

although children vary a great deal in development of physical skill abilities.

28
Zulkifli, L. Psikologi Pembangunan,(Bandung;Rosda Karya, 2001),cet ke-8, p.45
29
http:/www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/doks/kindergarten/kindchild.html.

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Most kindergarten students are full of energy, active in following all activities

such as run, swing, climb, jump, etc. That is very useful to the development of

their body.30 All of the physical activities are related to the motorist of the

children include of three elements, such as muscles, nerves and brain. These

elements relate each other in positive interaction that each of them support ,

complete, and related each other in achieving the perfect motorist condition.31

c. The Intellectual Development

The children intellectual development is reflected in the rapid growth of

vocabulary and the power to express ideas. They are developing visual and

auditory memory and the ability to listen to others. In one of the educational

book says that the cognitive development increase rapidly, to the children

curiosity in learning from their surrounding environment.32

3. Madinah Kid’s School

Madinah Kid’s School was built on May 19, 2004 , addressed on Jalan Bukit

Serpong Mas Blok D5 No. 10- 11 by the owner of the foundation Mrs. Hj. Erida

and her son Mr.Heksa A.S Spd as a Head of the Foundation. On the first grand

opening this school could get ten students, where three students for the Play Group

A class, two students for the Play group B class, four students for the Kindergarten

A and one student for the Kindergarten B class. From the first Launching until now

30
Hibana S Rahman, Op.cit.p.35
31
Zulkifli,L.Op.cit,p.31
32
Hibana S. Rahman,Loc.cit.

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this school has twenty one students. There are five students for Play Group Class,

Nine students for Kindergarten A class, and Five students for Kindergarten B class.

Madinah Kid’s School was lead by Mr. H.M. Hatta MPd.MEd as a Principal

and three teachers they are: Miss Indiastanti Prasetyo SPd as a teacher in Playgroup

class, Miss Leny SPd as a teacher in Kindergarten A and Miss Riana Ariestika SPi

as a teacher in Kindergarten B. Beside that this school has one administration staff

namely Miss Indah Purnawati.P.Amd and one Cleaning service namely Mr.

Cahyadi Irawan.

Madinah Kid’s School has a vision to prepare our kids in the future to have a

bright future as bright as blue sky. In this case they have to have ability in

communicating, socializing, good intelligence and good spiritual. And the mission

of this school is not only make our children bright in exact lessons but also make

them to be a person that has good in Intellectual Quotient, Emotional Quotient,

Spiritual Quotient, and Adversity Quotient. That is why this school using CBC

(Competency Based Curriculum) with Life Skills Oriented, Global Oriented, Social

and Environment Oriented also Religious Oriented.

This school was used English as a second language in daily teaching- learning

process. There are many facilities that can support the learning at school likes: Air

conditioned room, Language Laboratory, Computer Laboratory, Play Ground and

Out bone Zone.

During the teaching- learning activity, all teachers should prepare their

material to teach such as: make a lesson plan everyday, make a weekly report,

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Monthly report in the connecting book, make a final term report, prepare a media

and things that are going to make by the students. All the learning process was

based on the area’s system, there are Discussion area, Math area, Write and Read

area, Construction area, Religion area, Sand area and Drama area. These areas were

not given all in the one teaching – learning activity. There are only four areas that

the teacher should give to the students in once learning activity everyday.

The learning activity in this school usually begin with morning activity, where

the students do to make a line, then pray, recite Oath and greeting, Continue with

watering the plant, and fish feeding. After that carry on to the next activity there are

areas learning. After that have a rest time to have a meal and play and then get the

other areas. The last is closing where all the students praying together by recite

prays, Short holy qur’an, Daily pray and Hamdallah. The teacher used to give a

short games to find out which students that will go home early than other.

Beside learning activity by areas system, the student also completely with

extra curricular activity such as audio visual learning in language laboratory,

Computer skill in the computer laboratory, and swim. There are also other activity

that will prepare to the students, they are clinic visiting, doctor visiting, manasik

haji, native speaker visiting, field trip, super camp and competition.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter discusses about: the objective of study, research subject, the

place and time, the research method, instrument, the research implementer and the

research question.

A. The Objective of Study

The main purposes of this study are looking for an appropriate concept that

can be considered by teachers who want to teach English at kindergarten level which

will include :

1. To know the qualification of the English teacher, who can teach English at

kindergarten.

2. To know the appropriate method and technique that can support the teaching

learning process in kindergarten.

3. To develop the model of teaching English vocabulary by using the pictures in

kindergarten.

It is hoped that the teacher can use the information of the three points as basis

for preparing the teaching learning process at school all ideas are related on these

points will be discussed and analyzed.

B. Research Subject

The pupils and the teachers of Madinah Kid’s school Serpong – Tangerang

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C. The Place and Time

This research was taken in Madinah Kid’s school at Jl. Bukit Serpong Mas

Block D5 No. 10/11 Serpong Tangerang, on September 4th- 30th 2006.

D. The Research Method

This study is conducted in the form of a survey. This study is qualitative in

nature.

E. Instrument

Observation guide and check list will be used in this research.

F. The Research Implementer

This research will be assisted by her fellow teachers as informants and

observer.

G. Research Questions

1. Is picture media could attract the pupils attention in learning ?

2. Are the pupils going to be more motivated in learning by using pictures

media?

3. Is it easier for the pupil to grasp the lessons trough picture media ?

4. Are the pupils going to be bored when they learn the lessons through pictures

media ?

5. Is the atmosphere in teaching and learning situation getting more active by

using pictures media ?

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CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH INVESTIGATION AND RESEARCH OUTCOME

This chapter discusses about: the curriculum, the syllabus, the classroom

implementation and the research investigation.

A. The Curriculum and The Syllabus

This school was used CBC (Competence Based Curriculum) on the teaching-

learning process and integrates with many oriented such as: Life skills oriented,

Global oriented, Social and environment oriented and Religious oriented. These are

purposes to increase the students potentials such as: moral, spiritual, social,

emotional, outonomourship, speaking, cognitive and arts in order to prepare entering

the elementary education level. The school realizes that all of those aims could be

done by playing and learning activity . Because by playing kids have a chance to

explore, find out, expressed their feeling, create and learn in the fun way.

On the other hands playing will help kids could be recognized with their self,

other people and environment surrounding them. This school try apply English

language in everyday teaching learning process. The syllabus or the lesson plan was

made by integrating the national curriculum (CBC) and school oriented to build a

communicative, easy to socialize and has good intelligence students’. That is why this

school was completed with many facilities to support the teaching learning process to

increase the students ability such as : Computer laboratory, Language laboratory ,

bilingual communication, Materials books (English books), native speaker program

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and many other. The more information about the syllabus can be seen in the appendix

of this skripsi.

B. The Classroom Implementation

The teaching procedure are developed based on the theoretical framework and

the analysis in the previous chapter. Teaching procedures are elaborated in three

stages, they are:

a. Presentation Stage

On this occasion, the teacher greets the students and asks about their condition

such as: “Assalamu’alaikum, good morning students, how are you today?” these in

order to warm up the situation. Then the teacher tells the students what are they going

to learn at that day, for example “well students, today we are going to learn about

home in English”. Next teacher asks some question about the topic to trigger the

students’ knowledge, like: “do you what is this?” (in this case teacher point to the

pictures of house part ) the teacher also explain a bit about the topic, after that the

teacher drills the students pronunciation and the meanings parts of house by letting

the students repeat what the teacher pronounced and answering the questions given

about parts of house. Here the teacher uses pictures for supporting the learning.

The method that was used in this presentation stages is discourse method that

is submitting information or description concerning root of the matter verbally.

Presentation stage need a good skill from teacher to explain the subject

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b. Practice Stage

In this stage, the teacher gives the students two kinds of exercises. In the first

exercise, the students have to draw a house by using “dot to dot” method and coloring

the picture. The second exercise the students have to mention parts of house and tell

about it. The method was used in this practice stage is experiment method, to make

students able to find various answer by themselves.

c. Production Stage

The teacher give an evaluation in listening test. The children listening to the

words given by the teacher and then they have to give a check mark on the pictures.

For pronunciation exercise, the teacher must give the lesson step by step continually.

Then the teacher has to find out the students response according the lessons

had given. In the last part of this stage the teacher concludes and closes the lesson by

singing the new songs that the students learned (that is a window). The method was

used here is dialogue method. To know their ability in understanding the subject.

d. Teaching Procedures

There are steps that the writer used in teaching vocabulary:

1. Greetings

Generally, in Madinah Kid’s school at Bukit Serpong Mas –

Tangerang “Salam (Assalamu’alaikum) and good morning ” is used in greeting

between the teacher and the students. Such as following short conversation :

Teacher : “Assalamu’alaikum students ?”

Students : “Wa’ alaikummussalam Miss”

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Teacher : “Good morning children”

Students : “Good morning miss, good morning everybody ”

Teacher : “How are you today ?”

Students : “I am fine, thank you and you ?”

Teacher : “I am fine too, thank you honey”

2. Presentation Stage

Starting lesson by showing the pictures of house parts

2.1. The teacher put on the big picture of house parts on the white board.

2.2. The teacher asked the students whether they know the picture such as

following : “do you know what picture is this ?” Then the teacher tells

each picture of house parts. After that the teacher asked the

students to repeat the names of the house parts directly after the

teacher. Then the teacher asked the students to pronounce the words by

themselves that is pointed by the teacher.

2.3. To make the students pronounced and memorizing the words better,

the teacher asked the students some questions about house parts and

teach the students the song “ that is a window ” teacher put the songs

lyric on the white board.

2.4. The teacher asked the students to sing together the song that the

teacher has sung first.

2.5. The teacher singing while pointing into (window, door, floor, roof).

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2.6. The teacher asks the students to stand up and sing together “that is a

window song” and point to the window, door, floor, and roof.

3. Practice Stage

3.1. After the teacher feels satisfy with students pronunciation, the teacher

begin to give the exercise about house parts in order to observed the

students ability in spelling and memorizing words. In the first

exercise, the students have to draw a house by using “dot to dot ”

method and coloring the picture they made.

3.2. The teacher distribute the exercises sheet to all the students, and

explain to them how to draw it.

3.3. The teacher monitors the students activities and after the time is up, the

teacher collect the students worksheet.

3.4. The teacher asked the students about the pictures while she took the

worksheet.

3.5. The teacher evaluates their abilities in feed back of the exercise one

and two.

4. Production Stage

4.1. To know the students ability in understanding vocabularies, the teacher

must give some pictures of house parts in form of question, students are

able to answer the question correctly know the color and to count house

parts. for an example : two green doors, four red windows, one blue

roof.

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4.2. The teacher direct feedback of the evaluation test.

5. Closure

5.1. Conclusion of three study in that day.

5.2. The teacher asks his/her students some questions about pictures of

house parts to know their ability.

5.3. Singing “That is a window”.

5.4. Teacher closes the lesson by praying and singing “ Alhamdulillah and

thank you Allah ” together.

C. The Research Investigation

It has been stated in chapter three that this study is aimed at answering the

following questions:

1. Is picture media could attract the pupils attention in learning ?

2. Are the pupils going to be more motivated in learning by using pictures

media?

3. Is it easier for the pupil to catch the lessons trough picture media ?

4. Are the pupils going to be bored when they learn the lessons through picture

media ?

5. Is the atmosphere in teaching and learning situation getting more active by

using picture media ?

To get information observation are conducted. In this step the writer acts as

the teacher and her fellow teacher’s act as observes. To help the observer’s check lists

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are used to answer each question in the research question. Here is the check lists

statement:

CHECK LIST QUESTION AND STATEMENT

No Pernyataan Ya Tidak Keterangan


1. Ada tidak siswa yang dalam pelajaran asyik √
berbicara dengan kawan?

2. Ada tidak siswa yang dalam pelajaran √


memandang keluar kelas ? (jika ada berapa
orang ?)
3. Ada tidak yang spontan merespon tentang √ 5 anak
gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang)
4. Ada tidak anak yang mengantuk selama √
pelajaran ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
5. Ada tidak anak yang bertanya tentang √ 2 anak
Gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
6. Apakah semua siswa memperhatikan gambar √
dengan baik ?
7. Adakah siswa yang acuh ketika diminta √
melihat gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
8. Apakah guru memberikan pertanyaan tentang √
gambar ?
9. Apakah ada siswa yang menjawab pertanyaan √ 3 anak
secara spontan ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
10. Apakah siswa yang menjawab pertanyaan, √ 3 anak
menjawab dengan tepat ? (Jika ada berapa
orang ?)
11. Apakah para siswa langsung mengangkat √ 9 anak
tangan ketika diberi pertanyaan oleh guru ?
(jika ada berapa orang ?)
12. Apakah ada murid yang aktif bertanya kepada √ 2 anak
guru ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
13. Apakah ada anak yang aktif berkomentar √ 3 anak
tentang gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
14. Apakah guru memberikan penjelasan tentang √

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gambar ?
15. Apakah seluruh siswa memperhatikan semua √
penjelasan guru ?
16. Adakah siswa yang asyik sendiri ? (jika ada √
berapa orang ?)
17. Adakah siswa yang tampak bosan ? (jika ada √
berapa orang ?)
18. Adakah siswa yang mengeluh, selama √
pelajaran berlangsung ? (jika ada berapa orang
?)
19. Apakah selama pengajaran guru menyelingi √
dengan nyanyian ?
20. Apakah para murid ikut serta bernyanyi ? √
21. Adakah murid yang diam dan tidak ikut √
bernyanyi ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
22. Apakah selama pengajaran murid-murid √
menjadi lebih aktif ?
23. Apakah murid-murid menjadi lebih akrab √
dengan guru?
24. Adakah siswa yang langsung hafal semua kosa √ 5 anak
kata baru dari gambar bagian-bagian rumah
dalam bahasa Inggris yang ditunjukan ?
(jika ada berapa orang ?)
25. Apakah guru memberikan kertas yang √
bergambar rumah untuk diwarnai kepada
murid ?
26. Apakah siswa yang mendapat kertas √
bergambar rumah terlihat antusias untuk
mewarnainya ?
27. Apakah semua siswa yang mendapat kertas √
bergambar rumah mau mewarnainya ?
28. Adakah siswa yang tidak mau menyelesaikan √ 1 anak
mewarnai gambar ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
29. Adakah siswa yang mewarnai gambar dengan √ 8 anak
sempurna ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
30. Adakah siswa yang membanggakan hasil √ 8 anak
karyanya ? (jika ada berapa orang ?)
31. Apakah guru memantau murid pada saat √
murid mewarnai ?
32. Apakah guru memberikan pertanyaan dan √
komentar tentang gambar yang diwarnai murid
33. Apakah guru menerangkan kembali setelah √

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murid selesai mewarnai gambar ?
34. Apakah guru memberi evaluasi setelah √
pelajaran ?
35. Adakah murid yang kesulitan memberikan √
jawaban saat evaluasi ? (jika ada berapa
Orang ? )

D. The Research Outcome

1. The teacher’s and her fellow teacher’s who act as observer thinks that the used of

pictures could attract the students motivation in learning activity, it could be seen

from three times observation and only one student was not interested because has

semi autism problem.

2. To get information about Question number two, at the beginning of the classes the

teacher asked the following questions :

- Who prepared the lessons last night ?

- Did you ever show the lessons to your parents ?

- Is there anyone ever seen this picture ?

- Do you know what picture is this ?

- Do you like to see another picture ?

3. To get information about number three we could see from the table above where

the students looked more active to ask and answer the questions.

4. According to the table we could see that student were not boring at all.

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5. It is true that the atmosphere in teaching and learning getting more active by using

picture media. It could be seen from the table that most of the student were eager

to ask and answer questions.

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CHAPTER V
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

Based on the research investigation and its outcome in the fourth chapter,
several conclusion are drawn and a number of suggestion are put forward deal with:

A. Conclusion

Vocabulary is one of the important factors in all language teaching learning

And the students must continually learn new words as they learn structure and as they

practice sound system, but most of the students are not interested and motivated at all.

Therefore, the writer uses pictures as one of the strategies in teaching that benefits the

students in many ways.

Based on the research, the writer conclude that :

1. Pictures help the students to understand the difficult words easily by looking

at the pictures.

2. The use of pictures make the vocabulary learning more enjoyable and

interesting because they can memories the meaning of the difficult words by

singing the song with the pictures as key words and without asking another

person or looking them up in the dictionary.

3. Pictures are possibly used in teaching pronunciation and structure also.

4. The use of Pictures makes the class more active and alive.

5. The use of pictures could attract the students curiosity in learning new

vocabulary.

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B. Suggestion

The followings are suggestion from the writer for model of teaching

vocabulary by using pictures for kindergarten students, that there are so many

approaching type and method that can be developed by teachers for having a good

and enjoyable class situation to reach out the curriculum target.

1. The teacher should choose the technique and materials that are appropriate

with the students’ needs and experiences so the class atmosphere become

enjoyable and interesting.

2. The teacher should give short, clear and simple instruction.

3. The teacher should keep in control the students’ activities.

4. The teacher should present the language in an enjoyable and relaxed way. It

could be done by using pictures, songs, games etc.

5. The teacher should creative and active to find various method to teach the

kindergarten students.

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