Consumer Behaviour ± Involvement Theory

Other names: Hemispheral Lateralization
: Split Brain Theory
The basic premise of split brain theory is that the Right & Left hemispheres of the brain specialize in the kinds of information they process. process. The Left hemisphere is primarily responsible for cognitive activities such as reading, speaking and Attributional information processing. Individuals processing. exposed to verbal information cognitively analyze the information through Left-brain processing and Leftform mental images. images. The Right hemisphere of the brain is concerned with NonNon-verbal, Timeless, Pictorial, and Holistic information. information Put another way, the Left Side of the brain is Realistic; supposed to be Rational, Active, Realistic; the Right Side of the brain is Emotional, Metaphoric, Impulsive and Intuitive. Intuitive.

Consumer Behaviour ± Involvement Theory
Low Involvement Media: Individuals passively Media: (I. process and store Right Brain (I.e. Nonverbal, Pictorial) information that is without active Involvement. Involvement. Since T.V. is primarily a Pictorial medium, TV viewing is considered a Right-brain Rightactivity and TV itself is a Low Involvement medium. medium. According to this theory, Passive learning occurs through repeated exposures to a TV commercial and produce a change in consumer behaviour (e.g. a (e. product purchase) prior to a change in the consumer¶s attitude towards the product. product. High Involvement Media: To extend this line of Media: thought, print media are high Involvement Media (Newspapers & Magazines) because cognitive (Verbal) information is processed by the left-side of leftthe brain. According to this theory, Print Advertising brain. is processed in the complex sequence of cognitive stages as follows: follows:

Consumer Behaviour ± Involvement Theory
y Tri-component Model: TriCOGNITIVE (the process of obtaining knowledge (the through thought, experience, and the senses)   senses) AFFECTIVE (relating to moods, feelings, and (relating attitudes) attitudes)   CONATIVE ( The Mental facility of purpose, desire,or will to perform an action) action) y Promotional Model: Attention   Interest   Desire   Action y Decision making Model: Awareness   Knowledge   Evaluation   Purchase   Post-purchase Evaluation Posty Innovation Adoption Model:
Awareness   Interest   Evaluation   Trial   Adoption

y Innovation Decision Process: Knowledge   Persuasion   Decision   Confirmation

Involvement Theory: Some Interesting Facts
  In situations of Passive Learning (generated by LowLow-Involvement Media) Repetition is all that is Media) needed to produce purchase behaviour. This behaviour. behaviour, in turn, is likely to lead to a favourable attitude toward the product. product.   In Marketing terms, the theory suggests that TV commercials are most effective when they are of short duration and repeated frequently, thus ensuring Brand familiarity without provoking detailed evaluation of the message content. content.   Further, Research evidence confirms the fact that activate Right-brain RightPictorial cues (which processing) processing) are more effective at generating recall and familiarity with the product; whereas verbal product; cues (which trigger Left-brain processing) generate Leftprocessing) cognitive activity that encourages consumers to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the product. product.

Involvement Theory:
Consumer Relevance
As per involvement theory, there are High- and Low HighInvolvement consumers; accordingly there are Highconsumers; Highand Low Involvement purchases. purchases. These two approaches are synthesized with the notion that a consumer¶s level of involvement depends on the degree of Personal relevance that the product holds. Under this definition: holds. definition: High Involvement Purchases are those that are very important to the consumer and therefore provoke Extensive Problem Solving in terms of perceived risk. risk. Low Involvement Purchases are those that are not very important to the consumer, holds little relevance and less perceived risk and therefore provoke Limited Problem Solving. Solving.

Involvement Theory:
Limitations
There are Limitations to the application of strategy. splitsplit-brain theory to media strategy. Research suggests that the Right & Left hemispheres of the Brain do not operate independently of each other, but work other, together to process information. information. One stream of research suggests that, despite Hemispheral Specialization, both sides of the Brain are capable of High- and HighLow Involvement. The Left side of the Brain Involvement. Processing; is High- & Low Cognitive Processing; the HighRight side in High- & Low Affective HighProcessing. Processing.

Involvement Theory:
Routes to Persuasion
High Involvement: Central route to Persuasion ± For Involvement: High Involvement purchases, Central route to Persuasion ± provoking considerable thought about the product ± is likely to be a highly effective Marketing strategy. The theory suggests that there is strategy. a strong likelihood that consumers will carefully evaluate the merits and/or weaknesses of a product when the purchase is of high relevance to them. them. Low Involvement: Peripheral route to Persuasion ± Involvement: For Low Involvement purchases, Peripheral route to Persuasion is likely to be more effective. The effective. likelihood is great that consumers will engage in very limited information search and evaluation when the purchase holds little relevance or importance for them. them. In this instance, because the consumer is less motivated to exert cognitive effort, learning is most likely to occur through repetition, the passive processing of visual cues and holistic perception. perception.

Involvement Theory:
Marketing Implications
The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) suggests that a person¶s level of Involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective. effective. # For High Involvement purchases, marketers should use arguments stressing the Strong, Solid, HighHigh-quality Attributes of their products ± therefore utilising the central route to persuasion. persuasion. # For Low Involvement purchases, marketers should focus on Method of Presentation rather than the content of message e.g. through the use of celebrity spokespoke-persons or Highly visual and Symbolic advertisements. advertisements.

Involvement Theory:
Social Judgment Theory
The central premise of this theory is that an Individual¶s processing of information about an issue is determined by his /her involvement with the issue. issue. # Individuals who are involved highly with an issue and have a strong or definite opinion about IT will accept very few alternative opinions i.e. they will have a narrow latitude of acceptance and a wide latitude of rejection. rejection. Highly involved individuals will interpret a message as: that is congruent with their POSITIONS as:   More positive than it actually is the ASSIMILATION Effect; Effect;   and one that is not congruent, as More negative than it actually is the CONTRAST Effect. Effect. # Persons who are uninvolved with an issue will be more receptive to arguments for and against ± they will have a wide latitude of acceptance; or will take acceptance; no position at all ± a wide latitude of nonnoncommitment. commitment.

Social Judgment Theory :
Marketing Implications
 It suggests that highly involved consumers find fewer Brands acceptable (they are narrow categorizers) and are likely categorizers) to interpret messages about these Brands in a manner congruent with their previous Product. experiences and opinions about the Product.  But the uninvolved consumer is likely to be receptive to a greater number of messages regarding the purchase and will categorizer) consider more brands (a wide categorizer). This type of person is less likely to be Brand Loyal and is a likely target for Brand switching. switching.

Involvement Theory:
There is no single, widely accepted meaning of Involvement because the TERM cannot be defined or conceptualized in only one dimension. For example dimension.   One review identified FIVE types of Involvement: Involvement: Ego, Commitment, Communication, Purchase importance, and Extent of information search. search.   Another review identified involvement theory with Advertising, Advertising, with Products, and with Purchase Products, decisions. decisions.   Some Researchers see the Person, Product and situation as the Major components of Involvement. Involvement.   Others define Low Involvement as purchase situations in which there is little information search and no Attitude formation regarding the product prior to purchase. purchase.   Some studies have tried to differentiate between BrandBrand- and Product-Involvement. Product-Involvement.   Another study suggests three dimensions in the measurement of Involvement: Importance, Pleasure Involvement: and Risk. Risk.

Evaluation/ Dimensions

Involvement Theory:
Evaluation/ Dimensions
  One study concluded that since there really are so many different kinds of consumer involvement, researchers should measure an involvement profile rather than a single involvement level. level. The suggested profile would include Interest in the pleasure) Product, the rewarding nature (perceived pleasure) of the product, its perceived ability to reflect the purchaser¶s personality and the perceived risk associated with the purchase. purchase. This view is consistent with the notion that continuum, Involvement should be measured on a continuum, rather than as a Dichotomy consisting of two mutually exclusive categories of HIGH and LOW Involvement. Involvement.

Involvement Theory:
Evaluation/ Dimensions
  Involvement theory has a number of Intuitively useful applications for the marketer. For example the marketer. leftleft-brain (cognitive processing) / right-brain (Passive processing) rightprocessing) processing) Paradigm seems to have strong implications for the Content, Length and advertisements. Presentation of both Print & TV advertisements. There is evidence that people process information extensively when the purchase is of High personal relevance; relevance; and engage in Limited Information processing when the purchase is of Low personal relevance. relevance. There are also indications that uninvolved consumers are susceptible to different kinds of persuasion than Highly involved consumers. consumers. Before the degree of Involvement can be identified, the researcher must define exactly what it is that should be measured: Ego, Motivation, task measured: Involvement, Situation variables, or what. variables, what.

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