" ~ IIIJ 11111,111111

,

glc
hinking
A nine step approach to strategy and
leadership for managers and marketers
Simon Wootton
& Terry Horne
These 9 systematic steps will help you to:
ESCAPE FROM THE PAST FOCUS ON THE PRESENT
1. Gather strategic intelligence
4. Make strategic predictions
. . I\ssess strategic capability
5. Develop strategic vision
: I. C; "oILte s trategic knowledge 6. Create strategic options
INVENT THE FUTURE
7. Take strategic decisions
8. Create and communicate
market-led strategy
9. Plan and manage projects
to implement the changes
/\uthors of the best-selling books on 'the brain' and the 'management of change'
Kogan Page
LONDON PHILADELPHIA NEW DELHI
Publi sher's note
Every possibl e effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is
elC urate at the time of going to press, and the publishers and authors cannot accept responsibility
for any errors or omissions, however caused. No responsibility for loss or damage occasioned to
person acting, or refraining from action, as a result of the material in thi s publication can be
a epted by the editor, the publisher or any of the authors.
Pirst published as Strategic Planning: the Nine Step Programme in 1997 by Kogan Page Limited
econd ed iti on 2001
Th ird ed iti on 2010
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review,
as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may only be
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should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned addresses:
120 Pentonville Road
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© Simon Wootton and Terry Horne, 1997, 2001, 2010
4737/23 Ansari Road
Daryaganj
New Delhi 110002
India
The ri ght of Simon Wootton and Terry Horne to be identified as the authors of this work has been
asserted by them in accordance with Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.
ISBN 9780749460778
E- ISBN 9780749461102
British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A CIP record for thi s book is avail able from the British Library.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Wootton, Simon.
Stri.l tegic thinking: a nine step approach to strategy and leadership for managers
" nt! m<ll"kl'lc rs / Simon Wootton, Terry Horne. - 3rd ed.
p. cm.
\{!'v. l'd. of: Slr,llegi planning.
Includes bibliogr'lphi ' el l references.
ISBN 97H 0 7'194 6077-H ISBN 978-0-7494-6'11 0-2 (e-bk) I. Slratcgi pl anning.
I. Il ol'll l', ·Ii· rry. II. Wool lon, Simon. Slril legi plell1ning. III. Till e.
111 )10. 8.W(,(,r; 20 10
(",8., 1' 0 12 ,1<' 22
11' 1', .. .. ·1 l1 y ("" 1,11" , .rli I 1III,It 'd, 11 '''11'.\<.0' 11',
1'11111, '.1 .",, 11 ,"1111.1 '" 1, ,,11., 1>\ I'" ... ·, 1"111.1
Contents
I'nfnce
IIck/lOw/edgements
/ )I'riicntion
III'(J II/ this book
I'ART I. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP
ction 1 Strategic leadership
Strategic leadership and conversational style
ction 2 Strategic leadership - brain-based communication
ction 3 Strategic leadership - the thinking skills required
e Study Marketing leadership and management action
1 'A In II. STRATEGIC THINKING - THE 9S© APPROACH
\1 P 1
.. It P 2
\1 P 3
\I( P 4
'liclP
"Ii P 6
"Ii P 7
',111\1 R
',111\1 9
Gather strategic intelligence
Assess strategic capability
Create strategic knowledge
Make strategic predictions
Develop strategic vision
reate strategic options
Take strategic decisions
rcate and communicate market-led strategy
Plan and manage projects to implement change
1'1('1'111. TIII ': NEXT TEPS
NI xi C;I P
I 11.lllhought
\ /1/11 ' /11 / / \ II
1, 'IIi' IIi// \ /I
1"/" IIdll ( '
/ ' ", Ir/ /, " " 11,11/' 1'1(111111'1'111/, '11 " 'lItlIIIX
iv
v
vi
vii
1
2
3
5
7
29
39
41
47
63
64
67
72
83
92
115
135
136
137
139
140
141
/4
/ ' / ' /
P eface
II III (' .1 n use this book to discern opportunities in chaos.
I I III l ' ;) n learn to display contagious confidence, even in turbulent times.
I \ III need strategies for your supply line and your front line.
i)U w ill need strategies for your back office as well as your front office.
Will Iher you lead a small marketing team, run your own SME, or manage a whole
c(lltll',my, your people will look to you for reassurance and guidance when they face
an 1IIIcertain future. Turbulence, especially, will test their trust in your ability.
W li en you think clearly and strategically, even in turbulent times, you will become
thl'11 leader. Strategic thinking is not difficult when you use the 9S© Approach:
' I he practical 9S© Approach can be used by market planners to find new custom-
(' rs and to specify what needs to be done to delight them.
'Ihe practical 9S© Approach can be used by managers to work out how to re-
, ource and schedule the work that will need to be done to implement the plan.
Stral egic thinking directs present action and improves future performance.
As ,) strategist you must not show fear of what you see coming. You must see it
soon ' r than others and take opportunities, even in turbulent times.
Acknowledgements
We are indebted to so many that it seems iniquitous to nominate so few.
We commend the work of Warren Bennis and Richard Greenfield, whose models
of leadership seem to sidestep 'the darker sides of senior management', of which we
have been critical (Horne and Doherty, 2003). We have for many years been grateful
for the work of Professor Peter Checkland and Professor Susan Greenfield and the
legion of neuroscientists who supported our work on the brain. We are indebted to
Professor Ram Charan, for his cultural perspective and his advice on how to find
direction in times of uncertainty. We have needed timely reminders from Tony
Doherty and Charles Handy that strategic thinking involves ethical and moral rea-
soning. We are grateful to Routledge for permission to use material from A Thoughtful
Approach to the Practice of Management (2003), and material from Doing Good Business
- Ethics at work (forthcoming). We are grateful to Sally Turnbull, Corporate Strategy
Manager at the University of Central Lancashire and to SME and corporate man-
agers down the decades for their feedback on what works and what doesn't.
Dedication
First, this book is dedicated to my wife, Gillian Wootton (my understanding 'book
widow'), someone whose approach to life is honesty, open communication and the
importance of the family to all that we do in today's world - vital components of the
human soul. Secondly, this book is dedicated to my children, Ellis, James and Holly
for their love and support and continued encouragement to write more books!
When the first edition of this book was published, only Ellis was present in the
Wootton family world, so James and Holly now ask their Dad to write more books
with Terry, so as to catch up! It is only through such a supportive family network
that ideas flow, time is allowed to dwell on them, and then given to write them.
The greatest waste in the world is the difference between what we are and what
we could become. (Ben Herbster)
Strategic Thinking can end that difference.
About this book
This book is an all-in-one-place handbook for those managers and members of the
marketing team who need to collect and assess information, create and communicate
market-led strategies, take strategic decisions, write strategic plans, and manage
projects to implement change.
This book is not for creative entrepreneurs, born leaders, or those blessed with the
gift of prophecy. It is for ordinary mortals who are asked to create and communicate
strategies and implement change, even in difficult times.
The thinking skills required were identified during a seven-year study, which
began in 1989, working with Roger Armstrong atthe University of Central Lancashire.
This book examines the results of applying these skills to the creation of strategic
knowledge, the formulation of strategy, and to the implementation of change.
Stra tegic thinking involves the deployment of five basic, five combination, and three
higher-order thinking skills. The five basic skills are memory, imagination, numeracy,
'mpathy, and conversational thinking. In Part I we explain how these component
lhinking skills can be developed. In Part II we describe how these skills can be com-
bined in a 9S© Approach, to formulate strategy and implement strategic change.
We have expanded Part I in three ways. First, reflecting the increased complexity
of lhinking globally and transculturally, especially in turbulent times, we have
vxpanded it to include systems thinking. Secondly, we have expanded the section
on ,thical and moral reasoning. This will enable you to address issues of trust, credit-
worthiness and the need to repair your corporate reputation. Thirdly, given the
Ilved for innovation, competitive advantage and creative initiative, we have built on
),lpan 's research into the use of figurative language.
In Part II, the activities involved in developing a strategy have been divided into
ihn'(' ,lreas: creating knowledge, formulating ideas, and implementing change. We
til' scribe lhings you can do in each of these areas that will help you to assess past
Illftll"malion, direct present action and improve future performance. You will learn
t e) II SV:
• I' rl'lii ctivl' Thinking - when you analyse the impact of changes in technology,
\'(' onnmil's, ma rk 'ls, politi cs, law, ethics and social trends.
• t ' ri tk'; ll Thinking when you audit s trategic ca pability.
• Thinking when you assess threa ts and opportunities.
• ( ' n',di v(' Tllillkill ); when you OV(' I"COl1l l' obslacles to innova tion.
• 1':1111( ',11 'l'llilll ill) ; W Ill'll ynu l' va lu,ll l' cc()nomi cs, effiCiency, effectiveness,
1'1 "1, ,I',y, II,.,:,i hilil y, ,'-.l ISI.lillolhil ily ,11 1\ 1 ri s k.
• V I' . II, 1i Tl dlli ill }', wllt ' ll yll il 111'1 ' ::1' 1\1 oIlhl :,1,11 y0111' s irolll ')',y.
VIII /luoul Ihi. /) OJ...
Readers will learn about the theories behind strategy, leadership and strategic
change management, by applying them in practice. You will get practi ce in using
the 10 component thinking skills and the three advanced thinking tools. These are
highly portable skills. Readers will learn to adapt their thinking quickly, as circum-
stances change. These are skills you will need not only as strategists and entrepre-
neurs, but as citizens and lifelong learners in a changing world.
This book has been highly rated by managers of SMEs, by managers and profes-
sionals in service organizations, and by managers of large multinational companies
and international NGOs. It is popular with final-year undergraduates and MBA
and Master's students of business, management and marketing. It is fully inter-
nationalized and rooted in contemporary thinking on emergent, critical and
market-led approaches to strategy formulation. It has been adopted as a core text
in strategic management in business schools in Asia, Eastern Europe and South
America. It has been endorsed by AMBA - The Association of Masters of Business
Administration, and by CIM - The Chartered Institute of Marketing. The book
has been reprinted 10 times since its launch and it enjoys a five-star reader rating on
the publisher ' s website.
When you learn to think strategically, you can become a leader with a leadership
style that will work in certain and in uncertain times - a strategic leader. Strategic
thinking develops a market-led conversational style of leadership that is particu-
larly well suited to getting difficult things done in difficult times. You will keep your
head when all around you are losing theirs (Kipling).
ESCAPE THE PAST
Gathering StrategiC Intelligence
Assessing StrategiC Capability
Creating Strategic Knowledge
CREATE USABLE KNOWLEDGE
FORM PRESENT IDEAS RETHINK THE FUTURE
What do we think will happen? Taking Strategic Decisions
What do we want to happen? Formulating Strategy
What creative changes might we make? Implementing Strategic Change
DIRECT PRESENT ACTION IMPROVE FUTURE PERFORMANCE
The 9S© Approach helps you to rethink the future.
STEP 1
GATHER
DEVELOP
STRATEGIC
VISION
Figure 0.2 Strategic thinking - The Nine Steps
About this book ix
Part I
Strategic leadership
Section 1
Strategic leadership
Some say our hope lies with one nation, some say it lies with one man. I believe
that our hope lies with listening to those individuals whose everyday deeds
negate the past and help us to rethink the future.
(Terry Horne - based on the last lecture given by Albert Camus)
In times of turbulence people turn to their leaders. In India, they were given strategic
leadership by Ghandi; in South Africa by Mandela; in the deep south of the United
States, by Martin Luther King. In 1989, we found it in Mikhail Gorbachev and Lech
Walesa. In organizations, people need strategic leadership from their marketing
team and strategic implementation from their managers (see Part II, Step 9). In a
small owner-managed business, or in a small-to-medium sized enterprise (SME),
the manager, the marketer and the entrepreneur may be one and the same person.
This book is concerned with how marketers and managers can learn to lead and
think strategically. Part I focuses on strategic leadership and Part II on strategi c
thinking. This separation is for convenience of publication. In practice, strategi c
leadership and strategic thinking are mutually reinforcing.
Part II sets out a simple nine-step approach (the 9S© Approach) that helps you
to create and present strategy, and to implement and manage st rategic changt'o
In the Case Study in Part I, we will look at styles of leadership and managemenl
that have proved effective in strategic leaders, even in turbulent times. In Parl I,
Section 2, we will look at the neuroscience that helps us to understand the W'l y
strategic leaders communicate. In Part I, Section 3, we will look at the thinking s k i l l ~
required. In Part I, Section 4, we will look at examples of effective action takell
by strategic leaders at times of confusion, chaos and cri sis. We start by looking .11
what we have discovered abou t the leadership styl es of effective strategists.
Strategic leadership and
conversational style
THE LEADERSHIP STYLES OF STRATEGISTS
IV, ' IIo1 V1' researched and long favoured the leadership styles of Professor
Ii lilll 1\ d .1i 1" s ,l('Lion-centred managers: 'By their deeds that you shall know them.'
WI ' dl ,<l (' uvl' red tha t you do not need to be a born leader; you only need to do what
I" ' " I II wlvrs 10 (Ho rne and Doherty, 2003). When you think strategically and act
\ 1111"1111'.11 h , llihe rs see you as a 'born leader'. Strategic thinking involves thinking
11 11 .I S YllU rsel f, but also as another. It involves thinking clearly and clearly
• 1111 "1' III)', wil.lL you think. The things you need to do are not difficult to learn. So,
111', ,,1 '1 III ,lIld h.lnds o n
l
' (Charan, 2009) .
1\ 111 1, · 111 .111 years ago, Robert Greenleaf (1997) drew our attention to Leo. Leo is
II I, "' 1 v.l 11i ill 11( ' rma n Hesse's Journey to the East. Leo is a member of a group on a
1'11 11 '111 11 '11 !J" l's l a jou mey to the Eas t. Leo does their chores. Leo sustains their
1" 111 ' lV illl hi :- songs. The group was making good progress until, one day, Leo
.I I 1'1 ' 1,, ·. 111 '" Ihe g roup fe ll into disarray. They no longer knew which way
\ , iI I ,I' d TIH'y Ihld Ills L Lhe ir sense o f direction. They were forced to give up their
' I" ' I "' l.llI y YI' .lrs 1.1Lvr, the group discovered that Leo was in fact the head of the
" 1, 10 '1 111 ,11 11 ,111 s punsnred the i r guest. They realized that Leo had been their leader
ii i III" lilli" 111.11 Illl' hnd seen him as their servant. Leo's first and foremost desire
\ , III ' ''' 1\ , ' 1IIIH·rs. In Ihe end, those whom he had served bestowed on Leo the
11 1111 11 111 " II I li·.llli ' rs ilip. C n:enl ea f saw in Leo a metaphor for the way that strategic
I. 1.10 I IIIJ ' j ' .111' lilllll'd 10 Lhose who know which way we are meant to be going,
10 \ 1111 I 11 11 IV lilt , :- Irolll' g i " d irecti on, wha tever their position in the hierarchy.
, '" , i " ",11 '" IIII ·i.lphor he lps Lo ex pl a in ho w a member of a marketing team can often
II III' I, ,11 , 11 ,11" )',1(" li '.ldl' r o r a n orga ni za tion, rather than the chief executive.
1, 1" liI" ,iI "1 VIlIl', , W,I S pro phl'li c. It was no t until 2003, based on research with
11111\ III "1"ll y, 111 ,11 WI' lirs l l'x pr 'ssed our concerns about the 'dark side of leader-
111 1' 1111 1 III, ' ' )',I,lIhli m:i 1 II I senior ma nagers'. The re a re always prophe tic voices
III \ 1111 1 1111 .1 ' 01 .1I1i1 ,II i'v\' ry Il 'vl' l in your orga ni za ti on. If you li s ten, you can profit
11""11, ,1 I 1' 1.111 11\ ' Il y I.d, ing " clipn Loday Lh a L will imp rove your pe rformance
I filii" 't\ '
11 ,11 ,''" " "\1 ' 1111 1 yl II II' OWII I rllpll('li l' voin' b Il'" rning to thin k s tra tegica ll y,
11,,1111,1101 11 \ I' l ' Ii "'" wll .l l yll il 111111 " . 1'.11'111 willl1l' 11 YOIl d o Ih.lt. In 11ll' Ilwa n-
11111 11 11 II \ ' III ,il lI '.I dy II(' 1"'"1"1' , ill yll lll' () rg, lIli /,.ll iOI1 p rill yi ltlr I'Ollllllllnil y,
I" , 1'"111 " 101 1' " 1101" '1 V Vil li 1,111 11 ,1111, ,,.: , h y ylll ir jll'( ' I' ,II'I' dl li",:- III 11 , 11 ' 11 , Will' "
I II 1I 1I II III 11 it' I'1 ,"Itl l,tI' l' iI, 11I 111 11 11 lil l' III IWIIl I' III II " yll il 11 ,1\' " tI, 'oi WI1 , yll ll r
I I " oi l' I \ III )\ " 1\ III 1,, 11111 ' III ' 1111 ' 11'11 \' 11111 )', 111 ,11 1II ',,j' ''1 111I' 1"111"1, ' 1'1, 111 11 11 Wlllllli

4 Strategic leadership
The novelist Richard Bach was a prophet. In Illusions, he tells the story of a colony
of ancient crayfish that lived a leisurely life amongst the rocks at the bottom of a
slow meandering river. Every day, there floated down the river more food than the
crayfish could eat. One night, there was a terrible storm in the hills above the river.
The storm raged for days, quickly turning the river into a raging torrent, filling it
with mud and dangerous debris. Unable to see, let alone eat, most of the crayfish
clung desperately to their rocks on the riverbed. Most of the crayfish were smashed
to death against the rocks. There were a few, however, who realized that by letting
go of their old rocks, they would be carried along by the new current. Eventually
they would be swept into some new quieter pool, where they could perhaps tread
water until they had regained their breath. Once they had had time to think, the
crayfish who had risked letting go of their old rocks realized that all manner of new
foods and new materials were being brought to them by the new current. Some had
so much enjoyed the exhilaration of the fast ride in the current that they pushed off
back into the current in search of new pools further downstream. Despite the risks,
they thought there was more likely to be calmer water, wider rivers and even more
food further downstream. When the alternative is to be battered to death on the
rocks, even strategic decisions can be easy!
If we use the crayfish as a metaphor (see Section 3), we can see that it is sometimes
unwise to cling fearfully to ideas from the past. That is not to say that such ideas
should be abandoned without thought. There is no point, for instance, in waking
each day to invent a wheel. But that does not stop one from looking for a wheel
better suited to the needs of the day. There are nearly always people, somewhere,
working on a better wheel. But if you do not listen, you may not hear them.
Those of us who can spend a lot of time with young people are very fortunate.
Young people quickly become the future. They have now, the future ideas that we
are paid to predict. Amongst the young there are many prophetic voices, if only we
will listen. Currently young voices are challenging injustice. They are challenging
restrictions on their freedom in Zimbabwe, Burma, Iran and North Korea. Many
young people are angry because there is disparity between the quality of life of
people in Africa, for instance, and the quality of life that advances in science, tech-
nology and economics have made possible for others. It is the young who have most
reason to fear for the future of the planet, and for the future health of their children.
Many young people are not impressed by coercion. It is important for politicians
and managers to realize that young people today are less and less ready to recog-
nize the authority of leaders to whom they do not freely give their allegiance. Young
people are more likely to give allegiance to those whom they perceive to be helpful,
than to those whom they perceive to have power - to those who think strategically,
rather than to those who appear to be thoughtless.
A distinguishing characteristic of those who think strategically and lead strategic-
ally, is that they are better than others at creating and communicating intent and
direction. They are better at pointing out the direction of a group's intent - whether
that group is a team, an organization or a nation.
We turn next to brain-based strategic communica tion.
Section 2
Strategic leadership
brain-based communication
The strategic leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev and Lech Walesa, was not sufficient to
bring down the Berlin Wall. A second ingredient was necessary; that second ingredient
was brain-based communication. This brain-based strategic communication was
provided by West German television.
Strategic leaders need to use emotional images and frequent repetition to com-
municate aim, purpose and direction. They need the patience to do so repeatedly,
thereby creating memory and familiar neural pathways in our brains. By being
prepared to repeat themselves frequently, they create a familiarity that reassures
and restores lost confidence in times of confusion and chaos. To a strategic leader,
the direction is always clear, even when the destination is not.
The destination may be a 'vision', the spreading of a belief, or the acceptance of a
concept. The destination is out of reach and sometimes out of sight. The destination
is something to move towards or become. The destination therefore excites the
imagination or challenges the mind. People need to feel pride or excitement to
be moving toward it. Because the destination is unseen, people need to have trust
that it is worthwhile. To elicit this trust, strategic leaders need confidence not only
in their own values but also in their own judgement. When you learn to think
strategically in Part II, you will gain confidence in your own judgement.
Martin Luther King did not go to bed to create his 'dream'. Strategic 'dreams'
develop through intensive listening to the people for whom those dreams have
onsequence. Even in turbulent times, it will be the natural behaviour of strategic
leaders to ask questions, rather than issue orders:
' What is happening down here?' 'What is happening out there?'
'How is it affecting our customers?' 'How is it affecting you?'
'What would you like to see done?' 'How can I help?'
Thi s questi oning and listening will feed your strategic thinking (Part II). In the mean-
lime, lhi s questioning and listening will calm your people, validate their feelings,
,Inc! r 'slore their confidence. If you do not understand them, you will be misunder-
I' lood . Oncc you understand, you will need to communicate your understanding.
When communi c<lling lo a group of people, neuroscientists tell us to assume only
.I 2(J Illinull" ,llll'nlion SI',ln. The ncuros ience of short-term memory tells us that
111 ,\ll y IW\lplv, I' pokvl1 10 ill .I grollP, ;Irl' unlikely lo remember more than three things
111,11 w,' I' dy. Slr,II") ',i, ' 1"dlll'l"s ,' llI HIS,' wilh l' M l' how hel' llo li se lhcl'c thrcc precious
II I dll, '1l11011 .11111 111\ '111\11 y, ,' II' ,II" );i, ' 1", ld,' r:-; rq)('.11 Il l\' Il1n'(' illlp"rl,lIll thingl'
111I ' y hd VI' 1(1 "dY III , I ', 1I 1, \ll y .1111"1\ ' 111 \Vd y" .I ,', II sill ); .I S 1110111 dill,'n'l1 l
1111 , 1)',1" 1, • 1<1111 " , 1' 11111110,11 '1 .11111 1" ' I ', IIII,ri, ' . 11111 , 11 " ,1' 1 tllC' Y 1, 111 III lIr1l1 1111 ' " PI'I ' \'iIIi IY
6 Strategic leadership
though they often attract criticism for doing so. When trying to communicate their
understanding to their people, strategic leaders are always thinking, 'But what's in
this for them?' Strategic leaders usually finish their communication with a final
summary that repeats the three important things they came to say.
It is not sufficient that leaders communicate the right direction. They must get
people pointing in that same right direction and motivate them to move in that
direction. Strategic leaders know that motivation comes from belief, and neuro-
scientists have identified two necessary components of belief: a thought plus
a feeling; involvement of the primitive reptilian brain, as well as the cerebral cortex.
Strategic leaders deliberately associate each idea with an optimistic emotional
image that is meaningful to their people.
The direction of their communication is always from the past (a story or an experi-
ence), via the present (an idea or an opinion), towards some future (plan or action).
Mid the encircling gloom they must shine their leading light forwards, at least as far
as the next signpost! Because the destination is in the future, and because no one can
have knowledge of the future, leaders are always trying to sense the unknowable.
Sensing the unknowable is fallible, so leaders need to tolerate the risk of being wrong.
Numerical thinking helps leaders to make forecasts, quantify risk and back hunches.
Because the way forward lies in the future and because no one can see into the
future, leaders are trying to foresee the unforeseeable. This requires imagination
and the ability to create a vision of the future. It also requires critical thinking, which
is the ability to evaluate the desirability and the feasibility of turning visions into
reality. When there is insufficient certain knowledge, visual thinking feeds prediction,
empathy and ethical judgement.
Joining up the dots of the unknowable and the unforeseeable requires creative
thinking, as well as critical judgement. Reflective thinking can temper those judge-
ments with streetwise intelligence born of experience. In Section 3 we will explain
how you can develop these different thinking skills. You will practise them, and
become proficient in their use, as you work through the 9 Steps in Part II. The
9S© Approach give you the ability to create strategic knowledge, create strategic
plans and to implement and manage strategic changes. These are key attributes of a
strategic leader.
In difficult times, when strategic leaders shine their light on the problems caused
by a credit crunch, or an organizational crisis, the focus of the light beam is naturally
on the presenting problem. But the strategic leader's light also spreads sideways,
illuminating the recent past and the near future. At the periphery, the strategic
leader 's focus is naturally less sharp, but this peripheral vision still informs the
strategic leader's view of what needs to happen next. To examine the role of the
marketing team and the managers in what happens next, turn to the CilSl' s llltl y .1 1
the end of Part I. It is a collection of effective strategic act ions token by 111.11"J..l'I l'I"S
and managers during the credit crunch in 2008 and 2009.
Section 3
Strategic leadership - the
thinking skills required
THE FIVE BASIC THINKING SKILLS
Basic Skill 1. Memory
Miller's Rule and the rule of three
Figure 1.1 emphasizes the central role played by your memory in enabling you
to recollect, in an accurate and timely manner, information that can help you to
formulate your strategy.
Thinking
Tools
Recollective
Thinking
Verbal
Thinking
1.1 '/'II(' COI II/IOII I' II/ S oj slrnl cgic Iilillkillg (Wootton and Horne, 2009)
II ylli l wi . " y llll!' lil\'lilllry WITl' [1('11('1', 111('1'(' .In' 111,1ny simplc stl'<llegics you G1Il
11 '11' III il1lJll'llVl' il (:'1'1' WIll 1111111 , 1I111 I IPIII( ', • (J(JI) , '/hlillill"': Yll llr iJmill , ,mel Wootton
dlltll l lllill ', 11 '1' /1 \011/ 11/11111 ,'i lllll/ I) io'tll ' I'\ ,llIlJ11I' , II , t' IIi(' Ihrl'l' I\s dt ' I'()I1Y"I S,
I II 111'11 It ','1 III ' .1 '111 111 I , illi 111 '1
I 1!lII YIII' II III ' WIII !! '1 wi II ' 'It' 1. ' III ' I 'II'dlll ' 11', 11,11 'I IIIIII'IIIIII/" yli ll IVd lll 1t 1 11 ' ltl. ' lllli. ,1'
8 Strategic leadership
seven areas of change that strategists need to monitor (see Part II, Step 1). An
acrostics is a sentence that can be used to recall the initial letters of a list of words
needing to be remembered. Associations can be simple - the 'g' in stalagmite
reminds you that it grows up from the ground, while the 'c' in stalactite reminds
you that it comes down from the ceiling - the more bizarre the association, the more
memorable it will be: 'The horror of the moment', the king went on, 'I shall never,
never forget' . 'You will,' the Queen said, 'if you don't make a memorandum of it'
(Lewis Carrol, Alice Through the Looking Glass) .
Always make notes. Take a pad, or ask for a page from someone else when you
need one. Map what is being said or read. Add matchstick people, or colours to your
notes, to aid recall. Use three chunks of three. Most people can remember three new
things, but rarely eight new things. This is Miller's 5 ± 2 rule, which has implications
for how you communicate your strategy (see Part I, Section 2 and Part II, Step 8).
You need to cluster or 'chunk' presentations or reports into groups of three, so that
your audience can hold them in their short-term memory as they try to make sense
of your thinking. If they can't make sense of your thinking, they will blame you, not
their memory! The fewer words you use, the lighter the load on the reader's memory
and the less likelihood of confusion. Read and re-read your drafts, striking out every
word you can, until one more word struck out would change the meaning. There
is no such thing as good writing - only good rewriting. Check a sample of writing
for clarity. Count the number of your words that have more than three syllables and
divide by the number of sentences. Aim to get that ratio (the Fog Index) to as near
to one as possible.
Summary of the neuroscience on recollection and memory
• Forgetting is normal and necessary. When you need to remember, you must
take deliberate steps to counter your natural tendency to forget.
• Effective strategies for countering forgetfulness exist and can be learnt.
• Memorizing new things stimulates new neuron growth and forges new syn-
aptic connections. Memorizing involves repetition, which strengthens myelin-
ation (see Haier, White Matters, in Thompson et ai, 2009). Memorizing thereby
develops intelligence and spare cognitive capacity (see Haier, Grey Matters, in
Thompson et ai, 2009). You can protect your ability to think, as well as to remember,
should you contract a disease like Alzheimer's, that might attack your brain
cells (Wootton and Horne, 2010).
Basic Skill 2. Imagination
Thinking visually is more important than knowledge. (Einstein)
The ability to conjure up vi sual images is useful in memory, crea tive thinking
and ethi ca l thin king. Vi sua l thinking greatly helps pred iction - a key acti vity fo r
Ihl' s lratl'gic thin ker. Vi sLla l thin king ca n simpl y be foresight , it' sl' ns ing whal
sOIl ll' ti1ing In ight look li k\' in 11\( ' flit lin'. Mnny hi storic, lI .IPPI', lrt' d to
II.l VI' 11 .1 11 l(ln',',i)', II !. 111 11 11' (l id '1\'HI.IIIII ' llI , MW,I'H 11 ,11 1 .I 111 ,11 III' wl lldd 11 '.Id
111 1111'111>1 1' (l Id pi " 111 11 1.1 ),,1' M, dl ,dlll.l ( :, 111,1111 fpn'I"w II I<' 1,11 1" 1""11 1"11' ,. (II IlIdl ,l.
The thinking skills required 9
Martin Luther King had 'a dream'. The top 150 business leaders are reported to be
good visualizers.
If you would like your visual thinking to be better, try to
• Close your eyes when you bring disparate information together.
• Sketch out the information that people give you as they talk. (Encourage them
to add to your emerging picture.)
• Play solitaire or, better still, chess. Maybe join a chess club. If you don't like
chess, try the game Go. Games involving other people are better because con-
versation encourages you to think aloud, which is much more developmental
for your brain (see Basic SkillS, on page 12).
Summary of the neuroscience on imagination and visual thinking
• Visual thinking can help you to pattern or present information so that it is easier
to remember.
• Visual thinking can help you to envisage what will happen if you do nothing,
or if you implement your strategy.
• Visual thinking can help you to empathize with the intended beneficiaries
(or the unintended victims) of your strategy, so that you can better evaluate any
cthical issues.
Basic Skill 3. Empathy and emotion
There is nothing either good or bad, 'cept thinking makes it so.
(!\fter William Shakespeare)
nced for you to consider what you and others might be feeling, as well as think-
i "g, n ri ' cs in a number of the nine strategic steps in Part II. When you need to think
('\'(':l livcly, your emotions are an important source of the mental energy you need to
)',I' IIl'r:ltc a longer list of novel possibilities. An important part of thinking critically
1I'ld dh ica Ily about an idea is the evaluation of its potential consequences for others.
Il pw wi ll they feel? In general, good feelings and optimistic expectations correlate
pmli l iv ' Iy with the likelihood of successful outcomes on thinking tasks.
I r you hnvc had little practice in thinking about what you are feeling, you may have
ttl\! lillie vocabulary to label your feelings. If so, try the thinking and feeling exercises
1\ '1)'lIillillS YOllr Brain (Wootton and Horne, 2009), and the activity in the box below.
A THINKING AND FEELING ACTIVITY
I,y th f II wing xp rim nt, ith r wi t h a partner, or with pen and paper.
l ook ,11'01mci ;mci wril(', ' I ,1m nOli inq .. .' (writ down what you are looking at
01 11\ 11' lliIlCj 10) .111(1. 'I dill Iltitl kitHJ .. .' (wril e down what you arc thinking at
tholl VI ' IV III 11I 1(·"t) . IIHI. ' I dill II ·('III)(J ... • (wlil(' cl owll d . w rd d ribin
Ill" "'!H IIIOIl) . K""fi Ill .. lip 10, .\I)!llil I') l1illllll,'\ . \(\' vi\'w 1111' '1' \lIll\. N Ij«,
10 Strategic leadership
how many times you can change what you are feeling, even in 15 minutes.
Notice what kinds of observations and thoughts are followed by what kinds
of feelings. Repeat, trying to increase the number of positive feelings you can
experience in 15 minutes. Notice that you can choose what you notice - what
you look at or what you listen to. This increases the chance that you can find
something positive to think about and this in turn means you feel better. Try
to complete the following sentences in succession. When you have completed
number 3, go back to 1. Keep going around the loop for as much time as you
can spare. When you can do it easily, do it as often as you can.
1. Right now I am noticing ... (eg, a person, colour, sound, smell, taste,
texture) .
2. And right now I am thinking ... (eg, an opinion, judgement, fragment of
an internal dialogue).
3. And right now I am feeling .. . (eg, an emotion - a single word).
For increased mental suppleness, just keep going around the loop. For in-
creased concentration span, increase the number of repetitions you do at one
time. For increased mental agility and thinking speed, try to go around as
quickly as you can without hesitation. You may notice that how you feel is
changed by what you think and what you think is related to what you notice.
Because you can control what you notice by where you choose to focus, you
can exert increasing control over your thoughts and your emotions. If you can
do this with a partner, notice all the thoughts you edit. Afterwards, ask your-
self why you edited. This will help you to build openness and honesty and this
will inspire trust from others.
Identifying and labelling the feelings you have is more productive than just express-
ing the feelings spontaneously or impulsively. This is because when you shout,
or otherwise give vent to anger, for example, you leave a neural pathway between
the amygdala and the brain's frontal lobes. This increases the ease with which
s ubsequent s tray feelings can disable your ability to think clearly, especially under
pressure. Acute anxiety, or fear of failure, can obsess your mind to the point where
you ca nnot sleep well. This will impair your ability to think clearly the next day (for
ways to sleep well, see Wootton and Horne, 2009).
Worry, in moderation, is a sensible preparation and rehearsal for things that may
go wrong. Worry enabl es you to prepare contingency plans. Contingency plans
ell,lble you lo be more confident when presenting your strategy. Contingency
pl,1I1s he lp 10 reassure the people whose support you will need to implement your
:-: l I'd lq.;y.
Wlwn lr ing 10 gl'l olhers lo s upport your strategy, ask them to imagine, for a
'l lCll1h'n l, 11 1.1 1 Ilwy h.ld s.lid 'yl':-:' ,l nd lo describe a good fee ling il wy would have
1, ,11 , l1 01vill)', .'" ti<l ' Y " ~ , " '1'111'11 ol :-: k 111\'111 wh," n'.l:-:on:-: I Ill' cOl d<l )',iv,' It, ,IIh,· ,· PI'PPil'
Ill, ",'VII " I ' IIH' II' 111 011 IIH'Y I1,HI 11101<11 ' 11 1(' ri)', hl dl ,, ' is illil il1 .', III'I'"'III') ', \""' ', I'.llt 'gy.
1"'111>1 ,· "11", 11 ,,,,1 11 li' "" ".1 111'1 ,111 '01 "',1' )',IHld "I'.l!,lI ll h III )', ' V,' 111 111 111 "'. "\ "II IV Il, ' 1l
The thinking skills required 11
Summary of the neuroscience on empathy and emotional thinking
• Explore what you are feeling before you try to think.
• Optimistic self-suggestion and expectation increase success.
• The pursuit of Body-based pleasures, Laughter, Involvement, Satisfaction and
Sex (BUSS) will benefit the speed and accuracy of your thinking.
Basic Skill 4. Numeracy and numerical thinking
Numbers at work - if you can't count it, it doesn't count
I n commerce, the need for numbers is self-evident. Profits, returns and cash are
all numbers. The relevance of numeracy to workers in charitable organizations
and public services may be less obvious. Yet the need to 'crunch the numbers' turns
up quickly in service planning, quality control and project management, as well as
the more obvious areas of grant applications, fund raising and budgeting. The
ability to make reasonable estimates, and give good enough guesses, lies at the
heart of strategic thinking. Doing the sums - the mental arithmetic - is a good
exercise for your brain. Brain scans of people doing simple arithmetic show activity
not only in the left parietal lobe, but also in the visual, auditory and motor areas
of the brain.
As a member of a criminal jury, you would be asked to convict someone if you
beli eved his or her guilt has been established 'beyond all reasonable doubt' and, in
a civil case, 'on the balance of probabilities' . These are the kinds of judgements you
will need to make as a strategist (see Step 7). These are examples of numerical think-
ing. As a strategic thinker, you estimate, quantify and compare the likelihood of one
outcome with another, eg, is the chance greater than 50:50 or 70 per cent or eight out
of tcn times? The probability that you ascribe to the likelihood that a particular
slatcment is true is, in a sense, a measure of the strength of your belief in that
sla tcmen t - and that measure involves you thinking numerically. The stronger your
b ' I icf, the higher the number you would be prepared to ascribe to it.
I f you lack confidence in your numeracy:
• play card games like bridge, whist or cribbage;
• play counting games like backgammon or omweso;
• play strategy games like Marienbad (Wootton and Horne, 2010).
Summary of the neuroscience on numeracy and numerical thinking
• Scores on tcsts of numeracy and numerical IQ can be improved.
• Numeri ca l thinking is at the root of logic, reasoning, argument and proof.
• NI IIll l'riCJI bra in lrJining improvcs intelligence and creates spare cognitive
t"<1p,Kily ,1S insur,1Il cl' Jgninsllhe debilitations of disease.
12 'llid/ ('Cj l(
Basic Skill 5. Words at work - verbal thinking
To think is to talk, if only to yourself! (Simon Wootton, 2003)
Levelt discovered that you use three distinct areas of your brain when you talk to
someone else. You connect many neural pathways even before you get to the content
of what you want to say. As you search for the next word in your spoken sentence,
your brain accesses the smells, colours and sounds that are associated with the word
you are seeking. As you utter the word, you activate the parts of your brain that
control your breathing, tongue and larynx, and also the parts of your brain that
control your hearing, as you check that you have said the word you intended. The
part that controls your eyes searches for non-verbal confirmation that you have been
understood. Getting these multiple connections in place is very helpful when you are
trying to think strategically. When you think aloud, especially with someone else,
you get a better thought out strategy. Reading is a useful source of new information
because your brain must struggle to map, connect and cross-check the information
and then integrate it with information already in your memory. But reading is not as
good at developing your brain as talking and listening. Thoughtful conversations
about old and new information involve much more of your brain than just reading.
This is why thoughtful conversations increase your general cognitive capacity as
well as helping you to consolidate new information in your memory.
If you are not as fluent, or verbally self-confident, as you would like to be, try
playing The Association Game; The Adverb Game or The Dictionary Game (details
in Wootton and Horne, 2010).
Developing strategy through thoughtful conversation with others makes use of
what Garner, Goleman and others have called 'social intelligence'. Strategic think-
ing involves turning thoughts into actions. In the case of the socially intelligent,
these actions will not only be economically effective, they will be empathetic, altru-
istic, compassionate and socially concerned. Given the problems of poverty, climate
change, terrorism, nuclear proliferation and financial meltdown that we now face,
as a result of raw economic thinking in the 20th century, strategic thinking may need
to be more socially intelligent in the 21st century.
Summary of the neuroscience on internal dialogue and verbal thinking
• Your ability to talk to yourself in your head - to check your ideas for sense - is
limited by the range and precision of your vocabulary.
• You can improve your vocabulary by reading about a wide range of subjects
and by talking to as many experts as possible.
• You can improve your verbal fluency and hence your ability to think quickly by
taking opportunities to talk to others.
While it is clear that thinking aloud, with or without others present, exercises much
or the brn in, it is less /t'M that all thought necessa ril y il1v()lv('s 111(' II S(' or I.,ngu,'gt' .
Wilh ()r withou l I.lIl gll,' g(', 111(' hrdin t\1I1 mdl1ipul ,lll" 11101"( ' ("01111,11 ' Ih,1I1
1111.1);1'''' "nd I1wl"pi1llr" .., dh'llI" ,,'hl "'y.., I, ' I1l .., Ill"l l', ''. 111 ,dll ll' 1II.1II'I"d,ill'" III
"i" 1''''' '1 11" , 1IIIIlklll/" 'I iii " 111111 1' 1'llIlIpll' 1IIIId IIlg " ''l'lli' '', ""11i0l111l11l,1I', ,,11111'11 ,.
,
The thinking skills required 13
FIVE COMBINATION SKILLS
Combination 1. Forecasting the future
The ability to predict is one of the defining characteristics of humans. It contributes
strongly to our ability to control things. Prediction helps us to manage the risks
associated with change.
There is a fine line between making a prediction about what will happen in the
future and envisaging a picture of what the future might look like. The ability to
have a ' dream' or a 'vision' has been the mark of leaders down the centuries. In the
Bible, Marketing Director Joseph had a dream about a future shortage in the supply
of food and his Chief Executive, the Pharaoh of Egypt, took action and built ware-
houses for grain. Between them, they saved their people from starvation.
Predictions can be made by using numbers and statistics, by using the logic of
critical thinking, by using hunch or emotional intelligence, by using memory and
visual thinking to recall past patterns, or by using reflective thinking to create street-
wise intelligence.
Things will not necessarily increase in the future simply because they did so in
I he past. The past is not a sound basis for prediction unless you can be sure that
past conditions will persist into the future. Simple projection of past trends can be
treacherous. For example, past figures for increases in electricity consumption are a
mi sleading basis for predicting next year's consumption unless the effects of such
Ihings as the economy, global warming and the popularity of televised sport can be
Id ken into account. An understanding of the forces at work can make it safer to
l"xtrapolate an observed trend. Such an understanding can come from saturation in
Ihe situation, rather than from scientific techniques. In this respect, prediction
is simil ar to other generalizations from the known to the unknown, ie prediction
henefits from age, greater knowledge and wider experience. If you are not confident
ill your ability to think about the future, you might usefully try three things:
I. Asking experts or older people. Being 'saturated' with knowledge of the field
.lids prediction. This favours the use of experts or older people to inform
predi tions.
Asking young or younger people. The people who will be opinion makers in
15- 20 years' time are teenagers now. If you want to predict the way society's
v.llues and interests will change over the next 15 years, talk to young people.
Volunteer to help at a local youth club, or help to get one started.
Asking a group. Form as heterogeneous a group as possible. Let all people
sl t'<lk on e before anyone speaks twice, then ask each person to write down
Ilwi I' pred iel ions nnonYl11ously. Feed all the anonymous predictions back to the
)',nHI!, . l{ep(,011 111(' pron'ss unlilthe ovemll group predi ction is stable.
Nil IIIH"' ,III "IIIl W til\' 1111111"1 ', hilt YOII , \ 111 111.1"1' ,1 mol'\' informed guess or a beller
C·.!11< .tlc ·" )',1 11 "'" 1110111 VCltll IlIlllpl'lillll " II VIlli ,III ' Itll ·h. y, YOIl will gel IllOl"\'
111'. 111 111.111 IV II II I) ', \1111 111 '1' " III )',1' 1 1111' II II 1'01 1.1111 11 )', lti. 1,11 1 h. w ill Id VI HI\,
\' 11111 1111 ' ,1. 111 ' " 11111111 'r11111 11101111 11111 ' 11 1111 ' .1111 '1 I 'vI ' III ' 11111 1I11 'I(' IIIII , dV II Villi Ildlll
14 Strategic leadership
and feeling, your predictive thinking will be better informed and your predictions
will be more accurate.
Naisbitt was able to make 20-year predictions about society, technology, eco-
nomies, institutions, democracy, hierarchies and ways of thinking that have largely
proved to be accurate. This was because he had knowledge about changes that had
already taken place at the time he made his predictions. He simply extrapolated
from what he knew had already happened.
Summary of the neuroscience on prediction and predictive thinking
• Prediction is a combination of other more basic thinking skills, all of which can
be developed separately.
• Prediction can be improved by talking to younger and older people and experts
in the field.
• Prediction based on intuition benefits from broad general knowledge and
information. Luck favours the prepared mind.
Combination 2. Ethical thinking
When I do good things, I feel good.
When I do bad things, I feel bad.
That is my religion. (Abraham Lincoln)
Decisions and actions are based on beliefs, which have at least two components:
'a feeling' and 'a thought'. Neuroscientists have discovered that chemical activity
in the dendrite gaps between your neurones chemically constructs your thoughts
and your feelings. This chemical construction drives your decisions and your
actions. Your decision making can be overwhelmed by the chemicals associated
with certain kinds of feelings, like lust, greed, jealously and fear, and these feelings
may be present when thinking strategically. This is not surprising, given that many
of the models used by strategists are military in origin. Unless you learn to mobilize
the 'thought' component of your belief very quickly, your decisions may sometimes
by-pass the reasoning of your cerebral cortex and lead to consequences you may
la ter regret.
Baggini has pointed out that there was nothing wrong with Abraham Lincoln' s
ethical thinking, ie it is ok to feel good when you do good. Altruism need not
involve self-sacrifice. The Chinese character for thinking includes the character for
'heart', as well as the character for 'head' . The heart character reminds you to re-
think the issue ' empathetically' from the point of view of the intended beneficiaries,
or any unintended victims. If strategists do not explicitly introduce an ethical think-
ing component into their strategic thinking process, they will be bi ased toward con-
clusions that serve their own interests. In 2003, we wrotc that adults not trained in
moral rcasoning ca n onl y be prevented from acting in their own interests by legill or
regul il tory restraint. We w,HnL'd Ihat hi gh principles were not cOl11p.llihl l' wilh hi gh
hon lI ses. S,ld I y, (l ll r COI H"( ' ms pmv(' d Jl 1"01 hvl i('. SI r.ll q; isl s 111 11 :-. 1 11 .',1' \"I hi e, 11 I h i 11 "i ng
.111.1 l11 or,iI 1I1 ·lil1('l".lh ·ly 011111 ' ·\ ll li ci ll y. As .1 SII".ll q·. I·. I, Y') II .11, ' III11il-"l y hl
J,1 ·h.r "I' 1·I'.r ·,IlI1.rhl y II yllli l'dIIIH)1 re 'dll "", Ill ' il YI)II dll 111 11 \ ,dill ' 11111 ' ))1 '1 III ,d vii 1111 '/0,
The thinking skills required 15
If you wish your moral reasoning were stronger you could try to:
• Discuss with yourself, or preferably with one other person, moral dilemmas.
This will help you to realize what your personal values are, and which of them
are more important to you than others.
• By repeatedly doing brain training exercises that involve moral dilemmas,
a ranking of personal values can emerge. Particular rankings of personal values
may then become your moral principles.
• You can use these moral principles to take ethical decisions quickly, before you
are swept along by your emotions.
Summary of the neuroscience of ethics and moral reasoning
• Ethical thinking and moral reasoning can be strengthened by practice.
• Ethical thinking and moral evaluation should be used as an explicit and deliber-
ate step in strategic thinking, especially when deciding which of a number of
strategic options to implement.
• Ethical thinking relies on the development of skills in verbal thinking, visual
thinking, recollection and empathy. These can be deployed in sequence to help
you decide what is right (as well as what is efficient, economical and effecti ve).
The sequence is shown in Figure 1.2.
Combination 3. Critical thinking - what do you believe?
YOLI are what you habitually do. (Aristotle)
When you habitually ask the questions in the box below, you will have become a
crili al thinker.
TEN QUESTIONS CRITICAL THINKERS ASK WHEN
PEOPLE GIVE THEM INFORMATION
1. Could you elaborate a little?
2. Can you give me an example?
3. How could we check that out?
4. How are those two things connected?
How does that follow from what you said earlier?
6. Why do you think that is important or significant?
7. How does t hat information help us to make progress?
8. n you think of a different way to explain that to me?
n you b more pr cise? How much, how many, how often?
10. Wh t d you think X would say in reply to that? (Where X can, for ex-
,)rnpl<'. b long 10.)11 Ih r r ,ul tur, 9 nder or so io-economic group.)
16 Strategic leadership
Conversational Thinking
Even if it's the right way to do it, is it a right thing to do?
How will the world be changed and for whom?
Imaginative Thinking
Conversational Thinking
Are there tests or criteria we can use to decide if the new
situation is acceptable? Does it confer the greatest good
on the greatest number? Does it put people first? Does it
favour people over things? Does it confer a balance of
advantage in the long term? Let us do no harm.
Recollective
Thinking
Empathetic
Thinking
Conversational Thinking
After exploring as many issues as time allows,
is it, on balance, a right thing to do?
Ethical Thinking
Judgements about Right or Wrong, Truth or
Falsehood, Good or Evil.
Figure 1.2 Ethical Thinking (from Training Your Brain, Wootton and Horne, 2009)
When reading reports from staff, consultants or other experts, strategic thinkers ask:
• Why do I t hink the writer w rote thi s?
• Wh,lt qu('s ti on is till' w rit er t ryi ng to .ll1swl'r?
• An' tlll' l'(' ,I l l (' III \'S to til !'
• W lldllilid II I 1111 <1 IIIl .l 11 (l ll i" h(' 11 11', 1111 111 1', ill 1(IIW.lll ll wll"
.. \ A/ I. .. 1 .. i " lt u l l l "I' ll h lllh, II11 t 1l11l.liliHI
The thinking skills required 17
• What assumptions are being made explicitly, and also implicitly?
• What principle or conclusion does the writer want me to accept?
• Are the inferences reasonable and supported by valid reasons?
• If I accept these conclusions, what actions are implied?
• What would be the consequence for others, if these actions were taken?
Commercial news is produced to make money for its producers. The owners of the
media generally receive money from advertisers and so they seek as large an audi-
ence or readership as possible. In general, viewers, listeners and readers will not
repeatedly watch, listen to, or read things that make them feel bad. For this reason,
the presentation of information in the media is usually biased towards making their
audience feel good about themselves. Even if there is some truth in what is pre-
sented, it may not be 'the whole truth and nothing but the truth'.
When sifting through press reports or commercial trade magazines ask:
• Which stories have been 'buried'?
• Which stories have been promoted to the front page and why?
• Who stands to gain from this promotion or from this demotion?
• Whose interests are being served? Whose agenda is being furthered?
• Whose opinions or political beliefs are being given priority over others?
• Whose points of view are belittled or go unreported?
• What counter-arguments, or counter examples, can be found elsewhere?
I f you wish you were more logical, you could try doing Sudoku, playing chess or
tackling brain teasers and brain puzzles.
Summary of the neuroscience on critical thinking and evaluation
• Critical thinking uses deductive and inductive logic to assess the believability
of information, the reasonableness of inferences and the practicality of actions.
• Critical thinking develops personal characteristics like courage, intellectual
independence and social self-reliance.
• ritical thinking skills can empower people who would otherwise be easily
impressed or oppressed by people in positions of power.
TI)('rc is more to critical thinking than its role in assessing whether information
j , juslifi ably believable, and in assessing whether inferences are deductively or
il) III ' liv Iy reasonable. It also has a practical role in evaluating proposals for action. •
YOIt will a lso need to deploy creative and reflective thinking when looking at the
ililpli ca li ons of your proposed action.
Combination 4. Creative thinking and innovation
(:/"('.1 1 w il :I, II'(' HilI"( ' 10 III.ldlli':,:, 111 '.11' ,IIli( " 1. ( j oilll l )ryd(,lI )
II 1' 4 '1111 111 '( ',- /I PI Y 1-111\1"" III Itl - 1"11'11 ,\ ),, ' -11111 11 ,II- I,. dfl VI' Y(llll'n("l1 ' 111 ,l d ' in on"'r
III 1111.11 (" 1',111 .·1 1'".1. "1'1111 III Illd,tI" ".11".1 11\1 ' ill'.illl ,,'0111' III I, '" , I, ' wdl i l )'
18 Strategic leadership
creatively and, in Psychology, in August 2007, he reported that the most creative
writing was done by people who could deliberately shift their brain activity from
their rear brain parietal sensory cortex to the front brain lobes of their cerebral
cortex. Although it was true that the right-hand sides of their brains were involved,
so were the left-hand sides of their brains. The idea that creative people are those
who are naturally 'right brained' is mistaken. You can train your brain to shift from
back to front and from left to right. While creativity includes the ability to think
unusual and original thoughts, for strategic thinkers those thoughts have to be useful.
For strategic thinkers, creative inferences need to imply practical actions.
Creative thinking makes its greatest contribution to strategic thinking during
Steps 5, 6, 8 and 9 in Part II. Creative thinking involves a lot of Is! You will need to
immerse yourself in a lot of information and then incubate it while you wait for inspir-
ation. You need a long list of ideas. Do not worry if your ideas seem wild at this stage.
You will use your critical and ethical thinking skills to weed out and then select only
a few ideas for implementation. Only those that meet your criteria for economy,
efficiency, effectiveness and ethics will make your shortlist. Issues of practicality,
feasibility, timing and resistance to change will need to be discussed with key people
(see Step 5) before your implementation strategy can be finalized. If you think that
your ability to think creatively is limiting your strategic thinking, read Chapter 9 in
Wootton and Home (2009). Here are 10 quick ways to remove blocks to creative
thinking. If the block is:
l. Habit
2. Firm beliefs
3. Familiarity
4. Adult behaviour
5. Lack of language
6. Not my area
7. Fear of mistakes
8. Existing models
9. Lack of time
10. I'm too old
Do one different thing every day.
Ask, 'If I didn't believe this, what might happen?'
Ask, 'How will I feel when I have solved this problem?'
Indulge in one piece of 'child-like' behaviour each day.
Mix with creative people. Join an art or drama group.
Most breakthroughs come from non-specialists.
Ask, 'What's the worst thing that should happen?'
Ask, 'What if you had arrived from Mars?'
Accept that you have all the time there is.
Creative thinking brings together knowledge and experi-
ence. The older you are the more you have.
Summary of neuroscience on creative thinking and innovation
• Creative thinking can be developed in most people.
• In creative thinking, increased quantity leads to better quality.
• There are easy to learn techniques that can switch brain activity to the parts of
the brain more likely to produce creative ideas.
Combination 5. Reflective thinking
Your future can profit from your past w hen you use refl ecti v(' thinking. This
invol v('s thinking abou l p,lsl ('xpcricl1Cl'S, yours <Inti thost' of \) lh" 1" P( 'Opll', ill sll ch
" w" y Ih,d YOII (".1 11 ("( lIllI' 10 d pn's\' 111 ('onclusiOI1 Ih,1 1 Hl l'IlI ll'. l y 11111'11('1. , I fllllll'\'
(' 11 ,111 /\\' . 1{"( I" , 'li v,' 1111111..111/\ PlrllrJ Oil 0111 o( Ill(' pol' I, 1111 (111)', 11 1111 ' 1"' '' I' ' nl " IHI
. ........ 1 """ .. .In II .. 1,,1 .. , .. 'l'IIL' w, 11"d ,, ·fl l'Lli vl' Lililil III ' l ·li.. t lilUl i illll' l
The thinking skills required 19
Conversational Thinking
I wonder what that was all about. What does it mean?
What really happened and so what?
What can we learn from this and where do we go from here?
Recollective Thinking
What was seen, heard and by whom? Who felt and thought what?
What actually was said at the time and in what sequence?
What else do we know? What was the picture?
Visual Thinking
Conversational Thinking
Rememberi ng all that, here and now, what do I now feel and think? What feel ings,
thoughts and associations occur? Is there a pattern here? Has this happened before?
What insights are there? What might I infer?
Recollective Thinking Emotional Thinking Visual Thinking
Creative Thinking
Conversational Thinking
Implications for some future situations: how might this cause me to feel , think,
behave differently? What might I try to say or do? What could I do to ensure this?
Predictive Thinking Critical Thinking
Insight, Learning, Intentions,
Acti on Pl ans
I:igllrt' I.:l 1\1'/11't'l1I 11' I '11111" illS (fllllll 'I'1,\i lljll)', Y(lI lr I lrdj ll , WOOl/Oil 1/1/(1 I 10 nt/', 2()09)
20 Strategic leadership
This combination of basic thinking skills (verbal thinking, visual thinking, memory
and empathy), helps you to escape from past patterns - your own and those of your
competitors - to focus on the present problems or confusion and then rethink the
future so that you are distinctive and therefore have competitive advantage. The
contributory thinking skills you need can be developed with practice. If you find
reflection difficult, think of an incident in which something went very wrong
(or very right) . Recollecting what happened, ask:
• Why did I act as I did?
• What were the key issues?
• What was I trying to achieve?
• How did other people feel about it?
• How do I know how they felt about it?
• What influenced my decision making and actions?
• What were the consequences of my action for others?
• How did I feel at different points during this experience?
Thinking about it now, ask: How do I feel about it now? What other choices
might I have had? Looking forward to similar situations in the future, ask: What
might I do differently as a result of what I think now? (Source: Horne and Doherty,
2003).
Summary of the neuroscience on reflective thinking
• Reflective thinking helps infer learning from experience.
• Reflective learning can imply behaviour changes when future scenarios are pre-
dicted that have elements in common with experience.
• Many models of experiential learning are seriously flawed. Most assume that
everyone can think reflectively. This is simply not true. Reflective thinking
involves a combination of basic thinking skills. These must be developed and
practised before you can think reflectively.
THREE ADVANCED THINKING TOOLS
FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS
Metaphors, models and systems thinking
Writing in the Harvard Business Review, Professor Ikyiyero Nonaka explains the way
that the comparatively diminutive Honda strategically outflanked the might of its
competitors in the US automotive industry. Canon moved on from cameras and
dominated the world market for office equipment by strategica ll y out-manoeuvring
the mi ghty Xerox Corporati on. !\c ording to f rofcssor Nonaka, manag rs and market
slralegisls in ffonda and Ca non had t/l'v('lop(' j n figllr<1livl' l<1ngll,)gl' Ihal enabled
Ilwm 10 Ihink "hol ll \ 'olllpl (,x I 'olln'pl s in ,I Wd Y [h,1I vVI' ryOll\' ill IllI 'il' llrg,llliZoI l iollS
\'ol lid 111111, "" I.llld. NOIl"k" 'H hll/!:It'qll"111 1'1' ,-;1 ',11'\'11 ',l1l1ld lil.ll :0111111,,1' 11I) ',il " 'VI ' IIIH'I"
JlhOl'i l'II ' I"y 1" ,11 I1d 1111 ' I Imll 'It/, ' 1II'Il o f 1'01111',11111'" Id", M,1I r11Irddfll ,
The thinking skills required 21
Strategic thinking involves turning information about the past into present know-
ledge on which changes in future action can profitably be based. But sometimes that
knowledge is tacit not explicit, vague not clear, voluminous and not precise. In such
situations, companies may be at an advantage if they operate in countries where it
is natural to think metaphorically, as well as scientifically. Even in the West, great
scientific discoveries like the structure of benzene, or the genome, or the theory of
relativity, owed as much to metaphor as they did to science or mathematics. By using
a lager can as a metaphor for the aluminium drum in a photocopier, Canon was able
to make a disposable copier drum and so was born the office equipment division of
Canon. Within five years, that division accounted for 74 per cent of Canon's total
turnover.
Sometimes metaphorical thinking inspires new ideas or new models
ometirnes metaphorical thinking suggests enduring principles that can be applied
in new situations. These principles can sometimes be represented as a model. There
are models, for example, for thinking about product development, organizational
design, strategic change and project management. One model that is especially useful
for strategists is a systems thinking model.
Most problems do not exist in isolation and so are best not solved in isolation.
In '1996, Aronson illustrated this by looking at the problem of an insect' N, that was
damaging crops. When insects are attacking a crop, the 'conventional response
would be to spray the crop with a pesticide that kills the insect 'N. However, that
' nn turn out not to solve the problem. What can happen is that the crop damage gets
worse! Insect' N may be controlling the population of another insect 'B' by com-
pl'ling with it. When spraying depletes the population of insect ' N, the population
\)f in ect '8' may rise dramatically. The total insect population may be greater and so
I he rop damage may be greater than before you used the spray. 'Systems thinking'
' '' 1111 ' up with a better idea. The systems thinking idea was to introduce another
illse t that would compete with insect 'A'. 'Normal' thinking would not normally
,'om ' up with the idea of introducing extra insects as a way of solving the problem
(If ins 'ct damage.
In 1994, Richmond expressed frustration that models of systems thinking were more
wrillen about than used, despite the fact that models of system thinking had obvious
oId vantages when facing complex problems. In fact, a great deal of practical work had
hl 'I'11 done using systems thinking since the early 1980s, by Professor Peter Checkland
(19K I). ' heckl and and hi s co-workers had developed a methodology whereby systems
lilillking could be appli ed to practical problem solving. From 1995 to 1999, Horne
' IiHI 1)0 hcrty built on Checkl and 's work, developing a 'conversational systems
1IIIldv/ '. Thi s l110del is bnsl'd on a metaphor. The model rests on the assumption that
1111 ' Ill1i vl'rsl' ,'. 11) usefull y be viewed ns though it were a hi erarchy of systems.
'I'll(' ion,)1 sll' l1l S Ill od"" hol S 16 st.1)?,cs. When you foll ow these 16 stages,
y\l ll \'. 11 ) Ihin k d l', lrly ,11111 ,)houl compl ex ,Inti tu rbul ent s ituati ons in
IV IIII'II IlLIIl 01 Il l(' voll"loll.I I' ," ,In ' 11 I It '!"l 'OI 11 11 'l' iI'd ,1I1d wlwrl' some ,11'(' un known.
1111 1, 1111,'01 11) 11l 111111 k, 1".Ill y ,lilt! 111 1" 1",' ly "V,' II wlwil "OIl W illf ll l"llloili oll Illur ky
III \ 01),, 111 ' )1l 11 11 '01 1111 ,, 111' ' 1"1 " "/I ' lv \ 01)', 111" « '11\"1 11.11111 , IIIK I) ' II II' 1(, ' 1''' '1 , 1. 1)' .• · ...
IVIII ' II yll il 1111111 "\" 1t '1111I ,di y, I.d·"" 1111111 11111111 ' 1IIId I )plll'll y (:' 1111 I), " " . :dll IWIl
22 Strategic leadership
SIXTEEN STAGES FOR THINKING CLEARLY ABOUT COMPLEX
TURBULENT SITUATIONS
1. Assume that any problem or decision can usefully be viewed as though it
were situated in a system that is part of a wider system and is, itself, com-
posed of subsystems.
2. Try drawing a 'map' on one side of A4 that shows all the areas relevant
to the decision. Create 'bubbles' by drawing a boundary around each of
the areas on your map. Imagine that each area within a boundary can be
thought of as a system. Insert arrows to show which systems interconnect
and affect each other. Give each 'system' a label that contains an action
word describing what the system does, or what its output is (for example
a 'knowing' system, a 'finding-out' system, a 'checking-the-cash' system).
3. Along the arrows, write a label for the output that is leaving each system.
Each output will become the input to another system, or it will be an
output into the system's environment. List the people who are affected
by the outputs into the environment. These are your clients, customers,
victims or stakeholders.
4. Inside your systems bubbles, draw matchstick people to represent the key
players - the key actors who play an essential part in getting the system's
'work' done. (You have crystallized this 'work' in the label you have given
to the system.) Key actors include often experienced or technically knowl-
edgeable people; maybe you could give these stick people spectacles.
Find out who ' owns' the whole system or particular parts of it. Draw them
with a big hat. Who are the people who are responsible for checking
what comes out of each system? You could draw a magnifying glass in
their hands. Who sets the measures of performance (MOPs) and com-
pares them with what actually happens? Draw them with a clipboard.
Write the name of each key actor next to your 'stick' person. Draw in a
feedback loop to show how this information is used to modify what
happens.
5. By now your A4 sheet should be quite messy. If it is, re-draw your systems
map to minimize the number of arrows that cross each other. This is a
good chance to make your labels more succinct and to expand the size of
the bubbles that represent the systems on which you have most informa-
t ion. Check you have all the names of your owners, key actors and the key
decision makers. (These are people who could turn out to be 'assisters' or
'resisters' during your strategic implementation in Part II, Step 9. They will
also help you to formulate your strategic vision in Part II, Step 5.) For each
system, find out what the resources are - financial, technological and
material. Include people with knowledge, experience and expertise as
resources. Sketch in little pictures to represent the resources.
6. For each system, consider the impact on the system of things that are
changing in the systems environment. Show each impact on the system as
an incoming dotted arrow and label the arrows. Consider changes in
technology, economi cs, markets, politics, law, ethics and so icty.
7. Take your emerging systems map around wi th you. h w it to tho\ pc
pi wh n m ar tarting lo app G r on it. !\ k thr ", 101 1",,<11>.1< k. I (' t
t lH'm dr ,lW Oil your m.lp. !\\k Wh,lt w Illd t hr il t ('11 till ' ·,y·,t "Ill ". '.1 If v v" l l
WII ." ( 11"'Uj IH, would tlu'y IIkp to ',PI' .IIHI wil y'
The thinking skills required 23
8. Ask what information they need to receive, from whom, and by when, in
order to do their job. How frequently does it need to be updated and
how detailed does it really need to be?
9. Ask each person who else you should talk to.
10. You should then find a quiet spot. On a separate sheet, for each system,
make a 'systems action list' of all the things someone needs to do if the
system is to carry out its work. The label you have given to the system
should reflect the work the system needs to do. By now, each system's
'work' or 'purpose' should be clearer. If a system's purpose is not clear
enough, talk to the people whose names you have on your map. The
CATSWORLD Checklist may help you to identify key actors who you may
have missed (see Step 5, Part II, page 67) .
11. Take your 'systems action list' for each system, and talk to the people
whose names appear on your systems map. For each action on your
'systems action list' ask, 'Is anyone doing this? If so, who?' Try to establish
how well the activity is being carried out. Ask if any of the essential activ-
ities on your 'systems action lists' are missing.
12. Retire to a quiet place with your list of 'systems actions' and consider the
activities that no one appears to be carrying out satisfactorily. For each
activity that is not being carried out satisfactorily, ask yourself 'How
important is this activity to the system?' If the activity is essential for the
system's purpose, give it an ' t>:. If it is inconsequential, give it a 'C'.
Otherwise rate it 'B'. Next consider how easy it would be to rectify the
deficiency. If it would appear to be easy, give it an 'A'. If difficult, give it a
'C' . Otherwise give it a 'B'. Next consider the risks associated with inter-
vening to try and rectify the deficiency. If there is a low chance of a small
adverse consequence, give it an 'A'. If there is a big chance of a serious
adverse consequence, give it a 'C'. Otherwise give it a 'B'.
13. Take the list of possible changes, which you have now rated A, B or C, for
desirability, feasibility or risk, and ask the key actors or stakeholders
whether or not they agree with your ratings. Get them to help you choose
a triple ' A' change that would make a good starting point. Get their help
with planning how to implement it.
14. Implement the selected triple 't>: change and collect reactions to the
change from your emerging list of key actors.
15. Revise your systems map in the light of new information.
16. If you need to design a new organization, the same systems thinking can
be used. The main difference will be that when you come to compare
your ' systems action list' with the existing situation, there won't be any
exist ing activiti es. Create the new organization by introducing triple 't>:
activiti es first .
IItrlm ry of t h n ur on y t m models and syst ems thinking
• I I i 14 Il(>:-l:-I i bl l' I() 111111 1.. ,i1 >( HII c( HlIpl (' x or 11Irhlll l' 1l1 :-l illidii o ns ('veil
w lll'l' . dl1\ UHI . dl'IJi Il "I1.lIl l1l ll'1lo1 l l)',I '·' w i 11'11 yi lil 11 10 .1 ( ' ('V(' II 01 .' 111 , 111 1' 11 , 111 )',1' 1001
'11 '1 01 11 p .II '1 , II II
• 11 1' 11"1'111 1>1, ' 1(1 1'"" '11' " 11 11 ' II 1I 1'<1 ' '1", ' 1111 ''1 11 1 .I ," i ' 1'111' 1 II11I YII II 111 01 1, ' ,II 1I1 1" lld
24 Strategic leadership
• It is possible to decide what changes would improve the performance of an
existing product, organization, team, group, society or social group.
A conversational systems model is represented in Figure 1.4.
Systems thinking is fundamentally different from traditional forms of analysis.
Systems thinking focuses on the whole situation; it does not focus on individual
pieces of information. The situation is described using a map of the interconnected
systems. Systems thinking is concerned with how change in anyone system affects
all the other systems. Viewing the universe as if it were a hierarchy of systems is an
example of metaphorical thinking. Not all metaphors need to be turned into models
before they are useful. A metaphor alone can aid your thinking.
Metaphorical thinking and practice
Metaphors as a source of learning have a long history. Over time, they have been used
by teachers to explain ideas they thought would be too abstract for their disciples
(Williams, 1983). Metaphors can help to make abstract ideas more concrete. Using
metaphors is good for your brain because it involves thinking about one thing in
terms of another. This helps to build up the creative connections in your brain.
Metaphors make it possible to think about things that you cannot see or touch.
For example, we cannot see or touch 'cheering-up-ness' as a quality of a person. But
we can talk about a friend as 'a ray of sunshine'. When we sing, 'You are my
sunshine, my only sunshine', we are conveying the idea that they have a quality like
sunshine - that makes us 'happy when skies are grey'. Because we are using this
idea metaphorically, we can discover other meanings. Do we, for example, find
them warm, or warming? Do we like to know that they are always shining some-
where in the world? Metaphors help us to understand not only 'how' we feel, but
'why' we feel the way we do. Metaphors can also point to possible ways of improv-
ing matters in the future, but their practical usefulness must be tested by critical
thinking.
Metaphors as aids to memory and recollection
Because metaphors can generate visual images that have emotional associations,
they are easy to recall. New information is more easily connected to images that
are already familiar, like birds, animals or sports players (Buzan, 1993). The new
information is easier to recall. The new information can be 'parked' - as in a Microsoft
or Mac 'window' - while you explore links, connections and associa tions. Associa ted
thought paths can be followed without fear of losing the new information, because
the new information is 'parked' in the working space crea ted by your metaphor.
Metaphors expand your short-term memory.
Metaphors work like icons on a computer screen. By clicking on your metaphor-
ical 'icon', you ca n recover not only the associated inform,llion <"l nt! reviings, but
al so till' sta rting po ints ror a ll IIw n1('nl.ll P,llhwol YS OIl hdV\' \ '\ pluf( ' d dlrl'oldy.
Ir d p,lrliru l.1r p,llhw,l Y 111r11S il110 .1 ' d\',HI (' lId', y o u \" 111 \ ',I ', i l y II ' II " \( I ' yu u r ~ I ( ' p s
,llld liU h,l1'l II I y llll!' (1Ii)"ill.11 111< ' l.q .il1l1 0111 I InUll lill ' rl ' ',1' 1 I I 1I il)',o1 lll III (" I .ip!'\ '
, I III' W 1' ,1111
The thinking skills required 25
OUTER WORLD
SENSING
1. GATHER INFORMATION
2. DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM
3. DRAW A MAP OF SYSTEMS
EVALUATING
9. LIST MINIMUM ACTIVITIES
8. WHAT INFORMATION IS
NEEDED FOR EACH SYSTEM?
7. WHAT ARE CONSTRAINTS
FOR EACH SYSTEM?
6. WHAT IS THE MOTIVATION
FOR EACH SYSTEM?
FORMULATING
TAKING ACTION
12. IMPLEMENT ONE CHANGE
11. GENERATE CHANGE IDEAS
10. COMPARE THE LIST
4. CONSIDER EACH SYSTEM
AS:
input - transformation - output
feedback
5. DEFINE THE PURPOSE
OF EACH SYSTEM
MAKING SENSE
INN R WORLD
F i ~ ~ I 1 " " 1,11 11"'11/
1
"/ ,,,'1111111'" 1/ ', 11 '111 " IIllItll'I (,,/11' / 11111 ill ' 111/11 1)/1111'111/, 2(){I,I)
26 Strategic leadership
Using metaphors to integrate higher order thinking
The metaphor not only helps you to remember and recall things, it enables you to
integrate higher-order thinking skills, like critical, creative and reflective thinking.
The metaphor creates links in the neurone pathways that make it easier to 'see the
big picture' and to retrieve the new ideas by following the links around your internal
neurone net. This is particularly useful to those of us, male or female, who have a
stereotypical male brain structure in which different parts of our brain will be up to
30 per cent less well interconnected than in a stereotypical female brain. Treffinger
(1986) defined creative thinking as 'the making and expressing of meaningful
connections', and Cornelius and Casler (1991) described imagination as 'forming
mental images of what is not actually present and combining them with previously
unrelated ideas'. This suggests that using metaphors will also help you to develop
your creativity and imagination.
Transferable skills
Because metaphorical thinking involves finding important commonalities between
situations that on the surface appear quite different, metaphorical thinking enables
you to practise 'transferring knowledge' from one situation to another. In making
the transfer, what is required is a 'mental leap', like a spark that 'jumps across a gap'
(Holyoak and Thagard, 1995). Good metaphors 'spark off' good ideas that can leap
across 'mental gaps' in your thinking. Koestler (1970) considered this sparking to be
central to humour and creative thinking. The ability to link appropriately to a new
context is sometimes called 'transferable learning' . Transferable learning is highly
valued in turbulent situations where you need to adapt rapidly to a new situation
(or to a new world order).
Mental 'maps'
For Buzan (1993), the metaphor of the 'map' has been central to his idea of how
the mind works. His books on recollective thinking skills are organized around
the metaphor of 'mapping'. Mental maps display the mental links between ideas,
thereby helping you to make patterns and to organize knowledge. They help you to
recollect and visualize. If shared with others, they can help you to think aloud in a
thoughtful conversation.
Synectics
According to Perkins (1988), synectics is another sub-set of metaphorical thinking.
In synectics, people are encouraged to use objects (for example, computer icons or
chairs), to represent what they think is happening, or might happen, in a situati on
about which they wish to think. I\ s their ideas progress and dev('lop, Ihey arc
encourilged 10 ch;1I11\<' Ih(' nrr;lngl'llwnl dnd jll Xl,lposiLioll of li lt' nhj,'<" I:-,. 'PlllpuLI't"s
(\111 Iw used I() Sil1l1tioill ' :-, illlii.lr pnh·,':-,sl'S. Till ' ( ' ( l r l l p l l l , ' r ~ , 1' 1, ' .111 ' ' "hll'l h ' Ih.ll \". 111
Ihl 'll h,' 11l() vl' d oIll1l1l\d 1111 lilt' "\ 1" 1' 11 Wdl 1",1111 ill/" .111.1 '" "1111' III lilli " d'l lllI/" .II','
1",, "1 I IIIl'H, ' lll'll ll\lll'!' 1111111 Ill)', ' 1111 ' 1.1\>11111 1\ "" hi ' 11 11 \ '1 1 11.111 1' 1 \ It ,\\, 1111 ' Ii llllllllll1
The thinking skills required 27
without using physical objects. It is possible to use words to create mental images of
objects and then manipulate these mental images in our heads (Cheng, 1993).
Put on your thinking cap
A good example of metaphorical thinking is the way De Bono (1986) used six different
coloured thinking hats to unscramble the thinking process. Using the ' thinking
caps' metaphor, you can use six different ways of thinking, separately and deliber-
ately, one at a time. You are invited to think as though you were wearing one
particular thinking hat (we have used actual coloured paper hats with children to
great effect). The essence of the different coloured 'thinking hats' is:
• Blue hat thinking - blue eyes, cool, unflustered and controlling. This is thinking
calmly about what kind of thinking is needed next.
• White hat thinking - pure white, virgin white, uncontaminated. Just give me the
'facts' or crunch the 'numbers' .
• Red hat thinking - seeing red, emotions and feelings, hunch and intuition.
Paying attention to emotion.
• Black hat thinking - playing the devil's advocate, looking on the black side. It
will never work. Wear your black executioner's hat and try to kill the idea. Black
hat thinking gives permission to forgo the benefits of positive thinking.
• Yellow hat thinking - yellow sunshine, brightness, optimism. Yellow submarine -
'our fri ends are all on board' . Thinking with a 'sunny' disposition.
• . reen hat thinking - fertile green fields with green shoots springing from the
seeds of ideas. This thinking symbolizes new growth and creativity.
If you think you need to improve your ability to think metaphorically, try these
idl·.1S:
• Writing down the name of an animal that resembles an organization with which
ou are famili ar. Write down, as quickly as possible, as many words as you can
lhal describe the animal. Think about why you chose that animal. Now repeat
I h ' exercise, Llsing an animal that you wish the organization was more like.
Finillly, think of five changes - three essential and two desirable - that you
would like to see in the organi zation. Small practical changes often have the
mosl impa t.
• M,1king ompari ons with things like sport, DIY, hobbies, politics or child rear-
illg. I{('mind pcopl e of metaphors you have Llsed before.
• IJs in); Ik Ilono's metaphor of thc thinking cap. Start by putting on a white cap.
Thi s IlW.lI1S lh.ll , unlil a diff 'renl col oured ca p is chosen, you try to think only
.,11\1111 Wh.ll Ill' f.Wlll .lll y kn\ )w 10 be lrul' firsl hand . Disrega rd hea rsay or specu-
1.11 iOIl . Wh,ll do YOII know 1)0 nol l'ons ilil'r opinions or fcclings, just fa cts and
li )" III"( ':; IIl I Ilwlll dllWIl TIII 'Y , ' 0111 111' SlIppll 'IlH'I1II '" Idl er. Tr yOIl!" red l''' P n('x!.
( :1' 1 .I ll y 'd' P'I )', I(TIIII )'," p il Pili d l l ' ~ , 1 1'1' 1' 1"(' 1'1', 11 ill )', lI ow YOIl (\ '\' 1 1IIIIil yl lil
)',,'1 ".1"" " I ,d,.. 1 11 11" 1", , 1111 )'," 1"'1·1,"),," 011 1' t" I1 )', I, ' Wl lldt, II PI tl l'lli l' II I I'b III
' '1 ' ' '1'1 II, '" Nllw II '" li,li" III tlilil \,11 111 gll" ' " I .q' WII ,illIl ' jI'lIlllIlIllI ': Ill! ' 11I1 ' 1t ,
II'
II
28 Strategic leadership
What genuine questions occur? What possibilities are there here for growth,
exploitati on or development? Create a 'green' ideas sheet next to your 'white'
sheet. Now don your black cap. Listen carefully to all your fears about things
that have gone wrong already and could go wrong again. Create a 'black' list
and put it alongside the 'white' sheet and the 'green' sheet. Before you get over-
whelmed and demotivated by the 'black' list, put on your yellow thinking cap.
What is the best thing that could happen? If you had three wishes about this
situation, what would they be? If you had a magic wand, what would you want
to happen? What vision of the future would inspire you or excite you? Make a
'yellow' list before you put your black cap back on again. What's wrong with
these ideals? What constraints are we overlooking? Green cap again - what
opportunities might there be amongst these problems on the 'black' list? Where
are the silver linings? Yellow cap again - what ideas remain possible? What
about a purple cap now? Purple is traditionally a religious colour, the cardinal's
hat or the robe of a Trappist monk. Whether or not we can make these green and
yellow ideas work, are they 'in right ordering'. Are they moral, ethical or truly
'good'? Would we want to tell our children or our grandparents that we were
doing things like this? Back to yellow - what could you support that seems a
feasible improvement? What action is required? White cap on - let's write up
the action plan. Who needs to do what by when, and how will we know when
they've done it? This metaphorical thinking can be done alone or with a 'think-
ing' companion. Having a thinking companion helps you to think aloud.
Summary of neuroscience on metaphorical thinking and analogy
• Metaphorical thinking can help you to develop creativity.
• Metaphorical thinking develops the ability to transfer knowledge.
• Metaphorical thinking enables the results of your thinking to be ' parked' in a
way that you can easily retrieve.
Case Study
Marketing leadership and
management action
This is a practical case study of strategic action that needs to be taken by marketers
and managers during turbulent times.
INTRODUCTION
When faced with immediate or looming difficulties, many managers become
paralysed by stress and anxiety, or depressed by head-in-the-sand fear and denial.
They do not realize the effect this has on their brain chemistry. They deprive
their organization of strategic thinking at a time when their organization needs
il most.
I n tough times, lack of good strategic thinking is often fatal - as it was for
Woolworths in the UK in 2008. In tough times, employees look to their managers for
I' ll'tl r answers to the questions on their minds, and for clear directions in which to
I''< pend their efforts. Without a clear head and clear thinking, managers provide
IlI' ilher. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Roosevelt warned managers
,dll)lIl 'unreasoning fear ... which paralyses the efforts needed to convert retreat into
,Illvance'. If you don't reason as a strategic thinker, your fears will remain 'unrea-
'li ming', and your organization will be unable to 'convert retreat into advance'.
'I() he reassuring to shareholders, as well as employees, even as you spell out realis-
11\,,111 the difficulties you have analysed, you must paint a positive picture of
1111" flit u r' beyond the present crisis. You must paint very specific stepping stones
,," I point out the pathways. In Part II, Step 8, we explain how your clear strategic
Iltinking an be clearly communicated, not just in writing but orally. This is because
.III ill1l (lrtant part of maintaining morale in difficult times is to communicate
1,1\ '1' lo-fa ce. You will need to get out of your office and walk your patch (or several
I ',iI\'Ill'S). Thi s will have the added benefit of enabling you to cross-check the
1llIllllil1l' inlelli gen e lhat feeds your strategic thinking process. It will enable you to
Ih l"11 specifica ll y In ustomcrs, partners, distributors and suppliers. An important
1; "' I1\)lISI' 10 difficult tmeting onditions, or a shortage of credit or cash, is to trim
I I !I' '11 '\ '1'0 1 t ion. It is I'SSl'nt iil l t h" t decisions about which products to phase out; which
,ll'd' llIlI'rs III 11'1 go; ,11111 whi ch rl'sl'(lrch (Inti development to suspend, are based
11 11 lilolil 1' 1 1".1 slr.t ll '/ ',y.
30 Strategic leadership
MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT
IN TURBULENT TIMES
At times of organizational crisis, people look to their leaders and their managers
for strategies that will enable them to survive and thrive. These strategies must be
market-led. Market-led strategies must be informed by intelligence gathered from
those who are closest to customers, clients, competitors and suppliers.
It is the marketing team who must specify what needs to be done; it is for execu-
tive managers to decide how best to do it. The marketing team must specify what to
do because they are closest to what is changing in the world of customers, clients,
competitors and suppliers. Executive managers must then decide when and with
what resources the marketing strategy is best implemented. Executive managers
have their hands on the operational levers, people, money and resources. When
times are tight, the CEO must personally mind the money (Part II, Step 2) and
personally manage the implementation of the market-led strategy (Part II, Step 9).
In turbulent times, market-led strategists must not fear what they see coming, for
this will impair the quality of their strategic thinking (Part I, Section 3). Rather, they
must see it coming before the competition does, and urge the CEO to move faster.
There are always opportunities in chaos (Part II, Steps 3, 6 and 8). The trick is to spot
which opportunities are in a strategic direction that will take advantage of what you
think will happen after the crisis recedes. Luck favours the prepared mind and the
best preparation in turbulent times is strategic thinking.
FORETELLING THE FUTURE IN UNCERTAIN TIMES
No one can know the future, even in normal times. Because the work of marketers
is always about the future, marketers are more used to having to guess. Because the
focus of marketers is outward - on the outside changing world - the guesswork of
marketers is likely to be better informed than the guesswork of managers whose
focus is internal.
Thinking metaphorically, a marketer is like the cox in a rowing boat. The CEO is
the leading oar. The leading oar knows the limitations of his or her crew, can set a
sustainable pace and be seen to be leading by example. But the marketing cox is the
only member of the crew who can see where the boat is heading, even though he or
she must peer through the mist and the spray. Only the marketing cox can read the
surface ripples and guess from the line of the river bank what might lie around
the bend. The marketing cox can position the boat so as to avoid obvious rocks and
the worst of the white water. The marketing cox can make a quick detour to collect
low-hanging fruit from the bushes on the river bank, taking care not to get stranded
on the mud by a rapidly turning tide.
COMPETING IN CHAOS
Marketing leadership and management action 31
should not be informed by what you think might happen tomorrow. As a marketer,
you do not need to call the future perfectly. Even in calmer times you were never
able to do that. You need to get more calls right than your competitors. In turbulent
times, that is not as difficult as it sounds, because in turbulent times your competitors
are likely to make mistakes. In Formula One, the main opportunities you get to
overtake are when there is a crash or a sudden storm. Thinking by analogy, there
will always be crashes - in credit, in economies, in times of war. In the shorter term,
the US Dollar and the UK Pound will likely crash against the currencies of China,
India and the Middle East, and maybe later against the currencies of Russia and
Brazil. International money markets may become nervous about lending to Greece,
Spain, Portugal, Ireland, the UK and even the US, heralding problems for the Euro,
the Pound and the Dollar. Inflation may loom. This will bring opportunities to
export, but threats to supply. Commodity prices, energy prices and prices of metals
will rise. Weather changes will cause shortages in sugar and rice. Industries allied to
aid will prosper. Amid this encircling gloom, only the strategic light of a marketer
an call the best way forward.
MINDING THE MONEY
The most critical metric in business is cash.
Whether times are turbulent or not, you need technology that gives you your cash
position in real time. Cash comes from reducing stocks and debtors and selling
,lssct . In a credit crunch, all three should be monitored daily by the CEO. (The CEO
I1l' 'ds to delegate strategic thinking to the marketing team while he or she manages
I hl' money.) Short-term cash needs to be prioritized over margins. In Part II, Step 4,
y()U will forecast your worst case scenario. Strategic leaders should always be
("(Ins ' rvative when forecasting the cash flow (Part II, Step 2). Marketers need to
I(lwl'r cash breakeven points by pruning sales growth in cash-hungry product lines
Ill" costly distribution channels. The quickest and most cash efficient way to prune
' ·.Ish-hungry products is by increasing their prices. Cash growth is more important
ih.lll sa lcs growth. Cash will enable you later to buy up the order books or brands
pi I 'ss autious competitors. For the CEO, cutting back creates opportunities to
.I,' 1,1yer ad ministration and to produce leaner, flatter structures that move more
p('ople into direct fa ce- to-face or voice-to-voice contact with customers. Many of
YUill" cuslomers will prefer this to the screen-to-screen contact offered by your com-
I "'I ilms. You will cmerge stronger than your competitors. You will be more flexible
"lid ~ l l I i c k c r lo respond to the rc-emerging needs and wants of the markets to which
yl lil It.l VV SI,l eli close. You will bc in a better position than your competitors. Not
l' i'I'/('( 'I, hllllwllvr ,mel Ih.ll is whal counls.
CREATING KNOWLEDGE IN CONFUSING TIMES
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32 Strategic leadership
information into usable strategic knowledge, on which profitable action can be
based today, and on which profitable change can be based tomorrow. It matters
crucially that you use a wide variety of triangulated sources of information to feed
the 9S© Approach to strategy in Part II. Do not spend all day, every day, in your
office. Be seen to be interested in everything that might affect your customers or
your competitors. (Step 1 of the 9S© will tell you where to look and what to watch.)
Listen to your sales staff. Discount their optimism (or their pessimism) and think
what the things they say might mean. What might this information mean for the
business today, and in the future?
WATCHING THE BOTTOM LINE AND
THE SUPPLY LINE
Strategic leaders need to think about the bottom line today. They need to do so in the
light of the product line and the supply line of tomorrow. Listen to your suppliers -
not only to secure good service levels for your customers, but to gain intelligence
about cash, liquidity and competitive activity. Returning to our metaphor of boats
in stormy waters, in order to make ' headway' against unfavourable 'head' winds,
you may need to tack. (Tacking is what sailors do to still make progress when the
prevailing wind is not in their favour.) You may need to ship oars, or tread water,
while you lighten your load. Volatility may shorten the CEO's strategic focus, but
marketers must not lose sight of which way is 'upstream'.
Do not trust numbers alone - dig into them to discern their meaning. Use verbal,
empathetic and visual thinking, besides numerical thinking (Part I, Section 3). Your
constant enquiry, interest and questioning will convey to your people that urgency
is required to 'head' off the crisis.
DEVELOPING VISION
As a strategic leader - whether in the backseat or the driver 's seat - it is of course
your job to look ahead. But that is no reason to ignore what you can see in your wing
mirrors or your rear-view mirror. Even in good times, the horizon is usually hazy
and seeing beyond it is impossible. This is what makes radar and CPS invaluable!
Pursuing our ' driving' metaphor, even when driving conditions are difficult, you
should not abandon your forward focus. Your forward focus helps you to decide
which way to swerve to avoid obstacles on the road ahead.
DOWNSIZING IN A DOWNTURN
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... .. ... II , .. , ", .. , II,."L A" 011,111, 1.' III 11111 Il'l1l'oIlllt (lllll III ' 011111 I 'Ill) Il , ,1I1(lliI
Marketing leadership and management action 33
one in four people enjoy change. It should be a marketers' view of the future, rather
than the possibility of local grants, that should determine which factory or office the
CEO decides to keep open and which to close or to mothball. Any possibility to sell
factori es or offices for cash must be considered, even if you are offered a price well
below the figure in the balance sheet. No point in going bankrupt with a strong
balance sheet. (In any case, you cannot borrow against even a strong balance sheet
when no one is lending!)
TAKING DECISIONS IN DIFFICULT TIMES
Taking decisions in difficult times helps to rally the morale of the people. Leave
the decision as late as you reasonably can - then decide, don' t dither. They will
despair if you dither. Honesty, openness and transparency - sharing the thinking
behind your decisions - will build your credibility and their confidence. That is
why it is important to think strategically. You cannot be open and honest when
Dnswering questions to which you have not given prior thought. Time on the front
line helps you to keep abreast of your people's concerns, and to anticipate the
questions they are likely to ask. Answer as straightforwardly as you can - as clearly
Dnd concisely as you can. If you don' t know the answer, say so immediately. Do
not conceal impending storms for fear of spreading alarm. There are straws in every
wind. Fears of the unknown meaning of straws in the wind will be much worse than
Ihcir fears once they know the worst. In the meantime, news of what threatens will
ncate much needed urgency to implement strategic changes informed by your
lJS") Approach (Part II).
THE BOARD ABOVE BOARD
HVl'n in an industry sector as short-termist as banking and finance, some board-
II ' vd managers are more strategic than others. Jamie Dimon seems to have seen
Whol l was coming and steered J P Morgan Chase out of harm's way, and John Thain
11l00lI'lgcd to find a home for Merrill Lynch at a share price about 10 times higher
11,,111 he mi ght have achieved only a few days later. The same strategic information
W.1 -; ,lVa il Dblc to Richard S Fuld of Lelunan Brothers, Daniel Mudd of Fannie May,
I '11"I1.1rU Syron of I' rcddic Mac and Fred Goodwin of the Royal Bank of Scotland, but
IIII' r,li led to think about the sa me informati on with enough strategic skill, and
IllI"il" (,ll lllp<1ni es paid the pricc. In S ction 3, we looked at the kind of thinking skills
111.11 :-. 11"llegi c Ihinkers need and you ca n cons ider which of these were Jacking. In
;; " ' P 7 WI' look specifi c'lil y ,1 1 how, as 'strategic thinkers', these people could have
, l' l' l(oo,' l('d Ill(' ri sks IIH' y wI'n' 101 ki ng. TIlt' deployment of the skills and tcchniques set
1111 1 III , ' I\'p 7 Illi gh l hol v(' .rv\,I·ln l 111 ,111 or I he s lr<llegic di sc1 sll'rs lhal befell bar,ks,
IiI 'dll,IIII'1'\ '(lI11P,I IIII'" ,II1d Il1 v\' ,'. IIIl\ 'll lllllld,,; ill I Ill' pl'riod 20()7 H, (/\ dl'l'pl'r .1n<llysis
101 11 h. , III lIlId III 11 11 111. , oI lltl I hl ll, ' ll y, :'()() I, ( 'Ilolpl. ' r I'i ,)
II
34 Strategic leadership
RECRUITING IN A RECESSION
When assessing your staff and top team, invest in the highest quality marketing
staff. It is the judgement of marketing staff that must determine your market-led
strategic direction (Part II, steps 5, 6, 7 and 8). Advertise for top marketing people,
despite any trading difficulties. In times of turbulence, all manner of unexpected
talent will respond to recruitment publicity. Such publicity will be good for internal
morale and for your industry standing. Some applicants will be all too ready to give
you information on competitive activity; this will be an invaluable feed into Step l.
You need the best marketers because it is marketers who need to tell the managers
what to do and where to do it. The strategic thinking of marketers will be customer-led
and market-led, and that is what the organization needs most, before its managers
can quickly work out how and where to implement the strategic changes required.
In difficult times, marketers need to determine implementation milestones that are
close together, and managers need to monitor progress against them every day.
SELLING WHEN TIMES ARE TIGHT
Although we have said that sales people are vital sources of frontline intelligence to
feed into strategic thinking, the significance of sales intelligence must be assessed by the
marketing team. This is in part because sales people are frequently over-optimistic
and sometimes overly pessimistic, and in part because it is marketers who must
take the lead in explaining the strategic intent that needs to inform every decision
taken by managers.
Threats of economic downshift or business recession are particularly disconcert-
ing to sales people. Sales people are hunters who tend to operate best in a world
where targets (and rewards) always increase: all the more reason in recessionary times
for their sales intelligence to be carefully assessed by their marketing colleagues.
In the last 10 years most sales people have managed to increase sales revenue (and
their own commissions) by skilful offers of volume discounts, and by persuading
customers to accept imported substitutes. In times of tighter credit, some hjgh
volumes of low-margin business may need to be pruned as part of a strategic move
to lower the organization's cash breakeven point. Giving up customers and sales,
especially high-volume sales, does not come naturally to sales staff.
Besides providing strong strategic leadership to managers, senior marketers will
need to provide strong operational leadership to the sales and marketing team. The
number of sales staff may need to be reduced and this will affect morale. Structures,
staffing and key performance indicators will need to be realigned as part of the im-
plementation of the strategic changes required by the market-led strategy (Part II,
Steps 8 and 9).
TRAINING IN TIGHT TIMES
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Marketing leadership and management action 35
and frequent review. During times of economic difficulty, your customers will also
have problems. Retrain your people to listen to the customers' problems and to help
find solutions to the customers' problems, rather than dwelling on their own.
Empathetic, reflective and creative thinking and a good memory will be highly
valued (see Part I, Section 3).
Train sales people and front line staff to act as intelligence agents. They can be the
human ears and eyes of the organization. In a credit crunch, train them to make
hard-headed assessments of the survival prospects of their key accounts. Which will
survive? Which will thrive? In which customers should your market-led strategy
invest? Who will pay their bills? Who will pay them on time? If strategic divestment
of some customers is required, do not leave the customers in the lurch. Work with
them. Help them to re-source. A manager in a divested company may turn up later
in one of your key accounts; it does not pay to make enemies. Train sales and support
staff to be business consultants. Can they find ways to improve the prosperity of their
"ustomers? Improve the customers' business and share in their prosperity. Shift the
focus away from helping to reduce your customer's costs through lower prices and
higher discounts. Focus instead on increasing your customers earnings.
PRODUCT PRICING IN A PINCH
111 an economic downturn, raw material costs, commodity costs and even some
1'l1l'rgy costs may dip in the short term. Your customers may expect your prices
") I rack any fall in your input costs. Beware. Volume decline may have left you
wilh increased overhead costs per unit. You may also have a declining cash flow
Irum whi ch to meet your current liabilities and with which to service your pre-
I',i sting debt. You may actually need to increase prices. If you do, target first
I I lose a reas of business that tie up most of your cash for longest. Marketers can
I 11111ribute to lower cash breakeven points by cutting, or deferring, spending on
1'I'IIII1()tion. For example, they may contract out to agencies that are so desperate
1111 ' work that cash-friendly deals can be done. Some savings can bexeinvested in
I 1I ', IOI1ll'rs, products or markets that are likely to recover soonest.
RESEARCHING IN RECESSION - DEVELOPING
IN A DOWNTURN
\II Y dl' cisipns .Ibout the R&I budget must be stra tegi c and that strategy must be
1'1" II ..t 11"11 (I '.HI II , Step H). Assign some of you r most entrepreneurial marketers to
11 '"dl ' I': ,hip I"(1I(' s ill Illl' I ~ & I ) dl'p.1rll1wnl. As pr('sent cri ses be omc past probl ems,
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-----
I
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36 Strategic leadership
be used to hasten the development of those projects that are most likely to
yield cash.
In tighter times, focus your R&D on making the same things simpler, smaller or
cheaper. Consumers will be more interested in inexpensive functionality than in
paying for product features that they rarely use or may not even understand. Put a
hlgh value on obtaining strategic intelligence about the R&D projects that your
competitors are working on. Monitor their trade recruitment and target your own
recruitment at their specialist staff. You will be surprised how much job applicants
will tell you at a recruitment interview. Sometimes the expertise of just one R&D
recruit can shorten your time-to-market by several years, thereby saving you cash
and advancing your cash flow. Remember you don't need to be fast-to-market,
just faster than the competition.
In troubled times, your competitors may handicap their R&D teams by making
arbitrary across-the-board cuts in research and 'risk' capital. If your competitors are
handicapped, it should not be too difficult to overtake them.
BUILDING BUSINESSES IN BAD TIMES
Trunk about creating small business development units (BDU) of the sort we
pioneered at BTR Industries in the 1970s. Each BDU was under the leadershlp of
an entrepreneurial member of the marketing team. Total immersion encouraged a
rapid growth of market and technical expertise and this favoured commercially
patentable innovation (Step 6 of The 9S© Approach). Bureaucracy and administrative
costs were decimated.
Once split into smaller units, R&D can more easily be dispersed closer to emer-
ging markets like Brazil or Russia, or to take advantage of less expensive brain power
such as programmers and chemists in India, production engineers in China or
product designers in Japan. Avoid joint ventures in cOlmtries where there is poor
protection for intellectual property.
The UK is a good place to find expertise in biotechnology or nanotechnology, in
automotive design, neuromarketing or the disposal of nuclear waste.
The most important decisions of the strategic leader will be where to focus market
and product development. Where to increase? Where to cut? Like good tailors,
strategic thlnkers trunk twice and cut once. In turbulent times, cutting may be neces-
sary and the impact of those cuts will depend on the quality of the market-led
strategic thinking undertaken by the marketing team.
SECURING YOUR SUPPLY-LINE
Developing your own products and inlellectual capitLlI through R&D Celn bring
hi g h rl 'w,H'd s, l'speci,lll Ihrough subsequenl li censing or fr<lnchi se de<ll s. In
IIlrl1,II"11i lillll"s '"1 111.1 y Ilol 11(' dill" 10 w.lil for IIl('s(' Ipll)'l' r II'rIll ('.Il"1lill);:-'. Th('l"e is
IlIII ' Ii '1"11'1.."1" 1.1,, 11 III hI ' 1l1.ld\' l1y buy ill ); ill ',IlIIH'()1I1' ('1 :-' 1.'" pl()dlll I' j, " " Ih'l ' i,tli if
Y"'" "''1
'
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Marketing leadership and management action 37
and how much they are prepared to pay for it. So marketers should play the
leading role in finding suppliers and in monitoring a supply chain that will deliver
high levels of satisfaction to their customers at prices that are competitive and
profitable. In turbulent times, there should be buying bargains to be had. Where
purchases are made from countries with strong currency reserves, like China,
it should be possible to source on credit terms that will help your domestic
cash management. That said, careful strategic thought must be given to likely
changes in politics and shipping economics, and to policies on climate change,
poverty alleviation, health and human rights, any of which could destabilize
exchange rates or the reliability of your supply. Check how robust the legal restraints
are that would prevent your supplier moving down line and supplying your
market directly.
Is this product a strategic rising star? In which case, it must be protected from
predatory suppliers. These are the kinds of strategic questions on which marketers
are the best qualified to lead. Marketers may need to lead their senior managers to
seek security of supply through merger or acquisition. For example, an economic
collapse in export volumes may tempt an overseas supplier to part with equity on
reasonable terms. A win-win deal might secure them a foothold in your market, and
you a share of their margins, while giving you more control over your supply lines.
You may then be strategically well placed to survive a slump and to emerge strongly
to take advantage of any recovery in world trade. In the meantime, management
swaps and internships will pay dividends in creative areas of strategic thinking that
profit from a different world view (Part 1, Section 3, and Part II, Step 6).
Strategic leaders need to be first and foremost thought leaders - commercially in
the market place, and strategically within their own organizations.
In Part II, you can follow The 9S© Approach to thinking strategically. The nine
steps will enable you to create and present market-led strategies and to implement
,md manage strategic change.
Part II
Strategic thinking -
The 9S© Approach
Step 1
Gather strategic intelligence
Will help you to:
• Find out what has changed (past)
• Find out what is changing (present)
• Find out what will change (future)
WHAT IS CHANGING OUT THERE?
I t is helpful to think about what might have changed, be changing, or will be changing,
in the areas of technology, the economy, markets, politics, law, ethics and society.
You might read the prompt sheets on pages 42-46 before completing this
hecklist. Below is a mnemonic - TEMPLES - to help you remember it (this
mnemonic was developed at Lancashire Business School, based on research by
Ci ll ian McHugh).
II -==============:!J
42 Strategic thinking
What is changing What is the likely impact on your organization in the ...
in the areas of:
Medium term? Long term?
Problem Opportunity Problem Opportunity
Technology
Economy
Markets
Politics
Law
Ethics
Society
Prompt 1.1: Changes in Technology
• How will improvements in communication methods change the way you work
with your customers, suppliers and employees?
• How will you be affected by high speed broadband?
• How will you be affected by nanotechnology?
• How will you be affected by virtual reality?
• How will you use intelligent machines (as opposed to machine intelligence)?
• How will you be affected when equipment is obsolete in two years?
• How will you be affected as selling and persuasion become brain-based?
• How will changes in transport affect you, eg:
- Travel tariffs?
- Congested roads?
- Increased marinC' piracy?
Concerns .lho ul c.lI"boll emi ss ioll s?
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• II1I w w ill n 'l 'y l'illl )i, ,lilt! I.lIl(llill 1', ", II'I,II' IIl'., ,111" , 1 \,'Il I '
• A ll ' )llI li l , d' III )', tlti V, III!.I) ', " III .I t1 I', III, '" " 111111'.1 111 ', , ' 1, ' 11 , , ' .lllti 1" " 111 11 .( 111111 )', '
Gather strategic intelligence 43
• Within the foreseeable future could you, your employees, your customers and
your suppliers all work from home?
• What would be the implications of home working for your business, or the
value of your property assets, especially if these are needed as security?
• What will be the impact of the spread of nuclear technology, eg, in Korea or Iran?
Prompt 1.2: Changes in Economics
• How would movements in key economic indicators affect you, eg, nsmg
unemployment, falling inflation, increasing imports, double-dip recession, low
interest rates, limited credit and more graduates seeking work?
• Currency exchange rates - how will they affect you or your customers?
• What will be the impact of economic growth in China, India, Russia and Brazil?
• Is your growth restricted by a shortage of thinking skills?
• Who has spending power? Older people? Younger people? Government?
• Which government departments have rising or falling spending plans? How
will these affect you? Will they be altered by political change?
• How do your employee costs and productivity compare with South America,
Africa, China and the Pacific Rim?
• Do you understand the concept of Fairtrade? Does ethical trading have implica-
tions for your own marketing or purchasing policies?
• Do you understand why Equitrade will more rapidly end world poverty? What
are the implications for you as Equitrade replaces Fairtrade?
Prompt 1.3: Changes in the Market
• How large is your market? How many competitors are there?
• Where are your competitors? In South America? Eastern Europe? Africa? Asia?
• Is your profitability linked to the scale of your operation? Do larger businesses
make more profit in this market than the smaller ones?
• Is a great deal of capital required to enter this market? How easy would it be for
a new entrant to find the initial capital?
• Does your business need particular channels of distribution? If so, are they
vulnerable to control by a competitor?
• Does your organization provide services or goods that are unique? Could your
customers obtain benefits they get from your product in another way?
• How easily could someone copy what you do?
• Do YOLi have patents, copyright or licensing agreements that will expire within
the period of this plan? Do YOLi have plans to manufacture or distribute in
COLI n tries w Iwrl' there is poor protection of in tellectual property rights?
• Are you dl' l l'nlil'llt on ()nl ,) rl'W s uppli ers?
• Il ow (W'y Wil l lid it 11(' for Y' lil to swit ch to other s uppliers?
• WI,,'r,' , 11',· lil, ' 11, ' .11, ", 1 ,dl"llhlli v\' SOlln'('s or s UPI Iy?
• II() w ".I ', Ii \, "1I 1i , 1 \ Iilil 111.lJ IIi \ lI',t(lllH'rS find hl'ltl'r pri cl's, I Crrorm,lnn' or
d' '' '')',II ' ', 11 1111' ,101 1" ,11", 1""", ,,1,,01 ,1 11"1 ,1'111111"
• I lil lY 111,111\ 111)',,1111 ,,jlllil " ' 1'1'1"\ \11111 PI(IIIII,I .' WII.lI i,'. 1'.111)',\ '
• I .. II)"' " "I II)" Iill 1110 , 1,,", I, 1111 1\ >I I, 'w (11)',.1111/.1111111'
44 Strategic thinking
• To what degree are your services or products 'substitutable'?
• Are your competitors growing or contracting?
• How do your competitors set about getting business?
• Is the main strength of your competitors the dependability of their service?
How easy do they make life for customers?
• Do your competitors provide a range of goods or services that totally meet their
customers' needs, wants and expectations? Or do their customers have areas of
unmet need or dissatisfaction?
• Are your competitors quick to respond to your customers' changing needs?
• What are your competitors' attitudes towards risk? Are they more prepared
than you to be the first with something new?
• What are your competitors best at and worst at?
• Which word - developing, growing, maturing or declining - would best
describe the kind of market in which your organization is competing? Use
the following model to visualize the position of your organization in your
market.
Income
The market is... DEVELOPING GROWING MATURING DECLINING
Years
Number of buyers Increasing number Multiple repeat Number of buyers :
are few are trying our purchases by is deciining :
products or buyers
services
Few competitors Entry of more Competitors Exit of some
competitors fighting for share competitors
f ·_··- ·- - -:"r.- - .--
,
The conditions Steep learning Fighting for share: Emphasis on Selective targeting
curve of the market : efficiency & costs
,..----,..---------
: The market is ... DEVELOPING GROWING MATURING DECLINING
_______________ L _____________ _
----------------
Prompt 1.4: Changes in Politics
• WII.lI I'Pliti r ,d dv(' i, iPII, .In' likdy Inlllll' xislill); PI' IH'W );PV('I'IlIlH'Il IS wor ld wid\'
• I· Y"III (1J'I'"lId/, di", \ I.'! i "I ', ,,,I ,l,d,ll'," ,,/ ,'111'1'\',\11,1 ,dill ,l p"lki, 'H
Gather strategic intelligence 45
• How could polilic,ll ch.lllgvs ill overseas countries have implications for your
customers or for y()U r Sll ppl i('rs, eg:
- former communisl coul1lril's relreating from market-based economies;
- increases in the number ilnd sca le of armed conflicts;
- increased LIse of trClde SCln lions and embargoes to exert international pressure
over human rights or olher issues such as nuclear proliferation;
- the rise in religious milililncy, or the rejection of western cultural values?
• How could you be affected by a collapse of good governance in one of your
markets, eg, collapse of law ilnd order? Terrorist or other insurgence? Withdrawal
of international aid? Travel restrictions or trading sanctions?
Prompt 1.5: Changes in the Law
• What new or proposed legislation or regulation might affect you?
• How will you be affected by changes in:
- employment law?
- climate change regulations?
- health and safety legislation?
- compulsory competitive tendering?
- laws on monopolies or anti-competitive behaviour?
• Will regulatory bodies or pressure groups develop policies that affect you?
• What is your local authority trying to change, through its planning department,
enterprise grants, or community development schemes?
• Are YOLl affected by European Union regulations?
• Does existing legislation protect you from competition? Does it assist you
against competitors? Do you see any changes that would make your position
less secure?
• Are you dependent on favourable tariffs that may not be renewed?
• Are there any new non-tariff barriers on the horizon?
Prompt 1.6: Changes in Ethics
• Are your major competitors promoting a 'green' image?
• How will 'green' issues affect your organization?
• Are you recycling where possible?
• Do you look after your people's health and welfare?
• Are you considering altering your sources of raw materials?
• What pressure groups might become interested in your activities?
• Are you family-friendly? Do you promote fair treatment for all irrespective of
colour, culture, religion, race, gender, sexuality or age?
• Do you have a stress management policy?
• Arl' yOII!' ('Illploy('('s involved in discussions ilbout flexibl e piltterns of work?
• II.I V(' Y(lil 1'(' IIII1 V('1I ('Illlljlll l:mry r!'lin'ml'nllln grounds of ilge?
• 1)(1 1' 111"",,1" " ,( " 11,11111' IIIII "I \'! pi ,o.; (III!\ '(' s .lIld II s('SOf(,lll'I,)';Y .1nll t"il('l s?
• Will 1111 1, ·",, 1111 '.' 1111, ,' 111 II ,, "j ' ,II 'illlI1 "ill\ idl ' l'llii :-eo ipn:-, sl)l vl'nl II , I ' , lil" '11J.llil y
,11,111 \\01 1, I 1111011",," 1111" 1" 111 ' II lltllll llil1l.l lll , ,'I"II1I','· ' hol V,> lill y 1111 1.1( I illl 1' ,1111 '
46 Strategic thinking
• Will you be affected by pressure groups advocating fair trading and human
rights issues? When will you move to Equitrade?
• How will agreements on Fairtrade, or Equitrade and on human rights issues
affect your organization, your customers, or your suppliers?
• For knowledge workers and brain workers, have you constructed a brain-
friendly space to think?
Prompt 1.7: Changes in Society
• Do you involve employees and customers in decisions that affect them?
• Do your people, or your customers, expect an improving quality of life at work,
at home and in the general environment?
• Is concern over burglary, car crime, vandalism, homelessness, terrorism, or
economic migration likely to affect your employees or your customers?
• What will be the impact of changing patterns of family life (eg, one-parent or
one-child families, or where both partners are employed)?
• Will part-time working, short-term contracts and subcontracting increase?
• Will changes in leisure, holidays and lifestyles affect you?
• Are there implications of the rapid rise in the average age of customers or
workforce?
• What are the implications now that mental illness has become the world's
number one cause of premature death or disability?
• What is the impact of new threats to health and wellbeing?
GATHER STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE - STEP 1 SUMMARY
Step 1 will have helped you to:
• Find out what has changed (past)
• Find out what is changing (present)
• Find out what will change (future)
Step 2
Assess strategic capability
Will help you to:
• Highlight strong or weak features of products or services
• Highlight advantages you have over competitors
• Identify benefits to customers
DOING AN AUDIT - NINE AREAS TO CONSIDER
Morale
Mores
Market Reputation
9 Ms
Money
Materials
Management
Movement
Mental Muscle
Machines
I f you would find it helpful to do some prior thinking about these areas, you could
tu rn to the prompt sheets on pages 48- 62 before completing the following table.
48 Strategic thinking
What is changing What is the likely impact on your organization in the ...
in the areas of:
Medium term?
Problem Opportunity
Market
Morale
Mores
Mental muscle
Management
Money
Movement
Machines
Materials
Prompt 2.1: Product Features
Fea tures could include such things as:
Cost
Speed
QU'l lity
SIl("lf lif("
!\v.li l,illilily
I '1 ' 1'" t. ill (III
Image
Weight
Oll,lIlli l y
1{1'li,lhilil y
II,IIII ' I' Y Ilfl '
1)," 111 "l>lIiI Y
Long term?
Problem Opportunity
Assess strategic capability 49
Delivery times
Product support
Cost of upgrade
Ease of upgrade
Green credentials
Power needed
Available on line
Ease of payment
Space it takes up
Servicing required
From the table on page 50, fill in the following information:
The main features In what way do Which are
of your product or you consider important to your
service are ... (see these to be customers?
prompt sheet for superior or
some ideas) inferior to
competitors?
~
Prompt 2. : Cu tom r
Why?
50 Strategic thinking
• What are the characteristics of people likely to buy your goods or use your
services?
• What features of your products or services do your customers like most?
• Where do you operate, provide services or sell products?
• How many potential customers are there?
• How many customers do you have?
• Why do they do business with you?
• How do your customers think your service could be improved?
• Could your products be sold in other sectors or elsewhere in the world?
Fill in the following table.
In which features, that are important How do these features benefit customers?
to your customers, do you think you How do they help customers feel better?
have an advantage over your (see prompt sheet on customers)
competitors?
Prompt 2.3: Morale
• 1)(\ y lHl1' l ' lllplll 1' 1"1 dl ' li v l ' l y I'dl' lll'Il'dll ' III YOIII' 111')".1111 / 11111111
Assess strategic capability 51
• Do they come up with suggesti ons or new ideas?
• How do you reward staff for ideas?
• Do you reward cost-saving ideas?
• Do you act on them?
• How do you obtain grassroots feelings?
• Are employees involved in the choice of equipment they use, or the decor?
• Do senior managers regularly walk through the places where employees work?
• Are all notice boards clean, up-to-date and free from graffiti?
• Are walkways and fire escape routes clear at all times?
• Do employees automatically remove any litter they see?
• Do employees support the organization's social events?
• Do employees enter teams in external competitions?
• Do employees meet outside the work environment?
• Do employees work flexibly to cover for each other and are they mutually
supportive?
• Are dress codes and standards of personal appearance high?
• Are employees proactive in approaching customers and seeking new work?
Prompt 2.4: Mores
• Are managers more likely to say: 'don't rock the boat', 'roll with the punches',
'plan ahead', or 'full dream ahead'? What is their dominant disposition?
• What is your organization's focus: is it internal or external?
• What is more likely to trigger change in your organization: a crisis, an unsatis-
factory performance, or an unexpected problem?
• How does your organization cope with risk? Does it reject it, accept it, or seek it?
• Is your organization more likely to seek: status quo, minimal disturbance,
improvement on past performance or to be the best?
• Does your organization solve problems through: trial and error, diagnosis,
anticipation or creative footwork?
• Where is the power in your organization? Is it in production, marketing, R&D,
multi-disciplinary teamwork, or in general management?
• Do you manage your future by policies and procedures, capital budgeting,
long-range forecasts or strategic thinking?
• Are your management information systems informal, or formal? Based on past
performance or on future potential?
• How is decision making carried out? Is it top-down, bottom-up, or devolved?
• How does your culture affect selection and promotion? Give an example.
• Do senior managers pay regular visits to customers and suppliers?
• Does the management system create an atmosphere of working together, or
does it generate competiveness and fragmentation?
Prompt 2.5: Mental Muscle
• 1)(\ \'Illpl(\ V\ '. · h,l V\' I 1'01 !em-solving skill s Ih<1 1 Ihey li se rro<lclivciy?
• /\ ,.. , ,' ,upln .'.'s Pf"( ' p.1I"( 'd 10 i.l k(' d( 'ci siol1s .Ifl l' r .IPpl"ol ri .1I 1' cOl1sullJli ol1 ?
• 1)1) "'lll , loY(' (','1 111"od I 1("( ' ("1"( '.Ili v(' i<i( ";It1 .Il1d 11Ir1(1v, lI iv(" 1'1.11111 (111 Ilwir own
52 Strategic thinking
• Do you encourage your employees to express their ideas, orally and ill
writing?
• Do you rely on one or two people for ideas and problem solving?
• Are your employees' ideas practical, or are they 'pie in the sky'?
• How does research and development interact with the rest of your organization?
• Does your organization copy other people's products?
• Are your employees encouraged to be organizational antennae, feeding back
'intelligence' on customers, competitors and the changing world?
• Are your employees trained to notice and report discord?
• Are your employees encouraged to visualize future situations by using pictures,
drawings, sketches and flipcharts?
• Are your employees introduced to different ways of thinking about things and
trained routinely to test views from different perspectives?
• Are your employees encouraged to quantify what they are saying or thinking?
• Are they aware of the impact of mood on mental efficiency and of the
importance of an optimistic disposition? (See Chapter 2, Wootton and Horne,
2010.)
• Are your employees aware of the optimum physical conditions needed for
mental work, eg, ventilation, exercise and posture?
• Are your employees aware of the positive and negative effects on mental
efficiency of nicotine? Alcohol? Caffeine? Drugs?
• Have they been given information on the effects of diet and vitamins and
minerals on mental agility? (See Chapter 1, Wootton and Horne, 2010.)
• Are you aware of the impact on mental agility of:
- smells;
- music;
- stress;
- diet;
- colours;
- sleep;
- air quality;
- photocopiers;
- lighting;
- computers;
- the clothes staff wear?
• Do you have people who can think creatively as well as critically? Can they
predict and learn from experience?
• Do you have people who can do the numbers and people who can empathize?
• Do you have people who are good with words and have long memories?
• Do you have brain-training programmes and activities to keep people sharp?
• Do you encourage your staff to study a wide range of subjects?
• Do you provide water stations and the best possible conditions for brain work?
• Do you know how to recruit, assess and retain bright people?
• Is your stJff turnover hi gh? Are your brightest people stret hed? Do Ilwy kave
oul or boredom?
• Do (III y01l1" HI.lli "" v!" IWrl"l ol1.t1 d( ·v(' lopl1H'nl pl.lIl l"1 lil,,1 illt'iII!II' 1',1111' " 1h' li()/1
I( ' dll)i,,/'. ,HI d l ' II'Ii!I VI·lhll\)..IIII\, oil' wdl" illlt-li("('I\I,,1 dl 'VI, IIII'"I1' 11i 1111;) f',I'III'I·,1I
Assess strategic capability 53
Prompt 2.6: Management
• Can your managers cope with cbanging markets, suppliers, products and
technology?
• Do you have a sufficient number of managers or too many?
• Is your organization flat and lean with a wide span of control?
• If you took over another organization, would you use your existing managers?
• Does your organization have strong and quick financial management?
• Does your organization have the necessary training and learning resources?
• Do your managers use brain-based communication?
• Have your managers been trained to develop thinking skills?
• Do your managers, between them, have a wide enough range of thinking skills?
• Do managers know how to help employees think, especially in group situations?
• Do your managers walk the job and listen?
• Do they try to understand, before making themselves understood?
• Do they know how to vary their approach to individual differences in people?
• Do they identify key result determinants and monitor daily? Weekly? Monthly?
• Do you avoid using the same universal metrics in all your departments?
• Have some of your proxy measures become ends in themselves, thereby miss-
ing their original point?
• Do you monitor 'negatively' (to identify performance below plan) or do you
monitor 'positively' or both? (Different strokes for different folks?)
• Are your monitoring systems discussed with staff and altered after discussion?
• Does your organization cope well with customer complaints? How do you know?
• How do you reward your employees: by bonuses, performance appraisal, or by
a personal development plan?
• How do you reward your suppliers?
• How do you reward and delight your customers?
• What drives your organization: the CEO, the marketing team, or both?
• Do you know the hobbies, interests and strongly-held beliefs of your people?
• Do you know, for each employee, the reasons why they work for you?
• Accepting that the need to earn money may be the prime motivator for many,
what thereafter is the relative importance of:
- social contact;
- belonging to a group;
- feeling valued and needed;
- obtaining recognition, admiration, achievement and applause?
• Are your employees able to create:
- their own ideas, products, or schemes;
- their own working spaces - spaces to think?
Prompt 2.7: Money
a. Your or aniJ'.1lion' fin ncial performance
( :.'1 YIl .1I 0111111111111111 III 11111'1,)' I" III " 1.">11 ' I wlll w Ipl' YPIII' 11I,)" ,1I1i / ,lIi'lIl , 11 1' d' l il
YI IIII I, . , II . II 'li li l', II" I I I I ~ " I I I "1 11 11 ,II' III II Ii 'l I", 1IIi , I.\ - IIIIII'" YI ' oIl I Y'''llllol Y lilltillll '
54 Strategic thinking
Ratio Calculation Ratio for year:
20 .. 20 .. 20 ..
Return on net
Profit (before interest and tax)
assets (%)
xlOO
Total capital employed in business
Profit margin
Profit (before interest and tax) x 100
(%)
Sales or income
Net asset
Sales or income
turnover
Total net assets employed in business
Debt ratio (%)
Long-term loans
xlOO
Total capital employed
Interest cover
Profit (before interest and tax)
Interest on long-term loans
Current ratio
Current assets
Current liabilities
Liquidity
Liquid assets
ratio
Current liabilities
b. Your organization's cash flow
Complete a cash flow forecast using the table on the following two pages and:
1. Under 'cash balance', enter overall overdraft or cash held at the end of the pre-
vious period.
2. Make a note of any receipts or income that you expect to receive.
3. Make a note of payments that you expect to make; a checkli st of likely items is
shown.
4. The receipts less payments for the month will give you th' net il sh flow (F)
for the month, it' (F = Pl . If y ou "od the ('<lsh b.llnncl' (C 13 I F), Ihi s wi ll
intii call' how Illuch c, lsh is ldl ill IIH' ()rr.,lJli E .. 1IioI1 .II IIH' (' l1d of 111.11 11Hl11lll .
'1'111' fi gll!"\" '( " hn'PIll\'s IIH' up\"l1ill)\ h,lI,lIlI'\' Ipl' 1l1UI1111 ' , .Il1d Ill\' is
n ·lll'.1" ·"
Assess strategic capability 55
Cash Flow Forecast
Month 1 2 3 4 5 6
Cash balance (8)
Expected receipts in:
Owners' investment
Loans (from .. . )
Cash payments
Earlier sales
Selling of assets
Interest received
Grants
Other income
Total receipts in (R)
Expected payments out:
Premium on lease
Purchase of property
Purchase of fittings
Raw materials
Payment for goods
Employees' net wages
Income tax and NI
Training expenses
Rent and rates
Fuel (gas and electricity)
Telephone
Postage
Printing and stationery
Subscriptions & periodicals
Advertising
Repairs and maintenance
Vehicl e and travel costs
Insurances
I' rofessional fees
I.oa n repayments
i3nnk charges
Hank interest
V,tlue Added Tnx
( '(1 rl or,lli on Tnx
Oll wr l " l ~ h )',oing IHII
-
' '',1.11 p,l ynH' nl N (.ul ( I ' ~
.-
-
-
-
1{"(,I"l'h "' I,,,,,, 1'''\ II lt " lh ," ,1
, .. .. 11 11,"" ( I,) R I '
( ', 1 1111 ' 111 111 11 111 )'1 ill 1I1P I I I Hl i l llll l'
..
56 Strategic thinking
Month 7 8 9 10
I
II
I
12
Cash balance (B)
Expected receipts in:
Owners' investment
Loans (from ... )
Cash payments
Earli er sales
Selling of assets
Interest received
Grants
Other income
Total receipts in (R)
Expected payments out:
Premium on lease
Purchase of property
Purchase of fittings
Raw materials
Payment for goods
Employees' net wages
Income tax and NI
Training expenses
Rent and rates
Fuel (gas and electricity)
Telephone
Postage
Printing and stationery
Subscriptions & periodicals
Advertising
Repairs and maintenance
Vehicle and travel costs
Insurances
Professional fees
Loan repayments
Bank charges
Bank interest
Value Added Tax
Corporation Tax
Other cash going out
Total payments out (P)
-
-
l' ipl s in less p"yn)(' l1l s (HII
f1() W (I :)
1< I '
-
( 'd'd, rt ' nl.lllllll g III Ih.
'
h\ I ' dIH "l'i
«')
III II
Assess strategic capability 57
Year and quarter 211 2/2 2/3 2/4 3/1 3/2 3/3 3/4
Cash balance (B)
Expected receipts in:
Owners'investment
Loans (from ... )
Cash payments
Earlier sales
Selling of assets
Interest received
Grants
Other income
Total receipts in (R)
Expected payments out:
Premium on lease
Purchase of property
Purchase of fittings
Raw materials
Payment for goods
Employees' net wages
Income tax and NI
Training expenses
Rent and rates
Fuel (gas and electricity)
Telephone
Postage
Printing and stationery
Subscriptions & periodicals
Advertising
Repairs and maintenance
Vehicle and travel costs
Insurances
Professional fees
Loan repayments
Bank charges
Bank interest
Value Added Tax
Corporation Tax
Other cash going 0 111
Total payllwnl ll 0,,1 (1')
-
I{l'n,.' ipl:. j ll 11 11 1
(, .I ." " fl ow ( I ' ) 1< I '
( '1 1: 111 I t O'"l lildrl ft I II Ill i ' !lI l1i l ll l 'tj
(t') IIliI
.=
'=
1=,
58 Strategic thinking
To review your cash flow forecast, look at the bottom line in each period. Are any of
these figures negative? If so, when that period is reached, the organization will be
unable to pay its bills. You will need to increase your sources of funding, reduce
your outgoings, or both. If the bottom line is always positive, you should plan to
invest the surplus in some way. Now go back over the table and consider your worst
case cash breakeven. This is important because, in turbulent times, your worst case
scenario may become your reality. What is the effect if you reduce sales by say, one
third, prices by say, one fifth, and delay receipts of cash by say, three months. Look
especially closely at big ticket items of expenditure or receipts expected from sales
of assets, and at funds expected from renewed credit facilities. Suppose they are
not renewed? You can be more sophisticated and multiply your discounts by your
estimates of the chances that these things could happen. But, in turbulent times,
this probability can rise to 80-90 per cent, so you may as well assume 100 per cent
likelihood to get a safe cash breakeven level.
Your cash flow has implications for your choice of strategy. For example, if a
particular strategy involves extra staff training, you will have to check whether you
have sufficient cash.
c. Understand profit and loss account and balance sheet
The following table will help you understand how a profit and loss account is
constructed.
Constructing a profit and loss account
Sales/income
less: The cost of producing the product actually sold
less: Depreciation, selling costs, administration costs
the gross profit
profit before interest and tax
(often called 'net profit') and fixed overhead costs
less: Any interest on loans (if applicabl e)
less: Any tax due
less: Any dividends declared
the profit before tax
the profit after tax
the retained profits (sometimes
called 'retained earnings')
The foll owing table win help you l11H11 I .tand how a balance sheet is constructed.
1/ 1,,/11"" "/ "
I I"
1/111111 / /, ' / .
, ",,/111, ,11 ,/111/, ",
Const .. ", I " a balance sheet
(, I I Ii cost of land, property, buildings, plant and
'II ,ent, less depreciation)
I va lue of stock, debtors, cash and in vcstmcnts)
.lfl s plus <lny money you owe lil,illllusl be
lI ilin Olll' e,1 r)
1'/8
y llli II WI' lh, iI 111 ' 1' ,1 11 11 11" , 1"1 ''' 1'] 111 1, ""
" V" ,II )
Assess strategic capability 59
plus: Shareholders' funds (money put in by you or shareholders plus
accumulated retained profits)
equals Total capital employed (this should equal the net assets figure above)
If so, your books balance!
For the purpose of strategic planning in your organization, you should concentrate
on two aspects: financial performance and financial health.
Financial performance: is your organization trading successfully? Is your organization
making good use of your money? Would you be better off selling up and putting the
money in a building society? Would you get a better return? Less hassle? Less risk?
Financial health: is your organization financially healthy? Is there going to be
enough cash to pay the bills even in the worst possible case in turbulent times?
Performance
The return on net assets (or the return on capital employed) is a measure of how
well the organization is performing as a trading concern. It is an effective yardstick
by which your organization's financial performance can be assessed. This ratio is
particularly useful when it is examined in the light of the two ratios that comprise
it: the net profit margin, which is the proportion of sales or income represented by
the profits (before interest and tax); and the turnover of the capital employed (or the
turnover of net assets), which tells you whether or not you are making enough use
of the money tied up in the business.
Performance ratios
A. Three financial performance ratios
nlculation
I . For each £100 of your money, how much are you getting?
____ _te_r_e_s_ta_n_d __ ___ X100
Total capital employed in the business
( ail ed ' return on net assets' - RONA, or 'return on capital employed' - RaCE)
For each £100 of income coming in, how much is profit?
Prorit (before interest and tax)
---'---------....:... X 1 00
Sales or inCOIlW
I . II (lW 1ll.lIl y 111111"·. III '"I" 1"', 11 tilll '" lli l ' 11l(IIH'Y gl' l II sed?
I1III
' 1'(1l. d IIIPIII ' 1 l ' IIIIt1I1I',J /111111 1'"
1
Ii" I
,i
60 Strategic thinking
If you decide that you want to improve your return on the money that you have tied
up in the business, there are two possible implications for your strategic planning.
Either profitability must be increased, or capital employed must be reduced. By look-
ing at how these two ratios have been changing during the last few years, you can
adopt a strategic approach that better meets your organization's needs for the future.
Health
The financial health tests are of two kinds: tests for solvency (what will happen
when the loans are called in?) and tests for liquidity (will you be able to pay your
bills and salaries on time?)
The debt ratio equals
The interest cover ratio equals
Tests for solvency
Long-term loans
Total capital employed
Profit (before interest and tax)
Interest on long-term loans
The debt ratio is sometimes called 'gearing'. It shows how much of your business is
being funded by the owners (sometimes called 'equity capital' or 'shareholders'
funds' ) and how much of the business is being funded by borrowed money. Loans
generally have fixed interest payments that must be paid regardless of your profit
levels, whereas owners or shareholders expect to get a higher return (or 'dividend')
when profits go up and may have to accept a lower dividend at times when profits
are not so good.
The interest cover shows by how many times the interest payments are covered
by profits, so it is a measure of your safety margin. If profits are 10 times your interest
payments, then you can survive your profits dropping to one tenth of their present
level without getting into trouble with the bank.
The current ratio equals
The liquidity ratio equals
Tests for liquidity
Current assets
Current liabilities
Liquid assets
Current li abilities
The current ratio shows the relil li onshi p between current ilssels il lll! currt'nl li ,1 bi Ii I it'S.
If Iht' ril li o is hi gh, Ihi s nW,1I1s Ih.1l Ilwl"( ' is ,1 hi gh l(,vl' 1 of clIrr('1l 1 "ssl'l s 10 li"hilili l's
,,1111 Ih,1[lIwI"I' SIHlItid Iw lilll l' diffi n tll y ill 11 11'1' 1111 ); I Ill' org, lIli i', lIi ll l1 'S d\'hl ' ,I Ilh'Y
hl 'I 'III11I' .lIlt ' , II if, illll H) 1 1.11111 0 100" ,II IIl IW 1111'11),, 1111 ' hll' < dl ll llgl ·d whl '"1'11IllJldll 'd
. . -
Assess strategic capability 61
previous year ' s figures would be a warning sign, It is also worth noting that while
a high current ratio denotes strong financial stability, it may also indicate poor asset
usage! It may also be due to an overoptimistic view of what price your assets would
fetch - especially in a forced sale at times of turbulence, when there maybe few willing
buyers for your assets,
The liquidity ratio shows the proportion of funds that can easily be turned into
cash to pay the bills, A shortage of cash may push the organization towards increased
borrowings, and this in turn increases the interest payments, Beyond a certain point,
the requests for increased borrowings will be refused and bankruptcy looms, Stocks
of finished goods, normally relied on as quick realizable assets, maybe at a discount,
may not sell at all when times are tight. No one may have the cash to take your stock
off your hands, no matter how much you discount the price,
Prompt 2.8: Movement
• Do you own your own transport?
• If hired or leased, is it in your house style or livery?
• Would you be better buying in a 24-hour delivery service?
• Do you promote your delivery service in your literature?
• Do you always collect faulty items from customers?
• How will you be affected by:
- road tariffs;
congestion;
virtual reality;
carbon pricing;
- the price of oil;
- emerging markets;
virtual warehousing;
- congestion charging;
- currency fluctuations;
- virtual shopping malls;
- controls on emissions;
- restrictions on air cargo;
- hologram presentations;
- new high speed rail links;
- diversifying global markets;
- high speed broadband links;
- diversifying sources of supply;
- international video conierencing?
Prompt 2.9: Machines
• Wil dl !'ffed wi lllw'llih il nd sa fety laws have on use of machinery?
• ( ' ,11 1 YO II ll ill .li ll n' pl.l ("(' I1 H' I1I paris easil y il nd qui ckly?
• ;\ 11' 11 1\" 11 ' 11\"WI ' I' , 11 1i1 I wll l'r 111.1 r llinl"s .1v.l il.1 hl (' to do I Ill' job?
• 11 11 \'\1 ' ,nl lli w ill y l l lll' 1I1oIdlll\( ':' III' !t 'dllhol p/', l li"l"d rl"pl ,li ' il1g ill' uP/; r,l ding ?
• 1 h i Vi lli II .l v , ' .1 IIlIIIII\( ' 111.11111, ' 11 .1 111" ' <1 111 ,01111, ")
62 Strategic thinking
• Do any machines cause quality control problems?
• Are all telephone calls diverted so that callers always get an answer?
• Is e-mail acknowledged quickly, with information about who will respond?
• Do e-mail and message machines give numbers for out-of-hours backup?
• Do your phones tell you when you have a customer waiting?
• Do your phones or computers have conferencing for multi-person conversations?
• Does your communications equipment monitor the frequency with which your
customers get 'engaged' and how long they have to wait for a response?
Prompt 2:10 Materials
• Are you reliant on someone else to do product or service testing for you?
• Do you do your own packaging? Does it look professional? Does it protect the
product and promote your service and your brand?
• Are there several suppliers of your raw materials?
• Are there alternative sources for raw materials?
• Are you tied to one supplier?
• Are the prices of your materials affected by exchange rates?
• Could you work with other organizations to achieve a group discount?
• Do you receive generous credit terms from your suppliers?
• Do you have patents and copyrights on your products?
• Do you control your stock levels effectively and efficiently?
• Are your suppliers supplying you just in time?
• Do you return faulty deliveries quickly and hold invoices till credit is received?
• Do you have a long lead-up time to producing new goods or services?
• Do you operate a policy of favouring Fairtrade or, better, Equitrade suppliers?
• Are you aware of the implications of Fairtrading and Equitrading?
• Could you benefit from working more closely with suppliers - especially those
who supply your most innovative competitors?
ASSESS STRATEGIC CAPABILITY - STEP 2 SUMMARY
Step 2 will have helped you to:
• Highlight strong or weak features of products or services
• Highlight the advantages you have over competitors
• Identify benefits to customers
Step 3
Create strategic knowledge
Will help you to:
• Summarize strategic intelligence
• Summarize strategic capability
• Create strategic knowledge
CREATE STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE
Bring together the results of your strategic intelligence gathering in Step 1, and the
results of your strategic capability assessment sheet (9Ms) in Step 2, and enter them
in this table:
Creating Strategic Knowledge

Step 1:
Strategic Intelligence
'TEMPLES'
Step 2:
Strategic Capability
Assessment
'9M'
Problems Opportunities
CREATE STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE - STEP 3 SUMMARY
Step 3 will have helped you to:
• tr t gi intelli gence
• <" ull1ll1.Jr i/ I gi pnbilily
• (1I'ol!1' \ lloll !' qi c kl1owl('cicjl'
Step 4
Make strategic predictions
Will help you to:
• Predict what will happen if you make no changes
• Consider the impact of your prediction on customers, competitors, employees,
stakeholders, funders and suppliers
• Envisage your worst case scenario
MAKE STRATEGIC PREDICTIONS
A 'change nothing scenario' helps to forecast where you will be if you change
nothing:
No Area If you change nothing ... Yes No
~ ~
l. Problems Does your organization's current course of action
overcome the problems identified in Step 3?
2. Market a) Does your organization's current course of
position action exploit the opportunities in Step 3?
b) Will you be able to maintain your market?
3. Human Will your current marketing, managerial and
resources thinking skills be adequate in 10 years (Step 2)?
4. Finance a) Will your organization's current course lead to
satisfactory financial ratios, especially for cash?
b) Can the current course of action be self-funded?
c) Will the cash risks (eg, liquidity ratio) change
for the better over the next five years (Step 2)?
Make strategic predictions 65
No Area If you change nothing ... Yes No
~ ~
d) Will your organization's current course of
action improve your organization's ratio of
debt to equity over the next 10 years (Step 2)?
e) Will you become independent of external
funding over the next five to 10 years (Step 2)?
5. Competitors Will your competition decline (Steps 2/3)?
6. Customers a) Is your organization capable of responding to
increased customer expectations (Steps 2/3)?
b) Will you be able to maintain closer
relationships with new customers over the
next five to 10 years (Steps 2/3)?
c) Will your organization's current direction
improve the quality of your services or
products over the next five years (Step 2)?
7. Culture Does the current direction of the organization
reflect the culture of the organization (Step 2)?
8. Technology Will your technology allow you to compete over
the next five to 10 years (Steps 2/3)?
9. Supplies Will you be able to build closer relationships with
new suppliers over the next 10 years?
Prompt 4.1: Worst Case Scenario
Look back at the 10 sets of questions in the 'change nothing scenario', and for each
question you answered 'No', complete the following:
66 Strategic thinking
Worst case scenarios
No For each 'No' answer, what might be the implication in 10 years' time?
What is the worst that might happen?
MAKE STRATEGIC PREDICTIONS - STEP 4 SUMMARY
Step 4 will have helped you to:
• Predict what will happen if you make no changes
• Consider the impact of your prediction on customers, competitors, em-
ployees, stakeholders, funders and suppliers
• Envisage your worst case scenario
Step 5
Develop strategic vision
Will help you to:
• Create an optimistic view of the future
• Determine a hopeful strategic direction
• Set motivating milestones, markers and review points
DEVELOP STRATEGIC VISION
Using Professor Susan Greenfield's chemical model of the brain, we have been
able to establish what chemical conditions will favour success on complex thinking
tasks like generating strategy and implementing strategic change. Many of the
neurochemicals that favour innovation, insight, invention, imagination and creative
thinking -like serotonin, oxytocin, dopamine and phenyl ethyl amine - are associ-
ated with optimism, high expectations and hope. Similarly, chemicals that inhibit
clear thinking and risk assessment - like high levels of testosterone, adrenaline and
various cortisol derivatives - are associated with feelings of anxiety, fear, pessimism
and despair. We have examples of poor decision making, when brains had excessive
level of testosterone and cortisol derivatives, that lead for example, to the finance
bubble and crash of 2008.
An organization with a shared vision that is positive and hopeful is more likely to
have people with the thinking skills needed to turn that vision into reality. Your best
hope must be realistic. Failure to achieve early milestones produces disillusion and
depression - a cocktail of neurochemicals that will so impair thinking as to make
feared failure more likely (Part I, Sections 2 and 3).
Japanese research has pointed to the power of figurative language and the use
of metaphor in releasing the creative potential of people in organizations. When
creative exuberance is kept on a loose rein, by the systematic use of concepts
that derive from systems thinking, then inspirational ideas can be harvested that
are still practical, plausible and within feasible limits of what is possible.
Without a great dream, nothing great will be achieved. But great dreams are not
sufficient. There must be the means of delivery - key resources, key skills and key
a tors to deploy them. The 16 systems steps set out in Part I, Section 3, will keep you
on a reali s li c and pr:Jcli cal path. Our systems map suggests using a CATSWORLD
c11l'cklisl.
68 Strategic thinking
UNPACKING THE 'CATSWORlD' CHECKLIST
C is for customers/clients
Consider the impact on your organization of, for example, customers, clients, users,
intermediaries, agents, local politicians, medical services, law enforcement officers
and members of the public. This creates a 'rich' picture of the influences to which
you might be subject (or of the audience you might wish to impress).
A is for actors
Key people in your organization. They may be technical patent holders, key inves-
tors, or founding fathers. Not all will be current employees. Many will be.
T is for transformation
What does your organization take in as inputs, eg, enquiries, orders, money, raw
materials, trust, energy, consultancy ideas, and to what does your organization
transform them (outputs), eg, products, services, taxes, pollution, waste, dividends,
reputation, salaries? How does your organization transform these inputs into these
outputs? How could it do so more quickly, using fewer resources, producing less
waste, and in a way that is different from competitive systems?
Inputs ----.,----1 Trans/ormation I - - - - - - , - ~ Outputs
Feedback
5 is for sub-systems and wider systems
What important sub-systems is it useful to identify - how central are they to the
performance of the organizational system and how could their health be improved
eg, finance systems, marketing systems, people systems, research and development
systems, training systems, information and communication systems, and operational
systems like production, warehousing and distribution? Each of these systems will
in turn have sub-systems. Drill down until you can no longer see how improve-
ments in lower sub-systems could significantly affect the future performance of
your organi zation.
Then cons ider the wi der systems within whi ch your organi za ti on operates. What
changes in these wider systems coul d affect your orga ni za li on? C()J) sidci' ti l(' loc.)1
conll11l1nit y .1nd l ( l ~ ' , l l regul ati o ns, lhe n,1l i o n,11 govern ment ,l lld ('c" l lI lI . dc ' I, c .l t ion,
11 11' illt " r1l o1 t ioll ,1i syst"111 oIlltl it s illlp,lr t Oil t. l l'if fs, t l', HI( ' ,111 .1 (' X( 1101111',( ' 100 Ic ", ,111.1 :JP
\1 11 ( 'PII 'I liI " I' hpw yl lil IId)', llt Il(' ,dli ,' to illlllll ' I1('(' ('V(' llt ,', III w cI " 1 • \ 1"11 1' I", Ic ', lIc '
Develop strategic vision 69
W is for the way we do things around here
What are the beliefs, values, stories, myths, rites and rituals that give your organiza-
tion character and distinctiveness? What kinds of things would run against the
grain? What kind of changes, in which direction, would win immediate support
and backing? What is it that employees like about working here? What are they
proud of? What would make them ashamed?
o is for owners
It is very important to work out who really owns the company. Owners are rarely
the managers and often not the directors. Who would need to sign the deeds
for disposal of a major asset? Who would need to approve a major change in its
financial structures, such as debts or shareholdings? Failure to have 'best hopes'
that are within the owners' expectations might cause your journey to falter un-
expectedly, if the owners do not like the direction in which the organization appears
to be moving. Owners are amongst the many key people to whom you must listen
intently as you collect information on which to base your 'best hope' for your
organization.
R is for resources
Your 'best hope' for the future had better not assume the continued availability of
resources whose planetary supply is limited - as such resources will become expen-
sive, or sporadic in supply, or the object of green campaigns for a more sustainable
'best hope'. As economies move from production-intensive to knowledge-based,
and then increasingly to brain-based, a key resource will be thinking power.
Creative thinking will become a key resource for delivering competitive advantage.
Creative thinking is essential for innovation, invention and intellectual property.
One benefit of introducing strategic thinking into your organization is the develop-
ment it produces in the thinking skills of the people who work in your organization.
It may be helpful to run workshops specifically designed to develop the thinking
skills and brainpower of your people. Managers need to balance inner world think-
ing and outer world action. Thoughtless, all-action decision making does not confer
competitive advantage. Even rapid responses need to be informed by prepared
minds. Minds can be prepared by thinking strategically.
L is for limitations (often legal)
The 'way we do things here' sets internal limitations on our 'best hopes', and laws
and impending legislation set external limits on what is possible. Impending laws
arc nea rl y a lwi1ys known well ahead - 10 to 15 years ahead is not uncommon for
in!('rn'lli () l1 .ll I.I WS; ::; 10 10 is usu;:iI in the European Uni on. Intended nati onal laws
;In' II00d"I'\'( 1 ill Commcrcia l or cmpl oymcnt rcgul ations a rc
tl stl ,lIl y ''' '''II '' I III , II II'I lilI.III II II ,'. 1':v('11 fill.1ll(' gisl.lli oll is lI slI .dl y ph.1S(' d .
70 Strategic thinking
D is for decisions and the way they get taken
The way we take decisions indicates strongly the Wcy we do things around here.
Styles of decision making reflect styles of leadership (see Part I, Section 1). Leadership
style and decision making both benefit from strategic thinking (see Part I, Section 1
and Part II, Step 7). Strategic leaders are able to engender higher morale, more
motivation and greater followership. This in turn enables much more ambitious
'best hopes' to be dared, and more effective strategic changes to be implemented.
Visions and Revisions - Setting Markers and Milestones
As the CATSWORLD checklist directs more conversation with more key people,
tentative 'best hopes' can be formulated and tested in another round of conversa-
tions - 'visions and revisions' (T. S. Elliot). The idea is to hold onto hopes that are
inspirational but which most key actors consider realistic, ie demanding but achiev-
able. In the next round of visions and revisions, gather suggestions for markers,
milestones and review points. These will be important because attempts to make
even small changes will yield a wealth of new information - especially about any
resistance to change.
According to research we did with Tony Doherty:
about ...
• 25 per cent of people will initially be very resistant to change;
• 50 per cent will likely be anxious;
• 25 per cent may in fact be very willing agents of strategic change.
It will be important to spot and recruit the change agents ('assisters'). If each con-
verts one 'resister', the job is done! Record your 'best hopes' in the following table,
prompted by our 6S checklist:
Develop strategic vision 71
A 6S checklist for checking best hopes
Areas to consider Targets, milestones, markers and review points
1. Size

Grow cash reserves

Grow profits

Grow or reduce sales

Market share

Product range

Acquisitions
2. Stability

Utilization levels

Sale of surplus capacity

Buy or make?
3. Skills

Thinking skills

R&D

Educational breadth
4. Social reputation
5. Status of employees
6. Security of employees
DEVELOP STRATEGIC VISION - STEP 5 SUMMARY
Step 5 will have helped you to:
• Create an optimistic view of the future
• Determine a hopeful strategic direction
• Set motivating milestones, markers and review points
Step 6
Create strategic options
Will help you to:
• Identify obstacles
• Analyse existing options for removing obstacles
• Think creatively about ideas, innovations and inventing more options
CREATE STRATEGIC OPTIONS
Complete the Obstacle Analysis and Obstacle Removal tables.
For each obstacle in the first table, get key actors, preferably working in pairs, to
brainstorm a long list of possible changes that might remove the obstacles. Visit and
re-visit your key actors, showing them your cumulating list of options for change.
Do not encourage criticisms or evaluation of the ideas of others. (This will happen
later, in Step 7). Simply thank them for any additional options that occur to them
and add them to your list.
Obstacle analysis
Obstacles to removing 'worst fears' and achieving 'best hopes'
Worst fears (Step 4) Obstacles to removing Best hopes (Step 5) Obstacles to achieving
Create strategic options 73
Obstacles removal
List of obstacles Long list of options for removing obstacles (accumulate your long list
by talking to key actors - see Step 5)
Using the second table as your starting point, you need to add more options.
The odds are that your competitors have done a similar analysis and, if 20 com-
petitors all do the same thing in the same market, you may each get 5 per cent of the
market. But if your individual plans each depended on getting 10 per cent of the
market, you will each go bankrupt! You will need distinctiveness in order to have
competitive advantage. To be distinctive, you need to come up with some options
that your competitors will not have thought of, ie you will need to think creatively
in order to innovate and invent your own distinctive view of the future, and of the
intentions and actions necessary to change it.
Creative thinking
I t is not necessary to be born a genius to think creatively. Professor Martindale studied
the brain sca ns of people writing creatively and, in Psycho!oSlI in August 2007, he
reportecl lh;l l the mos t crcn li ve wr iting was done by people who could deliberately
shift tl wir I1r,lill ,1 1'li vit y fr(lill tlll'ir reM br<:l in p<:lriclal sensory cOrlC:x to the front
hr,lin 1,)11.,:, . )f 111I ' il' ", ' I','hl',11 . 'IlI' II " Allil llllgil il W,lS trul' th,l t the right-hand sides of
1IIi 'il' hl'oIl1l " \\!i' I\' 111 \, \11 \, \ , .1 ,/ 111 W.' I'.' III. , Il'f l II ,IfIlI ;; id. ,:. ()f II )('il' I1r,lill ;;, '1'1)(' Ill ylll lll ,lI
(' Ii 'oIiI V\' 1'\ '11 1,1" ' III ' Iii"", \ 111 1, 11 " l"lilll ,lIl y ' l' I)',lil 1>1'011111 ''' ' ill IIli :, I.II-(' 11. (III ('oil)
74 Strategic thinking
Common blocks to creative thinking
• Aversion to risk.
• Inability to relax.
• Obsessive tidiness.
• Prevalent pessimism.
• A tendency to be cynical.
• A preoccupation with control.
• A tendency to be judgemental.
• Fear of reverie or daydreaming.
• Excessive need for quick success.
• A fear of failure or of making mistakes.
• A limited capacity for delayed gratification.
• An inability to tolerate uncertainty or ambiguity.
• A strong preference for reality rather than fantasy.
• Unwillingness to deal with hypothesis or conjecture.
• A propensity to be 'laid back' and unexcited by challenge.
Prompt 6.1: Removing Blocks to Creativity
No. If the block is .... Then try to ...
1 Habit Do one different thing every day.
2 Firm beliefs Ask, 'If I didn' t believe this, what might happen?'
3 Familiarity Ask, 'How will I feel when I have solved this problem?'
4 Adult behaviour Indulge in one piece of 'child-like' behaviour each day.
S Lack of language Mix with creative people. Join an art or drama group.
6 Not my area Say, 'Most breakthroughs come from non-specialists.'
7 Fear of mistakes Ask, 'What's the worst thing that could happen?'
8 Existing models Ask, 'What if I had arrived from Mars?'
9 I'm too old Realize that creative thinking involves bringing lots of
knowledge and experience together and that the older
you are the more knowledge and experience you have.
10 Lack of time Accept that you have all the time there is. (Deadlines aid
creativity, if you are not over-anxious.)
Prompt 6.2: 20 Ways to Develop Your Creativity
1. Don't (or9('1
1 i'i ' j! 01 !,(h ' ki' l 1 ),\'1''1,11(1,1(' , ill' 01 p ,1(1 0111(1 IWII , ,II YUill' ill 'll k , It )' y llill ,,111 1111 ' . III y Uill'
Create strategic options 75
2. A move with a view
Periodically, move your chair, your desk, your room, your house or your country -
anything to gain a new perspective.
3. Make a date
Julia Cameron suggests that you make a 'date' with your creative self, once a week.
Take time out to meet your creative self, for at least a couple of hours, at a bookshop,
art shop, or fabric shop, at a gallery, cafe or just a coffee bar where the two of you
can be alone with a notepad.
4. Catch the worm (before it turns)
The early bird can catch the creative worm. If it's fiction you want to write, start
straight out of bed - some writers do not even turn on the light. Write in long hand,
double-line spaced. Edit and re-edit until it is no longer decipherable. Write it out
again. Keep going for your allotted time - 30 minutes, or an hour at most. Then stop
and clean your teeth. Surprisingly, fixed deadlines seem to aid creativity in the
morning. Perhaps they raise anxiety just enough to sharpen your waking mind.
If you are writing non-fiction, or designing a product or campaign, your routine
will be different. You need lots of light to switch off your pineal gland (see Chapter 1,
Wootton and Horne, 2009). Clean your teeth using minty toothpaste and the hand
you do not normally use. Do the head-in-hand, and eye switch exercises, and finish
with the 60-second hand rub. You will then be well oxygenated for a dawn raid on
your neurons!
5. Signal your creative intent
Creative thinking requires a deliberate shift. Sometimes it helps to signal your
creative intent to others (and to yourself). Victor Hugo signalled his creative intent
by taking off all his clothes. Alexandre Dumas ate an apple under the Arc de
Triomphe every day at 7 am, then wrote for an hour at a street-side cafe. Mark Twain
lay on the floor. Hemingway sharpened pencils. Huxley wrote with his nose.
6. The long march
Like William Wordsworth, before you work, go for a walk!, Professor Clayton
recommends a walk of at least 20 minutes every day. Down the long march
of history, aborigines have gone 'walkabout', Native Americans have gone on
'vision quests', Christians on pilgrimages, Muslims on the Hajj. All were seeking
inspiration.
7. Become a private eye
I n your lol ,d i1l1J1H'rsi()11 phase, OU may n ed to become a private investi ga tor.
Wh,l l s l II' pi "IIIII 'n'I)VI'r tll ' II'cli vl' wi ll you h(' oml'? ller lilt- Poirot coll ects " II Ihl'
' 1.1\·ls' ,l lld 1111 ' 11 ', 11 " d"w II dlld 1111111 H "holll 111('111 , Mi ss M'lrpll' oft ell jll s l Sil H Iwhind
111'1' 111 ' 1 \ 111111111 1111.1 Wil li 1/1" 1 1111 ' Wildt! ; , 111'111111 " 1',1'1,,, 1 I'yl' f()r dl'l.lil sill' dill ', 11 ' 1
11111110 111111111: ( ',rllIl.d", 011 I- .l11I,,1l 11\111I'd, I',II'HIIIIII"IIIIII' I ~ ; I I I ' l l l h ' 11 11 11111 '1 'lrillk,
76 Strategic thinking
8. Time's up
Surprisingly, tight deadlines often produce creative solutions, especially in the last
10 minutes. Set and stick to deadlines.
9. Bin the best
The exhortation to 'bin the best' recognizes the blocking effect on your creativity
when you become so attached to the good bits of your work that you are reluctant
to surrender space to new ideas.
10. First the good news
Know your creative style before you invite others to comment on your work (there
is a test in Wootton and Home, 2010). Problems arise, especially if your creative
style is predominantly 'N' for needy. You need approval, admiration, attention
and applause, so always say 'Ok, give me the good news first,' and ask, 'What do
you like about my work?' Next, 'What do you find interesting about my work?',
'What are its potential growth points?', 'What would you like to see less of?' (steel
yourself) and finally, 'What would you like to see more of?', 'What is the best thing
you liked about my work?' Start and finish with good news. .
11. Girls and boys come out to play
On an 'I-need-to-be-creative' day, think of life as a game (even if you don't know the
rules) . Adopt a playful disposition in meetings and encourage it in others. Ignore
put-downs like 'Don't be facetious,' or, 'Don't be childish: (As a child, you probably
had no difficulty in thinking creatively.)
12. Get a brain wave
Before a task that requires creative thinking, do relaxation exercises (see Chapters 1
and 5, Wootton and Home, 2009). These exercises slow down the electrical activity
in your brain and literally produce bigger brainwaves. Favour deep breathing exer-
cises that involve visualizing objects, colours, stories or good memories.
13. Pass it on
To get up to 80 ideas from eight people, give them each a blank sheet of paper and
ask them to write down three ideas, working alone. Then they pass their sheets to
the right. Each person reads the ideas on the sheet in front of them and adds one
more and again passes the sheet to the person on their right.
14. Love me, love my dog
If you get stuck, try using analogies or metaphors to help you become unstuck
(see Part I, Section 3). Ask yourself what connection this s.ituation has with the
problems facing a parti cul ar animal such as a dog, an owl, an elephant, etc. Compa re
Ihe s ilu'l lion with lI si ng <I photocopier, It"l rning to dri ve, or cooking a meal.
7 '> . /,,,vr l is III Iil r ( ' /linC]
Create strategic options 77
variety of subjects you talk about, the better. Never miss a chance to talk to anyone
who is an expert on anything. Try to take holidays in a different culture.
16. Surprise, surprise!
If you are looking for inspiration from a group of people, do something surprising.
Meet them at a theme park, a zoo or on a beach, and then give them the situation
about which you want them to think creatively. Then play rounders, five-a-side
football or go bowling. Collect and record as many ideas as possible as you mingle
with individuals but do not comment, even positively, on any of the ideas. Quantity
of ideas is more important than the quality of ideas at this stage.
17. Make piles
Make piles not files. If you file information away in filing cabinets or, even worse, in
boxes, you will rapidly forget it exists and so you will not be able to combine that
information with any other information, such as that in a nearby pile! By making
piles, preferably on a horizontal surface like a large table, you are creating a three-
dimensional map of information that might be relevant to your next creative project.
Extract all the creative tension and creative connections you can from the informa-
tion in competing piles, and then move to a large empty table somewhere else to do
your writing, painting, building or designing. Immersion profits from piles, but
insight and inspiration will more likely pop into an empty space Aha!
18. Talk to yourself - put on your thinking cap
The more perspectives you can get on a situation the better. It is also the safest way
to check that. your implementation plans make sense. If people won't listen to you,
let alone talk to you, you can always talk to yourself. Edward de Bono has some
good ways of orchestrating an internal dialogue between different aspects of your-
self. Try, in turn, being an:
• optimist ('What's good about this is .. .')
• grower ('We could extend this by .. .')
• cardinal ('Ethically, we need to be concerned that...')
• pessimist ('The problem might be .. .')
• logician ('Let's just check if this necessarily follows that...')
• factual (,What do we know and how can we find .. .')
• emotional ('This is ... exciting, passionate, frightening .. .')
19. Do it to music
If you can think with music playing, try to find out which music most favours
creative thinking (see hapter 5, Wootton and Horne, 2010).
20. Madness in the m thad
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78 Strategic thinking
Creativity - the role of humour
Creating humour, or enjoying humour, predisposes your brain to be open to sudden
mental shifts, to the sudden' Aha!' as you see things from a new and unexpected
perspective. It raises your tolerance for surprises. The side-effects of the laughter -
relaxation and distraction - help to change your brainwave pattern from high
frequency, shorter beta waves, to the slower, longer alpha waves that Bagely has
strongly correlated with creative thinking and invention.
Not everyone is a natural humorist, but you can choose to mix with people who
are. They will raise your mental energy and maybe your creativity. Children are
great. On average children laugh 450 times a day (15 times a day for adults)!
Creative places: somewhere a place for me
Winnicott discovered that creative thinking was more likely to occur in places where
questioning authority and challenging received wisdom were welcome, where people
were encouraged to joke and be playful. Kanter argued for the creation of autono-
mous 'play areas'. She recognized the close relationship between playfulness, humour
and creativity. Hurst reported that people were more likely to produce new ideas
when they laughed, felt comfortable and trusted the people around them.
Prompt 6.3: A Model for Creative Thinking
Conversational Thinking
"Is there a different way of looking at ... solving ... doing ... ?" "We appear to be stuck ...
existing methods are not delivering .. ." "When was the last time we felt this way?"
"What happened then?" "What will be the situation when we succeed?"
Recollective
Thinking
Empathetic
Thinking
Emotional Thinking
Imaginative
Thinking
Energy, excitement, playfulness, spontaneous actions, statements, ideas
Conversational Thinking
For each of these ideas, how will the world change? What will be different?
What will people think, see, say and feel ? What willi feel , think, say and see?
Imaginative
Thinking
Ethical Thinking
Creative Thinking
Empathetic
Thinking
IIIVII II!lOIJ. Ili nph ullll ll , otlUhud 1111 11 1/ I cl oII IUIlt , workn 0111 11 , pr ollo/1I 11 11, wlvoll y
Create strategic options 79
Prompt 6.4: Techniques to Aid Creativity
Everyone can learn to think creatively. Rapid change forces a need for creativity and
innovation. Certain conditions favour this.
Weird ideas at work - three creative conditions
1. Provide copious materials for writing, drawing and display. Unrecorded ideas
get lost.
2. In turbulent times, lose administrators, not creative people.
3. Set tight time limits. Deadlines help to prevent over-elaboration and discourage
premature evaluation.
Three techniques to try
1. Attribute listing
This is a very simple method and it is used to develop spin-offs from existing
products or services:
a. Identify and pick out the major attributes of a product or service.
b. Suggest as many variations of each attribute as possible. Each combination of
variation creates a potential new product or service.
c. List all the combinations. Evaluate them later.
As an example, consider you have been employed as a consultant by a Christmas
novelty company to come up with new ideas for balloons. After discussions with
the company, you decide that the major attributes for the novelty balloons are
colour, size, shape, price and durability. Using the above a, b, c approach:
a. Major attributes: we could have size, shape, price, durability.
b. Possible variations; we could have:
- colours: red, purple, polka-dot, etc;
- size: 1 cm, 1 metre, 3 metres;
- shape: banana, star;
- price: lOp each, £1 each, £25 each;
- durability: five minutes, one year, lO-year guarantee.
c. Possible combinations: we could have a 3-metre polka-dot banana, £25, lO-year
guarantee balloon.
2. Brainstorming
Thi s is usefu l in tnckling ' how to do' problems, where a new idea or direction
is nl'cded . Tlw pron'ss il1volv('s prescnting the problem or the opportunity and
11 1(' 11 );(' II I'r, 1I ill)' • .I S 11I,lIl y 1(11 '.1 :-' d .... jl(l:-.s ihlv, ill" limill'd lime, preferably Ll s ing a large
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80 Strategic thinking
tank' of ideas, so as to keep the flow of ideas going. Zany ideas are encouraged,
as is humour. Such ideas may be 'planted' in the audience to create a permissive
atmosphere. Negativism, realism, scepticism and, in particular, cynicism, are not
allowed and must be quickly squashed by the person facilitating the brainstorming
sessions. Pauses are filled by reading back the ideas already recorded on the
flipcharts. The flipcharts should be torn off and displayed around the room. Ideas
can be shortlisted and evaluated later, using some of the techniques described in
Step 7. Brainstorming is much better than doing nothing, but it is not as good as a
leader talking to individuals and then leaving them to work in pairs, returning later
to share with them the ideas of other pairs (see Part 1, Section 1).
3. Forced relationships
This is based on the establishment of new relationships between normally unrelated
objects or ideas. New applications are sought for existing products or services. One
object is fixed; the other is chosen at random.
You then have to find as many ways as possible to relate the fixed object to the
one chosen at random. As an example, consider you are a manager of a doctors'
surgery with, say, six doctors. The declining number of patients on your surgery
list has placed the future of your practice in jeopardy. Your workforce is highly
skilled and flexible. You have been asked to think up new ideas for diversifying
the service. First you brainstorm list A - a list of all the things your staff can do,
for example:
A. Possible services
AI. Medical diagnosis
A2. Minor surgery
A3. Health education
A4. Blood tests
AS. Bed baths, etc.
Tear the lists into strips and put them in a hat. Next you brainstorm list B - a list of
possible areas in which you could provide services, for example:
B. Possible areas
B1. Schools
B2. Houses
B3. Insurance companies
B4. Football clubs
BS. Supermarkets
B6. Chemists
B7. Charities.
Again, tea r the list into strips and put them in a separate hat. Nex t you d raw one
strip from each hat <l nd in fi ve minutes you h<lve to w rile dowll ,) S J)1,)f) Y ust's as
I ossihl v for the servin' (' hust' f) f rom li st 1\ , q ~ , Ilwdi (', d diol gll (lsis, ill thl' ,\r,',1 r hus(' n
f I'() r II I i ~ { t II.
Create strategic options 81
Prompt 6.5: Some Specific Options to Consider
Options What might you
gain from this
option?
Concentration and
focus
Product development
Market development
Horizontal integration
Vertical integration
Retrenchment
Turnaround
Divestment
Liquidation
Prompt 6.6: Strategic Options
Concentration and focus
What are the Examples of this
problems with option?
this option?
Resources can be focused on the continued and profitable growth of a 'single' product
or service in a 'single' market. This can be achieved by attracting new customers
or by increasing their usage rate or, where feasible, by attracting customers away
from competitors. The advantage of this approach is that it uses the current skills
in the orga ni za tion. Growth is not likely to be dramatic. If you conserve cash, in
turbul ent time you may be abl e to buy up the order books of competitors from their
Ol d m i ni str') I ors!
Product d v lopm nt
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82 Strategic thinking
Market development
An organization can build on its existing strengths, skills and capabilities to market
its present products or services to new customers. This often involves a new approach
to advertising, promotion and selling.
Horizontal integration
This is when an organization acquires or merges with a major competitor. Market
share should increase and the organization should be looking for situations in which
the pooled skills and resources are synergistic (see Step 8). In turbulent times, acqui-
sitions can be cheap, if you conserve your cash.
Vertical integration
This is when an organization acquires one of its suppliers or one of its customers.
In this case, the benefit looked for is not primarily market share. Efficiency gains
are sought through either better prices or more reliable delivery of components, or
through a better planned pattern of demand. In turbulent times, this option can help
to maintain volume and cash flow.
Retrenchment
This may be required when an organization experiences declining profits as a result
of economic recession, or through the activities of competitors who are innovating
faster. In these circumstances, the organization will need to concentrate only on
activities in which it has distinctive competencies. The aim is to concentrate on
cash-rich activities in which the organization has advantages over its competitors
(see Step 8).
CREATE STRATEGIC OPTIONS - STEP 6 SUMMARY
Step 6 will have helped you to:
• Identify obstacles
• Analyse existing options for removing obstacles
• Think creatively about ideas, innovations and inventing more options
Step 7
Take strategic decisions
Step 7 will help you to:
• Assess the competitiveness, controllability, compatibility, feasibility, impact and
risk of each of your options for change
• Select a short list of options for change to discuss with your people
• Consider the role of intuition in making your final selection
TAKE STRATEGIC DECISIONS
Rational decision making in difficult times
In Part I, Section I, we argued in favour of Professor Adair's action-centred
approach to leadership, especially in turbulent times. Since leadership style and
decision making style are interconnected, we again favour Professor Adair's ideas
on decision making. We are concerned, however, that in times of impending crisis
your flight-fright response will produce levels of cortisol in your brain that will
make it difficult for you to be as calm and rational as John Adair would like you to
be. The rabbit-in-the-headlight effect may make it very difficult for you to think
clearly at all. For this reason, at the end of this Step 7 we have presented what may
seem very mechanical decision-making tables, so that you will be able to take com-
plex decisions rapidly and rationally, even under difficult conditions. Our decision
tables will help you to cover all the bases of rational decision making. For ease of
remembering, the decision tables cover the 6Es of Effectiveness, Economy, Efficiency,
Empathy, Ethics and Ecology. It is a relatively EEEEEEsy way to ensure that you
have all the rational bases covered!
The decision-making styles of strategic leaders
Nothing so quickly defines the leadership styles of managers as the way they take
,md communica te decisions. In this Step 7 we will look at taking decisions. In Step 8
W(' will look at presenting and communicating decisions. In Step 9 we will look at
IIlIpl ementing dec isions. In Pa rt I, Sections 1 and 3 we have seen how strategic
thinking underpins slmlegic leildershi p. When you look at our model of strategic
d, 'cis iol1 11l .1king ,HI ,", 111 s('e how closvly il WCilves toget her the thinking skill s that
II llppor l ." l r, II (')',i(" Ihill ki ll )', :
84 Strategic thinking
INNOVATION

CREATING
/
OPTIONS

KNOWLEDG/
/ MAKING EVALUATING"

FORECASTS OPTIONS
/
/ ASSESSING PLANNING"

KNOWLEDGE PROJECTS
1/
SENSING MONITORING
INFORMATION CONSEQUENCES PLANS
Figure 7.1 Model of Strategic Decision Making (Horne and Wootton, 2010)
In Part I, Section 3, we described how strategic leaders use thinking skills to turn
information into knowledge on which useful action can be based - thereby helping
their people to escape from the past and form new ideas in the present about benefi-
cial changes that they can make in the future. In our decision-making model we see
the same movement from the past, via the present, towards the future. Our model
shows the same need to think critically about information in order to decide what
we can justifiably believe, and to think visually and empathetically about the future
in order to formulate ideas for change that are feasible and ethical, as well as desir-
able. There is the same need for creative ideas, invention and innovation, in order to
generate as many options as possible in the time available, before we use our critical
thinking and ethical thinking to define a list of possible strategic changes.
One must think and think and think again - one must think till it hurts or until you
run out of time. Then and only then, is it time to decide and to act. (Roy Thomson)
Decision making features strongly in all models of problem solving. In many ways,
managers are professional decision makers. If their decisions are impulsive, pre-
mature, or thoughtless, they jeopardize the livelihoods of their people. If their deci-
sions are too late, they threaten the survival of their organizations. Managers must
get more decisions right than wrong. Managers must get the big decisions right.
If managers are indecisive, they are not doing what they are paid to do.
Factors that influence management decision makers
Nicholas analysed the decisions made by 382 managers. Few were purely logical.
Considerations of power and self-interest were common. Managers looked for deci-
sions for which they could give a rational explanation even when they had taken
their decision impulsively, emotionally or intuitively. Most managers preferred
opti ons which had a built-in excuse, should the consequences of the decision turn
out to be worse than they predicted. They complained that there was not enough
Ii ml' 10 do (l lhl'rw iSl' . They l"(lmpl.l ilwd I hal they had inSl1 rrici('nl Ii IlH' I() I "ink. They
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did IHI I Wi li ll I () 1)(' 1,( '(' 11 ,Ill dilll('l'illl', () I jlld('( ' i l :iV(' ,
Take strategic decisions 85
(see Part I, Sections 1 and 3). Luck greatly favours the prepared mind - especially
the strategically prepared mind. By being visible figures - in the field, in the factory,
or on the office floor - and by being seen to stop and think, strategic leaders can
create permission for their people to do the same. In a brain-based economy, organ-
izations whose people stop and think can create competitive advantage (see
Step 8).
Decision making - the brain power you need
People worry because they are losing brain cells every day - they do not need to.
Your brain contains about 22 billion brain cells. Unless you drink heavily or contract
disease, even by the age of 80 you will have lost only 3 per cent of your brain cell s
and it is never too late to grow new ones, by exercising your eyes, or your body, or
your mind. A diet of protein, unsaturated fats, fruit, salad, vegetables and a littl e
fish, dark chocolate and regular sex also helps. What matters is not how bi g your
brain is, but how you use it to think (see Part I, Section 3).
The values and integrity of strategic leaders
The ability to discern useful criteria to use when making decisions, and then to put
a value on your criteria, from the point of view of your customers, your people,
your suppliers and others, is the hallmark of a 'good' decision maker. The weighting
you put on your different criteria will reflect your values. If you are a person of
integrity, your values will be consistent and this will be consistently evident in your
decisions. Your decisions will be rooted in your firmly held beliefs. Your decisions
will reflect you - who you are and what you stand for. When others see you taking
'good' decisions, they will say of you that you are a 'good' person, a 'person of
principle' or a 'person of integrity'.
'Good' decisions involve deciding what to believe and deciding what action to
take. Under pressures, managers often jump to the second and neglect the first.
The role of intuition in decision making
Intuition is the purported power to apprehend immediately that something is the
case, or that something needs to be done. What is the origin of such a power?
In turbulent times, there may be a shortage of clear information on which a
reasoned decision can be made. If turbulence turns to crisis, there may also be a
shortage of time. Short of clear information and time to think, managers who decide
very quickly are then criticized for making things up as they go along! In some
cases, this criti cism may be too harsh. A manager's apparent guesswork might,
in fact, be informed by a long peri od of habitual strategic thinking. Fortune may
fa vou r the bm Vl', but i t fa vou rs even more the prepared mind. The habits of mind of
,1 str,lll'gi( Ih inkl ' r will gr(" lll y in(' I"(',lSl' Ihe chances that you will get more decisions
ri ghl lil,1I1 W n l ll );, .l1H11il.l1 Y( lIl wi ll ),,(' 1 111(' hi g onl's ri ght.
Exp rt d i ion me king
86 Strategic thinking
10 years seems to chime with the figure of 10,000 hours said to be needed to become
an expert (Gladwell, 2008).
Philosophers down the centuries have argued that intuition is the basis of ethical
decision making. When asked if it is right to kill one healthy young person and use
his or her organs to save the lives of four other young people who would otherwise
die without an organ transplant, almost everyone can decide 'No' very quickly. If
your gut instinct, or intuition, is that something is just plain ' wrong', it probably is,
no matter what market-based rationale is raised in its defence (gross bonuses and
great disparities in salary may be cases in point).
Earlier, we identified two pillars of decision making: deciding what we believed
to be true and then deciding what to do about it. The first can require a lot of pains-
taking investigation of the kind carried out by detectives like Sherlock Holmes. In
thoughtful conversations with his assistant Watson, Holmes is portrayed as care-
fully weighing the evidence, and then making deductions from a premise in which
Holmes has justified belief. While such critical thinking skills can add greatly to the
quality of your strategic thinking, in times of crisis there is sometimes not enough
time to think like Sherlock Holmes. This is where you may need to rely on your own
intuition, or that of your experienced people. The more you 'walk the job', the more
you will learn when to trust your intuition. Strategic leaders should not be deterred
from using their intuition by MBA-borne fears that intuition is somehow not intel-
lectually respectable. Intuitive managers can still use the critical thinking skills
described in Part I, Section 3 to evaluate rigorously the products of their intuition.
Some of our most celebrated scientists have been deeply intuitive. Einstein believed
that:
'There is no logical way to discover new laws. There is only the way of intuition.
This is helped by a feeling or sense of the rich picture that lies behind events.'
Strategic thinking and especially some of its advanced components, like systems
thinking (see Part I, Section 3, and Step 5), will constantly enhance the 'rich' picture
that feeds your intuition. Only the experience of following it, and then critically
evaluating where it led you, will give you the confidence to rely on your intuition in
turbulent times.
Developing entrepreneurial 'flair' in decision making
A reputation for entrepreneurial 'flair' - for getting the big calls right more quickly
than others - does not come by accident. A reputation for having flair comes about
through the hard work it takes to immerse yourself in information relevant to your
sector, and from a strategic leadership style that gets you out of your office and
amongst your customers, your suppliers and your people. It also comes from taking
care of yourself.
We have d iscovered that simpl e things li ke not taking a re over your sleep
pa Ilt'rn:-; i1 nd YOLI r I r,lVvl a rr,mgl' ll1l' n l:-; eel n pi a Y h:1 V{) wi I h YOll r ti l' ' i:-; ion m il ki ng,
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' "
r '
Take strategic decisions 87
trained to revert to mechanical drills, to get themselves safely to the top, or safely
back to base. We bave provided you with a similar set of mechanical drills. Our
decision tables are designed to help you take strategic decisions even when you are
too exhausted to think clearly.
'It is probabilities that guide the decisions of wise men' (Cicero).
We have designed our decision tables to help you to weigh the probabilities. It is
to these structured decision tables that we now turn.
DECISION MAKING IN DIFFICULT TIMES
THE USE OF DECISION TABLES
You may be considering options, the likely consequences of which are outside your
experience. You may need to trade-off between control over consequences and the
potential contribution the option might make to your best hopes.
Complete the 'Rate your options' table by rating each option either A, B or C,
for each of the six evaluation criteria. A is a high rating, C is a poor rating, otherwise
use B. (If you need help in arriving at your A, B, C ratings, turn to the prompt sheets.)
First devise a label for each of your options for strategic change (see Step 6) and
enter the labels in the table.
Rate your options, A, B or C
Assess each Change Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 Option 4 Option 5
option for: nothing (label) (label) (label) (label) (label)
1. Competitiveness
2. Controllability
3. Compatibility
4. Feasibility
5. Impact
6. Low risk
Total number of As
To draw up a shortli st o ( opti ons (or di scussion with your people, start by eliminat-
ing .my opli on th,l l h.1s.1 ' r.lling aga inst any of the eva luation criteria. Then give
hl rll 1l'r ("oll s id, 'r.llioll 10 Ih,)s,' ol11ions Ih,ll h,lVl' lhl' hi ghesl number of A ratings.
'1'11(',"'" , ' Il , 1I1 )',(' !, WOldt! .11'1 "' 011" 10 h, ' Ih, ' mos l li kely C.lllditi ,1Ies 10 compri se your
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t ' II' · I ' II I " 1 111 1 I t 1 , 11
1
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1
88 Strategic thinking
change? Can you create more options now and, if necessary, prune later? If you
think you need more options, go back to Step 6.
Prompt 7.1: Evaluating Options
Evaluation is simply putting a value on something. To put a value on an option,
you need to understand and describe what will happen if you decide to pursue it.
One way to evaluate options is to give them an A, B or C rating, depending on how
well they meet your criteria.
What exactly should you evaluate? For each option for strategic change, consider
six criteria:
1. Competiveness.
2. Controllability.
3. Compatibility.
4. Feasibility.
5. Impact.
6. Low risk.
Customer Support
Supplier Support
Distinctiveness
t
How excessive?
COMPETITIVENESS
FEASIBILITY
How difficult?
t
Resources
Constraints
Resistances
Motivation
Values
Skills
How compatible?
COMPATIBILITY
IMPACT
How desirable?
Gains
Benefits
Contributions
Key Players
Results
Impact
t
How much control?
CONTROLLABILITY
RISK
What might happen?
t
Threats
Chances
Consequences
Prompt 7.2: Criteria for Evaluating Strategic Change
To assess the competitiveness of an opti on you need to identify how exclus ively you
are abl e to deliver thi s opti on when compared with a potenti al competitor.
To assess lhl' comr.l lihilil y or ,1Il orti oll , YOll will Ilt'l' d In we igh lip the skill s,
knowll'd gl' .1Il d Il Hl li v. lli ()1l of Y() llf" pl'llpll' III I' Il S lIr(, 111 .1 1 Ill<' 1l 111i() 11 ' ril s' w ill1 Ill<'
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h. llIl w l,'d) ', I ' 1II.I y II\' 111'1 '.11 '" III .lIldlll OIl 10 111I 1WI" d ",I' ,11 111 111 III IW Iii 1111111 ( 1'.111 I,
Take strategic decisions 89
To assess the controllability that an organization has over an option, you will
need to assess the extent to which the contribution of the option to your 'best hope'
(Step 5) could really be controlled.
The feasibility of an option indicates the ease with which the option could be
implemented. You will need to think about time, effort and likely areas of resistance.
The impact of an option is the extent to which it would contribute to your 'best
hope' for the organization (Step 5).
To assess the risks of an option, you will need to think about the kind of things
that could go wrong, the chances that they might go wrong and the consequences if
they did.
Prompt 7.3: Evaluating Competitiveness
To favour competitiveness an option of change should create, or increase a sustain-
able advantage over your competition. This competitive advantage must be valued
by your customers. The change might need to be supported by your suppliers.
Market-led intelligence (or intuition) is essential for this evaluation.
In the decision table, enter:
A, if the option would make you highly competitive;
C, if the option creates no customer-valued advantage;
B, if not A or C.
Prompt 7.4: Evaluating Compatibility
Organizations are not composed of totally like-minded people. They may have
different professional or technical skills, different professional or cultural values,
and different interests. These differences can cause problems in assessing whether
an option is compatible with the team of people who would be involved with a
particular change. Is the team likely to be sufficiently skilled and motivated to
implement this option? What might be in it for them? Who would be the 'assisters'
and change agents? Revisit 'W' in Step 5.
In the decision table on page 87, enter:
A, if you have identified a team who will embrace this option with enthusiasm;
C, if there is a clash of values or interests;
B, if not A or C.
Prompt 7.5: Evaluating Controllability
With some options for change it may be difficult to control the likelihood of success,
lhe extent of the benefits, or the timing of any beneficial impact. Different organiza-
li ons ca n tol erate different degrees of uncertainty or lack of control. There needs to
be a rL'asonabl e match between the degree of control normally required by the
org<1I1iz<1Iion ilnd lhal which is possibl e with the strategic change option that you
oil"(' , ', lnsidcring. I n I u rbulenL limes, f<:ivour options that arc amenable to tight control.
hll' " .1Il1pl, ·, S l,! I nsv Oil WVIT considl'rin); .In opli on 10 merge with <1 coml di -
Itll ', TIll' 111'11011'1011 1.. 11" 1 Hi1(lI Jid Iw I;upd . 11111 I Ill' 1111 '1'/,,('1' wi ll illvolv(' \"I·orgolni /.illll
90 Strategic thinking
who do not understand the purpose of the merger. The speed of the benefits and the
costs of the complication and any resistance to the change will be difficult to control.
Paradoxically, merger options can be easier to implement when times are tight.
People are more likely to :man the boats' when there is a real risk of drowning.
In the decision table on page 87, enter:
A, if the achievement of the expected contribution to 'best hopes' (Step 5) is
highly controllable;
C, if the expected benefit cannot be estimated nor its achievement controlled;
B, if not A or C.
Prompt 7.6: Evaluating Feasibility
At least three areas should be considered: resources, constraints and resistance.
All strategic change requires resources, even if the option is a retrenchment, a
disposal or a de-merger. Whose time will be needed? Is it likely to be available?
Expertise will probably be needed. Does your organization have it, or know where
to get it or know someone who does? Will you need new suppliers, more working
capital or extra space or new packaging? Does your organization have the technology
needed? Will the option generate a need for more control information? Can existing
information systems handle this, or does your organization need more or faster
information-processing capacity? In turbulent times, the key resource will be cash.
Draw up a conservative workable cash flow for each option and favour the options
that require least cash and are most controllable.
Even if your organization has, or can easily obtain the resources, there will be
constraints on how your organization uses them: legal, procedural, health and safety,
environmental, ethical, social, energy, waste disposal, working practices, professional,
national and international standards, embargoes, quotas, export and other licences, lend-
ing limits, borrowing limits and perhaps community-based cultural constraints.
Even if the options can be resourced and could be used within these constraints,
options for strategic change usually need permission or active cooperation from key
actors in the organization (Step 5). Some resistance, from some people, can usually
be managed as part of the change process, but strongly maintained resistance from
key players and decision-makers, eg owners, will greatly reduce the feasibility of
the option.
In the decision table, enter:
A, if the option for strategic change is going to be easy to implement;
C, if the option for strategic change is almost impossible to implement;
B, if not A or C.
Prompt 7.7: Evaluating Impact
Thc impact of an option for changc is the cxtcnt to whi ch it contributcs to fulfilmcnt
of your 'best hopes' (Step 5). Assess how des ir<lbl c the impaci of Ihi :-. 1' 11 .111 )\(' is likely
10 h ~ ' 011 111(' org.lIli z.1Iiol1's:
• Plllpll"',
• 1111.11111" ,
Take strategic decisions 91
• thinking power;
• reputation;
• culture and values.
In the decision table, enter:
A, if the option would make an essential contribution;
C, if the option would make a marginal contribution;
B, if not A or C.
Prompt 7.8: Evaluating Risks
On what assumption does each option depend? Would only a small error in these
assumptions produce consequences that might be catastrophic for the organization?
If so, the option will be too high a risk. Re-read your external appraisal (Step 1).
Are there risks associated with possible changes in the following:
What would be the consequences for your organization if these changes occurred?
For each possible change, consider the relative risks of pursuing the option as
opposed to not pursuing the option. Sometimes the risks and consequences of not
pursuing an option for change are worse than if you pursue it!
In the decision table, enter:
A, if the option carries low risk;
C, if the option carries unreasonable risks that threaten survival;
B, if not A or C.
TAKE STRATEGIC DECISIONS - STEP 7 SUMMARY
St p 7 will helV(' 1H' lp('d you to:
• !\\\('\', 1111 ' W I11f H' IIII V(·III".'" (Oll lrolidlJilily, compatibi lity, fC'clsibility, impa
,11,,1 I I',k o f ('.1(" o f YO'" opllol1'o 101 (llolIHJ('
• 'wlr'( I" ',/trill Ih l "I "plllill', 1111 d\.II\/lI· 10 dl',\(/',', wit II yow f)( '()pl('
• «lfl',IIIr" Ilrr . \111. · IcllllIll 111111 II 1 lid Id II yow 111.11 .... 1. ·( 1(11\
Step 8
Create and communicate
market-led strategy
Step 8 will help you to:
• Forge together some chosen options for change to create synergy, sustainable
advantage and strategic edge
• Create perceived value for customers by energizing an existing brand, a new
business or a global strategy
• Write up and present your strategy to the people, the board, or the bank
CREATE AND COMMUNICATE
MARKET-LED STRATEGY
Try to complete the strategy table; refer to the prompts where you need help. You
have used Steps 1-7 to find desirable and feasible options for strategic change. Now
you will use Step 8 to forge them together into a market-led strategy.
Examine the table. Which of your options for strategic change will fit together
into a synergistic strategy? Selected options must appear in either Box 1 or Box 2, or
hoth in order to qualify for inclusion in your strategy.
Formulating and describing your market-led strategy
Looking back at the options for strategic change you selected in Step 7 ...
Which options confer competitive advantage, through, for example: Box 1

Deciding where to compete? (Prompt 8.1.1)

Deciding how to compete? (Prompt 8.1.2)

Deciding on what to compete? (Prompt 8.1.3)
Which options create additional value, as perceived by your Box 2
customers, through, for example:

Enhanced eye appeal? (Prompt 8.2.1)

Creating systems solutions? (Prompt 8.2.2.)

Socially responsible marketing? (Prompt 8.2.3)

Customer self expression? (Prolllpt 8.2.4)

reating customer intimncy? (Prol1lpt 8.2.5)

Su perinr qua I i I Y pro lucts? ( fJmllll)1 8.2Ji)
Whi cil PPli IH) :-' Ini)',ill 11\ ' 1" 10 hllild hr.)nd ",!llil y hy hllil"lll ),."II,
/I"
'\
1'1',111'111111('1 Llllldl ,llll y. (IIHI\lIIH' I' Ill y, ill y. I'!'.!lld I" )',.!l y. hl'tlild

. ' ___ •• I
- -- -
4 1 ~ _I_ I I II ••••• 1
.J I '
, . ~ • I \
Create and communicate market-led strategy 93
Which options might energize existing business by, for example: Box 4

Increasing usage? (Prompt 8.4.1)

Creating differentiation? (Prompt 8.4.2)

Hitching a ride? (Prompt 8.4.3)
Which options would result in new business? New products or new Box 5
markets? SBUs or SMEs? (Prompt 8.5)
Which options would increase your global reach ... Box 6

By gaining economies of scale?

By exploiting new ideas?

By finding cheaper materials or skills?

By getting closer to your customer?

By avoiding barriers to trade?

By getting close to new technology?

By being selective about sequence?

By enabling you to standardize?

By enabling you to customize?

By forming useful alliances?

By guarding against cannibalism?
(Prompt 8.6)
Which options would enable you to conserve cash and intellectual Box 7
skills by contraction and consolidation ...

By eliminating dogs?

By milking cash cows?

By promoting stars?
(Prompt 8.7)
Now check box 1 and box 2.
If both these boxes are empty:
• re-read the results of Steps 1-4;
• repeat Steps 5 and 6;
• repeat Step 7;
• re-read the prompts in this Step 8.
Conceptualizing your strategy
There are three possible ways for you to write and present the strategy you have
rated.
Possibility 1: Brand strategies
If your selected 01 li ons ,11 peM in Box I and /or Box 2, plus Box 3, you can describe
yll lll' :-. 1 r,l lq;y ,I S' /\ Ilr""d hllilding Slr,llcgy' . If you holVl' oplions also in Box 6, you
,"111 ti, "" I lill ' il .t',' /\ -, I f'.t 1 l'l'.y lor hllildi"g .t )',loh,II hr.tlld '.
94 Strategic thinking
Possibility 2: Growth strategies
If your selected options appear in Box 1 and/ or Box 2 plus Box 4 and/ or Box 5, then
you can describe your strategy as' A Growth Strategy'. If you have options also in
Box 6, it can be described as' A strategy for global growth'.
Possibility 3: Survival strategies
If all your selected options appear in Box 7, revisit your entries. As a minimum you
will need to find some additional entrants for Boxes 1, 2 and 4, funded by some of
the cash you are releasing in Box 7, eg by pruning resource-intensive product lines
or 'high-maintenance' customers. The time, energy and brain power released must
be refocused on sources of competitive advantage (Box 1), customer value (Box 2),
and on generating increased usage and differentiation (Box 4). This will enable your
strategy to be described as 'A strategy to survive and thrive'. The 'thrive' part is
essential to raise the morale of your people and to win board and bank support.
Do not be alarmed if the three possible sets of labels for your strategy seem gran-
diose or academic. The language will be common parlance with most funding bodies
and major stakeholders. Your saving grace will be that you know the practical and
concrete actions that these grand words represent. You know that for each strategic
change you have a good reason. You know how each change contributes to your
'best hope' for the organization. You know how each change fits coherently with the
other changes you want to make. You know that the 'best hope' you have formulated
in Step 5 responds to changes that you know are happening in the world (Step 1).
Your best hope takes advantage of your strengths and your weaknesses (Step 2).
You have tabulated evidence to back up all these points. By the time you have
completed Step 9 you will also have a detailed casted project plan to implement and
manage each strategic change. You can face any 'Dragon's Den' with confidence!
If you need to write up your strategy, go to Prompt 8.0.
If you need to present your strategy, go to Prompt 9.0.
If you need to plan and manage the implementation of any of the strategic
changes that comprise your market-led strategy, go to Step 9.
Prompt 8.0: Stubborn, Reactive or Adaptive?
I ntrod uction
Strategic stubbornness can arise from fad-like advice, such as 'stick to your knitting'
(even as the TItanic sinks?). In turbulent times, stubbornness suits only those companies
whose 'knitting' is based on lowest possible costs, such as Wal-Mart and EasyJet, and
'no frills' strategists like Ryanair. A stubborn strategy of no strategic change often
meshes well with operational approaches like ' continlloll s improvement'. These
approaches often go with a centrali zed control and a directive management s tyle.
Orga ni z<l li ons of len 'sli ck lo lheir knilling' b(' caus(' Ilwy do nol h,)Vl' Ilw s ki ll s lo do
.Inylh ing (' Is(' . Wlwn f,wnl wilh ,) crl'dil cri sis, Ihey m,lY r(' ly ollllll 'i r hi ggn m,lrgins,
s l roll g!'r h,II ,lIl1'" s l1, ', ' ls .lilt! ); 1'1 ', 111"1', '. 1;-. 11 1'\,;-.," v, '. III Iwljlllll ' lll W!', IIIH' I' lilt , ~ , I i ) l " l l l .lIlt!
III.1 y J,i ' l'li" IIJl /l illlli' l"ilt ' .IP' ·.I I II,lIli, '" ilf 111" " II ,t!il , ' 111'1\ h 1\ 111 ' IId l11111 11111 ",', 1'.1 11111 11
Create and communicate market-led strategy 95
a sea change in the market, for example a catastrophic collapse in the value of the
dollar or the need for a major model recall.
An alternative to stubbornly 'sticking to your knitting' is to react quickly to
'events' - any events. When managers, or politicians, react to every random oppor-
tunity that presents itself, like fish that gulp at every piece of bread that is thrown
on the water, they eventually swallow the wrong bait, or get 'hooked' and pulled in
the wrong direction. That said, a deliberate strategy of reactive responsiveness
has worked well for Nike, 3M and HP. This is because their strategy is supported by
decentralized structures, and by the kind of small strategic business units (SBUs)
that we discussed in the case study in Part 1. It is important that these SBUs are led by
marketers.
Similar to reactive responsiveness is adaptiveness. Adaptiveness strives not to be
random. Adaptive organizations try to sift the presenting possibilities and select only
those that are coherent with their view of the way the future is changing. This often
results in modifications to existing offerings. For example, Sports Utility Vehicl es
(SUVs) look increasing unattractive in the face of concerns about CO
2
emissions,
and rising fuel prices. However, their large car bodies make them potential test beds
for hybrid cars. Hybrid cars need to carry the weight and bulk of supplementary
electric motors, extra batteries and Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS). To
make adaptiveness work as a strategy for business, you need to use strategic think-
ing skills to evaluate future trends and dismiss transient 'fads' (Stepl). You will also
need a strategic style that helps your organization to respond quickly and decisively
(See Part I, Section 1). This points to the need for creative thinking (Part I, Section 3,
and Step 6). Pilot testing must be readily funded. It must be ok to make mistakes and
even fail from time to time (see Part 1, case study). Test pilots must always be
rescued, no matter how badly injured. They must be protected from administrative
retribution. Microsoft adapted from being solely in operating systems by adding
applications software, development capability and net-based businesses.
Even when companies have the resources, skills and market intelligence to see
and respond to what they see in the future - even then, they do not always succeed.
Often they cannot execute. That is why The 9S© Approach lays such emphasis on
the need to separate, and separately value, the roles of marketing leadership and
management execution. In Step 7, five out of six of your decision-making criteria
relate to feasibility and compatibility, not just desirability. You need vision plus
competitiveness. According to Hamel and Prahalad, it is this combination that
explained the success, up to 1989 at least, of Canon, Komatsu and Honda. Canon
refused to sleep until it had 'beaten Xerox', Komatsu set out to 'encircle Caterpillar'
and Honda to 'compete with Ford'.
In Part I, Section 3 and in Step 6 we have argued that metaphorical thinking and
rea tive thinking were the real differentia tors that enabled Canon and Honda to
defea t Xe rox and Ford . NEC explicitl y looked for synergy between its expertise in
omputing ill1d experti se in telecommuni ca tions. Toshiba sought sustainable
compl'lili vl' adv;1I1l.l gl' in lIu,l lity, reliability and product fea tures. Coca-Cola 'got
Ill cky' with .I colour cl1 uin' . ('0 \ 1 CUl.l 'S SUI , .. il)r di s tribution enabled Cok' to find
.I str,Il I')',i\' 1'1 1),,\' \l \ ., ' I"' p,i
W,' 1' 111 1 IH 1W , II Wil Y;1 ill w ll il'll Y(1 11 111(11".111 ", 'lli ('v(' HY"l 'q',y" \'oll1pl'li
Il v ,' , ld v, IIII,, ),,\' .111.1 11 11'.1" ')',11 ' (' d )',I'
96 Strategic thinking
Prompt 8.1: Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage
- Three ways to consider
SECURING
SUSTAINABLE
COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE
Prompt 8.1.1: Where to Compete?
Even if you have necessary and sufficient strengths to enter a particular market, you
will not automatically have a sustainable competitive advantage in that market.
Your competitors may be even stronger or quicker than you are. It would be better
to enter a market where you were in a weak position, as long as the competition
were weaker still.
The bluebell is a flower that grows in woodlands. In the woods there is little light.
The bluebell would grow much better in the sunlight in the open field. The problem
is that there are other plants in the open field that grow even better than the bluebell.
But these strong field plants would die in the dark of the woods. That is why the
bluebell chooses to survive and thrive in the dark of the woods. As long as the
woods stay dark, the bluebell has a sustainable competitive advantage. Even
the bluebell should keep a weather eye open for the effects of climate change!
Lexus has a network of dealers that allow it to compete with the other automotive
manufacturers. The Lexus dealers are trained and resourc d to provide a customer
experi ence that is superior to that provided by other dealerships (or other makes of
car. Even then, thl' cOll1p(' titi v(' hy I ,I'" (I S 1l1 .ly j\l'ri sh. It is n()t a
('()l11p(' titi vl' ,1l IV.1I11.1) ;l' tl1.11 is I'.I SY to S II S t.lill . Oll.llil ,I "llIllP"liliv\' .!d v. lllt.l );\'
f(ll' MI'I', '!' d, 'H, illltilllMW , 111111.11',11011' 1".1111110 IlIdldl II , Now III' IHII,)lI) ',,' !', ()II ,II Iy
Create and communicate market-led strategy 97
Hyundai's value engineering and low-cost manufacturing techniques are only a
source of competitive advantage in the budget car sector, and only there for as long
as its costs are low enough to give it good margins at prices significantly lower than
its competitors. Ikea's Scandinavian designs for housewares worked while self-
assembly was fun. Its original customer base has now reached an age where it is no
longer fun and Ikea's lack of a no-quibble refund, when you don't like the finished
assembly, may be its undoing.
Prompt 8.1.2: How to Compete?
Sources of sustainable competitive advantage
The table is a checklist of 20 common sources of competitive advantage, based on
research by David Aaker. Try to find at least six sources of advantage on which you
would outscore your likely competition and on which you could see ways to stay
ahead of them.
Twenty potential sources of competitive advantage - a useful checklist
1. Product quality
2. Customer help line
3. Brand recognition
4. Well trained people
5. Low costs
6. Cash reserves
7. Superior features
8. Testimony from satisfied customers
9. A specialistfocus
10. Continuous updates or free upgrades
11. High market share
12. Wide distribution and availability
13. Low prices or frequent offers
14. Being a new entrant - fresh and 'trying harder'
15. Flexible responsiveness to customers
16. A good sales force
17. Employees s hare the orga ni zation's 'vision'
18. LOGlliOIl clos(' 10 nlsl omers
19. FIIIIII( ' f." 11' )\ 111.11',1) ",·",, ·,,1
98 Strategic thinking
When considering the potential source of competitive advantage in the table, favour
those that will make your product harder to substitute, harder to copy, and harder
for a disloyal employee to lift and take to a competitor (or use in a business start-up).
If you do not have at least six sources of competitive advantage already, locate your
position on the graph below.
Higher
Price Consider Consider
• New Design • Raising Prices
• New Method • Promoting Product
• Deleting Product • Reducing Costs
- -- ---------- -----------r------ ---------------- -
Lower
Price
Consider
• Offering Upgrades
• Redesign
• Separate Distribution
Lower Quality
,
: Consider:
: • Raising Prices
: • Promoting Product
: • Contract Supply
Higher Quality
Prompt 8.1.3: On What to Compete?
Sources of customer value
To a customer, BMW's value is driver appeal. For the iPod it is eye appeal. For
Wal-Mart it is price. Look at what customers see in you and consider how customers
might compare what they see in you with what they see elsewhere. This will help
you to crystallize what counts as customer value. Any sustainable strategy must
add to the value that is perceived by your customers. This added value must be
communicated in such a way that customers remember what you communicated
(see Part I, Section 2). How many people remember that Subaru's brakes are
superior? Even amongst those that do, will their next choice of car turn on braking
performance? Relevance is as important as memorability. There will be no point
making the best SUV in the world when 98 per cent of SUVs in the world are parked
at Jurassic Park!
Does the increased customer value offered in your proposed change create any
significant difference between the customer value you will offer and the value
already offered by others? Or is it merely par for the course - a point of parity? Even
if it is a point of significant difference rather than a point of parity, is this significant
difference sustainable? If it is easily copied, someone will copy it. Once you have an
idea for a valuable proposal that is relevant to the unmet needs of enough customers
and which cannot be readily matched by a counter-offer from a competitor, you
hi.lve to decide whether or not you ou ld defend thi s uniqueness, ,1Ild for how long.
If defl'nCl' wOlild r('quirl' ('onsl.lIl l, Il'chn ic li illlproVl'llH'lll s ,lilt! 1(' ,'1 ' fro););in); , d()
Uti h,lV\' Ih\' Ih'('('ss,lry 1('(' hlli l',iI s h.ill s, ()r ('(Hdd yll tl :-> 1111(' 0111,'" , '1 Ih"l1l II il w()l lid
n"plirc ' ,1)',)',I" '/IHi ,. I, ·)", d ," ' l il 1l1 10 dl'l"' ld ,I p,oI"1\1, "lIpy, l),, 111 III' "III"j " 1'111:,1 II y, dl l
Create and communicate market-led strategy 99
image, Pringles the convenience of its pack and Dolby its rights to licence fees for
the use of its sound systems.
Prompt 8.2: Creating Customer Value
Six possible sources
One way to discover if you can create customer value that might be a source or
sustainable competitive advantage is to consider this figure:
Quality
Experience?
Eye-Appeal?

Expression?
Prompt 8.2.1: Eye appeal
System
Solutions?
Intimate
Relationships?
Social
programmes?
A first possible source of customer value is eye appeal. These are some of the easiest
unique selling points (USPs) to protect. Aston Martin and Jaguar have race-bred
design cues that have been unmistakable down the decades. Launching the Apple
iPhcne, CEO Steve Jobs claimed that 'design is the soul of any man-made creation'.
Design may turn out to be a necessary but not sufficient condition at Apple, if the
hubris and gadget focus of CEO Steve Jobs leads to staff defections. People are not
ma hines. Bigger may not equal better where gadgets are concerned.
Prompt 8.2.2: Whole systems
/\ III (, II s I Il III !'!' v,l llll' i s (p sl' lI whole systems. For l'X,lmpll',
'111 111111 .Ill1l 1111 '111'" "Y'.!( ' ''I '' 1I('('d 1(1 111' It!lrlll,lIl y 1' ()I1l I) .Ilihll' , Tlli s \'I'!'.I ll's !'ll s I OI11('!'
v, rlIII ' I (1I , IIld 1 " ', rll "I IIIII'IH'IIII V" ,,, I V.lIlI.l)',I ' IIlI S( 1I1 1'llIl lll 'I ' LIIlI"
11111 '1'1111",,1 " 1111' L, y c' l ,Y' ''c'Il1 II' II'r! Ir y 1'l rll , 1I1 III rI 'l IlIilrllHlI' ,'"11 illr!"11i 11(1111111) ',
100 Strategic thinking
Next housewares are often in colours that are hard to mix with items from other
retailers.
Prompt 8.2.3: CSR
A third potential source of value is to have a policy of corporate and social respon-
sibility (CSR). CSR programmes are often easier than products to make distinctive.
Petrol, gas, oil and diesel are pretty much the same, whichever brand you choose,
but BP's investment in conservation and renewable energy is distinctive. Likewise,
Body Shop and Ben and Jerry's have established positions on CSR. The 'HP Way'
and ICI's 'People First' programmes distinguished them from other manufacturers
of computers or paints. According to the June 2003 edition of Fortune, 90 per cent of
CEOs reported that socially responsible management and marketing had increased
their share value. This was backed up by tracking the share prices of 300 firms
that had adopted CSR policies. By way of contrast, according to a Greenpeace poll,
Esso lost 7 per cent of its turnover as a result of the 'Stop Esso' campaign, when
Esso denied the call of the Kyoto conference for increased research into renew-
able energy.
Prompt 8.2.4: Customers expressing their own values
A reputation for social responsibility can confer a fourth source of customer value -
a means whereby customers can express their own values. The Toyota Prius has
benefited from a certain degree of smugness on the part of some of its drivers, but
this will not protect Toyota from concerns about vehicle safety.
Prompt 8.2.5: Customers' relationships with the product
Some customers value an intimate relationship with a product, service or brand. An
alliance of Starbuck's Equitrade Coffee with bookshops sought to create a customer
experience that is 'feel at home', or a local community meeting place, rather than
high street coffee shop. Virgin Airways and Harley-Davidson have an intimate
relationship with their customers.
Prompt 8.2.6: Superior quality
After the previous five sources of customer value, we turn now to a sixth more
traditional source of customer value - superior quality.
To be perceived as a source of value by a customer, the superiority of the quality
must be commensurate with any higher price to be paid. Even though most customers
recognize that 'there is no such thing as a free lunch', they will soon lose their
appetite if they think that the bill is going to be exorbitant. We will consider quality
and price separately, although they are thought of together by the customer, when
the customer computes 'va lue for money' .
Superior qualil y is a pcri shi1 bl e C() ll1pdili vl' ad va nl ag(· . Adlll ill"dl y, il \, .111 hoWl'
" long slwlf li f(' . 1': v\'11 Ill!' C() lllI Wlili v\' .ld v.lnldgl' 111,,1 I"p.III1 ·:,I' l' I,·, 'll il lli, 's 1ll.11ill
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Create and communicate market-led strategy 101
over their US rivals. The advantage perished when computer-based quality systems
became universal. Even Lexus - the originator of the tagline ' the relentless pursuit
of perfection' - has recently tried to breathe some life back into this message. Lexus
has changed its tagline to the ' passionate pursuit of perfection'. Perfection alone
will not be enough. It is boring. It will not engender emotion. As we saw in
Part I, Sections 2 and 3, and will see again in Step 9, a minimum necessary condition
for actions, like signing cheques or placing the orders, is belief, and belief requires
emotion as well as thought. The 'relentless pursuit of perfection' engenders no
emotion. 'Perfection' only had value when customers were daily dismayed by the
faults and delivery errors of European and US motor manufacturers. Customers
now expect their cars to start first time and to be firmly screwed together.
While customer satisfaction is not a sustainable advantage, frequently exceeding
customer's expectations can be. To frequently exceed a customer's expectations you
need to manage those expectations. 'Delight' might count as customer value - the
unexpected extra mile - but compliance with a quality standard, will not, however
high the standard.
Another difficulty in trying to use superior quality as a source of competitive
advantage is that the customer often does not know how to recognize superior qual-
ity. To a customer, a smell of lemon or bleach might convey a high standard of
hygiene. A deep 'clunk' door noise might represent a strong, safe car. In clothing
and shoes, a high price is often equated with high quality. Take care. The higher the
standards you signal, the harder they are to exceed and the greater is the scope for
disappointment.
Only in areas where a low price does not automatically signal low quality will
your customer attach value to getting your product for a bargain price. To avoid
overpricing your whole product range, you may have to use a different brand name,
product number, or packaging, for a lower price offering. You might consider sell-
ing under a supermarket own brand label, or at an 'off peak' price. In this way, scale
economies can help to lower your overall costs, thereby improving the margins on
your higher priced offerings. In tighter times you can avoid losing customers if they
can trade down to your budget lines, like the supersavers on Virgin Trains, or the
budget tickets on EasyJet or Ryanair. This implies a constant driving down of costs
even in the boom times, so as to create the capacity to survive when times get hard.
Dell and Amazon have cut out the cost of intermediaries. Wal-Mart replenishes its
shelves direct from its suppliers' warehouse or from their just-in-time production,
thereby saving Wal-Mart around 25 per cent on stock holding costs and 30 per cent
on staffing costs (Aaker, 2002).
So, we have looked at three ways to gain sustainable advantage over your com-
petitors and six possible sources of extra value that you can try to create for you
customers. It is said that you will also have an advantage over your competitor if
your produ t name or company brand is familiar to your customer. So it is to brand
building that we n 'xttUJ"Il . We look at six ways to build a brand.
Prompt 8.3: Building a Brand - Equity and Identity
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102 Strategic thinking
makes to the value of an organization's equity - was termed 'brand equity'. As
brand equity has risen in importance, so has the leadership role of the marketing
team in building and defending brand equity.
Prompt 8.3.1: Three Components of Brand Equity
BRAND
LOYALTY?
BRAND
FAMILIARITY?
CAN YOU BUILD UP
BRAND EQUITY
THROUGH . ..
BRAND
IDENTITY?
Familiarity with a company or product is one of the top three sources of competitive
advantage. Having a well-known brand is a major contributor to familiarity. People
prefer the familiar to the unfamiliar; they prefer the known to the unknown (which
they often fear). Brand familiarity determines most customers' choice of soap, tooth-
paste and chewing gum. Brand familiarity has been shown to influence tasting
trials, even when the products have been switched. Sometimes it is no more than a
matter of recall- if yours is the only name the customer can remember, you generally
get the purchase. Consider names of tissues (only Kleenex?) or cream cheese (only
Philadelphia?) Because the neural pathways associated with prior recalls are the
most heavily myelinated (see Part 1, Section 3), they are hard to dislodge. This gives
you an advantage over potential competitors. It creates a significant barrier to their
late entry into your market. Rather than perishing over time, brand familiarity gets
stronger with each recall or reminding. The more recalls, the stronger the neural
links in the brain. Most people can remember up to 30 brand names unprompted
(of which 25 will usually be more than 25 years old, of which 10 will usually be more
than 70 yea rs old!)
Sometimes customers di splay a loya lty to a brand that is independent of the prod-
u t. It is ca ll ed brand loya lty. ony, for example, ca n now pu t its n:1I1w () n compulers
:In<l ca meras, no longer jll s l Oil porl ,l hll' radios, ' I) pl ,lycrs ,1I1d Slll, 1I1 s(' rv(,11 TVs.
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Create and communicate market-led strategy 103
less costly than recruiting new ones. Existing customers can sometimes be induced
to recommend your brand to a friend. Brand loyalty should be rewarded with
unexpected offers or deals.
If your brand is to be maintained, or built upon, it is important to understand
what your brand name means to the customer. Understanding your brand's mean-
ing reduces the need to have to keep shouting about your product features. That
makes it more difficult for a competitor to outshout you by claiming to have better
features. This helps to avoid specification wars. Specification wars can cost a lot of
money and are unnecessary if your customer already thinks that your brand has
the strongest features. Ferrari already means exclusivity. Apple for the moment
means cool. Virgin already means Richard Branson. Customers already feel safe in
a Volvo; exhilarated in a BMW and excited when watching MTY. Customers express
individuality by wearing Rohan clothes, convey success wearing a Rolex or sophist-
ication when wearing Birkenstock shoes. These features of the brand - sometimes
called brand values - all add to what the brand means to the customer. They do not
need to be over-blown. Care does need to be taken that they are not negated. Brand
meanings that are hard for a competitor to replicate create high barriers to entry by
a new competitor. Together these meanings contribute to your brand identity. It is to
brand identity that we now turn.
Prompt 8.3.2: Creating Brand Identity
There are three contributions to consider:
BRAND
PERSONALITY?
BRAND LEGACY?
CAN YOU BUILD
YOUR BRAND
IDENTITY
THROUGH ...
BRAND
RE-POSITIONING?
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104 Strategic thinking
Burberry personality was ' posh' . Market strategists worked hard to get customers
to change their perception of the Burberry brand from a 'posh' maker of raincoats,
to a 'cool' fashion label.
The Levi personality, on the other hand, is tough. Harley-Davidson is macho.
Porsche is pushy. Virgin has the underdog personality of its owner, Richard Branson.
Branson has mounted audacious attacks on hitherto stable markets, with fanfare,
feisty humour and competence. Virgin has been able to associate these personable
attributes of its owner with a Virgin brand identity that now embraces shops, record
labels, airlines and rail lines. Will Richard exploit Virgin's 'trusted' personality to
move into the 'mistrusted' banking and personal finance sector? We think so.
Whereas brand legacy is a given from history, and brand personality may reflect
the present owner, brand repositioning can be the result of plans and actions by
marketing strategists. To develop their plans and actions, marketing strategists need
to formulate aspirational attributes for their brand's identity and seek, over time, to
get their customers to change their ideas about the brand' s personality or meaning,
and in particular, their ideas about where the brand sits in relation to competitive
brands. Sometimes pricing helps to determine positioning; sometimes pricing is
limited by positioning. In Europe, Schweppes managed to get customers to reposition
tonic water from being a mixer for alcoholic drinks to an adult non-alcoholic drink
in its own right. Fuji's quick footwork exploited changing technology to get itself
repositioned from being a quality brand of photographic film to a brand of digital
cameras and photo-printers. Burger King and KFC, and especially McDonalds, have
so far failed to get themselves repositioned by customers as a place to eat healthy
food. Given McDonald's brand legacy, this is not surprising.
So far, in Step 8, we have looked at ways in which you can categorize or increase
your list of options for strategic change that you generated in Step 7, in order to
forge synergy, give strategic edge, create competitive advantage, add to customer
value, or to build on a brand. In the end, you might decide to settle for strategic
changes that merely put energy into the existing business.
Prompt 8.4: Energizing the Existing Business
In times of crisis, organizations often surprise themselves by finding the energy to
reduce costs, redeploy assets or reorganize. Perhaps it is the downsizing involved in
these activities that realizes the organizational energy - in the same way that people
who have lost weight through exercise often find they are less tired or have more
energy than when they were heavier or more slothful. But there is a limit. Eventually
you reach a point when any further rationalizations, office closures or productivity
schemes will debilitate the organization. People lose morale and motivation once
they can see only job losses, or losses of job prospects. One answer is to use some of
the cash you release to re-energize the business. There are three things to consider,
shown in the following figure: increasing usage; differentiating yourself from com-
petitors; and associating yourself with customers, organi za ti ons or brands that are
already perceived to be nergetic, ie hit hing a ride.
Create and communicate market-led strategy 105
DIFFERENTIATION?
INCREASING
USAGE?
CAN YOU ENERGIZE
YOUR EXISTING
BUSINESS BY ...
Prompt 8.4.1: Increasing Usage
HITCHING A RIDE?
Increasing usage can be achieved by increasing the frequency of use of the product
or the quantity used. Surprisingly, it is often easier to increase the usage of people
who are already high users. Airlines look after frequent flyers and it is the known
high rollers who get special treatment at Las Vegas.
Look at any barriers to increased use. Try to make your product easier to use. Can
you, for example, provide an easy-to-use dispenser? Can you make the packaging
'microwave friendly', or just easier to open or reseal? Make your product easier to
choose. For example, Listerine Total Care saves having to read lots of confusing
labels on all the Listerine variants. Pester power incentives can include book vouch-
ers for local schools, flowers for your partner, or a free drink at a restaurant. Free
drinks do not cost much - maybe one sixth of the voucher value - and this is more
than compensated by the margin on the food, sandwich or cake that will probably
be purchased with the drink. Coding on the voucher tells you which medium
worked best. If you can get them to fill in an e-mail address, or mobile number, or
'v en just an occupation, the added value to your data base will outweigh the raw
materi al cost of their ' free' drink.
Remove disincentives. A shampoo designed specifically for those who would like
rrt'shl y washed hair every day might remove their fear of making their hair too dry.
I ,ower ca lori es, lower salt, or lower lmsaturated fat might reduce a reluctance to
'',It nut. Many people do not renew things for no other reason than they don' t
rc ' nwmhcr to do it. Remind them about car washing, lawn mowing, or renewing
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106 Strategic thinking
Prompt 8.4.2: How to Differentiate
In Step 6 we used creative thinking to come up with a long list of inventive ideas
for strategic change, which you then evaluated in Step 7. One of your criteria for
selecting options was to look for options that created differentiation from com-
petitors. Some differentials are hard to maintain. Competitors will replicate and
even copy in a desperate rush to play 'catch up' or 'me-too'. The differences you set
out to create must not only be valued by your customers; they must also be easy to
defend or maintain. Individually themed rooms at the Relais du Bois St George Hotel,
in Saintes, increased return booking rates by more than 20 per cent (especially for the
dungeon room and the 20,000 leagues underwater room). Incidentally, this was a
bigger increase than when the Relais du Bois restaurant won an extra Michelin star!
If you have increased your usage and made yourself different in a sustainable
way that the customer values, and it is still not enough, can you hitch a ride?
Prompt 8.4.3: Hitching a Ride
Can you hitch your wagon to a 'star'? Something that already has 'star' quality, is
interesting and eye catching, changing and youthful, cool and contemporary,
involving not boring? Almost any product could hitch a useful ride from a quirky
brand like Virgin, Apple, or Innocent. While Samsung did go from a cheap Korean
import to major US brand in the reflected glory of the Beijing Olympics, such cases
are rare. Of the 100 or so other Olympic sponsors, we have found little evidence
of customer memorability, let alone buying influence. Local sponsorship of sports
trophies, charity raffles and school prizes seems to be more effective. A less common
hitch is to the charisma of a CEO, or a CMO market leader. Sloan, Weinstock and
Iacocca were emblematic of the companies they managed, just as Richard Branson,
Steve Jobs and Bill Gates have personified the brand character of Virgin, Apple and
Microsoft. Ghandi, Luther King and Nelson Mandela modelled the way they wanted
their followers to work. The larger the existing business, the greater its inertia and
the harder it is to energize. Think about SBUs (Part 1, case study). Sometimes it is
easier to create a new business.
Prompt 8.5: Creating a New Business
When you review the feasible and desirable options for strategic change that
emerged from your creative work in Step 6, and your evaluation in Step 7, you may
find some combinations that would involve selling a new product into a new
market. This would result in an entirely new business.
Received wisdom says that you should accord entirely new business combina-
tions a low priority. We do not agree. Whilst is it true that new businesses will be
amongst your higher risk options, they should not be ignored. If you never have any
new business options in your strategic portfolio, you wi ll not earn
returns for your SC' tor and you will always pay more th, n Ihe rate for new
capit'l!. Your Ch'lIlCl"S of long l erm surviv,ll wil l ,l lso I t' 1('ss(,llt'd.
()III 01 I,')() l 'OIIlPdllil 'S W lio.4 ( ' IWr/lll"lll,lIl('( 'S W('i'( ' 11',1('1 I'd PVI' I' ,I 111'l'il\( 1 ill li vl'
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Create and communicate market-led strategy 107
to Foster and Kaplan (2001), of the 500 top US companies in 1997, only 74 had
existed 40 years earlier; the rest, ie 426 out of 500, were new. The best chances of
finding a profitable innovative new business is when you have a long list of possi-
bilities from which to choose. If your organization displays too much inertia, or too
much resistance to setting up new businesses (because of understandable fea r of
cannibalizing existing products or markets), then consider adopting the SBU styl '
and structures described in the Part I case study.
One of the best ways to win competitive advantage, add to customer va lue,
increase brand equity, energize an existing business, or to increase your chances or
starting a new one, is to go global. The next prompt discusses the nine things you
need to think about before you go global.
Prompt 8.6: Going Global - 9 Things to Think About
A global strategy is more than a strategy for different nati onal markets. A global
strategy is one that draws on a full range of worldwide perspectives to feed crca ti Vl'
thinking and elicit innovatory possibilities for strategic change. Products or progra m mcs
developed in one country are systematically considered for each other country. Ford
intelligently anticipated the 2008 credit crisis by taking out a huge loan that enabled
them to hold onto their equity. If they bring their economy car technology from
Europe into the US market, they may exploit the relative vulnerability of General
Motors and Chrysler. Cost advantages are sought by sourcing the lowest labour or
material costs. Production is created close to customers and bypasses tariff and
non-tariff barriers to trade. As we discovered in Step 1, a TEMPLES analysis needs
to be global in scope. The competition is global.
Avoiding
Tariffs
108 Strategic thinking
A study by Holt et al (2004) of 1,500 customers spread over 40 countries, showed
a preference for buying products perceived as global. Global products were seen
as higher in prestige, quality and innovation. A higher price could be charged.
Companies like Coca-Cola have achieved lower costs through economies of scale
gained by using the same production technologies, information systems and market-
ing themes throughout the world. Ideas can come from anywhere and then be rolled
out country-by-country, like the Pantene strap-line 'hair that shines'. It originally came
from Taiwan. Raw materials from Brazil can be used to manufacture components in
Korea, which are then assembled in Mexico and programmed with software from
India. Assembly close to the customer creates local goodwill. Peugeot and Toyota
carry out final assembly in more than 20 countries. It can be worthwhile to have an
operation in Silicon Valley in California, just to stay abreast of technology.
But where to start? Which countries to select first? Six sets of questions are worth
asking to help you decide:
In which country should you grow your market?
l. Is the potential market large or growing?
(Such questions favour consideration of China, India, Russia and Brazil.)
2. Will you be bringing something to that country that is currently missing and
which you have reasonable grounds for believing will be valued by your
envisaged customers?
(According to Victoria Griffiths, Tesco deliberately sought countries where
internet shopping was still in its infancy.)
3. How aggressively will local competitors react?
(When Tesco was eyeing up Europe, it avoided neighbouring France and
started in Hungary.)
4. Can you get started with minimal cultural adaptation?
(If Marks & Spencer had thought about this, it would not have transplanted its
UK operation unchanged into Europe. It suffered grievously.)
5. Are local media or legal systems easily corrupted? How eaSily will you protect
your intellectual property, your colours, or your packaging?
(Counterfeit packaging of pharmaceuticals is a serious problem in Pakistan.
According to David Aaker, Coke and Pepsi were attacked through false
accusations of pesticide contamination in India, and Proctor & Gamble
cosmetics came under similar pressure in China.)
6. Can you develop sufficient sales with sufficient speed to pay for the overhead
structure you will need in that country?
(According to The Economist (January 29th, 2000), Wal-Mart took 10 years to
realize that it was not going to get traction in Europe. It is difficult to export
even a successful home business model if that model depends on market
dominance. Few competitors in your target country are going lo sit on lheir
h;lI1ds whi le YOll ca rve a dominant sli ce oul their loc. 1i 111.1,."(· 1 )
Create and communicate market-led strategy 109
Critical mass is more likely to be attained more quickly when several neighbouring
countries are entered at once. This requires more capital and it therefore carries
more risk. But it can sidestep the defences of competitors who anticipate that their
country is next on your list. While a sequential campaign can enable you to custom ize
your entry into each country, learning as you go, a broad front advance enables you
to standardize your offer. Which approach - customization or standardization - is
preferable?
The case for a standardization approach to globalization has been strongly argucd
by people like Levitt (1985). Standardization assumes progressive homogenization
of global taste, economies of scale that enhance price competitiveness, and potential
customers ascribing more value to a product that is perceived to be global. By using
broadly similar products, packaging, and promotional techniques in every country,
companies like IBM, Nike, BP, Vodafone, Dove, Sony, MTV and Visa have managed
to establish themselves in most countries in the world.
On closer examination, even global brands are locally tweaked. Pringle crisp
flavours reflect local preferences for salt or spice. Visa carries a different logo in
Argentina. The discipline of trying to find a brand identity that works in all markets
can help you to work out the core values of your product. Throughout the world,
Sprite is pitched to youngsters who want a refreshing quench for their thirst. Period.
No coke, no image, no hype, no hyperbole. Just 'quench your thirst' . Mercedes and
Mont Blanc are everywhere 'the best'. At one time, a customer value that travelled
well was 'American'. It was much 'cooler' than 'British' or 'European'. 'American'
as a customer value is now problematic. Even for brands as 'American' as Levi or
KFC, it can be better or safer to be perceived as 'global'. In any event, the label
'American' has little traction in the United States, which is one of the world's largest
markets for goods and services!
Standardization may not be as advantageous as it first appears. It may be better
to think globally but act locally, especially when standardization compromises
customer value or customer convenience. It was a handicap to Canon that its 'global'
copier would not conveniently handle paper sizes that varied from country to country.
Nissan eventually decided to agree corporate fleet deals country by country. Even
though Du Pont thought globally that 'Nothing Moves Like Lycra', Du Pont
allowed Lycra in Brazil to focus on swimwear, while Paris focused on fashion. This
table has three examples to do with markets, motivations and meaning:
Markets
The Merits of Standardization
In the UK, where Ford has a dominant customer base, Ford could
promote its Galaxy or S Max to the executive market. This would never
work in France, where it pitches up against the class-defining Renault
Espace, or in Germany, where it would compete against the quality
cngirw('ring reputation of the Volkswagen Sharran. In the USA and UK,
Ii olld" I ( ) p ~ Ill\' J n Powers Ratings, which it exploits against the inferior
PI ,r/Orllllllh'I' of lJS nnd Fllropcan built ca rs. In the UK, Honda
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110 Strategic thinking
Motivation In technophile markets like Germany, Canon can enter a specification
war against other copiers. In Finland, people like their machines
simple, and simple to use: feature complexity is a turn-off there. In
Madagascar, the ease with which you can get Toyota's LandCruiser
serviced confers advantage over Landrover ' s Discovery or Range
Rover, which are arguably superior vehicles. Toyota, however, would
not gain anything by promoting its dealer network in countries where
convenient servicing is taken for granted. Toyota's dominant position
in the world enables component standardization to bring advantageous
economics of scale but at the same time, this makes Toyota very
vulnerable to a safety critical component failure that might involve
multi-million dollar costs of an international recall.
Meaning Standardized product names can have unfortunate meanings in some
countries. The Ford Fiesta means 'ugly old woman' in South America
and the Rolls Royce 'Silver Ghost' translates into something very rude
in France!
Under strategies for going global we have looked at strategies for generating global
growth and global economies. Under global choices we looked at choosing target
countries, and at choosing between strategies for standardization or customization.
We turn finally to strategies based on alliances.
Strategic alliances are important because it is unusual for any new entrant to possess
all the factors necessary for success in a new market. Often, the new entrant lacks
local distribution, or a local name, or a local sales force. Perhaps it needs local assembly
or a local packaging facility. In the past, even giant corporations like Ford have
turned to Mazda or Nissan to share development costs and to gain access to Eastern
markets. When JVC gained access to European customers, Phillips gained access to
its recording technology. There must be mutual benefit and long-term self-interest
for both parties, otherwise the strategic alliance will not last. A strategic alliance
may start as an informal agreement, which should, never-the-Iess, be written down.
The agreement may evolve into a joint venture, perhaps based on shared equity.
Always play the strategic long game. Partners who pursue tactical short-term gains
in gross margin by outsourcing production, design work and software development
will soon be hollowed out by their partners, as their partners gain expertise in produc-
tion, engineering and design. These thinking skills are the real wealth-generating,
value-adding assets of the 21st century. The partner that gains them leaves the
other with only a role in sales and distribution. Once these last two roles are
finessed, the other partner becomes a hollowed-out shell. Strategic alliances need
to be clearly managed and monitored for early warning signs of cannibalism.
Managers in FTSE 100 and Fortune 500 companies need to be 'heads up':
Failures to think strategically, rather than failures in regulation, will cause economi c
power to shift from the United States and the United Kingdom to countri es li ke
hina, India and Brazil. (Simon Wootton)
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Create and communicate market-led strategy 111
urgent need may be for rapid contraction and divestment, rather than growth, to
release and conserve cash and key intellectual skills. We look next at strategies for
contraction and consolidation.
Prompt 8.7: Strategies for Contraction and Consolidation
Since the 1960s, the model of choice for considering contraction and consolidation
has been the one researched by the Boston Consulting Group, often called the BCG
model. The idea is to analyse and eliminate your 'dogs' - products or businesses
with low market share and slow growth prospects. Not all cash released should go
to reserves - some should go to the 'stars'. 'Stars' are the products or businesses
with the greatest potential for future fast growth. In the meantime, established
products with solid sales and market shares should be 'milked' as ' cash cows' -
without further substantial investment. Franchising, licensing or selling your
design rights should be considered. Low-volume products with future potential,
however, should not be sold. In turbulent times, you don't get a good price for
potential. Such products should be put on the back burner or in cold storage until
the turbulence subsides. Given that, on average, four in five new businesses will
eventually fail anyway, it should not be difficult to find candidates to divest. This is
where your decision making will benefit from strategic thinking. Run your candi-
dates for divestment through Steps 1-7 before deciding whether they should stay or
go. Keep the best and sell the rest.
Those kept for today's 'milk' must be able to maintain their yields without further
technical development, and with only self-funded minor changes in packaging or
promotion. Milk cows sometimes survive to enjoy resurgent stardom -like porridge
oats as a health food, or fountain pens as high status alternatives to ballpoint pens.
More often, they go into slow decline. This is because they are not attractive to the
most thrusting brain power. 'Milking' presents less of a critical or creative thinking
challenge than new product development or new market development. Lack of stimu-
lation and challenge lowers the energy of the product teams, and that feeds into the
slow decline. Even the best milking cows need to be re-impregnated periodically; it
boosts their declining yields. Even if you are able to attract clever people to act as
cow hands, they will find it hard to stay alert while managing a steady-as-she-goes
strategy. If they miss a key competitor going digital, or reducing salt levels, or bringing
in a hybrid technology, then your cash cow may need to be slaughtered prematurely.
Prompt 8.8: Writing Your Strategy
Start by completing the table on the first page of this Step 8. This will help you to
finalize a combination of feasible and discrete strategic changes that best forge
together into a coherent strategy. Doing this will also give you some language and
I ' rminology with whi ch lo describe the strategy you have created. You can li se this
kind of l'lIl gll .lgl' in ,1 documenl or ,1 presenlalion for the bank or an agency cli ent,
hili y011 s it o ltld II SI ' il sp.tri 11 ),, 1 Y il1s idv y01l1' own orgn ni z,lti on it 0:111 nli l' nall' many
(If III(' I (' y (SIt '1' I,) Oil WIHlIl1 y() 111' illlpl"11H'Ilt.lli () 11 will dl'Jwnd .
112 Strategic thinking
First create an executive summary - about 500 words - on one side of A4. Use the
pro-forma in the box below:
A PRO-FORMA FOR AN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This is an FGK (insert name label from the table on the first page of this
Step 8) strategy to increase cash reserves from X to Y, or income from X to Y,
or earnings per share from X to Y, or a proportion of earnings from products
less than five years old, from X to Y. It will cost A to implement (or release net
capital B from asset sales) (insert the relevant numbers for X, Y, A and B).
This strategy recognizes changes that will take place in the period (Year P to
Year N) in technology, world economics, competition, supply, price levels, dis-
tribution, politics, regulation, environmental and social issues, and these
changes are summarized in Appendix I (this will be your Table 2.1 from Step 1).
This market-led strategy seeks to exploit existing strengths in S, T, U and Vand
avoid or address current weaknesses in C, D and E. These strengths and weak-
nesses are summarized in Appendix II (This will be your summary Table 2.3
from Step 2). If we do not make any change the consequences will be ... (see
worst case scenario, Appendix III).
Owners, key customers, key people associated with our key processes, own-
ers and key stakeholders in our organization have been consulted (illustrate
with actual names) to develop our 'best hope' for the future that represents
both our values and our ambitions. This vision statement can be found on
page ... In order to move towards this vision, a long list of possible changes has
been considered (See Appendix IV - add your list). Each possible change has
been evaluated against criteria for (list the criteria used in Step 7). A shortlist of
possible strategic changes that best meet our criteria is shown in Appendix V
(add your list). This list has been refined to find a combination of strategic
changes that forge together synergistically to make up our FGK strategy (same
name label as in the first line).
Use this executive summary as a contents list for your written plan. Make sure that
what's in the tin is what's on the executive summary label.
Create brief sections based sequentially on each of Steps 1 to 8. Use the tables
generated in each step. The tables can be used as appendices, as indicated in the
pro-forma above. The steps will build logically, with evidence, towards your finally
selected combination of strategic changes that together comprise your market-led
strategy. Your strategy is a composite collection of practical changes to be imple-
mented. Your written account of them, described above, is your strategy. It is a strategy
document - it is not a strategic plan. Step 9 is about planning and managing projects
to implement the changes that comprise your strategy. In Step 9, your document is
called a 'strategic plan'.
Presenting your strategy
'111 jll l"!"ol"ll l (11 11' !"o lr,il "l; , d o 11 0 1 n'dd I null YOll r wrill(' 11 .I'l< IInll ' lll Wri ll( ' 1l Idll
)', 11.1)'," I', "' Y ddl"I"l l l 111I1l1 ,. /, p l ('II Idll !;I I,' !;" A I',II, III Il ,d, ' , III 111111( ' , ' 1.11111 VPII ,
Create and communicate market-led strategy 113
so as to retain the key steps in the argument. In a speech, or oral presentation, your
listeners cannot rewind you, so you have to keep rewinding yourself and repea ling
the key points. Try to cluster your points in groups of three. This is because your
audience's short term memory will hold only 5 ± 2 units of new information al ,1
time (see Part I, Section 2). You have to assume 5 - 2 = 3. That is why you h<lvC to
keep summarizing and labelling each group of three points as a new chunk.
Fortunately, your presentation will be based on a 9 Step Approach to devdoping
strategy, so you will be able to describe the development of your strategy in lhree
labelled chunks or clusters, eg 'analysis', 'forecasting' and 'implementati on' . Under
these three labels, or others you may prefer depending on your audi ence, you will be
able to summarize Steps 1, 2 and 3; then Steps 4, 5 and 6; and finally Steps 7, H ,lIlel I).
There should be three distinct phases to your presentation:
1. An introduction - saying what the three key clusters will cover.
2. The main body - covering the three clusters, three points in each.
3. A final summary - a reiteration of the three key clusters you have covered.
Start slowly and finish more quickly and on time. If you want to take questions, do
so preferably at the start so that you can incorporate your answers to the questions
as you go along, during your presentation. Refer to the relevant question or ques-
tioner as you do so. Next best is to take questions as they arise, and tell people at the
outset how to interrupt or how to get your attention. If you have lots of questions at
the end, still finish with your final planned summary and final thanks to all, and
especially to your audience.
The introduction
Opening sentences should be about your audience and their interest in what you
will have to say. Tell them that you will outline the key strategic changes that
comprise your FGK strategy for the organization. Tell them what's in it for them.
Tell them why it is important and to whom. Tell them you will take them through
the three stages that have led you to the FGK strategy, for example:
• information gathering and analysis;
• forecasting and prediction;
• option appraisal and strategy formulation.
You may prefer other labels, depending on your audience, such as, Where are we
now? Where might we end up? Where would we prefer to be? The important thing
is to tell them what is going to happen during your presentation. This increases the
chances that they will not get lost and that they will arrive 'with you', and in agree-
ment with your final conclusion or proposal.
The Main body
Sti ck 10 111(' 1 , 1 h v l ~ II ,->I'd ill ylHl1' illtrodllclion ,1nd Ihe sequcnce you promi sed. Keep
i'l 'i 11 ' 1'01 I ill)', Wlll 'lI ' yllil , III' I'."IIII; ,tlld l'lIlll1ti ,tli vl'l y Slllllilloll'i " ill); 111(' point s you ha ve
(' ovI'I'!'d .till '.id y 1'1 ' 111'1 ' 1', 111111'. 1.11 1<. Iltl ' Ill' I plliltl 1)11 Ill.1 it.i VI' lilliI'(' Ih.ill lIilll'
1'1l1111 '1 (11111 '1' 1: 11.111" III 11111 '1' 1111111 '1 tltl ' tllll 'I' 1t,·tlLltll " vuu tlllil JUl' 'J Lit litl'
114 Strategic thinking
The Final summary
(After the questions.) 'As promised, I have:
l...
2 .. .
3 .. .
'And I have shown how we will gain ... three main benefits ... when we have
implemented the plan.
'Thanks to _ and to you the audience.'
Your pace, volume and energy should rise during your final summary. Finish on a
high energetic note.
Having, in Step 8, formulated, written and prepared to present your strategy as a
series of strategic changes, Step 9 deals with strategic planning and the manage-
ment of strategic change.
CREATE AND COMMUNICATE MARKET-LED STRATEGY -
STEP 8 SUMMARY
Step 8 will have helped you to:
• Forge together some chosen options for change to create synergy, sustain-
able advantage and strategic edge
• Create perceived value for customers by energizing an existing brand,
a new business or a global strategy
• Write up and present your strategy for the people, the board or the
bank
Step 9
Plan and manage projects to
implement change
Step 9 will help you to:
• Understand why some people will resist the market-led changes you forged
into your strategy in Step 8
• Overcome resistance through persuasion, negotiation and delegation
• Combine strategic planning and project management to implement strategy
and manage strategic change
PLAN AND MANAGE PROJECTS TO
IMPLEMENT CHANGE
Introduction
You will be ready to project manage the implementation of your strategy when you
have a ring-clip file labelled 'Implementation Plan' that contains task sheets like
the pro-forma below. You will need one task sheet for each task that you need to
complete to implement the market-led strategy that you created and presented
at the end of Step 8.
This master file will be kept by the strategy manager and a copy of each task sheet
will be given to the people whose names appear at the top of the sheet. In a large
organization, or for a large complex strategy, you may be able to pass your ring-clip
file to a project management specialist who will probably use planning tools like
PERT, NovaMind (Mac) or Mind Manager (Microsoft) to monitor your implementa-
tion plan. Your implementation plan is not your strategy. Your implementation plan
will encounter problems and pauses and the need to re-plan. The value of your im-
plementation plan lies not in what is written on the task sheets, but in the strategic
thinking that li es behind those task sheets (see Prompt 9.5). There are prompt sheets
lo help you compl ete each tas k sheet.
116 Strategic thinking
Pro-forma Task Sheets
Task number
Person responsible
People to inform
Task descriptor
(See Prompt 9.8)
Which tasks must be completed before this one?
Prerequisite tasks
I I I I
numbered
Prerequisite task
descriptor
(See Prompt 9.8)
Task X is: To begin
I To Last I ToEnd
What will you see (hear) when this task is complete? (See Prompt 9.8)
Who are your change agents?
Who will assist you with this task?
How will you recruit them?
(See Prompt 9.3)
What?
When?
Where?
Who might resist this task?
Who might sabotage this task?
What will you do to anticipate/
disSipate resistance?
(See Prompts 9.1/9.2)
What?
When?
Where?
What resources are required?
What tasks need completing to
secure these resources on time?
(See Prompt 9.7)
What?
With whom?
When?
Prompt 9.1: Preparing Your People for Change
10 I , •• I l
'. )( , 1 , ,1.11, .,. '1' 1, 1' JiUII'" '"l1l ," OJ 111I · lll"lv
Plan and manage projects to implement change 117
:::s::
LOW HIGH
External volatility
ORDERLY TIMES Resistant Cooperative
)i'
'\Ii
TURBULENT TIMES Fatalistic Proactive
Implementing change is easier when people are nearer the right hand side of the
model. As we can see from figures 9.1 and 9.2, most people - even those favourably
disposed to a change - are likely to have adverse reactions at some stage. They may
not see the point of a particular step, or they may temporarily 'lose the plot'.
High
>-
Cl
a:
w
z
w
Acceptance
Anger
/
H Y ~ / ~ ~ " . /Testin
g
Denial ~ /
Shock Depression Low L-______________________________________________________________ ~
High
W
0..
o
I
l ow
Announcement Implementation
Figure 9.1 The Energy to change (Horne and Doherty, 2003,
Implementing Changes, Routledge)
Hearing the plan
Spotting
the drawbacks
Losing
confidence
filII I( 1111 1(111 11 11111
Advorso
COIHlOqUOIl C S
lo ll WO, IIl,I?
Converting
others
Expecting
benefits
Looks
achievable
IIllploll10nlniioil
11 lL II· I, '! fI , ",,( ,(/11 1111' 1/1111/1" · ( // (11 /1(' (1111 1/ )/1/11'1/11 '(I(), I,
118 Strategic thinking
Despite your best efforts to anticipate reactions to change, resistance is likely from
at least 70 per cent of those affected. Use the AVOCADOS checklist:
The AVOCADOS checklist
Assistance Q. Has anyone else ever done this?
Answer:
Vision Q. Could someone paint a picture, literally or in words?
What will things look like afterwards?
Answer:
Optimism Q. How do we create an expectation of success?
Answer:
Communica tion Q. Who will keep selling the benefits of the change?
Answer:
Analysis Q. Is there a time line?
Answer:
Decisions Q. Whose decisions will be crucial?
Answer:
Owners Q. Who owns the change?
Answer:
Stakeholders Q. What do key stakeholders think about the change?
Answer:
Prompt 9.2: Anticipating Resistance to Change
Who will resist? Why will they resist? How will they resist? Outright opposili on is
rare; we are concerned here wilh the more common forms of resistance.
Plan and manage projects to implement change 119
TEN COMMON FORMS OF RESISTANCE
1. Apathy.
2. Lateness.
3. Sabotage.
4. Sick leave.
5. Absenteeism.
6. Procrastination.
7. Working-to-rule.
8. Working slowly ('going slow').
9. Undermining, behind-the-back criticism.
10. Embarrassing leaks to the media.
Resistance is sometimes disguised as supportive suggestions, eg offering to set up a
working party. Tread carefully. These may be intended to thwart the implementa-
tion of change rather than to support it. It can be hard to spot the difference between
a positive desire to participate and a negative intention to delay and obstruct. In
turbulent times the creation and use of groups should be avoided: one-to-one con-
versations are preferable. Bringing a group together is too time-consuming: it
involves a lot of 'storming' before the group gets around to ' performing' . It can be
hard to separate the difficulties that groups are having in coming together from the
difficulties they are having with the proposed changes.
FORMING
individuals try to make
their mark in the group
STORMING
Conflict as egos clash and
argue for position and power
PERFORMING
Finally, if you are lucky, the
group can do better than the
sum of its parts
NORMING
Trying to agree procedures
and ways of operating
Not .111 pvopl ,' 1\';-' i;-. f For some, change is a sour l' o f exci tement or a
WI ' k lll lh' hn'.Ik 11l1l1l " ''' il 1I I.', I"ll lllilil ' . TI lt' l11,lj orit ·h,lngc. I \vcn sma ll changes
111 .l y hi' 11", l' dl 'd II Il wy 1' 11'.1" "I ' v,lilll''' illl () rIll .l 1 )',nll l ps, or il Iwopl l' 1\,.11" Ihey
1111 ),,111 111111 111(1 11 '. 1, III II II' 111.l11)"I' d IHIII.lII II II. hi)', 1,11'1 ' , I 1'.1111,/0 1"111 .1 1 il llloll
t'I 1.1 I I)', , ' 1' "l v,.!, ," 1" ,11 " II I lI"illllI" IIII ' Y 1\ , ,, I Wll lli l' IIII' I fill" ' 11111 11 1 111111 ' 1II !l IIW I II)"
120 Strategic thinking
DETECTING POTENTIAL RESISTANCE
Do you think that this change might cause you to have: Yes No
1. Less pay?
2. Less skill?
3. Less status?
4. Less respect?
5. Less holiday?
6. Less pension?
7. Less training?
8. Less security?
9. Less authority?
10. Less satisfactory work?
11. Less scope for initiative?
12. Less opportunity to socialize?
If the expected resistance is based on misapprehension, correct the mistake. Delay
in clearing up misunderstanding can lead to suspicion and it will increase resistance
in some people.
Who might resist change? Check out the less well educated - they may doubt
their self-worth, their value to the organization, or their ability to benefit. Also check
out junior staff - they may be least informed and most vulnerable to cynicism from
staff who have 'seen it all before'.
Whether resistance is based on misunderstanding or reality, failure to give good
reasons will intensify the resistance.
Prompt 9.3: Overcoming Resistance to Change
Force field analysis was developed by Kurt Lewin. It enables managers to identify
the forces that are likely to restrain a particular change:
Current state
Hierarchical structure
Bureacracy
Forces for Change
More career opportunities • III(
More responsiveness ....
Reduced costs • 0(
Survival • 0(
Desired state
Flatter structure
SBUs
Resistance
Devalues professions
Long-standing power
Increased workloads
Excessive stress
In the figure, the size of the arrows reflects the strength of the forces. Force fi eld analysis
can be used to structure a di scussion about whatis bl ocking a change. Having idenl ifi ed
the potent-ial sources and levels of resistance, Lewin suggested that sholiid ,)CI
I (l red II C(' I h(' r('sl r,l i n i nil, fo rn's, r.lllWI" I ha n 10 in I el1 si f y I hl' forn's d ri v ill )', Ill\' ('/ 1.1 11 1',' ' .
I ,i 'will , Iii (' N ('wtOIl, .l I") ',llI'd 1/t. iI 10 i'V(' r y .wli(1I1 Ilwl'(' W.l S 0111 (· '1II . d . 11111 oPI' wli lt ·
Plan and manage projects to implement change 121
Prompt 9.4: People Prefer Face-to-face Conversation
People prefer to be spoken to face-to-face by their leaders and managers and they
need to know that this will happen regularly, when and where. At least 15 out of 20
minutes should be spent on information about how any change will affect them.
Five minutes only should be spent on any general rationale. Ten minutes should be
left for questions. The main points of a briefing should be written down. Where
possible, briefings should be given at the same time to everyone affected by a change.
This minimizes the time wasted correcting grapevine rumours. If you find that your
briefings over-run, increase their frequency but not their length. Twenty to 30 minutes
exceeds the concentration span of most people receiving verbal information.
Although we have emphasized the importance of one-to-one conversations, you
should check that all channels of communication are working well. You will need to
think about who will need to be told what, by when, by whom and where. Who are the
people likely to be affected by the change? Tell them three things: what you plan to do,
what you have done so far, and what you,plan to do next. Wherever possible, com-
municate face-to-face, or at least voice-to-voice, rather than screen-to-screen. Com-
municate frequently so that it never needs to take more than 20-30 minutes. Listen
actively to the views of those affected. Acknowledge them, accept them or reject them
(with good reason). Even if their ideas are rejected, people prefer to have had a say.
There are three types of one-to-one conversations that are particularly useful: per-
suading, negotiating and delegating.
Prompt 9.4.1: Persuading - A Seven-stage Model
If Objections
,IIlUIl I
C_I I" . I , 11111
122 Strategic thinking
Stage 1: Establish rapport
Make eye contact. Smile. Make physical contact as culturally appropriate.
Talk genera lly about things in the news that illustrate how other people are
accepting or even enjoying change. Try to get nodding agreement to at least three
statements about the general need for change and the need, in general, to find good
ways to implement it. 'Echo' what you think they are saying. Use their vocabulary
and intonation. Try to 'mirror' their body language. Your brain's mirror neurons
will give you chemical clues as to what the other person is feeling.
Stage 2: Probe
Ask open questions - 'why?', 'how?' and, 'what about...?' Confirm your under-
standing with closed questions requiring only 'yes' or 'no' replies. Listen actively.
Give clear, non-verbal indications that you are listening. Try not to interrupt. You
are trying to gather as much information as you can about the person you are hoping
to persuade. Probe to find out what matters to them - what might get them to accept
the idea? Try to uncover areas of unmet need or areas of dissatisfaction with the
existing situation.
Stage 3: Connect aspects of the proposed change to benefits for them
Connect the proposed change to benefits that you believe they will value, eg changes
that will fulfil their unmet needs or address areas of dissatisfaction with the present
situation. If at least three such benefits appear to be accepted, go directly to Stage 6
and ask for acceptance. If the person doubts that the proposed change will deliver
a particular benefit, go to Stage 4 and deal with the doubt. If the person raises an
objection to the proposed change, go to Stage 5 and handle the objection.
Stage 4: Dealing with doubt
Start by clarifying the exact nature of the doubt: 'So you are not yet sure that this
change will result in benefit A for you?' or, 'You see that this change will give you
Band C but you are not yet sure that it will give you A?' If necessary, adjourn to
gather evidence, statistics, case studies, or expert testimony, or to arrange for the
other person to visit an installation, a supplier, or a pilot study. Meet again to sum-
marize the benefits accepted in your previous conversation and to present your
evidence dealing with the remaining doubts. Conclude by seeking confirmation
that the benefit is no longer in doubt. If there are no objections, proceed to Stage 6.
Ask for acceptance.
Stage 5: Handling objections
First clarify the objection. If the objection is based on a mistaken impression, correct
it and conclude by summarizing all the benefits that wi ll fl ow when the change is
impl emented, perhaps moving directly to Stage 6 and asking for acceptance If the
objecti on is va I id, do nol pretend otherwise. Do not d wel l on i l. As sl r,1 ighl rorward Iy
,1 S poss ihl e, Pl"(l("('('" qlli(' kl 10 show Il()w, Oil h,11 ;11l ("(" I Ill' h(, lll'iil s )',n'.I ll y olll w(' igh
II\( ,
Plan and manage projects to implement change 123
Stage 6: Ask for acceptance - get to a 'Yes'
Strike a note of confidence that the proposal for change has been accepted and
summarize the benefits that the other person has accepted will follow: 'So, when X
(the change) is in place, we have worked out that you will have A and gain B with
the potential for C - the next step is ... ? Would time X or time Y suit you best?'
Stage 7: Confirm the conversation
At the end of the conversation, record the time and the place of the conversation.
Write a brief summary of the main benefits that the other person agreed will flow as
a result of the change. Confirm what was agreed to be the next step, by whom and
by when. Send an e-mail, a hand-written note or both.
Prompt 9.4.2: Negotiating - A Seven-stage Model
Stage 1 Stage 2
Own MiniMax Guess their MiniMax
/
Stage 3
If
Abhor!
Is there overlap?
No
IfJ Yes
Stage 4
Create a basket of
possible trades
1
Stage 5
Test possible sets of
trades (deals)
1
Stage 6
Offer tentative deal
1
Stage 7
Sign up
is nol pt'rs lI<l s ion. It is getting the bes t agreement that is possibl e when
i:-- Il ol wur"iJ1g, ,1I1e1 when 'lgrl'l'nwnt mus t be reilched. Failure to agree
i:, .1 I.lilllr\, Itl IH 'I',lI li,d,' III 11Irblll (,J11 limes, 1l1 .lking il Clt'ill' Ih,ll
11 1111)'," .II, ' 11 01 IH ')',oll .l hl, ' ,"111 '" I V" lillI(' , WIl('11 :-- I.I"dHlldl ' rs wi lli s igl1i fil "l1ll I)ow,'r
(' 011\ 11 .1' , 11 .1 ./ ''' ' 11111l1l1' . III 1111 III11 1.ll h) 1'1 ". 1,, 1 111.111),.1' . 1\(,)",, 11,111\1111:-' .I11111'(lIIII.lll '.
124 Strategic thinking
Stage 1: Decide your own maximum and minimum positions
The most you might hope for. The least you would accept.
Stage 2: Set up a hypothesis
Speculate on your opposite number's minimum and maximum positions.
Stage 3: Compare 1 and 2
Is there overlap? If there is, negotiation is possible. If there is no overlap, then nego-
tiation is not possible.
Stage 4: Probe to determine their minimum and maximum positions
What might be traded? Probe by asking questions, preferably 'open' ones: 'What do
you mean exactly when you say you won't...?' or, 'How do you come to that conclu-
sion?' If negotiating teams are involved, adjourn frequently to compare notes with
members of your own team. During this step you are trying to gain as much infor-
mation as possible about the other person's 'wish list'. Resist the temptation to break
awkward silences - it's better to adjourn and think of another question to ask. Keep
summarizing their position back to them. Take notes. Use note taking to give yourself
time to structure your thinking. If you need more time, take time and adjourn. Trying
to save minutes in a negotiation can lose days or lives, if negotiations break down.
Stage 5: Test a hypothesis - a possible deal
Offer hypothetical concessions in your position in return for concessions that you
believe lie within your opposite number's range of negotiation. These could be such
things as times, places, schedules, guarantees, undertakings, conditions, options,
training, support or contingencies. Try to keep your mind open to what might be
negotiable. Think creatively about what they might want or need, before they do,
but do not offer it unless you need to trade in order to secure agreement. Do not
make unilateral concessions. Adjourn!
Stage 6: Summarize areas for a tentative agreement
When, and only when, you think you have identified things that you and your oppo-
site number are willing to give and take, offer a tentative verbal summary of what
appears to be a basis for agreement. This should be reiterated, clarified and repeated -
always verbally - before anything is committed to paper. Build a sense of expectant
inevitability that agreement will be good for everyone: 'Ok, good, let's do that.' You
may need to use your eyes as well as your ears to 'make sense' of what you hear:
Plan and manage projects to implement change 125
Making sense of what you hear
Hearing May mean ...
'I can't say I'm happy about...' 'I agree, but there's just one more thing'
'That's way beyond our remit' 'That's quite acceptable, provided you make
it clear what we will get out of it'
'I am prepared to discuss that' 'We can discuss that, but not now'
'I never negotiate on costs' 'But if you insist, you start'
'It's not our normal practice to ... ' 'But I will make an exception if pushed'
'I do not have any authority to ... ' 'But I could get it if needed to'
'We are not set up to ... ' 'You'll owe me one if I agree to do it'
Do not introduce new issues. Adjourn to discuss with colleagues what they heard as
opposed to what was said. Be sure that you really understand what was really
meant.
Stage 7: Accept agreement
Prepare a written summary of what has been agreed verbally. If the negotiation has
been carried out skilfully, signing should be a formality. Do not introduce new issues
or demands. In general, during negotiation beware of allowing objectives to drift.
Do not become more demanding.
Prompt 9.4.3: Delegating
Leaders and managers who think they have to implement every operational change
themselves are likely to be ineffective as change agents. One way of getting others
to implement change is through delegation. Managers delegate when they give
subordinates authority to carry out work that the managers could do themselves.
You need to think about responsibility, authority and accountability: responsibility
for tasks, authority to make decisions and to take action, and accountability for
decisions taken and for resources used.
Authority needs to be commensurate with the responsibility. For example, if
someone is given responsibility for improving the new appraisal system but is not
given the authority to change existing practice, then the delegated task is impos-
sibl e. Tn turbu lent times, delega tion of important tasks enables managers to focus on
the urgenl tasks lhal require their experi ence or position. Good delegation improves
morale. Il ere is <l (lnversaliona l approach to delegation:
126 Strategic thinking
Stage 1
Identify tasks of your job.
Decide which tasks you could delegate to another person
t
Stage 2
Talk to the other person and determine the training
and support needed to carry out task
t
Stage 3
Agree tasks and authority with other person
and how progress will be monitored
1
Stage 4
Review and coach
t
Stage 5
Appraise and, if possible, relax supervision
t
Stage 6
Successful delegation may lead to a new job description
How participative should you be?
The notion that people should be involved in changes that affect their lives reflects
western political, religious and social values, such as freedom of choice and indi-
vidual liberty. Such values are not universal. Change raises issues that challenge
personal values and ethical standards. The participative approach, with its underly-
ing logic of establishing ownership of change, prioritizes the need to be sensitive
to different stakeholders. People may resist change even when it is in their best
interests - especially if they do not understand the reasons for it. They may resist it
simply because they dislike being told what to do, or because they do not feel in
control of their lives. Involving people in the process of change can help reduce the
build-up of stress in some individuals, but may exacerbate it in others.
Brain scan data (Haier, in Thompson et ai, 2009) show marked differences in the
distribution of the grey and white matter in the 14 'Brodmann' areas of the brain
associated with thinking, intelligence and behaviour, even between individuals of
the same sex and IQ. This points towards leadership and management styles that
individualize one-to-one communication. Using speedy one-to-one communication
ca n help to prevent resistance building up in the first place. In turbul ent times, rapid
change may be necessa ry and opti ons may be few. Under Ilws(' circumsL<l Il Cl'S,
I'l'sl'"rch h,l S shown Ih.ll evell direcliv(' .1pproilChl's C.1I1 1)(' il1lln ' dfn'livl' wlll'll
pl'rSPl1t1 li zl' d, Wll.ll l'Vl'r .. hor l lilll\' Y(l ll iI.l Vl' 10 !.i1k .111<1 Iililll , l.iI, ' il .i11 .1 1)" 11 11'11
.I, 'dd, ', 1),111 ' 1 .1 1111"1' '1'111' O Il(' Ip li l li' YOII 11 .1\ 1 .1111111 '. !; I"j1i1 I 'I,
Plan and manage projects to implement change 127
'resisters', and this will inform how you plan to implement the market-led strategy
you created in Step 8.
A word, first, on the role of strategic planning in implementing strategic change.
Prompt 9.5: Strategic Planning
We can forge a strategy without a plan. We cannot plan strategically without a
strategy. How can we create an implementation plan that is as innovative as your
strategy? Remembering what we said about metaphors in Part I, Section 3, ideas
like 'crafting change' (Mintzberg, 1987) or 'forging solutions' (Hurson, 2009) can be
useful.
'Crafting' and 'forging' are activities that involve working with raw ingredients
that are riddled with impurities to produce something that is of value, usually
something that you can use, like a cooking pot, or a Samurai sword. Pitched against
a competitor, a Samurai sword must be hard enough to keep its edge yet flexible
enough not to shatter on first contact with the enemy.
In Step 6 our long list of possible changes contained many that were weak or
flawed. In Step 7 we strained out the weakest and sieved out the flaws. In Step 8 we
tested and tempered our shortlist of embryonic strategic changes, seeking to forge a
composite strategy that has the durability, reach, cutting edge and flexible response
of a Samurai sword. In Step 8 your embryonic ideas were put through the mill of
competitive advantage, customer value, brand building, product development and
globalization. Your ideas were repeatedly heated and hammered and honed until
you finally forged a market-led strategy. You crafted a language in which you could
describe your market-led strategy to others.
Now you have a strategy, from Step 8, but you do not yet have a plan. Step 9
shows you how to deconstruct your strategy into seperate tasks, so that you can
turn your strategy into action. Step 8 creates potential; Step 9 must make it kinetic.
Step 9 converts your potential energy into movement and velocity. Velocity is speed
with direction. To get from strategy to strategic change, we use strategic planning
and project management. While your strategy is priceless, you should not place the
same value on your strategic plan. A strategic plan will make you feel better, but as
Suez, Vietnam, Iraq and Afghanistan all proved:
'No strategic plan ever survived first contact with the enemy'
(after Helmuth von Moltke, 1800-1891).
It is the same in politics. Asked to explain a strategic failure, an older and wiser
Harold McMillan replied:
'Events, my dear fellow, events.'
A pl an is a noun - an obj ect that remains in a state of rest or of uniform motion in
a straight line unl ess forced by external events to change that state. In turbulent
linws Wl' don' t nccd n noun, we need a verb - the verb to plan. In order to plan, you
Ilt'('ll II' Ihin". In ortin 10 pl,ln s ll'dlt'gic,lll , (l U need to think s trategica lly. It is the
, lr,II' T,i(' Illilll ill); 111.11 );i v,'s YOII 111I ' I'oWI'!" 10 n' sl olld 10 ' (' vt' nl s' and 10 reli sh ' first
,',1I1t.11'I Willi IIII' , ' 11"1\1 ' WIII'II 1' !.III" I.ril , HII',ri l')',i(' Ihin"ing ",Ill slill );1' 1
yl lil 1111 (1 11 ),, 11 1; 11.111 ')', 11 ' 1, 1.11111111)" 1111111"1111" 1 yil ll III h. ·II' ·V, lill, · 111I'1I1I1.rliI1l1, ,IIloWIi
128 Strategic thinking
rehearses the tbinking skills that you need to think quickly and clearly in difficult
and confusing times. As Eisenhower said, 'the plan will probably be useless, but
the planning will be indispensable'. The plan for Apollo 13 was useless - those
astronauts never did land on the moon. But without the planning that went with the
mission, those astronauts would never have got back.
Strategic planning teaches you about the territory and helps you to draw up some
maps. These strategic maps will help you to find your way as you go. Strategic
maps can also help you to find your way around obstacles, as they appear. Steps 1-7
forced you to get to know people whose help you will need to get your strategy
implemented. Hurson (2009) has called them 'assisters' (as opposed to 'resisters').
Your 'assisters' will help you to get difficult things done in difficult times. Step 5 in
particular involved imagining what success might look like. This is highly corre-
lated with the ability to motivate others. So the real value of strategic planning is
that it makes you practise strategic thinking.
Implementation involves:
1. Identifying the tasks involved in implementing the strategy.
2. Identifying the tasks needed to obtain resources and find assisters.
3. Putting those tasks on a time line.
There is a prompt to help you plan each stage of your strategy implementation.
Finally, there is a section to help you project manage the implementation of the
strategic changes you have planned.
Prompt 9.6: Identifying the Tasks Involved
You will need to contact as many as you can of the key people you met as you
completed Steps 1, 2 and 4 and especially 5 and 7, and invite them to meet you,
preferably in a room with two or three uncluttered walls. You will need a large roll
of paper - about a metre wide - and several pads of Post-It notes, a box of coloured
pencils, a felt tip marker pen, and a roll of masking tape.
Use the strategy presentation you rehearsed in Step 8 to open the proceedings.
Give each participant a copy of the strategy document you wrote at the end of Step
8. Get the participants to work in pairs (there may be one group of three). Every time
they spot a task that will need to be carried out to implement your strategy, ask
them to jot it on a Post-It note and stick it on the long sheet of plain paper you have
attached to one wall of the room using the masking tape. People should not worry
at this stage about the relative importance or sequencing of the tasks. Some may
indeed prove to be spurious or trivial but, at this stage, this does not matter. In our
experience, the key tasks you need to implement your strategy will find their way
onto the wall, somewhere.
The next stage is to consolidate and cluster your stickers. First, reduce the number
of stickers by culling duplicates and by crea ting composites of simil ar tas ks. After
thi s consolidati on, ee how you ca n combine some of the oll e lions of sli kers inlo
cluslers. 1:1sks m,lY coa lescl' around Cl'rl ;lin COlT aclivilies or ("(' !lln' s o( cOlllml, ,ll"
( '0Il111HlII Ilwllh·S. Aim (Ill' Il(l IIlIlI',' Ih,l l S,'VI ' r) dll Sll'rs I Ill' Ih·.rn· l · 1(1 1111'1 '(' IIH' 1)('lIl· r.
(:iv,' ",lI'h' ·'IIl .'I(llid.r l i·d 1' 1i1 .... I( ·" " ('''pli(1I1 11)"1 ",r ." Y III 1'" "\( , ,,1111'1 "lid wllll'lr ,' (111
"
,or .. ,
Plan and manage projects to implement change 129
Prompt 9.7: Identifying Resources
Your group should now review the clusters on the wall and generate new stickers
every time they identify a resource that will be needed for a task. On each resource
sticker, write also who will need to do what, by when, to make that resource avail -
able. This will convert each resource sticker into a task sticker, which you can then
add to one of your clusters. Use the 9M checklist from Step 2 to generate more tasks.
Use the CATSWORLD checklist from Step 5 and Prompts 9.2 and 9.3 to identify
your ' assisters' . ' Assisters' are often change agents. They can help you with your
strategy implementation. For each potential 'assister', raise a Post-It note for each
task that would help to recruit the 'assister'. Allocate these new task stickers to the
relevant cluster. Mark them with early completion dates. Repeat the process for all
potential key 'resisters'. Identify tasks related to persuading 'resisters' to come on
board, or to minimizing the disruption they might cause (Prompts 9.3 and 9.4).
Again, add the new task stickers to your clusters. You now have clusters of tasks
that need to be completed in order to obtain resources, recruit 'assisters' and reduce
'resisters' .
All that remains is to place each task on an implementation timeline.
Prompt 9.8: Scheduling Tasks on a Timeline
On another wall, preferably opposite to your wall of task clusters, use masking tape
to support a long sheet of blank paper. Ideally it should run the whole length of the
wall and have a spare length folded away so that you can take it round the corner
and onto the adjourning wall, if necessary. Using the masking tape and the marker
pen, divide the sheet into years, quarters, months, or even days for the first month.
Mark each Post-It with a large bold A, B or C, where A signifies a task that needs
to be completed as soon as possible, C is a task that comes near the end of the
implementation, and B is neither A nor C. Now transfer the task stickers onto the
implementation timeline. Move stickers labelled A first, then C, working backwards
from a hoped-for completion time (it may be a few years hence). Only the person
whose name is shown as responsible for the task should move a task sticker. They
should sign off the completion date, the estimated duration and the earliest start
date. If that person is not present, the sticker must only be moved by a person
to whom the responsible person is accountable. That person accepts the responsibil-
ity - knowing that it will be delegated to the person named on the sticker. Stickers
will have to be juggled and shuffled until no task is expected to start before a
prerequisite is completed. It may be necessary to move the start and finish date to fit
in all the Bs.
If any ta k sti ckers remain on the task wall, check if the task is clear and whether
it is reall y necessa ry. heck if there is a volunteer to put hi s or her name on that task
sti cker; delega te the [,l s k or persuade someone to take the task (Prompts 9.4.1 and
9.4.:1); or put Y(l llr own ndl1l e () n it until you can on tract it out, if you cannot do
it Ylll lI'S\·II . '1'11 . ,1'. , IIll1 st " Il t 1)(' .L" Y sli r "ers Oil the limeline wi thout a name and a
·, i)',Il .l tlll'l ' , lilli ' " 1'1' 1(" 'I'\l II ,iill (· fpr !\\, tti n)', "dcll !.I s k done or your slril leg
wtlill ot h., 11 11t' II' II I"IIi I,t!
' 1111 ' Ild llllll ll ll ll ll llll l'l ll ll I,ll I, '!I I' 1"' 11111 II II' 1111t'11'111"liI ,tl llI lll llll"IiIIt " '.lIIIIIl W 1,( ,
130 Strategic thinking
planning ring-clip fil e. A folded copy of the master time line, in the form of a
horizontal bar chart that shows all the tasks numbers, with their start and finish
dates, can now be placed at the front of the file. It will unfold and act as an index.
The details of each numbered task will then be found on the relevant task sheets,
which will be filed in number order. Now you have a strategy implementation plan.
Many people may have undertaken to bring in necessary resources and to put in
timely effort, to implement the market-led strategy you forged in Step 8. The motiva-
tion and coordination of this activity, and the decision taking and problem solving
involved (each time there is an unexpected 'event', or 'enemy contact'), is called
'project management' .
Prompt 9.9: Project Management
Why do projects need managing? The variety of meanings of the word 'project' might
provide a clue. To project is to predict, to propose, to throw forward, to imagine that
other people are feeling the same as you are, to cause one's voice to be heard over a
wide area! Project managers need to be able to keep lots of people doing lots of
different things simultaneously. It's more like conducting an orchestra than barking
orders at a squad of soldiers! You need to get everybody reading the same line on
the same score at the same time. You need to bring them into play at exactly the right
time and then keep them working in harmony. You need players of different skills
to play the different instruments. Different players with different skills will dominate
different movements of the project symphony. Unfortunately, project managers are
not given time to rehearse!
Effective project management is not just about getting the project finished on time:
it has a broader perspective. An effective project manager will clarify the overall
purpose of the project, address the resource requirements, and plan in detail a
timetable of key events. Implementation can then be monitored. Regular review
and occasional rescheduling may be needed. Finally, the project will need to be
evaluated. This evaluation will measure how well the purpose of the project
has been achieved and identify better ways to manage future projects. The project
management process comprises:
DEFINE PLAN
IMPLEMENT
EVALUATE
Purpose Money Tasks
Persuade
What worked
Objectives Machines Timetable
Negotiate
What didn't
Tasks Assisters Sequence
Delegate
Lessons
Deadlines Resisters Network
Control
Changes
1. Defining the project
DEFINE PLAN
IMPLEMENT
EVALUATE
Purpose Money Tasks Persuade What worked
Objectives Machines Timetabl e
Negoti ate
Whot didn't
Tasks I\s i tors Soquence Dologat
l oononn
Doadlino ilonlutol n Notwork
COIIII OI (;111 11 111'
Plan and manage projects to implement change 131
The goals of a strategic change are often broad and ill-defined. Translating these
goals into actions that can be project managed involves breaking them down into
clear objectives. During the defining phase, the project manager relies on people
who can define, design and agree SMART objectives - that is, objectives that are
Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic and Timetabled. Much of the information
you need is produced in Step 7 and Step 8. The rest can be obtained by the processes
described in Prompts 9.6, 9.7 and 9.8.
2. Resourcing the project
DEFINE RESOURCES PLAN
Purpose Money Tasks
Objectives Machines Timetable
Tasks Assisters Sequence
Deadlines Resisters Network
Persuade
Negotiate
Delegate
Control
EVALUATE
What worked
What didn't
Lessons
Changes
The 9M checklist used in Step 2 can be used as a checklist to ensure that all necessary
resources have been thought about and that all actions have been scheduled to ob-
tain them in a timely manner. Step 5 and Prompts 9.2 and 9.3 can be used to help
you think about 'assisters' and 'resisters'.
3. Planning the project
DEFINE RESOURCES
Purpose Money
Objectives Machines
Tasks Assisters
Deadlines Resisters
PLAN
Tasks
Timetable
Sequence
Network
Persuade
Negotiate
Delegate
Control
EVALUATE
What worked
What didn't
Lessons
Changes
The plan will need to detail: how much; to what standard; by when? How long will
it take? How will we know when it is done? The plan must specify the tasks in-
volved and the order in which work must be carried out. Plans will be needed for
communication, for engendering support and for reducing resistance. For example,
the project manager may need to plan visits to places where the proposed change is
already working. Arrangements for temporary overtime, weekend working, interim
bonus schemes and the funding of away-days may need to be authorized.
Having listed all the tasks, the next job is to allocate times to each. Which tasks are
more urgent? How much time will be available each day or week? Which tasks can
be carri ed out in parallel? What tasks can be completed before others? A meeting
like the one described in Prompts 9.6,9.7 and 9.8 might be helpful. The beginnings
and end of a lask ca n be shown on a Gantt chart like this:
132 Strategic thinking
J F M A M J J A S 0 N 0
Task 1 /
Task 2 / / / / / / / / / / / /
Task 3 / /
Task 4 /
Task 5
/
Task 6 / / /
Task? / / / /
TaskS / / /

Task
/ / / / / /
Task 11
Task 12 / /
When a task is completed, the forward slash can be crossed through. If the task is
completed late, an X can be entered in the week it was actually completed. Likewise,
as an activity begins, the first forward slash can be crossed to show that it started on
time. If it starts late, a cross is entered when it did start. At the end of the project, an
analysis of discrepancies will help to improve future planning. A quick visual check
at the end of each month should show that all activities to the left of the month have
started or been completed. If not, catch-up action is needed.
The beauty of Gantt charts is that you don't have to think of the tasks in sequence,
and all at once. Tasks you have overlooked can easily be inserted on your emerging
chart.
If there are lots of tasks that cannot be started until others are finished, it may be
useful to create a network of the activities. The network can then be analysed to see
what the longest route is. This is called 'critical path analysis' . It enables you to see
what, on the basis of the current plan, is the shortest possible time in which the
project can be completed. If that does not hit your deadlines, you either need to
revise your plan or renegotiate your deadline. One of the most popular ways to
draw the network is to use a PERT program (programmed evaluation and review
technique). This software allows you to simply enter the task, its prerequisites and
their likely duration. The software then draws the network and finds the critical
path and the completion date, with a degree of latitude that reflects the leeway you
have indicated in the task duration times.
The figure below is the PERT network for an Afghan border rural health centre.
The network is made up of arrows. Each arrow has a number at the beginning of the
shaft and another at the arrowhead. The former is the number of the task that must
be completed before the task at the arrow end can be started. The number along
the shaft is the estimated time to complete the task at the sharp end of the arrow
(sometimes three numbers are shown - best, most likely, and worst). The arrowhead
represents the completion of the tasks to which they point. A tas k ca nnot be started
until all the tasks on its incoming arrows have been completed. Any delay in
completing tasks on Ihe cri ti c(l l pMh will dcl(lY the fin(ll coml Il'Ii on linw. ()()llt'd
.lIT()WS lin nol Ii \' on Ih\' cri li c, 1i P,llil : Ill(' IIlll sl still Iw ("(lIllpl, ·t, ·.! Iwfol"(' ,IllY
,Y II\'( 'i'I'dilil', j o illl ( ' , Ill 11(' . tdl·tnl hId til( '\"(' i .. 011 I\, sl. l('k 11111( ' 111 1',1' 111111', IiI"1I1 .1,11\, · .
Plan and manage projects to implement change 133
6
----
11
5
15 16 5 5 10 /'; 5--"" 5 3 3 2
1 __ 2 3 4 _ 5 _ 8 In 111
- ', 11'"
1 ' " ,,'
16 _---
The Afghan health centre critical path analysis reveals that although thl' IIILI!
work content is 100 weeks, the project can, in fact, be completed in H4 W('v":,
(15 + 16 + 5 + 5 + 10 + 10 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 3 + 3 + 2 = 84), provided there is no slirp.l);l' ill
the time taken to complete any of the tasks which lie on the critical path forl1wd hy
the solid arrows.
4. Implementing the project
DEFINE PLAN EVALUATE I
Purpose Money Tasks
Persuade
What worked
Objectives Machines Timetable
Negotiate
What dldn·t
Tasks Assisters Sequence
Delegate
Lessons
Deadlines Resisters Network
Control
Changes
This involves persuading, negotiating and delegating (Prompts 9.4.1, 9.4 .2 .tl1d
9.4.3). (The role of training and a conversational approach to coaching, ml'nloring
and learning are described in Chapters 13 and 14 of Horne and Doherty, 200:1.)
Control is one of the keys to project management. During the implementation ph,lM',
the project manager will be much occupied with control processes. The four Me,lS
where things commonly go wrong, and a matrix for controlling them, are shown
below:
Likely How would What would
problem I know? I do?
Quantity
Cost
Time
()lllIlIly
134 Strategic thinking
GUIDELINES FOR A PROJECT PROGRESS MEETING
• Agree a 'no-blame' culture.
• Write action notes in the meeting.
• Encourage the reporting of bad news.
• Written progress reports should be one page.
• Allow three minutes only for verbal reports.
• Limit the meeting to 30 minutes. If it is not long enough, increase the
frequency but not the length of the meetings.
• Spend the last five minutes of the meeting evaluating 'how are we work-
ing together'.
Do your thinking away from the group, working one-to-one with individuals.
Formulate the questions to be put to the group and the message to be communi-
cated. Report back to the group at your next 20-30 minute meeting.
5. Evaluating the project
DEFINE PLAN
IMPLEMENT EVALUATE
Purpose Money Tasks Persuade What worked
Objectives Machines Timetable
Negotiate What didn't
Tasks Assisters Sequence
Delegate Lessons
Deadlines Resisters Network
Control Changes
In relation to each of the first four stages - defining, resourcing, planning and imple-
menting - ask the following questions:
• What went well?
• What did not go well?
• What can we learn from this experience?
• What would we do differently another time?
Project management often assumes that change can be managed in a rational and
objective manner. However, organizations are often far from rational places, espe-
cially when changes generate strong emotions. The project manager will need the full
range of thinking skills set out in Part I, Section 3, including emotional intelligence.
PLAN AND MANAGE PROJECTS TO IMPLEMENT CHANGE -
STEP 9 SUMMARY
Step 9 will have helped you to:
• Understand why some people will resist the market-led changes you
forged into a strategy in Step 8
• Overcome resistance through persuasion. negotiation and delegation
• Combin trategi pl anning and proj ct manag m nt to impl cm nl
~ t r d t qy .Hid rn.mdC)(' \lr.llC'C)i hilng
Part III
The next steps
Next Steps
Part II of this book was divided into nine steps. If you have been able to apply each
step, then you are a strategic thinker.
You have used a combination of thinking skills to gather and assess strategic in-
telligence, to create and communicate market-led strategy, and to implement and
manage strategic change.
You are now able to think about any organization and to give it a sense of direc-
tion. You can help an organization to escape its past, focus on its present and rethink
its future. You can assess past information, direct present action and improve future
performance.
When you ask your people to help you to answer the questions in each step of our
9S© Approach, it will be easier for your people to follow your lead and to support
the strategic changes needed to implement your market-led strategy. The world,
however, will not stand still. Your strategic thinking will not stop. As you initiate
change, new information will emerge. In light of this new information, you may
need to modify your plans. The background strategic thinking you have undertaken
will enable you to modify your plans quickly in ways that are still consistent with
your market-led strategy.
In Part I of this book we explained how you can develop the component skills of
a strategic thinker. When these component skills are combined with skills in brain-
based communication, using a one-to-one conversational style, people will say of
you that you are a strategic leader.
SL=CS+TS+ BBC
ie Strategic Leadership = Conversational Style
+
Thinking Skill
+
Brain-Based Communication
When you do things that strategic leaders do, you become a strategic leader.
In Training Your Brain (Wootton and Horne, 2009), there are details of practical
ways in which you can develop your thinking skills. As well as supporting your
strategic thinking, these component skills have been shown to improve your
problem solving, your intelligence and your ability to learn. The book sets out
the neuroscience on which this work is based, and it describes the way in which
the speed and accuracy of your strategic thinking can be affected by stress, mood,
music, coffee, tea, food, alcohol, smoking and age. It describes the effect on your
thinking of snacking, dieting, chocolate, exercise, posture, massage, sex, s leep, noise,
colours, hea t, light, weather, and even the clothes you wea r'
Final thought
PAST PRESENT FUTURE
Memories of love
Were like a resting place,
A shelter from the storm,
I know why they gave you comfort,
And helped to keep you warm,
And in time of trouble,
One day when you are cold,
Your memories of love,
Will keep you warm.
I know that you are lost
And don't know who you are,
But your memories of love
Will keep you warm
Some said that love was everything
I say that I don't know.
I know that if I lose you
I will love you from afar.
And my memories of love
Will be of you.
(Terry Horne remembering 'Perhaps Love' by John Denver, when Danya, aged 3, was caught
up in the fighting in Pakistan, in the Spring of 2009. Nearly 3 million people were made
homeless, when the Pakistan army fought the Taliban in the Swat Valley).
138 Final thought
ESCAPING THE PAST AND INVENTING THE FUTURE
Information is known about actions they acted.
The Past is a prison of knowledge enchained
By actions entrained.
New Knowledge creation
Needs incubation.
Information immersion - a long list to see.
Revise the revisions,
And take the decisions.
A Future invented will be.
A Future invented is best implemented.
Experience is gained when actions not chained to the Past set you free.
Lessons are learned and wisdoms discerned
When Actions not chained to the past set you free.
The Past is a prison whose lesson are key
To knowing a Future from problems set free.
Escape with a metaphor, symbol or three.
Models digested they tested by plans, then enacted
Of actions to be.
When actions are modelled and tested and free, it is tacit explicit in action to see.
The tacit zone is then explicitly known, based on actions we acted, when we were
set free,
From the Past as a prison of knowledge enchained by actions entrained
Before we were set free.
We invent a new Future,
When Knowledge is known based on wisdom we own,
Based on actions we've acted;
Only then are we free.
(Nearly 20 yeas ago, Ikujiro Nonaka wrote in the Harvard Business Revue about the need
for companies to create knowledge. This limerick is a response to spending 20 years
thinking about how to do it! Terry Horne).
Appe dix A
Selecting an approach to take
with individuals
In order to decide which approach is best for which individual:
~
ASSESS INDIVIDUALS
By agreeing with each person something they are to achieve within a short period
(very short in turbulent times) . Agree by when it is to be done,
to what standard and how and when it will be measured.
JUDGE INDIVIDUALS
How mooh they e ~ 2 e h they wont to do it?
' 1 CATAGORJZE INDIVIDUALS 1
~ ~ ------------
IF
I
High Ability
High Motivation
I
SELECT
DELEGATING
involves giving
responsibility for
your own work and
problem solving to
other people
IF
I
High Ability
Low Motivation
I
SELECT
SELLING
involves sharing
the vision,
encouraging
effort and praising
achievement
IF
I
Low Ability
High Motivation
I
SELECT
TELLING
involves giving
specific instructions
and supervising
closely and
frequently how
they are being
carried out
IF
I
Low Ability
Low Motivation
I
SELECT
TRAINING
Involves
coaching, close
supervision,
sharing of ideas,
explaining
deci sions,
encouraging and
recogni zing
achi ovomont s
(1111 Iyl will bo
110rd 10 /11 , l ify in
'1/11)(/10'" rilli OS
c ()II .' :/r/1 I (Ibll /s,' : II)
Appendix B
Selecting an approach to take
with groups (if you must!)
In turbulent times it will be hard enough for your people to think clearly without
further handicapping their brains by expecting them to work in a group. Wherever
possible, try to work one-to-one with individuals (see Appendix A).
ASSESSING GROUP DEVELOPMENT
Observe your groups at work, and listen to the experience of individuals working in
those groups:
------
IF
I
Your group is
well established,
performs well,
and morale is
high
I
SELECT
~
DELEGATING
involves giving
responsibility for
your own work
and problem
solving to other
people
IF
I
Your group is
cohesive,
has low effective
work practices,
morale is low
I
SELECT
~
SELLING
involves sharing
the viSion,
encouraging
effort,and
praising
achievement
IF
I
Your group is
newly formed,
Unproductive,
morale is
high
I
SELECT
~
TELLING
involves
giving specific
instructions and
supervising
closely and
frequently how
they are being
carried out
-------
IF
I
Your group is
fragmented,
productivity is
low,
morale is low
I
SELECT
~
TRAINING
Involves
coaching, close
supervision,
sharing of ideas,
explaining
decisions and
encouraging and
recognizing
achievements
(this may be too
high-
maintenance in
turbulent times;
consider
disbanding)
Appendix C
Leadership for turbulent times
- a model
We might usefully blend 20th century models of action-centred contingent and
transformational leadership with the 21st century's needs for brain-centred, conver-
sational strategic leadership.
MAKING SENSE
FORMULATING IDEAS
INNER WORLD
THINKING
TAKING ACTION
EVALUATING CONSEQUENCE
OUTER WORLD
ACTION
References and
recommended reading
Aaker, D (1989) Keys to Sustainable Competitive Advantage, California Management
Review, Winter, pp 90-107
Aaker, D (2002) Building Strong Brands, Simon & Schuster, London
Aaker, D (2005) Brand Portfolio, Free Press, New York
Aaker, D (2008) Strategic Market Management, Wiley & Son, Chichester
Ackoff, R (1996) From Mechanistic to Social System Thinking, Pegasus, London
Adair, J (1985) Effective Leadership, Pan, London
Bach, R (1977) Illusions, Dell Publishing, Random House, New York
Baggini, J (2006) Do You Think?, Grant, London
Bateson, G (1979) Mind and Nature, EP Dutton, New York
Blakemore, S (2007) The Learning Brain, Blackwell, Oxford
Butterworth, B (1999) The Mathematical Brain, Macmillan, London
Buzan, T (1993) The Mind Map Book, BBC Books, London
Chan Kim, W and Mauborg, R (2005) Blue Ocean Strategy, HBS Publishing, New York
Charan, R (2009) Leadership in Economic Uncertainty, McGraw-Hill, New York
Checkland, P (1981) Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, John Wiley, Chichester
Checkland, P and Griffin, R (1970) Management Information Systems: A systems
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Cheng, P W (1993) Multiple interactive structural representation systems for educa-
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Cohen, M (1999) Philosophy Problems, Routledge, London
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De Bono, E (1986) Six Thinking Hats, Little Brown and Company, New York
Foster, R and Kaplan, S (2001) Creative Destruction, Doubleday Publishing, New York
Gladwell, M (2008) Blink, Time Warner Book Group, New York
Greenleaf, R K (1997) The Servant-leader Within, Paulist Press, New York
Griffiths, D (2002) Global superstores, Business, 26, p 24
Haigh, J (1999) Winning with Probability, Oxford University Press, Oxford
Hamel, G and Prahalad, C K (1989) Strategic intent, HBR, June, pp 63-76
Ii olt, D 13, Quelch, J A and Taylor, E L (2004) How global brands compete, J-Jnrvnrd
Iill silll 'SS 82 (9), pp 6H- 75
11()I Y().1k, K , ,1(1( 1 '1'11.1);,1(',1 , I' (199,') ) MI ' II/(lII ,I'(lI} ,';, MIT I'n's,"',
11(11111 ', 'I' .1111/ 1 )()IH'l'l y, A (11)\)\)) MlllillSillS 1'/lI,li, ' ,'i"/ I' /I "'" 11I//'/I 'II /I'IIIiIl,l; 1'11(111,1; 1'1:,
References and recommended reading 143
Horne, T and Doherty, A (2003) A ThoughtfuL Approach to the Practice of Management,
Routledge, London
Howard, P (2006) The Brain, 3rd edn, Barol Press, TX
Hurson, T (2009) Innovator's Guide, McGraw-Hill, London
Kawashima, D (2007) Train Your Brain, Penguin, Harmondsworth
Keller, K (2003) Brand Management, Prentice Hall, NJ
Koestler, A (1970) The Act of Creation, Pan Books, London
Levitt, T (1985) Globalizing markets, Harvard Business School Journal, 61 (3), p 90
McKay, R and Cameron, H A (1999) Restoring the production of hippocampal
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Mintzberg, H (1987) Crafting strategy, HBR, July-August, pp 66-75
Morgan, G (1986) Images of an Organisation, Sage, London
Perkins, D N (1988) Creativity and the quest for mechanism, in (eds) R J Sternberg
and E E Smith, The Psychology of Human Thought (pp 309-36), Cambridge
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9 (2), Summer, pp 113-33
Richmond, B (1994) Systems Dynamics/Systems Thinking; Let's just get on with it
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Rupp, R (1998) Committed to Memory, Aurum Press, London
Senge, P (1990) The Fifth Discipline, Currency /Doubleday, New York
Sterman, J (1994) Learning in and about complex systems, System Dynamic Review,
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Tharp, T (2004) The Creative Habit, Simon & Schuster, New York
Thompson, P et al (2009) Genetics of brain fibre: architecture and intellectual per-
formance, The Journal of Neuroscience, 18 February, 29 (7), pp 2212-24
Treffinger, D J (1986) Blending Gifted Education with the TotaL School Program, DOK
Publishers, Buffalo, NY
Williams, G (1983) The Lisa computer system, Byte, 8 (2), pp 33-50
Wiseman, J (2007) Quirkology, Macmillan, London
Wootton, S and Horne, T (2000) Strategic Thinking, Kogan Page, London
Wootton, S and Horne, T (2008) Training Your Brain for the Over 50s, Hodder, London
Wootton, S and Horne, T (2009) Training Your Brain, Hodder Education, London
Wootton, S and Horne, T (2010) Keep Your Brain Sharp, Hodder Education, London
Index
3M 95
6S framework 70, 71
9Ms, the 47,48, 131
machines 61- 62
management 53
market 48-50, 49, 50
customers 49-50, 50
product features 48-49, 49
materials 62
mental muscle 51-52
money 53-61
balance sheets 58,58- 59
cash flow forecasting 54, 55- 57
financial health 60, 60-61
financial performance 53, 54
performance ratios 59,59-60
profit and loss accounts 58, 58
morale 50-51
mores 51
movement 61
9SC' Approach, the vii, ix, 2, 6, 37, 136
see also market-led strategy, create and
communicate a; project management;
strategic capability, assessing; strategic
decisions, taking; strategic intelligence,
gathering; strategic knowledge,
creating; strategic options, creating;
strategic predictions, making; strategic
vision, developing
Aaker, David 97, 108
acronyms 7-8
acrostics 8
Adair, John 3,83
adrenaline 67
advanced thinking tools
metaphorical thinking 21,24- 28,67
as an aid to memory 24
to integrate higher order thinking 26
mapping 26
'six thinking hats' 27-28
synectics 26-27
and transferable learning 26
systems thinking 20-24
conversational systems model 21,
22-23,23-24, 25
Adverb Game 12
Alice Throllgh the Looking Glass 8
Al zheimer's di sease 8
Amc1z(l n 10 1
.In ,,' Iy 10
AI ,,,II,, I I, I n
AI'I'I; ' 10 1, 1011
AI'lti"I\II ,,, )· 1
Aristotle 15
Armani 102
Aronson, Daniel 21
assistors 128, 129
Association Game 12
Association of Masters of Business
Administration (AMBA) viii
associations 8
Aston Martin 99
AVOCADOS checklist 118,118
Bach, Richard 4
Bagely 78
Baggini, Julian 14
Bang and Olufsen 99
belief 5,6, 11, 14, 17, 18, 53, 69, 74, 85, 86,
101
Ben and Jerry's 100
Berlin Wall 5
Birkenstock 103
black hat thinking 27
blue hat thinking 27
BMW 97, 98,103
body language 122
Body Shop 100
Body-based pleasures, Laughter,
Involvement, Satisfaction and
Sex (BUSS) 11
Boston Consulting Group 111
BP 100,109
brain teasers 17
brain-based strategic communication 5- 6
asking questions 5
emotional imagery 5
gaining confidence 5
and imagination 6
and motivation 6
repetition 5
and risk tolerance 6
short-term memory 5-6
brand building 101-04
brand equity 102, 102-03
brand identity 103, ]03-04
brand strategies 93
Branson,Richard 103, 104,106
Brazil 31, 36, 43, ]08, 109, 110
' Brodmann' areas 126
BTR Industri es 36
Burberry 103- 04
Burger Ki ng 10' 1
II" rm.1 ' I
11" /, 111 , ·li lll Y :),1,.'11
( ',1111"'"11, 11111 ,' 7
'

Carroll, Lewis 8
cash 11,22,29,31-37,54-59,61,64,71,81,
82,90,93,94,97, 104, 111, 112
'cash cows' 111
Caterpillar 95
CATSWORLD checklist 23, 129
actors 68
customers/ clients 68
decisions 70
limitations 69
owners 69
resources 69
sub-systems 68
transformation 68, 68
way we do things around here 69
cerebral cortex 6, 14, 18, 73
change vii, viii, 2, 6, 8, 32, 41, 64, 67, 72, 83,
92,115,136
change, resistance to 70, 118-20
anticipating resistance 116, 118
detecting resistance 120
forming, storming, norming and
performing 119,119
forms of resistance 119
overcoming resistance to change 115,120,
120,134
Charan, R v, 3
Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) viii
Checkland, Peter 21
chess 17
Chief Executive (CEO) 3, 13,30-33,53, 100,
106
China 31,36,37,43, 108
Chrysler 107
Cicero 87
Clayton, Professor 75
Coca-Cola 95, 108
Colombo 75
commercial 17,36,37,69
compatibility, evaluating 89
competitiveness 83,87,88,91,95, 109
competitiveness, evaluating 89
consolidation 128
contingency planning 10
contraction and consolidation 93, 111
controllability, evaluating 89- 90
conversational vii, viii, 3- 4,16,19,21,24,25,
78, 125, 133, 136, 141
Cornelius, G and Casler, J 26
cortisol 67, 83
creative thinking vii , 17 18
ilnd b .... in .1 livily 7:l
combining Ihinking 711
l'()l llf()I' L,hl ,· 7H
l'OIlIlIl"1l hl" . ' k,. In, 1I",tl vil y
d, 'v,' I"I ' "')'.' " '" I, v,l y '1, 1 7'1
d l. k l I B HiH H lllI 'Wlj IlI ld 'lh
IlI'i Illlli ' I i I II j VI III ' I 'yl ' '/ 1,
10111 1111 · 111 '11 1 'III
move your perspective 75
note down ideas 74
pass it on 76
play music 77
relaxation exercises 76
role play 77
set tight deadlines 76
Index 145
signal your creative intent 75
something surprising 76-77
start early 75
talk to yourself 77
think of life as a game 76
travel and talk 76
use analogies and metaphors 76
walking 75
humour 78
removing blocks 18, 74
techniques to aid creativity 79-81
attribute listing 79
brainstorming 79-80
forced relationships 80-81
working conditions 79
Credit Crunch 6,31,35,94
critical path analysis 132
critical thinking vii,15-17
when reading press reports 17
when reading reports 16-17
current ratio 60-61
customer value, creating 99
corporate and social responsibility
(CSR) 100
customers expressing their own values
100
customers' relationships with the
product 100
eye appeal 99
superior quality 100- 01
whole systems 99
de Bono, Edward 27
debt ratio 60
decision making 14,20,5 1, 67, (,'I , H-I, II '>,
86,95, III
developing entrcprcnl'uri ,d ' fll1l1 ' III HII
expert 83, 85
in diffi cult times In, H'I
styles of 70, flJ
decision t"blt's li l, H7 .) I
comp .. lil ilily, " V,dll"IIIIf', 11' 1
,'v, dll ," III )', 11'1
onlroll,lhiitl y, ,'y, dll " lill )\ 11' 1 "II
c .. ill' n" 10 .. l, y, .JII ' '' III )\ "' 11 1, gf'
Cit .II')'," HH H' )
fi'II sl hilll y, ,'v, d,",IIII )', 'III
llill "" I, ,'v, dll ,,, III) : ' III 'I I
"1,1'"11", " V, dll"IIII )', )1)1 /11/
j 'vl llll 111ill H 1' 1 IJI
1)"11 1111
d. 'v"IIII"')', "111111 '" '" 11>1 ,I 11, 1, II
1 LI I I • • _ ....... , I j
146 Ill c/t ·x
'dogs' III
Doherty, Tony v, 3, 20, 21 ,25,32,33, 70,
11 7,1 33
Dolby 99
Dove 109
dream(s) 5, 9, 13,51, 67
daydreaming 74
Dryden, John 17
Du Pont 109
Dumas, Alexandre 75
EasyJet 94, 101
economics, changes in 43
Einstein, Albert 8
Eisenhower, Dwight 127
Elliot, TS 70
empathy and emotion 9-11
and anxiety 10
Equitrade 43,46,62
Equitrade Coffee 100
Esso 100
ethical thinking vii, 14-15, 16
cha nges in 45-46
evaluating options 84, 88
' eye appeal' 99
face-to-face 29, 31
conversation 121
fai lure, fear of 10
Fairtrade 43, 46, 62
Fanny Mae 33
feasibility 6,18,23,83,87,88,89,90-91,95
evaluating 90
Ferrari 103
finances bubble 67
finances, assessing your organization's 53-61
balance sheets 58,58-59
cash flow forecasting 54, 55-57
financial health 60,60-61
financial performance 53, 54
performance ratios 59,59-60
profit and loss accounts 58,58
financial health 60-61
tests for liquidity 60
tests for solvency 60
Fog Index 8
force field analysis 120
Ford 95,107,109,110
forecasting 13, 113
Formula 1,31
Fortune 100
Foster, R 106
Freddie Mac 33
Fuji 104
Fu ld, Ri chMd S :n
( ;.1n1<'r 12
( .. 11' '' ., 11111 I Ill!
'}'. 4·dllll r, · fill
( • • IIII I I II 1\ I, dill 111')
going gloh.I1 ",/, ,11.1,,,, '1 I"" sl',llq;y,
going glob' ll
Gol cman 12
Goodwin, Frcd 33
Gorbachev, Mikhail 2, 5
Great Depression 29
Greece 31
green hat thinking 27
Greenfield, Susan 67
Greenleaf, Robert 3
Greenpeace 100
Grey Matters 8
Griffiths, Victoria 108
groups, assessing 140
growth strategies 94
Gucci 102
Haier 8,126
Harley-Davidson 100, 104
Harvard Business Review 20
heli copter thinking 26
Hemingway, Ernest 75
Hesse, Herman 3
Hewlett Packard 95
Holmes, Sherl ock 75, 86
Holt, Rorycus 108
Holyoak, KJ 26
Honda 95, 109
horizontal integration 81,82
how to compete 92,96,97
Hugo, Victor 75
humour 26, 78, 80, 104
Hurson, TIm 128
Hurst 78
Huxley, Aldous 75
Hyundai 97
Iacocca, Lee 106
IBM 109
lCI 100
Ikea 97
Illusions 4
imagination 8-9
impact 42,45-46,48,68,87,88,90-91
impact, evaluating 90-91
India 2,8,31,36,43,108, 110
individuals, assessing 139
Innocent 106
interest cover ratio 60
intuition 14,27, 83,85, 86, 89, 91
Iran 4, 43
Ireland 31
Jaguar 97,99
Japi1l1 vii , :l6, 67, 100, 10')
lobs, S II'VI' l)'l, 10('
joi llill ); "I' 1111 ' do" I>
1"""l'h 11
,''' I /1/ , " / /11 /liI' / ""/ I
II ' f\, 1,u l! dll t IId 'I" ')
I-...II'h·" 1{(l·"II,, ·,II 1\ 1, ... ,. '/1'0
K.'pl,lIl, Illil
i-.t'I·I' YiJ/1I 1l1I11I1 .'-, IIIIII' '1
KFC 104, 10')
Kim, Cha n 106
Kipling, Rudya rd vi ii
Kleenex 102
Koes tl er, Arthur 26
Komats u 95
Korea 43, 106,108
Lancashire Business School 41
Landrover 110
law of averages 11
law, cha nges in 45
leaders vii, 5-6, 8, 9, 30, 31, 32, 35, 37, 70,
83-86,121,125,136
leaders hip v, viii, ] - 28, 29-37, 70, 83, 95, 102,
126, 136, 141
leadership styles 3-4
communicating direction 4
propheti c voices
among the young 4
developing your own 3
listening to others 3-4
Lehman Brothers 33
Le nnon, John 30
Levelt, Will e m 12
Levi 104
Levitt, T 109
Lewin, Kurt 120
Lexus 96, 100- 0 I
Lincoln, Abraham 14
li quidity ra tio 6 1
Li ste rine 105
Luther King, Ma rlin 2, S, H, lOll
Lycra 109
Mandela, Nelson 2, IOCl
Mari e nbad II
market, ill ·/ 1 1' 1, ·11
market developll1l'1l1 H I. H.', III
market-led s lrall'gy" ""11, · ."HI
ol1ll1ll",i r. lI,· ., 'I.' 11 ·1
,lclartivl'11l'"'' 'IS
building ., h,.I"d 1111 III
br.lnd ('(I' ,il y I II', III .' III
br.lIldidl' I1,il y /111. 111 1 111
( 'OI1U.'plll.,II / III)" \PIII -dl ,lh g\
h'.Illd 'I \
gnnvlh ... tj I
' . 111 \ 1\01 1 I " I
11111 t.H 111111 . lllil 11111 II d II I 1111 III ." I II
t H ' ,1IIII),. II 111 ' \\ !til ' 1111 11'" II
I 1I '. lplIII I \ dlill "I 1/"
I "'11111 III , 11 111 ,III I.d II 111111 11 1+111 \
(I ' oI 'j 11'"
,"
11111111
,
I 'll ", )\ tI"" 1I
II
\ dill 11111
,"
11111111
,[1.'1'"''
I' l '
,tI,'l ..
1, ,111111 1 1 11111
I"d" 1" I
"" 1'1 ''' '' ' 'i".11,,\ 11111 III
wll,,'" ', \'01,' 111 " ' 1'1
"'""1; ' /1 " 1; "II' !>"""""" 1111 , W',
1I" <, I>ill )\'" "", 11111
Il\lw Itl ddl ,'r'·I1I '.>I " 106
incH'')'' '' 'g " ,. Ige I OS
going glob,ll 1117, 107 10,1118, 111'1 f()
presenting your strategy 11 2- 14
fina l s ummary 11 4
introducti on 11 3
ma in body 11 3
react ive respons ive ness 95
s trategy ta bl e 92,92 93,93
s tubbornness 94
s umma ry 114
s ustainable competiti ve advantage,
creating 96
how to compete 97,97- 98,98
on what to compete 98- 99
where to compete 96-97
writingyour stra tegy 111 - 12
executive s ummary proforma 11 2
marketing leaders 29- 37,95
ma rketing tea m iv, vii , 2, 3, 6, 30, 3 1,34,36,
53, 102
Ma rks & Spencer 108
Ma rpl e, Miss 75
Ma rtindale, Colin 17- 18,73
Mats ushita 20
Ma uborg, R "106
Ma zda 20, 109, 110
McDonalds 104
Mcllugh, Gillian 41
McMill a n, Harold 127
meas ures of performan e (MOl's) 22
nll'dia 17, 108, 11 9
II1 ('lIlory 7 Il
hlg Index H
Mi ll ,'r 's I{u le H
1111( ' of Ihrl'l' Il
Ihr\ '\' 11ll' 7 H
""' "I .II.lr1lhIlWli c II
1\.01 "", '<1, " '17, 10,)
1\. 1, ' " ,II I yll' h :n
""·I''1, I>",, , .>lIIIIII''ing 2 1,2
'
1 2H,1>7
,I', "" .I,d 'tl ""'Ill ory 24
1111.1 , "·.,', vl , y 71>
I" '"" '1
1
". 11, ' "' gill" """ ., 111111",,11; :)(,
111111 111j1 1r, 'h
." "11,11" " 1; 1> .11'0' .!'1 IX
\ III ', III j ' " 'I
" 11 11 11 1111 ,.1"1 11111, ' li ·,IIIIIII )'. ..' h
111 1II',.d t ' I " ", 111/1
/1, 1,01.11, I " , "
/l, lllh, 1' 11 1. II
1111" 1111 .,)'.,- , II ' ,
I" II ' 7
1\ 1",, 1 111 .11.. 111'1
,, 1111 IIIII III I ' I 11111 II hll II I
III ' 01
14t1 11/( 110\
Mas's 8
MTV 103, L09
Mudd, Daniel 33
Naisbitt, John 14
NEC 95
negotiating 123
accept agreement 125
a seven-stage model 121
decide maximum and minimum
positions 124
find overlap 124
probe 124
set up a hypothesis 124
summarise areas of agreement 124-25, 125
test the hypothesis 124
neurochemicals 67
neuromarketing 36
neuroscience 2,5,8,9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18,
20,23,28,136
Newton, Isaac 120
NEX 20
Next 99
Nicholas 84
Nike 95,109
Nissan 109,110
Nonaka, Ikyiyero 20
North Korea 4
NovaMind 115
nuclear waste 36
numeracy 11
older people 13, 14, 18, 43, 74
options, evaluating 88, 88
Pantene 108
Pepsi 95, 108
Perkins, David 26
persuading 121
a seven-stage model 121
ask for acceptance 123
confirm the conversation
connect the change to benefits 122
deal with doubt 122
establish rapport 122
handle objections 122
probe 122
PERT 115, 132
Peugeot 108
Philadelphia 102
Phillips 110
Poirot, Hercule 75
politics, changes in 44-45
Porsche 104
Portugal 31
predictive thinking vii ,13-14
pri ce 31, 33,35,37, 43,58,61,62,79,82,
95,97,98, 100, 101, 108, '109, III ,
II , 127
"I'i ' il1l\ :1S, (d , iOl ,
1', I ,l u l, . UU IflU
1'f'()('i(>I'& ( ;,1 1\1 )1 1" lOll
proj"I' 1 111,111" );<' 11\('111 11 'i 1'1
' riti .. 11 1'.I1h 1:12
defining the project 1.1(), 13031
delegating 125- 27, 126
eva luating the project 134,134
fa ce-to-face conversation 121
identify tasks
to identify resources 129
to implement strategy 128
implementation plan 115
implementing the project 133, 133-34
negotiating 123
accept agreement 125
decide maximum and minimum
positions 124
find overlap 124
probe 124
set up a hypothesis 124
summarise areas of agreement 124-25,
125
test the hypothesis 124
persuading 121
ask for acceptance 123
confirm the conversation
connect the change to benefits 122
deal with doubt 122
establish rapport 122
handle objections 122
probe 122
planning the project 131,131-33,132,133
prediction 13-14, 64-66
preparing people for change 117,117-18,
118
AVOCADOS checklist 118,118
resistance to change 118-20
detecting resistance 120
forming, storming, norming and
performing 119,119
forms of resistance 119
overcoming resistance to change 120, 120
resourcing the project 131
scheduling tasks 129-30
strategic planning 127-28
summary 134
task sheets 116
product development 21,36,81,81, 111,
127
prophetic voices
among the young 4
developing your own 3
listening to others 3-4
recession, strategic thinking during a
29- 37
at board level 33
business developm nt 36
buying 36 37
('ilsh rn.1I1i1gt ' It\l 'nt :'\ 1
1.,.",,1 111'0 HII'III, '/;l r kll(l wl(' dp,, ' :I I :12
tI, IV"lill ll ll lJ vi 1. 11\ "
I? II
hlll·'''"lill g 111(' f"I"I' · :m
11l.l1111,lining mOl",ll t' 29
Ilw m.lJ'kel i ng tell m 30
product pri ing 35
I<&D 3536
recruiling 34
I'(' mnining competi li ve 30- 31
Helling 34
sl I'ea mlining admini strati on 3 1
t.lking decisions 33
I r.lCking the bottom l ine 32
I mi ning 34-35
rl' I hat thinking 27
rl'fle live thinking v ii , 18, 19,20
1{(' lll is duBois 106
Henault 109
repti li an brain 6
Resistan e 88, 90, 107, 11 8, 120, 126, H I
<lI1ticipating 1"1 6
areas of 89
detecting 120
di ssipating 11 6
forms of 11 9
overcoming 11 5, 134
potential sources llncl levels of ] 20
10 change 18,70,90 SCI' 0150 change,
resistllnce 10
l'I'»i»IOl's 12H, 129
n' l renchnll'nl 82
l{ichl11ont! , B,"Ty 2 1
I "k vii , 13,23,33,36, 44,51,59,64,67,74,83,
117, H8, 88, H9, 91, 106, 109
II Sb, l'v,l lu,lting 9 1,91
l<\lh.1I1 99, 103
H\I"'" IOJ
Roy t' 11 0
i<1)(),,'veil , 29
l{"y.II Bank of Scol 1,Inti 3:1
IIIII'oflhrel', lhe H
1{ II S" i,l 3 1,36,43, IOH
l<y, 1I1.lir 94 , 101
106
·, IWI11.1 12
S, II w('Pill'» 104
' ;, ' "11.1, Ayrl OIl 10'1
WII II .lIl1 'I
;11 .111 ' 70
Il "' 1I111lt'11HlI Y " II
dlhI I H"',lplhl l " 1, 1
"1 1 111I1I klll)'. h.lh' , 'J 'H
',1 ... 111 , A III ,." I ' 111/1
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SloIrhul'b I no
'sl.1l':·; III
strc11l'gir Cc' p"bilily, 47 (,
9Ms, thl' 47, 4H
ma hines 6 1 62
m,lnngcmenl 53
rmrkel 4H 50, 49, !i()
materiab 62
mental muscle I) I 1)2
money 53 6 1
morale 50 I) I
mores 5 1
movemen t 6 1
summary 62
strategic decisions, I..ki ll )\ K I ' I I
and brain power Wi
deci sion tables II I, K7 'I I
compati bility, l·v. II".I III' )', K'I
competiti vt'Ill's», " V, ti" .lill' )" H'I
controll abilil y, ('v,l11"ll l1l )" H'I ' III
criteri a for eVd lll dlill);
change 88 Hl)
feasibility, eva lu,l ling 'I()
impact, eva lualing l)J) 'I I
options, evalull ting HH, HH
ri sks, eva luating 9 1,91
in difficult times H3, 141
entrepreneuri al ' fl air ' 86 H7
and t' xperi en c 86
nn I intuiti on 85, H6
Jnt! le.ldcrship sty les 83 H4
mJn,lgl'ment decision m,lkcrs Hi) H'1
moti el of stral egi decisinn m'lking IN
,1I1d pl'rsonn l va lues H5
S'"11Il1.lry 9 1
illll'lIigl'Il« ' , galheri ll g 41 46
ill ('l'IIIHlll1ic» 4:1
in l'lhi es 4S 46
ill polil i .. 44 '1'1
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150 Index
obstacle analysis 72
obstacle removal 73
options to consider 81
concentration and focus 81
horizontal integration 82
market development 82
product development 82
retrenchment 82, 90
vertical integration 82
summary
strategic planning 59,60,114,115,127-28,
134
strategic predictions, making 64-66
checklist 64- 65
summary 66
worst case scenario 65,66
strategic thinking viii
components of 7
strategic vision, developing 67-71
6S framework 70,71
brain chemistry 67
CATSWORLD checklist
actors 68
customers/clients 68
decisions 70
limitations 69
owners 69
resources 69
sub-systems 68
transformation 68, 68
way we do things around here 69
metaphorical thinking 67
summary 71
visions and revisions 70
Subaru 98
Sudoku 17
survival strategies 94
SUVs see Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs)
synectics 26-27
Syron, Richard 33
systems thinking 20-24
conversational systems model 21,22-23,
23-24,25
technology, changes in 42-43
TEMPLES 7, 41, 91
Tesco 108
testosterone 67
Thagard, P 26
Thain, John 33
thinking companions 28
thinking skills, basic 8-12
empathy and emotion 9-11
and anxiety 10
imagination 8- 9
mcmory 7 8
Fog Indl' x H
Mill .. r ', I<IIII ' H
"til ' III 11111 ' I ' , 1111 ' H
II " . ..... A "" Ill d I) .."
numeracy 11
verbal thinking 12
thinking skills, combination 13-20
creative thinking and innovation 17- 18
removing blocks 18
critical thinking 15-17
when reading press reports 17
when reading reports 16-17
ethical thinking 14- 15, 16
predictive thinking 13-14
reflective thinking 18, 19, 20
Thomson, Roy 84
three As, the 7-8
times,
of crisis 86, 104
tight 34
turbulent iv, vii, 2, 5, 29-31, 36-37, 58,
59,79,81-82,83,85,86,89,90,94,
110-11, 116-17, 119, 123, 125-27,
139, 140, 141
Toshiba 95
Toyota 94, 108, 109, 110
Prius 100
Training your Brain 7,9,16,19,136
transferable learning 26
transformation 25, 68
transformational 119,141
Treffinger, OJ 26
Twain, Mark 75
verbal thinking 12
vertical integration 81,82
Virgin 103,104,106
Virgin Airways 100
Virgin Trains 101
Visa 109
visual thinking vii, 6, 8-9
Vodafone 109
Volkswagen 109
Volvo 98-99, 103
von Moltke, Helmuth 127
Walesa, Lech 2, 5
Wal-mart 94,98, 101, 108
Watson, Dr 75, 86
Weinstock, Simon 106
where to compete 92, 96, 96
white hat thinking 27
White Matters 8
Williams, G 24
Winnicott, Donald 78
Woolworths 29
Wordsworth, Willi am 75
Xcrox 95
ye ll o w h.11 Ilt il1h.ill ); .7
y llllll)', 1'1 '111' 11 ' ·1, I I, 1,1, <J I, Hh, I ll')

" IIIJ 11111,111111,

~

glc

hinking
A nine step approach to strategy and leadership for managers and marketers Simon Wootton & Terry Horne

These 9 systematic steps will help you to:
ESCAPE FROM THE PAST
1. Gather strategic intelligence

FOCUS ON THE PRESENT

INVENT THE FUTURE

4. Make strategic predictions 5. Develop strategic vision 6. Create strategic options

7. Take strategic decisions 8. Create and communicate market-led strategy 9 . Plan and manage projects to implement the changes

. . I\ssess strategic capability
: I. C;"oILte s trategic knowledge

/\uthors of the best-selling books on 'the brain' and the 'management of change'

Kogan Page
LONDON PHILADELPHIA NEW DELHI

Simo n.. . of: Slr. or refraining from action. cm ."1111. Designs and Patents Act 1988.11.3rd ed . Il ol'll l'.W(. '.(. Slratcgi plannin g. 8.. ISBN E.11" .r.8 . l'd. 2001.l teg ic thinkin g: a nine step approach to stra tegy and lead ership for ma nagers " nt! m<ll"kl'lc rs / Simon Woo tto n. Slril leg i plell1ning. . . 2010 The ri ght of Simo n Wootton and Terry Horne to be identified as the authors of this work has been asse rted by them in accordance with Copyright. ·Ii· rry...It 'd .". .1 '" 1.rli I 1III. Stri. Includ es bib liog r'lphi 'el l references. Terry H orne. 1997.0 ' 11'. 94 I. 11 . 20 10 (". . and the publishers and authors cannot accep t responsibility for a ny erro rs or omissions. as a result of the material in thi s publication can be a e pted by the editor. this publication may only be reproduced. as permitted under the Copyright.1'0 12 . I'" . No responsibility for loss or damage occasioned to ~ny pe rso n actin g. 111 )10. 11 '''11'.1<'22 11' 1'. .1 . or criticism or review.. III. in any form or by any means.. Wool lon .llegi plannin g. II.Publisher's note Every possible effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this book is elC urate at th e time of go in g to press. ·1 l1 y ("" 1. with the prior permission in writin g of the publishers.\<.. p. \{ !'v. #241 Philadelphia PA 19147 USA 4737/23 Ansari Road Daryaganj New Delhi 110002 India © Simon Wootton and Terry Horne. Simon . Pirst published as Strategic Planning: the Nine Step Programme in 1997 by Kogan Page Limited econd ed ition 2001 Th ird ed itio n 2010 Apa rt fro m a ny fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study. ·. however caused. 1"111. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside these term s sho uld be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned addresses: 120 Pentonville Road London NI 9JN United Kingdom www.1 . the publisher or any of the authors.ISBN 9780749460778 9780749461102 British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A C IP reco rd for thi s book is ava ilable from the British Library..koganpage.com 525 South 4th Street. Tille. stored or transmitted. 1>\ I "· II\I~ . ISBN 97H 0 7'1 6077-H ISBN 978-0-7494-6'11 0-2 (e-bk) I. Designs and Patents Act 1988. or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the term s and li cences issued by the CLA. 1'11111. Library of Co ngress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Woo tto n.

" " 11..'IIi'IIi// \ /I 1"/" IIdll ( ' / ' ". TIII ': NEXT TEPS NI xi C.I P I 11.brain-based communication Strategic leadership . Ir/ /.THE 9S©APPROACH \1 P 1 .111\1 67 72 83 R 92 115 135 '.Contents I'nfnce IIck /lOw/edgements / )I'riicntion III'(J II/ this book I'ART I. It P 2 \1 Gather strategic intelligence Assess strategic capability Create strategic knowledge Make strategic predictions Develop strategic vision reate strategic options Take strategic decisions rcate and communicate market-led strategy Plan and manage projects to implement change 41 P3 47 63 64 \I( P 4 'liclP "Ii P 6 "Ii P 7 '.the thinking skills required Marketing leadership and management action 2 3 5 7 e Study 1'A In II. 29 39 STRATEGIC THINKING . iv v vi vii 1 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ction 1 ction 2 ction 3 Strategic leadership Strategic leadership and conversational style Strategic leadership .111\1 9 1'1('1'111. '11 .lllhought \ /1/11 '/11 // \ 136 137 II 139 140 141 " 'lItlIIIX /4 / '/ '/ 1.11/' 1'1(111111'1'111/.

I IIII l' . Wlien you think clearly and strategically. Turbulence. II Will Iher you lead a small marketing team.my.) strategist you must not show fear of what you see coming.P eface III ('. 'Ihe practical 9S©Approach can be used by managers to work out how to re.1 n use this book to discern opportunities in chaos. Strategic thinking is not difficult when you use the 9S©Approach: 'Ihe practical 9S©Approach can be used by market planners to find new custom('rs and to specify what needs to be done to delight them. Stral egic thinking directs present action and improves future performance. .) n learn to display contagious confidence. As . you will become thl'11 leader. even in turbulent times. even in turbulent times. or manage a whole c(lltll'. your people will look to you for reassurance and guidance when they face an 1IIIcertain future. even in turbulent times. run your own SME. will test their trust in your ability. ource and schedule the work that will need to be done to implement the plan. especially. i)U w ill need strategies for your back office as well as your front office. You must see it soon 'r than others and take opportunities. I \ III need strategies for your supply line and your front line.

Acknowledgements We are indebted to so many that it seems iniquitous to nominate so few. Corporate Strategy Manager at the University of Central Lancashire and to SME and corporate managers down the decades for their feedback on what works and what doesn't. and material from Doing Good Business . of which we have been critical (Horne and Doherty. We commend the work of Warren Bennis and Richard Greenfield. We are grateful to Routledge for permission to use material from A Thoughtful Approach to the Practice of Management (2003). whose models of leadership seem to sidestep 'the darker sides of senior management'. We are grateful to Sally Turnbull. . for his cultural perspective and his advice on how to find direction in times of uncertainty. We have needed timely reminders from Tony Doherty and Charles Handy that strategic thinking involves ethical and moral reasoning.Ethics at work (forthcoming). We are indebted to Professor Ram Charan. We have for many years been grateful for the work of Professor Peter Checkland and Professor Susan Greenfield and the legion of neuroscientists who supported our work on the brain. 2003).

Dedication First. and then given to write them. open communication and the importance of the family to all that we do in today's world . this book is dedicated to my children. Gillian Wootton (my understanding 'book widow'). so as to catch up! It is only through such a supportive family network that ideas flow. only Ellis was present in the Wootton family world. time is allowed to dwell on them. Secondly. this book is dedicated to my wife. . someone whose approach to life is honesty. so James and Holly now ask their Dad to write more books with Terry. Ellis.vital components of the human soul. The greatest waste in the world is the difference between what we are and what we could become. James and Holly for their love and support and continued encouragement to write more books! When the first edition of this book was published. (Ben Herbster) Strategic Thinking can end that difference.

\'('onnmil's.I'. write strategic plans. ma rk 'ls.lpan 's research into the use of figurative language. we have built on ). .lillolhil ily .y. and three higher-order thinking skills.thical a nd moral reasoning. II.l ISI. The five basic skills are memory. This book is not for creative entrepreneurs. We have expanded Part I in three ways. and conversational thinking.. and manage projects to implement change. numeracy.di v(' Tllillkill ). . ti vl' Thinking wh e n you assess threa ts a nd opportunities.y.ll Thinkin g wh e n you a udit s tra tegic ca pa bility. e thics and social trends. Secondly. Stra tegic thinking involves the deployment of five basic. we have expanded the section on . given the Ilved fo r innovation. II. The thinking skills required were identified during a seven-year study. especially in turbulent times.whe n you a nalyse the impact of changes in technology. la w. direc t present action and improve future performance. This will enable you to address issues of trust. create and communicate market-led strategies. even in difficult times.i hilil y. 'mpa thy. five combination. po liti cs.'-. reflecting the increased complexity of lhinking globally and transculturally. the activities involved in developing a strategy have been divided into ihn'(' . We til'sc ribe lhings you can do in each of these areas that will help you to assess past Illftll"malion . the formulation of strategy. W Ill'll yn u l' va lu . effiCie ncy.About this book This book is an all-in-one-place handbook for those managers and members of the marketing team who need to collect and assess information. creditworthiness and the need to repair your corporate reputation. In Part II. Thirdly. w llt 'll yll il 111'1 '::1' 1\1 oIlhl :.:. effectiveness. This book examines the results of applying these skills to the creation of strategic knowledge. .11 y0 111' s irolll ')'. You will learn te) II S V: • • • • • • I' rl'lii ctivl' Thinkin g . imagination. working with Roger Armstrong atthe University of Central Lancashire. ( . to formulate strategy and implement strategic change.. born leaders. w he n you OV (' I"CO l1l l' obs lacles to inn ova tion. I ~ I ' III . In Part I we explain how these component lhinking skills can be developed. which began in 1989. formulating ideas. ( 'n '. In Part II we describe how these skills can be combined in a 9S©Approach. It is for ordinary mortals who are asked to create and communicate s trategies and implement change. take strategic decisions.1. 1':1111( '. 1'1 "1 . First.ll l' cc()nomi cs.lrea s: crea ting knowledge. or those blessed with the gift of prophecy. competitive advantage and creative initiative. V I' . and implementing change.11 1\ 1 ri s k. and to the implementation of change. 1i Tl dlli ill }'. t 'ri tk'. we have vxpa nd ed it to include systems thinking.11 'l'llilll ill) .

ESCAPE THE PAST Gathering StrategiC Intelligence Assessing StrategiC Capability Creating Strategic Knowledge CREATE USABLE KNOWLEDGE FORM PRESENT IDEAS What do we think will happen? What do we want to happen? What creative changes might we make? RETHINK THE FUTURE Taking Strategic Decisions Formulating Strategy Implementing Strategic Change DIRECT PRESENT ACTION IMPROVE FUTURE PERFORMANCE . but as citizens and lifelong learners in a changing world. It has been adopted as a core text in strategic management in business schools in Asia. Readers will learn to adapt their thinking quickly.The Chartered Institute of Marketing. and by managers of large multinational companies and international NGOs. It is fully internationalized and rooted in contemporary thinking on emergent.VIII /luoul Ih i. leadership and strategic change management.a strategic leader. you can become a leader with a leadership style that will work in certain and in uncertain times . These are highly portable skills. The book has been reprinted 10 times since its launch and it enjoys a five-star reader rating on the publisher 's website. /) OJ. You will keep your head when all around you are losing theirs (Kipling). critical and market-led approaches to strategy formulation. by applying them in practice. and by CIM . management and marketing. Readers will learn about the theories behind strategy. This book has been highly rated by managers of SMEs.. It is popular with final-year undergraduates and MBA and Master's students of business. These are skills you will need not only as strategists and entrepreneurs. Eastern Europe and South America. It has been endorsed by AMBA . When you learn to think strategically. as circumstances change.. by managers and professionals in service organizations. Strategic thinking develops a market-led conversational style of leadership that is particularly well suited to getting difficult things done in difficult times. You will get practi ce in using the 10 component thinking skills and the three advanced thinking tools.The Association of Masters of Business Administration.

STEP 1 GATHER DEVELOP STRATEGIC VISION Figure 0.The Nine Steps .About this book ix The 9S©Approach helps you to rethink the future.2 Strategic thinking .

Part I Strategic leadership .

In Parl I. Step 9). This book is concerned with h ow marketers and managers can learn to lead and think s trategically.11 what w e have discovered a bou t the leade rship s tyl es of effec tiv e s trateg ists. we found it in Mikhail Gorbachev and Lech Walesa. In a small owner-managed business. even in turbulent times. and to implement and manage stra tegic changt'o In the Case Study in Part I.Section 1 Strategic leadership Some say our hope lies with one nation. we w ill look at examples of effective action takell by strategic leaders at times of confusio n. In India. we will look at the n euroscien ce that helps us to und erstand the W'l y strategic leaders communicate. . in the deep south of the United States. This separation is for convenience of publication. Section 3. or in a small-to-medium sized enterprise (SME). ch aos and cri s is. in South Africa by Mandela. I believe that our hope lies with listening to those individuals whose everyday deeds negate the past and help us to rethink the future. they were given strategic leadership by Ghandi. strategi c leadership and strategic thinking are mutually reinforcing. by Martin Luther King. we will look a t the thinking skill ~ required. the manager. p eop le need strategic leadership from their marketing team and strategic implementation from their managers (see Part II. In Part I. Section 2.based on the last lecture given by Albert Camus) In times of turbulence people turn to their leaders. Section 4. In Part I. We s ta rt by look in g . we will look at styles of lea d ership and managemenl that have proved effective in s trategic leaders. (Terry Horne . the marketer and the entrepreneur m ay be one and the sam e person. Part I focuses on strategic leadership and Part II on strategi c thinking. Part II sets out a simple nine-step approach (the 9S© Approach) that helps you to create and present strategy. some say it lies with one man . In organizations. In practice. In 1989.

11 . W ill' " 101" I II 1I 1I II III 11 it' I'1 .1 '1 III . ·. It w as no t until 2003. The things you need to do are not difficult to learn.10 I IIIJ ' j ' . '1'1.' 1IIIH ·rs. but also as another.11 .. in g " clipn L oday Lh a L will im p rove yo ur pe rformance I filii" 't\ ' 11 .:.l('Lion-centred managers: 'By their deeds that you shall know them.1" liI" . th ose whom he had served bestowed on Leo the 11 1111 11 111 " II I li·.11 WI' lirs l l'x pr 'ssed our concerns a bout the 'dark side of leader111 1' 1111 1 III. They were forced to give up their ' I" ' I "'l. C n:enl ea f sa w in Leo a metaphor for the way that strategic I. 1'. Strategic thinking involves thinking 11 11 \' llIlr~ j(' 1I .11 1 II '. 11I 111 1111 lil l' III IWIIl I' III II " yll il 11 .I S YllU rse l f.: ..il lI '. "' 1v.Irolll'g i " d irec ti o n. the gro up discovered that Leo was in fact the head of the " 1.lnd s o n l ' (C haran. yll ll r I I " oi l' I \ III )\ " 1\ III 1.111 11\ ' Il y I. one day.tI' l' iI.''" " "\1 '1 1 yl II II' OW II I rllpll('li l' vo in' b Il'" rnin g to thin k s tra teg ica ll y..1 ' 01 ..11 Illl' hnd seen him as the ir servant.d. . It involves thinking clearly and clearly • 1111 "1' III)'. Leo's first and foremost desire \ .lphor he lps L ex pl a in ho w a m e mber of a marketing te am can often o II III' I.111 ~ () years ago.11 '" IIII ·i. 111'. i " " ..<l('u vl' red tha t you do not need to be a born leader. When you think strategically and act \ 1111"1111'. ' ' )'. 11111 ' III ' 1111 ' 11'11 \'11111 )'.j' ''1 111I' 1"111"1. Leo is II I. 111 11 11 Wlllllli .I S pro phl'li c..I I 1'1 '1. 111 '" ~ ' I p wl Ih e g roup fe ll into disarray. They no longer knew which way \ . .I d y II(' 1"'"1" 1'.ld l' r o r a n orga ni za tio n. 1'"111 " 101 1'" 1 '1 V Vil li 1.. The re a re a lways prophe tic voices III \ 1111 1 1111 .1111..1\' " tI.11'111 w illl1l' 11 YO Il d o Ih .lt. wha te ve r their position in the hierarchy. Leo is a m embe r of a group on a 1'11 11 '1 11 11 '11 !J" l's l a jo u m ey to the Eas t. W. h y ylll ir jll'( 'I'. I" .1101 11 \ I' l ' Ii "'" w ll .II i'v\' ry Il'vl' l in yo ur orga ni za ti o n .III 11 .1Lvr.lL yo u think. 111 .I' d TIH 'y Ihld Ills L Lhe ir sense o f direction. 1. '" . ' IIo1 V1' researche d and long favoured the leadership styles of Professor Ii lilll 1\ d . 11 '11 . 1.. iI I . Leo does their chores.l l yll il 111111 " .11 .11" )'. lIli /.llli ' rs ilip .l 11i ill 11(' rm a n Hesse's Journey to the East.I. In Ihe e nd .ll iOI1 p rill yi ltlr I'O llllllllnil y. III '''' 1\ . In 11ll' Ilwa n11111 11 11 II \ ' III . you ca n profit 11""11. If yo u li s ten .111 11 .1i 1" s . The group was m aking good progress until. w il.1I1i1 .1 I 1'1. Leo sustains their 1" 111 ' lV illl hi :.so n gs.II'I'dl li". 10 '1 111 . rather than the chie f executive.lIhli m:i 1 II I senior m a nage rs'. ill yll lll' () rg. Robert G reenleaf (1997) drew our attentio n to Leo .11 h .1111. 2003). 111 11.lIld h. :. 111 .lrs 1. you only nee d to do what I" '" I II wlvrs 10 (H o rn e and Dohe rty. They re alized that Leo had b een their leader ii i III" lilli" 111.llI y YI'."Itl l. 2009) . 1\ 111 1..' WI ' dl .111 s pun sn re d the i r guest. .Strategic leadership and conversational style THE LEADERSHIP STYLES OF STRATEGISTS IV.11 11 .111' lilllll'd 10 Lhose who kn o w which way we are m eant to be going. So. · 111.1(" li '. 10 \ 1111 I 11 11 IV lilt . 'oi WI1 . .iI "1 VIlIl'. Leo . llihe rs see you as a 'born leader'. based on re se arch with 11111\ III "1"ll y.

4

Strategic leadership

The novelist Richard Bach was a prophet. In Illusions, he tells the story of a colony of ancient crayfish that lived a leisurely life amongst the rocks at the bottom of a slow meandering river. Every day, there floated down the river more food than the crayfish could eat. One night, there was a terrible storm in the hills above the river. The storm raged for days, quickly turning the river into a raging torrent, filling it with mud and dangerous debris. Unable to see, let alone eat, most of the crayfish clung desperately to their rocks on the riverbed. Most of the crayfish were smashed to death against the rocks. There were a few, however, who realized that by letting go of their old rocks, they would be carried along by the new current. Eventually they would be swept into some new quieter pool, where they could perhaps tread water until they had regained their breath. Once they had had time to think, the crayfish who had risked letting go of their old rocks realized that all manner of new foods and new materials were being brought to them by the new current. Some had so much enjoyed the exhilaration of the fast ride in the current that they pushed off back into the current in search of new pools further downstream. Despite the risks, they thought there was more likely to be calmer water, wider rivers and even more food further downstream. When the alternative is to be battered to death on the rocks, even strategic decisions can be easy! If we use the crayfish as a metaphor (see Section 3), we can see that it is sometimes unwise to cling fearfully to ideas from the past. That is not to say that such ideas should be abandoned without thought. There is no point, for instance, in waking each day to invent a wheel. But that does not stop one from looking for a wheel better suited to the needs of the day. There are nearly always people, somewhere, working on a better wheel. But if you do not listen, you may not hear them. Those of us who can spend a lot of time with young people are very fortunate . Young people quickly become the future. They have now, the future ideas that we are paid to predict. Amongst the young there are many prophetic voices, if only we will listen. Currently young voices are challenging injustice. They are challenging restrictions on their freedom in Zimbabwe, Burma, Iran and North Korea. Many young people are angry because there is disparity between the quality of life of people in Africa, for instance, and the quality of life that advances in science, technology and economics have made possible for others. It is the young who have most reason to fear for the future of the planet, and for the future health of their children. Many young people are not impressed by coercion. It is important for politicians and managers to realize that young people today are less and less ready to recognize the authority of leaders to whom they do not freely give their allegiance. Young people are more likely to give allegiance to those whom they perceive to be helpful, than to those whom they perceive to have power - to those who think strategically, rather than to those who appear to be thoughtless. A distinguishing characteristic of those who think strategically and lead strategically, is that they are better than others at creating and communicating intent and direction. They are better a t pointing out the direction of a group's intent - whether tha t group is a team , a n o rga niza tion or a nation. We turn nex t to bra in -based stra tegic communica tion .

Section 2

Strategic leadership brain-based communication
The strategic leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev and Lech Walesa, was not sufficient to bring down the Berlin Wall. A second ingredient was necessary; that second ingredient was brain-based communication. This brain-based strategic communication was provided by West German television. Strategic leaders need to use emotional images and frequent repetition to communicate aim, purpose and direction. They n eed the patience to do so repeatedly, thereby creating memory and familiar neural pathways in our brains. By being prepared to repeat themselves frequently, they create a familiarity that reassures and restores lost confidence in times of confusion and chaos. To a strategic leader, the direction is always clear, even when the destination is not. The destination may be a 'vision', the spreading of a belief, or the acceptance of a concept. The destination is out of reach and sometimes out of sight. The destination is some thing to move towards or become. The d estination therefore excites the imagination or challenges the mind. People need to feel pride or excitement to be moving toward it. Because the destination is unseen, people need to have trust that it is worthwhile. To elicit this trust, strategic leaders need confidence not only in their own values but also in their own judgement. When you learn to think s tra tegically in Part II, you will gain confidence in your own judgement. Ma rtin Luther King did not go to bed to create his 'dream'. Strategic 'dreams' d evelop through intensive listening to the people for whom those dreams have onsequence. Even in turbulent times, it will be the natural behaviour of strategic lea d ers to ask questions, rather than issue orders: ' Wh a t is happening down here?' 'What is happening out there?' 'How is it affecting our customers?' 'How is it affecting you?' 'What would you like to see done?' 'How can I help?' Thi s qu es tioning and lis tening will feed your strategic thinking (Part II). In the meanlim e, lhi s questionin g a nd listening will calm your people, validate their feelings, ,Inc! r 'slore their co nfid e nce. If you do not understand them, you will be misunderI' lood . Oncc yo u und e rs ta nd , you will need to communicate your understanding. When co mmuni c<llin g lo a g roup o f people, n e uroscientists tell us to assume only .I 2(J Illinull" ,llll'nlion SI',ln . The nc uros ie nce o f s hort-term me mory tells us that 111 ,\ll y IW\lp lv, I' pokvl1 10 ill .I gro llP, ;Irl' unlike ly lo re me mbe r mo re th a n three things 111,11 w,' I'dy. Slr,II") ',i, ' 1 dlll'l"s ,'llI HIS,' w ilh l'M l' how hel' llo li se lh cl'c thrcc precio us " IIll i l ~, II I dll, '1l11011 .11111 111\ '111\11 y, ,' II',II" );i,' 1 ld ,' r:-; rq)('.11 Ill\' Il1n'(' illlp"rl,lIll thingl' ", 111I 'y hd VI' 1(1 "dY III , I ', 1I 1, \ll y .1111"1\ '111 \Vd y" .I ,', l 'II~"',,b l l' , II s ill ); .I S 1110111 dill,'n 'l1 l 1111 , 1)',1" 1, • 1<1111 " , 1' 11111110,11 '1 .11111 1" ' I ',IIII,ri, ' . 11111 , 11 " ,1' 1 tllC'Y 1, 111 III lIr1l1 1111 ' " PI'I '\'iIIi IY

6

Strategic leadership

though they often attract criticism for doing so. When trying to communicate their understanding to their people, strategic leaders are always thinking, 'But what's in this for them?' Strategic leaders usually finish their communication with a final summary that repeats the three important things they came to say. It is not sufficient that leaders communicate the right direction. They must get people pointing in that same right direction and motivate them to move in that direction. Strategic leaders know that motivation comes from belief, and neuroscientists have identified two necessary components of belief: a thought plus a feeling; involvement of the primitive reptilian brain, as well as the cerebral cortex. Strategic leaders deliberately associate each idea with an optimistic emotional image that is meaningful to their people. The direction of their communication is always from the past (a story or an experience), via the present (an idea or an opinion), towards some future (plan or action). Mid the encircling gloom they must shine their leading light forwards, at least as far as the next signpost! Because the destination is in the future, and because no one can have knowledge of the future, leaders are always trying to sense the unknowable. Sensing the unknowable is fallible, so leaders need to tolerate the risk of being wrong. Numerical thinking helps leaders to make forecasts, quantify risk and back hunches. Because the way forward lies in the future and because no one can see into the future, leaders are trying to foresee the unforeseeable. This requires imagination and the ability to create a vision of the future . It also requires critical thinking, which is the ability to evaluate the desirability and the feasibility of turning visions into reality. When there is insufficient certain knowledge, visual thinking feeds prediction, empathy and ethical judgement. Joining up the dots of the unknowable and the unforeseeable requires creative thinking, as well as critical judgement. Reflective thinking can temper those judgements with streetwise intelligence born of experience. In Section 3 we will explain how you can develop these different thinking skills. You will practise them, and become proficient in their use, as you work through the 9 Steps in Part II. The 9S© Approach give you the ability to create strategic knowledge, create strategic plans and to implement and manage strategic changes. These are key attributes of a strategic leader. In difficult times, when strategic leaders shine their light on the problems caused by a credit crunch, or an organizational crisis, the focus of the light beam is naturally on the presenting problem. But the strategic leader's light also spreads sideways, illuminating the recent past and the near future. At the periphery, the strategic leader 's focus is naturally less sharp, but this peripheral vision still informs the strategic leader's view of what needs to happen next. To examine the role of the marketing team and the managers in what happens next, turn to the CilSl' s llltl y .1 1 the end of Part I. It is a collection of effective strategic actions token by 111.11"J..l'I l'I"S and managers during the credit crunch in 2008 and 2009.

in an accurate and timely manner. 2009) II ylli l wi . information that can help you to formulate your strategy. " y llll!' lil\'lilllr y WITl' [1('11('1'.'1 III ' . 1I111 I IPIII( '.the thinking skills required THE FIVE BASIC THINKING SKILLS Basic Skill 1.1 '/'II(' COI II/IOII I' II/ S oj slrnl cgic Iilillkillg (Wootton and Horne. 11 '1'/1 \011/ 11/11111 I II 111 '11 It '. ' lllli.llIlJ11I'. w i II ''It' 1. t' dlltll llllill '. Memory Miller's Rule and the rule of three Figure 1. 11.Section 3 Strategic leadership .1' . Thinking Tools Recollective Thinking Verbal Thinking I : i~urc 1. 111('1'(' .11 'I IIIIII'IIIIII/" yli ll IVd lll 1t 1 11 ' ltl.mel Wootton II .1 emphasizes the central role played by your memory in enabling you to recollect. illi 111 '1 I 1!lII Y III' II III ' WIII !! '1 .1 '111 111 I.1n y s implc s tl'<llegics yo u G 1Il 11 '11' III il1lJll'llVl' il (:'1'1' WIll 1111111 . ~)() I() . ' III ' I 'II'dlll ' 11'. .In' 111. • (J(JI) . . IIi(' Ihrl'l' I\s dt ' I'()I1Y"I S. '/hlillill"': Yll llr iJmill .'illlll/ I) io'tll' I'\ .

Count the number of your words that have more than three syllables and divide by the number of sentences. Mnny hi s to ric. lrt'd to II.1 ). never forget' . When you need to remember. Most people can remember three new things.I'H 11 . There is no such thing as good writing . Memorizing new things stimulates new neuron growth and forges new synaptic connections. dl . you must take deliberate steps to counter your natural tendency to forget.a key ac ti vity fo r Ih l' s lra tl'g ic thin ke r.l VI' 11 . 'I shall never. until one more word struck out would change the meaning. 'You will. An acrostics is a sentence that can be used to recall the initial letters of a list of words needing to be remembered. while the 'c' in stalactite reminds you that it comes down from the ceiling . or ask for a page from someone else when you need one. Section 2 and Part II. it' sl'ns in g w hal sO Illl' ti1in g In ig ht look li k\' in 11\( ' flit lin '. Map what is being said or read. or colours to your notes. Grey Matters. MW. Memorizing thereby develops intelligence and spare cognitive capacity (see Haier. crea tive thinking a nd e thi ca l thin king. (Einstein) The ability to conjure up vi s ua l im ages is useful in mem ory. Read and re-read your drafts. Imagination Thinking visually is more important than knowledge. but rarely eight new things. 111 11 11' (l id '1\'H I. Always make notes. that might attack your brain cells (Wootton and Horne. Vi sLla l thin king ca n s im pl y be fo res ig ht .11 1 1""11 1"11' .IIIII 'llI . III I'r ~. in Thompson et ai.. Associations can be simple . lI 1 1 '.l. so that your audience can hold them in their short-term memory as they try to make sense of your thinking. 'if you don't make a memorandum of it' (Lewis Carrol. (II IlIdl. which strengthens myelination (see Haier. in Thompson et ai. . You can protect your ability to think. striking out every word you can.' the Queen said.1 11 l(ln'.1111 fpn'I"w II I<' 1. Use three chunks of three. II !. the more memorable it will be: 'The horror of the moment'. If they can't make sense of your thinking. should you contract a disease like Alzheimer's. Summary of the neuroscience on recollection and memory • • • Forgetting is normal and necessary. 2010). Effective strategies for countering forgetfulness exist and can be learnt. Step 8). Alice Through the Looking Glass) . Basic Skill 2. Step 1). i p i l 111. This is Miller's 5 ± 2 rule.. You need to cluster or 'chunk' presentations or reports into groups of three.8 Strategic leadership seven areas of change that strategists need to monitor (see Part II. Aim to get that ratio (the Fog Index) to as near to one as possible.I vi~. the king went on. Memorizing involves repetition. Check a sample of writing for clarity.1' M. 2009).only good rewriting. they will blame you.11 III' wl lldd 11 '. Vi s ua l thinkin g g reatly h elps pred iction . the lighter the load on the reader's memory and the less likelihood of confusion. 111. 2009). Take a pad. White Matters.l ( :. not their memory! The fewer words you use.Id ' 111 1 111'111>11' (l Id p i " 111 11 1. Add matchstick people.IPPI'. which has implications for how you communicate your strategy (see Part I.. as well as to remember. to aid recall.i)'.11 1 .dlll.the more bizarre the association. " .the 'g' in stalagmite reminds you that it grows up from the ground.

l ook .11'01mci . (!\fter William Shakespeare) 'l'h ~' nced for you to consider what you and others might be feeling. or if you implement your strategy. If you don't like chess.\I)!llil I') l1illllll. The top 150 business leaders are reported to be good visualizers. .'\ . you may have ttl\! lillie vocabulary to label your feelings.' (writ down wh at you are looking at 01 11\ 11' lliIlCj 10) . better still. ith r wi t h a partner. When you need to think ('\'(':l liv cly. try the game Go. I r yo u hnvc had little practice in thinking about what you are feeling. w rd d ribin Ill" "'!H IIIOIl) .. ' I dill II ·('III)(J . as well as think- i "g. IIHI.. n ri 'cs in a number of the nine strategic steps in Part II.. Visual thinking can help you to empathize with the intended beneficiaries (or the unintended victims) of your strategy. good feelings and optimistic expectations correlate pmli l iv 'Iy with the likelihood of successful outcomes on thinking tasks. or with pen and paper. Visual thinking can help you to envisage what will happen if you do nothing.. Games involving other people are better because conversation encourages you to think aloud.' (wril e down wh at you arc thinking at tholl VI ' IV III 11I1 (·"t) . Maybe join a chess club. which is much more developmental for your brain (see Basic SkillS.I' IIl'r:ltc a longer list of novel possibilities. and the activity in the box below. A THINKING AND FEELING ACTIVITY I. Empathy and emotion There is nothing either good or bad.111(1. lip 10. .) Play solitaire or. . 2009). 'I dill Iltitl kitHJ . on page 12).y th f II wing xp rim nt. 'I . chess. If you would like your visual thinking to be better. If so. your emotions are an important source of the mental energy you need to )'.1m nOli inq . \(\' vi\'w 1111' '1' \lIll\.The thinking skills required 9 Martin Luther King had 'a dream'. An important part of thinking critically 1 I'ld dh ica Ily about an idea is the evaluation of its potential consequences for others. try the thinking and feeling exercises 1\ '1)'lIillillS YOllr Brain (Wootton and Horne.. • (wlil(' cl o wll d ~inCJ I . N Ij«. Il pw wi ll they feel? In general. (Encourage them to add to your emerging picture. Basic Skill 3.mci wril('. K""fi Ill . . so that you can better evaluate any c thical issues. try to • • • Close your eyes when you bring disparate information together. Sketch out the information that people give you as they talk. 'cept thinking makes it so. Summary of the neuroscience on imagination and visual thinking • • • Visual thinking can help you to pattern or present information so that it is easier to remember.

. ask them to imagine. If you can do this with a partner.llt 'gy. This will impair your ability to think clearly the next day (for ways to s leep w ell. This increases the chance that you can find something positive to think about and this in turn means you feel better. This will help you to build openness and honesty and this will inspire trust from others." n'.a single word).HI 11101<11 ' 11 1(' ri)'. ' V. (eg. 11 . you leave a neural pathway between the a m ygdala and the brain's frontal lobes. . ' 1"'11 1>1 . This increases the ease with which s ubsequent s tray feelings can disable your ability to think clearly. For increased mental agility and thinking speed." '1'111'11 ol :-: k 111\'111 wh. Notice that you can choose what you notice .1I1s he lp 10 reassure the people whose support you will n eed to implement your :-: l I'd lq. or fear of failure.what you look at or what you listen to. trying to increase the number of positive feelings you can experience in 15 minutes. Contingency plans ell. For increased mental suppleness.1 111'1 . go back to 1.'is illil il1 .' It.l:-:on:-: IIll' cOl d<l )'. colour. you can exert increasing control over your thoughts and your emotions. try to go around as quickly as you can without hesitation . fragment of an internal dialogue).111 '01 "'. ask yourself why you edited .. taste. is a sensible preparation and rehearsal for things that may go wrong. Notice what kinds of observations and thoughts are followed by what kinds of feelings. When you have completed number 3.· . . increase the number of repetitions you do at one time.IIh. do it as often as you can. You may notice that how you feel is changed by what you think and what you think is related to what you notice . Contingency pl..l!. Repeat. especially under pressure. 2.. III'I'"'III') '. I'. for example.iv.. a person. in moderation. 2009). 111. Worry ena bl es you to prepare contingency plans. ".. Worry. Id entifying and labelling the feelings you have is more productive than just expressin g the feelings spontaneously or impulsively.10 Strategic leadership how many times you can change what you are feeling. Try to complete the following sentences in succession.l nd lo describe a good fee lin g ilwy wo uld have 1.y. just keep going around the loop. even in 15 minutes. Wlwn lr ing 10 gl'l olhers lo s u pport your strategy.. 3. sound. or o therwise give vent to anger. '1l . notice all the thoughts you edit. can obsess your mind to the point where yo u ca nn ot s leep well..11 .'V II " I ' IIH 'II' 111 011 IIH 'Y I1.ld s.· "11". Keep going around the loop for as much time as you can spare.' 111 111 111 "'. judgement. (eg.lI ll h III )'. l1 01vill)'. an emotion . (eg. Afterwards. 1.lble you lo be more confident when presenting your strategy. an opinion. And right now I am thinking .. texture) . When you can do it easily. hl dl . For increased concentration span. "\ "II IV Il. Acute anxiety.lid 'yl':-:' .IHld "I'. Because you can control what you notice by where you choose to focus.. see Wootton and Horne. And right now I am feeling .1 1 Ilwy h.. . \""' '.· PI'PPil' ' Ill. Right now I am noticing . .1 11 li' "" ". This is because when you shout. for a 'l lCll1h'n l." ti<l 'Y " ~.1' )'. smell.

The pursuit of Body-based pleasures. returns and cash are all numbers. Numeri ca l thinking is at the root of logic.1S in s ur. whist or cribbage. but also in the visual. you estimate. If you lack confidence in your numeracy: • • • p lay card games like bridge. . NI IIll l'riCJI bra in lrJining improvcs intelligence and creates spare cognitive t"<1p. in a civil case. The relevance of numeracy to workers in charitable organizations a nd public services may be less obvious. auditory and motor areas of the brain. Doing the sums .The thinking skills required 11 Summary of the neuroscience on empathy and emotional thinking • • • Explore what you are feeling before you try to think. Brain scans of people doing simple arithmetic show activity not only in the left parietal lobe. Optimistic self-suggestion and expectation increase success. As a member of a criminal jury. Profits. The ab ility to make reasonable estimates. reasoning.if you can't count it. lies at the heart of strategic thinking. eg. Satisfaction and Sex (BUSS) will benefit the speed and accuracy of your thinking. Yet the need to 'crunch the numbers' turns up quickly in service planning.Kily . quality control and project management. the higher the number you would be prepared to ascribe to it. play s trategy games like Marienbad (Wootton and Horne. a measure of the strength of your belief in that sla tcmen t . Basic Skill 4. argument and proof. Laughter. and give good enough guesses.and that measure involves you thinking numerically. 2010). These are examples of numerical thinkin g . it doesn't count In commerce. as well as the more obvious areas of grant applications. quantify and compare the likelihood of one outcome with another. in a sense. you would be asked to convict someone if you be li eved his or her guilt has been established 'beyond all reasonable doubt' and. the n eed for numbers is self-evident. play counting games like backgammon or omweso. As a stra tegic thinker.is a good exe rcise for your brain. These are the kinds of judgements you will need to make as a strategist (see Step 7). fund raising and budgeting. Summary of the neuroscience on numeracy and numerical thinking • • • Scores on tcsts of num e racy and numerical IQ can be improved.the mental arithmetic . 'on the balance of probabilities'. The stronger your b ' Iicf. Numeracy and numerical thinking Numbers at work .1Ilcl' Jgninsllhe debilitation s of disease. Involvement. is the chance greater than 50:50 or 70 per cent or eight out of tcn times? The probability that you ascribe to the likelihood that a particular s latcment is true is.

as you check that you have said the word you intended.' g('. But reading is not as good at developing your brain as talking and listening.. exerc ises mu ch /t'M tha t a ll thou g ht necessa ril y il1v()lv('s 111(' II S (' or I.1). terrorism.lIl gll. I.1I'. ""11i0l111l11l.lll" 11101"(' ("01111.. 1111. with or without others present. Words at work . "i" While it is clear that thinking a loud. as a result of raw economic thinking in the 20th century.. try playing The Association Game. altruistic. 111 . if on ly to yourself! (Simon Wootton. climate change. Summary of the neuroscience on internal dialogue and verbal thinking • • • Your ability to talk to yourself in your head . Thoughtful conversations about old and new information involve much more of your brain than just reading. as you would like to be.verbal thinking To think is to talk. compassionate and socially concerned.1II'I"d. ''.. Strategic thinking involves turning thoughts into actions. If you are not as fluent. or the brn in .ngu.to check your ideas for sense ..ill'" III 1''''' '1 11" . 2003) Levelt discovered that you use three distinct areas of your brain when you talk to someone else. Given the problems of poverty. . these actions will not only be economically effective. The part that controls your eyes searches for non-verbal confirmation that you have been understood. tongue and larynx. your brain accesses the smells. and also the parts of your brain that control your hearing. Developing strategy through thoughtful conversation with others makes use of what Garner.1I1 w . you activate the parts of your brain that control your breathing.. strategic thinking may need to be more socially intelligent in the 21st century. 1IIIIlklll/" 'I iii " 111111 1' 1'llIlIp ll' 1IIIId IIlg " ''l'lli' ''.is limited by the range and precision of your vocabulary. it is less . As you utter the word.dh 'llI" . As you search for the next word in your spoken sentence. Wilh ()r withou l I. You can improve your vocabulary by reading about a wide range of subjects and by talking to as many experts as possible.'hl "'y.. 111(' hrdin t\1I1 mdl1ipul . In the case of the socially intelligent. When you think aloud. Getting these multiple connections in place is very helpful when you are trying to think strategically. You can improve your verbal fluency and hence your ability to think quickly by taking opportunities to talk to others.1'''' "nd I1wl"pi1llr" . nuclear proliferation and financial meltdown that we now face. The Adverb Game or The Dictionary Game (details in Wootton and Horne. ) r" ~ .. Goleman and others have called 'social intelligence'. 'I1l .12 'llid / ('Cjl( i<'tI(i<'I ~ IIIf! Basic Skill 5. Reading is a useful source of new information because your brain must struggle to map.11111'11 . This is why thoughtful conversations increase your general cognitive capacity as well as helping you to consolidate new information in your memory. You connect many neural pathways even before you get to the content of what you want to say. connect and cross-check the information and then integrate it with information already in your memory. especially with someone else. Ill"l l'. or verbally self-confident.dll ll' 1II.'gt'.11 ' ~ Y lllh()l !> Ih . they will be empathetic. you get a better thought out strategy. . 2010).. colours and sounds that are associated with the word you are seeking..

Feed a ll the anonymous predictions back to the )'.1' 1 1111' II II 1'01 1. lti. Let all people sl t'<lk on e before anyone speaks twice. then ask each person to write down Ilwi I' pred iel ion s nnonYl11ou sly. prediction is sim il ar to other generalizations from the known to the unknown. For example.III "IIIl W til\' 1111111"1 '. Being 'saturated' with knowledge of the field . The past is not a sound basis for prediction unless you can be sure that past conditions will persist into the future.tlc ·" )'.1111 '1 I 'v I ' III ' 11111 1I11 'I(' IIIII . \ 111 111.1111 01H' ~. or by using reflective thinking to create streetwise intelligence. ie prediction henefits from age.20 years' time are teenagers now. There is a fine line between making a prediction about what will happen in the future and envisaging a picture of what the future might look like. Simple projection of past trends can be treacherous. hilt Y . If you want to predict the way society's v. Ask ing young or younger people. \' 11111 1111 ' . greater knowledge and wider experience. 1 . The people who will be opinion makers in 15 . Asking experts or older people. w ill Id VI HI\. Forecasting the future The ability to predict is one of the defining characteristics of humans. Nil IIIH"' . l{ep(. by using memory and visual thinking to recall past patterns. Prediction helps us to manage the risks associated with change. talk to young people. by using the logic of critical thinking.!11< Cltll IlIlllpl'lillll " II V . In the Bible. If you are not confident ill your ability to think about the future. \1111 111 '1'" III )'. 111 111.1 .III ' Itll ·h.111 IV II II I) '. they saved their people from starvation. Such an understanding can come from saturation in Ih e situ ation.11 1 h. you might usefully try three things: I. global warming and the popularity of televised sport can be Id ken into account. Vo lunteer to help a t a local youth club.1"1' . 111 '" 11111111 'r11111 11101111 11111 ' 11 1111 '. Form as heterogeneous a group as possible. took action and built warehouses for grain. An understanding of the forces at work can make it safer to l"xtrapolate an observed trend. Y w ill ge l IllOl"\' gl ll' s~ e s Illi OIl 111'.1 mol'\' informed guess or a belle r OII C . past figures for increases in electricity consumption are a mi sleading basis for predicting next year's consumption unless the effects of such Ihings as the economy.011 111(' pron'ss unlilthe ovem ll gro up predi ction is stable. dV II Villi Ildlll .lids prediction. by using hunch or emotional intelligence. rather than from scientific techniques.The thinking skills required 13 FIVE COMBINATION SKILLS Combination 1. It contributes strongly to our ability to control things. 11 )'.1 11 "'" 1110111 V ·. Asking a group. Things will not necessarily increase in the future simply because they did so in Ihe past.nHI!. The ability to have a 'dream' or a 'vision' has been the mark of leaders down the centuries. y. Marketing Director Joseph had a dream about a future shortage in the supply of food and his Chief Executive. Predictions can be made by using numbers and statistics.llues and interests will change over the next 15 years. Between them. This favours the use of experts or older people to inform predi tions. or help to get one started. the Pharaoh of Egypt. In this respect. .

Ill ' il YI)II d ll 111 1 \ . S. all of which can be developed separately. I feel bad.IlI1. and these feelings may be present when thinking strategically. ol1ill )·. like lust. which have at least two components: 'a feeling' and 'a thought'. democracy. Neuroscientists have discovered that chemical activity in the dendrite gaps between your neurones chemically constructs your thoughts and your feelings. your decisions may sometimes by-pass the reasoning of your cerebral cortex and lead to consequences you may la ter regret. This chemical construction drives your decisions and your actions.11 Ih i11 "i ng OI ' ') . economies.1 11. When I do bad things. your predictive thinking will be better informed and your predictions will be more accurate. Y II .1 l11 o r. I·. This was because he had knowledge about changes that had already taken place at the time he made his predictions. we wro tc th a t adults not tra in ed in mora l rcaso nin g ca n onl y be preve nted from acting in the ir ow n inte res ts by legill or regul il tory res tra int.lh ·ly 011111 ' ·\ ll li ci ll y. I. Prediction can be improved by talking to younger and older people and experts in the field. given that many of the models used by strategists are military in origin. (l ll r C H"( 'm s p mv('d Jl 1"01 hvl i('. The heart character reminds you to rethink the issue ' empathetically' from the point of view of the intended beneficiaries. SIr. institutions. greed. Combination 2.dill ' 11111 '))1 '1 III . ' III11il-"l y hl J. (Abraham Lincoln) Decisions and actions are based on beliefs. He simply extrapolated from what he knew had already happened. I feel good. jealously and fear.iI 1"I ' . This is not surprising. We w. is ls 111 11:-. As .r 1 .d vii 1111 '/0.ld Iy..rhl y II yllli l'dIIIH)1 re 'dll"".llihl l' w ilh hi g h ho n lI ses.I ~. Unless you learn to mobilize the 'thought' component of your belief very quickly. Your decision making can be overwhelmed by the chemicals associated with certain kinds of feelings. technology. ·I'. Prediction based on intuition benefits from broad general knowledge and information. or any unintended victims.1' \"I hi e. as well as the character for 'head'. Altruism need not involve self-sacrifice.HnL'd Ih a t hi g h prin cip les we re not cO l11p.r " I' 1 ·.1 ·h. they will be bi ased toward con clusions tha t se rv e their own interes ts.ll q. Luck favours the prepared mind.1 SII". 1I1 ·lil1('l". hierarchies and ways of thinking that have largely proved to be accurate. Ethical thinking When I do good things. If strategists do not explicitly introduce an e thical thinking component into their strategic thinking process. In 2003. ie it is ok to feel good when you do good. That is my religion.11. The Chinese character for thinking includes the character for 'heart'.14 Strategic leadership and feeling. Baggini has pointed out that there was nothing wrong with Abraham Lincoln's ethical thinking. Naisbitt was able to make 20-year predictions about society. Summary of the neuroscience on prediction and predictive thinking • • • Prediction is a combination of other more basic thinking skills.111.ll q·.

This will help you to realize what your personal values are. for ex.what do you believe? YOLI are what you habitually do. and which of them are more important to you than others. b long 10. moral dilemmas. how often? Wh t d you think X would say in reply to that? (Wh ere X can.ultur. 3. Ethical thinking relies on the development of skills in verbal thinking. (Aristotle) When you habitually ask the questions in the box below. especially when deciding which of a number of strategic options to implement. 7. 9 nd er or so io-econom ic group. Critical thinking .) 10. By repeatedly doing brain training exercises that involve moral dilemmas. economical and effective). recollection and empathy. how many. Ethical thinking and moral evaluation should be used as an explicit and delibera te step in strategic thinking. 8.)rnpl<'. Combination 3. TEN QUESTIONS CRITICAL THINKERS ASK WHEN PEOPLE GIVE THEM INFORMATION 1. a ranking of personal values can emerge. visual thinking.2. 4. The sequence is shown in Figure 1. you will have become a crili a l thinker. or preferably with one other person. These can be deployed in sequence to help you decide what is right (as well as what is efficien t. 6.)11 Ih r r . 2. before you are swept along by your emotions. . Could you elaborate a little? Can you give me an example? How could we check that out? How are those two things connected? How does that follow from what you said earlier? Why do you think that is important or significant? How does t hat info rmation help us to make progress? n you think of a different w ay to ex plain that to me? n yo u b more pr cise? How much. Summary of the neuroscience of ethics and moral reasoning • • • Ethical thinking and moral reasoning can be strengthened by practice. You can use these moral principles to take ethical decisions quickly. Particular rankings of personal values may then become your moral principles.The thinking skills required 15 If you wish your moral reasoning were stronger you could try to: • • • Discuss with yourself.

2 Ethical Thinking (from Training Your Brain. j i " lt u l l l "I' ll h lllh. II11 t 1l11l..l 11 (l ll i" h (' 11 11'... stra tegic thinkers ask: • • • • . on balance. is it. consultants or o ther experts.I ll (' III \'S to til !' wr it (' r '~ i llt \' l l ti () Il ~? W lldllilid \ A/ I. Figure 1. a right thing to do? Ethical Thinking Judgements about Right or Wrong. ill 1(IIW. Wh y do I t hin k th e writer w ro te thi s? W h.I. Good or Evil.I. 1 . . II I 1111 <1 IIIl . Wootton and Horne.liliHI . Recollective Thinking Empathetic Thinking Conversational Thinking After exploring as many issues as time allows . 2009) When reading reports from staff. Truth or Falsehood. 1111 111 1'.lt qu ('s ti o n is till' w rit er t ryi ng to . .16 Strategic leadership Conversational Thinking Even if it's the right way to do it.ll1swl'r? An' tlll' l'(' .lll l l wll" j ~j l llll" 1 "~ I ~d . is it a right thing to do? How will the world be changed and for whom? Imaginative Thinking Conversational Thinking Are there tests or criteria we can use to decide if the new situation is acceptable? Does it confer the greatest good on the greatest number? Does it put people first? Does it favour people over things? Does it confer a balance of advantage in the long term? Let us do no harm.

11' .. Creative thinking and innovation (:/"('. ( j o illl l )ry d(. viewers. intellectual ind ependence and social self-reliance. 111 '. The owners of the media generally receive money from advertisers and so they seek as large an audience or readership as possible. and also implicitly? What principle or conclusion does the writer want me to accept? Are the inferences reasonable and supported by valid reasons? If I accept these conclusions. or counter examples.1 1 w il :I. can be found elsewhere? If you wish you were more logical. • YOIt will a lso need to deploy creative and reflective thinking when looking at the ililpli ca li ons of your proposed action. jus lifi a bly believable. ' wd l i l )' .. and in assessing whether inferences are deductively or il) III ' liv Iy reasonable..11".l d ' in on"'r 1'".illl . Even if there is some truth in what is presented.1"11'11 . the reasonableness of inferences and the practicality of actions.lI ) II 1'4 '1111 111 '( '. ritical thinking skills can empower people who would otherwise be easily imp ressed or oppressed by people in positions of power.I. listeners and readers will not repeatedly watch. the presentation of information in the media is usually biased towards making their audience feel good about themselves. or read things that make them feel bad.The thinking skills required 17 • • • • • What assumptions are being made explicitly.IIli( " 1.II.. "1'1111 III Illd .tI" ". For this reason. Summary of the neuroscience on critical thinking and evaluation • • • Critical thinking uses deductive and inductive logic to assess the believability of information. In general.·1 Y 1-111\1"" III Itl .ldlli':.111 . it may not be 'the whole truth and nothing but the truth'. playing chess or tackling brain teasers and brain puzzles.:. you could try doing Sudoku.11 (" 1'. if these actions were taken? Commercial news is produced to make money for its producers.II'(' HilI"( ' 10 III.\ ). '" . TI)('rc is more to critical thinking than its role in assessing whether information j. dfl VI' Y(llll'n("l1 ' 111 ./IPI III 1111.1 11\1 ' ill'. When sifting through press reports or commercial trade magazines ask: • • • • • • • Which stories have been 'buried'? Which stories have been promoted to the front page and why? Who stands to gain from this promotion or from this demotion? Whose interests are being served? Whose agenda is being furthered? Whose opinions or political beliefs are being given priority over others? Whose points of view are belittled or go unreported? What counter-arguments.'0111' III I. Critical thinking develops personal characteristics like courage. Combination 4. what actions are implied? What would be the consequence for others. listen to. It also h as a practical role in evaluating proposals for action.' -11111 11 .I.1.

. read Chapter 9 in Wootton and Home (2009). Creative thinking brings together knowledge and experience. If you think that your ability to think creatively is limiting your strategic thinking. You can train your brain to shift from back to front and from left to right. Combination 5. 'What if you had arrived from Mars?' Accept that you have all the time there is. so were the left-hand sides of their brains.. 8 and 9 in Part II. Fear of mistakes 8. Firm beliefs 3. effectiveness and ethics will make your shortlist. Ask. I'm too old Do one different thing every day. feasibility. Ask. Summary of neuroscience on creative thinking and innovation • • • Creative thinking can be developed in most people.18 Strategic leadership creatively and. The older you are the more you have. I fllllll'\' ('11 .. 1.. Creative thinking makes its greatest contribution to strategic thinking during Steps 5. 11"d . The idea that creative people are those who are naturally 'right brained' is mistaken. Familiarity 4. yours <Inti th ost' of \) lh" 1" P( 'Op ll'. Only those that meet your criteria for economy.. l y 11111'11('1..1 1 Hl l'IlI ll'.'li v. increased quantity leads to better quality. he reported that the most creative writing was done by people who could deliberately shift their brain activity from their rear brain parietal sensory cortex to the front brain lobes of their cerebral cortex. 6. creative inferences need to imply practical actions. 'l'IIL' w. for strategic thinkers those thoughts have to be useful. what might happen?' Ask.. 11 1111 ' 1"' '' I' 'nl " IHI . If the block is: l. In creative thinking. Lack of time 10.lsl ('x pcricl1Cl'S. You need a long list of ideas.. There are easy to learn techniques that can switch brain activity to the parts of the brain more likely to produce creative ideas.1 11 ("( lIllI' 10 d pn 's\' 111 ('onclu siOI1 Ih . t lilUli illll'l . Reflective thinking Yo ur future ca n profit from yo ur past w hen yo u use refl ecti v(' thinkin g.111/\ PlrllrJ Oil 0111 o( Ill(' pol' I. timing and resistance to change will need to be discussed with key people (see Step 5) before your implementation strategy can be finalized. ill sll ch " w " y Ih . in Psychology. 1{"( I" ..d YO II (". 'Wh at's the worst thing that should happen?' Ask.' 1111111.. . Creative thinking involves a lot of Is! You will need to immerse yourself in a lot of information and then incubate it while you wait for inspiration. Lack of language 6. Adult behaviour 5. 'How will I feel when I have solved this problem?' Indulge in one piece of 'child-like' behaviour each day. in August 2007.111 /\\'. This in vo l v('s thinkin g abou l p. Here are 10 quick ways to remove blocks to creative thinking. .. Mix with creative people...1 . 'If I didn't believe this. Existing models 9.. For strategic thinkers. You will use your critical and ethical thinking skills to weed out and then select only a few ideas for implementation.In II . Issues of practicality. Not my area 7. efficiency. 1 " " " . . . Join an art or drama group. While creativity includes the ability to think unusual and original thoughts. . ·fl l'Lli vl' Lililil III ' l ·li. Most breakthroughs come from non-specialists. 1111 (111)'. Although it was true that the right-hand sides of their brains were involved. Do not worry if your ideas seem wild at this stage.. Habit 2.

Intentions.The thinking skills required 19 Conversational Thinking I wonder what that was all about. thoughts and associations occur? Is there a pattern here? Has this happened before? What insights are there? What might I infer? Recollective Thinking Emotional Thinking Visual Thinking Creative Thinking Conversational Thinking Implications for some future situations: how might this cause me to feel .\i lljll) '. behave differently? What might I try to say or do? What could I do to ensure this? Predictive Thinking Critical Thinking Insight. Y(lI lr I lrdj ll . What does it mean? What really happened and so what? What can we learn from this and where do we go from here? Recollective Thinking What was seen. heard and by whom? Who felt and thought what? What actually was said at the time and in what sequence? What else do we know? What was the picture? Visual Thinking Conversational Thinking Remembering all that. think. here and now. WOOl/Oil 1/1/(1 I 10 nt/'.:l 1 \1'/11't'l1I 1 I '11111" illS (fllllll 'I'1. 2()09) 1' . Learning. what do I now feel and think? What feelings. Action Plans I:ig llrt' I.

I Wd Y [h . visual thinking. Professor Ikyiyero Nonaka explains the way that the comparatively diminutive Honda strategically outflanked the might of its competitors in the US automotive industry.)gl' Ihal enab led Ilwm 10 Ihink "hol ll \'olllp l(.ll :0111111. Many models of experiential learning are seriously flawed.1I r1 II'Il 1Irddfll. Most assume that everyone can think reflectively. NOIl"k" 'H hll/!:It'q ll"111 1'1'.llld . Summary of the neuroscience on reflective thinking • • • Reflective thinking helps infer learning from experience..x I'o lln'pl s in . The contributory thinking skills you need can be developed with practice. This is simply not true. helps you to escape from past patterns . M.il " 'V I 'IIIH'I" JlhOl'i l'II ' l"ll) ~ II"I'II " I"y 1" . ask: How do I feel about it now? What other choices might I have had? Looking forward to similar situations in the future. Reflective thinking involves a combination of basic thinking skills. think of an incident in which something went very wrong (or very right) . " " I.. models and systems thinking Writing in the Harvard Business Review.~ 1 o f 1'01111'. Recollecting what happened.1I vVI' ryOll\' ill IllI 'il' llrg.11'\'11 '.1' 11I) '.to focus on the present problems or confusion and then rethink the future so that you are distinctive and therefore have competitive advantage. Reflective learning can imply behaviour changes when future scenarios are predicted that have elements in common with experience.llliZoI l iollS \'ol lid 111111.11111'" Id". Canon moved on from cameras and dominated the world marke t for office equipment by strategica lly out-manoeuvring the mighty Xerox Co rpo ra ti on.11 I1d 1111 ' I Imll 'It/. THREE ADVANCED THINKING TOOLS FOR STRATEGIC MANAGERS Metaphors. 2003). These must be developed and practised before you can think reflectively.l1l1ld lil.1 '. !\c ording to f rofcsso r Nonaka . ' Ilf( '\". If you find reflection difficult. ask: What might I do differently as a result of what I think now? (Source: Horne and Doherty.your own and those of your competitors .20 Strategic leadership This combination of basic thinking skills (verbal thinking. memory and empathy). manag rs and ma rket slralegisls in ffonda and Ca non had t/l'v('lop(' j n figllr<1livl' l<1ngll. ask: • • • • • • • • Why did I act as I did? What were the key issues? What was I trying to achieve? How did other people feel about it? How do I know how they felt about it? What influenced my decision making and actions? What were the consequences of my action for others? How did I feel at different points during this experience? Thinking about it now. .

The thinking skills required 21 Strategic thinking involves turning information about the past into present knowledge on which changes in future action can profitably be based. despite the fact that models of system thinking had obvious oId vantages when fa cing complex problems. ' heckland and hi s co-workers had developed a methodology whereby systems lilillking could be a ppli ed to pra ctical problem solving. There are models. as well as scientifically. Sometimes metaphorical thinking inspires new ideas or new models ometirnes metaphorical thinking suggests enduring principles that can be applied in new situations. From 1995 to 1999. voluminous and not precise. 1.cs. owed as much to metaphor as they did to science or mathematics. Thi s l110d e l is bn sl'd on a meta ph o r. The mode l rests on the ass umption that 1111 ' Ill1i vl'rsl' .11111 pn 't ' l ~ vl y . The systems thinking idea was to introduce another illse t that would compete with insect 'A'. By using a lager can as a metaphor for the aluminium drum in a photocopier. 111' '1"1 " "/I 'lv \ 01)'. developing a 'conversational systems 1IIIldv/ '.)ho ul co mpl ex . But sometimes that knowledge is tacit not explicit. IIIK I) 'II II' 1(. One model that is especially useful for strategists is a systems thinking model..Inti tu rbul ent s itu a ti o ns in IV IIII'II IlLIIl 0 1 Il l(' voll"loll. y\l ll \'.Ill ". " 1111 1. 'I'll(' '\'o l1 vl'r~. lrly . 111" « '11\"1 11. by Professor Peter Checkland (19K I).'om ' up with the idea of introducing extra insects as a way of solving the problem (If ins 'ct damage. However. In fact.lilt! 111 1" 1 1l ". great scientific discoveries like the structure of benzene. When spraying depletes the population of insect ' N.d·"" 1111111 11111111 ' 1 IIId I )plll'll y (:'1111 I).11'(' un know n.'II wlwil "O Il W illf ll l"llloili o ll i ~ Illur ky III \ 01). 1)'.11111 . or the genome. vague not clear.1111. Most problems do not exist in isolation and so are best not solved in isolation.11 ion. 1 y . Richmond expressed frustration that models of systems thinking were more wrillen about than used. strategic change and project management. a great deal of practical work had hl 'I'11 d one using systems thinking since the early 1980s. that 'nn turn out not to solve the problem. 111 ' )1l11 11 '01 1111 . companies may be at an advantage if they operate in countries where it is natural to think metaphorically. The total insect population may be greater and so Ihe rop damage may be greater than before you used the spray.I I'. for thinking about product development. 'Normal' thinking would not normally . that division accounted for 74 per cent of Canon's total turnover. that was damaging crops.di y. IV III ' II yll il 1111111 "\" 1t '1111I .'ly "V.1I1d wlw rl' so me .. What can happen is that the crop damage gets worse! Insect' N may be controlling the population of another insect 'B' by compl'lin g with it.. In '1996.In ' 11 IIt '!"l 'OI11 11 'l'iI'd . the population \)f in ect '8' may rise dramatically. 11) usefull y be viewed ns tho ug h it we re a hi era rchy of systems . I. 'Systems thinking' '''1111 ' up with a better idea. . '1''' '1 I ~I" .• ·.1)?. for example. Even in the West. organizational design. the 'conventional response would be to spray the crop with a pesticide that kills the insect 'N. Horne 'IiHI 1)0 hc rty built on Chec kl and 's work. When insects are attacking a crop. Aronson illustrated this by looking at the problem of an insect' N. Within five years. Canon was able to make a disposable copier drum and so was born the office equipment division of Canon. When you fo ll ow these 16 stages.. These principles can sometimes be represented as a model. In such situations. :dll IW Il . 11 ) Ihin k d l'. In 1 994.'.)1 ~ sll' l1lS Ill od"" holS 16 st.'01 11) 1 111111 k. " " . or the theory of relativity.

write a label for the output that is leaving each system. Draw them with a big hat. consider the impact on the system of things that are changing in the systems environment. 7. itself. a 'checking-the-cash' system). !\\k Wh.) For each system. law.y·. They will also help you to formulate your strategic vision in Part II.IIHI w il y' . maybe you could give these stick people spectacles. Each output will become the input to another system. Take your emerging systems map around with you . 3. Imagine that each area within a boundary can be thought of as a system. 4.22 Strategic leadership SIXTEEN STAGES FOR THINKING CLEARLY ABOUT COMPLEX TURBULENT SITUATIONS 1. or what its output is (for example a 'knowing' system. economics.. Assume that any problem or decision can usefully be viewed as though it were situated in a system that is part of a wider system and is. customers. technological and material. markets. Check you have all the names of your owners. Include people with knowledge. 5. !\ k th r ". Consider changes in technology.the key actors who play an essential part in getting the system's 'work' done.lp. Who are the people who are responsible for checking what comes out of each system? You could draw a magnifying glass in their hands. or it will be an output into the system's environment. ethics and so icty. a 'finding-out' system.<11>.PI' . victims or stakeholders. (You have crystallized this 'work' in the label you have given to the system. politics. Show each impact on the system as an incoming dotted arrow and label the arrows. draw matchstick people to represent the key players . Along the arrows. If it is.financial. 2. experience and expertise as resources. Step 9. These are your clients. h w it to th o\ pc p i wh n m ar tarting lo app G r o n it. List the people who are affected by the outputs into the environment. This is a good chance to make your labels more succinct and to expand the size of the bubbles that represent the systems on which you have most informat ion." ( 11"'Uj IH. (These are people who could turn out to be 'assisters' or 'resisters' during your strategic implementation in Part II. Insert arrows to show wh ich systems interconnect and affect each other.1< k.lt w Illd t hr il t ('11 till ' ·.t "Ill ". 6.lW O il your m. Write the name of each key actor next to your 'stick' person. I (' t t lH'm dr . For each system. By now your A4 sheet should be quite messy. key actors and the key decision makers. Find out who 'owns' the whole system or particular parts of it. wou ld tlu 'y IIkp to '. Try drawing a 'map' on one side of A4 that shows all the areas relevant to the decision. Step 5.1 If v v" l l WII . Draw in a feedback loop to show how this information is used to modify what happens. Create 'bubbles' by drawing a boundary around each of the areas on your map. composed of subsystems. 101 1". re-draw your systems map to minimize the number of arrows that cross each other. Sketch in little pictures to represent the resources. Give each 'system' a label that contains an action word describing what the system does. find out what the resources are .) Key actors include often experienced or technically knowledgeable people. '. Who sets the measures of performance (MOPs) and compares them with what actually happens? Draw them with a clipboard. Inside your systems bubbles.

10.i1 >( HII c( HlIpl (' x or 11Irhllll'1l1 :-l illidii o n s ('veil w lll'l' . dl1\ U HI . which you have now rated A. On a separate sheet.The thinking skills required 23 8. who?' Try to establish how well the activity is being carried out. Get their help with planning how to implement it. for d esirability.. 13 . If it would appear to be easy. from whom. For each activity that is not being carried out satisfactorily. The CATSWORLD Checklist may help you to identify key actors who you may have missed (see Step 5. ask yourself 'How important is this activity to the system?' If the activity is essential for the system's purpose. If a system's purpose is not clear enough. 'Is anyone doing this? If so. Create the new organization by introducing triple 't>: activiti es first . Take your 'systems action list' for each system. give it a 'C'. feasibility or risk. If it is inconsequential.I . give it an 'A'. in order to do their job. Ask each person who else you should talk to. IItrlm ry of t h n ur o n y t m m o d els and syst ems thinking 1 001 • I I i14 Il(>:-l:-I ibl l' I() 111111 1.II '1 . dl'IJi Il "I1. and ask the key actors or stakeholders whether or not they agree with your ratings. talk to the people whose names you have on your map. Part II. give it an 'A'. If there is a low chance of a small adverse consequence. each system's 'work' or 'purpose' should be clearer. 16. I (' III . B or C.II 1I1 1" lld . Ask if any of the essential activities on your 'systems action lists' are missing. Take the list of possible changes. and by when.1' '11 '1 01 11 p .I '·' w i 11'11 yi lil 11 10 . and talk to the people whose names appear on your systems map. there won't be any ex ist ing activiti es. II II • 11 1'1 1"1 '111 1> ' 1(1 1'"" '11'" 11 11 ' 1.lIl l1 l ll'1lo1 l l)'." i ' 1'111'1 II11I YII II 111 01 1. page 67) . '1111 ''1 11 1 . Get them to help you choose a triple 'A' change that would make a good starting point. Retire to a quiet place with your list of 'systems actions' and consider the activities that no one appears to be carrying out satisfactorily. 14. If you need to design a new organization. Otherwise give it a 'B'. give it a 'C'. Otherwise rate it 'B'. Revise your systems map in the light of new information .. II 1I 1'<1 ''1" . Next consider the risks associated with intervening to try and rectify the deficiency. 15.. for each system. give it an 't>:. Otherwise give it a 'B '. lIl y . How frequently does it need to be updated and how detailed does it really need to be? 9. Next consider how easy it would be to rectify the deficiency.' 111 . The label you have given to the system should reflect the work the system needs to do. Ask what information they need to receive.1 ( ' ('V(' II 01 . . You should then find a quiet spot.y~. The main difference will be that when you come to compare your 'systems action list' with the existing situation. g ive it a 'C' . 111 1' 11 .l l i( · . make a 'systems action list' of all the things someone needs to do if the system is to carry out its work. 111 )'. 11. 12. the same systems thinking can be used. Implement the selected triple 't>: change and collect reactions to the change from your emerging list of key actors. If difficult. For each action on your 'systems action list' ask. ' . If there is a big chance of a serious adverse consequence. By now.

Metaphors as aids to memory and recollection Because metaphors can generate visual images that have emotional associations. Associa ted thought paths can be followed without fear of losing the new information. By clicking o n yo ur metaphorica l 'icon'. The situation is described using a map of the interconnected systems. Metaphors make it possible to think about things that you cannot see or touch. I III' W 1'. my only sunshine'.as in a Microsoft or Mac 'window' . but their practical usefulness must be tested by critical thinking. 'You are my sunshine.q . Me tapho rs work like icons on a comp ute r scree n. connections and associa tions. Metaphorical thinking and practice Metaphors as a source of learning have a long history. Viewing the universe as if it were a hierarchy of systems is an example of metaphorical thinking. group.ip!'\ ' .o1 lll III (" I . A metaphor alone can aid your thinking.1' 1 I I 1I il)'.4. Ir d p. Using metaphors is good for your brain because it involves thinking about one thing in terms of another. but 'why' we feel the way we do. y o u \" 111 \'.1 'd \'. The new information can be 'parked' . i l y II 'II" \( I ' y u u r ~ I (' p s . Over time. When we sing. The new information is easier to recall. This helps to build up the creative connections in your brain.llion <"l nt! reviings. A conversational systems model is represented in Figure 1.l Y 111r11 S il110 .24 Strategic leadership • It is possible to decide what changes would improve the performance of an existing product. find them warm. they have been used by teachers to explain ideas they thought would be too abstract for their disciples (Williams.ll P. we can discover other meanings. we are conveying the idea that they have a quality like sunshine . Systems thinking is fundamentally different from traditional forms of analysis. Because we are using this idea metaphorically. but a lso till' s ta rtin g p o ints ror a ll IIw n1('nl.llld liU h. society or social group. organization. Do we.1111 .l1'l II I y llll!' (1Ii)"ill. 1993).llh wol YS OIl hdV\' \'\ pluf( 'd d lrl'oldy. or warming? Do we like to know that they are always shining somewhere in the world? Metaphors help us to understand not only 'how' we feel. team.that makes us 'happy when skies are grey'. because the new information is 'parked' in the working space crea ted by your metaphor.llhw.lrliru l. Systems thinking is concerned with how change in anyone system affects all the other systems.il1l1 0111 I InUll lill ' rl ' '. like birds. for example. they are easy to recall. it does not focus on individual pieces of information.while you explore links.I '. Metaphors can help to make abstract ideas more concrete. animals or sports players (Buzan.11 111< 'l. For example. But we can talk about a friend as 'a ray of sunshine'.1r p. Metaphors can also point to possible ways of improving matters in the future. New information is more easily connected to images that are already familiar.H I (' lId '. Not all metaphors need to be turned into models before they are useful. yo u ca n recove r not only the assoc iated inform . 1983). Systems thinking focuses on the whole situation. Metaphors expand your short-term memory. we cannot see or touch 'cheering-up-ness' as a quality of a person.

. LIST MINIMUM ACTIVITIES 4 .'1111111'" 1/'.transformation .. DRAW A MAP OF SYSTEMS 10.. WHAT INFORMATION IS NEEDED FOR EACH SYSTEM? feedback 7. WHAT ARE CONSTRAINTS FOR EACH SYSTEM? 5.output 8.I) . 2(){I.11 11"'11 / 1"/ . WHAT IS THE MOTIVATION FOR EACH SYSTEM? FORMULATING MAKING SENSE INN R WORLD Fi~~I1"" 1. IMPLEMENT ONE CHANGE 2. GENERATE CHANGE IDEAS 3. CONSIDER EACH SYSTEM AS : input . DEFINE THE PURPOSE OF EACH SYSTEM 6 . COMPARE THE LIST EVALUATING 9.The thinking skills required 25 OUTER WORLD SENSING TAKING ACTION 1./11 '/ 11111 ill ' 111/11 1)/1111'111/. DESCRIBE THE PROBLEM 11. GATHER INFORMATION 12. 11'111 " IIllItll'I (.

like a spark that 'jumps across a gap' (Holyoak and Thagard.1111 ill/" .lngl'llwnl dnd jll X l. If shared with others. what is required is a 'mental leap'. 'PlllpuLI't"s (\111 Iw used I() Sil1l1tioill ' :-. creative and reflective thinking. Mental maps display the mental links between ideas. I\ s th eir id eas progress and dev('lop.ll \".1\>11111 1\ "" hi ' 11 11\ '1 1 11. male or female.II'. Koestler (1970) considered this sparking to be central to humour and creative thinking. who have a stereotypical male brain structure in which different parts of our brain will be up to 30 per cent less well interconnected than in a stereotypical female brain. in a situ a ti on about which they wish to think . Synectics According to Perkins (1988). thereby helping you to make patterns and to organize knowledge. 1'1.1I11\<' Ih (' nrr. This is particularly useful to those of us. This suggests that using metaphors will also help you to develop your creativity and imagination. to represent what they think is happening. In synectics. Till ' ('(l rllplll. it enables you to integrate higher-order thinking skills. 1995). 111 Ihl 'll h. Mental 'maps' For Buzan (1993). synectics is another sub-set of metaphorical thinking. the metaphor of the 'map' has been central to his idea of how the mind works.\\. Treffinger (1986) defined creative thinking as 'the making and expressing of meaningful connections'. or might happen. illlii. ' ll l'll ll\lll'!' 1111111 Ill)'. like critical.sl'S. The metaphor creates links in the neurone pathways that make it easier to 'see the big picture' and to retrieve the new ideas by following the links around your internal neurone net..1 '" "1111' III lilli " d'l lllI/" . Ihey arc encourilged 10 ch.' 1".111. people are encouraged to use objects (for example. "1 I IIIl'H.. His books on recollective thinking skills are organized around the metaphor of 'mapping'. computer icons or chairs).111 1' 1 \ It . they can help you to think aloud in a thoughtful conversation. 'r~. ' .26 Strategic leadership Using metaphors to integrate higher order thinking The metaphor not only helps you to remember and recall things. In making the transfer. and Cornelius and Casler (1991) described imagination as 'forming mental images of what is not actually present and combining them with previously unrelated ideas'. Good metaphors 'spark off' good ideas that can leap across 'mental gaps' in your thinking.' 11l() vl'd oIll1l1l\d 1111 lilt' "\ 1" 1' 11 Wdl 1". Transferable skills Because metaphorical thinking involves finding important commonalities between situations that on the surface appear quite different.'<" I:-.lposiLioll of li lt' nhj. The ability to link appropriately to a new context is sometimes called 'transferable learning'. They help you to recollect and visualize. 1111 ' Ii llllllllll1 . metaphorical thinking enables you to practise 'transferring knowledge' from one situation to another.111 ' '"hll'l h ' Ih. Transferable learning is highly valued in turbulent situations where you need to adapt rapidly to a new situation (or to a new world order). ' 1111 ' 1.':-.lr pnh·.

try these idl·. optimism. 11 ill)'.11 iOIl .fertile green fields with green shoots springing from the seeds of ideas. Black hat thinking gives permission to forgo the benefits of positive thinking. 1 11 11" 1". It will never work. M. cool. Start by putting on a white cap. II PI tll'lli l' III I'b III ' '1 '' '1'1 II.q' W II . as many words as you can lh a l describe the animal. .ll . White hat thinking . 1993).1S: • • • Writing down the name of an animal that resembles an organization with which ou a re famili a r.I ll y 'd' P'I )'.d. Wear your black executioner's hat and try to kill the idea.. one at a time. emotions and feelings. unflustered and controlling.ll d o YOII kn ow 1)0 no l l'o ns ilil'r opinions o r fcc lings.blue eyes. Using the ' thinking caps' metaphor. Tr yOIl!" red l''' P n('x !. IJs in).The thinking skills required 27 without using physical objects." 011 1' t" I1 )'. DIY. Red hat thinking .. virgin white. separately and deliberately." 1"'1·1. Finillly. If yo u think you need to improve your ability to think metaphorically. Ik Ilono's meta phor of thc thinking ca p. hunch and intuition. The essence of the different coloured 'thinking hats' is: • • • • • • Blue hat thinking . I. '0111 111' SlIppll 'IlH'I1II '" Idl er. Small practical changes often have the mosl impa t.lll y kn\)w 10 be lrul' firsl hand . Y ellow hat thinking .playing the devil's advocate.1111 )'. ' Wl lld t. Put on your thinking cap A good example of metaphorical thinking is the way De Bono (1986) used six different coloured thinking hats to unscramble the thinking process. You are invited to think as though you w ere wearing one particular thinking hat (we have used actual coloured paper hats with children to great effect). I(T IIII )'.11\1111 Wh. Llsing an animal that you wish the organization was more like. politics or child rearillg. Think about why you chose that animal. IIl I Ilwlll d llW Il TIII 'Y . Paying attention to emotion.that you would like to see in the organi zation.'1 ".three essential and two desirable . I{('mind pcopl e of me taphors yo u have Llsed before. Wh . Write down. This thinking symbolizes new growth and creativity. '" Nllw II '" li. uncontaminated. Yellow submarine 'our fri ends are all on board'. you can use six different ways of thinking. Just give me the 'facts' or crunch the 'numbers' . Black hat thinking .illIl ' jI'lIlllIlIllI ': Ill! ' 11I1 ' 1t . think of five changes .1king ompa ri ons with things like sport. Disrega rd hea rsay or specu1. .. Thinking with a 'sunny' disposition.pure white. This is thinking calmly about what kind of thinking is needed next.yellow sunshine. as quickly as possible.. unlil a diff 'renl col o ured ca p is chosen. reen hat thinking ." p il Pili dll '~. brightness. hobbies. just fa cts a nd li )" III"( ':.1"" " I .Wlll. Thi s IlW.lI1S lh.ll Ill' f. ( :1'1 . It is possible to use words to create mental images of objects and then manipulate these mental images in our heads (Cheng. Now repeat Ih ' exercise. lI ow YO Il (\ '\' 1 1IIIIil yl lil )'. looking on the black side. 1 1'1' 1' 1"('1'1'.11 111 g ll" '" I .seeing red." ). you try to think only . .li" III tlilil \..

What's wrong with these ideals? What constraints are we overlooking? Green cap again . Who needs to do what by when. Metaphorical thinking enables the results of your thinking to be 'parked' in a way that you can easily retrieve. what wo uld they be? If you had a magic wand. exp lo ita ti on o r development? Create a 'green' ideas sheet next to your 'white' sheet. what would you want to happen? Wha t vision of the future would inspire you or excite you? Make a 'yellow' list before you put your black cap back on again.what ideas remain possible? What about a purple cap now? Purple is traditionally a religious colour. and how will we know when they've done it? This metaphorical thinking can be done alone or with a 'thinking' companion. Whether or not we can make these green and yellow ideas work.what could you support that seems a feasible improvement? What action is required? White cap on . put on your yellow thinking cap. Having a thinking companion helps you to think aloud . What is the bes t thing that could happen? If you had three wishes about this situation. ethical or truly 'good'? Would we want to tell our children or our grandparents that we were doing things like this? Back to yellow .what opportunities might there be amongst these problems on the 'black' list? Where are the silver linings? Yellow cap again . the cardinal's hat or the robe of a Trappist monk. Before you get overwhelmed and demotivated by the 'black' list. are they 'in right ordering'. Listen carefully to all your fears about things that have gone wrong already and could go wrong again. Metaphorical thinking develops the ability to transfer knowledge.let's write up the action plan.28 Strategic leadership What genuine questions occur? What possibilities are there here for growth. II' II . Summary of neuroscience on metaphorical thinking and analogy • • • Metaphorical thinking can help you to develop creativity. Are they moral. Create a 'black' list and put it alongside the 'white' sheet and the 'green' sheet. Now don your black cap.

Illvance'. Step 8.III ill1l (lrtant part of maintaining morale in difficult times is to communicate 1 '1' lo-fa ce.dll)lIl 'unreasoning fear. You will need to get out of your office and walk your patch (or several . managers provide IlI' ilher. In Part II. Roosevelt warned managers . employees look to their managers for I' ll'tl r answers to the questions on their minds. You must paint very specific stepping stones . Without a clear head and clear thinking. This is because .. which '0 . are based 1111 lilolil 1'1 1".y. not just in writing but orally. as well as employees.iI\'Ill'S). a nd your organization will be unable to 'convert retreat into advance'. "' I1\)lISI' 10 difficult tmeting onditions." I point out the pathways. and for clear directions in which to I''< pend their efforts. . It will enable you to Ih l"11 s pecifica ll y In us to mcrs. is to trim II!I' '11 '\ '1 1t ion . .. lack of good strategic thinking is often fatal .t ll '/ '. you must paint a positive picture of 1111" flit u r' beyond the present crisis. or a s hortage of credit or cash.. many managers become paralysed by stress and anxiety. 'I() he reassuring to shareholders. your fears will remain 'unrea'li min g'. In tough times. It is I'SSl'nt iil l t h" t decisions about which products to phase out.111 the difficulties you have analysed. distributors and suppliers.1\ I'. In tough times.as it was for Woolworths in the UK in 2008. INTRODUCTION When faced with immediate or looming difficulties. During the Great Depression of the 1930s. partners. even as you spell out realis11\. They deprive their organization of strategic thinking at a time when their organization needs il mos t. Thi s will have the added benefit of enabling you to cross-check the 1llIllllil1l' inle lli gen e lh at feeds your strategic thinking process..1 slr.ll'd ' llIlI'rs III 11'1 go.11111 w hi ch rl'sl'(lrch (Inti development to s uspend. we explain how your clear strategic Iltinking an be clearly communicated.Case Study Marketing leadership and management action This is a practical case study of strategic action that needs to be taken by marketers and managers during turbulent times. or depressed by head-in-the-sand fear and denial. which paralyses the efforts needed to convert retreat into . If you don't reason as a strategic thinker. They do not realize the effect this has on their brain chemistry. An important 1.

Step 9). The CEO is the leading oar. 6 and 8). Market-led strategies must be informed by intelligence gathered from those who are closest to customers. These strategies must be market-led. even in normal times. for this will impair the quality of their strategic thinking (Part I. Step 2) and personally manage the implementation of the market-led strategy (Part II. marketers are more used to having to guess. But the marketing cox is the only member of the crew who can see where the boat is heading. Rather. The trick is to spot which opportunities are in a strategic direction that will take advantage of what you think will happen after the crisis recedes. competitors and suppliers. It is the marketing team who must specify what needs to be done. The marketing cox can make a quick detour to collect low-hanging fruit from the bushes on the river bank. When times are tight. In turbulent times. Thinking metaphorically. The marketing team must specify what to do because they are closest to what is changing in the world of customers. people look to their leaders and their managers for strategies that will enable them to survive and thrive. FORETELLING THE FUTURE IN UNCERTAIN TIMES No one can know the future.30 Strategic leadership MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT IN TURBULENT TIMES At times of organizational crisis. they must see it coming before the competition does. the CEO must personally mind the money (Part II. There are always opportunities in chaos (Part II. Only the marketing cox can read the surface ripples and guess from the line of the river bank what might lie around the bend. a marketer is like the cox in a rowing boat.on the outside changing world . and urge the CEO to move faster. can set a sustainable pace and be seen to be leading by example. COMPETING IN CHAOS . The marketing cox can position the boat so as to avoid obvious rocks and the worst of the white water. Steps 3. clients. Because the work of marketers is always about the future. market-led strategists must not fear what they see coming. money and resources. competitors and suppliers. even though he or she must peer through the mist and the spray. Executive managers have their hands on the operational levers. Section 3). Executive managers must then decide when and with what resources the marketing strategy is best implemented. people. it is for executive managers to decide how best to do it. The leading oar knows the limitations of his or her crew. Because the focus of marketers is outward .the guesswork of marketers is likely to be better informed than the guesswork of managers whose focus is internal. Luck favours the prepared mind and the best preparation in turbulent times is strategic thinking. taking care not to get stranded on the mud by a rapidly turning tide. clients.

111)'.Marketing leadership and management action 31 should not be informed by what you think might happen tomorrow. you need technology that gives you your cash position in real time. Strategic leaders should always be ("(Ins ' rva tive when forecasting the cash flow (Part II. Weather changes will cause shortages in sugar and rice. For the CEO. This will bring opportunities to export. that is not as difficult as it sounds. (The CEO I1l' 'ds to delegate strategic thinking to the marketing team while he or she manages Ihl' money. You will be more flexible "lid ~ llI ickcr lo respond to the rc-emergin g needs and wants of the markets to which yl lil It.III1III 'II'\. "j . Cash will enable you later to buy up the order books or brands pi I 'ss autious competitors.' 1 . In Part II. 11111 III 1111 ' /llil. all three should be monitored daily by the CEO. International money markets may become nervous about lending to Greece. Step 2). cutting back creates opportunities to .11 1. . you do not need to call the future perfectly.ll is whal co unls. Amid this encircling gloom.lll sa lcs growth. in economies.in credit. . Even in calmer times you were never able to do that.I. The quickest and most cash efficient way to prune '·. Portugal. and maybe later against the currencies of Russia and Brazil. Inflation may loom. '1"\111111 " ylli ll 111'01111111 '1' . Whether times are turbulent or not.1""1' 1111111. Spain. Cash comes from reducing stocks and debtors and selling . .Is h-hungry products is by increasing their prices. In a credit crunch. Industries allied to a id will prosper. Many of YU ill" cuslomers will prefe r this to the screen-to-screen contact offered by your comI"'I ilms. but threats to supply..1yer ad ministration and to produce leaner. only the strategic light of a marketer an call the best way forward. In turbulent times. y()U will forecast your worst case scenario. Not l'i'I'/('( 'I. CREATING KNOWLEDGE IN CONFUSING TIMES 1111 ' 1"'1'111.l VV SI.l eli close. In the shorter term. You will bc in a better position than your competitors. You will cme rge stronger than your competitors. because in turbulent times your competitors are likely to make mistakes. India and the Middle East.li ". Thinking by analogy. Commodity prices. heralding problems for the Euro.1 1'1" ""/11. in times of war. there will always be crashes . hllllwllvr . You need to get more calls right than your competitors. Marketers need to I(lwl'r cash breakeven points by pruning sales growth in cash-hungry product lines Ill" costly distribution channels.to-face or voice-to-voice contact with customers. flatter structures that move more p('ople into direct fa ce. . Ireland.1' 111 11111111'1/""11'1 I '. dll\I'I'. '1'.III1I"II" . In Formula One. Cash growth is more important ih.mel Ih..1 I ""11 )'. As a marketer. energy prices and prices of metals will rise. 1.ll illll 111. the Pound and the Dollar.) Short-term cash needs to be prioritized over margins.l." III 111I 11I 11I.. the US Dollar and the UK Pound will likely crash against the currencies of China. the main opportunities you get to overtake are when there is a crash or a sudden storm. MINDING THE MONEY The most critical metric in business is cash. Step 4.lssct . the UK and even the US.

DOWNSIZING IN A DOWNTURN i\ slr... Do not trust numbers alone . . What might this information mean for the business today. .1' II" ·. Your constant enquiry. . and on which profitable change can be based tomorrow.1I1(lliI . Returning to our metaphor of boats in stormy waters.dig into them to discern their meaning. or tread water. Do not spend all day.. .11'1. Illd YII(' . on which profitable action can be based today.. Use verbal.lIlt! wllp . in order to make 'headway' against unfavourable 'head' winds.. you may need to tack.. Even in good times. (Tacking is what sailors do to still make progress when the prevailing wind is not in their favour. 101 '" .(II'" It ('. and in the future? WATCHING THE BOTTOM LINE AND THE SUPPLY LINE Strategic leaders need to think about the bottom line today. in your office.IY'" tI"1 1 '"PII'.ll q. 1. but marketers must not lose sight of which way is 'upstream'..' Wlltll'"J1 I\ 111 . even when driving conditions are difficult.111).. II. Section 3). Your forward focus helps you to decide which way to swerve to avoid obstacles on the road ahea d . every day.32 Strategic leadership information into usable strategic knowledge. besides numerical thinking (Part I.it is of course your job to look ahead. interest and questioning will convey to your people tha t urgency is required to 'head' off the crisis. (Step 1 of the 9S©will tell you where to look and what to watch.i(' Il '.) You may need to ship oars.. It matters crucially that you use a wide variety of triangulated sources of information to feed the 9S© Approach to strategy in Part II. Illq l(lI loIlIl t(1 kl 'I'P Pl'OIII. Volatility may shorten the CEO's strategic focus. DEVELOPING VISION As a strategic leader . Discount their optimism (or their pessimism) and think what the things they say might mean. This is what makes radar and CPS invaluable! Pursuing our 'driving' metaphor.11 who .' III 11111 Il'l1l'oIlllt (lllll III ' 011111 I )III)I'II~ 'Ill) Il.) Listen to your sales staff.'. .whether in the backseat or the driver 's seat . . They need to do so in the light of the product line and the supply line of tomorrow.. Listen to your suppliers not only to secure good service levels for your customers. . . you should not abandon your forward focus.ll l('r '~ vil'w pi 111<' Illilln ' 1l111 ~ 1 illlOrill Ipd . but to gain intelligence about cash. II . while you lighten your load.111.. empathetic and visual thinking. ". liquidity and competitive activity. ."L A " 011. Be seen to be interested in everything that might affect your customers or your competitors. the horizon is usually hazy and seeing beyond it is impossible.. But that is no reason to ignore what you can see in your wing mirrors or your rear-view mirror.

That is why it is important to think strategically. don' t dither.IIII'1'\ '(lI11P. :'()() I. I'11"I1. (/\ dl'l'pl'r . . Fears of the unknown meaning of straws in the wind will be much worse than Ihcir fears once they know the worst. You cannot be open and honest when Dnswering questions to which you have not given prior thought. 'll y.ks. these people could have . you cannot borrow against even a strong balance sheet when no one is lending!) TAKING DECISIONS IN DIFFICULT TIMES Taking decisions in difficult times helps to rally the morale of the people. IIIl\ 'll lllllld.111 or Ihe s lr< llegic di sc1 sll'rs lh a l befell bar.Marketing leadership and management action 33 one in four people enjoy change. ( 'Ilolpl. Jamie Dimon seems to have seen Whol l was coming and steered J P Morgan Chase out of harm's way. ill IIll' pl'riod 20()7 H. IiI 'dll. that should determine which factory or office the CEO decides to keep open and which to close or to mothball. 'r I'i . some boardl'n II 'vd ma nage rs are more strategic than others. oI lltl I hl ll.. The same strategic information W. 101 11 h. say so immediately. Answer as straightforwardly as you can . 'I\'p 7 Illi gh l hol v(' . even if you are offered a price well below the figure in the balance sheet.111 he mi g ht have achieved only a few days later. There are straws in every wind. and to anticipate the questions they are likely to ask. we looked at the kind of thinking skills 111. Daniel Mudd of Fannie May. Any possibility to sell factories or offices for cash must be considered. .sharing the thinking behind your decisions .then decide.1 -..li led to think about the sa me informati on with enough strategic skill.11"llegi c Ihinkers need a nd you ca n cons ider which of these were Jacking. If you don' t know the answer. Leave the decision as late as you reasonably can . THE BOARD ABOVE BOARD HV in a n indus try sector as short-termist as banking and finance. They will despair if you dither. and IllI"il" (. news of what threatens will ncate much needed urgency to implement strategic changes informed by your lJS") Approach (Part II).rv\. and John Thain 11l00lI'lgcd to find a ho me for Merrill Lynch at a share price about 10 times higher 11." 'P 7 WI' look s pec ifi c'lil y . l' l' l(oo. In the meantime.I IIII'" . It should be a marketers' view of the future.1n<llysis ' . openness and transparency . In . as 's trategic thinkers'.I·ln l 111 .II1d Il1 v\'. but IIII' r.ll lllp<1nies paid the pricc.will build your credibility and their confidence. Honesty.1 1 how. . rather than the possibility of local grants.11 :-. In S ction 3. Do not conceal impending storms for fear of spreading alarm. TIlt' deploy ment of th e sk ills a nd tcchniques set 1111 1 III .1rU Syron of I' rcddic Mac and Fred Goodwin of the Royal Bank of Scotland. III lIlId III 11 11 111.lVa il Db lc to Richard S Fuld of Lelunan Brothers. No point in going bankrupt with a strong balance sheet. Time on the front line helps you to keep abreast of your people's concerns...) .' l('d Ill(' ri s ks IIH'y wI'n' 101 ki ng. (In any case.as clearly Dnd concisely as you can.

Giving up customers and sales. invest in the highest quality marketing staff. some hjgh volumes of low-margin business may need to be pruned as part of a strategic move to lower the organization's cash breakeven point. The number of sales staff may need to be reduced and this will affect morale.. Steps 8 and 9). You need the best marketers because it is marketers who need to tell the managers what to do and where to do it.lIl' .1 1" " 1. senior marketers will need to provide strong operational leadership to the sales and marketing team. This is in part because sales people are frequently over-optimistic and sometimes overly pessimistic. 7 and 8). 6. and that is what the organization needs most. In times of tighter credit. In difficult times. dlill 111111"01 '. It is the judgement of marketing staff that must determine your market-led strategic direction (Part II. despite any trading difficulties..'! 1I1I'l.34 Strategic leadership RECRUITING IN A RECESSION When assessing your staff and top team. and by persuading customers to accept imported substitutes.• 1. Threats of economic downshift or business recession are particularly disconcerting to sales people. v.1'. this will be an invaluable feed into Step l. TRAINING IN TIGHT TIMES I"". staffing and key performance indicators will need to be realigned as part of the implementation of the strategic changes required by the market-led strategy (Part II. all manner of unexpected talent will respond to recruitment publicity.. Besides providing strong strategic leadership to managers. Advertise for top marketing people. and managers need to monitor progress against them every day. Sales people are hunters who tend to operate best in a world where targets (and rewards) always increase: all the more reason in recessionary times for their sales intelligence to be carefully assessed by their marketing colleagues. Such publicity will be good for internal morale and for your industry standing. In the last 10 years most sales people have managed to increase sales revenue (and their own commissions) by skilful offers of volume discounts.. especially high-volume sales.. and in part because it is marketers who must take the lead in explaining the strategic intent that needs to inform every decision taken by managers.'1111 . Structures. marketers need to determine implementation milestones that are close together. Some applicants will be all too ready to give you information on competitive activity. The strategic thinking of marketers will be customer-led and market-led.1. the significance of sales intelligence must be assessed by the marketing team. . II SELLING WHEN TIMES ARE TIGHT Although we have said that sales people are vital sources of frontline intelligence to feed into strategic thinking.11 '1 1111 II '. In times of turbulence.1111. "dol " '1'''\ 1110 ' Ill'" . steps 5. iI. >. before its managers can quickly work out how and where to implement the strategic changes required. does not come naturally to sales staff.

produ cts or markets that are likely to recover soonest. IWII Ih 'l I..t 11"11 (I '. '"' \ 1"1111 '1'. or deferring.1rll1wnl.DEVELOPING IN A DOWNTURN \II Y dl'cis ipns .'" I) dl 'l'oI lllll\ 'llh It 'lld II I "I'. rather than dwelling on their own. Empathetic. '111. Tha t is why 0 I'.111 ')'.111.1111 ' "11'111111. 11111111101111 ' .1 1V III )'. Your customers may expect your prices ") I ra ck any fall in your input costs.. reflective and creative thinking and a good memory will be highly valued (see Part I. Marketers can I 11111ribute to lower cash breakeven points by cutting.l1 R&D l" l l' nditurl' 1. ( III Ilh ' 1111111 . Train sales people and front line staff to act as intelligence agents. target first IIlose a reas of business that tie up most of your cash for longest.1'1 011111111101 ' ----- .Ibout the R&I bud get mu s t be s tra tegic and that s trategy must be 1'1" II . Focus instead on increasing your customers earnings. A manager in a divested company may turn up later in one of your key accounts. You may also have a declining cash flow Irum whi ch to meet your current liabilities and with which to service your preI'. In a credit crunch. During times of economic difficulty. raw material costs." I) 11111 '. they may contract out to agencies that are so desperate 1111' work that cas h-friendly deals can be done. do not leave the customers in the lurch. Section 3). it does not pay to make enemies. 11' 11'. RESEARCHING IN RECESSION . IOI1ll'rs.i s ting d ebt. Help them to re-source.11111 .111 '11 . I ~.\'y 1 rl'in vl'nling the future. As pr('sent cri ses be omc pa st probl e ms.. Can they find ways to improve the prosperity of their "ustomers? Improve the customers' business and share in their prosperity. Retrain your people to listen to the customers' problems and to help find solutions to the customers' problems.1'''\\'111 .. Beware. 11111111111" 11'''"1 Ill\' (1 )'."l1ld I".11111'" "I l'oI. commodity costs and even some 1'l1l'rgy costs may dip in the short term. Some savings can bexeinvested in I 1I '. If you do. 1'1 11111111111 ".d.HI II . Train sales and support staff to be business consultants. Ass ig n som e of you r mos t e ntrepre ne urial marketers to 11 '"dl 'I':. Which will s urvive? Which will thrive? In which customers should your market-led strategy invest? Who will pay their bills? Who will pay them on time? If strategic divestment of some customers is required. spending on 1'I'IIII1()tion. 1\1. You may actually need to increase prices. 1' '''''.hip I"(1I('s ill Illl' I~ & I) dl'p. 1\ 1111111 1'1" 1111(111110111111 )'..Marketing leadership and management action 35 and frequent review. 1111 ". PRODUCT PRICING IN A PINCH 111 an economic downturn.llId liqllidil y conlrol. For example. Work with them. They can be the human ears and eyes of the organization. your customers will also have problems. Volume decline may have left you w ilh increased overhead costs per unit. Shift the focus away from helping to reduce your customer's costs through lower prices and higher discounts. rllll '\ h .1 Ill' dll l'\ Il'd h y .1).IIHI 11\ '\.11 i" 1101111 s.ldl 'l's.1 1111111 1111' h. Ste p H). 11.l y Ih. train them to make hard-headed assessments of the survival prospects of their key accounts. \.IH ld 111111 "'.

In tighter times.ld\' l1y bu y ill ). it should not be too difficult to overtake them. focus your R&D on making the same things simpler.tli if Y "'" "''1 ' plll 'l "j I ()"i'! . cutting may be necessary and the impact of those cuts will depend on the quality of the market-led strategic thinking undertaken by the marketing team. R&D can more easily be dispersed closer to emerging markets like Brazil or Russia..111111111111 l" w I'1 1It..Il"1lill). Monitor their trade recruitment and target your own recruitment at their specialist staff. Consumers will be more interested in inexpensive functionality than in paying for product features that they rarely use or may not even understand. strategic thlnkers trunk twice and cut once. Each BDU was under the leadershlp of an entrepreneurial member of the marketing team. Put a hlgh value on obtaining strategic intelligence about the R&D projects that your competitors are working on. If your competitors are handicapped. production engineers in China or product designers in Japan. The most important decisions of the strategic leader will be where to focus market and product development. . In troubled times. In ln IIlrl1.:-'. l's p ec i. SECURING YOUR SUPPLY-LINE Dev eloping y our own products and inlellectual capitLlI through R&D Celn bring hi g h rl 'w. " " Ih 'l 'i.36 Strategic leadership I I! be used to hasten the development of those projects that are most likely to yield cash. thereby saving you cash and advancing your cash flow. Bureaucracy and administrative costs were decimated. BUILDING BUSINESSES IN BAD TIMES Trunk about creating small business development units (BDU) of the sort we pioneered at BTR Industries in the 1970s. neuromarketing or the disposal of nuclear waste. In turbulent times.1 y Ilol 11(' dill" 10 w.lil for IIl('s(' Ipll)'l'r II'rIll ('. . You will be surprised how much job applicants will tell you at a recruitment interview.lit ' '1 1). or to take advantage of less expensive brain power such as programmers and chemists in India.'" pl()dlll I'j. just faster than the competition.1 '1111)...1 .IlIIH'()1I1' ('1 :-'1. 11 III hI ' 1l1. Once split into smaller units."1" 1. Sometimes the expertise of just one R&D recruit can shorten your time-to-market by several years.II"11i lillll"s '"1 111.III YIIIII " 1\ )'. ill '. The UK is a good place to find expertise in biotechnology or nanotechnology.111) .lll Ihrough subsequenl li ce n sing or fr< c hi se de<ll s.H'd s. in automotive design. your competitors may handicap their R&D teams by making arbitrary across-the-board cuts in research and 'risk' capital. Avoid joint ventures in cOlmtries where there is poor protection for intellectual property. Remember you don't need to be fast-to-market. Th('l"e is IlIII 'Ii '1"11 '1. Total immersion encouraged a rapid growth of market and technical expertise and this favoured commercially patentable innovation (Step 6 of The 9S©Approach). Y"III 1111111. Where to increase? Where to cut? Like good tailors. smaller or cheaper.

Section 3. The nine steps will enable you to create and present market-led strategies and to implement . health and human rights.Marketing leadership and management action 37 and how much they are prepared to pay for it. you can follow The 9S© Approach to thinking strategically. it should be possible to source on credit terms that will help your domestic cash management.md manage strategic change. and strategically within their own organizations. In the meantime.commercially in the market place. like China. there should be buying bargains to be had. For example. That said. . management swaps and internships will pay dividends in creative areas of strategic thinking that profit from a different world view (Part 1. In turbulent times. careful strategic thought must be given to likely changes in politics and shipping economics. an economic collapse in export volumes may tempt an overseas supplier to part with equity on reasonable terms. A win-win deal might secure them a foothold in your market. Marketers may need to lead their senior managers to seek security of supply through merger or acquisition. Step 6). poverty alleviation. while giving you more control over your supply lines. any of which could destabilize exchange rates or the reliability of your supply. Where purchases are made from countries with strong currency reserves. These are the kinds of strategic questions on which marketers are the best qualified to lead. it must be protected from predatory suppliers. So marketers should play the leading role in finding suppliers and in monitoring a supply chain that will deliver high levels of satisfaction to their customers at prices that are competitive and profitable. and Part II. Is this product a strategic rising star? In which case. You may then be strategically well placed to survive a slump and to emerge strongly to take advantage of any recovery in world trade. Check how robust the legal restraints are that would prevent your supplier moving down line and supplying your market directly. and you a share of their margins. In Part II. Strategic leaders need to be first and foremost thought leaders . and to policies on climate change.

Part II Strategic thinking The 9S© Approach .

I .TEMPLES .== = = = = == = = = = = = : ! J . ethics and society. based on research by Ci ll ian McHugh). be changing. markets.to help you remember it (this mnemonic was developed at Lancashire Business School. politics. in the areas of technology. Below is a mnemonic . law.Step 1 Gather strategic intelligence Will help you to: • • • Find out what has changed (past) Find out what is changing (present) Find out what will change (future) WHAT IS CHANGING OUT THERE? It is helpful to think about what might have changed. the economy. You might read the prompt sheets on pages 42-46 before completing this hecklist. or will be changing.

" III . Medium term? Long term? Problem Technology Opportunity Problem Opportunity Economy Markets Politics Law Ethics Society Prompt 1. ' . ".I t1 I'.( 111111 )'. eg: . tlti V.ld l'l i 1 1111(' 1' .I) '. ' 11 .'. . ' 1.Travel tariffs? .Con gested road s? .. suppliers and employees? How will you be affected by high speed broadband? How will you be affected by nanotechnology? How will you be affected by virtual reality? How will you use intelligent machines (as opposed to machine intelligence)? How will you be affected when equipment is obsole te in two years? How will you be affected as selling and persuasion become brain-based? How will changes in transport affect you.111" . 1 \.. III. d' III )'.' II1I w w ill n 'l 'y l'illl )i.In ' lll'g r..I . III!.1: Changes in Technology • • • • • • • • How will improvements in communication methods change the way you work with your customers. II'I..42 Strategic thinking What is changing in the areas of: What is the likely impact on your organization in the .'Il I ' A ll ' )llI li l .lllti 1" " 111 11 . (' llli ".lI"boll e mi ss ioll s? Ilo w soon Iw lo l\' y0 111' • • • l' ro dll l 'ls .lIl(llill 1'.1 111 '.lho ul c. 111 .lilt! I. ' .II' IIl'. i (l II I (1I111'1I1 ~ . .Increased marin C' piracy? Co nce rn s . . 111 n 'l'l.l( (' .. '" " 111111'.

' 11. Russia and Brazil? Is your growth restricted by a shortage of thinking skills? Who has spending power? Older people? Younger people? Government? Which government departments have rising or falling spending plans? How will these affect you? Will they be altered by political change? How do your employee costs and productivity compare with South America.1'111111" . your customers and your suppliers all work from home? What would be the implications of home working for your business.t(lllH'rS find hl'ltl'r pri cl's. 11 1111' . . are they vulnerable to control by a competitor? Does your organization provide services or goods that are unique? Could your cus tom ers obtain benefits they get from your product in another way? How easily could someone copy what you do? Do YOLi have patents. II)"' " "I II)" Iill 1110 I.11. falling inflation.... eg.'r. 1"" "..I . 'w (11)'. I Crrorm.II ' '..· lil. \ ' ' • I . 1 . double-dip recession.01 .".dl"llhlli v\' SO lln'('s or s UPI Iy? II() w ".11". low interest rates.lnn' or d' '' '')'. your employees.. WII. ". India.jlllil" ' 1'1'1"\ \11111 PI(IIIII. "1I 1i . in Korea or Iran? Prompt 1.111\ 111)'.1 11"1 .101 • I • • • • lil lY 111.how will they affect you or your customers? What will be the impact of economic growth in China.' .. nsmg unemployment. China and the Pacific Rim? Do you understand the concept of Fairtrade? Does ethical trading have implications for your own marketing or purchasing policies? Do you understand why Equitrade will more rapidly end world poverty? What are the implications for you as Equitrade replaces Fairtrade? • • • • • • • • Prompt 1.2: Changes in Economics • How would movements in key economic indicators affect you. increasing imports.3: Changes in the Market • • • • • • • • How large is your market? How many competitors are there? Where are your competitors? In South America? Eastern Europe? Africa? Asia? Is your profitability linked to the scale of your operation? Do larger businesses make more profit in this market than the smaller ones? Is a great deal of capital required to enter this market? How easy would it be for a new entrant to find the initial capital? Does your business need particular channels of distribution? If so. Ii \.111)'. eg. I /I' 1'..' .1111/.1. or the value of your property assets. IIH'il' ~..lI i.I '.lJ IIi \ lI'. limited credit and more graduates seeking work? Currency exchange rates . 1. ' .1111 1" . copyright or licensing agreements that will expire within th e period of this plan? Do YOLi have plans to manufacture or distribute in CO LI n tries w Iwrl' there is poor protection of in tellectual property rights? Are yo u dl'l l'nlil'llt on ()nl .11'.1111111' .) rl'W s uppli ers? Il ow (W'y Wil llid it 11(' for Y' lil to sw it ch to other s uppliers? WI. especially if these are needed as security? What will be the impact of the spread of nuclear technology. Africa. 1111 1\ >I I.Gather strategic intelligence 43 • • • Within the foreseeable future could you.1 \ Iilil 111.

l.I ..----.d dv('i.· .\11.44 Strategic thinking • • • • • • • • • To what degree are your services or products 'substitutable'? Are your competitors growing or contracting? How do your competitors set about getting business? Is the main strength of your competitors the dependability of their service? How easy do they make life for customers? Do your competitors provide a range of goods or services that totally meet their customers' needs.-_ .. growing.. ." . Income The market is....'! i"I '.4: Changes in Politics • • WII.1 . di". iPII.. ..'111'1'\'.developing. DEVELOPING GROWING MATURING DECLINING Years Number of buyers Increasing number are few are trying our products or services Multiple repeat purchases by buyers Number of buyers : is deciining : Few competitors Entry of more competitors Competitors fighting for share Exit of some competitors f · · . wants and expectations? Or do their customers have areas of unmet need or dissatisfaction? Are your competitors quick to respond to your customers' changing needs? What are your competitors' attitudes towards risk? Are they more prepared than you to be the first with something new? What are your competitors best at and worst at? Which word . The conditions Steep learning curve DEVELOPING Fighting for share: Emphasis on Selective targeting : efficiency & costs of the market GROWING MATURING DECLINING ---------------- . PI' IH'W ). _______________ L _____________ _ Prompt 1.dill..-:"r. 'H ./ .would best describe the kind of market in which your organization is competing? Use the following model to visualize the position of your organization in your market.. \ I.lI I'Plitir .In ' likd y Inlllll'x islill).--------: The market is ..ll'...PV('I'IlIlH'Il IS wor ld wid\' I· Y"III (1J'I'"lId /.. maturing or declining .l p"lki.d.

111 \\01 1. race. or community development schemes? Are YOLl affected by European Union regulations? Does existing legislation protect you from competition? Does it assist you against competitors? Do you see any changes that would make your position less secure? Are you dependent on favourable tariffs that may not be renewed? Are there any new non-tariff barriers on the horizon? • • • • • • Prompt 1.( " 11..health and safety legislation? . or the rejection of western cultural values? How could you be affected by a collapse of good governance in one of your markets.. collapse of law ilnd order? Terrorist or other insurgence? Withdrawal of international aid? Travel restrictions or trading sanctions? • Prompt 1. eg.increases in the number ilnd sca le of armed conflicts. I ' .. I 1111011". sexuality or age? Do you have a s tress managem ent policy? Arl' yOII!' ('Illploy('('s involved in disc uss ions ilbout flexibl e pilttern s of work? II.1111 ' . .lllgvs ill ove rseas countries have implications for your customers or for y()U r Sll ppl i('rs.>lill y 1111 1. lil" '11J.1" " . sl)l vl'nl II .Y .1 1.6: Changes in Ethics • • • • • • • • • • • • Are your major competitors promoting a 'green' image? How will 'green' issues affect your organization? Are you recycling where possible? Do you look after your people's health and welfare? Are you considering altering your sources of raw materials? What pressure groups might become interested in your activities? Are you family-friendly? Do you promote fair treatment for all irrespective of colour.. .employment law? .the rise in religiou s milililncy. ·" .increased LIse of trClde SCln lions and embargoes to exert international pressure over human rights or olher issues such as nuclear proliferation. religion.II'illlI1 "ill\ idl ' l'llii :-eo ipn :-. . (III!\'('s .'I"II1 I'.former communisl coul1lril's relreating from market-based economies.1nll t"il('l s? o Will 1111 1. eg: . enterprise grants." 1111" 1" 1 ' II lltllll llil1l.Gather strategic intelligence 45 • How could polilic.climate change regulations? .11111' IIIII "I \'! pi .)'.'·' hol V.' 1111..1( I illl 1'. through its planning department.compulsory competitive tendering? . culture.I V(' Y 1('IIII1 V ('Illlljlll l:mry r!'lin'ml'nllln ground s of ilge? (lil ' ('1I 1)(1 1'111""..laws on monopolies or anti-competitive behaviour? Will regulatory bodies or pressure groups develop policies that affect you? What is your local authority trying to change.lIld II s('S Of(.l lll . gender.5: Changes in the Law • • What new or proposed legislation or regulation might affect you? How will you be affected by changes in: .lll'I..1111 '.llil y 11 .'111 II . .ll ch. "j ' .

or Equitrade and on human rights issues affect your organization. or your suppliers? For knowledge workers and brain workers. have you constructed a brainfriendly space to think? • • • Prompt 1. or where both partners are employed)? Will part-time working. your customers. homelessness.7: Changes in Society • • • • • • • • • Do you involve employees and customers in decisions that affect them? Do your people. short-term contracts and subcontracting increase? Will changes in leisure. at home and in the general environment? Is concern over burglary. vandalism. or economic migration likely to affect your employees or your customers? What will be the impact of changing patterns of family life (eg. or your customers.46 Strategic thinking Will you be affected by pressure groups advocating fair trading and human rights issues? When will you move to Equitrade? How will agreements on Fairtrade. expect an improving quality of life at work. one-parent or one-child families. terrorism.STEP 1 SUMMARY Step 1 will have helped you to: • • • Find out what has changed (past) Find out what is changing (present) Find out what will change (future) . car crime. holidays and lifestyles affect you? Are there implications of the rapid rise in the average age of customers or workforce? What are the implications now that mental illness has become the world's number one cause of premature death or disability? What is the impact of new threats to health and wellbeing? GATHER STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE .

62 before completing the following table.NINE AREAS TO CONSIDER Morale Mores Market Reputation 9 Ms Money Management Mental Muscle Materials Movement Machines I f you would find it helpful to do some prior thinking about these areas. you could tu rn to the prompt sheets on pages 48. .Step 2 Assess strategic capability Will help you to: • • • Highlight strong or weak features of products or services Highlight advantages you have over competitors Identify benefits to customers DOING AN AUDIT .

.48 Strategic thinking What is changing in the areas of: What is the likely impact on your organization in the .illilily I '1 ' 1'" t." 111 Speed QU'l lity SIl("lf lif(" !\v.1: Product Features Fea tures could include such things as: Cost Im age Weight Oll.. Medium term? Long term? Problem Market Opportunity Problem Opportunity Morale Mores Mental muscle Management Money Movement Machines Materials Prompt 2.IIII ' I' Y Ilfl ' 1).li l. ill (III "l>lIiI Y .lIlli l y 1{1'li.lhilil y II.

(see prompt sheet for some ideas) In what way do you consider these to be superior or inferior to competitors? Which are important to your customers? Why? ~ Prompt 2.. : Cu tom r . fill in the following information: The main features of your product or service are ..Assess strategic capability 49 Delivery times Product support Cost of upgrade Ease of upgrade Green credentials Power needed Available on line Ease of payment Space it takes up Servicing required From the table on page 50.

do you think you have an advantage over your competitors? How do these features benefit customers? How do they help customers feel better? (see prompt sheet on customers) Prompt 2.1111 / 11111111 . that are important to your customers.3: Morale • 1)(\ y lHl1' l ' lllplll 1'1"1 dl ' li v l ' l y I'dl' lll'Il'dll ' III YOIII' 111')".50 Strategic thinking • • • • • • • • What are the characteristics of people likely to buy your goods or use your services? What features of your products or services do your customers like most? Where do you operate. In which features. provide services or sell products? How many potential customers are there? How many customers do you have? Why do they do business with you? How do your customers think your service could be improved? Could your products be sold in other sectors or elsewhere in the world? Fill in the following table.

1I 1' cO l1sullJ li o l1 ? 1)1) "'lll . capital budgeting. 'plan ahead'. accept it. marketing.l V\' I 1'01 !em -so lvin g sk ill s Ih <1 1 Ih ey li se rro<lc livciy ? /\ .1I"( 'd 10 i. or d oes it gene rate competiveness and fragmentation? Prompt 2.'s Pf"( 'p. or devolved? How does your culture affect selection and promotion? Give an example. · h. or in general management? Do you manage your future by policies and procedures. up-to-date and free from graffiti? Are walkways and fire escape routes clear at all times? Do employees automatically remove any litter they see? Do employees support the organization's social events? Do employees enter teams in external competitions? Do employees meet outside the work environment? Do employees work flexibly to cover for each other and are they mutually supportive? Are dress codes and standards of personal appearance high? Are employees proactive in approaching customers and seeking new work? Prompt 2.'. or the decor? Do senior managers regularly walk through the places where employees work? Are all notice boards clean. loY('('. an unsatisfactory performance.Ifl l' r .11111 (111 Ilwir ow n 1)(\ .1 1 ' 11"od I 1("( ' ("1"( '. or 'full dream ahead'? What is their dominant disposition? What is your organization's focus : is it internal or external? What is more likely to trigger change in your organization: a crisis. multi-disciplinary teamwork.4: Mores • • • • • • • • • • • • • Are managers more likely to say: 'don't rock the boat'. diagnosis. 'roll with the punches'. or an unexpected problem? How does your organization cope with risk? Does it reject it..lI iv (" 1'1 . or seek it? Is your organization more likely to seek: status quo. bottom-up..It1 . R&D.Il1d 11Ir1(1v.l k(' d( 'c isiol1s .IPpl"ol ri . improvement on past performance or to be the best? Does your organization solve problems through: trial and error.5: Mental Muscle • • • \'Illpl(\ V\ '. . long-range forecasts or strategic thinking? Are your management information systems informal.Assess strategic capability 51 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Do they come up with s ugges ti o ns o r new ideas? How do you reward staff fo r id eas? Do you reward cost-saving ideas? Do you act on them? How do you obtain grassroo ts feelings? Are employees involved in the choice of equipment they use.Ili v(' i<i( ".upln . . Do senior managers pay regular visits to customers and suppliers? Does the mana ge ment system create an atmosphere of working together. minimal disturbance.'. or formal? Based on past performance or on future potential? How is decision making carried out? Is it top-down. anticipation or creative footwork? Where is the power in your organization? Is it in production.

. . exercise and posture? Are your employees aware of the positive and negative effects on mental efficiency of nicotine? Alcohol? Caffeine? Drugs? Have they been given information on the effects of diet and vitamins and minerals on mental agility? (See Chapter 1.the clothes staff wear? Do you have people who can think creatively as well as critically? Can they predict and learn from experience? Do you have people who can do the numbers and people who can empathize? Do you have people who are good with words and have long memories? Do you have brain-training programmes and activities to keep people sharp? Do you encourage your staff to study a wide range of subjects? Do you provide water stations and the best possible conditions for brain work? Do you know how to recruit.sleep.computers. .diet. IIII'"I1 '11i 1111..) Are you aware of the impact on mental agility of: .1 dl 'VI. or are they 'pie in the sky'? How does research and development interact with the rest of your organization? Does your organization copy other people's products? Are your employees encouraged to be organizational antennae. oil' • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Do (III y0 1l1" HI.t1 d( ·v(' lopl1H'nl pl..lIl l"1 lil. competitors and the changing world? Are your employees trained to notice and report discord? Are your employees encouraged to visualize future situations by using pictures.air quality.I'III'I·. . . orally and ill writing? Do you rely on one or two people for ideas and problem solving? Are your employees' ideas practical.lighting. . sketches and flipcharts? Are your employees introduced to different ways of thinking about things and trained routinely to test views from different perspectives? Are your employees encouraged to quantify what they are saying or thinking? Are they aware of the impact of mood on mental efficiency and of the importance of an optimistic disposition? (See Chapter 2. 2010.1111'" 1h'li()/1 wdl" illlt-li("('I\I.IIII\.photocopiers. ventilation.52 Strategic thinking Do you encourage your employees to express their ideas. .1I . drawings.music. feeding back 'intelligence' on customers.1 illt'iII!II' 1'. eg. . assess and retain bright people? Is your stJff turnover hi g h? Are your brightest people stret hed? Do Ilwy kav e oul or boredom ? I( 'dll)i.stress.. . 2010. Wootton and Horne.colours.lli "" v!" IWrl"lol1.. Wootton and Horne.) Are your employees aware of the optimum physical conditions needed for mental work. .HI d l ' II'Ii!I VI·lhll\).) f'.smells./'. .

. . or by a personal development plan? How do you reward your suppliers? How do you reward and delight your customers? What drives your organization: the CEO. would you use your existing managers? Does your organization have strong and quick financial management? Does your organization have the necessary training and learning resources? Do your managers use brain-based communication? Have your managers been trained to develop thinking skills? Do your managers. I.belonging to a group.Assess strategic capability 53 Prompt 2. 1IIi .lIi'lIl . have a wide enough range of thinking skills? Do managers know how to help employees think.II' III II Ii 'l I". especially in group situations? Do your managers walk the job and listen? Do they try to understand. thereby missing their original point? Do you monitor 'negatively' (to identify performance below plan) or do you monitor 'positively' or both? (Different strokes for different folks?) Are your monitoring systems discussed with staff and altered after discussion? Does your organization cope well with customer complaints? How do you know? How do you reward your employees: by bonuses.th eir own working s pa ces .IIIIII'" YI 'oIl I Y'''llllol Y lilltillll ' .1I1i / .">11 ' I w lll w Ipl' YP III' 11I. II 'li li l'. .'1 YIl .. the reasons why they work for you? Accepting that the need to earn money may be the prime motivator for many.spaces to think? • Prompt 2.7: Money a. II" II I I~"III "1 11 11 . performance appraisal. Your or aniJ'.1lion' fin ncial performance ( :. or both? Do you know the hobbies.6: Management • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Can your managers cope with cbanging markets.)" . 11 1' d' l il YI IIII I.their own ideas. suppliers.feeling valued and needed. the marketing team. for each employee.social contact.)' I" III " 1.\ . products. achievement and applause? Are your employees able to create: . .1I 0111111111111111 III 11111'1. interests and strongly-held beliefs of your people? Do you know.obtaining recognition. between them. or schemes. admiration. what thereafter is the relative importance of: . products and technology? Do you have a sufficient numbe r of managers or too many? Is your organization flat and lean with a wide span of control? If you took over another organization. before making themselves understood? Do they know how to vary their approach to individual differences in people? Do they identify key result determinants and monitor daily? Weekly? Monthly? Do you avoid using the same universal metrics in all your departments? Have some of your proxy measures become ends in themselves. . II .

11 11Hl11lll . If y ou "od the ('< ls h b.llnncl' (C 13 I F).s is n ·lll'. a check li st of like ly items is shown. 20 . 3.lIlI'\' Ipl' 1l1UI1111 ' . ls h is ldl ill IIH' ()rr. Make a note of any receipts or income that you expect to receive. 2..II IIH' ('l1d of 111. 4.. . enter overall overdraft or cash held at the end of the previous period. Return on net assets (%) Profit (before interest and tax) xlOO Total capital employed in business Profit margin (%) Profit (before interest and tax) x 100 Sales or income Net asset turnover Sales or income Total net assets employed in business Debt ratio (%) Long-term loans xlOO Total capital employed Interest cover Profit (before interest and tax) Interest on long-term loans Current ratio Current assets Current liabilities Liquidity ratio Liquid assets Current liabilities b.1" ·" 1. .lJli E 1IioI1 . Ihi s wi ll intii call' how Illu ch c. The rece ipts less payments for th e month will g ive you th' net ils h flow (F) for the month . Ratio for year: 20 .. it' (F = l~ Pl. '1'111' fi g ll!"\" '( " hn'PIll\'s IIH' up\"l1ill)\ h.lI. Your organization's cash flow Complete a cash flow forecast using the table on the following two pages and: Under 'cash balance'..54 Strategic thinking Ratio Calculation 20 . Make a note of payments that you expect to make..Il1d Ill\' 1 1I'()\ ' (' ~. .

. .I"l'h "' I..llion Tn x O ll wr l"l~h )'.ul (I' ~ - .l ynH'nl N(.tlu e Ad ded Tnx ( '(1 rl o r." ..11 p.. 11 11 .oing IH II '''.- - - 1 {"(.. .) R I ' ( '.. 1 1111 '111 111 11 111 )'1 ill 1I1 P I I I Hl i l lllll' - .. 1'''\ II lt " lh . ..1 ."" ( I.) Cash payments Earlier sales Selling of assets Interest received Grants Other income Total receipts in (R) Expected payments out: Premium on lease Purchase of property Purchase of fittings Raw materials Payment for goods Employees' net wages Income tax and NI Training expenses Rent and rates Fuel (gas and electricity) Telephone Postage Printing and stationery Subscriptions & periodicals Advertising Repa irs and maintenance Vehicl e and travel cos ts Insurances I' rofess ional fees I. ..1.Assess strategic capability 55 Cash Flow Forecast Month Cash balance (8) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Expected receipts in: Owners' investment Loans (from .oa n re pay ments i3nnk charges Hank inte rest V.

) Cash payments Ea rli er sales Selling of assets Interest received Grants Other income Total receipts in (R) I I Expected payments out: Premium on lease Purchase of property P urchase of fittings Raw materials Payment for goods Employees' net wages Income tax and NI Training expenses Rent and rates Fuel (gas and electricity) Telephone Postage Printing and stationery Subscriptions & periodicals Advertising Repairs and maintenance Vehicle and travel costs Insurances Professional fees Loan repayments Bank charges Bank interest Value Added Tax Corpora tion Tax Other cash going out Total payments out (P) l' ipl s in less p" yn)('l1l s (HII (". ' h\ I' dIH "l'i - «') III II .l ~ h f1() W (I :) 1 I' < I ~ l' - - ( 'd'd. rt ' nl..56 Strategic thinking Month Cash balance (B) 7 8 9 10 II 12 Expected receipts in: Owners' investment Loans (from .lllllll g III Ih..

1 (1') j ll 1~ ".· l l l d V IIII ' "I ' j 11 11 1 ~ (.-~ .I.= '= -~ 1 =. ~' .Assess strategic capability 57 Year and quarter Cash balance (B) 211 2/2 2/3 2/4 3/1 3/2 3/3 3/4 Expected receipts in: Owners'investment Loans (from ...' ip l:...."" fl ow ( '1 1: 111 ( I ') 1 < I' I t O l lildrl ft I II Ill i ' !lI l1i l ll l 'tj '" (t') IIliI . 0 111 Total payllwnl ll 0. ) Cash payments Earlier sales Selling of assets Interest received Grants Other income Total receipts in (R) Expected payments out: Premium on lease Purchase of property Purchase of fittings Raw materials Payment for goods Employees' net wages Income tax and NI Training expenses Rent and rates Fuel (gas and electricity) Telephone Postage Printing and stationery Subscriptions & periodicals Advertising Repairs and maintenance Vehicle and travel costs Insurances Professional fees Loan repayments Bank charges Bank interest Valu e Added Tax Co rpo ratio n Ta x O th er cas h go in g I{l'n.

This is important because. less depreciation) I va lue of stock. But. You will need to increase your sources of funding.. .tand how a balance sheet is constructed.. the organization will be unable to pay its bills. in turbulent times.. property. or both. cash and in vcstmcnts) ./1 11.ent. administration costs and fixed overhead costs less: Any interest on loans (if applicable) less: Any tax due less: Any dividends declared the gross profit profit before interest and tax (often called 'net profit') the profit before tax the profit after tax the retained profits (sometimes called 'retained earnings') The following tab le win help you l11H11 I . Now go back over the table and consider your worst case cash breakeven. Understand profit and loss account and balance sheet The following table will help you understand how a profit and loss account is constructed. II W I' lh . For example. I 1/ 1. and delay receipts of cash by say. I I 'II " I I" 1/111111 / / .1 11 11 11" .II ) .58 Strategic thinking To review your cash flow forecast./111/. If the bottom line is always positive. look at the bottom line in each period. Look especially closely at big ticket items of expenditure or receipts expected from sales of assets. ". Are any of these figures negative? If so. ". selling costs. c./11"" "/ " (.lfls plus <lny money yo u owe lil. a balance sheet Ii cost of land. this probability can rise to 80-90 per cent. Suppose they are not renewed? You can be more sophisticated and multiply your discounts by your estimates of the chances that these things could happen.1 r) 1'/8 y llli Const . and at funds expected from renewed credit facilities. so you may as well assume 100 per cent likelihood to get a safe cash breakeven level. you should plan to invest the surplus in some way. What is the effect if you reduce sales by say. Constructing a profit and loss account Sales/income less: The cost of producing the product actually sold less: Depreciation. Your cash flow has implications for your choice of strategy. prices by say. debtors.. "" " V" . 1"1 ''' 1'] 111 1.iI 111 '1' . ". plant and . you will have to check whether you have sufficient cash. your worst case scenario may become your reality. one third. three months. one fifth. if a particular strategy involves extra staff training. ' / . reduce your outgoings.11 . buildings. in turbulent times.illllusl be lI ilin Olll' e. when that period is reached.

how much are you getting? ____ r_ofi_...RaCE) For each £100 of income coming in. Three financial performance ratios nlculation I. Financial performance: is your organization trading successfully? Is your organization making good use of your money? Would you be better off selling up and putting the money in a building society? Would you get a better return? Less hassle? Less risk? Financial health: is your organization financially healthy? Is there going to be enough cash to pay the bills even in the worst possible case in turbulent times? Performance The return on net assets (or the return on capital employed) is a measure of how well the organization is performing as a trading concern. or 'return on capital employed' .. which tells you whether or not you are making enough use of the money tied up in the business... which is the proportion of sales or income represented by the profits (before interest and tax). 11 tilll '" lli l ' 11l(IIH'Y gl' l II sed ? I1III '1'(1l._t~(b_e_f_or_e_lil_· P_ _te_r_e_s_ta_n_d ta_x~)___ X100 __ Total capital employed in the business ( a iled 'return on net assets' .. II (lW 1ll.J /111111 1'" 1 Ii" I . and the turnover of the capital employed (or the turnover of net assets). you should concentrate on two aspects: financial performance and financial health..RONA.. d IIIPIII ' 1 l ' IIIIt1I1I'. your books balance! For the purpose of strategic planning in your organization.lIl y 111111" ·.:. X Sales or in COIlW Prorit (before inte rest and ta x) 100 I.. It is an effective yardstick by which your organization's financial performance can be assessed. III '"I" 1"'..Assess strategic capability 59 plus: equals Shareholders' funds Total capital employed (money put in by you or shareholders plus accumulated retained profits) (this should equal the net assets figure above) If so. For each £100 of your money..' . Performance ratios A. This ratio is particularly useful when it is examined in the light of the two ratios that comprise it: the net profit margin...--. how much is profit? .

illll H)11.1I1s Ih.lIlt ' . whereas owners or shareholders expect to get a higher return (or 'dividend') when profits go up and may have to accept a lower dividend at times when profits are not so good. or capital employed must be reduced..60 Strategic thinking If you decide that you want to improve your return on the money that you have tied up in the business.1 bi Ii Iit'S. - .1111 ' hll'<dl ll llgl ·d w hl '"1 '11IllJldll 'd . so it is a measure of your safety margin. Tests for liquidity The current ratio The liquidity ratio equals equals Current assets Current liabilities Liquid assets Current liabilities The current ratio s hows the relil li onshi p between current ilssels il lll! currt'n l li . The interest cover shows by how many times the interest payments are covered by profits.II IIl IW 1111'11). you can adopt a strategic approach that better meets your organization's needs for the future. If Iht' ril li o is hi g h..1111 Ih. II if. Ihi s nW. . It shows how much of your business is being funded by the owners (sometimes called 'equity capital' or 'shareholders' funds' ) and how much of the business is being funded by borrowed money.1[lIwI"I' SIHlItid Iw lilll l' diffi n tll y ill 11 11'1'1111).1 hi g h l(. If profits are 10 times your interest payments.I Ilh 'Y hl 'I 'III11I' . Either profitability must be increased. Loans generally have fixed interest payments that must be paid regardless of your profit levels.vl'1of clIrr('1l 1" ssl'l s 10 li"hilili l's . IIll' org. lIi lll1 'S d\'hl ' . Health The financial health tests are of two kinds: tests for solvency (what will happen when the loans are called in?) and tests for liquidity (will you be able to pay your bills and salaries on time?) Tests for solvency The debt ratio The interest cover ratio equals equals Long-term loans Total capital employed Profit (before interest and tax) Interest on long-term loans . lIli i'. there are two possible implications for your strategic planning.i The debt ratio is sometimes called 'gearing'. By looking at how these two ratios have been changing during the last few years. then you can survive your profits dropping to one tenth of their present level without getting into trouble with the bank.1l Ilwl"( ' is .11111 0 100" .

congestion.diversifying sources of supply. ") .9: Machines • • • ( ' .li ll n' pl. The liquidity ratio shows the proportion of funds that can easily be turned into cash to pay the bills. .1 l li"l" d rl"pl .Assess strategic capability 61 previous year 's figures would be a warning sign . . Prompt 2.l v . . . when there maybe few willing buyers for your assets.l il.1 hl (' to d o IIll' job? y l l lll' 1I1oIdlll\( ':' III' !t 'dllhol p/'.controls on emissions. Beyond a certain point.nl lli w ill 1h i V i lli II .hologram presentations. ' 11 .1 111" • • 11 11 \'\1 ' .new high speed rail links. may not sell at all when times are tight. r.11111.especially in a forced sale at times of turbulence. virtual reality.road tariffs. IIlIIIII\( ' 111. carbon pricing. . . It is also worth noting that while a high current ratio denotes strong financial stability.1v.restrictions on air cargo.01111.high speed broadband links. Stocks of finished goods. 11 1i1 Iw ll l'r 111.8: Movement • • • • • • Do you own your own transport? If hired or leased.currency fluctuations. .emerging markets.l ding ? ' <1 111 .inte rnational video conierencing? Prompt 2.li'il1 g ill' uP/. normally relied on as quick realizable assets.\ 11' 11 1\" 11 ' 11\"WI ' I' . and this in turn increases the interest payments. the requests for increased borrowings will be refused and bankruptcy looms. . ' . is it in your house style or livery? Would you be better buying in a 24-hour delivery service? Do you promote your delivery service in your literature? Do you always collect faulty items from customers? How will you be affected by: .the price of oil. . No one may have the cash to take your stock off your hands. . it may also indicate poor asset usage! It may also be due to an overoptimistic view of what price your assets would fetch .l ("(' I1H' I1I paris eas il y il nd q ui ckly? . maybe at a discount.diversifying global markets. no matter how much you discount the price. . virtual warehousing. .11 1 Y O II Wildl !'ffed wi lllw'llih il nd sa fety laws have on use of machine ry? llill . .1 r llin l"s .virtual shopping malls.congestion charging. A shortage of cash may push the organization towards increased borrowings.

especially those who supply your most innovative competitors? ASSESS STRATEGIC CAPABILITY . better. Equitrade suppliers? Are you aware of the implications of Fairtrading and Equitrading? Could you benefit from working more closely with suppliers . with information about who will respond? Do e-mail and message machines give numbers for out-of-hours backup? Do your phones tell you when you have a customer waiting? Do your phones or computers have conferencing for multi-person conversations? Does your communications equipment monitor the frequency with which your customers get 'engaged' and how long they have to wait for a response? Prompt 2:10 Materials • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Are you reliant on someone else to do product or service testing for you? Do you do your own packaging? Does it look professional? Does it protect the product and promote your service and your brand? Are there several suppliers of your raw materials? Are there alternative sources for raw materials? Are you tied to one supplier? Are the prices of your materials affected by exchange rates? Could you work with other organizations to achieve a group discount? Do you receive generous credit terms from your suppliers? Do you have patents and copyrights on your products? Do you control your stock levels effectively and efficiently? Are your suppliers supplying you just in time? Do you return faulty deliveries quickly and hold invoices till credit is received? Do you have a long lead-up time to producing new goods or services? Do you operate a policy of favouring Fairtrade or.62 Strategic thinking • • • • • • • Do any machines cause quality control problems? Are all telephone calls diverted so that callers always get an answer? Is e-mail acknowledged quickly.STEP 2 SUMMARY Step 2 will have helped you to: • • • Highlight strong or weak features of products or services Highlight the advantages you have over competitors Identify benefits to customers .

<" ull1ll1.J r i/ I gi pnbilily (1I'ol!1' \ lloll !' qi c kl1 owl('cicjl' .STEP 3 SUMMARY Step 3 will have helped you to: • • • ~ lImrn ar i L tr t gi intelli gence ~ Ir . and enter them in this table: Creating Strategic Knowledge ~----------~------~------------------4 Problems Opportunities Step 1: Strategic Intelligence 'TEMPLES' Step 2: Strategic Capability Assessment '9M' CREATE STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE .Step 3 Create strategic knowledge Will help you to: • • • Summarize strategic intelligence Summarize strategic capability Create strategic knowledge CREATE STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE Bring together the results of your strategic intelligence gathering in Step 1. and the results of your strategic capability assessment sheet (9Ms) in Step 2.

employees. managerial and thinking skills be adequate in 10 years (Step 2)? a) Will your organization's current course lead to satisfactory financial ratios.. Human resources Finance Will your current marketing. liquidity ratio) change for the better over the next five years (Step 2)? . 4. competitors. 3. funders and suppliers Envisage your worst case scenario MAKE STRATEGIC PREDICTIONS A 'change nothing scenario' helps to forecast where you will be if you change nothing: No l. especially for cash? b) Can the current course of action be self-funded? c) Will the cash risks (eg. Area Problems Market position If you change nothing . Yes ~ No ~ Does your organization's current course of action overcome the problems identified in Step 3? a) Does your organization's current course of action exploit the opportunities in Step 3? b) Will you be able to maintain your market? 2.Step 4 Make strategic predictions Will help you to: • • • Predict what will happen if you make no changes Consider the impact of your prediction on customers.. stakeholders.

Culture Technology Supplies Does the current direction of the organization reflect the culture of the organization (Step 2)? Will your technology allow you to compete over the next five to 10 years (Steps 2/3)? Will you be able to build closer relationships with new suppliers over the next 10 years? 8. and for each question you answered 'No'. Prompt 4.Make strategic predictions 65 No Area If you change nothing. Competitors Customers Will your competition decline (Steps 2/3)? a) Is your organization capable of responding to increased customer expectations (Steps 2/3)? b) Will you be able to maintain closer relationships with new customers over the next five to 10 years (Steps 2/3)? c) Will your organization's current direction improve the quality of your services or products over the next five years (Step 2)? 7. 6.1: Worst Case Scenario Look back at the 10 sets of questions in the 'change nothing scenario'. complete the following: .. 9.. Yes ~ No ~ d) Will your organization's current course of action improve your organization's ratio of debt to equity over the next 10 years (Step 2)? e) Will you become independent of external funding over the next five to 10 years (Step 2)? 5.

competitors. what might be the implication in 10 years' time? What is the worst that might happen? MAKE STRATEGIC PREDICTIONS . stakeholders.66 Strategic thinking Worst case scenarios No For each 'No' answer.STEP 4 SUMMARY Step 4 will have helped you to: • • • Predict what will happen if you make no changes Consider the impact of your prediction on customers. employees. funders and suppliers Envisage your worst case scenario .

to the finance bubble and crash of 2008. when brains had excessive level of testosterone and cortisol derivatives. Sections 2 and 3). nothing great will be achieved. by the systematic use of concepts that derive from systems thinking.are associated with optimism. then inspirational ideas can be harvested that are still practical. . high expectations and hope. Similarly. But great dreams are not sufficient. An organization with a shared vision that is positive and hopeful is more likely to have people with the thinking skills needed to turn that vision into reality. When creative exuberance is kept on a loose rein. pessimism and despair. Section 3. markers and review points DEVELOP STRATEGIC VISION Using Professor Susan Greenfield's chemical model of the brain. oxytocin. dopamine and phenyl ethyl amine . adrenaline and various cortisol derivatives . insight. Without a great dream. Failure to achieve early milestones produces disillusion and depression . plausible and within feasible limits of what is possible. Japanese research has pointed to the power of figurative language and the use of metaphor in releasing the creative potential of people in organizations. imagination and creative thinking -like serotonin. We have examples of poor decision making.like high levels of testosterone. O ur system s map suggests using a CATSWORLD c11l'cklisl. Many of the neurochemicals that favour innovation.a cocktail of neurochemicals that will so impair thinking as to make feared failure more likely (Part I. invention. There must be the means of delivery . we have been able to establish what chemical conditions will favour success on complex thinking tasks like generating strategy and implementing strategic change.Step 5 Develop strategic vision Will help you to: • • • Create an optimistic view of the future Determine a hopeful strategic direction Set motivating milestones.key resources. Your best hope must be realistic. chemicals that inhibit clear thinking and risk assessment . fear. that lead for example. will keep you o n a reali s li c and pr:J cli ca l path. key skills and key a to rs to deploy them.are associated with feelings of anxiety. The 16 systems steps set out in Part I.

clients.111 . law enforcement officers and members of the public.l lld ('c" l lI lI . or founding fathers . llt Il(' . lh e n . warehousing and distribution? Each of these systems will in turn have sub-systems.how central are they to the performance of the organizational system and how could their health be improved eg.----1 Trans/ormation I------. salaries? How does your organization transform these inputs into these outputs? How could it do so more quickly.( ' 100 Ic ". taxes. and to what does your organization transform them (outputs). products. Then cons id er th e wi de r sys tems within which yo ur o rgani za ti on ope ra tes. medical services. enquiries. Not all will be current employees.1nd l (l~' .dli. A is for actors Key people in your organization. services. people systems.11 gove rn me nt . T is for transformation What does your organization take in as inputs. and in a way that is different from competitive systems? Inputs ----. local politicians. money.68 Strategic thinking UNPACKING THE 'CATSWORlD' CHECKLIST C is for customers/clients Consider the impact on your organization of. producing less waste. Wha t changes in these w ide r systems co ul d a ffec t yo ur o rga ni za li o n? C()J)sid ci' ti l(' loc.lr t Oil t. for example.1 :JP I". using fewer resources.dc ' I. raw materials.)1 co nll11l1nit y . marketing systems.1l io n . Ic '. agents.. and operational systems like production.l t io n . \1 11 ( 'PII 'I liI " I' hpw yl lil IId )'. training systems. users.' to illlllll 'I1('(' ('V('llt . l l'if fs. eg. eg.1i sys t"111 oIlltl it s illlp.1 (' X( 1101111'. energy. 11 11' illt " r1l o1 t ioll . pollution. customers. ll reg ul a ti o n s. dividends. lIc ' . t l'.. reputation. research and development systems. orders. finance systems. trust. HI( ' . intermediaries. Many will be. information and communication systems. waste. key investors. consultancy ideas.111. Drill down until you can no longer see how improvements in lower sub-systems could significantly affect the future performance of your organization. They may be technical patent holders. This creates a 'rich' picture of the influences to which you might be subject (or of the audience you might wish to impress). c .-~ Outputs Feedback 5 is for sub-systems and wider systems What important sub-systems is it useful to identify . III w cI " 1 • \ 1"11 1 ' ' .

as such resources will become expensive.lli o ll is lI s lI .I WS. and laws a nd impendin g legislation se t external limits on what is possible. Owners are rarely the managers and often not the directors.dl y ph .lIli((' s t()~. Even rapid responses need to be informed by prepared minds. Impending laws a rc nea rl y a lwi1 ys known we ll ahead . Creative thinking will become a key resource for delivering competitive advantage. rites and rituals that give your organization character and distinctiveness? What kinds of things would run against the grain? What kind of changes. 10 10 is us u.ll I. R is for resources Your 'best hope' for the future had better not assume the continued availability of resources whose planetary supply is limited .10 to 15 years ahead is not uncommon for in!('rn 'lli () l1 . Creative thinking is essential for innovation. . myths. Thoughtless. dl y II00d"I'\'( 1 ill !I\. It may be helpful to run workshops specifically designed to develop the thinking skills and brainpower of your people. if the owners do not like the direction in which the organization appears to be moving. L is for limitations (often legal) The 'way we do things here' sets internal limitations on our 'best hopes'.:iI in the European Uni o n.'. stories.III II II .Develop strategic vision 69 W is for the way we do things around here What are the beliefs. and then increasingly to brain-based. or the object of green campaigns for a more sustainable 'best hope'. Minds can be prepared by thinking strategically. in which direction. such as debts or shareholdings? Failure to have 'best hopes' that are within the owners' expectations might cause your journey to falter unexpectedly. One benefit of introducing strategic thinking into your organization is the development it produces in the thinking skills of the people who work in your organization. As economies move from production-intensive to knowledge-based.1ll('g is l.lIl y ''' '''II '' I III . or sporadic in supply. Owners are amongst the many key people to whom you must listen intently as you collect information on which to base your 'best hope' for your organization. all-action decision making does not confer competitive advantage. Managers need to balance inner world thinking and outer world action. 1':v('11 fill. Inte nded nati o nal law s . invention and intellectual property. ::. Who would need to sign the deeds for disposal of a major asset? Who would need to approve a major change in its financial structures. values.1S('d . would win immediate support and backing? What is it that employees like about working here? What are they proud of? What would make them ashamed? o is for owners It is very important to work out who really owns the company. II II'I lilI. Comm c rcia l or c mpl oym c nt rcgul a tions a rc tl s tl .In' lI ~ ll . a key resource will be thinking power.

Step 7). prompted by our 6S checklist: . The idea is to hold onto hopes that are inspirational but which most key actors consider realistic. tentative 'best hopes' can be formulated and tested in another round of conversations .'visions and revisions' (T. the job is done! Record your 'best hopes' in the following table. S.. ie demanding but achievable. • • • 25 per cent of people will initially be very resistant to change. It will be important to spot and recruit the change agents ('assisters'). 25 per cent may in fact be very willing agents of strategic change. Section 1). Visions and Revisions . According to research we did with Tony Doherty: about .especially about any resistance to change. Section 1 and Part II. Styles of decision making reflect styles of leadership (see Part I. milestones and review points. more motivation and greater followership.Setting Markers and Milestones As the CATSWORLD checklist directs more conversation with more key people. gather suggestions for markers. Elliot). Leadership style and decision making both benefit from strategic thinking (see Part I. This in turn enables much more ambitious 'best hopes' to be dared. 50 per cent will likely be anxious. Strategic leaders are able to engender higher morale. These will be important because attempts to make even small changes will yield a wealth of new information . and more effective strategic changes to be implemented. In the next round of visions and revisions.70 Strategic thinking D is for decisions and the way they get taken The way we take decisions indicates strongly the Wcy we do things around here.. If each con- verts one 'resister'.

Stability • Utilization levels • Sale of surplus capacity • Buy or make? 3. Skills • Thinking skills • R&D • Educational breadth 4.STEP 5 SUMMARY Step 5 will have helped you to: • • • Create an optimistic view of the future Determine a hopeful strategic direction Set motivating milestones. Social reputation 5.Develop strategic vision 71 A 6S checklist for checking best hopes Areas to consider Targets. Status of employees 6. markers and review points . milestones. Size • Grow cash reserves • Grow profits • Grow or reduce sales • Market share • Product range • Acquisitions 2. markers and review points 1. Security of employees DEVELOP STRATEGIC VISION .

showing them your cumulating list of options for change. Obstacle analysis Obstacles to removing 'worst fears' and achieving 'best hopes' Worst fears (Step 4) Obstacles to removing Best hopes (Step 5) Obstacles to achieving . Simply thank them for any additional options that occur to them and add them to your list.Step 6 Create strategic options Will help you to: • • • Identify obstacles Analyse existing options for removing obstacles Think creatively about ideas. preferably working in pairs. (This will happen later. Do not encourage criticisms or evaluation of the ideas of others. get key actors. in Step 7). to brainstorm a long list of possible changes that might remove the obstacles. Visit and re-visit your key actors. innovations and inventing more options CREATE STRATEGIC OPTIONS Complete the Obstacle Analysis and Obstacle Removal tables. For each obstacle in the first table.

1 ...11 . Professor Martindale studied th e b rain sca ns of people writing creatively and. you need to come up with some options that your competitors will not have thought of.'hl'.lil 1>1'011111 ''' ' ill IIli:. '1'1)(' Ill y lll lll .see Step 5) Using the second table as your starting point..lS trul' th .:. To be distinctive.Create strategic options 73 Obstacles removal List of obstacles Long list of options for removing obstacles (accumulate your long list by talking to key actors . id. Creative thinking It is not n ecessary to be born a genius to think crea tively. 'IlI' II " Allil llllgil il W. \ .11 " l"lilll ..lIl y ' l'I)'. \11 \. The odds are that your competitors have done a similar analysis and. .l l th e mos t crcn li ve wr iting was done by peop le who could deliberately s hift tlwir I1r. you need to add more options.' III. h e reportecl lh. and of the intentions and actions necessary to change it.11'li vit y fr(lill tlll'ir reM br<:l in p<:lriclal se nsory cO rlC:x to th e front hr.:.lill .II-('11. in Psycho!oSlI in August 2007.1 'III ' Iii"". if 20 competitors all do the same thing in the same market. But if your individual plans each depended on getting 10 per cent of the market.l t the right-hand s ides of 1IIi 'il' hl'oIl1l " \\!i' I\' 111 \.'I'. .IfIlI . Il'f l II ./ 111 W.I.)11. you may each get 5 per cent of the market.lill .lin 1 .lI ('Ii 'oIiI V\' 1'\ '11 1. )f 111I 'il' ". . you will each go bankrupt! You will need distinctiveness in order to have competitive advantage.. (III ('oil) " . ie you will need to think creatively in order to innovate and invent your own distinctive view of the future. \ 111 1. 'I'. ()f II )('il' I1r.

Join an art or drama group .1(1 0111(1 IWII . Don't (or9('1 1 i'i 'j! 01 !.(h 'ki' l 1 ). . Unwillingness to deal with hypothesis or conjecture. Say.. Obsessive tidiness. Ask.2: 20 Ways to Develop Your Creativity 1.74 Strategic thinking Common blocks to creative thinking • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Aversion to risk. 1 If the block is .\'1''1. ill' 01 p . Fear of reverie or daydreaming. Mix with creative people. Prompt 6. 'What's the worst thing that could happen?' Ask. if you are not over-anxious. Excessive need for quick success...' Ask. III y Uill' . 'If I didn't believe this. Then try to .. Do one different thing every day. Prevalent pessimism. 'How will I feel when I have solved this problem?' Indulge in one piece of 'child-like' behaviour each day.. An inability to tolerate uncertainty or ambiguity. (Deadlines aid creativity. A strong preference for reality rather than fantasy. A tendency to be cynical.11(1.1: Removing Blocks to Creativity No. Accept that you have all the time there is. Inability to relax. A limited capacity for delayed gratification. It)' y llill . 'What if I had arrived from Mars?' Realize that creative thinking involves bringing lots of knowledge and experience together and that the older you are the more knowledge and experience you have.II YUill' ill 'll k .) Habit Firm beliefs Familiarity Adult behaviour Lack of language Not my area Fear of mistakes Existing models I'm too old 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 Lack of time Prompt 6.111 1111 ' . A propensity to be 'laid back' and unexcited by challenge.1('.. 'Most breakthroughs come from non-specialists. A preoccupation with control. what might happen?' Ask. A tendency to be judgemental. A fear of failure or of making mistakes.

Then stop and clean your teeth.some writers do not even turn on the light. Catch the worm (before it turns) The early bird can catch the creative worm. If you are writing non-fiction. III ' lllh ' 11 11 11111 '1 'lrillk . . Christians on pilgrimages.111'1111 11 " 1'.Poiro t co ll ec ts " II Ihl' ' 1. or fabric shop. .l11I. Clean your teeth using minty toothpaste and the hand you do not normally use. OU may n ed to become a private inves ti ga tor. Do the head-in-hand. before you work.1'1. Down the long march of history.II'H IIIIII"IIIIII' I ~. Native Americans have gone on 'vision quests'. and finish with the 60-second hand rub.1\·ls' . 6. 11 " d" w II dlld 1111111 H "holll 111('111 . once a week.1 Wil li 1/1" 1 1111 ' Wildt! . 011 I. 4. your house or your country anything to gain a new perspective. Signal your creative intent Creative thinking requires a deliberate shift. your desk. You need lots of light to switch off your pineal gland (see Chapter 1.1l 11\111I'd. 2009). Make a date Julia Cameron suggests that you make a 'date' with your creative self. start straight out of bed . at a bookshop. aborigines have gone 'walkabout'. Huxley wrote with his nose. Keep going for your allotted time .l l s l II' pi "IIIII 'n 'I)VI'r tll 'II'cli vl' wi ll yo u h(' oml'? ller lilt. The long march Like William Wordsworth. 1 I'yl' f()r dl'l. cafe or just a coffee bar where the two of you can be alone with a notepad. 3. Wh .. for at least a couple of hours. Become a private eye In yo ur lol . art shop. Alexandre Dumas ate an apple under the Arc de Triomphe every day at 7 am. All were seeking inspiration. Mi ss M'lrpll' oft ell jll s l Sil H Iwhind 111'1' 111 ' 1 \ 111111111 1111. or an hour at most.d i1l1J1H'rsi()11 phase. and eye switch exercises. your room..lil sill' dill '. 11 ' 1 11111110 111111111: ( '.Create strategic options 2. Write it out again. Surprisingly. Take time out to meet your creative self. Edit and re-edit until it is no longer decipherable. double-line spaced. your routine will be different. I'. You will then be well oxygenated for a dawn raid on your neurons! 5. fixed deadlines seem to aid creativity in the morning. Victor Hugo signalled his creative intent by taking off all his clothes. Professor Clayton recommends a walk of at least 20 minutes every day.l lld 1111 '11 '. Wootton and Horne. Perhaps they raise anxiety just enough to sharpen your waking mind.30 minutes.. Write in long hand. 7. or designing a product or campaign.d". Sometimes it helps to signal your creative intent to others (and to yourself). Hemingway sharpened pencils. A move with a view 75 Periodically.rllIl. Muslims on the Hajj. go for a walk!. at a gallery. then wrote for an hour at a street-side cafe. If it's fiction you want to write.. Mark Twain lay on the floor. move your chair.

love my dog If yo u get stuck. Favour deep breathing exercises that involve visualizing objects. Ask yourself what connection this s. especially if your creative style is predominantly 'N' for needy. 7 '> . attention and applause. Then they pass their sheets to the right.. 9. Problems arise. you probably had no difficulty in thinking creatively. 2010). Get a brain wave Before a task that requires creative thinking. 'What do you like about my work?' Next. 13. Set and stick to deadlines.' or. Love me. think of life as a game (even if you don't know the rules) . Wootton and Home. 11. a n ow l.76 Strategic thinking 8. 14.) 12. Ignore put-downs like 'Don't be facetious. etc. do relaxation exercises (see Chapters 1 and 5. working alone. 10. stories or good memories. 'What do you find interesting about my work?'. Compa re Ihe s ilu 'l lion with lI si ng <I photoco pier. You need approval.' and ask. Section 3). . Pass it on To get up to 80 ideas from eight people. colours. Each person reads the ideas on the sheet in front of them and adds one more and again passes the sheet to the person on their right. especially in the last 10 minutes. a n elep hant. 'What are its potential growth points?'. 'What would you like to see less of?' (steel yourself) and finally. /. tight deadlines often produce creative solutions. try using analogies or metaphors to help you become unstuck (see Pa rt I. 'What would you like to see more of?'. First the good news Know your creative style before you invite others to comment on your work (there is a test in Wootton and Home. These exercises slow down the electrical activity in your brain and literally produce bigger brainwaves. Girls and boys come out to play On an 'I-need-to-be-creative' day. Time's up Surprisingly. give me the good news first. or coo king a meal.. 2009). 'Don't be childish: (As a child. so always say 'Ok. 'What is the best thing you liked about my work?' Start and finish with good news. give them each a blank sheet of paper and ask them to write down three ideas.vr l is III Iil r ( ' /linC] . It"l rnin g to dri ve. admiration. Adopt a playful disposition in meetings and encourage it in others. Bin the best The exhortation to 'bin the best' recognizes the blocking effect on your creativity when you become so attached to the good bits of your work that you are reluctant to surrender space to new ideas.i tuation has with the problems facing a parti cul a r animal s uch as a dog.

What do we know and how can we find .. the better.1 If Yi ll. building or designing. Edward de Bono has some good ways of orchestrating an internal dialogue between different aspects of yourself.put on your thinking cap The more perspectives you can get on a situation the better. 1.1 II III. .111 S ()'I I( 'Ii 'I II'S 1 f ()lInd hy horrow ing < ing I<. Il.lCh roll'. In l'. Quantity of ideas is more important than the quality of ideas at this stage..'eh n iq lIl'S . try to find out which music most favours creative thinking (see hapte r 5.h. Make piles Make piles not files. . preferably on a horizontal surface like a large table.Create strategic options 77 variety of subjects you talk about.. in boxes. . IId 1"11.. you are creating a threedimensional map of information that might be relevant to your next creative project. It is also the safest way to check that..111 w II.') pessimist ('The problem might be .. Try to take holidays in a different culture. even worse. If you file information away in filing cabinets or. V 'I 'W i«'('o r"..') cardinal ('Ethically.. let alone talk to you. frightening . Madness in the m thad ' rV.. surprise! If you are looking for inspiration from a group of people.. do something surprising. exciting.II 1111. and then give them the situation about which you want them to think creatively.\'y ml( 's or (lhjI'Cls. but insight and inspiration will more likely pop into an empty space Aha! 18.1-.. passionate. 17.') emotional ('This is . . (.11111( " w ll. painting. ... a zoo or on a beach. your implementation plans make sense. ")( ' 1'.1('11 ()I III( ' h.11111 w li. Do it to music If you can think with music playing.1. 2010)..1 Y() 1I ylllI 1.l yIII' IVI """ 1". Wootton and Horne. such as that in a nearby pile! By making piles. List the 1(' lCt Il'y r()I. you will rapidly forget it exists and so you will not be able to combine that information with any other information. If people won't listen to you.1 1iVI' S()IIII i()IlS ( '. ' II 111111'" 10 II(' ( ' . ·. Talk to yourself . and then move to a large empty table somewhere else to do your writing. Never miss a chance to talk to anyone who is an expert on anything. Try. III III" III lIill " W()'"'' 111I11h... " I'. .. being an: • • • • • • • optimist ('What's good about this is . Meet them at a theme park.. on any of the ideas.1 /. 16..') logician ('Let's just check if this necessarily follows that. . in turn. Immersion profits from piles. we need to be concerned that.l ylIl' .d'll111 Y "'II I ' 11("11'1111 ' .') grower ('We could extend this by. . you can always talk to yourself. even positively.') factual (.l v (' . five-a-side football or go bowling. Surprise. Then play rounders. 20. Extract all the creative tension and creative connections you can from the information in competing piles. Collect and record as many ideas as possible as you mingle with individuals but do not comment. .') 19.

Ilinph ullllll . doing . spontaneous actions. statements." "When was the last time we felt this way?" "What happened then?" "What will be the situation when we succeed?" Recollective Thinking Empathetic Thinking Imaginative Thinking Emotional Thinking Energy. workn 0111 11 . say and see? Imaginative Thinking Ethical Thinking Empathetic Thinking Crea tive Thinking IIIVII II!lOIJ... She recognized the close relationship between playfulness.3: A Model for Creative Thinking Conversational Thinking "Is there a different way of looking at . playfulness.78 Strategic thinking Creativity . how will the world change? What will be different? What will people think. to the sudden' Aha!' as you see things from a new and unexpected perspective. ?" "We appear to be stuck . think. existing methods are not delivering .. felt comfortable and trusted the people around them. Not everyone is a natural humorist. . predisposes your brain to be open to sudden mental shifts.. solving .. see.help to change your brainwave pattern from high frequency. pr ollo/1I 1111... ideas Conversational Thinking For each of these ideas.. w lvoll y I . It raises your tolerance for surprises. where people were encouraged to joke and be playful.. Prompt 6. otlUhu d 1111 11 1/ cloIIIUIlt . On average children laugh 450 times a day (15 times a day for adults)! Creative places: somewhere a place for me Winnicott discovered that creative thinking was more likely to occur in places where questioning authority and challenging received wisdom were welcome. Children are great. excitement. humour and creativity. Kanter argued for the creation of autonomous 'play areas'. Hurst reported that people were more likely to produce new ideas when they laughed. longer alpha waves that Bagely has strongly correlated with creative thinking and invention. shorter beta waves. but you can choose to mix with people who are. say and feel ? What willi feel . to the slower. The side-effects of the laughter relaxation and distraction .the role of humour Creating humour. or enjoying humour. They will raise your mental energy and maybe your creativity.

In' ('III IIIII())il y 1)1. Unrecorded ideas get lost. size. '. b. Three techniques to try 1.I Woi Y 111011 .shape: banana. b . we could have: . 1 ' ""'1"101 111 1 1' Ilf . Provide copious materials for writing. I (ll lj ' II I 1II"II Id. 1I ill)'• . · "I. Brainstorming Thi s is usefu l in tnckling ' how to do' proble ms. not creative people.. jl(l:-. I. lO-year guarantee. where a new id ea or direction is nl'cded .1 III . As an example.. . Rapid change forces a need for creativity and innovation. etc. b . Plipcilol rls .price: lOp each. 3. you decide that the major attributes for the novelty balloons are colour.'). · I':v (" Y 1". shape. durability. Deadlines help to prevent over-elaboration and discourage premature evaluation. Attribute listing This is a very simple method and it is used to develop spin-offs from existing products or services: a. lose administrators. Using the above a. Possible variations. Weird ideas at work .Create strategic options 79 Prompt 6. purple. shape. i" I() 1(. consider you have been employed as a consultant by a Christmas novelty company to come up with new ideas for balloons. Set tight time limits.ill H )'.lIl y 1(11 '. Major attributes: we could have size. 2.111111"1 1111 ' 1)1 111111 .1 :-' d .1" .1 . £25 each. After discussions with the company.I" III Il II '1 ill))1 11 '('d H lill' lll 1 II .size: 1 cm. 3 metres. Possible combinations: we could have a 3-metre polka-dot banana. Suggest as many variations of each attribute as possible.) )'.. Evaluate them later.'v .colours: red.s ihlv. c. £1 each. . "1.4: Techniques to Aid Creativity Everyone can learn to think creatively. ·" I'.III S ( ' ( ' . polka-dot. lO-year guarantee balloon.durability: five minutes. price. ill" limill'd lim e. 1 metre. drawing and display. . li lli ' .I S 11I.)'. Tlw p ron 'ss il1volv('s p resc ntin g the proble m o r the opportu nity and 111('11 ). Certain conditions favour this.'1 1111. £25. preferab ly Lls ing a la rge (:-. Identify and pick out the major attributes of a product or service. c. ·.three creative conditions 1. price and durability. c approach: a.'. . one year. In turbulent times.:. 2. Each combination of variation creates a potential new product or service.(' II I'r. star. List all the combinations.

but it is not as good as a leader talking to individuals and then leaving them to work in pairs. Zany ideas are encouraged. Ilwdi ('. Tear the lists into strips and put them in a hat.\r. 3.'. Possible areas Schools Houses Insurance companies Football clubs Supermarkets Chemists Charities. You have been asked to think up new ideas for diversifying the service. d diol g ll (lsis. A ga in. Pauses are filled by reading back the ideas already recorded on the flipcharts. for example: B. using some of the techniques described in Step 7. Next you brainstorm list B . Ideas can be shortlisted and evaluated later. realism. Section 1). Possible services Medical diagnosis Minor surgery Health education Blood tests Bed baths. Negativism. B6. returning later to share with them the ideas of other pairs (see Part 1. One object is fixed. B3. B2. cynicism. in particular. The declining number of patients on your surgery list has placed the future of your practice in jeopardy.80 Strategic thinking tank' of ideas.a list of possible areas in which you could provide services. the other is chosen at random. ill thl' . AS. .)f) Y ust's as I oss ihlv fo r th e servin' (' hust' f) fro m li st 1\ . First you brainstorm list A . AI. As an example. Forced relationships This is based on the establishment of new relationships between normally unrelated objects or ideas.1 r hus(' n f I'() r II I i ~{ t II. are not allowed and must be quickly squashed by the person facilitating the brainstorming sessions.) S J)1. say. BS. as is humour. Your workforce is highly skilled and flexible. scepticism and. B1. New applications are sought for existing products or services. Such ideas may be 'planted' in the audience to create a permissive atmosphere.a list of all the things your staff can do. B4. A4. tea r th e list into strips and put th em in a separa te hat. A2. The flipcharts should be torn off and displayed around the room. etc. N ex t yo u d raw o ne strip from each hat <l nd in fi ve minutes yo u h<lve to w rile d ow ll . Brainstorming is much better than doing nothing. You then have to find as many ways as possible to relate the fixed object to the one chosen at random. A3. for example: A. six doctors. q~ . so as to keep the flow of ideas going. consider you are a manager of a doctors' surgery with. B7.

where feasible. .1111". by attracting customers away from compe titors.Create strategic options 81 Prompt 6..... l "' 11 1-1 1 ... ' r v i (". i\.6: Strategic Options Concentration and focus Resources can be focused on the continued and profitable growth of a 'single' product or service in a 'single' market. I I L v 11.'.IiII / dlll lll I . If you conserve cash.jll. . . This can be achieved by attracting new customers or by increasing their usage rate or. I .lid pll.dHlIiI w llillllllHlilwd l'i'Odll("f ll () r ~.l tAI j I 1.. '~ il •• . I I.Ill i lilid . 1 • . in turbule nt tim e yo u may be abl e to bu y up the order books of competitors from their Ol d m i nistr') I ors! Product d v lopm nt 1\11 IlI"/ '.. G rowth is not likely to be dramatic.1 111 / .5: Some Specific Options to Consider Options What might you gain from this option? What are the problems with this option? Examples of this option? Concentration and focus Product development Market development Horizontal integration Vertical integration Retrenchment Turnaround Divestment Liquidation Prompt 6. . . 111 I. '" ((I I '11 ' 1 1 II 1 . I .. I J I I I II I. jl u 1. The advantage of this approach is that it uses the current skills in the o rga ni za tion.

or through a better planned pattern of demand. acquisitions can be cheap.82 Strategic thinking Market development An organization can build on its existing strengths. Efficiency gains are sought through either better prices or more reliable delivery of components. Horizontal integration This is when an organization acquires or merges with a major competitor. or through the activities of competitors who are innovating faster. This often involves a new approach to advertising. innovations and inventing more options . Retrenchment This may be required when an organization experiences declining profits as a result of economic recession. CREATE STRATEGIC OPTIONS . promotion and selling. the benefit looked for is not primarily market share.STEP 6 SUMMARY Step 6 will have helped you to: • • • Identify obstacles Analyse existing options for removing obstacles Think creatively about ideas. Vertical integration This is when an organization acquires one of its suppliers or one of its customers. In turbulent times. skills and capabilities to market its present products or services to new customers. The aim is to concentrate on cash-rich activities in which the organization has advantages over its competitors (see Step 8). In this case. the organization will need to concentrate only on activities in which it has distinctive competencies. this option can help to maintain volume and cash flow. if you conserve your cash. Market share should increase and the organization should be looking for situations in which the pooled skills and resources are synergistic (see Step 8). In turbulent times. In these circumstances.

1king . Whe n you look at our model of s tra tegic d. In Step 8 W(' will look at presenting and communicating d ecisions. we again favour Professor Adair's ideas on decision making. For ease of re membering. compatibility. impact and risk of each of your options for change Select a short list of options for change to discuss with your people Consider the role of intuition in making your final selection TAKE STRATEGIC DECISIONS Rational decision making in difficult times In Part I. especially in turbulent times.". It is a relatively EEEEEEsy way to ensure that you have all the rational bases covered! The decision-making styles of strategic leaders Nothing so quickly d efines the leadership styles of managers as the way they take . : . feasibility.111 s('e how closvly il WCilves togethe r the thinking s kill s that II llppo r l . so that you will be able to take complex decisions rapidly and rationally. that in times of impending crisis your flight-fright response will produce levels of cortisol in your brain that will make it difficult for you to be as calm and rational as John Adair would like you to be. In Pa rt I. Ethics and Ecology.md communica te decisions. Since leadership style and decision making style are interconnected. the decision tables cover the 6Es of Effectiveness. In Step 9 we will look at IIlIpl ementin g dec is ions.H I ." l r. however. We are concerned. Sections 1 and 3 we have seen how strategic thinkin g underpins s lmleg ic leildershi p. Economy. For this reason. controllability. at the end of this Step 7 we have presented what may seem very mechanical decision-making tables.Step 7 Take strategic decisions Step 7 will help you to: • • • Assess the competitiveness. II (')'.i(" Ihill ki ll )'. The rabbit-in-the-headlight effect may make it very difficult for you to think clearly at all. Section I. 'cis iol1 11l . we argued in favour of Professor Adair's action-centred approach to leadership. Efficiency. even under difficult conditions. Empathy. Our decision tables will help you to cover all the bases of rational decision making. In this Step 7 we will look at taking decisions.

Managers looked for decisions for which they could give a rational explanation even when they had taken their decision impulsively. In our decision-making model we see the same movement from the past. S 'I"il'i.thereby helping their people to escape from the past and form new ideas in the present about beneficial changes that they can make in the future. premature. One must think and think and think again . " s(' II I('Y I1"d Ill. .one must think till it hurts or until you run out of time.l ilwd Ihal they had inSl1 rrici('nl Ii IlH ' I() I"in k. They l"(lmp l. There is the same need for creative ideas.11 Ill\' d". managers are professional decision makers. they are not doing what they are paid to do. Managers must get the big decisions right. 2010) In Part I. If their decisions are impulsive. Our model shows the same need to think critically about information in order to decide what we can justifiably believe. emotionally or intuitively. If their decisions are too late. '" Illilll'. and to think visually and empathetically about the future in order to formulate ideas for change that are feasible and ethical. or thoughtless. Considerations of power and self-interest were common. as well as desirable. is it time to decide and to act. Most managers preferred op ti ons which had a built-in excuse. Then and only then. (II ' IW(' . ly ()Il ly Iw('. () I jlld('( 'il :iV('. via the present. Factors that influence management decision makers Nicholas analysed the decisions made by 382 managers. 'id. '" S ( ' 1I1('y did IH II Wi li ll I() 1)(' 1. If managers are indecisive. before we use our critical thinking and ethical thinking to define a list of possible strategic changes.. should the consequences of the decision turn out to be worse than they predicted . In many ways. (Roy Thomson) Decision making features strongly in all models of problem solving.Ill dilll('l'illl'. invention and innovation. they jeopardize the livelihoods of their people. they threaten the survival of their organizations. we described how strategic leaders use thinking skills to turn information into knowledge on which useful action can be based .( '(' 11 . Managers must get more decisions right than wrong. Section 3. in order to generate as many options as possible in the time available. They comp la ined that there was not enough Ii ml' 10 do (l lhl'rw iSl'.1i1lWd 111.84 Strategic thinking INNOVATION ~ / KNOWLEDG/ / MAKING FORECASTS CREATING OPTIONS ~ EVALUATING" ~TION OPTIONS PLANNING" PROJECTS 1/ / / ASSESSING KNOWLEDGE MONITORING CONSEQUENCES SENSING INFORMATION IMPLEMENTIN~ PLANS ~ Figure 7. towards the future .1 Model of Strategic Decision Making (Horne and Wootton. Th ey \'1. Few were purely logical.

The habits of mind of ..l1H11il. Short of clear information and time to think. What is the origin of such a power? In turbulent times.Take strategic decisions 85 (see Part I.the brain power you need People worry because they are losing brain cells every day . salad. your values will be consistent and this will be consistently evident in yo ur decisions.they do not need to.1 s tr. Your brain contains about 22 billion brain cells. in fact. The we ig htin g you put on your different criteria will reflect your values. 'Good' decisions involve deciding what to believe and deciding what action to take. By being visible figures .in the field. from the point of view of your cus tomers. by exercising your eyes. be informed by a long peri od of habitual strategic thinking. Your decisions will reflect you .and by being seen to stop and think. is the hallmark of a 'good' decision make r. When others see you taking 'good' decisions. strategic leaders can create permission for their people to do the same. yo ur peop le. The values and integrity of strategic leaders The ability to discern useful criteria to use when making d ecisions. Decision making . dark chocolate and regular sex also helps.lSl' Ih e cha nces th a t yo u will get more decisions ri g hl lil. o r your mind. In a brain-based economy. Section 3). even by the age of 80 you will have lost only 3 per cent of your brain ce ll s and it is never too late to grow new ones.especially the strategically prepared mind. or on the office floor . vegetables a nd a littl e fish.('1 111(' hi g onl's ri g ht. Under pressures. If turbulence turns to crisis. in the factory. Your decisions will be rooted in your firmly held beliefs. fruit. there may also be a shortage of time. A diet of protein. managers often jump to the second and neglect the first. or that something needs to be done.. a nd th e n to put a value on your criteria. Luck greatly favours the prepared mind . a 'person of principle' or a 'person of integrity'. Sections 1 and 3).who you are and what you stand for. but it fa vo u rs e ve n mo re the prep a red mind.1I1 W n l ll ). What matters is not h ow bi g yo ur brain is. this criti cis m may be too harsh. If you are a p e rso n o f integrity.lll'g i( Ih inkl'r w ill gr(" lll y in (' I "('. or your body. but how you use it to think (see Part I. managers who decide very quickly are then criticized for making things up as they go along! In some cases. there may be a shortage of clear information on which a reasoned decision can be made. Fortune may fa vo u r the bm Vl'. your suppliers and others.l1 Y( lIl wi ll ). . they will say of you that you are a 'good' person. The role of intuition in decision making Intuition is the purported power to apprehend immediately that something is the case. unsaturated fats. A manager's apparent guesswork might. Unless you drink heavily or contra ct disease. Exp rt d i ion me king . organizations whose people stop and think can create competitive advantage (see Step 8).

! W. This is helped by a feeling or sense of the rich picture that lies behind events. MIIIIIII. Strategic leaders should not be deterred from using their intuition by MBA-borne fears that intuition is somehow not intellectually respectable. '. it probably is. Holmes is portrayed as carefully weighing the evidence. and Step 5). io n m il ki ng. III 1I..!:-. While such critical thinking skills can add greatly to the quality of your strategic thinking. There is only the way of intuition. We have d iscove red th a t simpl e things li ke no t ta king a re over yo ur sleep pa Ilt'rn:-. Sin'ss . Some of our most celebrated scientists have been deeply intuitive. I.. In thoughtful conversations with his assistant Watson. id"III ~.S . Developing entrepreneurial 'flair' in decision making A reputation for entrepreneurial 'flair' . The first can require a lot of painstaking investigation of the kind carried out by detectives like Sherlock Holmes. in times of crisis there is sometimes not enough time to think like Sherlock Holmes.1 ii i d". we identified two pillars of decision making: deciding what we believed to be true and then deciding what to do about it.86 Strategic thinking 10 years seems to chime with the figure of 10. llldi ('d nl dn :-. 1( ' . eel n pi a Y h:1 V{) w iIh YO ll r ti l' ' i:-.I n ' . )ll 1l1 . The more you 'walk the job'. wllvllwr inillili v{' (l r r1 (l l.IIld lirvtl'H ':-. like systems thinking (see Part I. will give you the confidence to rely on your intuition in turbulent times. 2008).!.1 in :-.!':-.I I' .11 wll\'ll .for getting the big calls right more quickly than others .III H'('!'H .'. I 1IlI'IlI . Only the experience of following it. is that something is just plain 'wrong'.11 \'. Earlier.11( ' w(. i1 nd YOLI r Ir. A reputation for having flair comes about through the hard work it takes to immerse yourself in information relevant to your sector. your suppliers and your people. di s. Section 3 to evaluate rigorously the products of their intuition.000 hours said to be needed to become an expert (Gladwell. and from a strategic leadership style that gets you out of your office and amongst your customers.II 1.11 .lVv l a rr. 'i'I I()11 11I . and then making deductions from a premise in which Holmes has justified belief. or that of your experienced people. I V{' :-. almost everyone can decide 'No' very quickly. Section 3. LII l('(':-. i. and then critically evaluating where it led you. 1 ('\'1 1'('1. or intuition.does not come by accident.. IlIiI '111.m gl' ll1l'n l:-. no matter what market-based rationale is raised in its defence (gross bonuses and great disparities in salary may be cases in point). If your gut instinct.' Strategic thinking and especially some of its advanced components. Intuitive managers can still use the critical thinking skills described in Part I. the more you will learn when to trust your intuition. O(hdd dpci:. Einstein believed that: 'There is no logical way to discover new laws. We h . Philosophers down the centuries have argued that intuition is the basis of ethical decision making. When asked if it is right to kill one healthy young person and use his or her organs to save the lives of four other young people who would otherwise die without an organ transplant.! r 1I11"' ('. It also com es from taking ca re of yourself.1I III )'.1I ill) '" fnllll . will constantly enhance the 'rich' picture that feeds your intuition.! 1'( ' 111. This is where you may need to rely on your own intuition.

Impact 6. C ratings..l lll . Complete the 'Rate your options' table by rating each option either A.Jl lljllll .lI wili dd 11.Illi /. ' Il . otherwise use B. lllil W III " 1 1 . turn to the prompt sheets. Then g ive hl rll1l'r ("o ll s id.Ilioll illlpJvIlh'll ll'd Ih. Controllability 3. B or C. 11 1 "" \.' l'ihlll ). 1I11 W . ' mos l li ke ly C. WO ldt! . You may need to trade-off between control over consequences and the potential contribution the option might make to your best hopes. 101' t' II' · I 'II I " 1 111 1 I t 1 .llin g aga ins t a ny of the eva luation c riteria . Feasibility 5.1Ies 1 co mpri se yo ur 0 H Ir". 'It is probabilities that guide the decisions of wise men' (Cicero).lllditi .lIqW ( 'Pf(IJ ldi'l ' w ll .'s.Take strategic decisions 87 trained to revert to mechanical drills. 'r. ' Pilillili.11 ' 1"'11 il Y'lI ll" OI")'.)s.ll h. to get themselves safely to the top. I 1I 1 f' V IIlll II I t . Low risk Tota l number of As To draw up a s hortli s t o ( op ti ons (or di scuss io n with your p eo ple.. Rate your options.) First devise a label for each of your options for strategic change (see Step 6) and enter the labels in the table.l l h. the likely consequences of which are outside your experience. B. We bave provided you with a similar set of mechanical drills."'" . or safely back to base. (If you need help in arriving at your A.' " w llh Ill. It is to these structured decision tables that we now turn.llioll 10 Ih . A. C is a poor rating. Competitiveness Change nothing Option 1 Option 2 (label) (label) Option 3 (label) Option 4 (label) Option 5 (label) 2. for each of the six evaluation criteria. DECISION MAKING IN DIFFICULT TIMES THE USE OF DECISION TABLES You may be considering options." Il tll ll lll )'. Compatibility 4. We have designed our decision tables to help you to weigh the probabilities.'. '1'11('..lVl' lhl' hi g hes l number of A ra tin gs . ' ' ( 11 11 11 )'. ' Ih. B or C Assess each option for: 1.1 ' r. s tart by eliminatin g . A is a high rating.11'1 "'011" 10 h.m y op li on th . 'Ii i w lldl 1'\ 11 ' 111 do IIH '.1I1 )'. Our decision tables are designed to help you take strategic decisions even when you are too exhausted to think clearly.'H' ol'lillll .('!.1s.' o l11ions Ih.

. i1 ~ h. k n ow ll'd gl' .11 '" III .I' . Competiveness. Controllability. Feasibility. One way to evaluate options is to give them an A.Illi ".l lihilil y o r . 4.I y II\' 111'1 '. '.1Ild Il Hl li v.11 11 1 n dllll\.11 111 111 III IW Iii 1111111 ( 1'.I IHI h. if necessary. go back to Step 6. Customer Support Supplier Support Distinctiveness Motivation Values Skills How compatible? COMPATIBILITY Key Players Results Impact t How excessive? COMPETITIVENESS t How much control? CONTROLLABILITY FEASIBILITY IMPACT RISK How difficult? How desirable? Gains Benefits Contributions What might happen? t Resources Constraints Resistances t Threats Chances Consequences Prompt 7. I ' 1II.lIldlll OIl 10 111I 1W I" d ". lli ()1l of Y() llf" pl'llp ll' III I' Il S lIr(. 'It'p '1) . Prompt 7. Compatibility. 111 .. What exactly should you evaluate? For each option for strategic change. Impact.I l iO Il 'S n ·~. To put a value on an option. 6.111 I.ill ~ . 3.1Il orti o ll. B or C rating. To assess lh l' comr. you need to understand and describe what will happen if you decide to pursue it.1: Evaluating Options Evaluation is simply putting a value on something. depending on how well they meet your criteria. Low risk.'d) '.(l III l'l·H . YO ll w ill Ilt'l'd In we ig h lip the sk ill s. prune later? If you think you need more options. .2: Criteria for Evaluating Strategic Change To assess the competitiveness of an opti on you need to id entify how exclus ive ly you are abl e to delive r thi s o pti on w hen co mpa red with a po tenti a l co mpetito r.88 Strategic thinking change? Can you create more options now and.1 1 Ill< ' 1l1 11i() 11 ' ril s' w ill1 Ill<' () f"I'.1 1 ill JlI (l I ''''~ oI 0 11 . llIl w l. (~l·\' . ' 1('<"11111 . 2. consider six criteria: 1. 5.

if not A or C. You will need to think about time. if you have identified a team who will embrace this option with enthusiasm. C. hll' " .Take strategic decisions 89 To assess the controllability that an organization has over an option. These differences can cause problems in assessing whether an option is compatible with the team of people who would be involved with a particular change.('1' wi ll illvolv(' \"I·orgolni /. Different organizali ons ca n tol erate different degrees of uncertainty or lack of control. lnsidcring. f<:ivour options that arc amen ab le to tight control. lh e ex tent of the benefits. B. The change might need to be supported by your suppliers. different professional or cultural values. B. TIll' 111'11011'1011 1. or increase a sustainable advantage over your competition.3: Evaluating Competitiveness To favour competitiveness an option of change should create. C. They may have different professional or technical skills. or the timing of any beneficial impact. 11111 IIll' 1111 '1'/. This competitive advantage must be valued by your customers. The impact of an option is the ex tent to which it would contribute to your 'best hope' for the organization (Step 5). effort and likely areas of resistance. you will need to think about the kind of things that could go wrong. if the option would make you highly competitive.·. In the decision table.In op li on 10 merge with <1 co ml di Itll '. Prompt 7.1Il1p l. 11" 1 Hi1(lI Jid Iw I. if the option creates no customer-valued advantage. and different interests. '.5: Evaluating Controllability With some options for change it may be difficult to control the likelihood of success. enter: A. In the decision table on page 87. enter: A. . the chances that they might go wrong and the consequences if they did. you will need to assess the extent to which the contribution of the option to your 'best hope' (Step 5) could really be controlled. In Iu rbulenL limes. To assess the risks of an option. The feasibility of an option indicates the ease with which the option could be implemented. S l.. if there is a clash of values or interests.4: Evaluating Compatibility Organizations are not composed of totally like-minded people.! I nsv Oil WVIT considl'rin). There needs to be a rL'aso nabl e ma tch between the degree of control normally required by the org<1I1iz<1Iion ilnd lhal which is poss ibl e w ith the strategic change option that you oil"(' .. Market-led intelligence (or intuition) is essential for this evaluation. Prompt 7. Is the team likely to be sufficiently skilled and motivated to implement this option? What might be in it for them? Who would be the 'assisters' and change agents? Revisit 'W' in Step 5. if not A or C. Prompt 7.upd .illll .

90

Strategic thinking

who do not understand the purpose of the merger. The speed of the benefits and the costs of the complication and any resistance to the change will be difficult to control. Paradoxically, merger options can be easier to implement when times are tight. People are more likely to :man the boats' when there is a real risk of drowning. In the decision table on page 87, enter:
A, if the achievement of the expected contribution to 'best hopes' (Step 5) is highly controllable; C, if the expected benefit cannot be estimated nor its achievement controlled; B, if not A or C.

Prompt 7.6: Evaluating Feasibility
At least three areas should be considered: resources, constraints and resistance. All strategic change requires resources, even if the option is a retrenchment, a disposal or a de-merger. Whose time will be needed? Is it likely to be available? Expertise will probably be needed. Does your organization have it, or know where to get it or know someone who does? Will you need new suppliers, more working capital or extra space or new packaging? Does your organization have the technology needed? Will the option generate a need for more control information? Can existing information systems handle this, or does your organization need more or faster information-processing capacity? In turbulent times, the key resource will be cash. Draw up a conservative workable cash flow for each option and favour the options that require least cash and are most controllable. Even if your organization has, or can easily obtain the resources, there will be constraints on how your organization uses them: legal, procedural, health and safety, environmental, ethical, social, energy, waste disposal, working practices, professional, national and international standards, embargoes, quotas, export and other licences, lending limits, borrowing limits and perhaps community-based cultural constraints. Even if the options can be resourced and could be used within these constraints, options for strategic change usually need permission or active cooperation from key actors in the organization (Step 5). Some resistance, from some people, can usually be managed as part of the change process, but strongly maintained resistance from key players and decision-makers, eg owners, will greatly reduce the feasibility of the option. In the decision table, enter:
A, if the option for strategic change is going to be easy to implement; C, if the option for strategic change is almost impossible to implement; B, if not A or C.

Prompt 7.7: Evaluating Impact
Thc impact o f a n option for cha ngc is the cx tcnt to whi ch it contributcs to fulfilm cnt of your 'best ho pes' (Step 5). Assess how des ir<lbl c the impaci of Ihi :-. 1'11.111 )\(' is like ly 10 h~ ' 011 111(' o rg.lIli z.1Iiol1 's:

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In the decision table, enter:

A, if the option would make an essential contribution; C, if the option would m a ke a marginal contribution; B, if not A or C.

Prompt 7.8: Evaluating Risks
On what assumption does each option depend? Would only a small error in these assumptions produce consequences that might be catastrophic for the organization? If so, the option will be too high a risk. Re-read your external appraisal (Step 1). Are there risks associated with possible changes in the following:

What would be the consequences for your organization if these changes occurred? For each possible change, consider the relative risks of pursuing the option as opposed to not pursuing the option. Sometimes the risks and consequences of not pursuing an option for change are worse than if you pursue it! In the decision table, enter: A, if the option carries low risk; C, if the option carries unreasonable risks that threaten survival; B, if not A or C.
TAKE STRATEGIC DECISIONS - STEP 7 SUMMARY
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Step 8
Create and communicate market-led strategy
Step 8 will help you to: • • • Forge together some chosen options for change to create synergy, sustainable advantage and strategic edge Create perceived value for customers by energizing an existing brand, a new business or a global strategy Write up and present your strategy to the people, the board, or the bank

CREATE AND COMMUNICATE MARKET-LED STRATEGY
Try to complete the strategy table; refer to the prompts where you need help. You have used Steps 1-7 to find desirable and feasible options for strategic change. Now you will use Step 8 to forge them together into a market-led strategy. Examine the table. Which of your options for strategic change will fit together into a synergistic strategy? Selected options must appear in either Box 1 or Box 2, or hoth in order to qualify for inclusion in your strategy.

Formulating and describing your market-led strategy

Looking back at the options for strategic change you selected in Step 7...

Which options confer competitive advantage, through, for example: • Deciding where to compete? (Prompt 8.1.1) • Deciding how to compete? (Prompt 8.1.2) • Deciding on what to compete? (Prompt 8.1.3) Which options create additional value, as perceived by your customers, through, for example: • Enhanced eye appeal? (Prompt 8.2.1) • Creating systems solutions? (Prompt 8.2.2.) • Socially responsible marketing? (Prompt 8.2.3) • Customer self expression? (Prolllpt 8.2.4) • reating customer intim ncy? (Prol1lpt 8.2.5) • Su perinr qua IiIY pro lucts? ( fJmllll)1 8.2Ji)
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t 1l'l'. repeat Steps 5 and 6.loh.7) Box 7 Now check box 1 and box 2..II hr.2) • Hitching a ride? (Prompt 8.y ..llcgy' .l lq . repeat Step 7.5) Which options would increase your global reach .4.1) • Creating differentiation? (Prompt 8.3) Which options would result in new business? New products or new markets? SBUs or SMEs? (Prompt 8.t )'. "" I lill ' il .y lor hllildi" g .11 peM in Box I a nd /o r Box 2. yll lll' :-. If both these boxes are empty: • • • • re-read the results of Steps 1-4. re-read the prompts in this Step 8.. you . 1r. plu s Box 3.4. you can d escribe Ilr""d hllildin g Slr. If yo u holVl' oplions a lso in Box 6. Conceptualizing your strategy There are three possible ways for you to write and present the strategy you have rated. • By gaining economies of scale? • By exploiting new ideas? • By finding cheaper materials or skills? • By getting closer to your customer? • By avoiding barriers to trade? • By getting close to new technology? • By being selective about sequence? • By enabling you to standardize? • By enabling you to customize? • By forming useful alliances? • By guarding against cannibalism? (Prompt 8.Create and communicate market-led strategy 93 Which options might energize existing business by."111 ti.I S' /\ . I f'.. • By eliminating dogs? • By milking cash cows? • By promoting stars? (Prompt 8.6) Box 4 Box 5 Box 6 Which options would enable you to conserve cash and intellectual skills by contraction and consolidation .tlld '.4.' /\ -. for example: • Increasing usage? (Prompt 8. Possibility 1: Brand strategies If your selected 01 li ons .t'.

As a minimum you will need to find some additional entrants for Boxes 1. '.lY r(' ly ollllll 'i r hi ggn m. '" ilf 111" " II .i ' l'li" IIJl /lilllli' l"ilt '. You know how each change contributes to your 'best hope' for the organization. If you have options also in Box 6. I i)l"lll .. You know how each change fits coherently with the other changes you want to make..-. then you can describe your strategy as' A Growth Strategy'. O rga ni z<l li ons of len 's li ck lo lhe ir knilling' b('caus(' Ilwy do no l h. customer value (Box 2). eg by pruning resource-intensive product lines or 'high-maintenance' customers. These approaches often go with a centra li zed control and a directive ma na ge ment s tyle. You know that the 'best hope' you have formulated in Step 5 responds to changes that you know are happening in the world (Step 1).)Vl' Ilw s ki ll s lo do . Wlwn f. go to Prompt 9. go to Prompt 8. such as 'stick to your knitting' (even as the TItanic sinks?).In ylh ing (' Is('. Possibility 3: Survival strategies If all your selected options appear in Box 7. 1'1 '. Your saving grace will be that you know the practical and concrete actions that these grand words represent. IIIH ' I' lilt .1 11111 11 . This will enable your strategy to be described as 'A strategy to survive and thrive'. energy and brain power released must be refocused on sources of competitive advantage (Box 1). Ih ey m. revisit your entries. You have tabulated evidence to back up all these points.wn l w ilh . III Iwljlllll ' lll W!'. Reactive or Adaptive? Introd uction Strategic stubbornness can arise from fad-like advice. 111"1'. '. 2 and 4. stubbornness suits only those companies whose 'knitting' is based on lowest possible costs.lrg ins. s l ro ll g!'r h. You can face any 'Dragon's Den' with confidence! If you need to write up your strategy. The language will be common parlance with most funding bodies and major stakeholders.0. In turbulent times. '. Your best hope takes advantage of your strengths and your weaknesses (Step 2).II .1 y J.) crl'dil cri sis. Do not be alarmed if the three possible sets of labels for your strategy seem grandiose or academic.lIli. it can be described as' A strategy for global growth'. funded by some of the cash you are releasing in Box 7. If you need to present your strategy.lIl1 '" s l1. ' ls . '111'1\ h 1\111 ' IId l11111 11111 ". such as Wal-Mart and EasyJet.-. go to Step 9.'.0. You know that for each strategic change you have a good reason. By the time you have completed Step 9 you will also have a detailed casted project plan to implement and manage each strategic change. A stubborn strategy of no strategic change often meshes well with operational approaches like 'continlloll s improvement'.11 1'\. and on generating increased usage and differentiation (Box 4). Prompt 8.I I II.0: Stubborn." v . The 'thrive' part is essential to raise the morale of your people and to win board and bank support. and 'no frills' strategists like Ryanair. ~. 1'.t!il . If you need to plan and manage the implementation of any of the strategic changes that comprise your market-led strategy.IP' ·.94 Strategic thinking Possibility 2: Growth strategies If your selected options appear in Box 1 and/ or Box 2 plus Box 4 and/ or Box 5. 1.lilt! ).lIlt! III. The time.

I s tr.even then. They must be protected from administrative retribution. ld v. That said. and rising fuel prices. of Canon. NEC ex plicitl y looked for synergy between its expertise in o m p utin g ill1 d il ~ ex perti se in te leco mmuni ca tions.any events. a deliberate strategy of reactive responsiveness has worked well for Nike. extra batteries and Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems (KERS). you need to use strategic thinking skills to evaluate future trends and dismiss transient 'fads' (Stepl).lgl' in lIu . Hybrid cars need to carry the weight and bulk of supplementary electric motors.\' \l \ . and by the kind of small strategic business units (SBUs) that we discussed in the case study in Part 1. for example a catastrophic collapse in the value of the dollar or the need for a major model recall. This points to the need for creative thinking (Part I.i W.. no matter how badly injured.1I1l.. ). You will also need a strategic style that helps your organization to respond quickly and decisively (See Part I. To make adaptiveness work as a strategy for business.' 1' 1111 IH 1W .. up to 1989 at least. According to Hamel and Prahalad. 3M and HP. It is important that these SBUs are led by marketers.I co lo ur cl1 uin' .' I"' p. or politicians.111.1" ')'. Coca-Cola 'got Ill ck y' w ith . In Part I. reliability a nd produ ct fea tures.' . the roles of marketing leadership and management execution.Il I')'. react to every random opportunity that presents itself. When managers. Adaptive organizations try to sift the presenting possibilities and select only those that are coherent with their view of the way the future is changing. Section 1). skills and market intelligence to see and respond to what they see in the future .1 11 11'.i\' 1'1 1).l 'S SUI . like fish that gulp at every piece of bread that is thrown on the water. not just desirability. However. Toshiba sought sustainable co mpl'lili vl' adv . it is this combination that explained the success. Pilot testing must be readily funded. they eventually swallow the wrong bait.\' . Even when companies have the resources. Canon re fused to sleep until it had 'beaten Xerox'. five out of six of your decision-making criteria relate to feasibility and compatibility.II Wil Y.I' .Create and communicate market-led strategy 95 a sea change in the market. il)r di s tribution e nab led Co k' to find . and separately value. development capability and net-based businesses. Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) look increasing unattractive in the face of concerns about CO2 emissions. In Step 7. IIII. Often they cannot execute. case study). Section 3 and in Step 6 w e have argued that metaphorical thinking and rea tiv e thinking were the real differentia tors that enabled Canon and Honda to defea t Xe rox and Fo rd . and Step 6).111 ". Komatsu set out to 'encircle Caterpillar' and Honda to 'compete with Ford'. This is because their strategy is supported by decentralized structures. Komatsu and Honda. It must be ok to make mistakes and even fail from time to time (see Part 1. An alternative to stubbornly 'sticking to your knitting' is to react quickly to 'events' .y" 1I ~ l.lill"hll' \'oll1pl'li Il v .l lity. Adaptiveness strives not to be random.. 'lli ('v(' HY"l 'q'. their large car bodies make them potential test beds for hybrid cars.1 ill w ll il'll Y(1 11 111(11". That is why The 9S©Approach lays such emphasis on the need to separate. For example. Section 3.. Microsoft adapted from being solely in operating systems by adding applications software. or get 'hooked' and pulled in the wrong direction.. Test pilots must always be rescued. This often results in modifications to existing offerings.11 ' ('d )'. Similar to reactive responsiveness is adaptiveness. You need vision plus competitiveness. they do not always succeed. ('0 \ 1 CU l.

Even the bluebell should keep a weather eye open for the effects of climate change! Lexus has a network of dealers that allow it to compete with the o ther autom otive manufacturers. Even then.ly j\l'ri sh. ..)lI) '. the bluebell has a sustainable competitive advantage.1: Where to Compete? Even if you have necessary and sufficient strengths to enter a particular market.1. lllt. '!'d. The problem is that there are other plants in the open field that grow even better than the bluebell.lill . 'H.\' f(ll' MI'I'.1111110 IlIdldl II .llil w..1l IV.l' tl1.11'.II Iy . thl' cOll1p('titi v(' "dv'1n t '1g~' 1'l1j()y~' d hy I . Your competitors may be even stronger or quicker than you are. illltilllMW .11011' 1".111111. That is why the bluebell chooses to survive and thrive in the dark of the woods.I "llIllP"liliv\' .11 is I'. But these strong field plants would die in the dark of the woods.!d v.Three ways to consider SECURING SUSTAINABLE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Prompt 8. It would be better to enter a market where you were in a weak position.1: Creating Sustainable Competitive Advantage . The bluebell would grow much better in the sunlight in the open field. In the woods there is little light. The bluebell is a flower that grows in woodlands. ()II . As long as the woods stay dark.I S Y to S II S t.1I11.l ).' !'. The Lexus dealers are trained a nd resourc d to provide a customer expe rience that is s uperio r to that provided by o th er dealerships (or other makes of car. ~. It is n()t a ('()l11p(' titi vl' . O ll. as long as the competition were weaker still.I'" (I S 1l1 . Now III' IHII.1). you will not automatically have a sustainable competitive advantage in that market.96 Strategic thinking Prompt 8.

" 11' )\ 111.Create and communicate market-led strategy 97 Hyundai's value engineering and low-cost manufacturing techniques are only a source of competitive advantage in the budget car sector. 16. 7. Prompt 8. may be its undoing. 14. 10. 19 .1) ". Its original cus tomer base has now reached an age where it is no longer fun and Ikea's lack of a no-quibble refund. 18. 17. 5. when you don't like the finished assembly.1 .. 12. Try to find at least six sources of advantage on which you would outscore your likely competition and on which you could see ways to s tay ahead of them. 13.1.2: How to Compete? Sources of sustainable competitive advantage The table is a checklist of 20 common sources of competitive advantage.a useful checklist 1. 3.·".11'. 9. ·. 4. Twenty potential sources of competitive advantage . 6. and only there for as long as its costs are low enough to give it good margins at prices significantly lower than its competitors. Ikea's Scandinavian designs for housewares worked while selfassembly was fun. f. 11. Product quality Customer help line Brand recognition Well trained people Low costs Cash reserves Superior features Testimony from satisfied customers A specialistfocus Continuous updates or free upgrades High market share Wide distribution and availability Low prices or frequent offers Being a new entrant . 8.. based on research by David Aaker.fresh and 'trying harder' Flexible responsiveness to customers A good sales force Emp loyees s hare the orga ni zation's 'vision' LOGlliOIl c los(' 1 nlsl omers 0 FIIIIII( ' 2. 15.

There will be no point making the best SUV in the world when 98 per cent of SUVs in the world are parked at Jurassic Park! Does the increased customer value offered in your proposed change create any significant difference between the customer value you will offer and the value already offered by others? Or is it merely par for the course . If you do not have at least six sources of competitive advantage already.ill s.lve to decid e whether o r not you ou ld defend thi s uniqueness.-. ()r ('(H dd yll tl :-> 1111('0111.---------. If defl'nCl' wO lild r('quirl' ('onsl.1Ild for how lon g.3: On What to Compete? Sources of customer value To a customer.iI s h.in)." 'l il 1l1 10 dl'l"' ld . Il'chn ic li illlproVl'llH 'lll s . harder to copy..-----------r-----. Any sustainable strategy must add to the value that is perceived by your customers.lV\' Ih\' Ih '('('ss.. will their next choice of car turn on braking performance? Relevance is as important as memorability.98 Strategic thinking When considering the potential source of competitive advantage in the table. Higher Price Consider • New Design • New Method • Deleting Product Consider • Raising Prices • Promoting Product • Reducing Costs .. I" '/IHi . Consider • Offering Upgrades • Redesign • Separate Distribution Lower Price Lower Quality : Consider: : • Raising Prices : • Promoting Product : • Contract Supply Higher Quality Prompt 8. someone will copy it. Look at what customers see in you and consider how customers might compare what they see in you with what they see elsewhere. I.oI"1\1. you hi.lry 1 hlli l'. "lIp y. is this significant difference sustainable? If it is easily copied.a point of parity? Even if it is a point of significant difference rather than a point of parity. d() Uti h. BMW's value is driver appeal. For Wal-Mart it is price. favour those that will make your product harder to substitute. dl l . ·)".1.'1 ' fro).lIl l. This added value must be communicated in such a way that customers remember what you communicated (see Part I. 111 III' "III"j " 1'111:. . Once you hav e an idea for a valuable proposal that is relevant to the unmet needs of enough customers and which cannot be readily matched by a counter-offer from a co mpetitor. locate your position on the graph below.1 II y.lilt! 1('.1)'. and harder for a disloyal employee to lift and take to a competitor (or use in a business start-up). '1 Ih"l1l II il w()l lid ('(' n"plirc ' .).I p. How many people remember that Subaru's brakes are superior? Even amongst those that do. For the iPod it is eye appeal. . l).)'. This will help you to crystallize what counts as customer value. d .---------------. Section 2).'" .

2: Creating Customer Value Six possible sources One way to discover if you can create customer value that might be a so urce sustainable competitive advantage is to consider this figure: or Eye-Appeal? System Solutions? Quality Experience? Social programmes? Se~ Expression? Intimate Relationships? Prompt 8. For l'X. I!. if the hubris and gadget focus of CEO Steve Jobs leads to staff defections. II s I Il III !'!' v.Y' ''c'Il1 II' II'r! Ir y 1'l rll . These are some of the easiest unique selling points (USPs) to protect. y c' l .Ill1l 1111 '111'" "Y'.!( ' ''I '' 1I('('d 1(1 111' It!lrlll. Prompt 8.. Aston Martin and Jaguar have race-bred design cues that have been unmistakable down the decades.'I 'I' III ~.I ll's !'ll s IOI11('!' v.2.1: Eye appeal A first possible source of customer value is eye appeal. Design may turn out to be a necessary but not sufficient condition at Apple.l)'. IIld 1 " '.2.lIlI. Prompt 8. llllh' !' 1'llIl lll 'I 'LIIlI" 11111 '1'1111".01II ')'.1 " 1111' L.1I1 III rI 'l IlIilrllHlI' . '111 111111 .(lIly . CEO Steve Jobs claimed that 'design is the soul of any man-made creation'..Create and communicate market-led strategy 99 image.lIl y 1'()I1l I) . .r " ). I V.l llll' i s (p sl' lI whole sys tem s. Bigger may not eq ual better where gadgets are concerned. rlIII ' I (1I ~.i(' (.2: Whole systems /\ ~ (' r() I H I ~ ()I. People are not ma hines.'"11 illr!"11i 11(1111111) '. Launching the Apple iPhcne. rll "I IIIII'IH'IIII V" .I ' IIlI S( 1I1 ' ~ 'I. Pringles the convenience of its pack and Dolby its rights to licence fees for the use of its sound systems..lmpll'.('(.Ilihll' . Tlli s \'I'!'..

rather than high street coffee shop. Petrol. To be perceived as a source of value by a customer. service or brand. .ld v. when the custo me r computes 'va lu e for mo ney '. Supe rior qu a lil y is a pc ri s hi1 bl e C ll1pdili vl' ad va nl ag(· . Prompt 8.'ll il lli. Adlll ill"dl y.11ill 1.4: Customers expressing their own values A reputation for social responsibility can confer a fourth source of customer value a means whereby customers can express their own values. The 'HP Way' and ICI's 'People First' programmes distinguished them from other manufacturers of computers or paints. The Toyota Prius has benefited from a certain degree of smugness on the part of some of its drivers.'1" HIiI"IlJ!I 'dll i' 1t ·1·lrlllli. according to a Greenpeace poll.6: Superior quality After the previous five sources of customer value.lt 'IIIII·I / " ""Itldll y 1" 'II ' lwd .lllld. 90 per cent of CEOs reported that socially responsible management and marketing had increased their share value.lnld gl' 111. whichever brand you choose. CSR programmes are often easier than products to make distinctive. gas. Even though most customers recognize that 'there is no such thing as a free lunch'.III1 ·:.·. the superiority of the quality must be commensurate with any higher price to be paid. Prompt 8..2.2.111 hoWl' () " lo ng slw lf li f(' . By way of contrast. According to the June 2003 edition of Fortune. We will consider quality and price sep arately. This was backed up by tracking the share prices of 300 firms that had adopted CSR policies. Prompt 8.3: CSR A third potential source of value is to have a policy of corporate and social responsibility (CSR).1 I"p.l I\·d pv. but BP's investment in conservation and renewable energy is distinctive. 's 1ll.5: Customers' relationships with the product Some customers value an intimate relationship with a product. 1': v\'11 Ill!' C() lllI Wlili v\' . but this will not protect Toyota from concerns about vehicle safety.1("1111'1'1'1 1 \'I"I'.'I lll.I n . Esso lost 7 per cent of its turnover as a result of the 'Stop Esso' campaign. Likewise.I' l'I. altho ugh they a re thought of toge ther by the custo mer. ·.100 Strategic thinking Next housew ares are often in colours that are hard to mix with items from other retailers.2. Prompt 8. An alliance of Starbuck's Equitrade Coffee with bookshops sought to create a customer experience that is 'feel at home'.2. they will soon lose their appetite if they think that the bill is going to be exorbitant. Virgin Airways and Harley-Davidson have an intimate relationship with their customers. we turn now to a sixth more traditional source of customer value . il \. oil and diesel are pretty much the same. Body Shop and Ben and Jerry's have established positions on CSR.superior quality. when Esso denied the call of the Kyoto conference for increased research into renewable energy. . or a local community meeting place.

Illdllllit"1 WllItid Jld III lill y y llIll" 111 / '. Lexus has changed its tagline to the 'passionate pursuit of perfection'. a smell of lemon or bleach might convey a high standard of hygiene. In this way. or at an 'off peak' price. In clothing and shoes. 2002).o h("( '(\ 1111"H 111(\1".the originator of the tagline ' the relentless pursuit of perfection' . is belief. we have looked at three ways to gain sustainable advantage over your competitors and six possible sources of extra value that you can try to create for you customers. safe car. "" 111 ' · 11I " lld ' 11 11111".but compliance with a quality standard. Even Lexus . The advantage perished when computer-based quality systems became universal. a high price is often equated with high quality. thereby improving the margins on your higher priced offerings. So it is to brand building th a t we n 'x ttUJ"Il . The higher the standards you signal. il 1'1 "1" '111111. To frequently exceed a customer's expectations you need to manage those expectations. 'Perfection' only had value when customers were daily dismayed by the faults and delivery errors of European and US motor manufacturers. Take care. a minimum necessary condition for actions. As we saw in Part I. We look at six ways to build a brand. you may have to use a different brand name.01111 / 0111011 ltd . 1111 " 1'.lIllili. so as to create the capacity to survive when times get hard. Another difficulty in trying to use superior quality as a source of competitive advantage is that the customer often does not know how to recognize superior quality. however high the standard. for a lower price offering. Dell and Amazon have cut out the cost of intermediaries. Only in areas where a low price does not automatically signal low quality will your customer attach value to getting your product for a bargain price. Customers now expect their cars to start first time and to be firmly screwed together.dd 11111". . A deep 'clunk' door noise might represent a strong. Prompt 8. and belief requires emotion as well as thought. It will not engender emotion. scale economies can help to lower your overall costs. This implies a constant driving down of costs even in the boom times.3: Building a Brand .· PI ' . While customer satisfaction is not a sustainable advantage. like signing cheques or placing the orders.Equity and Identity A /o YOIII P I I'. or the budget tickets on EasyJet or Ryanair. 1"1. the harder they are to exceed and the greater is the scope for disappointment. So. It is said that you will also have an advantage over your competitor if your produ t name o r company brand is familiar to your customer. To avoid overpricing your whole product range. or packaging." 'II / . In tighter times you can avoid losing customers if they can trade down to your budget lines.lr.1' Ill" IPI.Create and communicate market-led strategy 101 over their US rivals. thereby saving Wal-Mart around 25 per cent on stock holding costs and 30 per cent on staffing costs (Aaker. will not. product number.has recently tried to breathe some life back into this message. Sections 2 and 3. To a customer. like the supersavers on Virgin Trains. 'Delight' might count as customer value .the unexpected extra mile . Wal-Mart replenishes its shelves direct from its suppliers' warehouse or from their just-in-time production. Perfection alone will not be enough."1111 . ' f. You might consider selling under a supermarket own brand label. The 'relentless pursuit of perfection' engenders no emotion. and will see again in Step 9. frequently exceeding customer's expectations can be. It is boring..

toothpaste and chewing gum.'o llt'l 'Llll y il Pt 'l'll lldd( 'd 10 11')'. Section 3). It creates a significant barrier to their late entry into your market. the stronger the neural links in the brain. The more recalls. so has the leadership role of the marketing team in building and defending brand equity. rl 1(' I. they prefer the known to the unknown (which they often fear). no longer jlls l Oil porl .1I1d Slll. Prompt 8.1I1. Most people can remember up to 30 brand names unprompted (of which 25 will usually be more than 25 years old. TIll' I.l hll' radios. ca n now pu t its n:1I1w () n co mpulers :In<l ca meras.h lt 'l . ony. 1I1 s(' rv(. \' . of which 10 will usually be more than 70 yea rs old!) Some tim es customers di sp lay a loya lty to a brand that is in dependent of the prod u t.11 TVs.3. . People prefer the familiar to the unfamiliar. BRAND LOYALTY? BRAND IDENTITY? Familiarity with a company or product is one of the top three sources of competitive advantage. you generally get the purchase. As brand equity has risen in importance.)I' til) s l \'('1. for examp le.102 Strategic thinking makes to the value of an organization's equity . brand familiarity gets stronger with each recall or reminding. Sometimes it is no more than a matter of recall.)('11 ' II'd"Il'H !\ Ill y.. ' I) pl . Rather than perishing over time.1: Three Components of Brand Equity BRAND FAMILIARITY? CAN YOU BUILD UP BRAND EQUITY THROUGH .' (: I1 ('('i PI' !\rllldrli In'( I" ('rlll y '!J III('.lycrs . Brand familiarity has been shown to influence tasting trials.HIt ' 1'. Brand familiarity determines most customers' choice of soap. even when the products have been switched. Having a well-known brand is a major contributor to familiarity.if yours is the only name the customer can remember. they are hard to dislodge.11\ yll lll ' d Il I.. of do llH'S d( 's iglwrs lik.IOlllt 'I' h. This gives you an advantage over potential competitors. 1i t'W.was termed 'brand equity'. IH . It is ca ll ed brand loya lty. Consider names of tissues (only Kleenex?) or cream cheese (only Philadelphia?) Because the neural pathways associated with prior recalls are the most heavily myelinated (see Part 1.

They do not need to be over-blown.Create and communicate market-led strategy 103 less costly than recruiting new ones.1/1 1I w lIl'I"" 111 11 11 1111111. It is to brand identity that we now turn. lIld /1 . Brand meanings that are hard for a competitor to replicate create high barriers to entry by a new competitor.I'l y '. convey success wearing a Rolex or sophistication when wearing Birkenstock shoes. These features of the brand ... 1I"lh')'.I('Y .2: Creating Brand Identity There are three contributions to consider: BRAND LEGACY? CAN YOU BUILD YOUR BRAND IDENTITY THROUGH . Prompt 8. BRAND PERSONALITY? BRAND RE-POSITIONING? Ill ili .. Brand loyalty should be rewarded with unexpected offers or deals. Existing customers can sometimes be induced to recommend your brand to a friend... That makes it more difficult for a competitor to outshout you by claiming to have better features. or built upon.' VI· ' 11 h"I . Customers express individuality by wearing Rohan clothes. Understanding your brand's meaning reduces the need to have to keep shouting about your product features. Customers already feel safe in a Volvo./.1 (III III(' Iq'. If your brand is to be maintained.1I "r. This helps to avoid specification wars. Apple for the moment means cool... it is important to understand what your brand name means to the customer. Specification wars can cost a lot of money and are unnecessary if your customer already thinks that your brand has the strongest features.IIHI idl 'lllil y is dl'll'rnlilwd h y 11li' his l or I'II IV till' \.3.lI1:f and by ( ' ()IIII'~j Inlill ~1() 1I1i ' idio 1I11W ~ '('l' ~l ill' ' I.sometimes called brand values . Virgin already means Richard Branson.1.1lioll 10 o lll(' r hr. Care does need to be taken that they are not negated.) y of th e hr.Illti ill r('I. exhilarated in a BMW and excited when watching MTY. (~. Together these meanings contribute to your brand identity.t l. 1I .' ilioll s' Il w "!'. w llidl ~l il lll('t ilill" 1·" ly lh 'l'II' ly til II 11 oll".().11 :111 II .. or leg.1l1d s.all add to what the brand means to the customer. lilIIWI' .llIlh" ) MIII I' I.III 'II ' 11I'. Ferrari already means exclusivity.

create competitive advantage. Virgin has the underdog personality of its owner. this is not surprising. and associating yourself with customers. Prompt 8. and brand personality may reflect the present owner.4: Energizing the Existing Business In times of crisis. . and especially McDonalds. Sometimes pricing helps to determine positioning. to a 'cool' fashion label. on the other hand. and in particular. add to customer value. organizations often surprise themselves by finding the energy to reduce costs. feisty humour and competence. In Europe. The Levi personality. To develop their plans and actions. Fuji's quick footwork exploited changing technology to get itself repositioned from being a quality brand of photographic film to a brand of digital cameras and photo-printers. Will Richard exploit Virgin's 'trusted' personality to move into the 'mistrusted' banking and personal finance sector? We think so. Market strategists worked hard to get customers to change their perception of the Burberry brand from a 'posh' maker of raincoats. record labels. marketing strategists need to formulate aspirational attributes for their brand's identity and seek. Burger King and KFC. Virgin has been able to associate these personable attributes of its owner with a Virgin brand identity that now embraces shops. give strategic edge. Whereas brand legacy is a given from history. or losses of job prospects. have so far failed to get themselves repositioned by customers as a place to eat healthy food. over time. in Step 8. is tough. differentiating yourself from competitors. office closures or productivity schemes will debilitate the organization. Given McDonald's brand legacy. we have looked at ways in which you can categorize or increase your list of options for strategic change that you generated in Step 7. organiza ti ons o r brand s tha t a re a lread y pe rceived to be nergetic. Branson has mounted audacious attacks on hitherto stable markets. Harley-Davidson is macho. sometimes pricing is limited by positioning. airlines and rail lines. One answer is to use some of the cash you release to re-energize the business. Porsche is pushy. In the end. Eventually you reach a point when any further rationalizations. But there is a limit. People lose morale and motivation once they can see only job losses. in order to forge synergy. brand repositioning can be the result of plans and actions by marketing strategists.in the same way that people who have lost weight through exercise often find they are less tired or have more energy than when they were heavier or more slothful. or to build on a brand. So far. to get their customers to change their ideas about the brand's personality or meaning. with fanfare. ie hit hing a rid e. Schweppes managed to get customers to reposition tonic water from being a mixer for alcoholic drinks to an adult non-alcoholic drink in its own right. Richard Branson. redeploy assets or reorganize. their ideas about where the brand sits in relation to competitive brands. you might decide to settle for strategic changes that merely put energy into the existing business. Perhaps it is the downsizing involved in these activities that realizes the organizational energy .104 Strategic thinking Burberry personality was 'posh'. There are three things to conside r. shown in the following figure: increasing usage.

Remove disincentives. ( :"1 jlClI" III c. Free drinks do not cost much . Try to make your product easier to use. it is often easier to increase the usage of people who are already high users. For example. Coding on the voucher tells you which medium wo rked best. Airlines look after frequent flyers and it is the known high rollers who get special treatment at Las Vegas. or lower lmsatura ted fat might reduce a reluctance to ''. 0 ( ( ' r (l tw i c-a-day Iip ba lm . If you can get them to fill in an e-mail address. cl l' lI 'o lplI H' rs 1 1'. Hx "I o iI ' w(' IIt i11 k ' Ih(' in ll'rnl'l po we r o ( yo u r ex isti ng o r po tenti a I custome rs.S o r a ppli c<1 li ons. IHI ll li l! ol IHIl I/.maybe one sixth of the voucher value . .Create and communicate market-led strategy 105 INCREASING USAGE? CAN YOU ENERGIZE YOUR EXISTING BUSINESS BY . . Can you. A shampoo designed specifically for those who would like rrt's hl y washed hair every day might remove their fear of making their hair too dry. sandwich or cake that will probably be purchased with the drink.I'. flowers for your partner."' ". Il l\' idc·. or just easier to open or reseal? Make your product easier to choose. DIFFERENTIATION? HITCHING A RIDE? Prompt 8. 11 II.Is ell' vcl lc' (PI' ti l\' I ('sf. provide an easy-to-use dispenser? Can you make the packaging 'microwave friendly'. . I . or mobile number. Many peop le do not renew things for no other reason than they don' t rc 'nw mhc r to do it.owe r ca lo ri es. the added value to your data base will outweigh the raw materi al cost of their 'free' drink. for example.. ' hol ('k 0 1 1111 ' "1 "/. lawn mowing."I Ic 'd :lll l!ilH 1II H. or a free drink at a restaurant... Listerine Total Care saves having to read lots of confusing labels on all the Listerine variants.1 1111'. Pester power incentives can include book vouchers for local schools. or 'v en just an occupation.It n ut. I'ul ' Y('s..1: Increasing Usage Increasing usage can be achieved by increasing the frequency of use of the product or the quantity used. 1 ( 11 )'.and this is more than compensated by the margin on the food.' 1. 1' 1111 l'Olllpl'liti o llS I()r 111(' Ill os1 S!lggl's li ons (or new prod uci lI S(.. Remind them about car washing.."1'. II 1111/. . lowe r salt. lelr Il l\' pl'oci!11'1 11.· y . Look at any barriers to increased use.1I1Ct'.1 11 1." \'Wllll llll 'l'/ til I'd l ...4. IlI vlt. Surprisingly. or renewing 111 ~iII r.. lI l!' " !'''IIlI/ln l . 111. 111 11111 l 'III 'l d./. Imt.1I ( :'" 1'lI l e'IIII .. o r a three-g lass-a-day fruit juice.

Luther King and Nelson Mandela modelled the way they wanted their followers to work. or Innocent. changing and youthful. you wi ll not earn above-avera~e returns for your SC' tor and yo u will a lw ays pay more th. which you then evaluated in Step 7. Some differentials are hard to maintain. Sometimes it is easier to create a new business. increased return booking rates by more than 20 per cent (especially for the dungeon room and the 20.) .1111 illl . n Ih e ~() in g rate for new cap it'l!.l lso I t' 1('ss(. let alone buying influence. Your Ch 'lIlCl"S of lon g lerm surviv.' .'1 1111' '1 1 . in Saintes. the greater its inertia and the harder it is to energize. such cases are rare.I 111'l'il\( 1 ill li vl' h y ( '11. Competitors will replicate and even copy in a desperate rush to play 'catch up' or 'me-too'. We do not agree. or a CMO market leader.2: How to Differentiate In Step 6 we used creative thinking to come up with a long list of inventive ideas for strategic change. While Samsung did go from a cheap Korean import to major US brand in the reflected glory of the Beijing Olympics. IIII" () I H'W 1111 .5: Creating a New Business When you review the feasible and desirable options for strategic change that emerged from your creative work in Step 6.1('1 I'd PVI' I' YI'dl'. One of your criteria for selecting options was to look for options that created differentiation from competitors. Sloan.000 leagues underwater room). and it is still not enough.lIl('( 'S W('i'( ' 11'. this was a bigger increase than when the Relais du Bois restaurant won an extra Michelin star! If you have increased your usage and made yourself different in a sustainable way that the customer values. The differences you set out to create must not only be valued by your customers. Individually themed rooms at the Relais du Bois St George Hotel. can you hitch a ride? Prompt 8. Whilst is it true that new businesses will be amongst your higher risk options. (2 ()() 1.11111 M. cool and contemporary. we have found little evidence of customer memorability.4 ( ' IWr/lll"lll. Weinstock and Iacocca were emblematic of the companies they managed. Steve Jobs and Bill Gates have personified the brand character of Virgin. Apple.3: Hitching a Ride Can you hitch your wagon to a 'star'? Something that already has 'star' quality.4. () III 01 I. they should not be ignored. Think about SBUs (Part 1. The larger the existing business. A less common hitch is to the charisma of a CEO.106 Strategic thinking Prompt 8. Received wisdom says that you should accord entirely new business combinations a low priority. If you never have any new business options in your strategic portfolio.lId'IlI ')'. Prompt 8. Local sponsorship of sports trophies. they must also be easy to defend or maintain. Ghandi. Of the 100 or so other Olympic sponsors.11111111111'" 101' III'MI 1'' 1 . involving not boring? Almost any product could hitch a useful ride from a quirky brand like Virgin. Incidentally. and your evaluation in Step 7.4. charity raffles and school prizes seems to be more effective. you may find some combinations that would involve selling a new product into a new market. just as Richard Branson.llt'd .')() l 'OIIlPdllil 'S W lio. is interesting and eye catching.ll wil l . Apple and Microsoft. This would result in an entirely new business. case study).

One of the best ways to win competitive advantage. Production is created close to customers and bypasses tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade. a TEMPLES analysis needs to be global in scope.9 Things to Think About A global strategy is more than a strategy for different nati ona l ma rkets. Cost advantages are sought by sourcing the lowest labour or material costs. were new. then consider adopting the SBU styl ' and structures described in the Part I case study.Create and communicate market-led strategy 107 to Foster and Kaplan (2001). increase brand equity. o r too much resistance to setting up new businesses (because of understandable fea r of cannibalizing existing products or markets). is to go global. A global strategy is one that draws on a full range of worldwide perspectives to feed crca ti Vl' thinking and elicit innovatory possibilities for strategic change. energize an existing business. they may exploit the relative vulnerability of General Motors and Chrysler. ie 426 out of 500. The competition is global. add to customer va lu e. Prompt 8. or to increase your chances or starting a new one. The next prompt discusses the nine thin gs you need to think about before you go global. the rest. Fo rd intelligently anticipated the 2008 credit crisis by taking out a huge loan that enabled them to hold onto their equity. If they bring their economy car technology from Europe into the US market.6: Going Global . Avoiding Tariffs . The best chances of finding a profitable innovative new business is when you have a long list of poss ibilities from which to choose. of the 500 top US companies in 1997. only 74 had existed 40 years earlier. Products or prog ra m mcs developed in one country are systematically considered for each other country. If your organization displays too much inertia. As we discovered in Step 1.

It originally came from Taiwan. 4. 2000). or your packaging? (Counterfeit packaging of pharmaceuticals is a serious problem in Pakistan. It can be worthwhile to have an operation in Silicon Valley in California. Assembly close to the customer creates local goodwill. your colours. Raw materials from Brazil can be used to manufacture components in Korea. . Russia and Brazil. like the Pantene strap-line 'hair that shines'. Companies like Coca-Cola have achieved lower costs through economies of scale gained by using the same production technologies. Peugeot and Toyota carry out final assembly in more than 20 countries. showed a preference for buying products perceived as global.) 2. 3. It suffered grievously. According to David Aaker. But where to start? Which countries to select first? Six sets of questions are worth asking to help you decide: In which country should you grow your market? l.) Can you develop sufficient sales with sufficient speed to pay for the overhead structure you will need in that country? (According to The Economist (January 29th. which are then assembled in Mexico and programmed with software from India..) How aggressively will local competitors react? (When Tesco was eyeing up Europe. India.) Can you get started with minimal cultural adaptation? (If Marks & Spencer had thought about this.1. Global products were seen as higher in prestige. It is difficult to export even a successful home business model if that model depend s on ma rket dominance. Are local media or legal systems easily corrupted? How eaSily will you protect your intellectual property. Tesco deliberately sought countries where internet shopping was still in its infancy. Ideas can come from anywhere and then be rolled out country-by-country. it avoided neighbouring France and started in Hungary. quality and innovation. it would not have transplanted its UK operation unchanged into Europe. and Proctor & Gamble cosmetics came under similar pressure in China.500 customers spread over 40 countries. Wal-Mart took 10 years to realize that it was not going to get traction in Europe." (· 1 ) 6.lI1d s whi le YOll ca rve a dominant sli ce o ul th eir loc.1i 111.) Will you be bringing something to that country that is currently missing and which you have reasonable grounds for believing will be valued by your envisaged customers? (According to Victoria Griffiths. 5. Few competitors in yo ur target country a re go ing lo s it on lheir h. Is the potential market large or growing? (Such questions favour consideration of China. just to stay abreast of technology. Coke and Pepsi were attacked through false accusations of pesticide contamination in India. A higher price could be charged. information systems and marketing themes throughout the world.108 Strategic thinking A study by Holt et al (2004) of 1.

< . learning as you go. Pringle crisp flavours reflect local preferences for salt or spice. Mercedes and Mont Blanc are everywhere 'the best'. Nissan eventually decided to agree corporate fleet deals country by country. >N: . MTV and Visa have managed to establish themselves in most countries in the world.!"d Ni ssan) .1). Du Pont allowed Lycra in Brazil to focus on swimwear. In Japan. While a sequential campaign can enable you to custom ize your entry into each country. packaging. '1 IIyO I. Just 'quench your thirst' . This table has three examples to do with markets. At one time. Ford could promote its Galaxy or S Max to the executive market. 'American' as a customer value is now problematic. a broad front advance enables you to standardize your offer. In Jnpill1 . This requires more capital and it therefore carries more risk.customization or standardization .ll" .1 III. where it pitches up against the class-defining Renault Espace.' M" "d. Even for brands as 'American' as Levi or KFC. Period. It may be better to think globally but act locally." '. no hype.011. which is one of the world's largest markets for goods and services! Standardization may not be as advantageous as it first appears.Create and communicate market-led strategy 109 Critical mass is more likely to be attained more quickly when several neighbouring countries are entered at once.is preferable? The case for a standardization approach to globalization has been strongly argucd by people like Levitt (1985). Vodafone. even global brands are locally tweaked. where it would compete against the quality cngirw('ring reputation of the Volkswagen Sharran. companies like IBM. where Ford has a dominant customer base. Which approach . Standardization assumes progressive homogenization of global taste.. Visa carries a different logo in Argentina. Dove. especially when standardization compromises customer value or customer convenience. or in Germany. It was much 'cooler' than 'British' or 'European'.! . By using broadly similar products. while Paris focused on fashion. rC'linbility cuts no icc (against 11'11.111 . Y""II I " I. Ii olld " I()p ~ Ill\' Jn Powers Ratings.1". and promotional techniques in every country.'l s fill' sI1\)r l y \'. Ii onda hrt s Iti l' y".11 '1 Y\.II·k. Nike. BP. 11". No coke.111111111111. and potential customers ascribing more value to a product that is perceived to be global. The discipline of trying to find a brand identity that works in all markets can help you to work out the core values of your product. it can be better or safer to be perceived as 'global'. motivations and meaning: The Merits of Standardization Markets In the UK.! . Sprite is pitched to youngsters who want a refreshing quench for their thirst. ' li Vi d" lri. economies of scale that enhance price competitiveness.I" " 1'.r/Orllllllh 'I' of lJS nn d Fllropcan built ca rs. ' 'l'i'llior ' III. which it exploits against the inferior PI . no hyperbole. () 'I' " . a customer value that travelled well was 'American'.II" "'" IIllrI .. In any event. . 'I'ypl' 1 fiJI' 11"". Irs. It was a handicap to Canon that its 'global' copier would not conveniently handle paper sizes that varied from country to country. Sony. In the USA and UK. But it can sidestep the defences of competitors who anticipate that their country is next on your list. "1 111. the label 'American' has little traction in the United States. On closer examination. This would never work in France. Honda . Even though Du Pont thought globally that 'Nothing Moves Like Lycra'. lIlhflll .!r kcl. Throughout the world. no image. In the UK.1111 .

1' \1 11 1111 1'" III 'W Il l' )'. Always play the strategic long game. would not gain anything by promoting its dealer network in countries where convenient servicing is taken for granted. and simple to use: feature complexity is a turn-off there. or a local name. 1(1 ]1. perhaps based on shared equity. When JVC gained access to European customers. Perhaps it needs local assembly or a local packaging facility.III" hllil" i ll )'. Canon can enter a specification war against other copiers.III" h y \'II\ 'I')'. Toyota. . rather than failures in regulation. otherwise the strategic alliance will not last.i. will cause economic power to shift from the United Sta tes and the United Kingd om to co untri es li ke hina. Strategic alliances are important because it is unusual for any new entrant to possess all the factors necessary for success in a new market. We turn finally to strategies based on alliances. II . as their partners gain expertise in production. In Madagascar. and at choosing between strategies for standardization or customization. The partner that gains them leaves the other with only a role in sales and distribution.lgl' II 1_ 1 . Under global choices we looked at choosing target countries. the new entrant lacks local distribution. Toyota's dominant position in the world enables component standardization to bring advantageous economics of scale but at the same time. 1 I I I.' " () IIIJ . even giant corporations like Ford have turned to Mazda or Nissan to share development costs and to gain access to Eastern markets. engineering and design.i ll )'. Managers in FTSE 100 and Fortune 500 companies need to be 'heads up': Failures to think strategically. There must be mutual benefit and long-term self-interest for both parties. ' l i l i v (' oId v oIlll . Standardized product names can have unfortunate meanings in some countries.. which should.. never-the-Iess. 1\ ) il1 lT. the ease with which you can get Toyota's LandCruiser serviced confers advantage over Landrover 's Discovery or Range Rover.11 1 .l v(' ('Ol1 s id l' rl'd hn w .. Iwl'( ' ill SI(' p H W(' 1i. '.. Once these last two roles are finessed. however. people like their machines simple.. Partners who pursue tactical short-term gains in gross margin by outsourcing production. value-adding assets of the 21st century. In the past. design work and software development will soon be hollowed out by their partners.111(1 n ls lo llll'l' v illu l' h y hr. this makes Toyota very vulnerable to a safety critical component failure that might involve multi-million dollar costs of an international recall. which are arguably superior vehicles. These thinking skills are the real wealth-generating. (Sim on Wootton) S() LII'. Strategic alliances need to be clearly managed and monitored for early warning signs of cannibalism. The agreement may evolve into a joint venture. A strategic alliance may start as an informal agreement. be written down.110 Strategic thinking Motivation In technophile markets like Germany._ . or a local sales force. Phillips gained access to its recording technology. The Ford Fiesta means 'ugly old woman' in South America and the Rolls Royce 'Silver Ghost' translates into something very rude in France! Meaning Under strategies for going global we have looked at strategies for generating global growth and global economies. Ind ia and Braz il.) S. Often. In Finland. the other partner becomes a hollowed-out shell.

Prompt 8. 'Milking' presents less of a critical or creative thinking challenge than new product development or new market development.) Oil WIHlIl1 y() 111' illlpl"11H 'Ilt. and with only self-funded minor changes in packaging or promotion. Even if you are able to attract clever people to act as cow hands. to release and conserve cash and key intellectual skills. and that feeds into the slow decline. Prompt 8. it boosts their declining yields. Even the best milking cows need to be re-impregnated periodically. licensing or selling your design rights should be considered.7: Strategies for Contraction and Consolidation Since the 1960s.lti o n it 0:111 nli l' na ll' ma ny (If III(' I ('y . should not be sold. 'Stars' are the products or businesses with the greatest potential for future fast growth. Doing this will also give you some language and I ' rmin o logy with whi ch lo desc ribe th e stra tegy yo u have created . four in five new businesses will eventually fail anyway. Franchising.products or businesses with low market share and slow growth prospects.8: Writing Your Strategy Start by completing the table on the first page of this Step 8. This is because they are not attractive to the most thrusting brain power. The idea is to analyse and eliminate your 'dogs' . Lack of stimulation and challenge lowers the energy of the product teams. you don't get a good price for potential.1 docum e nl o r . Low-volume products with future potential. In turbulent times.lgl' in . established products with solid sales and market shares should be 'milked' as 'cash cows' without further substantial investment.some should go to the 'stars'. If they miss a key competitor going digital. Given that. it should not be difficult to find candidates to divest. hili y0 11 s it o ltld II SI ' il s p. This will help you to finalize a combination of feasible and discrete strategic changes that best forge togethe r into a coherent stra tegy.Create and communicate market-led strategy 111 urgent need may be for rapid contraction and divestment. This is where your decision making will benefit from strategic thinking. or reducing salt levels. In the meantime. 1Y il1s id v y01l1' ow n o rgn ni z. Run your candidates for divestment through Steps 1-7 before deciding whether they should stay or go. More often. the model of choice for considering contraction and consolidation has been the one researched by the Boston Consulting Group. .tri 11 ). Not all cash released should go to reserves . We look next at strategies for contraction and consolidation.. they go into slow decline. often called the BCG model. You can li se this kind of l'lIl g ll . Milk cows sometimes survive to enjoy resurgent stardom -like porridge oats as a health food. Keep the best and sell the rest. Those kept for today's 'milk' must be able to maintain their yields without further technical development. Such products should be put on the back burner or in cold storage until the turbulence subsides. on average. rather than growth. or fountain pens as high status alternatives to ballpoint pens. (S It '1' I.lli () 11 will dl'Jw nd .1 presenla lion fo r th e ba nk or a n age ncy cli ent. however. then your cash cow may need to be slaughtered prematurely.t (' I (l I ' ~. or bringing in a hybrid technology. they will find it hard to stay alert while managing a steady-as-she-goes strategy.

3 from Step 2). A and B). or earnings per share from X to Y.I I. key people associated with our key processes. d o 11 0 1 n'dd I nu ll YO ll r wrill(' 11 . Presenting your strategy '111 jll l"!"ol"ll l )'. The steps will build logically." A I'. or a proportion of earnings from products less than five years old. This market-led strategy seeks to exploit existing strengths in S. These strengths and weaknesses are summarized in Appendix II (This will be your summary Table 2. is your strategy.I'l< IInll 'lll Wri ll( '1l Idll "' Y ddl"I"l l l 111I1l1 . T. owners and key stakeholders in our organization have been consulted (illustrate with actual names) to develop our 'best hope' for the future that represents both our values and our ambitions. Your strategy is a composite collection of practical changes to be implemented.add your list).il "l. This strategy recognizes changes that will take place in the period (Year P to Year N) in technology. In Step 9. D and E. distribution. 11. a long list of possible changes has been considered (See Appendix IV . Appendix III). politics. Use the pro-forma in the box below: A PRO-FORMA FOR AN EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is an FGK (insert name label from the table on the first page of this Step 8) strategy to increase cash reserves from X to Y.d. Use the tables generated in each step. It will cost A to implement (or release net capital B from asset sales) (insert the relevant numbers for X.. and these changes are summarized in Appendix I (this will be your Table 2. . A shortlist of possible strategic changes that best meet our criteria is shown in Appendix V (add your list).1 from Step 1). This list has been refined to find a combination of strategic changes that forge together synergistically to make up our FGK strategy (same name label as in the first line).'!. (11 11' !"o lr. It is a strategy document . . or income from X to Y. Use this executive summary as a contents list for your written plan. /. In order to move towards this vision. ' 1. with evidence. Y. The tables can be used as appendices.on one side of A4. supply. Your written account of them. world economics." I'. as indicated in the pro-forma above. key customers. regulation.. Owners. Create brief sections based sequentially on each of Steps 1 to 8.. U and Vand avoid or address current weaknesses in C. Make sure that what's in the tin is what's on the executive summary label. described above. Each possible change has been evaluated against criteria for (list the criteria used in Step 7). If we do not make any change the consequences will be .it is not a strategic plan.1 )'.11111 VP II .II. ' ..112 Strategic thinking First create an executive summary . III 111111( ' . (see worst case scenario.about 500 words . your docum ent is called a 'strategic plan'. III Il . from X to Y. towards your finally selected combination of strategic changes that together comprise your market-led strategy. This vision statement can be found on page . Step 9 is about planning and managing projects to implement the changes that comprise your strategy. p l ('II Idll!. competition.. environmental and social issues. price levels.

during your presentation. This is because your audience's short term memory will hold only 5 ± 2 units of new inform ation al . Where are we now? Where might we end up? Where would we prefer to be? The important thing is to tell them what is going to happen during your presentation. and te ll people at the outset how to interrupt or how to get your attention.ill lIilll' I' 1'1l1111 '1 (11111 '1' 1: 11.covering the three clusters. An introduction . Refer to the relevant qu estion or qu estioner as you do so. eg 'analysis'. so you will be able to describe the development of your stra tegy in lhree labelled chunks or clusters.saying what the three key clusters will cover. then Steps 4.i V lilliI'(' Ih.till '.111" III 11111 '1' 1111111 '1 tltl ' tllll 'I' 1t. This increases the chances that they will not get lost and that they will arrive 'with you'. and especially to your audience. 111111'. The introduction Opening sentences should be about your audience and their interest in what you will have to say.tlld l'lIlll1ti .11 1<. In a speech. 3.2 = 3. The Main body Sti ck 10 111(' 1. Tell them what's in it for them. That is why yo u h<lvC to keep summarizing and labelling each group of three points as a new chunk .a reiteration of the three key clusters you have covered . Try to cluster your points in groups of three. your presentation will be based on a 9 Step Approach to devdopin g strategy. If you want to ta ke ques tions. The main body . such as. and finally Steps 7. you will be able to summarize Steps 1. your listeners cannot rewind you. A final summary . 2 and 3.lIlel I). You have to assume 5 . Iltl ' Ill' I plliltl 1)11 Ill. 1.1hvl ~ II . for example: • • • information gathering and analysis.1nd Ihe sequcnce you promised.1 it. Tell them that you will outline the key strategic changes that comprise your FGK strategy for the organization.·tlLltll " vuu tlllil JUl' 'J Lit litl' . Under these three labels. There should be three distinct phases to your presentation: 1. If you have lots of questions a t the end. three points in each. 2. 111(' point s you ha ve ('o vI'I'!'d .Create and communicate market-led strategy 113 so as to retain the key steps in the argument. Section 2). depending on your audience.tli vl'l y Slllllilloll'i " ill). 'forecasting' and 'implementa ti on'. and in agreement with your final conclusion or proposal. Wlll 'lI ' yllil . or others you may prefer depending on your audi ence. or oral presentation. still finish with your final planned summary and final thanks to all. . so you have to keep rewinding yourself and re pea ling the key points. III' I'. Next best is to take questions as they arise. do so preferably at the start so that you can incorporate your answers to the qu estions as you go along. Fortunately. Start slowly and finish more quickly and on time. 5 and 6. Keep i'l 'i11'1'01 Iill)'. option appraisal and strategy formulation."IIII. forecasting and prediction. Tell them you will take them through the three stages that have led you to the FGK strategy.>I'd ill ylHl1' illtrodllclion . Tell them why it is important and to whom.id y 1'1 '111'1 ' 1'. You may prefer other labels.1 time (see Part I. H .

' Your pace. the board or the bank . written and prepared to present your strategy as a series of strategic changes.. Step 9 deals with strategic planning and the management of strategic change. . I have: l. in Step 8. a new business or a global strategy Write up and present your strategy for the people... Having. 'Thanks to _ and to you the audience. when we have implemented the plan. sustainable advantage and strategic edge Create perceived value for customers by energizing an existing brand.. . volume and energy should rise during your final summary.. 'And I have shown how we will gain .. Finish on a high energetic note. 3. CREATE AND COMMUNICATE MARKET-LED STRATEGY STEP 8 SUMMARY Step 8 will have helped you to: • • • Forge together some chosen options for change to create synergy. three main benefits . formulated.114 Strategic thinking The Final summary (After the questions.) 'As promised. 2 ...

Step 9 Plan and manage projects to implement change Step 9 will help you to: • • • Understand why some people will resist the market-led changes you forged into your strategy in Step 8 Overcome resistance through persuasion. NovaMind (Mac) or Mind Manager (Microsoft) to monitor your implementation plan. There are prompt sheets lo he lp you co mpl ete eac h tas k sheet. Your implementation plan is not your strategy. Your implementation plan will encounter problems and pauses and the need to re-plan. In a large organization. you may be able to pass your ring-clip file to a project management specialist who will probably use planning tools like PERT. but in the strategic thinkin g th a t li es behind those task sheets (see Prompt 9. You will need one task sheet for each task that you need to complete to implement the market-led strategy that you created and presented at the end of Step 8. negotiation and delegation Combine strategic planning and project management to implement strategy and manage strategic change PLAN AND MANAGE PROJECTS TO IMPLEMENT CHANGE Introduction You will be ready to project manage the implementation of your strategy when you have a ring-clip file labelled 'Implementation Plan' that contains task sheets like the pro-forma below. The value of your imp lementa tion plan lies not in what is written on the task sheets. or for a large complex strategy.5). . This master file will be kept by the strategy manager and a copy of each task sheet will be given to the people whose names appear at the top of the sheet.

.1.2) What? When? Where? What resources are required? What tasks n eed completing to secure these resources on time? (See Prompt 9..1: Preparing Your People for Change 10 I .11. '1'1.8) Which tasks must be completed before this one? Prerequisite tasks numbered Prerequisite task descriptor (See Prompt 9.7) What? With whom? Wh en? Prompt 9. )( .116 Strategic thinking Pro-forma Task Sheets Task number Person responsible People to inform Task descriptor (See Prompt 9." OJ 111I · lll" lv . •• I l '.3) What? When? Where? Who might resist this task? Who might sabotage this task? What will you do to anticipate/ disSipate resistance? (See Prompts 9. .1/9.8) I I I I Task X is: To begin I To Last I ToEnd What will you see (hear) when this task is complete? (See Prompt 9. 1 . 1' JiUII'" '" l1l ..8) Who are your change agents? Who will assist you with this task? How will you recruit them? (See Prompt 9.

.are likely to have adverse reactions at some stage. ". or they may temporarily 'lose the plot'.1 The Energy to change (Horne and Doherty. I.( . They may not see the point of a particular step.2. most people .(/11 1111' 1/1111/1" · ( // (11 /1(' (1111 1/ )/1/11'1/11 '(I().~/ Denial /Testin g ~ Figure 9..even those favourably disposed to a change .Plan and manage projects to implement change 117 :::s:: External volatility ORDERLY TIMES )i' LOW HIGH Resistant Cooperative '\Ii TURBULENT TIMES Fatalistic Proactive Implementing change is easier when people are nearer the right hand side of the model. W Advorso CO IHlO qUOIl C S Looks achievable lo ll WO. High Acceptance Anger Cl >a: z w w Shock Depression Low L -_ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Announcement Implementation / HY~/ ~~".. 2003.I? l ow filII I( 1111 1(111 11 11111 IIllploll10nlniioil 11lL II · I. IIl. As we can see from figures 9. '! fI . Routledge) High Hearing the plan Spotting the drawbacks Losing con fid ence Expecting benefits Converting others o I 0. Implementing Changes.1 and 9.

resistance is likely from at least 70 per cent of those affected. we are conce rned here wilh the more co mmon form s of res is tan ce. Use the AVOCADOS checklist: The AVOCADOS checklist Assistance Q. Who owns the change? Answer: Stakeholders Q. Whose decisions will be crucial? Answer: Owners Q . Who will keep selling the benefits of the change? Answer: Analysis Q . How do we create an expectation of success? Answer: Communica tion Q. What do key stakeholders think about the change? Answer: Prompt 9. Could someone paint a picture. Has anyone else ever done this? Answer: Vision Q . Is there a time line? Answer: Decisions Q .118 Strategic thinking Despite your best efforts to anticipate reactions to change. literally or in words? What will things look like afterwards? Answer: Optimism Q . .2: Anticipating Resistance to Change Who will res ist? Why will they res ist? How will they res is t? Outright oppos ili on is ra re.

ljo rit ' l' o f exci tem en t o r a r~'s i s t ·h. Procrastination. I"lllllilil '. In turbulent times the creation and use of groups should be avoided: one-to-one conversations are preferable. Undermining. h i)'. . 10. Lateness.11 " III lI"illllI" IIII ' Y 1\ ." 1" .1 I I)'.11'1 . I Wll lli l' IIII' I fill" ' 11111 11 1 111111 ' 1II !lIIW I II)" .1" v . f \" h .!.' 1' "l v .Ik 11l1l1l " ''' il 1I I. Resistance is sometimes disguised as supportive suggestions. 6. Embarrassing leaks to the media. 4. FORMING individuals try to make their mark in the group PERFORMING Finally.l y hi' 11". Tread carefully. Fo r so m e.-' WI 'k lll lh ' hn '. l' dl 'd II Il w y 1' 11'.l11)"I'd IHIII. It can be hard to spot the difference between a positive desire to participate and a negative intention to delay and obstruct. or il Iwo pl l' 1\.1 I1 )~l" . behind-the-back criticism. eg offering to set up a working party. I 1'./0 "I ' t'I 1.' 1 i. Bringing a group together is too time-consuming: it involves a lot of 'storming' before the group gets around to 'performing'. Working slowly ('going slow'). Sick leave...l 1 )'. Absenteeism. ... 1 ' .-. 9. Sabotage. These may be intended to thwart the implementation of change rather than to support it. the group can do better than the sum of its parts STORMING Conflict as egos clash and argue for position and power NORMING Trying to agree procedures and ways of operating No t . Apathy. I\vcn sma ll c han ges 111 ..Plan and manage projects to implement change 119 TEN COMMON FORMS OF RESISTANCE 1.1111 1"111 . Working-to-rule.11" Ihey 1111 ).111 1 11111 1 11 '. 1.lngc. 2. 1 ~' '1 ' id . 7.. 3. 8. III II II' 111. It can be hard to separate the difficulties that groups are having in coming together from the difficulties they are having with the proposed changes.1 1il llloll 11(1 .nll l p s. cha n ge is a so ur \'. 5.111 pvo pl .lII IIII.lilll''' illl () rIll . TIlt' l11 . if you are lucky.

1 11 1'. Prompt 9. failure to give good reasons will intensify the resistance. Less respect? 5. Less skill? 3. llI'd 1/t. Less status? 4. 0 I ..l in inil. Less opportunity to socialize? Yes No If the expected resistance is based on misapprehension..Long-standing power Reduced costs • 0( Increased workloads Survival • 0( Excessive stress • III( In the figure. Less scope for initiative? 12.)CI I (l red II C(' I h(' r('s l r. Force field analysis ca n be used to structu re a discussion about whatis blocking a change. Less holiday? 6. fo rn's.120 Strategic thinking DETECTING POTENTIAL RESISTANCE Do you think that this change might cause you to have: 1. Delay in clearing up misunderstanding can lead to suspicion and it will increase resistance in some people. Less authority? 10. Whether resistance is based on misunderstanding or reality.l S 0111 (· '1II . 111(~-. Ill\' ('/ 1. their value to the organization. r.11111 o PI'wli lt · . Also check out junior staff . d . It enables managers to identify the forces that are likely to restrain a particular change: Current state Hierarchical structure Bureacracy Forces for Change More career opportunities Desired state Flatter structure SBUs Resistance Devalues professions More responsiveness ----~.i 'w ill . Lew in sugges ted that ll1a n ag~' rs sholiid .~.. Less training? 8. . Hav ing idenlified the potent-ia l so urces and leve ls of resistance. the size of the arrows reflects the strength of the forces.they may doubt their self-worth.iI 10 i'V(' r y . Less pension? 7. Less satisfactory work? 11. Who might resist change? Check out the less well educated .lllWI" I ha n 1 in I el1 si fy I hl' fo rn's d ri v ill )'. Iii (' N ('w tOIl. Less security? 9 . Less pay? 2.w li(1I1 Ilw l'(' W. or their ability to benefit.they may be least informed and most vulnerable to cynicism from staff who have 'seen it all before'.3: Overcoming Resistance to Change Force field analysis was developed by Kurt Lewin. correct the mistake.l I") '.' '.

At least 15 out of 20 minutes should be spent on information about how any change will affect them.1: Persuading . when and where. or at least voice-to-voice. Wherever possible. and what you. You will need to think about who will need to be told what. by when. accept them or reject them (with good reason). people prefer to have had a say.A Seven-stage Model If Objections .4: People Prefer Face-to-face Conversation People prefer to be spoken to face-to-face by their leaders and managers and they need to know that this will happen regularly. by whom and where. Prompt 9. Even if their ideas are rejected. 11111 . This minimizes the time wasted correcting grapevine rumours. rather than screen-to-screen. The main points of a briefing should be written down. Five minutes only should be spent on any general rationale. communicate face-to-face. what you have done so far. increase their frequency but not their length.IIlUIl I C_I I" .plan to do next. Although we have emphasized the importance of one-to-one conversations. Where possible. Listen actively to the views of those affected. Twenty to 30 minutes exceeds the concentration span of most people receiving verbal information. If you find that your briefings over-run.4. I . Communicate frequently so that it never needs to take more than 20-30 minutes. Who are the people likely to be affected by the change? Tell them three things: what you plan to do. you should check that all channels of communication are working well. Acknowledge them.Plan and manage projects to implement change 121 Prompt 9. There are three types of one-to-one conversations that are particularly useful: persuading. negotiating and delegating. Ten minutes should be left for questions. briefings should be given at the same time to everyone affected by a change.

dr. non-verbal indications that you are listening. 'You see that this change will give you Band C but you are not yet sure that it will give you A?' If necessary. go to Stage 4 and deal with the doubt. eg changes that will fulfil their unmet needs or address areas of dissatisfaction with the present situation. go directly to Stage 6 and ask for acceptance. If at least three such benefits appear to be accepted. 'Echo' what you think they are saying. Give clear. Use their vocabulary and intonation. proceed to Stage 6. Stage 4: Dealing with doubt Start by clarifying the exact nature of the doubt: 'So you are not yet sure that this change will result in benefit A for you?' or. You are trying to gather as much information as you can about the person you are hoping to persuade. If the person doubts that the proposed change will deliver a particular benefit.1S poss ihl e. If there are no objections. Ask for acceptance. to find good ways to implement it.l w h.I ll y olll w(' ig h II\( . Meet again to summarize the benefits accepted in your previous conversation and to present your evidence dealing with the remaining doubts. Stage 2: Probe Ask open questions . If the objection is based on a mis taken impression. Try not to interrupt. adjourn to gather evidence. Talk genera lly abo ut things in the news that illustrate how other people are accepting or even enjoying change.. do nol pretend o therw ise. Your brain's mirror neurons will give you chemical clues as to what the other person is feeling. or to arrange for the other person to visit an installation. a supplier. As sl r. If the person raises an objection to the proposed change.122 Strategic thinking Stage 1: Establish rapport Make eye contact.what might get them to accept the idea? Try to uncover areas of unmet need or areas of dissatisfaction with the existing situation. Smile.n'.11.1 ig hl rorward Iy . Try to 'mirror' their body language. Oil h. 'how?' and. . Probe to find out what matters to them . correct it and conclude by summarizing all the benefits tha t wi ll fl o w when th e change is impl emented. 'what about.'why?'. in general.. lll'iil s )'. Make physical contact as culturally appropriate. Stage 5: Handling objections First clarify the objection. Listen actively. Do not d wel l on il. Try to get nodding agreement to at least three statements about the general need for change and the need. or expert testimony. statistics. Pl"(l("('('" qlli('kl 10 s how Il()w.l ("k ~. Stage 3: Connect aspects of the proposed change to benefits for them Connect the proposed change to benefits that you believe they will value. . case studies. Conclude by seeking confirmation that the benefit is no longer in doubt. or a pilot study. go to Stage 5 and handle the objection.?' Confirm your understanding with closed questions requiring only 'yes' or 'no' replies. perhaps mov in g directly to Stage 6 a nd ask in g for accep ta nce If the objecti on is va Iid.11l("(" I Ill' h(.

"111 '" I V " lillI(' ..lll '.lkin g il C lt'ill' Ih. Itl IH 'I'.1 I.A Seven-stage Model Stage 1 Own MiniMax Stage 2 Guess their MiniMax ~ IfJ Yes / If No Abhor! Stage 3 Is there overlap? Stage 4 Create a basket of possible trades Stage 5 Test possible sets of trades (deals) 1 1 Stage 6 Offer tentative deal 1 Stage 7 Sign up is nol pt'rs lI<l s ion .1.d .111\1111:-' . III 1111 III11 1.I. 1l1 .ll h) 1'1 ".'r ('011\ 11 ..4.lI li.the next step is .11. record the time and the place of the conversation. W Il('11 :-.1I1e1 when 'lgrl'l'nwnt mu s t be reilched. by whom and by when.I11111'(lIIII. 1\(. 1 1 111.1' .)". It is getting th e bes t ag reement that is poss ibl e when i:-. when X (the change) is in place..Il o l wur"iJ1g.1'. ' 11 0 1 IH ')'. Send an e-mail. ' . Confirm what was agreed to be the next step. . III 11Irblll(. . ? Would time X or time Y suit you best?' Stage 7: Confirm the conversation At the end of the conversation. l l\'r~ lI .ll ~OI11(' 11 1111)'." . 11 .lilllr\.l~ i()1l Nl')~() li (l liOIl ..Plan and manage projects to implement change 123 Stage 6: Ask for acceptance .o ll . Prompt 9. we have worked out that you will have A and gain B with the potential for C .I"dHlldl 'rs wi lli s ig l1i fil "l1ll I)ow.get to a 'Yes' Strike a note of confidence that the proposal for change has been accepted and summarize the benefits that the other person has accepted will follow: 'So.l hl.. a hand-written note or both.' ~ 11 ('( ' \'~~ llIlI y. Write a brief summary of the main benefits that the other person agreed will flow as a result of the change.2: Negotiating . .111).II.J11 lim es. Failure to agree i:./ ''' ' 11111l1l1'.

If there is no overlap. then negotiation is not possible. but do not offer it unless you need to trade in order to secure agreement. negotiation is possible. if negotiations break down. Resist the temptation to break awkward silences . Stage 4: Probe to determine their minimum and maximum positions What might be traded? Probe by asking questions.before anything is committed to paper. 'How do you come to that conclusion?' If negotiating teams are involved. Adjourn! Stage 6: Summarize areas for a tentative agreement When. This should be reiterated. you think you have identified things that you and your opposite number are willing to give and take. schedules. If you need more time. places. clarified and repeated always verbally . Stage 5: Test a hypothesis . guarantees. Build a sense of expectant inevitability that agreement will be good for everyone: 'Ok. let's do that. Stage 3: Compare 1 and 2 Is there overlap? If there is. before they do. Trying to save minutes in a negotiation can lose days or lives. undertakings. support or contingencies.' You may need to use your eyes as well as your ears to 'make sense' of what you hear: .. These could be such things as times. preferably 'open' ones: 'What do you mean exactly when you say you won't. Keep summarizing their position back to them.. options. Stage 2: Set up a hypothesis Speculate on your opposite number's minimum and maximum positions. Take notes. and only when.?' or. adjourn frequently to compare notes with members of your own team. offer a tentative verbal summary of what appears to be a basis for agreement. Use note taking to give yourself time to structure your thinking. Try to keep your mind open to what might be negotiable. The least you would accept. During this step you are trying to gain as much information as possible about the other person's 'wish list'. take time and adjourn. training. good.it's better to adjourn and think of another question to ask. Think creatively about what they might want or need.a possible deal Offer hypothetical concessions in your position in return for concessions that you believe lie within your opposite number's range of negotiation.124 Strategic thinking Stage 1: Decide your own maximum and minimum positions The most you might hope for. conditions. Do not make unilateral concessions.

In general.Plan and manage projects to implement change 125 Making sense of what you hear Hearing 'I can't say I'm happy about. Authority needs to be commensurate with the responsibility. One way of getting others to implement change is through delegation. Stage 7: Accept agreement Prepare a written summary of what has been agreed verbally..3: Delegating Leaders and managers who think they have to implement every operational change themselves are likely to be ineffective as change agents.. signing should be a formality. provided you make it clear what we will get out of it' 'We can discuss that.. Adjourn to discuss with colleagues what they heard as opposed to what was said... authority to make decisions and to take action. Prompt 9. Il ere is <l (lnversaliona l app roa ch to delegation: . Managers delegate when they give subordinates authority to carry out work that the managers could do themselves. if someone is given responsibility for improving the new appraisal system but is not given the authority to change existing practice. Do not introduce new issues or demands. but there's just one more thing' 'That's quite acceptable. For example. Be sure that you really understand what was really meant. ' May mean . ' 'I do not have any authority to . but not now' 'But if you insist. d elega tion of important tasks enables managers to focus on the urgenl ta sks lhal req uire the ir ex pe ri ence or position.4.. ' 'We are not set up to . and accountability for decisions taken and for resources used.. If the negotiation has been carried out skilfully.. Do not become more demanding. during negotiation beware of allowing objectives to drift. You need to think about responsibility.. Tn turbu le nt times.. 'I agree.' 'That's way beyond our remit' 'I am prepared to discuss that' 'I never negotiate on costs' 'It's not our normal practice to . authority and accountability: responsibility for tasks. you start' 'But I will make an exception if pushed' 'But I could get it if needed to' 'You'll owe me one if I agree to do it' Do not introduce new issues. Good delegation improves morale. then the delegated task is imposs ibl e.

1 1)" 1111'11 .especially if they do not understand the reasons for it. They may resist it simply because they dislike being told what to do. intelligence and behaviour. with its underlying logic of establishing ownership of change. religious and social values. l. In turbul en t tim es. rap id change may be necessa ry and op ti ons may be few.111<1 Iililll . <l I'l'sl'"rch h. hor l lilll\' Y(l ll iI.iI. Such values are not universal.. !. 1). but may exacerbate it in others. This points towards leadership and management styles that individualize one-to-one communication.111 ' 1 . such as freedom of choice and individual liberty.1\ 1 .126 Strategic thinking Stage 1 Identify tasks of your job. '.1111111 '.ll eve ll direc liv(' .1pproilChl's C.i11 .ll l'Vl'r . Brain scan data (Haier. 2009) show marked differences in the distribution of the grey and white matter in the 14 'Brodmann' areas of the brain associated with thinking. relax supervision t Stage 6 Successful delegation may lead to a new job description How participative should you be? The notion that people should be involved in changes that affect their lives reflects western political.1 1111"1' '1'111' O Il(' Ip li l li' \' P II V1' 1 '~l dllllll " 1 YO II 11 . Change raises issues that challenge personal values and ethical standards. People may resist change even when it is in their best interests . even between individuals of the same sex and IQ. Involving people in the process of change can help reduce the build-up of stress in some individuals.1I1 1 il1lln ' dfn 'livl' w lll'll )(' pl'rSPl1t1 li zl'd .l S s how n Ih. prioritizes the need to be sensitive to different stakeholders. ' il . Using speedy one-to-one communication ca n help to prevent resistance building up in the firs t place. in Thompson et ai. . Wll. Decide which tasks you could delegate to another person Stage 2 Talk to the other person and determine the training and support needed to carry out task t Stage 3 Agree tasks and authority with other person and how progress will be monitored t 1 Stage 4 Review and coach t Stage 5 Appraise and.i1k .l Vl' 10 !. Under Ilws(' circum sL IlCl'S.I. if possible. 'd d. or because they do not feel in control of their lives. I"j1 i1 I 'I. The participative approach.

brand building. ' 11"1\1 ' WIII'II ~I II'. a Samurai sword must be hard enough to keep its edge yet flexible enough not to shatter on first contact with the enemy. 1. reach.ri yl lil 1111 (1 11 ).. customer value. In Step 8 we tested and tempered our shortlist of embryonic strategic changes. Asked to explain a strategic failure. While your strategy is priceless. but as Suez. 111. In ortin 1 pl. 1987) or 'forging solutions' (Hurson. 1800-1891). product development and globalization. so that you can turn your strategy into action.'s YO II 111I ' I'oWI'!" 10 n'sl olld 10 '(' vt' nl s' and 10 reli s h ' firs t . an older and wiser Harold McMillan replied: 'Events. ideas like 'crafting change' (Mintzberg.5: Strategic Planning We can forge a strategy without a plan. 1(' 1' !. Pitched against a competitor. seeking to forge a composite strategy that has the durability.Plan and manage projects to implement change 127 'resisters'. You crafted a language in which you could describe your market-led strategy to others. we need a verb . To get from strategy to strategic change. Step 9 must make it kinetic. usually something that you can use. 11 ' 1.i v. In Step 8 your embryonic ideas were put through the mill of competitive advantage. Step 9 converts your potential energy into movement and velocity.i(' Ihin"in g ".111 ')'.Ill slill ). cutting edge and flexible response of a Samurai sword. but you do not yet have a plan. my dear fellow.lll . 11 1. In Step 6 our long list of possible changes contained many that were weak or flawed . A word. A strategic plan will make you feel better. from Step 8.' A pl an is a no un . events. Iraq and Afghanistan all proved: 'No strategic plan ever survived first contact with the enemy' (after Helmuth von Moltke.III" I.11111111)" 1111111"11 1 1 yil ll III h. In Step 7 we strained out the weakest and sieved out the flaws.II' T. It is the 0 .'. In turbulent linws Wl' don ' t nccd n noun. or a Samurai sword.i(' Illilll ill). We cannot plan strategically without a strategy.11'I Willi IIII' . like a cooking pot. Prompt 9.ril . 'Crafting' and 'forging' are activities that involve working with raw ingredients that are riddled with impurities to produce something that is of value. on the role of strategic planning in implementing strategic change. In order to plan.rliI1l1 . we use strategic planning and project management. Vietnam.rIt ')'. Now you have a strategy. you should not place the same value on your strategic plan. . Section 3. lill. H l')'. How can we create an implementation plan that is as innovative as your strategy? Remembering what we said about metaphors in Part I. 11. Step 9 shows you how to deconstruct your strategy into seperate tasks.IIloWIi 1" . It is the same in politics. ·II' ·V. lr. first. and this will inform how you plan to implement the market-led strategy you created in Step 8.ln s ll'dlt'g ic. · 111I'1I1I1.1I1t. Your ideas were repeatedly heated and hammered and honed until you finally forged a market-led strategy. 2009) can be useful.1'1 II'. you Ilt'('ll II' Ihin".11 ). Step 8 creates potential. (l U need to think s trategica lly. Velocity is speed with direction.a n objec t that remains in a state of rest or of uniform motion in a s tra ig ht line unl ess forced by ex ternal events to change that state.th e ve rb to plan.

128 Strategic thinking rehearses the tbinking skills that you need to think quickly and clearly in difficult and confusing times . cluslers. After thi s consolid a ti on. Give each participant a copy of the strategy document you wrote at the end of Step 8. Use the strategy presentation you rehearsed in Step 8 to open the proceedings. 2. I( ·" " ('''pli(1I1 11)"1 . at this stage.. Hurson (2009) has called them 'assisters' (as opposed to 'resisters'). Some may indeed prove to be spurious or trivial but. there is a section to help you project manage the implementation of the strategic changes you have planned. those astronauts would never have got back. The next stage is to consolidate and cluster your stickers. a felt tip marker pen.rn ·l · 1(1 1111'1 '(' IIH' 1)('lIl·r. Steps 1-7 forced you to get to know people whose help you will need to get your strategy implemented.. and a roll of masking tape. Strategic maps can also help you to find your way around obstacles. People should not worry at this stage about the relative importance or sequencing of the tasks. As Eisenhower said. the key tasks you need to implement your strategy will find their way onto the wall. ".lI'h' ·'IIl. Your 'assisters' will help you to get difficult things done in difficult times. This is highly correlated with the ability to motivate others.'V I ' r) dll Sll'rs I Ill' Ih ·.ll" Aim (Ill' Il(l IIlIlI'.and several pads of Post-It notes. Finally. Identifying the tasks involved in implementing the strategy.. Every time they spot a task that will need to be carried out to implement your strategy.1111'1 '" "lid wllll'lr .'(111 . There is a prompt to help you plan each stage of your strategy implementation.about a metre wide .r .'I (llid. ask them to jot it on a Post-It note and stick it on the long sheet of plain paper you have attached to one wall of the room using the masking tape. The plan for Apollo 13 was useless . 3. preferably in a room with two or three uncluttered walls. Identifying the tasks needed to obtain resources and find assisters. . But without the planning that went with the mission. 1:1sks m. 2 and 4 and especially 5 and 7..those astronauts never did land on the moon. as they appear. 'the plan will probably be useless." Y III 1 "\( . . somewhere.' Ih . Putting those tasks on a time line. You will need a large roll of paper . These strategic maps will help you to find your way as you go.6: Identifying the Tasks Involved You will need to contact as many as you can of the key people you met as you completed Steps 1. Implementation involves: 1. but the planning will be indispensable'. First.. So the real value of strategic planning is that it makes you practise strategic thinking.lY coa lescl' aro und Cl'rl. Step 5 in particular involved imagining what success might look like. Prompt 9. a box of coloured pencils.r li·d 1' 1i1 . and invite them to meet you.or (:iv. In our experience. .' ".lin CO lT aclivilies or ("(' !lln's o( cO lllml.. this does not matter. Strategic planning teaches you about the territory and helps you to draw up some maps. Get the participants to work in pairs (there may be one group of three). ee how you ca n co mbine so me of the o ll e lion s of s li kers inlo ( '0Il111HlII Ilwllh·S.l l S. reduce the number of stickers by culling duplicates and by crea ting compos ites of s imil a r tas ks.

the estimated duration and the earliest start date. and B is neither A nor C. tti n)'.1'. Using the masking tape and the marker pen.ll I '!I I' 1 1111 II II' 1111t'11'111"liI .7: Identifying Resources Your group should now review the clusters on the wall and generate n ew stickers every time they identify a resource that will be needed for a task. or even days for the first m onth.. Mark each Post-It with a large bold A. o r put Y(l llr o w n ndl1l e ()n it until yo u can on tract it out.:1 ). Now transfer the task stickers onto the implementation timeline. working backwards from a hoped-for completion time (it may be a few years hence). raise a Post-It n ote for each task that would help to recruit the 'assister'. Only the person whose name is shown as responsible for the task should move a task sticker. the sticker must only be moved by a person to whom the responsible person is accountable.l s k o r pe rs uad e so meone to take the task (Prompts 9.lIIIIIl W 1. B or C.l tlll'l '.tl llIlll llll"IiIIt " '. Stickers will have to b e juggled and shuffled until no task is expected to start before a pre requisite is comple ted. Identify tasks related to persuading 'resis ters' to come on board. Ideally it should run the whole length o f the wall and have a spare length folded away so that you can take it round the corne r and onto the adjourning wall. This will convert each resource sticker into a task sticker.knowing that it will be delegated to the person named on the sticker. If that person is not present. '1'11 . They should sign off the completion date..1 and 9.Is k do ne or yo ur s lril leg w tlill o t h. preferably opposite to your wall of task clusters. Allocate these new task stickers to the relevant cluster.4). recruit 'assisters' and redu ce 'resisters' .t! '1111 ' Ild llllll ll ll ll ll llll l'l ll ll I.3 to identify your 'assisters' . "'1 . which you can then add to one of your clusters. divide the sheet into years. Use the CATSWORLD checklist from Step 5 and Prompts 9. if yo u canno t d o lll it Y lI'S\·II . All that remains is to place each task on an implementation timeline.3 and 9. i)'. use masking tape to support a long sheet of blank paper. That person accepts the responsibility . Use the 9M checklist from Step 2 to genera te more tasks. If a ny ta k sti cke rs rem a in on the task w all. Move stickers labelled A first. check if the task is clear and whether it is rea ll y necessa ry. where A signifies a task tha t need s to be completed as soon as possible. .iill (· fpr !\\. then C. Repeat the process for all potential key 'resisters'. Again. IIll1 s t " Il t 1)(' . 'Assisters' are often change agents.Il . write also who will need to do what. C is a task that comes near the end of the implementation. months. They can help you with your strategy implementation. d e lega te th e [. if necessary.8: Scheduling Tasks on a Timeline On another wall. Prompt 9. You n ow have clusters of tasks that need to be completed in order to obtain resources. by when.4.( .2 and 9. 11 11t' II'II I"IIi I. It may be n ecessary to move the start and finish date to fit in a ll the Bs.L" Y s li r "e rs O il th e lim eline wi tho u t a na me a nd a ·. ~" HIIt ' P l lt ' lilli '" 1'1' 1(" 'I'\l II . . For each potential 'assister'. or to minimizing the disruption they might cause (Prompts 9.4. "dc ll !. heck if the re is a volunteer to put his or h er name on that task s ti cke r. Mark them with early completion dates. to make that resource a va il able. add the new task stickers to your clusters. On each reso urce sticker.Plan and manage projects to implement change 129 Prompt 9. quarters.

Finally. project managers are not given time to rehearse! Effective project management is not just about getting the project finished on time: it has a broader perspective. Implementation can then be monitored. Regular review and occasional rescheduling may be needed. Now you have a strategy implementation plan. which will be filed in number order. to cause one's voice to be heard over a wide area! Project managers need to be able to keep lots of people doing lots of different things simultaneously. To project is to predict. The project management process comprises: DEFINE Purpose Objectives Tasks Deadlines PLAN Tasks Timetable Sequence Network IMPLEMENT Persuade Negotiate Delegate Control EVALUATE What worked What didn't Lessons Changes Money Machines Assisters Resisters 1. The motivation and coordination of this activity. Different players with different skills will dominate different movements of the project symphony.9: Project Management Why do projects need managing? The variety of meanings of the word 'project' might provide a clue. with their start and finish dates. Prompt 9. You need to bring them into play at exactly the right time and then keep them working in harmony. It's more like conducting an orchestra than barking orders at a squad of soldiers! You need to get everybody reading the same line on the same score at the same time. It will unfold and act as an index.130 Strategic thinking planning ring-clip fil e. to propose. the project will need to be evaluated.111 11 111' . and plan in detail a timetable of key events. The details of each numbered task will then be found on the relevant task sheets. This evaluation will measure how well the purpose of the project has been achieved and identify better ways to manage future projects. is called 'project management'. and the decision taking and problem solving involved (each time there is an unexpected 'event'. in the form of a horizontal bar chart that shows all the tasks numbers. or 'enemy contact'). to throw forward. to implement the market-led strategy you forged in Step 8. address the resource requirements. Unfortunately. Defining the project DEFINE Purpose Objectives Tasks Doadlino Money Machines I\s i tors ilonlutol n PLAN Tasks Timetable Soquence Notwork IMPLEMENT Persuade Negotiate Dologa t COIIII OI EVALUATE What worked Whot didn 't l oononn (. can now be placed at the front of the file. A folded copy of the master time line. Many people may have undertaken to bring in necessary resources and to put in timely effort. You need players of different skills to play the different instruments. to imagine that other people are feeling the same as you are. An effective project manager will clarify the overall purpose of the project.

weekend working. design and agree SMART objectives . Plans will be needed for communication. During the defining phase. the project manager relies on people who can define.9. Much of the information you need is produced in Step 7 and Step 8. to what standard.2 and 9. The beginnings a nd end of a lask ca n be show n o n a Gantt chart like this: . Having listed all the tasks.6. the project manager may need to plan visits to places where the proposed change is already working. Which tasks are more urgent? How much time will be available each day or week? Which tasks can be carri ed out in parallel? What tasks can be completed before others? A meeting like the one d escribed in Prompts 9.8. for engendering support and for reducing resistance.7 and 9. Agreed.7 and 9. For example.8 might be helpful. Resourcing the project DEFINE Purpose Objectives Tasks Deadlines RESOURCES Money Machines Assisters Resisters PLAN Tasks Timetable Sequence Network Persuade Negotiate Delegate Control EVALUATE What worked What didn't Lessons Changes The 9M checklist used in Step 2 can be used as a checklist to ensure that all necessary resources have been thought about and that all actions have been scheduled to obtain them in a timely manner. by when? How long will it take? How will we know when it is done? The plan must specify the tasks involved and the order in which work must be carried out. The rest can be obtained by the processes described in Prompts 9.that is. Translating these goals into actions that can be project managed involves breaking them down into clear objectives. Arrangements for temporary overtime.Plan and manage projects to implement change 131 The goals of a strategic change are often broad and ill-defined.3 can be used to help you think about 'assisters' and 'resisters'. Step 5 and Prompts 9. Realistic and Timetabled. objectives that are Specific. 2. Planning the project DEFINE Purpose Objectives Tasks Deadlines RESOURCES Money Machines Assisters Resisters PLAN Tasks Timetable Sequence Network Persuade Negotiate Delegate Control EVALUATE What worked What didn't Lessons Changes The plan will need to detail: how much. the next job is to allocate times to each. Measurable. 9. 3.6. interim bonus schemes and the funding of away-days may need to be authorized.

as an activity begins. it may be useful to create a network of the activities. you either need to revise your plan or renegotiate your deadline. an analysis of discrepancies will help to improve future planning. A quick visual check at the end of each month should show that all activities to the left of the month have started or been completed. and all at once. A tas k ca nnot be started until all the tasks on its in coming arrows have been completed. It enables you to see what.best. catch-up action is needed.1' 11111 1'. This is called 'critical path analysis'. The number along the shaft is the estimated time to complete the task at the sharp end of the arrow (sometimes three numbers are shown .11\. the first forward slash can be crossed to show that it started on time. Ill 1 .Y II\'( 'i'I'dilil'. jo illl ( '. Any delay in co mp le tin g tasks on Ihe cri ti c(l l pMh w ill dcl(lY the fin(ll co ml Il'Ii on linw .1. 011 I\. The network is made up of arrows. The arrowhead represents the completion of the tasks to which they point. If there are lots of tasks that cannot be started until others are finished. l('k 11111( ' 111 1'. If not. Likewise. The network can then be analysed to see what the longest route is. At the end of the project. the forward slash can be crossed through. and worst). a cross is entered when it did start. tdl·tnl hId til( '\"(' i. The beauty of Gantt charts is that you don't have to think of the tasks in sequence. Each arrow has a number at the beginning of the shaft and another at the arrowhead. IiI"1I1 . sl. 1(' .! Iwfo l" (' . ()()llt'd . If that does not hit your deadlines. ·t. an X can be entered in the week it was actually completed. If it starts late. with a degree of latitude that reflects the leeway you have indicated in the task duration times. · . its prerequisites and their likely duration. The software then draws the network and finds the critical path and the completion date.132 Strategic thinking ~h Task 1 Task 2 Task 3 Task 4 Task 5 Task 6 Task? TaskS Task~ J / / F M A M J J A S / 0 N 0 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / Task 10-~ Task 11 Task 12 / / / / / / / / When a task is completed.llil : Ill(' IIlllsl still Iw ("(lIllp l. 1i P. is the shortest possible time in which the project can be completed. most likely. One of the most popular ways to draw the network is to use a PERT program (programmed evaluation and review technique). This software allows you to simply enter the task..IllY . ·. If the task is completed late. The former is the number of the task that must be completed before the task at the arrow end can be started. The figure below is the PERT network for an Afghan border rural health centre. on the basis of the current plan.lIT()W S lin nol Ii \' on Ih \' cri li c. Tasks you have overlooked can easily be inserted on your emerging chart.

l). (15 + 16 + 5 + 5 + 10 + 10 + 5 + 5 + 5 + 3 + 3 + 2 = 84).4. The four Me.tl1d 9. 4. During the implementation ph.'i~ 11 5 . provided there is no s lirp.3).4 .' 11'" 16 _--- The Afghan health centre critical path analysis reveals that although thl' IIILI! work content is 100 weeks. the project manager will be much occupied with control processes. Implementing the project DEFINE Purpose Objectives Tasks Deadlines Money Machines Assisters Resisters PLAN Tasks Timetable Sequence Network Persuade Negotiate Delegate Control EVALUATE What worked What dldn·t Lessons Changes I This involves persuading. ~ --8 _1 0~12 _1 3 _1 4~15_1 7 -~ 10 /'.lM'. 200:1.~ 6 ---- 15 1__ 2 ~ 16 3 ~ 5 4_ 5 5 _ .. (The role of training and a conversational approach to coaching.) Control is one of the keys to project management. 5--"" 5 3 3 2 In ~ ~ 111 - '. be completed in H4 W('v":. and a matrix for controlling them.l' ill the time taken to complete any of the tasks which lie on the critical path forl1wd hy the solid arrows.Plan and manage projects to implement change 133 .lS where things commonly go wrong. 9. negotiating and delegating (Prompts 9. in fact.1. 1 ' " . are shown below: Likely problem Quantity Cost Time How would I know? What would I do? ()lllIlIly .2 . the project can.4. ml'nloring and learning are described in Chapters 13 and 14 of Horne and Doherty.

defining. negotiation and de legation Co mbin trategi pl a nning a nd proj ct ma nag m nt to impl cm nl ~ trdt qy . Report back to the group at your next 20-30 minute meeting. Written progress reports should be one page. Formulate the questions to be put to the group and the message to be communicated. planning and implementing . If it is not long enough. Section 3. The project manager will need the full range of thinking skills set out in Part I.134 Strategic thinking GUIDELINES FOR A PROJECT PROGRESS MEETING • • • • • • • Agree a 'no-blame' culture. PLAN AND MANAGE PROJECTS TO IMPLEMENT CHANGE STEP 9 SUMMARY Step 9 will have helped you to: • • • Understand why some people will resist the market-led changes you forged into a strategy in Step 8 Overcome resistance through persuasion. Spend the last five minutes of the meeting evaluating 'how are we working together'. Allow three minutes only for verbal reports.mdC)(' \lr.ask the following questions: • • • • What went well? What did not go well? What can we learn from this experience? What would we do differently another time? Project management often assumes that change can be managed in a rational and objective manner.Hid rn. including emotional intelligence. 5. Encourage the reporting of bad news. Limit the meeting to 30 minutes. organizations are often far from rational places. However. working one-to-one with individuals. Write action notes in the meeting. resourcing. increase the frequency but not the length of the meetings.llC'C)i hilng . Do your thinking away from the group. especially when changes generate strong emotions. Evaluating the project DEFINE Purpose Objectives Tasks Deadlines Money Machines Assisters Resisters PLAN Tasks Timetable Sequence Network IMPLEMENT Persuade Negotiate Delegate Control EVALUATE What worked What didn't Lessons Changes In relation to each of the first four stages .

Part III

The next steps

Next Steps
Part II of this book was divided into nine steps. If you have been able to apply each step, then you are a strategic thinker. You have used a combination of thinking skills to gather and assess strategic intelligence, to create and communicate market-led strategy, and to implement and manage strategic change. You are now able to think about any organization and to give it a sense of direction. You can help an organization to escape its past, focus on its present and rethink its future. You can assess past information, direct present action and improve future performance. When you ask your people to help you to answer the questions in each step of our 9S©Approach, it will be easier for your people to follow your lead and to support the strategic changes needed to implement your market-led strategy. The world, however, will not stand still. Your strategic thinking will not stop. As you initiate change, new information will emerge. In light of this new information, you may need to modify your plans. The background strategic thinking you have undertaken will enable you to modify your plans quickly in ways that are still consistent with your market-led strategy. In Part I of this book we explained how you can develop the component skills of a strategic thinker. When these component skills are combined with skills in brainbased communication, using a one-to-one conversational style, people will say of you that you are a strategic leader. SL=CS+TS+ BBC ie Strategic Leadership = Conversational Style

+
Thinking Skill

+
Brain-Based Communication When you do things that strategic leaders do, you become a strategic leader. In Training Your Brain (Wootton and Horne, 2009), there are details of practical ways in which you can develop your thinking skills. As well as supporting your strategic thinking, these component skills have been shown to improve your problem solving, your intelligence and your ability to learn. The book sets out the neuroscience on which this work is based, and it describes the way in which the speed and accuracy of your strategic thinking can be affected by stress, mood , music, coffee, tea, food, alcohol, smoking and age. It describes the effect on yo ur thinking of snacking, dieting, chocolate, exercise, posture, massage, sex, s leep, noise, colours, hea t, light, weather, and even the clothes you wea r'

Final thought
PAST PRESENT FUTURE
Memories of love Were like a resting place, A shelter from the storm, I know why they gave you comfort, And helped to keep you warm, And in time of trouble, One day when you are cold, Your memories of love, Will keep you warm. I know that you are lost And don't know who you are, But your memories of love Will keep you warm Some said that love was everything I say that I don't know. I know that if I lose you I will love you from afar. And my memories of love Will be of you.

(Terry Horne remembering 'Perhaps Love' by John Denver, when Danya, aged 3, was caught up in the fighting in Pakistan, in the Spring of 2009. Nearly 3 million people were made homeless, when the Pakistan army fought the Taliban in the Swat Valley).

. Only then are we free. New Knowledge creation Needs incubation. then enacted Of actions to be.a long list to see. Escape with a metaphor. Information immersion . When actions are modelled and tested and free. Revise the revisions. when we were set free. This limerick is a response to spending 20 years thinking about how to do it! Terry Horne). A Future invented will be. And take the decisions. Experience is gained when actions not chained to the Past set you free. Ikujiro Nonaka wrote in the Harvard Business Revue about the need for companies to create knowledge. The Past is a prison of knowledge enchained By actions entrained. The tacit zone is then explicitly known. From the Past as a prison of knowledge enchained by actions entrained Before we were set free.138 Final thought ESCAPING THE PAST AND INVENTING THE FUTURE Information is known about actions they acted. A Future invented is best implemented. (Nearly 20 yeas ago. Models digested they tested by plans. We invent a new Future. symbol or three. Lessons are learned and wisdoms discerned When Actions not chained to the past set you free . The Past is a prison whose lesson are key To knowing a Future from problems set free. Based on actions we've acted. When Knowledge is known based on wisdom we own. it is tacit explicit in action to see. based on actions we acted.

encouraging and recognizing achiovomont s (1111 Iyl will bo 110rd 10 /11.Appe dix A Selecting an approach to take with individuals In order to decide which approach is best for which individual: ~ ASSESS INDIVIDUALS By agreeing with each person something they are to achieve within a short period (very short in turbulent times) . close supervision. sharing of ideas. Agree by when it is to be done. explaining decisions.' : II) . to what standard and how and when it will be measured. encouraging effort and praising achievement TELLING involves giving specific instructions and supervising closely and frequently how they are being carried ou t TRAINING Involves coaching . JUDGE INDIVIDUALS How mooh they e~2eh they wont to do it? '1 CATAGORJZE INDIVIDUALS 1 IF IF ~ ~ IF I High Ability High Motivation I High Ability Low Motivation I I ------------ IF I I Low Ability High Motivation SELECT Low Ability Low Motivation SELECT I SELECT I SELECT DELEGATING involves giving responsibility for your own work and problem solving to other people SELLING involves sharing the vision.' :/r/1 I (Ibll /s. lify in '1/11)(/10'" rilli OS c ()II .

Appendix B Selecting an approach to take with groups (if you must!) In turbulent times it will be hard enough for your people to think clearly without further handicapping their brains by expecting them to work in a group. explaining decisions and encouraging and recognizing achievements (this may be too highmaintenance in turbulent times. productivity is low. performs well. Unproductive. encouraging effort. try to work one-to-one with individuals (see Appendix A).and praising achievement ~ TELLING involves giving specific instructions and supervising closely and frequently how they are being carried out ~ TRAINING Involves coaching. morale is low ------- IF I Your group is fragmented. consider disbanding) . morale is high Your group is cohesive. close supervision. Wherever possible. has low effective work practices. and listen to the experience of individuals working in those groups: IF I Your group is well established. morale is low I SELECT I SELECT I SELECT I SELECT ~ DELEGATING involves giving responsibility for your own work and problem solving to other people ~ SELLING involves sharing the viSion. and morale is high ------ IF IF I I Your group is newly formed. sharing of ideas. ASSESSING GROUP DEVELOPMENT Observe your groups at work.

conversational strategic leadership.a model We might usefully blend 20th century models of action-centred contingent and transformational leadership with the 21st century's needs for brain-centred.Appendix C Leadership for turbulent times . MAKING SENSE TAKING ACTION FORMULATING IDEAS EVALUATING CONSEQUENCE INNER WORLD THINKING OUTER WORLD ACTION .

P (1981) Systems Thinking. Doubleday Publishing. MIT I'n's. 'I' . London Aaker. New York Blakemore. Reasoning and Communication of the AI-ED 93 World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (pp 25-8). London Cornelius.1. 72. McGraw-Hill. London Bateson. J -Jnrvn rd Iillsilll'SS J~I' (l il '7(I. D (2002) Building Strong Brands.1(1( 1 '1'11.l. 26. Proceedings of the Workshop of Graphical Representations.75 11()I Y(). Quelch.'. D 13. pp 99-106 De Bono.'i"/ I' /I "'" 11I//'/I 'II /I'IIIiIl. Time Warner Book Group. Early Child Development and Care. B (1999) The Mathematical Brain. M Petre. 1 (2) Cheng. Pegasus. London Chan Kim. J (2006) Do You Think?. p 24 Haigh. R (1970) Management Information Systems: A systems view. I' (199. G (1979) Mind and Nature. London Bach. in (eds) R Cox. J A and Taylor. 1'11(111.I'(lI} . Dell Publishing. Random House. pp 6H . MoI ~' : ' 11(11111 '.1 . R (2009) Leadership in Economic Uncertainty. R (1977) Illusions. 82 (9). D (1989) Keys to Sustainable Competitive Advantage. London Buzan. D (2005) Brand Portfolio. California Management Review.. C K (1989) Strategic intent. Systems Practice.1k . Edinburgh Cohen. J (1999) Winning with Probability.1111/ 1 )()IH'l'l y."'. University of Edinburgh. EP Dutton. Pan. John Wiley. D (2008) Strategic Market Management. J (1991) Enhancing creativity in young children: strategies for teachers.. S (2001) Creative Destruction. E (1986) Six Thinking Hats. Journal of Systems Engineering. G and Casler. A (11)\)\)) MlllillSillS 1'/lI. Chichester Checkland. Grant. Chichester Ackoff. W and Mauborg. . E L (2004) Ho w globa l bra nd s co mpete. Free Press. K . P W (1993) Multiple interactive structural representation systems for education.li. M (1999) Philosophy Problems. pp 90-107 Aaker.')) MI'II/(lII . BBC Books. Wiley & Son.References and recommended reading Aaker. London Adair. S (2007) The Learning Brain. HBR. P Brna and J Lee. Blackwell. R and Kaplan. New York Charan. New York Griffiths. New York Gladwell. New York Checkland. Business. J (1985) Effective Leadership. Macmillan. June. HBS Publishing. Oxford University Press. Winter.1('. T (1993) The Mind Map Book. Little Brown and Company. P and Griffin. . R K (1997) The Servant-leader Within. Oxford Butterworth. New York Aaker.1). New York Foster. Routledge. New York Baggini. Simon & Schuster. ' .1'1:. G and Pra halad. R (2005) Blue Ocean Strategy. D (2002) Global superstores. R (1996) From Mechanistic to Social System Thinking. Oxford Ham el. Paulist Press. M (2008) Blink. pp 63-76 Ii o lt. New York Greenleaf.

References and recommended reading

143

Horne, T and Doherty, A (2003) A ThoughtfuL Approach to the Practice of Management, Routledge, London Howard, P (2006) The Brain, 3rd edn, Barol Press, TX Hurson, T (2009) Innovator's Guide, McGraw-Hill, London Kawashima, D (2007) Train Your Brain, Penguin, Harmondsworth Keller, K (2003) Brand Management, Prentice Hall, NJ Koestler, A (1970) The Act of Creation, Pan Books, London Levitt, T (1985) Globalizing markets, Harvard Business School Journal, 61 (3), p 90 McKay, R and Cameron, H A (1999) Restoring the production of hippocampal neurons in old age, Nature Neuroscience, Oct (2), pp 894-7 Mintzberg, H (1987) Crafting strategy, HBR, July-August, pp 66-75 Morgan, G (1986) Images of an Organisation, Sage, London Perkins, D N (1988) Creativity and the quest for mechanism, in (eds) R J Sternberg and E E Smith, The Psychology of Human Thought (pp 309-36), Cambridge University Press, New York Richmond, B (1993) Systems thinking: critical thinking skills, System Dynamic Review, 9 (2), Summer, pp 113-33 Richmond, B (1994) Systems Dynamics/Systems Thinking; Let's just get on with it (http://wwwhps-inccom/st/paperhtml) Rupp, R (1998) Committed to Memory, Aurum Press, London Senge, P (1990) The Fifth Discipline, Currency /Doubleday, New York Sterman, J (1994) Learning in and about complex systems, System Dynamic Review, Summer-Fall Tharp, T (2004) The Creative Habit, Simon & Schuster, New York Thompson, P et al (2009) Genetics of brain fibre: architecture and intellectual performance, The Journal of Neuroscience, 18 February, 29 (7), pp 2212-24 Treffinger, D J (1986) Blending Gifted Education with the TotaL School Program, DOK Publishers, Buffalo, NY Williams, G (1983) The Lisa computer system, Byte, 8 (2), pp 33-50 Wiseman, J (2007) Quirkology, Macmillan, London Wootton, S and Horne, T (2000) Strategic Thinking, Kogan Page, London Wootton, S and Horne, T (2008) Training Your Brain for the Over 50s, Hodder, London Wootton, S and Horne, T (2009) Training Your Brain, Hodder Education, London Wootton, S and Horne, T (2010) Keep Your Brain Sharp, Hodder Education, London

Index
3M 95 6S framework 70, 71 9Ms, the 47,48, 131 machines 61 - 62 management 53 market 48-50, 49, 50 customers 49-50, 50 product features 48-49, 49 materials 62 mental muscle 51-52 money 53-61 balance sheets 58,58- 59 cash flow forecasting 54, 55- 57 financial health 60, 60-61 financial performance 53, 54 performance ratios 59,59-60 profit and loss accounts 58, 58 morale 50-51 mores 51 movement 61 9SC' Approach, the vii, ix, 2, 6, 37, 136 see also market-led strategy, create and communicate a; project management; strategic capability, assessing; strategic decisions, taking; strategic intelligence, gathering; strategic knowledge, creating; strategic options, creating; strategic predictions, making; strategic vision, developing Aaker, David 97, 108 acronyms 7-8 acrostics 8 Adair, John 3,83 adrenaline 67 advanced thinking tools metaphorical thinking 21,24- 28,67 as an aid to memory 24 to integrate higher order thinking 26 mapping 26 'six thinking hats' 27-28 synectics 26-27 and transferable learning 26 systems thinking 20-24 conversational systems model 21, 22-23,23-24, 25 Adverb Game 12 Alice Throllgh the Looking Glass 8 Al zheimer's di sease 8 Am c n 10 1 1z(l .In ,,'Iy 10 A I ,,,II,, I I, I n
A I'I'I; '

Aristotle 15 Armani 102 Aronson, Daniel 21 assistors 128, 129 Association Game 12 Association of Masters of Business Administration (AMBA) viii associations 8 Aston Martin 99 AVOCADOS checklist 118,118 Bach, Richard 4 Bagely 78 Baggini, Julian 14 Bang and Olufsen 99 belief 5,6, 11, 14, 17, 18, 53, 69, 74, 85, 86, 101 Ben and Jerry's 100 Berlin Wall 5 Birkenstock 103 black hat thinking 27 blue hat thinking 27 BMW 97, 98,103 body language 122 Body Shop 100 Body-based pleasures, Laughter, Involvement, Satisfaction and Sex (BUSS) 11 Boston Consulting Group 111 BP 100,109 brain teasers 17 brain-based strategic communication 5- 6 asking questions 5 emotional imagery 5 gaining confidence 5 and imagination 6 and motivation 6 repetition 5 and risk tolerance 6 short-term memory 5-6 brand building 101-04 brand equity 102, 102-03 brand identity 103, ]03-04 brand strategies 93 Branson,Richard 103, 104,106 Brazil 31, 36, 43, ]08, 109, 110 'Brodmann ' areas 126 BTR Industri es 36 Burbe rry 103- 04 Burger Ki ng 10'1 II" rm.1 'I
11" /, 111, ·li lll Y :),1,.'11 ( ',1111"'"11 , 11111 ,'

10 1, 1011
)· 1

AI'lti"I\II ,,,

7' •

Index

145

Carroll, Lewis 8 cash 11,22,29,31-37,54-59,61,64,71,81, 82,90,93,94,97, 104, 111, 112 'cash cows' 111 Caterpillar 95 CATSWORLD checklist 23, 129 actors 68 customers/ clients 68 decisions 70 limitations 69 owners 69 resources 69 sub-systems 68 transformation 68, 68 way we do things around here 69 cerebral cortex 6, 14, 18, 73 change vii, viii, 2, 6, 8, 32, 41, 64, 67, 72, 83, 92,115,136 change, resistance to 70, 118-20 anticipating resistance 116, 118 detecting resistance 120 forming, storming, norming and performing 119,119 forms of resistance 119 overcoming resistance to change 115,120,
120,134

Charan, R v, 3 Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) viii Checkland, Peter 21 chess 17 Chief Executive (CEO) 3, 13,30-33,53, 100, 106 China 31,36,37,43, 108 Chrysler 107 Cicero 87 Clayton, Professor 75 Coca-Cola 95, 108 Colombo 75 commercial 17,36,37,69 compatibility, evaluating 89 competitiveness 83,87,88,91,95, 109 competitiveness, evaluating 89 consolidation 128 contingency planning 10 contraction and consolidation 93, 111 controllability, evaluating 89- 90 conversationa l vii, viii, 3- 4,16,19,21,24,25, 78, 125, 133, 136, 141 Cornelius, G and Casler, J 26 cortisol 67, 83 creative thinking vii , 17 18 ilnd b .... in .1 livily 7:l combining Ihinking ~ ki ll s 711 l'()l llf()I' L,hl ,· H(' lI i ll)~ H 7H l'OIlIlIl"1l h l" .'k,. In, 1I",tl vil y 7~ d, 'v,'I"I ' "')'.' " '" I, v,l y '1,1 7'1 d l. k l I B H iH H lllI 'Wlj IlI ld 'lh
IlI'i Illlli '

move your perspective 75 note down ideas 74 pass it on 76 play music 77 relaxation exercises 76 role play 77 set tight deadlines 76 signal your creative intent 75 something surprising 76-77 start early 75 talk to yourself 77 think of life as a game 76 travel and talk 76 use analogies and metaphors 76 walking 75 humour 78 removing blocks 18, 74 techniques to aid creativity 79-81 attribute listing 79 brainstorming 79-80 forced relationships 80-81 working conditions 79 Credit Crunch 6,31,35,94 critical path analysis 132 critical thinking vii,15-17 when reading press reports 17 when reading reports 16-17 current ratio 60-61 customer value, creating 99 corporate and social responsibility (CSR) 100 customers expressing their own values 100 customers' relationships with the product 100 eye appeal 99 superior quality 100- 01 whole systems 99 de Bono, Edward 27 debt ratio 60 decision making 14,20,5 1, 67, (,'I , H II'>, -I, 86,95, III developing entrcprcnl'uri ,d ' fll1l1 ' III HII expert 83, 85 in diffi cult tim es In, H 'I sty les of 70, flJ decision t"blt's li l, H .) I 7 comp .. lil ilily, " V ,dll"IIIIf', 11' 1 om lwtiliv"'H 'H~, ,'v,dll ," III )', 11'1 onlroll,lhiitl y, ,'y, dll" lill )\ 11' 1 "II c.. ill'n" 10 .. l, y,.JII ''' III )\ "' 11 1, gf' Cit.II')'," HH H' ) fi'II sl hilll y, ,'v, d,",IIII )', 'III llill "" I, ,'v,dll ,,, III): 'III 'I I "1,1'"11 ", " V, dll"IIII )', )1)1 /11/
Il lj ~ 'j, j 'vl llll 111ill H

1' 1

IJI

I i I II j VI III ' I 'y l '

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1)"11 1111 d. 'v"IIII"')', "111111 '" '" 11>1 ,I 11, 1,
1 L II I • • _ ....... , I j

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4·dllll r..107.89.108.99 Ja pi1l1 vii. Sherl ock 75. Robert 3 Greenpeace 100 Grey Matters 8 Griffiths. Tony v.68.36. 67 daydreaming 74 Dryden.97 Hugo.87. 14-15.43.33. Dwight 127 Elliot. 20. A lbert 8 Eisenhower. 54 performance ratios 59. 86. fear of 10 Fairtrade 43. 10') lo bs. 10(' joi llill). RichMd S :n ( . 83. Golcman 12 Goodwin.110 forecasting 13. 9.62 Equitrade Coffee 100 Esso 100 ethical thinking vii. " / /11 /liI' / ""/ 111') 1 """l'h 11 I ') IId 'I" II ' f\.126 Harley-Davidson 100. 3. 100.51.146 Illc/t ·x 'dogs' III Doherty. Ernest 75 Hesse.45-46. going g lob'll .58 financial health 60-61 tests for liquidity 60 tests for solvency 60 Fog Index 8 force field ana lysis 120 Ford 95.46. 11 7.82 how to compete 92. Aldous 75 Hyundai 97 Iacocca.31. 88 'eye appeal' 99 face-to-face 29. 101 econom ics. 11111 II 1\ I. 46.'''I/1/ .8. 31 conversation 121 fai lure.88. 55-57 financial health 60. S II'V I' l)'l. Rorycus 108 Holyoak.87.31 Fortune 100 Foster. assessing your organ ization's 53-61 balance sheets 58. 110 individuals.1 33 Dolby 99 Dove 109 dream(s) 5.58-59 cash flow forecasting 54.llq. 104 Harvard Business Review 20 helicopter thinking 26 Hemingway. Herman 3 Hewlett Packard 95 Holmes. Susan 67 Greenleaf. John 17 Du Pont 109 Dumas.88.27. Alexandre 75 EasyJet 94. Frcd 33 Gorbachev. 104 Hurson. :l6.. 86 Holt. . Lee 106 IBM 109 lCI 100 Ikea 97 Illusions 4 imagination 8-9 impact 42.25..90-91..I1 "./. Victor 75 humour 26. KJ 26 Honda 95.109. R 106 Freddie Mac 33 Fuji 104 Fu ld . 109 horizontal integration 81.85. 13.18. TS 70 empath y and emotion 9-11 and anxiety 10 Equitrade 43.1. assessing 139 Innocent 106 interest cover ratio 60 intuition 14.11.59-60 profit and loss accounts 58.u .1n1<'r '}'. 113 Formula 1. 89. 78. Victoria 108 groups. · ( • • IIII I I going gloh.90-91 impact. 43 Ireland 31 Jag uar 97.60-61 financial performance 53. 62 Fanny Mae 33 feasibility 6. 91 Iran 4. 67. assessing 140 growth strategies 94 Gucci 102 Haier 8. 70. 1 l! dll t .32. 80.'1I"" sl'.y. 11' ''.48. TIm 128 Hurst 78 Huxley.83. changes in 43 Einstein. 16 cha nges in 45-46 evaluating options 84.. 21 . 5 Great Depression 29 Greece 31 g reen hat thinking 27 Greenfield.96.23. "I' 1111 ' do " I> 12 I Ill! fill dill ( .95 evaluating 90 Ferrari 103 finances bubble 67 finances.. Mikhail 2. evaluating 90-91 India 2.

. II '. 111111"..'r'·I1I '..11'0' \ III '. y 71> I" '"" '11".. Colin 17.d II 11 1 \ +111 \ /1. 53. II. 30.I"d 1111 III br. ~ ""I I" ' I~' II '7 1\1 1 111 .136 leade rs hip v.1"1 11111.lIldid l' I1. I>ill )\'" "".0 I Lincoln.il y I II'. 31.12 executive s ummary proforma 11 2 marke ting leade rs 29. ". 83." "11. viii. 32..'. !>"""""" 'tl h'. R "106 Ma zda 20.36.)'. lllil 11111 II t H ' .1 . 141 leadership sty les 3-4 communicating directio n 4 prophe tic voices among th e young 4 d eveloping your own 3 listening to others 3-4 Lehman Brothers 33 Le nnon. h. 11 111 (I ' oI 'j dill .I It T. 100... )\ tI"" 1I II 11111 11111111 .' III br.I.Ige IOS go in g g lob.lclartivl'11l'"'' 'IS building .d t ' I " ". Harold 127 meas ures of performan e (MOl's) 22 nll'dia 17. lplIII I \ dlill I "'11111 "I .." I 'll ". ' li ·. III . II 1111" 1111 .. 11 . 11j1 'h I I . 8. ] . I " . '" ..1II · )~h ' I " .d ""'Illory 24 1111.il y /111.11" " 1.' 111" ' 1'1 "'""1.01.IIIIII' ' 1" I '/1'0 '1 KFC 104 . 9.lh g\ tj "" 1'1 '''''' 'i". creating 96 how to compete 97. IIIII. Ma rlin 2. S. 11. Abraham 14 li quidity ra tio 6 1 Li ste rine 105 Luther King. 111 1 111 ""11. 1>.34. ~ . H. 11'" I. H. cha nges in 45 leaders vii.. .92 93.99 where to co mpe te 96-97 writingyour stra tegy 111 .!'1 IX .73 Ma ts ushita 20 Ma uborg. 111'1 f() prese nting yo ur strategy 11 2.. ·11 market developll1l'1l1 H I.."H I ol1ll1ll". " /l.' /1 " 1.18. 70..II'h·" 1{(l·"II. 102 Ma rks & Spencer 108 Ma rple. 111/1 I 1I '. 107 10.lIl.125. 111'1 ~ h'" . 10') Kim .11. John 30 Levelt.t'I·I' YiJ/1I 1l1I11I1 ." .. "II' 1111 .i r.95 ma rke ting tea m iv.'r 's I{u le H 1111(' of Ihrl'l' Il Ihr\ '\' A ~. 11ll' 7 H "" '"I . 2.28.H 111111 .tI. vl . Arthur 26 Komats u 95 Korea 43.97 . T 109 Lewin. '<1..11. vii . Miss 75 Ma rtindale.· . Gillian 41 McMill a n.... "·. 106.11.'plll. 35.II I yll' h :n "" ·I''1.. 102.>lIIIIII''ing 2 1. 1' 11 1.111111 1 1 11111 11111111 .IIIIIII )'.. C ha n 106 Kipling..1>7 ' . 95.121. 109. 11111 Il\lw Itl ddl .Illd ~ " " ' I')'. 3 1.ll 1117.. " '17.>I " 106 incH'')'' '''g " .14 fina l s ummary 11 4 introduc ti on 11 3 ma in bod y 11 3 reactive respons ive ness 95 s trategy ta bl e 92.. "" .'pl. :)(.lr1lhIlWli c II 1\. 30. 1I" <. 83-86.III III . 136.-.. I( '" gnnv lh . 5-6. 10. 126. . 110 McDon a ld s 104 Mc llu g h. 11 9 II1 ('lIlory 7 Il hlg Ind ex H Mi ll . I>". lOll Lycra 109 Mand e la. III 'I j ' " . . 111 \ 1\01 1 'I \ 111111 1 1r.I'. ' "' gill" "" " .[1. Kurt 120 Lex us 96.37. 1.' 11 ·1 . II 111 ' \\ dII I 1111 III I II " 11 11 11 1111 . 70.\ 11111 III wll.108 Lancashire Business School 41 Landrover 110 law of a verages 11 law. \'01. Will e m 12 Levi 104 Levitt. c h a n gl'~ ill ·/ 1 1'1.) 1\.01 "". 1.93 s tubbo rnn ess 94 s umma ry 114 s ustain a ble co mpe titi ve adva ntage.· ( 'OI1U. Rud ya rd vi ii Klee nex 102 Koes tl e r. 6.. W'.98.II 1\ 1... IOCl Mari e nbad II market.'l ..'1'"'' I' l' 1 . 108. lI.2 1 2H.h" ~ '.1IIII).II. III market-led s lra ll'gy" . 1111 IIIII III I ' I 11111 II hll II I (~ltl l l) III ' 01 .'" '.I"d" I-. 3.1118.'.11.II / III)" \P III -dl .. 'I.' h ~ 11111 t.lnd ('(I' . . K. !til ' 1111 11'" 1/" 111111 II 111 1II'.. ·.98 on what to compe te 98. Nelso n 2. . lllh. ~ Illil i-. 37. ." '. 29-37.

evaluating 88. changes in 44-45 Porsche 104 Portugal 31 predictive thinking vii.37.. 125 test the hypothesis 124 neurochemicals 67 neuromarketing 36 neuroscience 2.117-18. 120 resourcing the project 131 scheduling tasks 129-30 strategic planning 127-28 summary 134 task sheets 116 product development 21.". 43. 14.58. 18. 33. 18. I()~ 1'. (d . 11\ " .13-14 price 31.27. 126 eva lu atin g the projec t 134.136 Newton. 111.. II . 127 prophetic voices among the young 4 developing your own 3 listening to others 3-4 recession.131-33. 88 Pantene 108 Pepsi 95.81.119 forms of resistance 119 overcoming resistance to change 120.I1h . 118 AVOCADOS checklist 118. '109.35. John 14 NEC 95 negotiating 123 accept agreement 125 a seven-stage model 121 decide maximum and minimum positions 124 find overlap 124 probe 124 set up a hypothesis 124 summarise areas of agreement 124-25.1(). IV "lill ll ll lJ :I I :12 vi 1. 133-34 negotiating 123 accept agreement 125 decide maximum and minimum positions 124 find overlap 124 probe 124 set up a hypothesis 124 summarise areas of agreement 124-25.I11..36. 20.8. 95. 64-66 preparing people for change 117.97. 1303 1 delegating 125.133 prediction 13-14.l r kll(l w l('dp.118 resistance to change 118-20 detecting resistance 120 forming.134 fa ce-to-face conversa tion 121 identify tasks to identify resources 129 to implement strategy 128 implementation plan 115 implementing the project 133. strategic thinking durin g a 29. '/. David 26 persuading 121 a seven-stage model 121 ask for acceptance 123 confirm the conversation connect the change to benefits 122 deal with doubt 122 establish rapport 122 handle objections 122 probe 122 PERT 115.<' 11\('111 MTV 103. Isaac 120 NEX 20 Next 99 Nicholas 84 Nike 95. 125 test the hypothesis 124 persuading 121 ask for acceptance 123 confirm the conversation connect the change to benefits 122 deal with doubt 122 establish rapport 122 handle objections 122 probe 122 planning the project 131. 127 "I'i 'il1l\ :1S. 132 Peugeot 108 Philadelphia 102 Phillips 110 Poirot.9. ' tI. 11.l u l.132.1 111'0 HII'III. 14. Ikyiyero 20 North Korea 4 NovaMind 115 nuclear waste 36 numeracy 11 older people 13.5.37 at boa rd level 33 business develop m nt 36 buying 36 37 ('ils h rn .1I1i1gt ' It\l 'n t :'\ 1 1.. norming and performing 119.14t1 11/( 110\ Mas's 8 1'f'()('i(>I'& ( .28.62..109 Nissan 109. 15.1 1\1 )1 1" proj"I' 1 111. 101.111" ). III . 17. UU IflU lOll 11 'i 1'1 'riti . 108. L 09 Mudd. 108 Perkins.81. 11 1'. storming.23.110 Nonaka. I . . 43.61. 12. Hercule 75 politics.>ly ~ i ~ 1:12 defining the project 1. 100. 74 options.82.. iOl . Daniel 33 Naisbitt.79.98.

I. .'. " V.·1 .1")'. WII II . 101 106 ·. . (C.67.. A III .'''.dl'tlil . 1t.hl'" 11\ I ". 141 en trepreneuri al ' fl air ' 86 H7 and t'xperi en c 86 nn I intuiti on 85.111 '\ \ \111 I" I .II. H I < lI1ticipating 1"1 6 areas of 89 detectin g 120 di ss ipating 11 6 form s o f 11 9 overco ming 11 5.l W 4'.64.l lu.9 1 in difficult tim es H3.' ''.t\ 11 III j . '" I Ii SI'I)I" Ut ll . HH ri sks. I{" .'"\ ' .}"h 1I I IIIHI1'.1I1d pl'rsonn l va lu es H5 S'"11Il1. 111 "' t'.II"'. l. 'I' H· '. l·v. ·.1.l 3 1. I).. IH 'IIIII1)" I II 'd ll \ 'I' 111I11klll )'. '. 1 SI" " . 117./'/' " 111 '1 lilt t-..1I1 99. thl' 47. ti" .I \ . H8. 111111111111 '.90 SCI' 0150 change.lCk ing the bottom line 32 I mi nin g 34-35 rl' I hat thinking 27 rl'fle live thinkin g v ii.lI1klin 29 l{"y .59..lkcrs Hi) H'1 m oti el of straleg i decisinn m'lking IN . II . '. Ayrl OIl 10'1 ~. 129 n'l ren chnll'nl 82 l{ic hl11ont! .' I ) . 49.ll t' 29 Ilw m.lill')" H'I co ntro ll abilil y... I.II ' I.. 4H m a hin es 6 1 62 m. 88. eva lu aling l)J) 'I I options.I ' ·' ·" ..MA IU) " ItI. K'I competiti vt'Ill's».. 1I1 )\'·~ in l'lhies 4S 46 . II' ). 103 :m H\I"'" 1 <(l II ~ IOJ Roy t' 11 0 i<1)().. '"11.· II'.36.9 1 l<\lh.11. h .20 1 lll is duBo is 106 {(' Henault 109 repti li an brain 6 Resistan e 88. 106.1I change 88 Hl) feas ibility.1I1). I ' 1'1 III ' 111'1 \I 11 " 1'1'1"..1I1). IOH { l<y.lir 94 .1111\ 101. ('v. K7 'I I compati b ility..1 ..1 11 )'.23.t.1t.'·~ ill polil i." I ' 111/1 .83.11111 111'11'1. 11. ~d'" ".\ '~ "' ".ltin g 9 1. Ar. 1I1. 1111 II \ 'Ii ' I 'I: Ii 1\ It . II w('Pill'» 104 ' . H9. ·11". .43. eva lull ting HH..·.I"). .l lin g 'I() impact.lJ'kel i ng tell m 30 prod uct pri ing 35 I<&D 3536 recruilin g 34 I'(' mninin g competi li v e 30.J I" .... "' g('~ ill ('l'IIIHlll1ic» 4:1 \' h .dl'l y 'I(. 1 . II" .lkin g decisions 33 I r.) 'I'. ' 11 '. 126.lplhl l " " ~'.lnngcmenl 53 rmrkel 4H 50.. l'v.·.'" III . '" no "1 1 111I1I klll)'. ' I 1 l lIdulil I" 1 1.~ I \I.' ""IIIIIr:' 'Il 1111111111111 '8 'dill I 'j 111 1 11 '. 11 8. " k ll 'l l . 109 IISb. 19. 'J 'H '. 9M s.. .' 1 . 91. B. II".lry 9 1 ~ lr\ 'I ('g i c illll'lIigl'Il« '. d~st'ss ill )'.11 III II \ 'I \ .ld c rship sty les 83 H4 mJn. 1 ('.1/ '11 1111111 .' ''. resis tllnce 10 l'I'»i»IOl's 12H..III. ·I" I 'III t'.lining mOl".lgl'ment d ec isio n m.II •. 11 .. ' III I I . "1"11.1.' ·:' I'.t y V" II" I.36. l~ r. (C.}" h ~ lh lw l. 90... !i() m ater iab 62 mental muscle I) I 1)2 m oney 53 6 1 morale 50 I) I mores 5 1 movemen t 6 1 summary 62 strategic decisions. II) 1"c!lIlo lo)\y 4 .l1111.II1l ' lIng 'I II 1. eva lu..1 12 S.l1I . ~ 44 '1'1 ...33. d" 1'1 Ilid I II11I I dd . ga lheri ll g 41 46 dl .I III')'.1'1" III' " ' 11. 107.1 .70.1 ..1. 11111.'v eil . 11" tl\ ...1 1/\ 11 \ I I II 111 11 II I r."1I1I' 1 11 .1J\ 1 I (. 1.f\..11'"ll1lr. .I '" M..1 111 ."Ty 2 1 I "k v ii.I·IIII . 13. ..·.In IIIII'o flhrel'. 11 Y IItl II " M I ' II ':~. H6 Jnt! le.1l':·. tl'''·l lIdldl ' { \J:II'n l I..II Bank of Scol 1 ti 3:1 . II.5 1. 18.. SP' il . 134 potential so urces llncl leve ls of ] 20 10 change 18..lh ' .lIl1 ~ ...74.). 120. 44 . t JV. IWI11.l11"ll l1l )" H'I 'III criteria for eVd lll dlill). I III. I '1 IlI It \ ". lhe H 1 IIS" i..II 'd l lll' .lII.111 ' 70 ~ dHHI Il "' 1I111lt'11HlI Y dlhI I H"'.llir'" d"wlI ~ l /i ll g 14'1 I? II hlll·'''"lill g 111(' f"I"I'· 11l. 1t. 47 (.. eva lu atin g 9 1.31 H ellin g 34 sl I'ea mlinin g admini strati o n 3 1 t.' W' ) SloIrhul'b I 's l. . III strc 11l'g ir Cc' p"bilily. l gt '" 11 '. ~ 11 .k i ll)\ KI ' I I and brain power Wi d ecisio n tab les II I. ll q·.

101. 139.90. OJ 26 Twain.86.83. 90 vertical integration 82 summary strategic planning 59.65 summary 66 worst case scenario 65.94. Roy 84 three As. 86 Weinstock.98. 5.82 Virgin 103.7 y llllll) '. John 33 thinking companions 28 thinking skills... 23-24.. 109. 96 white hat thinking 27 White Matters 8 Williams. the 7-8 times.ill ).127-28.. I I. 110 Prius 100 Training your Brain 7. 68 way we do things around here 69 metaphorical thinking 67 summary 71 visions and revisions 70 Subaru 98 Sudoku 17 survival strategies 94 SUVs see Sports Utility Vehicles (SUVs) synectics 26-27 Syron. 103 von Moltke.. 91 Tesco 108 testosterone 67 Thagard. P 26 Thain. . 58. Ill') . Mark 75 verbal thinking 12 vertical integration 81.141 Treffinger. 134 strategic predictions." numeracy 11 verbal thinking 12 thinking skills. 141 Toshiba 95 Toyota 94. 36-37. vii. Lech 2. 123. changes in 42-43 TEMPLES 7. 1'1 '111' 11 ' ·1. 108. 6.11 Ilt il1h. 8-9 Vodafone 109 Volkswagen 109 Volvo 98-99. 119.85. 1111 ' H II " .22 -23. 108 Watson.115. 29-31.9. developing 67-71 6S framework 70. Simon 106 where to compete 92.104.66 strategic thinking viii components of 7 strategic vision. Donald 78 Woolworths 29 Wordsworth. 104 tight 34 turbulent iv. Hh. 110-11.71 brain chemistry 67 CATSWORLD checklist actors 68 customers/clients 68 decisions 70 limitations 69 owners 69 resources 69 sub-systems 68 transformation 68. Willi a m 75 Xcrox 95 ye ll o w h. . 19.106 Virgin Airways 100 Virgin Trains 101 Visa 109 visual thinking vii. G 24 Winnicott. combination 13-20 creative thinking and innovation 17. I<IIII ' H "til ' III 11111 'I '. 116-17. 41.9 mcmory 7 8 Fog Ind l' x H Mill . A "" Ill d I) .114.16.25 technology. 96. 2.18 removing blocks 18 critical thinking 15-17 when reading press reports 17 when reading reports 16-17 ethical thinking 14.150 Index obstacle analysis 72 obstacle removal 73 options to consider 81 concentration and focus 81 horizontal integration 82 market development 82 product development 82 retrenchment 82. 1. 59. Richard 33 systems thinking 20-24 conversational systems model 21. r '. basic 8-12 empathy and emotion 9-11 and anxiety 10 imagination 8. 68 transformational 119. 16 predictive thinking 13-14 reflective thinking 18.79. 20 Thomson.1. 125-27. Dr 75.. <J I.19. 140. making 64-66 checklist 64.15.136 transferable learning 26 transformation 25.81-82. 5 Wal-mart 94.60. of crisis 86. Helmuth 127 Walesa.89.

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