Haziq Rauf Jacky Chan Analysis of Commercial Bleach Lab I.

Purpose In this experiment, the amount of sodium hypochlorite in a commercial bleach will be determined by reacting it with sodium thiosulfate in the presence of iodide ions and starch. A solution of sodium thiosulfate of known concentration will be added to the bleach using a buret in a titration procedure. The disappearance of the dark blue color of the starch-iodine complex will signal the end point. II. Procedures Pre-Lab Questions 1. What is meant by a titration ? Titration is a technique where a solution of known (acid or base) concentration is used to determine the concentration of an unknown (acid or base) solution. 2. A solution of household vinegar (a mixture of acetic acid and water) is to be analyzed. A pipet is used to measure out 10.0 mL of the vinegar, which is placed in a 250mL volumetric flask. Distilled water is added until the total volume of solution is 250 mL. A 25.0-mL portion of the diluted solution is measured out with a pipet and titrated with a standard solution of sodium hydroxide. The neutralization reaction is as follows: HC2H3O2(aq) + OH-(aq) C2H3O2-(aq) + H2O(l) It is found that 16.7 mL of 0.0500 M NaOH is needed to titrate 25.0 mL of the diluted vinegar. Calculate the molarity of the diluted vinegar. Molarity=Moles/Volume Moles = Molarity x Volume (.0500 M NaOH)(16.7 mL) = ( x M diluted vinegar)( 25.0 mL) x M diluted vinegar = .0334 M diluted vinegar 3. Calculate the molarity of the household vinegar. Molarity = Moles/Volume Moles = Molarity x Volume (.0334 M diluted vinegar)(250 mL of diluted vinegar) = ( x M household vinegar)( 10.0 mL of Household vinegar) x M household vinegar = (.0334 M diluted vinegar x 250 mL of diluted vinegar)/ 10.0 mL of Household Vinegar x M household vinegar = .835 M 4. The household vinegar has a density of 1.05g/mL. Calculate the percent by mass of acetic acid in the household vinegar.

y Record the final buret reading.05gC2H3O2/1 mol C2H3O2) x 100% = 4.100 M. y Add one dropperful of starch solution.0 mL of the dilute bleach into an Erlenmeyer flask. Data Collection y y y y y y Titration of Iodine Solution Trial 1 0 19 19 Trial 2 19 36 17 Trial 3 0 19 19 III. KI. y Repeat the titration procedure two more times to receive more accurate results.835 mol/1 L) x (1L/1000mL) x (1 mL/1. 0.1-g precision Buret Buret Clamp Erlenmeyer Flask Pipet Bulb Ring Stand Transfer Pipets Volumetric Flask with Stopper Wash Bottle Water. Na2S2O3. distilled Weighing Dish Procedure Measure 5. 70 mL y Starch Solution. 6 mL y Potassium Iodide.100 M sodium thiosulfate solution until the iodine color fades to light yellow. 2%.70% Materials Chemicals y Commercial Bleach. Add 2 mL of 3 M HCl while stirring the solution.(. Weigh out 2 g of solid KI. Add the solid KI along with 25 mL of distilled or deionized water. 3M. y Continue the titration until one final drop of Na2S2O3 causes the color to disappear. Fill the buret with 0. 0.05g) x (59. 6 g y Sodium Thiosulfate Solution. Initial Buret Reading Final Buret Reading Volume Na2S2O3 . 3 mL Materials Equipment y y y y y y y y y y y Balance. HCl. NaClO y Hydrochloric Acid.00 mL of commercial bleach into a 100-mL volumetric flask. Pipet 25. Dilute the bleach with distilled or deionized water to the mark and mix well.

Only 3. 1 mol ClO. Calculate the average percent by mass of NaClO in the commercial bleach.005 L)(X). Calculate the percent error of your value. Calculate the average volume of Na2S2O3 needed for the titration of 25.67. X = 10/4.IV. Therefore. Write balanced oxidation and reduction half-reactions for the overall redox reactions in equations (1) and (3) in the Background section.33.33 + . and reduction is the loss of oxygen. The oxidation number of Sulfur is 5/2. .67 + 1.100 L)(. I2 is being reduced 3. Hydroxide is being oxidized Equation 3: I2(aq) + I-(aq) I3-(aq).0-mL aliquots can be measured from a 100-mL volumetric flask? Explain.x (1 mol I2/1 mol ClO-) x (1 mol I3-/1 mol I2) x (2 mol S2O32-/1 mol I3-) = 2 mol S2O32-. Determine the number of moles of sodium thiosulfate that are equivalent to one mole of sodium hypochlorite.00) x 100 = 16.89 7.025 mL ClO). (. Equation 1: Cl2(g) ClO-(aq) + Cl-(aq). since the overall charge is -2. .00l/6.67/3 = .037 M ClO-) = (. Calculate the average molarity of the commercial bleach before it was diluted. X = .67 = 2.73 M ClO. The reaction of triiodide with thiosulfate produces the dithionate ion.08 g/mL. Use the average volume and molarity of Na2S2O3 to determine the molarity of the diluted bleach. Oxidation is the gain of oxygen. S4O62-.2% error Questions 1. Chlorine is being reduced 2OH-(aq) H2O(l).03% 6. (l5. Do you think that the sulfur atoms in S4O62all have the same oxidation number? What might the oxidation numbers be? Oxidation number of Sulfur: 6 x -2 = -12.33l = . l17 18.33 3. an aliquot .73 mol x (1 L/1000 mL) x (1 mL/1. 2. What advantage is there in diluting the original solution for the analysis? Dilution is used to provide for greater accuracy when titrating.before dilution 5. (diluted fraction) of the initial solution is used for the titration. identify which substance is oxidized or reduced. 19 mL + 17 mL + 19 mL = 55/3 = 18. Although 100 mL/25 mL = 4.08g) x (74. 4.= 2 mol S2O322.67. From the label information of the commercial bleach calculate the average deviation of the three values.0 mL of diluted bleach. 4X = 10. (. X= . l19 18. 4X + -12 = -2. 1 mol ClO.037 M ClO 4.03 6. Define oxidation and reduction. you will receive 3 complete aliquots and the final aliquot will not be complete because it is nearly impossible to take out 100% of a liquid out of a flask. These sulfur atoms do not have the . Assume the density of the commercial bleach is 1.100 M Na2S2O3)(.33l = 1. In this analysis.0183 L Na2S2O3) = 2(X M ClO)(.4 g NaClO/1 mol) x 100% =5. Calculate the oxidation number of sulfur in this ion. l19 18. Data Analysis Calculations 1. How many 25.33l = . 5. For each half-reaction.

the percent of NaClO would have risen due to the even mole ratio s. If three grams of KI were used instead of two. three grams of KI were used instead of two grams. the pipet was rinsed with distilled water immediately before being used to measure the commercial bleach solution. In step 2. We reacted sodium hypochlorite with sodium thiosulfate in the presence of iodide ions and starch. What is the major source of experimental error in this experiment? Explain. This small amount of dilution can be ignored. It is possible to titrate without starch. The reason we used starch in this lab was because it turns the solution into a blue color. How would each of the following laboratory mistakes affect the calculated value of the percent of NaClO in the commercial bleach (too high. In conclusion. the percent of NaClO would not change. some of the iodine that formed sublimed from the solution. If some of the iodine sublimed from the solution. the complex which forms may not be reversible. two of the sulfur atoms have a charge of 5. and may lead to errors in the lab.same oxidation numbers. This accuracy may be due to the dilution of the bleach. the percent of NaClO would become lower due to the even mole ratio s. while the other two have a charge of 2. no change)? Explain. b. The starch in the solution acted as a color indicator for when the titration reached its equivalence point. a. too low. Conclusion In this experiment. but going from a yellow color to a clear color is very sensitive. In step 1. The equivalence point is the exact moment when the color indicator changes color. We noticed that after numerous titration attempts. (Dilution provides for more accuracy when titrating). we confirmed how much titrant was needed to make the bleach reach its equivalence point. 6. V. When we add Na2S2O2. 7. Therefore the starch is not added until shortly before the end point is reached. we must be extremely precise. . If the pipet was rinsed with distilled water immediately before being used to measure the commercial bleach solution. The reason we do this is because if the starch is added to a solution which contains a great deal of iodine. we determined the amount of sodium hypochlorite in a commercial bleach. and it is nearly impossible to reach the exact equivalence point. the amount of titrant was very precise and accurate each time. and when the amount of titrant added is stoichiometrically equal to the amount of analyte present. In step 3. The major source of experimental error in this experiment is over-titrating. c. We were also told to add the starch towards the ending of the titration rather than the beginning.

we had to be very precise and quick to react upon how much titrant we were supposed to add. If we added too much.00) x 100 = 16.2% error . the whole process would be irreversible and the color may never indicate the equivalence point. if we added the starch to the analyte too early (before the bleach turned light yellow). This would change the percent of NaClO by making it higher than it is supposed to be. over-titrating. we wouldn t be able to tell how much was supposed to be added for its equivalence point.VI. and adding the starch to the bleach too early in the process. 2 specific sources of error were.03 6. Error Analysis In this experiment there were many possible sources of error. Also.00l/6. When we were titrating our solutions. Error Calculation (l5.

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