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By
LOUIS BRAND, Ch.E., E.E., Ph.D.
PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
New York JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc.
London CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited
VECTOR AND TENSOR ANALYSIS. By Louis Brand. 439 pages. 5Y2 by
8%. Cloth.
VECTORIAL MECHANICS. By Louis Brand. 544 pages. 5% by 8%.
Cloth.
Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
VECTOR and TENSOR ANALYSIS
By
LOUIS BRAND, Ch.E., E.E., Ph.D.
PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS UNIVERSITY OF CINCINNATI
New York JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc.
London CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited
COPYRIGHT, 1947
BY
Louis BRAND
All Rights Reserved
be reproduced in any form without
the writ+en permission of the putlisher.
This book or any part thereof must not
THIRD PRINTING, NOVEMBER, 1948
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
To My Wife
PREFACE
The vector analysis of Gibbs and Heaviside and the more
general tensor analysis of Ricci are now recognized as standard tools in mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics. These disciplines have also proved their worth in pure mathematics, especially in differential geometry. Their use not only materially simplifies and condenses. the exposition, but also makes mathematical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. Moreover tensor analysis provides a simple automatic method for constructing invariants. Since a tensor equation has precisely the same form in all coordinate systems, the desirability of stating physical laws or geometrical properties in tensor form is manifest.. The perfect adaptability of the tensor calculus to the theory of relativity was responsible for its original renown. It has since won a firm place in mathematical physics and engineering technology Thus the British analyst E. T. Whittaker rates the discovery of the tensor calculus as one of the three principal mathematical advances in the last quarter of the 19th century. The first volume of this work not only comprises the standard vector analysis of Gibbs, including dyadics or tensors of valence two, but also supplies an introduction to the algebra of motors,
which is apparently destined to play an important role in mechanics
as well as in line geometry. The entire theory is illustrated by many significant applications; and surface geometry and hydro
dynamics * are treated at some length by vector methods in
separate chapters. For the sake of concreteness, tensor analysis is first developed in 3space, then extended to space of n dimensions. As in the case of vectors and dyadics, I have distinguished the invariant tensor from its components. This leads to a straightforward treatment of the affine connection and of covariant differentiation; and also to a simple introduction of the curvature tensor. Applications of tensor analysis to relativity, electrodynamics and rotating elec* For a systematic development of mechanics in vector notation see the
author's Vectorial Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1930. vii
viii
PREFACE
tric machines are reserved for the second volume. The present volume concludes with a brief introduction to quaternions, the source of vector analysis, and their use in dealing with finite
rotations. Nearly all of the important results are formulated as theorems,
in which the essential conditions are explicitly stated. In this connection the student should observe the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions. If the assumption of a certain property P leads deductively to a condition C, the condition is necessary. But if the assumption of the condition C leads deductively to the property P, the condition C is sufficient. Thus wehave symbolically
P * C (necessary),
C (sufficient) > P.
When P C, the condition C is necessary and sufficient. The problems at the end of each chapter have been chosen not only to develop the student's technical skill, but also to introduce new and important applications. Some of the problems are mathematical projects which the student may carry through step by step and thus arrive at really important results. As very full cross references are given in this book, an article as well as a page number is given at the top of each page. Equations are numbered serially (1), (2), . . . in each article. A reference to an equation in another article is made by giving article
and number to the left and right of a point; thus (24.9) means
article 2.4, equation 9. Figures are given the number of the article
in which they appear followed by a serial letter; Fig. 6d, for example, is the fourth figure in article 6. Boldface type is used in the text to denote vectors or tensors of higher valence with their complement of base vectors. Scalar components of vectors and tensors are printed in italic type.
The rich and diverse field amenable to vector and tensor methods is one of the most fascinating in applied mathematics. It is hoped
that the reasoning will not only appeal to the mind but also impinge on the reader's aesthetic sense. For mathematics, which Gauss esteemed as "the queen of the sciences" is also one of the great arts. For, in the eloquent words of Bertrand Russell: "The true spirit of delight, the exaltation, the sense of being
more than man, which is the touchstone of the highest excellence,
is to be found in mathematics as surely as in poetry. What is
PREFACE
is
best in mathematics deserves not merely to be learned as a task, but also to be assimilated as a part of daily thought, and brought again and again before the mind with everrenewed encouragement. Real life is, to most men, a long secondbest, a perpetual compromise between the real and the possible; but the world of pure reason knows no compromise, no practical limitations, no barrier to the creative activity embodying in splendid edifices the passionate aspiration after the perfect from which all great work
springs."
courses.
The material in this book may be adapted to several short Thus Chapters I, III, IV, V, and VI may serve as a
course in vector analysis; and Chapters I (in part), IV, V, and IX as one in tensor analysis. I But the prime purpose of the author was to cover the theory and simpler applications of vector and tensor analysis in ordinary space, and to weave into this fabric such concepts as dyadics, matrices, motors, and quaternions.
The author wishes, finally, to express his thanks to his colleagues, Professor J. W. Surbaugh and Mr. Louis Doty for their help with the figures. Mr. Doty also suggested the notation used in the problems dealing with air navigation and read the entire
page proof.
Louis BRAND
University of Cincinnati January 15, 1947
.
43 44 44 46 48 50 51 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Equations . . 31 Motors . . . . . 15. . . 21. . 63 64 65 xi . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . Homogeneous Coordinates . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . . . . Barycentric Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rectangular Components 14. . . . . . . . . . . . 55 57 59 CHAPTER II MOTOR ALGEBRA 29. . . . Plane Trigonometry . Products of Two Vectors . . . . . . Scalars and Vectors . . . . . 6. Spherical Trigonometry . . . . . . . . Summary: Vector Algebra . Vector Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . . . . . . .CONTENTS PREFACE . . . . . . . . Multiplication of Vectors by Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . Components of a Vector . . . . . . . Scalar Product . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . Dual Vectors . . . . . . 26. . . . . . Line Vectors and Moments 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subtraction of Vectors . . . . Base Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Collinear Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . Linear Relations Independent of the Origin. . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . Products of Four Vectors . . . . . 24 24 26 29 29 34 37 40 41 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Areas . . . . . . . . . Reciprocal Bases . . . . . . PAGE Vii CHAPTER I VECTOR ALGEBRA ARTICLE 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . 27. . . Centroid . . . . . . . Linear Dependence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . 16. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . . . . . . Dual Numbers . . . . . . . 17. . . 18. . . Vector Triple Product . . . . . Projection of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . 5. . . . . . . . . Addition of Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scalar Triple Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. . . . Coplanar Points . . . . . . . . 30. . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . 3 5 6 7 8 12 18 19 23 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 33. . . . . . . 32. . . . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scalar Product . . . . . . 84 86 88 90 92 95 97 98 99 100 105 108 110 114 120 121 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Osculating Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. 45. . . . . . . 67. . . . . . . Product of Dyadics . . . . Center of Curvature . . . Statics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conjugate Dyadics . .xii ARTICLE CONTENTS PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55. . . . . 49. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46. . . . . . . 53. . . . . . . . . . . 58. . Idemfactor and Reciprocal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51. . . . . . . . First Scalar and Vector Invariant . . . . . . Theorem of Coriolis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . 39. . . . . . . . . Motor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Space Curves . 56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Affine Point Transformation . . . . . Kinematics of a Rigid Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary: Vector Derivatives . . . . Reciprocal Sets of Motors 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Helices . 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . Vector Functions of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relative Velocity . Complete and Singular Dyadics . . Frenet's Formulas . . . . . . . . . Motor Sum . . . . . . . Dual Triple Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59. . . . 142 144 146 147 148 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Null System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fundamental Theorem . . . . . . Dyadics . . . . . Plane Curves . . . . . . . 69. . . Derivatives of Sums and Products 43. . . . . . . . Motor Identities . . . . . . . 63. . . . . . . Kinematics of a Particle . . . . . . 34. . . . 57. . . 52. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. . . 37. . . Derivative of a Vector . . . . . Derivative of a Motor . . . 42. 66. . . . . . . . . . . . 54. . Rate of Change of a Vector . . 62. . . . . . 47. . . . . 65. . . The Dyadic 4) x v . . . . . . . . . . Summary: Motor Algebra Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50. . . 64. . 44. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Further Invariants . . 67 68 70 72 73 74 75 78 80 82 CHAPTER III VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curvature and Torsion . 123 126 128 130 CHAPTER IV LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 60. . . . . . . . . . Composition of Velocities . . . . . . . . Unit Tangent Vector . . 135 136 138 139 141 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . Gradient of a Scalar . . . . Second and Adjoint Dyadic . . 151 . . . . . . . . 216 218 221 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Gradients . . . . . . . . 153 156 160 162 164 166 167 169 171 . . . . . . . . Divergence and Rotation . Gradient of a Vector . . . . . . 85. . . . 104. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solid Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . Curvilinear Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98. . . . . . . . 96. . . 102. . 77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93. . . . . . . . . . Reduction of Surface to Line Integrals . . . 222 224 226 230 233 236 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105. . . . . . . . . . First Fundamental Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . . Irrotational Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 204 206 207 209 211 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Differentiation of Dyadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75. . . . Total Differential . . . . . . . . . . . 87. 172 172 174 Problems .CONTENTS ARTICLE xiii PAGE . . . . . . . . . . . Functional Dependence . . . . . 80. .HamiltonCayley Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 181 . . . Field Lines of a Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . 91. . Differentiation Formulas . . . . . 70. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Triadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary: Differential Invariants . . . . 89. . . . . . . . . . . Line Integrals on a Surface . . . . . . . . . . 213 CHAPTER VI INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS 99. . . . . . Surface Divergence and Rotation . . . . . . . . . . . . Spatial and Surface Invariants . . . . . . Green's Theorem in the Plane . . . . . Alternative Form of Transformation . . 90. 83. 88. . . . . . . . . 84. . . . Reduction of Volume to Surface Integrals 107. . 73. . . . . . . . . . . . . 106. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Normal Form of the General Dyadic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER V DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS 82. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Line Integrals . . . 79. . . 92. . . . . . 101. The. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 186 187 190 191 194 197 198 201 . . . Problems . 71. . . 103. . . . . Matric Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . Invariant Directions . Nonion Form . . . . . . . . . . . Solenoidal Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Dyads . Summary: Dyadic Algebra . . . . . 95. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . Symmetric Dyadics . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pfaff's Problem . . . 78. . . . . . . . 74. . 86. . . . . 94. . . . . 76. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rotations and Reflections . . . . . 81. . Orthogonal Coordinates . . . . . . . Gradient of a Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72. . . . . . .
. . . . 135. . . . . . . . . Plane Motion . . . . Equilibrium of a Fluid . . . . . 129. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144. . . . . 128. . . . . 111. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Field Dyadic . 138. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113. . . 126. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary: Hydrodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119. . . Surface Charges . . . 108. . . . . . . . . . . Flow and Circulation . . . Equilibrium of a Deformable Body . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Irrotational Motion . . Vorticity . . . 237 239 241 242 243 245 247 248 250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110. . . . . . . . . Geodesics . 134. . . . 121. . . 109. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125. . . Steady Motion . Equation of Continuity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Floating Body . .xiv ARTICLE CONTENTS PAGE . . . . . . . . Lagrangian Equation of Motion . . . . . . . . . . Total Curvature . . . The Dyadic On . 133. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Green's Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136. . . . . . 127. . CHAPTER VII HYDRODYNAMICS 116. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Developable Surfaces . . . . 115. . . . . . . Geodesic Field . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139. . . . . . . . . 283 285 289 293 293 297 299 300 302 306 308 313 314 316 319 321 . . . . . . . KuttaJoukowsky Formulas . . . . . 253 255 257 257 258 260 262 263 266 267 268 270 273 278 280 CHAPTER VIII GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE 130. . . . . . . . . . . . 123. . 120. . . . . Harmonic Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bonnet's Integral Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137. . . Minimal Surfaces . . 112. . 140. . . 122. . . . Space Charges . . . . . . . . . Normal Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equations of Codazzi and Gauss . . . . Eulerian Equation for a Fluid in Motion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114. . 132. . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary: Integral Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Field of Curves . . . . . . . 143. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electric Point Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curvature of Surface Curves . . . Summary: Surface Geometry . . . 142. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lines of Curvature . . . . . . . Heat Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . Fundamental Forms . . 117. 141. . Stress Dyadic . . . . Doublets and Double Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parallel Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Determinants . . 156. . . . . . . . . 168. . . . . 172. . . . . . . . . . 150. . Contragredient Transformations . . Rules of Covariant Differentiation . . . . Quaternion Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relation between Divergence and Curl . . . The Summation Convention . Operations with Tensors . . . . . . . . 182. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Absolute Tensors . . 146. . . . . . . . . 173. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179. . 147. . . . . . . . . . . . . The Metric . . . 403 406 409 . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . 151. . . . . . . Dyadics . . . . Division of Quaternions . . . . . . . . . . . 362 365 366 370 371 . . . . . . . . 157. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relative Tensors . . . . . 148. . . . . . . . . . . Dual of a Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conjugate and Norm . . . . Summary: Tensor Analysis . . . 176. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Permutation Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identities of Ricci and Bianchi . . . . 166. . . Surface Geometry in Tensor Notation . . . . . . . . 164. . . . . . . . . . . . . Covariance and Contravariance . 161. . . . . . 180. 158. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163. . . . . . . . . . 160. . . . . . . . Kronecker Deltas . . . . . . . . . . 149. . . . . . . . . . . 169. . . . . . . . 165. . . . . . . . . . . . 171. . . . 154. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159. . . . . . . . . . . 153. . The Affine Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Euclidean Geometry . . . . 372 374 376 376 380 384 385 388 392 396 CHAPTER X QUATERNIONS 181. . . . . . . . . . Curl . Orthogonal Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Divergence . . Curvature Tensor . . . . . 177. . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Affine Connection . . . . . 174. . . . . . . . 152. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Relation between Affine Connection and Metric Tensor 167. . . . . . . . . . . . Stokes Tensor . . Riemannian Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183. . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS xv CHAPTER IX TENSOR ANALYSIS ARTICLE PAGE . . . . . Symmetry and Antisymmetry . . . . . . . . . . General Transformations . 170. . . . . Derivatives of e` and E . . . . Relations between Reciprocal Bases . . . . . Covariant Derivative . . . . . 175. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145. . . 328 329 332 334 336 337 339 339 340 342 343 345 346 350 350 352 353 354 356 359 360 361 . Quadratic Forms . . . . . Kinematics of a Particle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vector Algebra in Index Notation . . . . . . . .
. . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . Product of Vectors . . . . . . . . . 410 412 414 417 421 . . . . . . . 187. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Summary: Quaternion Algebra . . . . . . . . 185. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188. . . . . Rotations . . . . . . . . . . . 184. . . . . . Roots of a Quaternion . . . . . . . . . . . . 186. . . . . . . . . . . . Plane Vector Analysis . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .xvi ARTICLE CONTENTS PAGE . . . 431 . . . . . . . . . . . INDEX . 426 427. . . . . Great Circle Arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189.
in applied mathematics. for example. is called a vector quantity. however. It is customary. may be specified by the positive number equal to the ratio of the given mass to the unit mass. we extend the term vector  to include the zero vector. according as the charge is "positive" or "negative. Velocity. 1 . Thus a rectilinear displacement can only be completely specified by its length and direction." Quantities of this sort are called scalar quantities. some physical quantities require a direction as well as magnitude for their specification. Thus we may represent a vector by an arrow. positive or negative. an "arrow" of length zero but devoid of direction. and which moreover conforms to the parallelogram law of addition (§ 2). On the other hand. time. We shall call such a directed segment a vector. There are certain physical quantities. temperature. DEFINITIONS: A vector is a segment of a straight line regarded as having a definite length and direction. such as length. A mass. A displacement may be represented graphically by a segment of a straight line having a definite length and direction. With this notation AB and BA denote different vectors. they have the same length but opposite directions. Similarly an electric charge may be specified by a number. and the numbers that represent them are often called scalars. electric charge. Any physical quantity that involves both magnitude and direction. force. so that it may be represented by a line segment of definite length and direction. mass. The vector directed from the point A to the point B is denoted by the symbol AB.CHAPTER I VECTOR ALGEBRA 1. Scalars and Vectors. Besides the proper vectors just defined. electric and magnetic field intensities are examples of vector quantities. that may be specified by a single real number. acceleration. to speak of vector quantities as vectors.
u. . 0. Thus. the forces acting upon rigid bodies must be regarded as line vectors. in our ordinary space it will be seen that. on occasion. however. In this sense two parallel vectors are collinear. denotes the length of the vector. 2b the vectors forming the opposite sides of the parallelogram are equal (they have the same length and direction) and may therefore be represented by the same symbol. Vectors are said to be collinear when they are parallel to the same line. A unit vector is a vector of unit length. v. however. 0]. a vector can be represented by a set of three real numbers. they may only be shifted along their line of action. its initial point is restricted to a certain set of points. it is far better to define a vector as a new type of numbera hypernumberwhich is given by a set of real numbers written in a definite order. We shall also.2 VECTOR ALGEBRA §1 If the initial point of a vector may be chosen at pleasure. Thus. Vectors are said to be coplanar when they are parallel to the same plane. In addition to the foregoing notation. With this definition the zero vector is denoted by [0. as I AB I or I u 1. denote the lengths of vectors. when a suitable system of reference has been adopted. b. F by the corresponding letters u. the vector is said to be localized in this set. In this sense any two vectors are coplanar. in which we denote a vector by giving its end points. For purposes of generalization. we also shall employ single letters in heavy (boldface) type to denote vectors. the vector is said to be a bound vector. AB=DC=u. When the set consists of a single point (initial point fixed). If. If the vector is restricted to the line of which it forms a part. v. called the components of the vector. it is called a line vector. A vector symbol between vertical bars. a rule must be given to enable us to compute the components when the system of reference is changed. AD=BC=v. For example. the vector is said to be free. The preceding definition of a vector is adequate for the elementary applications to Euclidean space of three dimensions. c]. F in italic type. Bars about real numbers denote their positive magnitudes: thus I 3 1 = 3. In order to complete this definition of a vector. in Fig. Two vectors are said to be equal when they have the same length and direction. [a.
2b) and complete the parallelogram ABCD. Addition of Vectors. (u + v) + w = u + (v + w). 2a) : Draw v from the end of u. the result is the same as if the particle were given asingle displacement from A to C. lu+vl _ lul +lvl. u. 2b Since any side of a triangle is less than the sum of the other two sides. as representing rectilinear displacements in space. To find u + v when u and v are line vectors whose lines intersect at A. the rule for vector addition is called the parallelogram law. C FIG. 2a Fia. 3 3 9 . one from A to B. Vector addition obeys both the commutative and associative laws: (2) (3) u+v = v+u. 2b). therefore is defined by the following triangle construction (Fig. (1) AB + BC = AC. u+v=AB+BC=AC. In view of this construction. This proves (2). To obtain a rule for adding vectors. the equal sign holding only when u and v have the same direction. then the vector directed from the beginning of u to the end of v is the sum of u and v and is written u + v. for the moment. This equivalence may be represented by the notation. In the parallelogram formed with u and v as sides (Fig. and a second from B to C. v+u=AD+DC=AC. shift the vectors along their lines so that both issue from A (Fig. v. The sum of two vectors. We shall regard this equation as the definition of vector addition.§2 ADDITION OF VECTORS 3 2. If a particle is given two rectilinear displace ments. let us regard them. then u+v=AB+AD= AC.
then the vector directed from the beginning to the end of the broken line will be the required sum. in the construction of a vector sum. if in (4) the point H coincides with A. the preceding swa is simply written u + v + w. B Fia. We shall speak of the addition of line vectors as statical addition. 2d From the commutative and associative laws we may deduce the following general result: The sum of any number of vectors is independent of the order in which they are added. 2c FIG. B. 2c: (u + v) + w = (AB i. The associative law (3) is evident from Fig. we write (5) . .4 VECTOR ALGEBRA §2 Since the diagonal of the parallelogram on u. . the vector "polygon" becomes a portion of a straight line described twice. are these vectors taken in any order whatever. If. v gives the line of action of u + v. we say that the sum of the vectors is zero. then (4) When the vectors to be added are all parallel. the end point of the last vector coincides with the origin of the first. u + (v F w) = AB f.BC) f. The figure formed by the vectors and their sum is called a vector polygon.CD = AC i.(BC + CD) = AB + BD = AD. H are the successive vertices of a vector polygon (Fig. Thus. form a broken line whose segments. Since the grouping of the vectors is immaterial. 2d). in length and direction. G.CD = AD.3 3 4 AB+BC++GA=O. C. the term "parallelogram law" is especially appropriate for the addition of intersecting line vectors. and of their grouping to form partial sums. If A. To construct the sum of any number of vectors.
3.(u) = u. 3a Fia. * 3 * 3 3 AA+AB=AB we have. Note also that . subtracting a vector is the same as adding its negative. The construction of u . (2) (u .) is not a vector in the proper sense since it has no definite direction. Any vector AB may . etc. The zero vector AA (or BB. We shall refer to vectors which are not zero as proper vectors.v) + v = U. u+0=u. on writing AB = u. it is natural to write BA = u in order that the characteristic equation for negatives. The difference u . they have the same length and opposite directions: AB + BA = 0. 0+u=u.v of two vectors is defined by the equation. (1) u + (u) = 0. If AB = u. and only when.f AB+BB=AB. 3b If 0 is chosen as a point of reference. it is an extension of our original vector concept. Adding v to both sides of (2). 3a.§3 SUBTRACTION OF VECTORS > 5 This equation may be regarded as a special case of (4) if we agree that AA = 0. A that is.v is shown in Fig. From . will hold for vectors as well as for numbers. The sum of two vectors is zero when. Subtraction of Vectors. 0 Fia. we have (3) uv=u+(v). Hence by definition: The negative of a vector is a vector of the same length but opposite direction. any point P in space may be located by giving its position vector OP.
and. according as a is positive or negative. (4) . (a/3)u = a(/3u). Thus. from (3).OA. These relations have the same form as the rules for multiplying numbers. The proof of (4) follows immediately from the theorem that the corresponding sides of similar triangles are proportional. the multiplication of a vector by numbers is commutative (by definition). Fia. Moreover. (a + a)u = au + (3u. (a)(u) = au. 3b). and distributive: (1) (2) (3) au = ua. vectors may be treated formally in accordance with the rules of ordinary algebra. 4 The developments thus far show that: As far as addition. we write u + (u) = 2u. a(u) = (a)u = au. similarly. If a = 0. . Multiplication of Vectors by Numbers. or the opposite. AB = AO + OB = OB + (OA).6 VECTOR ALGEBRA §4 be expressed in terms of the position vectors of its end points (Fig. This definition is generalized as follows: The product au or ua of a vector u and a real number a is defined as a vector a times as long as u. and having the same direction as u. In accordance with this definition. subtraction. au=0.4 4 = OB . The vector u + u is naturally denoted by 2u. the former has the same direction as u. AB 4. associative. The quotient u/a of a vector by a number av u+V a (not zero) is defined as the product of u v U au by 1/a. both 2u and 2u denote vectors twice as long as u. and multi plication by numbers are concerned. Figure 4 applies to the case when a > 0. the latter the opposite direction. The product of the sum of two vectors by a given number is also distributive: (4) a(u + v) = au + av.
If Xu = 0 and X 0. Linear Dependence. X2. X2.. Conversely. and (b) if no two vectors are collinear. we can write ul = aU2 + . .. An. all the constants must be zero. Then (1) is satisfied. so that ul =AC=AB+BC=au2+$u3. we can construct a parallelogram on ul as diagonal whose sides are parallel to u2 and u3 (Fig. Consequently.. such that (1) X1U1 + X2U2 + . um are linearly dependent. if ul and u2 are collinear. + XrUm = 0. they are linearly dependent.13u3.. u2i . they are linearly dependent. . we need only consider sets of proper vectors in the theo If X1u1 + X2u2 = 0 and X1 0 0.n+1 = X m+2 = _ X n = 0. For . U2. the parallelogram construction (Fig. If the vectors are not linearly dependent. not all zero. If X1u1 + A2u2 + X3u3 = 0 and X1 0. u = 0. U2. DEPENDENCE 7 5. . we can write ul = au2 i hence ul and u2 are collinear. they are said to be linearly independent. any greater If m vectors ul. Conse quently.§5 LINEAR. U1 = au2 (a 0 0). and the same is true of all three. number n of vectors including these are also linearly dependent. Therefore: A necessary and sufficient condition that two proper vectors be linearly dependent is that they be collinear. um satisfy if u1i u2. . we can give ?1. and the n vectors ui are linearly dependent. X1U1 + A2U2 + . if a relation (1) exists between n linearly independent vectors. 5a). For (a) if two of the vectors are collinear. rems following. 5a) now shows that ul is parallel to the plane of u2 and u3. Hence the vectors of any set that includes the zero vector are linearly dependent. + XnUn = 0. Xm the preceding values (at least one of these is not zero) and take X. The n vectors u1. u3 are coplanar. un are said to be linearly dependent if there exist n real numbers X1. hence one vector is linearly dependent only when it is the zero vector. Therefore: A necessary and sufficient condition that three proper vectors be linearly dependent is that they be coplanar. Conversely. if U1.
and the same is true of all four. The ratio A is positive or negative. u2i u3. X varies from oo to 1. according as P lies within or without the segment AB. Therefore: Any four vectors are linearly dependent. we can construct a FIG. U4 (Fig. P is said to divide the segment AB in the ratio X when > (1) AP=APB. 5b parallelepiped on ut as a diagonal whose edges are parallel to U2i n3.8 VECTOR ALGEBRA §6 In space of three dimensions.CD = au2 + 9u3 I. to the points A. 6a 3 As P passes from A to B (Fig. . 5b). 5a FIG. If P describes the line to the left of A. u4 are always linearly dependent. and (b) if no three vectors are coplanar". B. 6a).yu4. P are points of a straight line. A = 1 correspond.OP). 6. To find the position vector of P. Collinear Points. and the in0 FIG. If A.OA = X(OB .3 ut = AD = AB + BC }. X = =L00 . they are linearly dependent.= OA + A OB OP 1 + A . write (1) in the form. X varies from 0 to 1. Then (2) OP . as P describes the line to the right of B. Thus X = 0. For (a) if three of the vectors are co planar. respectively. and. so that 3 3 a . X increases through all positive values from 0 to infinity. relative to an origin 0. four vectors ul. B. finitely distant "point" of the line.
y/l3. and from as+3b=0. CA. C are collinear. If A. in the ratios S/a. Conversely. B. D divide a segment AB internally and externally in the same numerical ratios ±X. C divides AB in some ratio /3/a. If an equation of the form (5) subsists between three distinct non collinear points. we must conclude that a = (3 = y = 0. 2 When the points C. B divide AB. different from zero. y. c. B. From (5) we conclude that C. if X = 1.B) in (4) we obtain (5). from (5) we can deduce (4) since a + y 0. For at least one coefficient y = 0. B also divide the segment CD in the same numerical ratios f(1 . a+/3=0. P by a.(a + . d= a . A useful test for collinearity is given by the following: THEOREM. C lie on a straight line when. Pairs of points A. B and C. such that (5) aa+/3b+yc=0. B. A. /3. and only when. a+$+y=0. b.Xb 1x If we solve these equations for a and b. either pair is the harmonic conjugate of the other. we find that the points A. P is the midpoint of AB. in the ratio /3/a. hence on putting y = . we have a = b (A coincides with B) unless a = 0 = 0. points A. Thus if C divides AB . hence C lies on the line AB.X)/(l + X). (3) . there exist three numbers a. if we write X = (3/a. . a/y whose product is 1. Three distinct points A. D having this property are said to be harmonic conjugates. respectively. (4) In the following we shall denote the position vectors of the . we have a+Ab c =1+x. C. BC. p.§6 COLLINEAR POINTS 9 or. Proof.aOA +aOB OP = a+0  In particular. c=ash(3b a+0 Thus the midpoint of AB has the position vector (a + b).
C are collinear when the line vectors AB. da+2e=a+c and 3 3 for the first member represents a point on DE. AB + BC are collinear.10 VECTOR ALGEBRA §6 Another criterion for collinearity may be based on the statical addition of line vectors (§ 2). AC in the ratio 2/1. and.b. E Fia. 6b). Thus da+2f=2c and d+2fa+2c_ 3 3 Hence Y divides DF in the ratio 2/1. THEOREM. E and F are the middle points of the sides AB. the point is at the intersection X of these lines. CD? . If we use = to denote statical equivalence. In a plane quadrilateral ABCD. and. A Proof. 6c). the diagonals AC. 2e=a+b. respectively. In the parallelogram ABCD. eliminate b from the first and second equations. AC in the ratio 1/2. DF divide the diagonal AC into thirds and that AC cuts off a third of each line (Fig. The points A. BD intersect at P. Comparison with (4) now shows that X divides DE in the ratio 2/1. 6c The hypotheses of our problem are expressed by the equations: d . Show that the lines DE. the second member a point on AC. BD. since BD + CA = 0. Let DF cut AC at Y.a=c . 6b " B Fia. Thus d + 2e 2a + c = =a. in what ratios does Q divide the segments A B. C. BC. B. Example 1. Let DE cut AC at X. Example 2. eliminate b from the first and third equations. 2f =b+c. BC. If P divides AC and BD in the ratios 3/2 and 1/2. To find y. since the points are the same. CA are statically equal to zero: (6) AB +BC +CA =O. a vector through B. the sides AB CD intersect at Q (Fig. To find x. B.
6a _ 4 for the first fraction represents a point on CD. Similarly. 4 Hence are statical equations. . and both points are the same. R be the midpoints of the diagonals AC. . AC. =0. AB +AD +CB +CD =4PQ. PQ +QR+RP =0. for the quadrilateral LA. ad 9 . 4 4 + + LA + LC + MA + MC = 4 RP.§6 By hypothesis COLLINEAR POINTS 2a + 3c 11 2b + d p hence 5 3 6a + 9c = 10b + 5d and  5d = lOb . BD. > CB + CD = 2 CQ. AB + AD = 2 AQ. the point Q. for the rilateral BLDM with diagonals BD. The sum of the line vectors. Therefore Q divides CD in the ratio 5/9. we find that the entire left member is statically equal to zero. LM. Example 3. On adding these three equations. . for + . Prove that the midpoints of the diagonals of a complete quadrilateral are collinear. R are collinear. since the vectors in each are collinear. hence we have the statical equivalence. Q. that is.  i > > QA + QC = 2 QP. 6d) let P. LM. 9 DM+MA = 0. + CD +DL +LC O. Q. and I'.> *  . the second a point on AB.4 + BL + BM + DL + D31 = 4QR. BD. AB in the ratio 10/6. In the complete quadrilateral ABCDLM (Fig.11C with diagonals LM. for the quadrilateral ABCD with diagonals AC. > and. + CB +BM +MC0.
and the fact that A. c. 6/y. we must conclude that a = a = y = S = 0. such that (1) as+$b+yc+Sd = 0. c+A'd where A. Conversely. B.d) = 0 and the lines AB and CD are parallel. In the respective cases. If no three of the points A. from as+/3b+yc = 0. 0. either AB is parallel to CD. C. different from zero. they will lie in a plane when.a=K(d . For at least one coefficient 6 = 0.c). the point in which AC and BD intersect. D are collinear. D are coplanar. let us assume that equations (1) hold good. if as + yc a f. Coplanar Points. b. a+0+y = 0. . and only when. or D). B. d are connected by a linear relation of the form (1). there exist four numbers a. divides AC and BD in the ratios y/a. P. C are not collinear. B. S. we deduce (§ 6) that a=0=y=0. If A.y /3b + 6d #+ 6 . In both cases. S//i. A.12 VECTOR ALGEBRA §7 7.b) + y(c . B. a. D are coplanar. then. Proof. (3) Note that (2) states that the point P in which AB.16 0 (and hence y+6 (2) 0). A' are neither 0 nor 1. C. y. C. If a + /3 = 0 (and hence y + S = 0). Similarly. we have b . CD intersect divides AB and CD in the ratios #/a. /3. we have a(a . What conclusion can be drawn if a + 3 F6 0? If an equation of the form (1) subsists between four distinct noncoplanar points. a+Ab 1+A = 1+A. or AB cuts CD in a point P (not A. THEOREM. a+y. as+/3b yc+Sd a+/i y+6 P where P is a point common to the lines AB and CD. In both cases. a+0+y+S = 0. B. C.qi thus Q. If a + /3 5.
Q. Conversely. Add (i) and (ii) to eliminate c and divide by S . If a line s cuts the sides BC. The Trapezoid. (Fig. b. Q. Q divide BC.§7 COPLANAR POINTS 13 Example 1. we seek a linear relation between p. then If ABCD is a trapezoid with AB parallel to AB=XDC or ba=A(cd). R divide the sides of the triangle in ratios whose product is . The diagonals then bisect each other at P.) We lose no generality if we assume that P. a/y. (ii) (ya)q=ycaa. a/y: (i) (/3y)P=$byc. and Q divides both BC and AD in the same ratio A. In what ratio does the line PQ divide AB? In particular.y)P + (y . if A = 1. Theorem of Menelaus. R. These equations may be written b+ad_a+Xc_ 1+a P +a b . q. and the latter the point Q where the sides BC. Hence we have b+Xd=a+Xc or bXc=aXd.a)q In order to locate R. R divide these sides equals . Q.a. 7b. the trapezoid becomes a parallelogram. AB.Ac_a . while Q recedes to infinity. the product of the ratios in which P.1. Q C Fia. if P. for the former expressions represent the point P where the diagonals BD. . 7a). AB of the triangle ABC in the points P. /3/a is 1. then Sb .1. Evidently P divides both BD and AC in the same ratio A. 7a Example 2.as Thus R divides AB in the ratio S/a. The product of the division ratios y//3. Proof. a. CA in the ratios y//3. CA. (R . the points are collinear. which lies on the lines PQ. AC meet. respectively. DC (Fig.Ad q. AD meet.
B'. CR. If we add 2aa. (ii) and also (iii) (a . as + SS 0+y yc a+s (ii) b' = c' as _ Rb + as y+a +b ' =as+Sb yc+Ss. Theorem of Ceva. (a+9y)c'=as+9byc. B'. C. Q.) Since A. C' divide the sides BC. 2yc. S are coplanar. BB'. 2gb. AP. From these we deduce the linear relation. (aS+y)b' =aa$b+yc. Thus to every line s given by (iv) we have a corresponding point S given by (v) C the pole of s relative to the triangle ABC. AB in ratios whose product B is 1 . R are therefore collinear. SB. C' given by (a+0+y)a' _ aa+ftb+yc. respectively. (iii) it is easily proved that the three pairs of lines BQ. B.fl)r = as . CC meet in a p oint . CR. aa+pb+yc+as =0. SC cut the sides opposite in the points A'. Then we have equations (i). C' divide the sides BC. B'. a/a whose product is 1. R divide BC. CA. * Note. AB equals 1. a/y. and the lines SA.14 VECTOR ALGEBRA §7 Conversely. let us assume that P. we find that the point S given by (v) s = as +Ab+yc a+#+y is common to the lines AA'. a+R y+S *This conclusion is obvious. 7c. for the line PQ must meet AB in the point R for which the product of the division ratios is 1. Conversely. then the product of the ratios C. Example 3. _ a Sb + ye a+0+y+S =0. CC'. (ii). the lines AA'. C'. if A'. CA. AB in the ratios y/S. The points P. From (i). (Fig. B'.13b.7c Hence (i) in which A'. Fte. BQ meet in the points A'. to these equations. AP. in which the sum of the coefficients is zero. (iv) (0y)p+(ya)q+(a$)r=0. Proof. If S is a point in the plane of the triangle ABC. CA. . BB'. Q.
CA.a)q = yc . fl/a. the three pairs of corresponding sides intersect in collinear points. Then we have equations (i). and conversely. whose product is 1. y/3 whose sum is 1. (iii). If the lines joining the corresponding vertices of two triangles are concurrent. SC in the ratios a/a. 7d) P FIG. in which the sum of the coefficients is zero. C correspond to A'. BY. R are given by (v)the polar of S relative to the triangle ABC. C'. C' divide SA. let us assume that A'.§7 COPLANAR POINTS 15 These equations state that A'. A'. Let the lines AA'. B'. From these we find that the vectors as + (0 + y)a'. Incidentally. B. a/j. C'A'. We then have (Fig. BC. R therefore lie on a line s. Q. so that the vertices A. yc + (a + fl)c' are all equal to as + lb + yc. a/y. (iv) s as+pb+yc a + fl + y is therefore common to the lines AA'. AB in the ratios y/$. 7d DESARGUES' THEOREM. BY. fl/S. fib + (y + a)b'. A'B' meet in the points P. a+a =t3+fl' ='Y+y'=1. R given by (Qy)p=Rbyc. Note. C' divide BC. (ii). (v) (y . in the same or different planes. SB. CC' intersect at S. B'C'. B'. then as + a'a' = fib + fl'b' = yc + y'c' = s. CA correspond to A'B'. Thus to every point S given by (iv) we have a corresponding line s whose points P. From (i). . Q. From these equations we deduce the linear relation. the point. The points P. C' divide BC. CA. (vi) (fiy)p+(ya)q+(aa)r=0. (ii). AB in the ratios y/fl. Conversely. fl/a whose product is 1. CC'. AB. B'. C'A'. Example 4. B'C'. (iii) it is easily proved that the three pairs of lines BC.aa. and the sides AB. Q. CA. Let ABC and A'B'C' be two triangles. B'. (afl)r=as/3b.
but. q. its vertices. either equation shows that P.'y)p + (y . and the six lines._«. A complete quadrangle consists of four coplanar points. A'B' intersect: (i) Jr = = fib .16 VECTOR ALGEBRA §7 From these equations we find in the usual manner the points P Q. R in which BC. (iii) that where S is a point common to AA'. The three pairs of sides which do not meet at a vertex .y' 'y'a' y y . . These ensure that P. R. To prove the converse.of (l. AB. BB'.a)q + (a . Q. B'C'. (ii). h and k representing the values of the equal members of (vi) and (vii). C'A'. no three collinear. we must have ..6)r = 0. aa'haa=6'b'hfib=y'c'hyc=ks.as (ii) q y_a y'C' . we may start with the expressions (i). or (vii) a'ha =fl'hfi=y'hy=k. its sides. r. . which join them. FIG. Q.a')q + (a' . 7e Example 5. The Complete Quadrangle. (iii) for p. in order that (iv) and (v) determine the same division ratios for P. CC'. In the usual way we now find from (i). R are collinear. Hence (iv) (v) 'y')p + ('y' .a a  = h. R are collinear. (ii).y'c/ yC .6')r = 0. 1 (iii) _«a3b «a'fl'b' at .a'a' y. CA. Q.yc fl_y = fl'b' '6'.
Equation (v) shows that X1 divides LM in the ratio (y + a)/(3 + y). M. S have a zero sum. M. the diagonal points L. :11. B. respectively. none of the scalars a. and the three points in which they meet are called rliagon<zl points. We may now state the following harmonic properties of the complete quadrangle in the THEOREM. hence X1. y. D. ('Y+a)m. . a+$+y+a =0. Equations (iv) and (vi) show that N and X2 divide CD in the ratios S/y and S/y. hence N. (AB. and N is the point at infinity in their common direction. From equations (i) we locate at once the diagonal points at the intersections of the opposite sides: m 0+y _yc+aa Go +ycaa+ad a+S y+a /3b+5d 13+S . AD).. fl. C. B. Two diagonal points are separated harmonically by points on the sides passing through the third diagonal point. _aa+13b a+13 yc+Sd 'Y+s We here assume that no two of the scalars a. (CA. respectively. S are zero. b and 1. X2 are harmonic conjugates of L. But if for example. . we seek linear relations connecting 1. a. Two vertices of a complete quadrangle are separated harmonically by the diagonal point on their side and by a point on the line joining the other two diagonal points.(S +y)1 (vi) as /3b a/3 (0+y)1(S+S)m X2 a0 ' yS yc . (i) CA +(3b+yc+Sd =0. X1 are harmonic conjugates of A. CD). m. meet at the diagonal points L. AB and CD are parallel. D are coplanar points.37 COPLANAR POINTS 17 arc said to be opposite. The properties of this configuration of points and lines must all be consequences of the fact that A. m. d. BD). a + 0 = y + S = 0. N are then all in the finite plane. To find the points X1. c. N. X2 where LM cuts AB and CD. from (ii) and (iii). and (vi) shows that X2 divides LM in the ratio (S + 5)/(3 + y) _ (y + a)/(3 + y). 7e) the pairs of opposite sides (BC. hence N.Sd yS Equations (iv) and (v) show that N and X1 divide AB in the ratios '6/a and /3/a. Since no three vertices are collinear. X2 are harmonic conjugates of C. that is. In the complete quadrangle ABCD (Fig. y. Thus.
C. from D. MN. Z1 in which AB. BAD.as . M. n. M. C. 3). a8+0y+ya =0. (iii). the triangle LMN is in perspec tive with DCB. B. ad). (ab. which are in perspective Each vertex of the quadrangle is the center of perspective of the triangles formed by the other three vertices and by the three diagonal points. These lines are the polars of A. NL. b. bd). N.$b a/3 I y1 = 3b . D. B. CA are cut by LM. 0y Z1 = ya (a/3)xl+(f y)yl+(ya)Z1 =0. d and six vertices consisting of three opposite pairs (bc. c. Linear Relations Independent of the Origin. This is also a consequence of Desargues' Theorem applied to the triangles ABC. Zl are collinear. C. D and six sides consisting of three opposite pairs (BC. CDA. thus $1 = Since as . the line X1Y1Z1. is shown in Fig. m. c. b. AD). ABC from A. n are opposite the vertices L. The quadrangle and quadrilateral have the same diagonal triangle LMN or lmn.yc yc . N. B. In these configurations the roles of points and lines are interchanged (Fig. BD). m. with careful regard to exact correspondence. b. (iv) we next find the points X1. BC. the sides 1. we now have a complete quadrilateral given by four lines a. We have seen that the position vectors of collinear or coplanar points satisfy a . cd) which lie on the three diagonal lines 1. C. Y1. c. 8. respectively. CD) which meet in the three diagonal points L. d.18 VECTOR ALGEBRA §8 From (ii). D. B. 7f): The quadrangle has four vertices A. the points Xl. d (only d. (ca. D with respect to the triangle LMN (ex. (CA. (AB. The quadrilateral has four sides a. 7e). Y1. Thus. respectively. LMN. Hence the coliesponding sides of these triangles intersect in four lines a. Corresponding to the complete quadrangle given by four points A.
.. respectively. or coplanar. respectively. their masses or electric charges. + XnPn = 0. . collinear. We shall encounter problems in which each point of a given set is associated with a certain number.. m2i . . In the latter case. may represent particles of matter and the numbers. . For two. Pn will be independent of the position of the origin 0 when. Writing OPi = pi. hence (1) becomes Proof. for then (1) is a relation independent of the position of P* (j 8). the points are coincident. 00' = d. Denote any one of these "weighted" points by the symbol m. This equation will have the same form as (1) when and only when (2) is satisfied. A linear relation of the form. Pn associated with the numbers ml. Centroid. P2. +Xn)d+X1p1 +X2P2 XnPn' = 0. the sum of the scalar coefficients is zero: (2) X1 + X2 {. for example.. if the sum of the numbers mi is not zero. and only when. the case Emi = 0 must be excluded. and four points relations independent of the origin have a simple geometric meaning. namely. three.0. The significance of such relations is given by the THEOREM. the numbers may be positive or negative. The defining equation for the centroid is thus (1) 2. Change from 0 to a new origin 0'. + an = 0. We shall now define a point P* called the centroid of a set of n points P1.iPi. the centroid of the entire set is defined as the point for which the sum of all the vectors m1P*Pi is zero. The question now arises: What geometric property relates five or more points whose position vectors satisfy a linear relation independent of the origin? 9. The points. P2. then. (1) XiP1 + X2P2 + . (X1 + t2 +. connecting the position vectors of the points P1. As we wish P* to be uniquely defined. we have pi = d + pi. O'Pi = pi. mn.miP*Pi = 0..§9 CENTROID 19 linear equation in which the sum of the scalar coefficients is zero. provided Mmi Fl.
Pi are written p* and pi. if V and 1".'mipi + E"miPi. 2. denote summations extended over the points of the subset and over all the remaining points. if the numbers mi are all equal. we may replace them all by unity. or p* _ .mi)P* = Emipi. the centroid of the n points then is called their mean center and is given by the equation: (4) 3 OP* _ .20 VECTOR ALGEBRA i9 When 2 mi 0 0 there is always a unique point P* which satisfies (1). written or For if we choose an origin 0 at pleasure.mi(OPi . (2. respectively. we may write (3) in the form. 4 4 (2) (2mi)OP* = 1m1OPi. and Q coincides with P*.OP*) = 0. The centroid of the points miP1 is not altered when the numbers mi are replaced by any set of numbers cmi proportional to them. n n 1  1 In finding the centroid P* of any set of weighted points miP1. (1) can be F.'mi + Z"mi)P* = 7. in (2). the constant c may be canceled from numerator and denominator. fixes the position of P* relative to 0. we may replace any subset of points for which the sum of the weights is a number m' 0 0 by their centroid P with the weight m'. In particular. If the position vectors of P*. for if Q is a second point for which EmiQPi = 0. hence P*Q = 0. .mi(P*Pi .ZOP1. on subtraction from (1). (2) becomes (3) (2. This relation.mi)P*Q = 0. independent of the origin. we have.Zpi. The point P* thus determined is the only point that satisfies (1) . For. for. or (m' + I"mi)P* = m'p' + E"mipi.QPi) = Timi(P*Pi + PQ) = (2.
P2. Any set of weighted points miPi (mi F6 0) whose position vectors satisfy a linear relation (6) independent of the origin has the intrinsic property that any point of the set is the centroid of all the remaining weighted points. and adjoin to the set their centroid + mn_1 m1 + m2 + P* = Pn with the weight Mn = (m1 + m2 + + mn1). the question raised at the end of § 8. P* does not exist. which satisfies (5) Finally. that P1 and P2 coincide. . if we take 0 at P1. (?Pi F4. Precisely the same . such that 0. Thus in the cases n = 2. 1 2. P1. P2. 4. Take any set of n . (a) For any arbitrary choice of the points miPi. subject only to the condition Emi = 0. mi = m1 0.§9 CENTROID 21 This equation shows that P* is also the centroid of the point m'P' and the points miPi not included in the subset.0) for which Ximi = 0. Hence. that the existence of P* implies that (6) . there will in general be no point P* that will satisfy (5). n X mipi = 0. however. P4 are coplanar. we see. 3. (h) If. mnPn. Hence.6dmiOPi = 0 1mi = 0. we see that P1 is the centroid of the points m2P2. . any point whatever will serve (§ 8). We now can answer conclusion may be drawn for P2. P1. P3 are collinear. A set of n points having this property may be readily constructed. equations (5) imply. since mnPn = m1P1 + m2P2 + we have n + mn1Pn1. In particular. from the defining equation (1). for any choice of 0. t . let us consider the nature of a set of n points miPi If we attempt to find a point P* ZmiP*Pi = 0 when Xmi = 0. P3.mi = 0. respectively. . from (2). a point P* can be found which satisfies (5). m3P3. Then. we may take any one of the given points Pi as origin. i=2 2. Pn. In fact.1 weighted points miPi. we find that there are two possibilities. P3. Thus. . (6) becomes V i=2 miP1 Pi = 0. if these conditions are not fulfilled.
9a a M2 FIG. or by 2N1 and 2N2. Let L. C N Fia. C. 8D is the centroid of the other three. yC is the centroid of the other two. N1N2. yC. DA. B. (7) as+Sb+yc=0. BM. . Any point D in the plane of A. B. (8) as+. N1. D by 2L1 and 2L2. L2. B. N be the midpoints of BC. C. Example 1. C are not collinear. M1M2. N2 be the midpoints of A B.BB. Mean Center of Three Points A. BM. The bisectors of the three pairs of opposite sides of the quad . if a = S. D. Mean Center of Four Points A.BB. B. In particular. CN are all divided by P* in the ratio of 2/1. they are the vertices of a triangle. C is the centroid of A and 2L. If A. CN intersect at P* and are there divided in the ratio of 2/1. B and 2M. 9b). Let L1. 9a). Therefore P* is the midpoint of the segments L1L2. Hence (ex.22 VECTOR ALGEBRA §9 Thus the relation. Its medians AL. Any point C on the line of A and B satisfies a relation of the type (7) and hence is the centroid of these points when suitably weighted. To find P* we may replace A. P* divides AB in half. The relation. CA. AB (Fig. a+$+y=0. or by 2M1 and 2M2. The mean center of two points lies midway between them. M1. AC. M2. 9b Example 3. The centroid of aA and pB is given by * as+Rb a+13 P Hence P* divides AB in the inverse ratio f/a of their weights.9b+yc+8d = 0. between four coplanar points shows that each point of the set aA. . CD. Example 2. 1) the segments AL. C. a+a+7+S = O. Then the mean center P* of A. BC. BD. B. C and 2N. between three collinear points shows that each point of the set aA. B. respectively (Fig. M. Centroid of Two Points. C satisfies a relation of the type (8) and hence is the centroid of these points when suitably weighted.
2. yC. for. 1. CP. C'. 0. CDA. they determine a tetrahedron. B. The sum of n vectors AiB1 (i = 1. . C. DD' in the ratio of 3/1. y are called the barycentric coordinates of P. B and 3B'. A1B1 A2B2 where A*. B* are the midpoints of A1A2 and B1B2. hence «(pa)+$(ppb)+y(pc)+a(pd) =0. 1.Bi = n A*B*. The preceding result also shows that the bisectors of the three pairs of opposite sides of the tetrahedron meet at P*. Let A'. Barycentric Coordinates. their ratios determine P. If P is any point in the plane of the reference triangle ABC. $B. . 10.c) = 0. CC'. Thus P is the centroid of the weighted points aA. B. hence In particular. as they all may be multiplied by the same number without altering p. the vectors AP.§ 10 BARYCENTRIC COORDINATES 23 rangle ABCD (which may be plane or skew) intersect at P* and are there divided in half. and hence divides each of the segments AA'. C and 3C'.) =nb*na* = n(b* . BB'. (2) p as+Ab+yc+Sd a+O+y+S .= 2 A*B*. B(0. D and 3D'. 0). DP are linearly dependent (§ 5). C.a) + /3(p . CP are linearly dependent (§ 5) . /3. p=as+9b+ic (1) «+6 + y The denominator is not zero. hence 33 3 «(p . respectively. BP. If P is a point in space and ABCD a reference tetrahedron. The three numbers a. 1). If A. the vectors AP. C(0. respectively. C would be collinear. D' be the mean centers of the triads BCD. DAB. B'. 0). 2. Then P* is the centroid of A and 3A'. and A. contrary to hypothesis.a*) where A* and B* are the mean centers of the initial points Ai and the terminal points Bi. ABC.A. 0. 4 + . if a+a+y=0. 1) is the mean center of A. D are not coplanar. B. the unit point (1. Example 4. The vertices of the reference triangle have the coordinates A(1. then aa+(3b+yc=0. BP. n) is given by Z(bia.b) + y(p .
If no director plane 7r is specified. 11. 1. B. e2. Let the vectors PQ. C. If this curve is viewed from the side of its plane opposite to that on which 0 lies. 12. 1. If this sense is counterclockwise. contrary to hypothesis. yC. B. as they all may be multiplied by the same number without altering p. if a+8+y+S = 0. they are then noncoplanar. e2. Then the vector P1Q1 is the 7rprojection of PQ upon x. and middle fingers of the right hand so that they have the directions of e1. D(0. 0. Pass planes through P and Q parallel to 7r and let them cut x in the points P1i Ql (Fig. Thus P is the centroid of the weighted points aA. If the vectors are drawn from a common origin 0 (Fig. D would be coplanar. C. for. since P1Q1 + Q1R1 = P1R1.24 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 12 The denominator is not zero. 0. e3 is said to be righthanded or dextral. E2. 11 PQ upon a line x. 1). 0). 0. To find the projection of a vector Fla. then as+. the unit point (1. $B. e2. 12a). S are called barycentric coordinates of P. The vertices of the reference tetrahedron have the barycentric coordinates A(1. QR and their sum PR have the projections P1Q1. 0. y. 1) is the mean center of A. we tacitly assume that IT is perpendicular to x. Let e1. the projection of the sum of two vectors on a line is equal to the sum of their projection on this line. for it is then possible to extend the thumb. 1. 0). e3 be three linearly independent vectors. 0. E3. D. 11). the set e1. . then. the projection is then orthogonal. W. C(0. 0). a director plane 7r must be specified. 1. Q1R1 and P1R1 on the line x. index. . The four numbers a. 0. Base Vectors. Projection of a Vector. we may pass a closed plane curve through their end points El. e3. their ratios determine P.lib+yc+Sd =0 and the points A. B(0. the order E1E2E3 defines a sense of circulation. 0.
If u is the position vector OP. In a figure the positive direction is marked with an arrowhead. e2. u2.§ 12 BASE VECTORS 2'r respectively. el and e2 (Fig. For. If the sense defined by E1E2E3 is clockwise the set is said to be lefthanded or sinistral. e2. with brackets to enclose its components. the other negative. e3. say u`ei. e2. e3. The vector u is often written [ul. e2. where ul. u3]. lines drawn through the origin 0 parallel to . (1) u = ulel + u2e2 + u3e3. Any vector u = PQ may be expressed as the sum of three vectors parallel to el. the components ui are called the Cartesian coordinates of the point P with respect to the basis e1. respectively. they are written as superscripts for reasons given in Chapter IX. u2. its edges will be parallel to el. if we construct a parallelepiped on PQ as diagonal by passing planes through P and R Fia. One direction is called positive. e3 A straight line upon which two directions are distinguished is called an axis. u3 are numbers called the components of u with respect to the basis el. e3. e3 and el. 12b). and PQ = PQ1 + Q1R + RQ = PQ1 + PQ2 + PQ3 _ y Since PQi is a scalar multiple of ei. With a given basis. Their indices are not exponents but mere identification tags. 12a FIG 12b Q parallel to e2 and e3.
z with positive directions given by i. multiply its components by that number. taken positive or negative according as OPI has the direction of i or i. add their corresponding components. With the bracket notation. u2. u3 = v3. u3] = [Au'. Au3]. u3 often are called the components of u on these axes. u = 0 implies u' = u2 = u3 = 0. (3) u + v = (u1 + v')el + (u 2 + v2)e2 + (u3 + v3)e3 A[ul. (2) and (3) become (4) (5) [ul. k (Fig. u2. e3 and with their directions positive are called the coordinate axes. u3] + [v'.v3e3. y. v3] = [u' . u2.v'. If v = vie1 + v2e2 +. v3] = [u' + v1. 13. u2  v2. OP2i OP3 be its orthogonal projections on the axes. u2. (6) (7) [u'. 13).26 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 13 el. Draw OP = u from the origin. In par ticular. When referred to the same basis. k denote a dextral system of mutually perpendicular unit vectors. u3]. j. (2) Au = Aulel + Au2e2 + Au3e3. v2.[v'. u3] [ul. If A is any scalar.v = 0. u2 + v2. hence (8) U=V implies u' = v'. Au2. for. From an origin 0 draw the coordinate axes x. and let OP1. then u . u3] = [u'. u3  v3]. u2. u2i u3 on these rectangular axes: (1) u = uli + u2j + u3k. v2. u3 + v3]. Rectangular Components. Let i. The numbers u'. To multiply a vector by a number. u2 = v2. . e3 are linearly independent. Then ul is the length of OPI. The components of a zero vector are all zero. e2. If u = v. equal vectors have their corresponding components equal. u2. to add vectors. . hence u1 = I u I cos (i. Any vector u now is determined by giving its components u1. since el. e2. j. u).
we obtain the relation. if (4) OP=xi+yj+zk. u). (3) I U 12 = (ul)2 + (u2)2 + (u3)2.§ 13 RECTANGULAR COMPONENTS 27 where j u j denotes the length of u and (i. u) the angle between i and u.axes. u). u). u) = 1. z). u) + cost (k. y. P has the rectangular coordinates (x. u) + cost (j. The rectangular coordinates of any point P are defined as the components of its position vector OP on the x. If we substitute from (2) in (3). u2 = I U I cos (j. The rectangular components of u thus are obtained by multiplying its length by the corresponding direction cosines: (2) ul = I u I cos (i. satisfied by the direction cosines of any vector. cost (i. Thus. u3 = I u I cos (k. R Fic. Since P1P2 = OP2 . y. from 0P2 = (OR)2 + (RP)2 = (OPl)2 + (OP2)2 + (OP3)2. and z. 13 The Pythagorean Theorem gives the length of u in terms of its components.
The components of PIP2 are found by subtracting the coordinates of PI from the corresponding coordinates of P2. (a. zi) are the coordinates of Pi.Z11The unit vectors i. u). b) = 0. u). the components may be written with subscripts (as previously) or superscripts.zl)k if (xi. z2 . . Example. Y2 . y.. this gives (5) PIP2 = (x2 .components and often are written ul. z) has the position vector [x. ul = I U I cos (i. y. a) = a. U3. z]. we have b=icos0+isin 0 = (i cos a + j sin a } cos l3 + I i cos (a a + 2) + j sin (a + 2)1 sin 6. u2. from (7). Let a and b be two unit vectors such that the angles (i. and. e).u)+jsin(i. Any vector in tine plane may be written (8) its rectangular components are (9) u2 = I u I sin (i. Separately.28 VECTOR ALGEBRA §13 . u= Iule= Jul {icos(i. vectors are specified by giving their components: u = [ul. j. With an orthogonal basis i. If e is a unit vector in the plane and 0 is the angle (i. then the angle (i.xl. u3]. they are called the x. we define cos 0 and sin 0 as the components of e : (7) e=icos0+jsin0. y.Just as with a general basis. j (a unit vector 90° ahead of a). u3 = 0.OPI. and z. j form a basis for all vectors u in their plane: (6) u = uli + u2j. Addition Theorems for the Sine and Cosine. and (5) may be written PIP2 = [x2 .u)}.xl)i + (Y2 . Thus the point (x.yl. U2. k. a =icosa+jsina. reckoned positive in the sense from i to j. If we refer b to the new basis i = a. y. b = i cos (a + fl) + j sin (a + 0).yl)j + (z2 . b) = a + 14.
Products of Two Vectors. v) is acute. The scalar product of two vectors u and v. written u v. B. positive or negative.sin a sin 0. In Chapter X quaternion algebra is developed briefly. adapted to the uses of geometry and physics. zero. and the origin of the foregoing products is revealed. . His pamphlet on the Elements of Vector Analysis was privately printed in 1881. sin (p + 2) = cos 0. these equations give cos (/3 + 2) sin $. was written by Professor E. according as the angle (u. Hitherto we have considered only the products of vectors by numbers. Wilson. 1901) based on Gibbs's lectures.15 SCALAR PRODUCT 29 Comparing the components of b in the two preceding expressions. Willard Gibbs (18391903). for proper vectors. is defined as the product of their lengths and the cosine of their included angle: (1) Jul IvI cos(u. or obtuse. t Professor of mathematical physics at Yale University. which are known as "products. we find cos (a + 13) = cos a cos 8 + cos (a + 2) sin [3. right. The definitions of these new products may seem rather arbitrary to one unfamiliar with the history of vector algebra. hence cos (a + 0) = cos a cos 0 . We present this algebra in the form and notation due to the American mathematical physicist. will also prove to have properties in striking disagreement with those of numbers. or negative. 15.v). Scalar Product. sin (a + /3) = sin a cos l3 + sin (a + 2) sin With a =7r/2. respectively. The scalar product is therefore a number which for proper (nonzero) vectors is positive. These addition theorems hold for all values of a and fl.t It is an offshoot of the algebra of quaternions. Yale University Press." because they have some properties in common with the products of numbers. J. A more complete treatise on Vector Analysis (New Haven. These products of vectors. 14. Hence. (2) means u1v. Since one of these products is a scalar and the other a vector. however. Next we shall define two operations between vectors. they are called the scalar product and vector product. sin (a + )3) = sin a cos g + cos a sin g.
the projection of u upon 1 (proj 1 u) is a scalar multiple of e. V. The last result is obvious when a and i3 are positive numbers. its defining equation is therefore (4) e comp j u = proj 1 u. From the projection theorem of § 11. u). From (1) we see that (3) or Jul lvI. (7) hence. proj 1 (u + v) = proj 1 u + proj 1 v. . the other cases then follow from the equations preceding. This scalar is called the component of u upon 1 (comp1 u) . The operations expressed by proj1 and comp] are distributive with respect to addition. Scalar or "dot" multiplication is commutative and distributive: (10) (11) w(u+v) =wu+wv. according as the vectors have the same or opposite directions. Besides the components of a vector on the coordinate axes (§§ 12. As in § 13. If the positive direction of 1 is given by the unit vector e. thus (au) ($v) = ag u . since I e (6) 1. The definition (1) of u v now may be written (9) U V= I u l compu V=IV l comp u. we compute comp j u as (5) comps u = l u i cos (e. this may also be written comps u = e u. from (3). Jul lvl.30 VECTOR ALGEBRA 115 When u and v are parallel. 13) we shall also use the orthogonal projection and compo nent of a vector on an arbitrary directed line 1. (8) comps (u + v) = comp] u + comps v.
b) = we have the cosine law: d2 = a2+0 . uuv = 10 14 luI = 2.Ie (c. j. v = [0. c d = 0.b and c are perpendicular. (u v)w (12) i u(v w).b = 0 or that a . We thus have two geometric theorems: 1. The diagonals of a rhombus cut at right angles. Example 1. u v = 0 . Example 2. from Fro. v) = 530 18'. Hence. 2.673. Moreover. 10 compu v = 0. d = a . It is obvious that. We cannot "cancel" c to obtain a = b unless a . w = anL. An angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle. k are mutually perpendicular unit vectors. and. u ' v = lull + u2j + u3k) (v1i + v2j + v3k) we obtain (13) u v = u1v1 + u2v2 + u3v3 The scalar product of two vectors is equal to the sum of the products of their corresponding rectangular components. cos (u. u = If u = [2.iterpretation. . Identities involving scalar products may be given a geometric i. 1. If a = b. in general. d).5979. if we expand the product.§ 15 SCALAR.b. 2. or we can conclude either that a . P a Q Moreover. v) = = /280 = angle (u. then PQRS is a rhombus and the angle PRT may be inscribed in a semicircle about Q. 3].b and c are not perpendicular.. If c 0 in the equation. 15a) gives cdcosw=a2b2. Since i. 4]. 15a (ab) (a .2 + 12 = 10. if we write c = a + b. Thus (Fig.2ab cos 0. comp. PRODUCT 31 The last equation is nothing more than (8) multiplied by when 1 is taken along w. uv rv7 I = U u 10 /20 v v = 2 236.
b. if two terms of this equation are zero. c. the ortho center of the triangle (Fig. p = (a + c). If we regard a. u2 means u u.a + b \ 2 b+c 2 C c+a\ shows that the perpendicular bisectors of the triangle ABC meet in a point K. The sum of the squares of the sides of any space quadrilateral equals the sum of the squares of its diagonals plus four C times the square of the segment joining their middle points. Then a . (a =0. as position vectors OA. We also may interpret identities involving scalar products by regarding the vectors a. hence 2 (AB)2 + (BC)2 + (CD)2 + (DA)2 = (AC)2 + (BD)2 + 4(QP)2. OB. Example 4. Consider. 15b). for example. for. (a On adding these. from an arbitrary origin O. BD. Similarly the identity. 15b shows that the altitudes of a triangle ABC meet in a point H. for example. The identity. b. (ab) (h+2k3g) =0. q = (b + d) locate the midpoints P. (ab) k.b = BA and a + b = 2 011 where M is the midpoint of AB. d as the position vectors of the vertices of a space quadrilateral ABCD. B Fia. which can be verified on expansion. the identity. we obtain 0. 0. . For the orthocenter H and circumcenter K the individual terms of the foregoing equations vanish. the circumcenter of the triangle.32 VECTOR ALGEBRA §15 Example 3. or on writing g = 3 (a + b + c) for the position vector of the mean center G of the triangle ABC. the third is likewise. (ab) (hc) 0. (ba)2+(cb)2+(dc)2+(ad)2 = (ca)2+(db)2+(a+cbd)2. Q of the diagonals AC.
B. C. D and are bisected there (§ 9.(a . 3). Example 5. R'. passes through the nine points: the midpoints of the sides. C.c) . This circle. CABH. H. DA. the feet of its altitudes. 15c Fia. Since the lines PR. three quadrilaterals. Q.15d in the mean center N of the points A. If perpendiculars from P. whose center is at the mean center N of A.(bd). Q.§ 15 SCALAR PRODUCT 33 Since this equation also holds when a . then (Fig. H. Thus we have proved the THEOREM. S are dropped upon the sides opposite. R. all have perpendicular diagonals. QS intersect D P R' Fta.c+ d)2 = 4(a . their feet. a circle whose center is the mean center of A. BCAH. Their three eightpoint circles are all the same.3g = 0. the midpoints of its sides and the feet of the perpendiculars dropped from them on the opposite sides all lie on a circle described about the mean center of the vertices. In order to interpret the identity. with reference to the plane quadrilateral ABCD. For any triangle ABC whose orthocenter is H. ABCH. if the diagonals of a quadrilateral cut at right angles. This line is called the Euler line of the triangle.c and c . ex. is the famous ninepoint circle of the triangle. CD. 15e) we have (PR)2 . P'. 15d). When the diagonals of a quadrilateral are perpendicular.(QS)2 = CA DB. S. R. In the figure formed by a triangle ABC and its three altitudes meeting at the orthocenter H (Fig. B. BC. we conclude that h + 2k .c . the lines joining the midpoints of opposite sides are equal. .a. B. and the midpoints of the segments joining H to the vertices. Hence. let P. a circle with N as center will pass through P. Q'. Therefore the mean. C. Q.b .b is replaced by b . (a + b . center of a triangle lies on the line joining the orthocenter to the circumcenter and divides it in the ratio of 2/1. R.d)2. S denote the midpoints of AB. THEOREM. S also will lie on this circle.
the other cases then follow from the equations preceding. its orthocenter H. and circumcenter K. the scalar factor is not altered. When u and v are parallel. (2) uxv = 0 means u I I v. The vector product of two vectors u and v. a righthanded screw revolved from u towards v will advance in its nut towards u x v. Moreover N bisects the segment HK. Hence. 16 (P) Project v on p. 4. and obtain I u I v'. e. (M) Multiply v' by I u I. but in this case sin (u. v) = 0. but e is reversed. if u and v are not zero. The last result is obvious when a and /3 are positive numbers. In particular u x u = 0. (au) x ((3v) = a# u x v. e is not defined. Then u x v may be formed by a sequence of three operations: FIG. If u and v are interchanged in (1). Moreover. where e is a unit vector perpendicular to both u and v and forming with them a dextral set u. (v) = uxv. is defined as the vector. hence (4) vxu = uxv. (3) (u). and let p be a plane perpendicular to u at A (Fig. in view of ex. If u and v are not parallel. 16. From (1) we see that (u)xV = ux(v) _ uxv. 16). Draw u and v from the point A. (R) Revolve I u I v' about u through +90° . and obtain v'. Therefore the center N of the ninepoint circle is collinear with the mean center G of the triangle.34 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 16 The center N of the ninepoint circle has the position vector n given by 4n =a+b}c+h=3g+h=2h+2k. Vector Product.v)e. u x v = 0 only when sin (u. v. for proper vectors. Vector multiplication is not commutative. (1) uxv= Jul Ivlsin(u. written u x v. v) = 0 and u x v = 0.
Since the unit vectors i. If c 7d 0 in the equation. provided that the order of th. We cannot "cancel" c to obtain a = b unless a . jxk=i. v). For example. By repeated appli cations of (6) we may expand the vector product of two vecto sums just as in ordinary algebra.b and c are parallel. .b = 0 or that a . if we expand the product. we can conclude either that a . for I V. ixi=jxj=kxk=0. factors is not altered.u3v2)i + (u3v1 . kxi=j.316 VECTOR PRODUCT The resulting vector agrees with u x v in magnitude. (a+b)x(c+d) =axc+axd+bxc+bxd. we obtain (8) u x V = (u2v3 .b and c are not parallel. and the projection multiplied. (7) ixj=k. I v I sin (u. We shall see in § 18 that in general. and also in direction (upward in the figure). axc=bxc.u1v3)j + (ulv2 . an finally revolved as previously described. k form a dextral orthogonal set. This means that v is projected. from (5). we have the cyclic relations. or (ab)xc=0. j. u x v = (u1i + u2j + u3k) x (v1i + v2j + v3k). We is dicate this method of forming u X v by the notation. (V + W) Xu = vxu + wxu Vector or "cross" multiplication is distributive. Now each of these ope ators is distributive: operating on the sum of two vectors is the sarr. Hence. (6) ux (v + w) = uxv + uxw. (5) u X v = RMPV. as operating on the vectors separately and adding the result: hence RMP(v + w) = RM(Pv + Pw) = R(MPv + MPw) = RMPV + RMPvc Thus. (u x v) x w P6 u x (v x w).u2v1)k.
4]. 3 and 1 (not I and 3).6. 1. Computation. 1. B(2. To find the shortest distance d from a point A to the line BC. = [3. 4.1]. 121 _ 14 > 4 4 If we take u = AC = [2. D(1. u x e again has the preceding value. d = n u Computation.245 Check.36 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 16 The components of u x v are the determinants formed by columns ul U2 u3 °l and 3. . we verify. 4. and let n be the unit vector in its direction. [9. B(2. 0]. 4).2. Check.4] x/26 i s. 3.0]. 2]. 26 . u=AB=[1. BD n= 13 BCBD = [4. 1)._ 2. 7] u x e = x/26 . d = I uI sin(u. 1]. 1 and l of the array (VI V2 V3 hence we may write (9) i u1 V1 j U2 V2 k U3 V3 For example.3. If the points are A(3. that u x v is perpendicular to both u and v: 52 + 27 + 25 = 0.1. 2. Example 1. Method. 0). if u is any vector from A to the line (as AB or AC). To find the shortest distance d from a point A to the plane BCD. 2. BC=[3. if u is any vector from A to the plane (as AB or AC). Then. 1. . we compute the components of u x v from the array. C(1.4 BC = [3. n u =. 1. 2 3 5 C 1 42 ' 2 5 3 5 _ 9. d = IuxeI a=[3. 0.e) =Iuxe1. 1). 0. Method. u=AB=[1. 3. 4. Let e be the unit vector along BC. v = [1. If the points are A(1.3. [4. if u = [2. As a check. 4.36 + 10 = 0. 4 Example 2. 1). 5]. such as BC x BD. 12]. If we take u = AC = [4. i . Find a vector normal to the plane. 5]. 0]. C(1. 2. 1).26. = . 9. 2). Then. 2 1 42 2 3 1 4 =5. 5 ]. Thus u x v = [ 26.
OQ = OC + CQ = [1. Method. and pointing in the direction a righthanded screw would move if turned in the given sense. CD. 0]. 17b associate such an area with a vector of magnitude A. C(1. 1. 21. 4]. 2]. 0] + y[l. 2. > n= 3[2. 4] = [3a+y. 3a + y 2 2a + 4 . Computation. if u is any vector from AB to CD (as AC orBD). and. B(4.2. 4] _ $[13. and find the scalars a. write AP = a AB. 2a+46y. and let n be a unit vector in its direction. 1).17 VECTOR AREAS 37 Example 3. Vector Areas. 2] + [0. Then. 6.2]=$[21. 6. 1] + $[1. Thus the parallelogram whose sides . y from the condition that PQ = PA + AC + CQ is parallel to AB x CD.17]. 4 AB = [3.6y 1 2a . 2. 2. 1. 3). 2. AC = [0. normal to its plane. > AB x CD = 10[2. 17a. CQ = y CD. 2]. The length PQ = d.= aAB +AC +yCD PQ = a[3. d = n AC = To find P and Q. 17a Fia. hence OP=OA+AP=[1. 0. 4. 2. If the lines AB. we have 4 + 4 .2a4y]. 2]. since PQ is parallel to [2. 6.2. 1. The distance PQ = . 4 CD = [1. 4. 6. CD are given by the points A(1. 5). To find the shortest distance d between two nonparallel lines AB. Find the vector AB x CD which is perpendicular to both lines.10. 1). and to locate the shortest vector PQ from AB to CD.4y 2 These equations give a = y = $.1]+$[3. 17. Check. Consider a plane area A whose boundary is traced in a definite senseshown by arrows in Fig. d = In To find P and Q. D(2. 4. We shall V U FIG. 25].
Consider now a plane area A The circuital sense of A is projected on A'. 17c associated with the vector u. The sum of two plane areas associated with the vectors. their sum is zero.38 VECTOR ALGEBRA $ 17 are the vectors u. Any polyhedron may be subdiA vided by planes into a finite number of tetrahedrons. u) is acute or obtuse. for its area is A = Iul Ivlsin(u. . The projection of A on a directed plane p is A' = A cos 8 n. is defined as the plane area associated with u + v. Since I u = A and (n. 17d) be one FIG. A circuit in a directed plane is positive when it is counterclockwise relative to n.u = u I cos (n. 17b) and whose sense agrees with the rotation that carries u into v is associated with the vector u x v. 17d such tetrahedron. All plane areas associated with the same vector will be regarded as equal. v (Fig. a clockwise circuit is negative. In both cases n u gives the component of A on p: (1) compp A = n u. A directed plane is a plane associated with a definite normal vector. u) = 8 or ir . and call this signed area the component of A on p. We shall give A' the sign corresponding to its circuit on p. Let ABCD (Fig. Fm. the outward vector areas of the triangular faces. DBC. If we imagine ABC to lie in the plane of the paper while D is above the paper. 17c). v. ABC.v) = Iuxvl. DCA.0. say the unit normal n. u. When the vector areas of the faces of a closed poly hedron are all drawn in the direction of the outward normals. C THEOREM. (Fig. DAB. u) = A cos 0 or A cos 8 according as (n. Proof.
counterclockwise. rh '' denote the position vectors of the vertices.a) = 0. x1 Y1 Y2 . a pyramid having 0 as vertex and the Fla. Now n = k. The vector areas over all inner faces cancel. ABAC. + rh x r1). Since this sum is zero. (2) remains valid. so that a positive circuit is . DA X DB. let the (2) vertices of the polygon be (x1.a)X(c . Now write such an equation for all the tetrahedrons that make up the polyhedron. yl). Hence when 0 is in the plane of the polygon. and suppose that the D circuit P1P2 . i As the vertex 0 approaches the plane of the base.. Ph of area A lying in a directed plane of unit normal n (Fig. irh x r1. while the outward vector area of the base is An. Thus the theorem is true for a tetrahedron. the sum of these vectors is given by axb+bxc+cxa . the terms on the right of (2) vary continuously. Ph is positive. and add the results. r2. hence An = (r1 x r2 + r2 x r3 + .(b . yh) taken in x2 k. The triangular faces of this pyramid have as their outward vector areas 2r1 x r2i ire X r3. and r1 X r2 = (x1i + yll) X (x2i + y2i) = . y2). Consider now a polygon P1P2 . (xh. From the preceding theorem the sum of these vector areas is zero. . DB X DC. Choose an origin 0 at pleasure above the plane (towards P the reader). counterclockwise order. DC X DA. (x2. The net result on the left is double the sum of the outward vector areas of the polyhedron's faces. but their sum is always An. If 0 is any origin of rectangular coordinates in the plane. 17e).§ 17 VECTOR AREAS 39 are given by one half of the respective vectors. 17e given polygon as base. the theorem follows. In the figure n points up from the plane of the paper.. . If we choose D as origin. for each appears twice but with opposed directions. These vectors are the edges of P. and let r1.
Thus we have (uxv)xw = In order to determine X. + I Xh xl Y1 J f Yh Example 1. (5. All numbers a. 2). Substituting these values gives. (1. 18.. 7). To find the area A of a triangle whose vertices are (a. c). u FIG. i find the area of the A = 11/a2b2 + b2c2 + OA counterExample 3. But. 0). 0. (0. The vector (u x v) x w is perpendicular to u x v and therefore coplanar with u and v. To polygon whose vertices in clockwise order are (1.(u +v) xw = 0. w = wli + w2j + w3k. we use a special basis in which i is collinear with u. after a simple calculation. that satisfy this equation must be of the form = X u w. where X is arbitrary. r3 = ck in (2). 3).40 so that (2) gives VECTOR ALGEBRA § 18 (3) 2A = I xl Y1 x2 Y2 I + I x2 y2 x3 Y3 I + . r2 = bj. a = A v w. A 2A = 6+47+20+20+1 =82. 5). for they are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. (5. we form the array. aU 0. 17f) is uxw +vXw . The vector areas of the triangular bases cancel. hence (§ 5). from (3). repeating the first column. 0. 0). Vector Triple Product. (1) (uxv)xw = uWV wx(uxv) = wvu wuv. v. =41. (u x v) x w = au + /3v. . since (u x v) x w is also perpendicular to w. Then. (x) 1 5 4 3 5 1 7 5 1 (y) 2 3 2. (0. b.. 17f Example 2. A = 1 We therefore have the important expansion formulas. . (3. The sum of the outward vector areas of the triangular prism (Fig. then An = (abk + bci + caj). 4). j coplanar with u. u = u1i. then V = v1i + v2j. put r1 = ai.
by the corresponding altitude h = I w I cos B: V= IuxvIIwIcos6. From (1) we see that the sum of a vector triple product and its two cyclical permutations is zero: (axb)xc {. v. Now the angle between u x v and w is B or 7r .u x (v x w).B according as u. Its sign is positive or negative according as u. Scalar Triple Product. we may express any vector u as the sum of its orthogonal projections on 1 and on a plane p perpendicular to 1: (15. THEOREM. In general (u x v) x w /. the other remote from it. The volume V (Fig.w is numerically equal to the volume V of a parallelepiped having u. The definition of a scalar product now shows that (1) uxvw= V V} when the set u. v. 19) may be computed by multiplying the area of a face parallel to u and v. 19 Proof. sinistral. for the former is coplanar with u and v. (4) 19. .§ 19 SCALAR TRIPLE PRODUCT 41 In the lefthand members of (1). The product u x v . v. v. (2) If 1 is a directed line carrying the unit vector e. one of the vectors in parenthesis is adjacent to the vector outside. v) = l u x e 1.(e u) e = e x (u x e). Cross multiplication of vectors is not associative. w form a righthanded or lefthanded set. w is dextral. w form a dextral (as in the figure) or a sinistral set (§ 12). A = J u l H v l sin (u. projl u = e comps u = (e u) e (3) projp u = u .(Outer dot Adjacent) Remote. No ambiguity can arise from the parentheses being omitted. since u x (v w) is meaningless. Fic. The righthand members may be remembered as (Outer dot Remote) Adjacent . the latter with v and w.(bxc) x a + (cxa)xb = O.6). The scalar product of u x v and w is written u x v .w or [uvw]. w as concur uXv rent edges.
j.3) and (16.V." $ If u. . while the products.3). a box product containing two parallel vectors is zero. w is not altered by a cyclical change in their order. if the set u. the products in (2) all equal V. when the cyclical order is changed : (3) Thus. The value of a box product is not altered by an interchange of the dot and cross. $ The name proposed by J. Taylor. U"W V = all equal . for example u x v u = 0. In particular. p. On account of the geometric meaning of the scalar triple product. v. v. The notation [uvw] often is used for the box product. H. if we expand the product u x v w when the vectors are referred to the basis i.42 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 19 The dextral or sinistral character of a set u. v. we have (5) (au) x (av) . From (15. 46. [ikj] = [kji] = [jik] = 1. Therefore: three proper vectors are coplanar (parallel to the same plane) when and only when their box product is zero. New York. the distributive law for scalar and vector products shows that a box product of vector sums may be expanded just as in ordinary algebra. Finally. 1939. Vector Analysis. The remaining six terms are those containing [ijk] = [jki] = [kij] = 1. (2) But a dextral set becomes sinistral and vice versa. V = 0 only when the vectors are coplanar. we shall call it the "box product. Hence. provided that the order of the vector factors is not altered. k. from (1). w are proper vectors. as the omission of dot and cross causes no ambiguity. Thus. (tiw) = a(3y u x v w. w is dextral. we obtain 27 terms of which all but six vanish as they contain box products with two or three equal vectors. For (4) as dot multiplication is commutative.
Computation. 1). CD x CE = 0 which expresses that P is coplanar with C. 0). We thus are led to the two expan(a x b) x sions.8).[abc]d. .b[cda] + c[dab] . 3. 2. 2. Products of Four Vectors. D(0. 2). A(1.d[abc] = 0. in turn. hence. DP CD X CE = 0.3 20 PRODUCTS OF FOUR VECTORS 43 and constitute the expansion of the determinant. > 4 . OP = OA + X AB = [1. x d) may be regarded as a triple product of a x b. 18(X . E. 7. B(2. the scalar it is then determined by the equation.1.2. (i) CP CD X CE = (CA + it AB) .0] . c. 20. 5] = [18. 3). c x d.1) 7(X+2)+8(x3) =17x20=0. 2). 1]x[3. 14.4. Method. 20]. (6) [uvw] = v1 W1 W2 W3 This result also follows at once from (16.b c d). 1. D. 1] = . AP = it AB. C(2. E(1. Example. Since (a x b) (1) (c x d) = a b x (c x d) = a (b d c . With the points.it+2. 0. 3]+1`[1.A3]. To find the point P where the line AB pierces the plane CDE. from (i). DP = [1.1] =[7.8].2.18]. b. for 7.4[1. Check.1. d or of a.[3. CD xCE = [2. 261 U2 v2 U3 v3 . 4. (2) (a x b) x (c x d) = [acd]b .18.[bcd]a = [abd]c . CP =CA+XAB =[1. the following equation connecting any four vectors: (3) a[bcd] . which give. 2.
sin A Division by abc gives the sine law for plane triangles: sin B b sin C c (4) a Since each product in (3) is double the vector area of the triangle. C. 22 vectors of the vertices referred to its center (Fig. Plane Trigonometry.44 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 22 When [abc] (4) 0. Consider a spherical triangle ABC on a sphere of unit radius. then by b x. b) are equal.to7r. [abc]d = [dbc]a + [adc]b + [abd]c gives d explicitly in terms of the basis a.rC. 22). c and the interior angles opposite them by A. c). tively. a). On multiplying (1) first by a x. B. From the identity. form a dextral set: then [abc] > 0.. The notation is so chosen that a. c. denote the position FIG. 21. (1) a+b+c=0. . 21 (a+b) (a+b) = c2 = a2 + b2 . We shall denote the lengths of the sides by a.7rB.tab cos C. c. then the angles (b. b. 21). (a. and let a. c form a closed triangle when placed end to end (Fig. we obtain the cosine law for plane triangles: (2) Cyclical interchanges of the letters in (2) give two other forms of this law. c. b. b. 2 22. we find (3) bxc = cxa = axb. (c. If the vectors a. respeca FIG. b. its (5) Area = be sin A = I ca sin B = 2 ab sin C. Spherical Trigonometry. b.A.
y for exterior angles. [abc] (5) _ sin a _ sin / _ sin y sin a' sin S' [a'b'c'] sin y' This is the sine law for spherical triangles. Thus there is complete reciprocity between the vector sets a. A'B'C' has a'. y denote the sides (arcs of great circles) opposite the vertices. A. By C. 0'. and include an angle a' = it . c'. /3. . By C. a positive multiple of a. we have (3) b' c' = cos all Ca= cos a' b' = cos y' a' b' = sin y'c.by = sin y' c. the triangles are said to be polar. Now (1) (2) bxc = sin a a'. from (2). the exterior dihedral angle at A. /3. y' for exterior angles. hence. (4) b'xc' = sin a' a. by c. Moreover. Again. The vectors b' and c' are perpendicular to the planes of c.b' = sin a' sin /3'b . (3'. c' are unit vectors. While ABC has a. y' for sides and a. b'. We shall consider only spherical triangles in which the sides and angles are each less than 180°. a and a. by respectively. S.A. and also between the spherical triangles they determine. y' denote the exterior dihedral angles at A. on division. c'xa' = sin#'b. and a'.22 SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY 45 Let a. cxa = sin a b'. From (2) and (4). we have sin /3 sin y by c' = (c x a) (axb) = (c a) (a b) . we have [abc] = sin a a a' = sin/3b . y for sides and a'. Since the vertices of one triangle are poles of the corresponding sides of the other. The interior dihedral angles at these vertices also are denoted by A.b c. c'. C. axb = where a'. 0'. B. Hence if a'. b'xc' _ (c x a) x (axb) sin /3sin y [abc] sin f3sin y a. b'. from (2).
from (4). e2 e2 e' = 0. it . and (7) by 7r . e3 and e'. The superscripts applied to the base vectors are not exponents. e2 el e3=0.C we may express the sine and cosine laws in terms of the sides and interior angles. 23. By replacing a'. Similarly. (1) el e2=0. . (6). y' in (5). the structural similarity exhibited by (6) and (7) is lost.A. we deduce (7) Equations (6) and (7) and the four others derived from them by cyclical permutation constitute the cosine laws for spherical triangles. but mere identification tags. Thus.sin 0 sin y cos a'. Two bases. cos A = . for the cosine laws. we find. sin a sin A sin j sin y sin B sin C ' and. e3 = 0. j = 1. e2 = 1. cosa = cos.3cosy + sin $ sin y cos A.B. from (1) and (3). 0'. 7r . e3 e2 = 0. By use of the Kronecker delta 6j. e3 e' = 0. The second and third state that e' is perpendicular to both e2 and e3. el.46 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 23 hence. e2. are said to be reciprocal when they satisfy the nine equations: el e'=1. equations (1) condense to (3) ei e' = Si (i. 2. Consider the three equations in the first column of (1). e2. Reciprocal Bases. In this version of the cosine laws. cos a' = cos 0' cos y' . defined as when (2) ' 0 when i=j i 5 j. e3 e3 = 1.cos B cos C + sin B sin C cos a. (6) cos a = cos 0 cos y . e3. 3). for the sine law.sin f3' sin y' cos a.
From the symmetry of equations (1) in the two sets e1. 23 points Ei. 23). 1 = X el e 2 x e3. the three planes OEiE. E2E3. E3 are poles of the greatcircle arcs. E3. Either triangle is the polar of the other. Et. We thus obtain (4) el = e2 x e3 [ele2e3] e2 = e3 x el [ele2e3] e3 = el x e2 [ele2e3] e2 and e3 being derived from el by cyclical permutation.1) and equations (1). a basis and its reciprocal are both righthanded or both lefthanded. and the three planes OEE' cut out a second spherical triangle E'E2E3 (Fig. and. we have also elxe2 e2xe3 e3xel (5) el = [ele2e3] . respectively. E1E2i and similarly for El. Similar statements apply to e2 and e3. e2 = [ele2e3] . Hence el = X e2 x e3.§ 23 RECIPROCAL BASES 47 that is. we have e 1 (e2 x e3) el = (e2 x e3) _ [eIe2e3][ele2e3] [ele2e3][ele2el] on making use of (20. If the vectors et. E3E1. E2. an equation which gives further justification for the name reciprocal applied to the sets. for E'. Thus. As to the orientation of reciprocal sets. From (4) and (5). . from the first equation. hence (6) [ele2e3][ele2e3] = 1. et are all drawn from the same point 0 and cut by a sphere s about 0 in the Fla. parallel to e2 x e3. e3 = [ele2e3] . Since the boxproducts in (6) must have the same sign. cut a spherical triangle E1E2E3 from s. E2. either basis is expressed in terms of the other by precisely the same formulas. ei. we see from (1) that e' is perpendicular to the plane of e2 and e3 in the direction which makes an acute angle with el.
ei x (e2 x e3) + e2 x (e3 x el) + e3 x (el x e2) = 0 (18. lie in a plane p. k are typical dextral and sinistral orthogonal bases. With the notation of t With a selfreciprocal basis there is no need for superscripts.. The triple will be dextral if [ele2e3] = 1 (§ 19). all six are included in ui = u . When a basis and its reciprocal are identical. The poles of this plane (the ends of the diameter of s perpendicular to p) are points common to all of the great circles EiEi. 2. Components of a Vector. the three altitudes EiEi of the polar triangles EIE2E3. The great circle (7) EIEI is perpendicular to both great circles E2E3 and E2E3. j. we obtain equations of the type u . (3) (4) (i = 1. e3 x e3. This has an interesting geometric interpretation. Therefore. elxel +e2xe2 +e3xe3 = 0. we therefore write S as Sii. The equations (3) then become (8) ei . it thus contains the altitudes of both triangles through the vertex labeled 1. E1E2E 3 meet in a pole P of the plane p. the great circles E2E2. = bi. Hence a basis is selfreciprocal when and only when it consists of a mutually orthogonal triple of unit vectors.e. sinistral if [ele2e3] = 1.e' = ul.el = ul . we obtain the relation. E3E3 contain the altitudes of both triangles through the vertices labeled 2 and 3. E3E3 are perpendicular to el x el. e2 x e2. the components ui covariant. Similarly.2). Any vector now may be written in two forms: u = ulel + u2e2 + u3e3. (1) (2) u . in view of (7). .48 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 24 On dividing the identity. Thus i. k and i. the basis is called selfreciprocal. When a basis is given. E2E2. for reasons given in § 148. a vector u is completely specified by giving its components written in order. j' These equations characterize an orthogonal triple of unit vectors. by [ele2e3]. and these vectors. The planes of the great circles EIEI. j. We now supplement the notation of § 12 by writing the components of a vector u ui or ui according as the basis is ei or et.ei ui = u ei. The components ui are called contravariant. u = ulel + u2e2 + u3e3i From (1) and (2). 3). 24. respectively.
(vlel + v2e2 + v3e3) l we obtain. by virtue of equations (23. in similar fashion. but reciprocal. Xu2. u31 = [Xu1. (10) uxv=E . We next compute the components of u x v. we find. We denote the (nonzero) box products of the base vectors by (5) E = [ele2e3l. we write a vector u as a number triple. (9) u x v = E1 Using contravariant components. u2. U2. Addition and multiplication by scalars follow the formulas of § 12. u2 + v2. u31 _ [u1 + v1. (6) X [u1. with covariant components. [ul. (8) u V = u1V1 + u2V2 + u3e3 = u1v1 + u2e2 + u3V3. Thus. Xu3] (7) [u1.1). u3 + vJ A simple expression for the scalar product u v is obtained when u and v are referred to different.§ 24 COMPONENTS OF A VECTOR 49 § 12. u2. bases. (vie1 + v2e2 + v3e3) u . thus. u2. V = (ulel + u2e2 + u3e3) . u31 + [v1. u31 or [ul. relative to bases e2 and ei. Using covariant components gives u x v = (uie' + u2e2 + u3e3) x (v1e1 + v2e2 + v3e3) U2 V2 U3 V3 e2 x e3 + e1 u3 V3 u1 V1 e3xel + u1 V1 U2 V2 e1xe2 U2 V2 U3 V3 U3 V3 u1 V1 e2 e3 E E or. 1/E = [ele2e31. if we compute J (u'e1 + u2e2 + u3e3) . u31 according as it is referred to the basis ei or et. more compactly. v2.
we see that the components of q = u x v are (11) q' = E1 Uj uk I u' qt 11k 1 = E v' ak Vi vk where the indices ijk form a cyclical permutation of 123. Since e1i e2. A vector is uniquely determined when its scalar and vector products with two known nonperpendicular vectors are given. e2 v .e3 f whereas the second gives the analogous equation obtained by replacing ei by ei. e3 may be any linearly independent set of vectors a. U X S7 = in agreement with our previous results. we also have ua (14) uc [uvw][abc] = wa wb wc va vb vc When the basis ei is selfreciprocal (an orthogonal triple of unit vectors) e i = ei and E = +1. b.0). (ab/. then U V = U1V1 + U2V2 + u03 [uvw] = . e3 = k. we next obtain two expressions for the box product u x v w: U1 u2 V2 U3 V3 u1 u2 v2 u3 v3 (12) [uvw] = E1 V1 =E V1 W1 w2 w3 W1 w2 w3 The first formula of (12) may be written (13) [uvw][e1e2e3] = v el v .50 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 25 From (9) and (10). 25. If the selfreciprocal basis is dextral. . The two sets of components of u then coalesce into a single set which we arbitrarily write U. we can write el = i. e2 = j. c. Vector Equations. Thus let (1) ua=a. uxb=c. E = 1. From (9) and (10).
A vector is also determined when its scalar products with three known noncoplanar vectors are given.e3 = u3. R2 given in advance. Point Coordinates. In this article we use Latin letters for vectors. or. ao). from (24. ao) depend on three independent scalars: "there are oo 3 planes in space. b. The equation of a plane through R1 and perpendicular to the vector a is (r . and its homogeneous coordinates are (a.§ 26 HOMOGENEOUS COORDINATES 51 the scalar a and the vectors a. (4) is seen to be a solution of equations (3). Xao) determine the same plane. (2) is seen to be a solution of equations (1). e i are reciprocal. the coordinates (a. such coordinates are written after those independent of the origin. We have ax(uxb) =a c.e1 = u1. If r = OA. In equations r denotes any position vector from 0 to the entity in question. Coordinates of a point. For example. (2) or ab By direct substitution. The "equation" of the point A is then (1) ra = ao. u . ao). A coordinate that depends upon the choice of origin 0 bears the subscript 0. Xao) determine the same point. (3) u . (4) u = ulel + 112e2 + u3e3." . if u . Since (2) (Xa. Note that (Xa. we have. By direct substitution.2)." Plane Coordinates. ao) depend on three independent scalars: "there are o03 points in space. Greek for scalars. c are regarded as known. whereas r1i r2 denote position vectors to points R1.e2 = u2. we write r = ao/a. on writing ao=r1a. and b c = 0. r a = ao. The homogeneous coordinates of the plane are (a. line or plane are called homogeneous if the entity they determine is not altered when the coordinates are multiplied by the same scalar.r1) a = 0. and the sets et. Homogeneous Coordinates. hence the coordinates (a. 26.
Plane (a. The first coordinate cannot vanish. and I p I = ( ao I/I a I If the origin is shifted from 0 to P. vile coordinates (a. (5) ao! Iai' laol Jai aol ' Ia! The first result is obvious. or line from the origin are. plane. plane. (3) r x a = ao. ao) depend on four independent scalars: "there are ooa lines in space. . The equation of a line through Rl and parallel to the vector a is (r . or. We thus obtain the shift formulas: (6) ap = ao + P0 a. p= axa0 from (25." We thus have the homogeneous coordinates: Point (a. (4) and the fact that (Xa. p x a = ao. In view of. p ao a hence p is the vector from p a= 0. ap = (7) (8) ap=ao+POxa. Xao) determine the same line. (2).r1) x a = 0. we must replace r in (1). the origin 0 is on the point. The distances of the point.2). or line. respectively. 3 in the respective cases. If p is the vector from 0 perpendicular to the plane r a = ao. (4) a ao = 0. ao). The homogeneous (or Plucker) coordinates of the line are (a.52 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 26 Line Coordinates. p= 0 perpendicular to the line r x a = ao. ao). ao). When the second coordinate (subscript 0) is zero. ao) and are connected by the relation. on writing ao = rl x a. respectively. (3) by PO + r to obtain the second coordinate referred to P. Line (a.
have the solution (§ 25) : Qoa r=. ao x bo). ao). or r x (abo . bo) > (abo .ao x b b .aoxb).$ao.ao x b) = ao bo. unless a b = 0.gao) = ao x b0. For (12) : The equations of line and plane.§ 26 HOMOGENEOUS COORDINATES 53 Two Elements Determine a Third. bo) to the point A(a. aoxb a For (11) : Refer the line (b. ao). (a. as Cr / x( a as J = 0. 00a . the line lies in the plane. If 0oa . 0oa . unless abo .ao x b) = 0. ao).aoxb.ao x b = 0. and rx(axb) = $oa aob.ao x b = 0 (and hence a b = 0). then. (b. $o) * (a b. or r (abo .aob). ao). (b. and the point lies on the line. Two nonparallel planes determine a line: (10) (a. For (9) : The line AB has the equation. (b. A line and plane determine a point: (12) (a. bA=bo . bo) (abo . r x a = ao and r b 13o. For (10) : The line is parallel to a x b. A point and line determine a plane: (11) (a. $o) > (a x b. from (8).OAxb=bo  The plane through A normal to bA has the equation (r ao a (abo . ao). then also ao bo = 0.a. ao bo). We have the following cases: Two distinct points determine a line: (9) (a. Proofs in outline.
If Rl and R2 are points on the lines (a. This may be regarded as the equation of the point (a. Example. po) lies on the plane (t. from (17). then. This is the equation of the line (p. r x p = po. Equations in Point and Plane Coordinates. co) lie on the line (p. a.54 VECTOR ALGEBRA §26 Two Lines. To) we have (16) on eliminating r from ra = so and r t = To. To) in point coordinates. ao). from (13). If the line (p. its numerical value gives the shortest distance between the lines. po). TO) we have p t = 0 and hence (18) Top . bo). po) contains the point (a. If the line (p. (S. so) in plane coordinates. let e be a unit vector in the direction a x b of their common normal. Y 16 hence (i) y)+µ(0 y) =0. b are coplanar. the lines are coplanar when and only when the vectors r1 . bo). so) we have (17) soxP apo = 0.Po x t = 0. po) in plane coordinates. If three points (a. on eliminating r from r x p = po and r t = To. on eliminating r from ra = so. If the point (a. . po) in point coordinates. so) lies on the plane (t. (y. ao co bo xP = XP = _XP = po. This is the equation of the line (p.r2. (b. (13) (r1 Since a necessary and sufficient condition that the lines be coplanar is (14) If the lines are not coplanar. ao). (15) a bo + b ao IaxbI This is the component of R2R1 in the direction of e. we have. or as the equation of the plane (t.
the line vector is completely specified by the Pliicker coordinates f. a b c POX=POX=Pox=P. 00. The vector fo is called the moment of f about the point 0.IA and shift the origin to P. A vector which is restricted to lie in a definite line is called a line vector. where X' = Xap/ao. is called the moment of f about the axis s. b/3o. bo/)3.§ 27 LINE VECTORS AND MOMENTS 55 since both vectors in parenthesis are parallel to p. co/y in which the sum of the coefficients is zero (§ 6). the component of fp on s. 27. hence Op \ao yoi + µ \ljo Yo  since both vectors in parenthesis are parallel to po. po). If the three planes (a. we have. (c. In (ii). This is a linear relation connecting a/ao. Line Vectors and Moments. ao lio yo provided ao. yo) pass through the line (p. namely.6). ao). if we write v = A . If the origin is shifted from 0 to P. A shift in origin does not alter the coefficients in (i). d = vyp/yo Let the student prove that x'+A '+v'=0. If s is any axis through P with the unit vector e. fo. C/Yo in which the sum of the coefficients is zero. . (2) fo = OA x AB is twice the vector area of the triangle OAB (§ 17). hence (3) fp = fo + PO x f. from (18).o). We speak of moment about an axis because e fp is inde . This is a linear relation between ao/a. If f=AB. (f fo = 0) the equation of its line of action. and (1) r x f = fo. If f is the vector. X o+ AA + v= Po Yo 0 becomes X' p +lz'+v op 'YP =0. the coefficients are changed but their sum still remains zero. u' = flP/0o. (b. yo are not zero. the moment of f about P is PA x AB = (PO + OA) x AB. e fp (15. fo remains constant as f is shifted along its line of action. however.
the moment of f about s is numerically equal to twice the area PA1B1. and is the moment of f about the axis. . 27 (5) fp=PAxAB=rxf. a scalar.1. The moment of the line vector f = AB about a point P is A Fro. The moment about a point is a vector. 21 is a unit vector along the axis. 2] passes through the point A (2. A1B1 is the projection of AB on the plane. 5. where r is a vector from any point on the axis to any point on the line of action. about an axis. 2) and having the direction of the vector [2. (4) e fp as the component of twice the vector area PAB on a directed plane of unit normal e (§ 17). where r is a vector from P to any point on f's line of action. The line of action of the force f = [1. 1. 4. 4] 2 1 is the moment of f about P. 1. 3] and e = 3[2. 2]. Since PA = [1. In Fig. 1. 1). We repeat these important definitions. its sign is plus or minus according as a turn in the sense PA1B1 would advance a righthanded screw in the direction of s or s. 27. if the axis is given by the unit line vector (e. 1. Find its moment about an axis through the point P(3. eo). . i 0 i k fp = PA x f = 1 1 5 3 = [7. for. Example. to the product of the length A1B1 and the perpendicular distance h of A1B1 from P.56 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 27 pendent of the position of P on this axis. The moment of f about an axis is the component of r x f on the axis. that is.
3 * = XmiOPi and OP* Emi If all mi = 1. not all zero. and conversely.mi $ 0. then 3 (a + $)OP = aOA + SOB. the points Pi are coincident. respectively. 4. Laws: V. In space of three dimensions any four vectors are linearly dependent. A set of weighted points miPi has a unique centroid P if 2.A1OP1 = 0 connecting n position vectors will hold for any origin when and only when :Ai = 0. respectively. 3 3 > 3 A linear relation2. The n vectors ui are linearly dependent if there exist n real num bers Ai. The product Au is a vector A I times as long as u. and multiplied by real numbers in conformity with the laws of ordinary algebra. Free vectors are added by the triangle construction. When n = 2. P* is called the mean center. or coplanar. The scalar product u v is defined as Jul Ivlcos(u. 3. Up U. (v+w) = uv uv uv=lu I vl is a e u v a dextral set. When n = 2. collinear. Summary: Vector Algebra. its defining equation is lmiP*Pi = 0.§ 28 SUMMARY: VECTOR ALGEBRA 57 28. Vectors may be added. subtracted. To subtract a vector. A point P divides a segment AB in the ratio X = /3/a when 3 AP = APB. the reverse if X < 0. 3. Equal vectors have the same length and direction. add its negative. . such that EAiui = 0.v). its direction is the same as u if X > 0. The negative of a vector is the vector reversed. linear dependence implies that the vectors are collinear or coplanar.
E = 1. u x v w or [uvw]. Expansion rule: ux(vxw) = Cross multiplication is not associative. v. E = 1. e2 el e2 e3 I I el e3 U x v = E1 U2 V3 E ul v2 Ut v3 u3 I vl U1 u2 V2 U3 V3 u2 [uvw] = E1 I V1 E 1vi W1 W2 W3 w2 w3 When the basis ej is selfreciprocal (ei = ei). Given a basis e1. a vector u may be written as Euiei or ruiei. or by an interchange of dot and cross. its vectors form a mutually orthogonal set of unit vectors.xek ei = [e1e2e3] ei x ek ei = [ele2e3] . if E < 0. Ux(V+w) = uxv+uxw. if the basis is dextral. If u. u x v = 0 implies that u l v and conversely. [uvw] = 0 implies that u. w 54. w as concurrent edges. w form a dextral or sinistral set. u+v = E(ui'+vi')ei = E(ui+vt)ei. w are coplanar. and conversely. uV= uIv1 + u2v2 + u3v3 = u1v1 + u2v2 + u3v3. the numbers ui are contravariant components of u. if sinistral. ui covariant components.according as u. k form a cyclical permutation of 12 3. l If u. A dextral selfreciprocal basis is written . [ele2e3][e'e2e3] = 1. To every basis there corresponds a unique basis ei such that ej e' = S1. A set of three vectors ej forms a basis if E = [ele2e3] 0.58 VECTOR ALGEBRA § 28 Laws : UXV = `VxU. is numerically equal to the volume of a "box" having u. j. such bases are called reciprocal.xuie`. The value of u x v w is not affected by a change in cyclical order of the vectors. The box product. v. Xu = 2:xuiei = 2. e. Both bases are dextral if E > 0. If the indices i. v. its sign is + or . v 0.0. v. sinistral.
eo). E. C' lie. y/(1 . yo). Au. this axial moment PROBLEMS 1. C' and D' divide A'B' in the ratios r' and s'. fo) about the point P is fp = r x f. R (Pascal's Theorem). for any choice of 0. prove that r/s = r'/s'. rxb=bo. and The equations of a point. If OA' = 3 OA. P and Q divide the sides CA. 6. 3 3 4 3 3  . u x v w in each case become identical. show that. F are the midpoints of the sides A B. If PQ = X AB. if the axis is given by the unit line vector (e. j. CB of the triangle ABC in the ratios 4 3 x/(1 . The points A. on two intersecting Show that BC'. CB'. (c. For such a basis ui = ui. If C and D divide AB in the ratios r and s. ap = ao+POa. BC of the parallelogram A BCD. in terms of their homogeneous coordinates (a. M. N are the midpoints of its sides.y). and plane. yP = The moment of the line vector (f. u x v. If ABC is any triangle and L. OCC'. The two formulas previously given for u + v. are ra=ao.c=yo. > 9 4. 5. (b.PROBLEMS 59 i. The moment of (f. I U I2 ui = I u I cos (ei. AB'. OB' = 2 OB. When the origin is shifted to P. 7. BA' intersect in the collinear points P. CA'. .x). r . B'. in what ratio does the point P in which AB and A'B' intersect divide these segments? 3. C and A'. Show that the midpoints of the four sides of any quadrilateral (plane or skew) form the vertices of a parallelogram.v. a . OAA'. u). DF divide the diagonal AC into thirds and that AC cuts off a third of each line. bo). lines. B. show that x = y = X. fo) about an axis through P is the component of fp on this axis. respectively.3 OA + OB + OC = OL + OM + ON. Show that the lines DE. these rectangular components are given by = (ul)2 + (u2)2 + (u3)2. by = bo+POxb. ao). k. respectively. ODD' are four rays of a pencil of lines through 0 cut by two straight lines ABCD and A'B'C'D'. AC'. 2. OBB'. line. where r is any vector from P to its line of action. Q. u .
Show that this implies that the separate coefficients vanish. Show that the sum of the ratios in which these points divide the segments PA.0). respectively. E3 from these planes. [Equation (10. the reciprocal set el. divide these segments? 0 13. b. PB. we obtain a linear relation in a. e2.2). 14. D'. PC. 10. the product of the ratios in which P. in which the sides AB. (ad) x (bc)+(bd) x (ca)+(cd) x (ab) =2(a x b+b x c+c x a).E). AB of the triangle ABC in the ratios a/(1 . If the lines AE. 3. The points P. S. If P. c x a] = [abc]2. BC. Q. If el = O 1. Q. Q. C. respectively.60 VECTOR ALGEBRA 8. show that [a x b. Using an argument patterned after that in Problem 10. Prove that a necessary and sufficient condition that four points A. 12.y) = 1. e2 = OE2i e3 = 0 3E form a basis. as in § 7.a) (1 . l3/(1 . ex.] 9. CD. (bxc) (a x d) +(c x a) (b x d) +(a x b) (c x d) =0. the point P in which the diagonals AC. e2. Prove the formulas: (a) (b) (c) 16. e2.p)(1 .(a + 0 + y + S) may be written as+8b+yc+ad+ep =0. e3 are vectors perpendicular to the planes OE2E3. R. 11. 17. 15. 2): afy/(1 .cI. . The line DE is drawn parallel to the base AB of the triangle ABC and is included between its sides.a)b + ac. e3 x e1. R are collinear. PD is 1. y/(1 . x+y+z=0. OE3E1i OE1E2 and having lengths equal to the reciprocals of the distances of El. CD meet.a). respectively. D of a tetrahedron cut the planes of the opposite faces at A'. e3. B. Show that the shortest distance from the point A to the line BC is Iaxb +bxc +cxal/Ib . BD intersect divides these segments in the ratios 4/3 and 2/3. etc. B. bxc. a+i9+y+s+e =0. C. Q.[abc) = 0. el x e2. (bxc) x (a x d) +(c x a) x (b x d) +(a x b) x (c x d) = 2[abc]d. ex. DA of a skew quadrilateral ABCD in the points P. the vectors e2 x e3. etc. CA. prove Carnot's Theorem: If a plane cuts the sides AB. R. putting p = (1 . B'. C'. e2 x e3. that a' _ (aa + ep)/(a +. Id a plane quadrilateral ABCD. Lines drawn through a point P and the vertices A. a whose coefficients have a zero sum. R divide the sides BC. xp+yq+zr=0. (d) (e) (da) (bc)+(db) (ca)+(dc) (ab)=0. S divide these sides equals 1. hence deduce the Theorem of Menelaus (§ 7. with e = . Prove this theorem. BD meet at P. e3 form reciprocal sets. el.y). e3 x el. D be coplanar is that [dbc] + [add] + [abd] . E2. If the vectors el. In what ratio does the point Q. in this equation. el x e2 do likewise. show that the line CP bisects AB. From this we conclude.
OB. 7). The lines (a. bo)'are coplanar. 23. $o). find X and then P from OP = OA + XAB. 2). 5). yo) meet in the point. .AC. 0. Show that the three planes (a. Monthly. Show that they determine the plane (a x b. The points P. provided aboxco +3coxao +yaoxbo 0 0. 4. prove 4 that OA + OB + OC = OH. CR).r2. then a bo + b ao = 0 (26. co) determine the plane. C and P. Z. ao b) if a x b 0 0. is constant. 96. respectively. If the vectors OA. AB of the triangle ABC in the ratio of 1/2. 1.. Y. 3. P. Show that the lines AB. [Twice the vector area of XYZ is y x z + z x a + xxyl When P. show that A. (BQ. . ([abc]. 4). AP) intersect at X. aobxc +Rocxa +yoaxb). D(4. provided [abc] 0 0. 1. 8. (b. C(1. 3. 27. 3. P1. R divide the sides in the ratio t/1. 4. OC lie in a plane and are equal in length. CA. the area of XYZ is (1 . (c. vol. B(0. Show that the area of the triangle XYZ is 1 /7 of the area of ABC. 1). C(1.14). D(3. [CD is parallel to CP = AP . R divide the sides BC. and find the point P in which they meet: A(2. Q. (y. 5). The power of a point P with respect to a sphere of center C and radius r is defined as (CF)2 . where H is the orthocenter of the triangle ABC. CD are coplanar. Q. 1). 19. If the points P.1 24. p.AC = XAB . (a bo x co + 0 co x ao + y ao x bo. Q. P21 with respect to the n spheres having for diameters the n segments joining the given points to a variable point P in space. Q. ao). (CR. B(2. 2). The pairs of lines (AP. [§ 15.] 22. AB of the triangle ABC in the same ratio. Math. 0). C(2. A(2. Solve Problem 19 using these results. [aobocol). bo). 3. 0). 2. (b. ao). Prove that the sum of the n2 powers of n given points. R have the same mean center. Prove that the power of P with respect to a sphere having AB as diameter is PA I'B.t)2/(1 + t + t2) times the area of ABC. R divide the sides BC. 1. and the point aoxbo) if 00. CA. 21. 3. > B(2.PROBLEMS 61 18. BQ). 26. [Am.] 20. 4 D(2. ao). (0. Find the shortest distance between the straight lines AB and CD when (a) (b) A(2.. 25. Show that the three points (a. 0). 51. ex. B. 3).
P*Pi. P* is the centroid of a set of n weighted points miPi for which Tmi = in. Qo.(11ri Fi)F 2 F where M = 'ri x Fi. (a) If ABCD are the vertices of a square in circuital order. [OPi = OP* + P*Pi. ao).c1)2 = P1 (1 = 1. Deduce the following results from Prob. provided ao. 2. Vmim1(PPi)2 = in mi(P*Pj)2. If P* and Q* are the mean centers of p points Pi and q points Q respectively. ao). prove that (a) If four points (a. (S. 'yo. A plane system of forces Fi acting through the points ri is equivalent to a single force F = 2. 34. (c. Consider the case when e1 X C2 + C2 X C3 + C3 X cl = 0. 32. . (b) If r is the radius of a sphere circumscribed about a regular tetrahedron of side a. d/So are connected by a linear relation in which the sum of the coefficients is zero. . Prove the Theorems of Lagrange: (a) (b) 1mi(OPi)2 = m(OP*)2 + 2:mi(P*Pi)2. (0. where ij ranges over 2n(n . Prove that the radical planes of the three spheres (r .. the vectors ao/a. When all the forces Fi are revolved about these points through an angle B. prove that Mean (PA)2 = Mean (P*Pi)2 + Mean (Q*Q1)2 + (P*Q*)2. [Consider the radical planes SS1.62 VECTOR ALGEBRA 28.1) combinations.1 30. yo). and SS2 is independent of the radius of S.] 33. do/S are connected by a linear relation in which the sum of the coefficients is zero. 2c1(e2 . 32. co). r2 = 3x2/8. SS2. (b) If four planes (a. Extend this theorem to cover the case when S fails to cut one or both of the concentric spheres. show that their resultant F also revolves through B about the point f (the astatic center) given by t= F X M .P2 + A3) + cycl. bo). S2i prove that the distance between the planes of intersection SS.e3 . their radical axis. (b. (y. do) lie on a plane. So) pass through a point. the vectors a/ao. 29. 3) meet in the line J `C1 X C2 + C2 X C3 + C3 X c1. So 54 0.Fi. 3o). Generalize. PiP7 = P*Pi . Using (26. 31.16). When the forces are parallel (Fi = Xie). (d. (c) The mean square of the mutual distances of all the points within a sphere of radius r is 6r2/5.. (OA)2 + (OC)2 _ (OB)2 + (OD)2 for any 0. If a sphere S with a fixed center cuts two concentric spheres S1. show that the astatic center is the centroid of the weighted points Xiri. .
for applications in mechanics. referred to the origin 0. fo. where a is an algebraic unit having the property e2 = 0. The unit line vectors. (4) F=f+efo A=a+eao. where A is a unit line vector. when the origin is shifted from 0 to P. The vector f does not depend upon 0. The vector f. The dual vector (or the entity it represents) then is called a motor. If f = 1. bound to the line whose equation. but fo. Finally. while its moment vector fo changes in accordance with (3) when the origin is shifted to P. Dual Vectors. The vectors f. These obviously satisfy the relation. Line vectors are thus special motors for which f fo = 0. fo then involve six independent scalars. for unit line vectors also f f = 1. is completely determined by the two vectors f. 63 . stand in onetoone correspondence with the c0 4 lines of space. Unit line vectors depend upon four independent scalars. the moment of f about 0. F is called a unit line vector. (2) f fo = 0. We now amalgamate f and fo into a dual vector. general line vectors upon five. becomes (3) fp=fo+POxf. A line vector F of length X always may be written F = XA. its Plucker coordinates. is (1) rxf = fo. provided its resultant vector f is independent of the choice of 0.CHAPTER II MOTOR ALGEBRA 29. we consider dual vectors F without the restriction (2).
A dual number a + ea' in which a 5=1 0 is said to be proper.64 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 30 30. x=y=0. by definition.b'). In analogy with the complex numbers x + ix'. the difference X = A . In x + ex'. B = b + eb'. the product and quotient of proper dual numbers are also proper. Division by a pure dual number eb' is not defined. x' are real and e is a unit with the property e2 = 0. If A = a + ea'. = 0.b + e(a' . From these definitions we see that addition and multiplication are commutative and associative and that multiplication is distributive with respect to addition. . K. .B = a . We write x{ex'=y+ey' when x=y.ex'.x'=y'. and that BY = A has the unique solution. x is called the real part and x' the dual part. Dual Numbers.eb')/ (b + eb') (b . in which x. If the dual product (2) is zero. x' = 0. We find that (3) A . Addition and multiplication of dual numbers are defined by the equations : (1) (2) (x+ex')+(y+ey') =x+y+e(x'+y'). for any two pure dual numbers have zero as their product. The last shows that a dual product can vanish when neither factor is zero.ab' A a (4) B=b+ e b2 when and only when b F6 0. there are three alternatives: x=x'=0.B and quotient Y = A/B satisfy. Clifford introduced dual numbers x + ex'. y=y'=0. In fact. (x + ex') (y + ey') = xy + e(xy' + x'y) Observe that (2) may be obtained by distributing the product on the left and putting e2 = 0. the equations B + X = A. . The quotient (4) may be remembered by means of the device (a + ea') (b . the formal operations are precisely those of ordinary algebra followed by setting e2 = e3 = . a'b . The negative of x + ex' is defined as x .eb') used in complex algebra. W. x+ex'=0 when x = 0. BY = A.
We now can characterize a motor as a dual multiple of a unit line vector. On equating the real and dual parts of both members. mo = Xao + A'a. on multiplying the unit line vector A = a + Eao (a a = 1. we define its value for the dual argument X = x + Ex' by writing down its formal = 0. (6) (7) sin (x + Ex') = sin x + Ex' cos x. To show that M is a motor we need only verify that mo transforms in accordance with (29. In view of (2). X' mmo mm . this result follows from mp = Nap + A'a = X (ao + PO a) + X'a _ (Xao + X'a) + PO x (Xa). m mp = m mo. cos (x + ex') = cos x .3): (3) MP =mo+POxm. Motors. we obtain the dual vector. we have sin Ex' = Ex'. 31. m (5) 0.§ 31 MOTORS 65 If the function f(x) has the derivative f'(x). hence the scalars m m. (4) From (2). consequently (6) and (7) have the form of the usual addition theorems of the sine and cosine. Note also that sine X + cost X = 1. we obtain (2) m = Xa. cos ex' = 1. a ao = 0) by the dual number X + EX'.and m mo are invariants in the sense that they are not altered by a shift of origin. Thus. we call the invariant.ex' sin x. thus Taylor expansion and setting E2 = E3 = (5) Ax + Ex') = AX) + Ex'f' (x) In particular.o). (1) M = m + Emo = (X + EX') (a + Ea. When x = 0. From (3).
Choosing A > 0.zim1. A couple may be regarded as a screw. mo 0 0 (A = 0. from (3). m0 =0):A=0. (m=0. (10) mQ=mo  (mxmo)Xm =µm. Aa=m. Proper motors are screws if m mo 0 0 (A. Aao=moµm. this shows that the axis passes through the point Q given by f mxmo (9) r=OQ= . Motors for which m If m = 0. When m 0 0. Only proper motors have a definite axis. 0 (A 0) are called proper. At all points on its axis M has the same moment µm. (7) ImIA=m+e(moµm). In this case M is called a couple of moment mo. A + EX.A' =0. Hence M = 0 only when its dual length A + eA' = 0. solution. . Finally if m = 0. The equation of the axis is therefore (8) rxm =mo gym= (mxmo)Xm . then A = A' = 0 from (2). a fact also apparent from (7). A' 0 0) . M = emo is pure dual. line vectors if m mo = 0 (A 0 0. A' 0). = I m { (1 + eµ) (6) and its axis is along the line vector. the motor M = 0. mo = 0.1 Line vector Couple Zero } Proper (m=0. A' = 0). A'=. Only for points P on the axis is the moment mp parallel to m. we have the unique A=ImI. Our classification of motors is therefore as follows: Screw 0. M has the dual length.of infinite pitch with an axis of given direction but arbitrary position in space.66 MOTOR ALGEBRA §31 the pitch of the motor. and. then mo is not altered by a change of origin.
If the line vectors M and N are parallel and n = Xm (X F6 1).(m + n) = mo + no = r1 x (m + n). they satisfy a linear relation with proper coefficients. it passes through the point P1. THEOREM 3. no = r1 x n. The sum of two line vectors is a line vector only when their axes are coplanar and their vectors have anonzero sum. M + N is a line vector when and only when m+n 0. either may be expressed as a dual multiple of the other.3) : mp+nr = mo+no+POx(m+n) THEOREM 1. N = n + eno is defined as the motor. Motor Sum.14) that the axes be coplanar. we may take mo = rl x m. Conversely. Proof. and (m + n) (mo + no) = 0. That M + N is a motor follows from (29. If r1 is the position vector of the point Pl in which the line vectors M and N intersect. (1) M + N = m + n + e(mo + no). If two line vectors intersect. their sum is a line vector through the point of intersection. Since the axis of M + N has the equation. N are connected by a linear relation with proper coefficients. (a + ia')M + ($ + ia')N = 0. as 34 0. THEOREM 2. the latter condition reduces to (2) which is precisely the condition (26.§ 32 MOTOR SUM 67 If two proper motors M. n no = 0. if M and N are coaxial. If M and N are line vectors. The sum of the motors M = m + em0. Since m mo = 0. hence both M and N are multiples of the same unit line vector and are therefore coaxial. the axis of their sum divides any segment from M to N in the ratio X/1. . Proof. r. 32.
If M and N are pure dual.. if not zero. and (b) the elegant generalization of the scalar product of unit vectors. (1) This dual number is independent of the choice of origin. M + N. . is satisfied by the point r = (r1 + Ar2)/(1 + X) which divides PiP2 in the ratio A/1. moment (r1 . is lost. r x (1 + A)m = (r1 + Xr2) x m. The definition (2) is suggested by applications in mechanics. Mech.68 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 33 Proof. Proof. 1924. we find that (2) The definition (1) shows that (3) The definition (1) for M M.. If M and N are line vectors such that n = m and P1. M + N = e(rl . P2 are points on their respective axes. 163) who defines M N as the invariant real scalar (2).+Ar2)xm. np from (29. couple. N differs from that given by R. ein neues Hilfsmittel der Mechanik. for on computing mp. Math. (m + emo) + (n + eno). THEOREM 4. given in (5). external when they have opposite directions (A < 0). no = r2 x n. von Mises ("Motorrechnung.3).r2) x m. we may take mo = rl x m. If Pl. is another Proof. N = n + eno is defined as the result of distributing the product. The sum of two couples.r2) x m. Scalar Product. p. The division is internal when m and n have the same direction (X > 0). The line vector. angew. its consequences are (a) the familiar rules of vector algebra do not all carry over into motor algebra. M + N = (1+A)m+E(r. namely. if net zero. P2 are points on the axes of M and N. N = m + ere x (m). vol. The scalar product of the motors M = m + emo. and the equation of its axis. is also pure dual." Z. 4. Since M = m + er1 x m. M + N is a couple of THEOREM 5. 33.
ebo. where e is a unit vector. rp'sin<p=0. when the line vectors cut at right angles. or cp=2. and let taken positive if a X b points from A to B. If we choose the origin at the point of intersection of A and E. the foregoing computation still applies. E = e. t The concept of dual angle is due to Study. let e be any unit vector perpendicular to both A and B.7) shows that (5) in complete analogy with a b = cos <p. 205. Leipzig. If A and B are parallel. p. we choose the origin on their common line. we may write A = a.§ 33 SCALAR PRODUCT 69 In order to compute the scalar product of two unit line vectors A = a + ea0i B = b + .ep sin cp. 1903. and A B = a b = 41 as before. a =0. we shall suppose first that they are not parallel and write axb = esin <p. we find A B = cos p = f 1. If we now define the dual angle t between A and B as (4) 'P + Ecp a reference to (30. a definite unit line vector E in the direction of e which cuts both A and B at right angles. since sin <p = 0. that is. then A = a. when and only when cos. Formula (5) covers these cases. Then we have exb. denote the perpendicular distance between A and B. If A and B are collinear. Geometrie der Dynamen. . B = b. There is. If the origin is chosen on A. in both cos 4) = cos gp = f 1 according as a and b have the same or opposite directions.p=0. cos cp . We note that =cos(pecp'sin(p=0. then.
Writing the motor M = (a + ea')A gives (a+ea')2=a2+2eaa' as the square of its dual length. The preceding calculation shows that AoB =  hence A o B = 0 implies p' = 0 or sin p = 0. M = (a + ea )A. Consequently a necessary and sufficient condition that two line vectors 1V . . In order that the axes of two proper motors cut at right angles. mxnp + mp x n = m x (no + POxn) + (mo + POxm) xn When the origin is shifted to P.JI be coplanar is that M e N = 0. 34.N = [a$+ and. (1) MxN = mxn + e(mxno +moxn). the dual part of M x N becomes = mxno + moxn + POx (mxn). The motor product of the motors M = m + ano. namely.N. Then N = (0 + E#')B. since the first factor is neither zero nor pure dual. this is von Mises' definition of the scalar product. This is the condition (26. M . We express the motors in the form. and conversely.0. the line vectors intersect or are parallel. B are unit line vectors along their axes and a0 . N = n + eno is defined as the dual vector obtained by distributing the product (m + emo) x (n + eno). and conversely. OB of arbitrary length. and M o M = 2aa'. the product M c N is commutative and distributive with respect to addition. M N = 0 implies A B = 0. In common with M . that is. We denote the dual part of M N by (6) As previously noted. Motor Product.70 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 34 THEOREM. The same criterion applies to line vectors aA. Proof. where A.14). it is necessary and sufficient that their scalar product vanish. Evidently M o M = 0 implies that M is a line vector (a' = 0) or a couple (a = 0).
When A and B are collinear. This conforms with the fact that A x B. Lx(M+N) =LxM+LxN. This transformation conforms with (29. If the origin is chosen on A. when the line vectors are collinear. in terms of the dual angle 4 = c + eqp . When A and B are parallel. being pure dual a couple). PO x (m x n) + m x (n x PO) + n x (PO x m) = 0. In order to compute the motor product of two unit line vectors A = a + eao. Formula (3) covers these cases in which sin 4 = f Ev' and 0. an arbitrary line vector in the direction of e.§ 34 MOTOR PRODUCT 71 in view of the identity. let e be any unit vector perpendicular to both A and B. B = b + ebo. the foregoing com putation still applies. it is necessary and sufficient that their motor product vanish. we choose an origin on their common line. The definition (1) shows that (2) MxN = NxM. that is. we have AxB =a xb + &p ax (exb) = e(sin (P + ecp' cos (p) or.B bandAxB=axb=0andEisentirely arbitrary. and AxB = e e + Eeo. We note that A x B = sin (D E = (sin p + erp cos cp) E = 0. first. . that they are not parallel. respectively. has its axis determined in directionlbut not as tolposition in space. In order that two proper motors be coaxial. (3) AxB = Esin4 in complete analogy with a x b = e sin cp. gyp'=0.thenA=a. THEOREM.3) and shows that M x N is a motor. we shall suppose. (or sin 4) = 0) when and only when sin(p=0. With the same notation and choice of origin as in § 33.
N. If their axes are parallel. and conversely. N are proper motors. (4) also (5) apply to L x M o N. (a/3 X 0). 35. Since the first factor is neither zero nor pure dual. M x N = 0. sin <p = 0. Equations (2). axes are not all parallel. M = m + em0i N = n + eno is defined as the dual number obtained by distributing the product L x M N.no + (lxmo +loxm) . in exact analogy with vector products. N are all parallel. and M x N is a proper motor whose axis (along E) is the common normal to the axes of M and N. this is the dual part of L x M N. With von Mises' definition of a scalar product. and the axis of the couple M x N is any line parallel to the common normal to the axes of M and N.72 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 35 Proof. the coefficient of E is pure dual. choose the notation so that 1 x m Then L x M is a proper motor whose axis cuts the axes of L and M at right angles. M. The dual triple product of three parallel. If their axes coincide. l x m= m x n= n x 1= 0 and L xM N= 0. The condition L x M N = 0 then holds when and only when the axis of N cuts the axis of L x M at right angles. We now propose to find under what conditions L x M N = C when L.M x N = 0 implies sin 4) = 0. M. (3). Finally let us consider the motor product. thus (1) This definition shows that (2) LxM N = LxM N = 0. for any proper motors M. . Dual Triple Product. If their 0. (4) M x N = [a$ + E(a3' + a'/3) ] [sin gp + cos go] E. M x N = [a/3 + e(af' + a'f )]A x B. sin cp motors L = I + do. If the axes of L. the preceding triple product becomes LxMoN = (lxm) .n. If their axes are non0. With the notation of § 33..
N satisfy a linear relation with proper coefficients. M. motor identities: (1) Lx(MxN) (2) (3) Lx (M N) + Mx (NHL) +Nx (L M) = 0. Hence from (6) we conclude that either (a) the axes of L. Thus the linear relation (6) implies that the axes of L. L x M N = 0. L x M are all proper or all couples. . M. 36. provided the case in which two axes are parallel to each other but not to the third is excluded. if the axes of L. (6) (a+ecx')L+($+E$')M+(y+ey')N=0. have a common normal. When proper these motors are all coaxial. N have a common normal (the axis of L x M). to zero. so that the results before equating e2. N. M. N x L. MxN LxM +e1'' a+ea'=a+e0' = which follow from (6).§ 36 MOTOR IDENTITIES 73 In this case the axes of L. All the identities of vector algebra are still valid when the vectors are replaced by motors. . We therefore may state the The dual triple product of three proper motors will vanish only when (a) their axes are all parallel. e3. their moments are all parallel. and we can apply the preceding theorem. More precise information. (L M) (NxP) =LNMP LPMN. NxL aIiy 0. Conversely. . e3. If the proper motors L. N have a common normal. a common normal. For the motor products are defined as the results of applying the distributive law to dual vectors and subsequently equating e2. Now the identities apply to the ordinary vectors forming the dual to zero are vectors. M. true for any value of the scalar e. no two of which are parallel. or (b) their axes have THEOREM. We omit the proof. N have a common normal. Thus we have the hold when e2. we can infer a linear relation (6). In particular. is given by the equations. the identities are replaced by zero. Motor Identities. when couples. . These show that the three motors M x N. however. or (b) their axes are all parallel and coplanar. e3. M.
85. Leipzig . (1) Mi Mi = S (i. we then may compute the reciprocal set M' uniquely.MxN. since MIM' = 1. = M1 (3) 1935. $ E. j = 1. L. A.0. Let the set Mi be given. The indices are merely labels. (M1 M2 x M3) (Ml M2 x M3) = 1.Nx(LxM). M3 M1 = 0. in (M2xM3) . Weiss. $ When L. the condition ml m2 x m3 0 0 ensures that M1 M2 X M3 is not pure dual. from (30. hence M1 = (X + eX')M2 x M3i and. The sets are said to be reciprocal when the nine equations. M3. and. Since M2 M1 = 0. The theorem of Peterson and Morley therefore may be regarded as a generalization of this result. 2. This common normal and the axes of the preceding nine motors form a configuration of ten lines.Lx(MxN). the axis of M1 is the common normal to the axes of M2 and M3. A + eX' = 1/M1 M2 X M3. are proper. (M2xM3) (M1 M2 x M3) (M1 M2 x M3) the left member is 1. Mi = M'xMk M1 M2 x M3 where ijk represent any cyclical permutation of 123. each one of which is normal to three others. N are line vectors along the sides of a plane triangle.Mx(NxL). Moreover. In this case.3) the numerator on the right is 1. Consider two sets of proper motors M1i M2. Reciprocal Sets of Motors. the axes of the three last motors have a common normal (§ 35). hence M1. This is essentially the theorem of Peterson and Morley. are satisfied. m1 m2 x m3 /. That the motors (2) satisfy equations (1) is shown by direct substitution.N. Einfuhrung in die Liniengeometrie and Kinematik.74 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 37 The identity (2) has an interesting geometric interpretation when all nine motors. Equations (2) have the same form as the corresponding equations in vector algebra. M1. this theorem implies the concurrence of its altitudes. M3 for which ml m2 x m3 0.LXM.NxL. Thus we find (2) MX Mk M2 = M1 M2 x M3 . M. 37. p. M2. and S is the Kronecker delta. 3).M.
The six sides. Chapter II. 0. the vectors ml. Statics. New York. provided m1 m2 x m3 X 0. Principle II (Transmissibility of a Force). we note that (5) M = (a + ea')M1 + ($ + ea')M2 + (y + ey')M3 m = amt + /3m2 + 'Ym3. From (6). the common normals of its opposite sides themselves admit a common normal. A force acting on a rigid body may be shifted along its line of action so as to act on any particle of that line. Since (4) M1 x M1 + M2 x M2 + M3 x M3 = 0. . m3 have a reciprocal set m1.§ 38 STATICS 75 The axes of two reciprocal sets taken in the order M1M3M2M'M3M2 form a skew hexagon with six right angles. is equivalent to the two vector equations. The statics of rigid bodies may be developed independently of dynamics from four fundamental principles: t Principle I (Vector Addition of Forces). m2. and their common normal. y' in the same way from (7). M2. /3 = mm2. m2. a = m. Any motor M may be expressed linearly with dual coefficients in terms of M1. (6) (7) mo = amlo + /3m20 + 'Ym30 + a'm1 + /3'm2 + 7'm3. y = mm3. with a. 1930.m1. however. Two forces acting on the same particle may be replaced by a single force. 0. thus form a PetersonMorley configuration (§ 36). the three common normals of the opposite sides. we may determine a'. Thus we find (8) M = M M1M1 +M M2M2 +M M3M3 38. m3. M3. If we put Mi = Mi in (1). The actual computation. acting on the particle. can be effected most simply from (5) by using the reciprocal set m1. f Sec Brand. y known. equal to their vector sum. L. we find that the only selfreciprocal motor sets are formed by three mutually orthogonal unit line vectors through a point. m2. Vectorial Mechanics. Since m1 m2 x m3 . 0'.. To show that the representation is possible. m3.
F (equivalent to zero) acting along any line cutting the lines of P and Q. the forcesum and momentsum remain unaltered : 21. These coplanar forces intersect. r x (p + q) . Two parallel forces P. the body will remain at rest. Q=q+E1xq.F) = P + Q. (1) F=f+efo P=p+Erxp. Q also have a resultant P + Q provided p. po + qo 0. when a system of forces Fa acting on a rigid body is changed into an equivalent system G. their motor sum (§ 32). If two forces P.g1. principle I asserts that both forces may be replaced by a single resultant. If p + q = 0. If the forces acting on a rigid body. the intersecting line vectors P and Q are force. by the application of principles I and II. + q 0. Thus the dual vector. a line vector. theorem 3). If Q = XP (X 96 1). This need not concern us here. Principle IV (Action and Reaction). (P + F) + (Q . their equivalent to the line vector P + Q. . To see this. lfto = 2. Q are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction and are said to form a couple of moment po + qo. Q act on a particle with position vector r. the parallel forces P.F.76 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 38 Principle III (Static Equilibrium). since (p+f)x(qf) =fx(p+q) 96 0.gio. represents a force f acting along the line whose equation is r x f = fo. We may now apply principle I to find the resultants of P + F and Q . and therefore have the resultant.. that is. initially at rest. = 2. In any case. we need only introduce a pair of opposed forces F. can be reduced to zero by means of principles I and II. Principle II states in effect that a force acting on a rigid body is Such a force is determined by the vector f giving its magnitude and direction and by its moment fo about 0 (§ 27). the line of P + Q divides all segments from P to Q in the ratio X/1 (§ 32. whose vector and moment are p + q.
This moment is independent of the choice of P on the axis. 143.= 0 (26. m mo = 0. the rigid body is in equilibrium. if m = 0. for m mo = 0 implies p qo + q po. if EF1 = m + emo. Hence. the system F1 is equivalent to the couple P.0.. * Brand. mo 0. their resultant. Finally. Q 0. equivalent to the motor M = m + emo.14). m mo now may be reduced to the single force M = m + ano. we have p+q=m. reduces to zero. If m po+qo=mo. and. p.§ 38 STATICS 77 For each application of principle I leaves these sums unaltered. Q = q + eqo. The moment of a system of forces. a single force.4) as a fp. In brief. L.4. . mo = 0. in accordance with principle III. Q of moment mo. A screw cannot be reduced to a single force. the forces P and Q are coplanar. about this axis is therefore Now a and. If m 5. since OP * a = ao. P being a point on the axis of A. * say P= p + epo. If m = 0. The screw M may be regarded as a force m acting through the origin and a couple of moment mo. or zero. The forces P. Vectorial Mechanics. the system Fi is equivalent to a screw M = m + emo (§ 31) which may be expressed in many ways as two noncoplanar forces. 0. a couple. The moment of a force F = f + do about an axis along the unit line vector A = a + eao was defined (27. and shifting a force in accordance with principle II does not alter its vector or moment. only in the last case is the rigid body in equilibrium. (2) We call this the moment of the motor M about the axis A. the system of forces Ft acting on a rigid body is equivalent to the motor M = EFz j this may be a screw. the system F. Now it can be shown that any system of forces Fi acting on a rigid body can be reduced by means of principles I and II to two forces.
where mp is perpendicular to p. and. after this choice F and G are uniquely determined. Since A is not a null line. This may be written (4) . ao x bo) from (26. All null lines through a point P are perpendicular to mp and therefore lie in a plane p. and choose A as any line not in the null system. the coordinates are (abo . be a null line with respect to M. Write F = aA. Since it is a null line. Now M = F + G is equivalent to m = as + ob. the null point of p. Consider a null line through the points (a. When M is a screw (m mo F6 0). Analytic Proof. The totality of such lines constitutes the null system of the motor M.aoo) = 0. o 7 0. (amo . and G = M .ao x m) bo = ao moo.F. bo). In order that a line. a mo + m ao 7 0. since A is not parallel to m. it is necessary and sufficient that (1) If L = XA. given by the unit line vector A = a + eao. and G is actually a line vector.78 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 39 39. L o M = XA o M. (o. G = oB as multiples of unit line vectors. Null System. ao). (3) m ao X bo + mo (abo . Moreover all the null lines on any plane p pass through a point P. G. the null plane of P. A motor M can be replaced in many ways by two line vectors F.9). A line is called a null line with respect to a motor M if the moment of M about this line is zero. (2) a = thus F = aA is known. we shall prove that the line of one may be chosen at pleasure. mo = aao + obo Since a ao = b bo = 0. provided it is not a null line or parallel to the axis of M.aoo. hence the axis of any line vector L will be a null line when and only when L o M = 0.
ao). its conjugate.30) turns about all null lines in (a. such that (9) M = aA + (3B. Equations (3) and (5) are not altered by an interchange of the two points or two planes. (. . its coordinates are (a x b. ao) is fixed and (b. ao mo). (5) m (a(3o .ao x m. (mao . ao). For if A is any unit line vector not in the null system of M or parallel to its axis. If M is a screw (m mo F!5 0). if the point (a. bo) varies over all null lines through (a. and (8) 'the point on the plane and M (26. From the preceding results: (7) (8) Point (a. This may be written (6) hence.null plane Plane (b. let the null line be common to the planes (a. Qo) always will pass through the point whose coordinates are (m a. (b.null point (amo . bo) always will lie in the plane whose coordinates are (amo .aoxm.ao x m. hence the same is true of (4) and (6).mo x a) b = m a $o. ao). (b. When M is a line vector. if the plane (a. Indeed.mo x a). Then (7) gives the plane through the point and M (26. Note also that ao b = a0o. mao .l. but also lines with lines in general.aob) from (26. Rio). if we solve b=amo .12). ao). we obtain the null point in (8). Therefore: If the null plane of point A passes through B. for (a. mao .10). (m b. ao mo) . the null lines are lines that intersect its axis. Since it is a null line. ao) . a00 .aob) + mo a x b = 0.11). Ro) . ao) is fixed and ($. If the null point of plane a lies on b..mo x b). let the student interpret this relation in the light of (26. Next.16).§ 39 NULL SYSTEM 79 hence. the null point of b lies on a. we can determine uniquely a unit line vector B. the null plane of B passes through A. not only are points associated with planes.
80 MOTOR ALGEBRA § 40 where a = m mo/A o M from (2). for MoC = aAoC+$B°C = 0. 40. it is called a couple of moment mo. determined in direction but not in position. When X = 0. Division. 0. ao becomes ap = ao + PO. Summary: Motor Algebra. Proper motors have a definite axis given by the unit line vector A. line vectors when A' = 0. With this point of view. A = a + eao. or (ii). set equal to zero. which contains the null points of all planes through A. f (x) + Ex' f'(x). the moment of M is constant. When X = A' = 0 (X + EX' = 0). but m mp = m mo is invariant. the dual number is proper. appear since E2 = e3 = . M = (X + EA')A = (X + EA') (a + eao) now m mo = 0 only when A' = 0. Proper motors are screwf when X' 0 0. we may say that its conjugate is at infinity. When the origin is shifted to P. Motors for which X F 0 are said to be proper.a. only the first two terms. . A line vector with the Pliicker coordinates a. A' 0 0 we have a pure dual motor emo. . . The function f(x + ex') is defined by means of. its formal Taylor expansion. The moment of a couple is a free vector. written as a dual vector. since the null planes of its points are all parallel. the motor reduces to zero. however. If x 0. Along a line parallel to the axis of M. A motor M = m + emo is a dual multiple of a unit line vector. is only defined for proper dual numbers. The number X = x + ex' is called dual if x and x' are real and a is a unit with the property E2 = 0. In view of this property we may characterize conjugate lines as follows: The conjugate of a line A is the line B: (i) which is common to the null planes of all points on A. null lines are selfconjugate. Operations with dual numbers are carried out as in ordinary algebra and then . A shift of origin to P changes the moment vector as before: mp=mo+P0xm. ao (a ao = 0) is e2. for a unit line vector I a I = 1. Any line vector C that cuts two conjugate lines is a null line. E3 .
The forces acting on a rigid body are line vectors. For three motors. M + N is a line vector only when The scalar and motor products. A B= cos A x B= sin tE where E is a unit line vector in the direction a x b and cutting A. M x N is a couple whose moment is perpendicular to their axes. M' whose triple products are proper are said to be reciprocal when M. These results are perfect analogues of If M and N are nonparallel proper motors. If M and N are line vectors. which . When M and N are parallel. m no+n mo=0. All formulas for reciprocal vectors have exact analogues for reciprocal motors. and conversely. the dual number L x M N is obtained by distributing the product (1 + el0) x (m + emo) (n + eno) : If L. M N and M x N are obtained by distributing the products as in ordinary vector analysis and then setting e2 = 0: M N = m . Two sets of three motors Mti. M N = 0 implies that their axes cut at right angles. For unit line vectors. M' = S (i. of such forces is equivalent to their motor sum M = SFj. B at right angles. If M and N are proper motors. M x N = 0 that their axes coincide. A system F.§ 40 SUMMARY: MOTOR ALGEBRA S1 The sum of the motors M = m + em0. 3). 2. If A and B are line vectors making an angle p and at a normal distance apart (reckoned positive if a x b points from A to B). L x M N = 0 implies that their axes are all parallel or have a common normal. M. the common normal to their axes is the axis of M x N. N = n + en0 is defined as M + N = m + n + e(mo + no). j = 1.n+ MxN = mxn+ e(mxno+moxn). N are proper. and conversely. the dual angle between A and B is defined as F + &p'.
are parallel to a plane. Express the screw M = 2i + e(i + j + k) (a) As the dual multiple of a unit line vector. 7. N = a + eao. n(q* p*) +expi gi. If the forces Pet. c + eco. c). 8.4)]. 4.el) acting along its six edges are equivalent to the motor m + emo. 6.. Show that they reduce to a single force if X/a + Y/b + Z/c = 0. e2 = OB. 2. 0).6b + yc = 0 (§ 5). e1. P. 0). 3. . it is necessary and sufficient that where µ and v denote the pitch of M and N. where p*. M = aA + eµm. All the rules of calculation in "real" vector algebra have exact analogues in motor algebra. Re3. only when M = 0 is the body in equilibrium.R' = m . Show that the n forces P1Q1. (0. The forces Xi.. motor. N and M + N either are parallel or have a common normal. show that they are uniquely determined by the six equations: P1 = mo e1 [eie2e31 . respectively.82 MOTOR ALGEBRA may be a screw.  . P + Q' . a + eao. Prove that the axes of the motors M.e2). (c) Find the equation of the axis of M. be_ coplanar. P'(e3 . b + ebo. where A= X'/X is the pitch of the screw.e3). Zk act through the points (0. a couple. . If A is a unit line vector. Yj. In order that the axes of the motors. el = OA. b. Prove that any line vector d + edo meeting them is parallel to a fixed plane normal to aao + Rbo + yco. q* give the mean centers of the points pi and q. [Cf. b. (b) As the sum of a line vector and a couple whose moment is parallel to the line vector. PROBLEMS 1. In the tetrahedron OABC. a singleforce. R'(e2 . Qe2. namely. (a. If three line vectors. as +. or zero. M = m + emo. respectively. P2Q2. show that the screw M = (A + ea')A may be expressed as the sum of a line vector and a couple whose moment is parallel to the line vector. Q are equivalent to the 5. e3 = OC. Q'(e1 . 0. (9..
If ABCD are the vertices of a skew quadrilateral and PQRS are the midpoints of its sides taken in order. DA is also equivalent to four times the couple formed by PQ and RS. show that M = 0. CD. show that the motor equivalent to the forces AB. 11. If the moment of the motor M about each of the six edges of a tetrahedron is zero. this equation becomes xyl .2)]. If the origin 0 is taken on the axis of a screw M of pitch µ show that the equation of the null plane of the point Ti is If the axis of M is chosen as zaxis.PROBLEMS 83 9.zi). 10. [Cf. BC.yxl = A(z . . (38.
u(t) Du = lim dt w o At 'U . let u(t) = OP.CHAPTER III VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 41. For the values t and t + At. To obtain a clear idea of the way in which u varies with t. u(t + At) = OQ. u(t) is uniquely determined. Let u(t) denote a vector function of a scalar variable t over the interval a < t < b. 41 must be reversed).o At * The word function implies a singlevalued function. Derivative of a Vector. the point P traces a certain curve r in space. The equation defining the derivative is therefore (1) du = lim u(t + At) . When At > 0. t varies. when t is given. we may regard u(t) = OP as a position vector issuing from the origin. Then as. the change in u for the increment At is Du=u(t+At) u(t) =OQOP=PQ. but if At < 0. we call PA the derivative of u(t) with respect to t Fia. that is. 41) in 'R R * the direction of Au and 1/At times as long.* The function u(t) is said to be continuous for the value t if u(t + At) + u(t) as At * 0. The average change per unit of t is Au/At. 41 and denote it by du/dt or u'(t). Au/At has the direction of Au (then PA' in Fig. If PA' approaches a limiting vector PA as At + 0. Au/At 4 * 4 is a vector (PA' in Fig. 84 .
and dt = 0. Example 2. Then we may write Au/. If u = OP is a variable vector of constant direction. Q describes the arc QP of the curve r as At * 0. 0. constant in both length and direction. is along the tangent at P.t = du/dt + h where h > 0 as At * 0. we getdu = du dt . The limiting vector PA = du/dt is therefore tangent to I' at P. When u is a function of a scalar variable s. du/dt is perpendicular to u. and u(t + At) > u(t). will be perpendicular to the radius OP of the sphere. Du At . the opposite when At < 0. as At > 0. u(t) is said to be differentiable at t. it is also If u(t) is differentiable at P.ds ds As At dt Du As the familiar "chain" rule. hence du/dt. and the limiting direction of the chord PQ. du/dt is a vector tangent t o r in the direction of increasing t. If u = OP is a variable vector of constant length. being tangent to this line. continuous there. Ot = 0. that is. P will move on a straight line when 0 is held fast. Thus if u(t) is differentiable at t. and s in turn a function of t. Example 1. and hence of the vector PA'. . is a vector tangent to r at P in the direction of increasing t. Du = 0. Since Du/At has the same direction as Au when At > 0. hence du/dt. hence 0u = At (du dt + h) ). The derivative of a constant vector is zero. P will describe 0 a curve r on the surface of a sphere when 0 is held fast. for any value of t. If u is a constant vector. will be parallel to u. On passing to the limit At * 0 in the identity. the derivative du/dt. being tangent to r at P. so that P describes the curve r when 0 is held fast. We restate this important result as follows: If the vector u(t) = OP varies with t. In brief : If j u I is constant.§ 41 DERIVATIVE OF A VECTOR 85 If the limit du/dt exists for the value t. a change of At in t will produce a change As in s and therefore a change Au in u.
respectively. let Af. and u + v. let Au. dt U"'(t) = du" . A(otu) f = AUu+Of . and noting that Af * 0. Av. + dt u.86 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 42 The higher derivatives of u(t) are defined as in the calculus: u"(t) = du' . and O(u + v) denote the vectorial changes in u. and fu. Then. dt 42. the derivative of the sum of two vectors is equal to the sum of their. and A(fu) denote the increments of f. passing to the limit At . Let u(t) and v(t) be two differentiable vector functions of a scalar t. Au. When t changes by an amount At. O(u + v) = Du + AV.0. . Derivatives of Sums and Products. u. O(fu)=fAu+Afu+OfAu. When t changes by an amount At. This result may be generalized to the sum of any number of vectors. etc. Consider next the product f(t)u(t) of a differentiable scalar and a vector function. A(u + v) At Du At AV At and passing to the limit At .0 gives d v) (1) du (u + dt dv dt + dt Consequently. fu + o(fu) = (f + Af)(u + Au) = fu + f Du + Af U + Of Au. we have (2) dt (f u) = f dt This is formally the same as the rule for differentiating a product of scalar functions. since multiplication of vectors by scalars is distributive (§ 4). Then u + v + O(u+v) = u+ Du+v+ Ov. derivatives. v.
. (3) u(t) = 2.x v.§ 42 DERIVATIVES OF SUMS AND PRODUCTS 87 Important special cases of (2) arise when either f or u is constant: d (cu) =cdt. from (4).6) . dv du d (5) dt (u xv . the condition follows: conversely.U x dv dt .. A necessary and sufficient condition that a proper vector u be of constant length is that (6) u I du dt =0. d 1 du u12=2u'dt If I u I is constant. we have. the condition implies that I u I is constant. Proof. In (5) the order of the factors must be preserved. If we pass now to the products u v and u x v. du dt dug If the components of a vector u(t) are ui(t) when referred to a constant basis ei. the orthogonal component of u on 1 is e u (15.ui(t) e. du + dt The proofs depend essentially upon the distributive laws for the dots and cross product. hence d dt comp1 u = e du  comps dt = dt du THEOREM 1. . where u and v are vector functions of t. dt ei. If 1 is an axis with unit vector e. The components of the derivative of a vector are the derivatives of its components.v)=uat+atV. the same type of argument used in proving (2) shows that d (4) (u. du d df (fc) =atc. Since u 12 = u u.
t = P(u). e is constant. and the condition follows. that is. Proof. where jp(u) is an analytic function of u in a certain interval U. Consider a space curve whose parametric equations are (1) x = x(t). Conversely. and the parameter t is said to be a regular parameter.88 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 43 THEOREM 2. we . the curve is said to be regular. We also restrict the interval T so that there is just one value of t corresponding to each point P of the curve. y(t). where x(t). then uX du dt = ue x Cdu dt de\ . A curve which admits a representation (1) with functions thus restricted is called an analytic space curve. since u 0 0. dt de Also de dt from theorem 1. Let u = u(t)e where e is a unit vector. The requirement that the functions x(t). dz/dt do not vanish simultaneously for any value of t in the interval T. y(t). we explicitly exclude the case in which all three functions are constants. if all three derivatives dx/dt. z = z(t). Then equations (1) set up a onetoone correspondence between the points of the curve and the values of t in the interval T. 43. These equations are contradictory unless de/dt = 0.+ u . bet us make a change of parameter. z(t) be analytic in T ensures the continuity of the functions and their derivatives of all orders and also guarantees a Taylor expansion for each function about any point of T. de/dt = 0. y = y(t). dy/dt. Space Curves. Moreover. the condition implies that ex=0.J = u2e X de e dt dt If e is constant. To avoid having the curve degenerate into a point. z(t) are analytic functions of the real variable t defined in a certain interval T of t values. A necessary and sufficient condition that a proper vector always remain parallel to a fixed line is that (7) du uX dt = 0.
Writing dt/du = <p'(n). z for dr/dt. Then the equations. Putting t = <p(s) in (2). The inverse function t = <p(s) is single valued and analytic. u is a regular parameter when and only when (u) 0 in U. the length of the arc s from Po to P is defined as (4) s= fV to dt. dx/dt. If Po(t = to) is a fixed point on the curve.§ 43 SPACE CURVES 89 assume also that t just covers T as u ranges over U. Thus the points of the curve not only correspond one to one to the t values in T.P(u)l. gnd dt/ds > 0. moreover (5) ds/dt = VTt > 0. The position vector of the point P(t) is (2) r = i x(t) + j y(t) + k z(t) = r(t). if we write t. but also to the u values in U: P * t > fi(t) = U. The integrand in (4) is unity only when t = 1. the implicitfunction theorem ensures the existence of the inverse function u = 4'(t) which is also single valued and analytic in T. When this condition is fulfilled. z = z[co(u)] y = y[O(u)l. an analytic function of t which is positive or negative. . For the curve r = r(t) the parameter t is the length of arc measured from a fixed point when and only when dr/dt is a unit vector. in which the arc s is a regular parameter. we have dx dx dy lp x = x[. constitute a new parametric representation of the curve. Let equations (1) define a regular analytic space curve. and. dy dz dz du = at du = at (u)' du = (u)' a regular parameter. u > (P(u) = t + P. we obtain r = r(s). hence we have the THEOREM. according as t > to or t < to. (3) t = it(t) + j y(t) + k i(t) F6 0.
where 0 denotes the angle in radians between a fixed line OA and R. P = k x R. If we imagine this vector R always drawn from the same initial point 0. P arc PQ is a unit vector (§ 43). If P is a unit vector perpendicular to R in the direction of increasing angles. Hence from its definition FIG.= lim . 44b we conclude that dr/ds is a unit vector T tangent to the curve at P and pointing in the direction of increasing arcs. P arc PQ Em .90 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 44 44. Unit Tangent Vector. Let r = r(t) be a regular analytic space curve on which s = arc POP is reckoned positive in the direction of increasing t. ds An important special case arises when r is a unit vector revolving in a plane. 44a FIG. If k is a unit vector normal to the plane and pointing in the direction a righthanded screw advances when revolved in the positive sense of 0.= lim chord PQ PQ The tangent line to the curve at P is defined as the limiting position of the secant PQ as Q approaches P. and (2) dR dB = k x R = P. and hence Q . its end point will describe a circle of unit radius (Pig. 44a) dr ds Ar A o As Q . dr (1) = T. (1) now becomes dR/dO = P. . 44b) and s = 0. Then (Fig.
ds = sin 01 T). the corresponding components of dR/d9 and P must be equal. we write r = rR. cos 0 = cos (0 + 4r) P=icos(0+ 117r) From (2). dy and i T = dx/ds. Now T = . r = xi + yj. If rl. If 0 is measured counterclockwise from the x axis. Example 2. T). rl + r2 = const. . We state these results in the THEOREM. On differentiating this equation with respect to a. r2 are the distances of a point P on an ellipse from the foci.R+rP. Example 1. hence sin B.R+r . T). from (5). we have. T= dr dx as = as' + ds . 44b.= . y) is a variable point on a plane curve. P T = r d6/ds. hence (4) ds = cos (i. ds dr dR d9 dr d6 d6 ds ds ds and R T = dr/ds.§ 44 UNIT TANGENT VECTOR 91 In Fig. 0) are the polar coordinates of P. r do  = sin (R. k points upward from the paper. T). we have dP (3) =kxP= R. d6 The derivative of a unit vector revolving in a plane. Moreover. where the polar distance r and the unit vector R are functions of 0. dB d sin B = sin (0 + fir) = cos 0. is another unit vector perpendicular to the first in the direction of increasing angles. j T = dy/ds. If (r. R=icos0+jsin0. drl ds + dr2 ds = (RI + R2) T = 0. since dP/d6 = k x (dR/d6). If P(x. with respect to the angle that it makes with a fixed direction. hence dr (5) = cos (R.
and T = dr/ds the unit tangent vector at P. BxT = N. Let r = r(s) be a space curve. 45). The normal therefore bisects the angle between the focal radii. Thus at each point of the curve we have a righthanded set of orthogonal unit vectors. we have dN dN dT ds dsxN+Txds = Txds in view of (1). B revolves about T in the same sense as a righthanded screw advancing in the direction of T (Fig. dT/ds. dB/ds has the direction . Since B is a unit vector. the normal to the ellipse at P has the direction of RI + R2. if not zero. dB/ds. A directed line through P in the direction of B is called the binormal to the curve at P. N. such that TxN = B. we speak of the moving trihedral TNB. NxB = T. Frenet's Formulas. Now B = T x N is a third unit vector perpendicular to both T and N. as P moves along the curve in the positive direction. We therefore may write dB 77I/ Torsion positive __ (2) = TN. then. if not zero. Hence dB/ds is perpendicular to T as well as B and therefore must be parallel to B x T = N. Differentiating B dB T x N.92 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 45 Since RI + R2 is perpendicular to T. s = are POP. then we may write (1) dT ds = KN. must be perpendicular to B. must be perpendicular to T. B. 45. ds where T is a scalar called the torsion of the curve at P.N. Fla. Let N denote a unit vector in the direction of the principal normal. As P traverses the curve. The minus sign of . A directed line through P in the direction of dT/ds is called the principal normal of the curve at P. Since T is of constant length. where K is a nonnegative scalar called the curvature of the curve at P. 45 is introduced in (2) so that. T. when 7is positive.
respectively. ds (6) ds . SxB. and (3). we may write the Darboux vector in the form: (7) S = Nx(SxN) = Nxd8 From (5). we have the set of equations: dN (4) ds dB ds known as Frenet's Formulas. which are fundamental in the theory of space curves. (2). dN ds = (rT + KB) x N. If we write (3) in the form. From (4). ds ds dT ds dT Collecting (1). SxT = KN. dB Hence Frenet's Formulas may be put in the symmetric form: dT dN = S x T. and introduce the Darboux vector. (5) S = rT + KB. a=1/r . we see that the curvature K and torsion r are the components of the Darboux vector on the binormal and tangent. Since S N = 0. thus dN (3) by use of (1) and dB ds xT+Bx= rNxT+KBxN.§ 45 FRENET'S FORMULAS 93 We may now compute dN/ds from N = (2) . we have SxB = TN. it is clear that both K and r have the dimensions of the reciprocal of length. hence p=1/K.=SxN ds dN .
Since N. Conversely. the curvature K is never negative. while B is a unit vector normal to that plane.94 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 45 have the dimensions of length and are called the radius of curvature and the radius of torsion. Thus we have (i) rl=r+XN+pB. for a straight line. The only curves of zero curvature are straight lines. respectively. T=ds=a. the curve lies in a plane normal to B. If K vanishes identically. dT dr ds =0. dN ds . that is. Parallel Curves. we must replace dT s. ds . dB/ds = 0. where a and b are vector constants. ds . and as before define B = T x N. ds by 8) T. The sign of r is independent of the choice of positive direction along the curve. dB/ds = 0 and T = 0. the trihedral TNB will revolve about T as a righthanded or lefthanded screw. if we reverse the positive direction. T and N always lie in a fixed plane. Since B is also constant. for a plane curve. ' dB By T. hence dB/ds = 0 at all points where N and B are defined (K* 0) and r = 0. dT N.B. We therefore agree to give N any fixed direction normal to T. dB ds ' and equations (4) maintain their form with unaltered K and r. Conversely. . The torsion may be positive or negative. Example. The only curves of zero torsion are plane. hence. dN N. If r vanishes identically. T is constant and K = 0. = rl . As P traverses the curve in the positive direction. from BT=B dr ds 0. ds . where X. µ are scalars. The curve is then a straight line. Two curves r and rl are called parallel if a plane normal to one at any point is also normal to the other.r lies in the plane of N and B and may be written XN + µB. by definition. has the same direction as dT/ds. For a straight line the preceding definition fails to determine N. For a straight line the Darboux vector is zero. The common normal plane cuts r and rl in corresponding points P and PI.ro) = 0. B (r . . according as r is positive or negative. r=as+b. and B is a constant vector. for. then PP.
K/r = K1/71 at corresponding points. Curvature and Torsion. Consequently. on differentiating B1 = B with respect to s.µr)N + (A' + Xr)B. on differentiating r = r(t) three times and denoting t derivatives by dots. Moreover dX du ds = Jlr.AK)T + (A' . we conclude that ^ = 1 . we have also (iv) KjN1 d3 1 = KN. 2ds()2+u2) =0. . Thus. Finally. On differentiating T1 = T with respect to s. we have (ii) dX =T+dN +X(KT du +rB)+ds B uTN _ (1 . 46. we have _drds ds dt = SZ $T. the curvature and torsion are readily computed from the parametric equations of the curve.A. and A2 + µ2 is constant. if r 0 0. B1 = B. from (ii)._ ds 95 on differentiating (i) with respect to s and using Frenet's Formulas.AK or pl = p . the distance PP1 between corresponding points of parallel curves is always the same.S3K2)T + (3MK + S2K)N + S3KTB. Comparison with (iii) gives K/KJ = 1 . Since T1 and T are normal to the same plane. hence ds = Kl . f=ST+ dT = ST + S2KN. . we have (v) r1N1 dsi = rN.§ 46 CURVATURE AND TORSION ds1 Ti.AK.= r 71 From (iv) and (v). ds dT ds +(2saK+a2K)N+S3K dN CAS = ST + SSKN + (2SSK + S2K)N + S3K(KT + TB) = (S . hence. and N1 = N. By use of Frenet's Formulas. we may choose the positive sense on t1 so that T1 = T. hence. 1 d ds = Ar.
and. since N = B x T. (2) t = IsI K= I 0. we can regard x as parameter: x = t. If the parametric equations of a plane curve are x = x(t). t= + yJ. N. B and the curvature and torsion of the twisted cubic x=2t. . Then (3) becomes (4) K = (1 + y. from (1). we may write r = rR. and the preceding equations show that T has the direction of t. r = xi + yl. from (1).96 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE t x y= S3KB. where R is a unit radial vector. we have. (5) Ire+2r2rrI (r2+t2)§ Example. we have r = xi + yj. If the curve has the polar equation r = r(9). t = rR + rP. T= It t I 3 It x t I2 If the positive direction on the curve is that of increasing t. K_ f = (r .2)I' where the primes indicate differentiation with respect to x. z=t3/3 at the point where t = 1.3). N has the direction of (f x Y) x t. § 46 Hence t x It y= S6K2T. and. ds/dt > 0. y=t2.2) and (44. since (1). y = y(t). Then regarding 0 as the parameter t. B has the direction of t x i'. its curvature is (3) (x2 yx I K = I xy + y2)  If the curve has the Cartesian equation y = y(x). from (44. hence. Find the vectors T. xr and. y = y(t).r)R + 2rP.
r=$ 47. 1' = [0.1 47 FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM f = [2. B=1[1. a const. (1) f(s) = d = ds K1N1 By Frenet's Formulas. Let the curves have the equations r = r1(s). 0. 2]. 3 Moreover. 2. 2t. and. consequently.21. 97 Since r(t) _ [2t. the trihedrals coincide. t x t. hence. and N = B x T. fxi' f = 8. T2N2B2 at these points into coincidence. f(s) = 3. since K1 = K2. an equation that implies that each scalar product in (1) equals one. Bring the origins of are and the trihedrals T1N1B1.T2B2) . is zero.11. . and a. consider the function. 3 K = $. N=1t2. At the points P1i P2 of the curves. 2t]. f (s) = C. 2. when t = 1. f = [0. 3 Since T. N1 = N2. Two curves for which the curvature and torsion are the same functions of the arc are congruent. 1]. from (1) and (2). T2 + K2N2 T1 (K1T1 + 71B1) N2 + (K2T2 . t2].T2N2 B1. N1 T1N1 . f = [2. ds = 0. Fundamental Theorem. T1 = T2 for the same value of s. 4. T = 1 [2. 2]. the vector constant of integration. B1 = B2. Proof. B are unit vectors in the directions of t. corresponding to the same value of s. r = r2(s). Hence for any value of s. t x 1' = [2.2.B2 . T1 = T2. 0. since r1 = r2 when s = 0. From the first of these equations. But at the point s = 0. and C=f(0)=1+1+1=3. Therefore r1(s) = r2(s). 2].2.41. 0/31. 2.1. we have 7 = [0.2]. t2. and the curves coincide. i = [0. dr1 dr2 ds ds ' rl = r2 + a.
namely. If ICI 76 0. s3. (Rr)B=0. hence the equation of the osculating plane at any point r is (1) her e R is the position vector to any point of the osculating plane. B is parallel to t x 'r (§ 46). as P2 and P3 approach P1. Osculating Plane. Let the points P1.98 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 48 48. and f"(s) = r"(s) n vanishes once in the interval s1 < s < 83. (Rr)N=0. and. To find the characteristics of the osculating planes to the curve r = r(s). the limiting position of this line is called the characteristic of the osculating plane at P1. if n is the unit normal to the plane P1P2P3. P3 as P2 and P3 approach P1. For a plane curve T and 'N lie in the plane of the curvethe osculating plane at all of i points. the equation obtained by differentiating it with respect to s. P2. The osculating plane of a curve at a point PI is defined as the limiting plane through three of its points P1. the function. or if r 0 0. s2i 83 (sI < s2 < s3). The two equations. The osculating plane at a point of a curve is the plane of the tangent and principal normal at this point. . we must adjoin to their equation (R . as P2 approaches P1. r"(sl) n1 = K1N1 nl = 0. Then. F r the curve r = r(t). n1 is perpendicular to both T1 and N1i that is. f(s) = [r(s) . f(s) = r'(s) n vanishes twice. The osculating planes of a curve form a oneparameter family. P3 of the curve r = r(s) correspond to the are values 81. P2.r) B = 0. Consequently. parallel to B1. Hence from Rolle's Theorem. The osculating planes at the points P1 and P2 intersect in a straight line. n approaches a limiting vector n1i such that r'(sl) n1 = T1 n1 = 0.rl] n vanishes when s = s1i 82.
P3 of the curve r = r(s). The center of curvature at any point P of the curve has the position vector. together.c1) Nl + pi = 0. Example.c1) . . the limiting circle lies in this plane. P2. and r1 . they represent a line through the point r parallel to N x B = T. The center of curvature of a curve at the point P1 is defined as the center of the limiting circle through three of its points P1.cl = p1R1. As P2 and P3 approach P1. Since r1 .§ 49 CENTER OF CURVATURE 99 represent planes through the point r of the curve perpendicular to B and 11.ai = 0.c1) (rl . P3 is the osculating plane through P1. 0. (r1 . Hence f(s) vanishes twice.cl lies in the osculating plane. For the twisted cubic x=2t. P2. Center of Curvature.c] [r(s) . c and a approach limits c1. the function. for which t = 1.c1) Tl = 0. Since the limiting plane of P1. P2. 2] at the point (2. its components on T1. N1. The characteristics of the osculating planes of a skew curve are tangents to the curve. pl. Hence.c] . and f"(s) vanishes once in the interval s1 < s < s3. respectively. 82i 83 (s1 < 82 < s3). the equation of the osculating plane to3) curve at the (x2)2(y1) }2(z3)=0. 2. a1. 1. such that (r1 . B1 are 0. Thus the center and radius of the limiting circle are cl = r1 + p1 N1 and a1 = p1. t x 'r = 2[1. respectively. If c and a denote the position vector of the center and the radius of the circle through the points P1. this point is y=t z=t3/3 of the example in § 46. (r1 . (1) c=r+pN.a2 vanishes for s = 81. 49. from (1). P3. as P2 and P3 approach P1. f(s) = [r(s) .
The osculating plane at any point P is the plane of the curve.KN. hence N1 = N and K1 = K. and N ceases to be defined. 50. K Choose the positive direction on rl so that Ti = B. Plane Curves. Ni = N. K = 0. Curves of Constant Curvature. ds1 T1 Differentiating with respect to s. K1 = K. The locus t1 of its centers of curvature has the equation. Since dT/ds is always directed towards the concave side of a plane curve. or K1N1 = . Consequently from (3) we also have d8/ds1 = r. For plane curves the torsion is zero and Frenet's Formulas reduce to (1) dT ds = KN dN ds = KT. Since (2) may be written (4) r = r1 + p1N1. if K 0 0. . Twisted curves of constant curvature may be associated in pairs. the center of curvature P1 is given by (2) rl = r + pN. N abruptly reverses its direction. The two curves thus have the following relations: (5) T1 = B. then (3) (8 r K Differentiating T1 = B with respect to s now gives K1N1ds1_ ds 7. At points of inflection dT/ds = 0.100 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 50 This is a point on the principal normal at a distance p from P in its positive direction. Let r = r(s) be a twisted curve t of constant curvature K. (2) rl=r+pN. B1 = T. and hence B = T x N does the same. we have ds = T + P(rB . Thus r1 is also a curve of constant curvature.N. r is also the locus of the centers of curvature of r1. Example. 771 = KK1. hence rr1 = KK1. the same is true of N.KT) = dal 1 B. and./K1. As we pass through a point of inflection. each curve being the locus of the centers of curvature of the other.
50b). Take B once and for all as a fixed unit vector normal to the plane of the curve. 50a FIG. (3) d4. ds p=d . N. dT dT do ds = dt' ds and hence. 50b tive or negative. for dN  =BxdB =BXKN=KT. and s = AP and sl = A1P1 denote corresponding arcs. The curvature K is defined by (1) and is posi Fia. K=a.150 PLANE CURVES 101 To remedy this discontinuous behavior of N and B at points of inflection. from (1). d# = BxT. dT Let 4. The locus of the centers of curvature of a plane curve is called Let P and P1 be corresponding points of a curve r and its evolute r1 (Fig. ds1 T1 dN dp dp =T+pds+dsN=N. B form a righthanded set of orthog onal unit vectors. be the angle from a fixed line in the plane to the tangent at P. 50a). we have its evolute. .2). On differentiating the equation (2) of r1 with respect to s. the following convention often is adopted in the differential geometry of plane curves. Then. As before T. according as N has the direction of dT/ds or the opposite.= N ds ds d4. Equations (1) still hold good. taken positive in the sense determined by B (Fig. from (44. and define N = B x T.
the involute is given by r1 =P r . 50c Example 2. For from dN dr = KT. from (3). r is called the involute of Fl. . or Ircl2 =p2 This is the equation of a circle of radius p and center c. 50c). From this point of view.r(e). Hence the tangent to F1 is normal to r. the string is always tangent to F1 and its free portion equal to p. From T1 = N. If t is the curve r . ds1 p1=d4.sT. since As1 = Op. on integration. FIG. r . an arc of F1 is equal to the difference in the radii of curvature of r to its end points. ds ds ds we have.c = pN. then ds1 ds dp ds' and s1 = p + const. The only plane curves of constant nonzero curvature are circles. + 7r/2.1 = dp d d2s d.2 Example 1. These properties show that a curve may be traced by a taut string unwound from its evolute. or = p dN . hence.102 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE §50 Choose the positive direction on F1 so that T1 = N. 4. we have '1 = 4. An involute r1 of a plane curve r is generated by the point P1 of a taut string unwound from r (Fig. and.
0). . If this family has a curve envelope given by v = p(u). 1k 0 Example 3.. the locus of L is the involute of the catenary. Vectorial Mechanics. equation (97.3). au av This condition must be fulfilled if the envelope exists. (i) dsl dsl d8 = sx = s . namely. measured along the involute from the vertex of the catenary. The intrinsic equation of a circle of radius r is s = ry& when >G is measured from the tangent at the origin of axes.x . dsl or = s. from (i). the string PA will unwrap into the position PL. = clog see ¢. In Fig. t See Brand.= 0. t The are sl. is sl = c f tan k dy. as P moves along the catenary. and. provided sl = 0 when' = 0. . dR u_ of au of + av `P (u) of of and drl _ of dv av are parallel at the points of contact. on differentiation with respect to 8. this relation gives the envelope (ii). 202). dp The intrinsic equation of a plane curve is the relation connecting s and '. sl = f 0 provided sl = 0. v).. 97b (p.T . the involute of the catenary is a tractrix.§ 50 PLANE CURVES 103 Hence. v).). say s = s(4. For the are sl along its involute we have.sKN = 8rcN. The intrinsic equation of a catenary of parameter c is s = c tan when a is measured from the vertex (V. Consider the plane vector function of two variables. . The oneparameter family of curves u = c (constant) is given by rl = f(u. (ii) the vectors. Envelopes. since the xaxis intercepts a constant segment LQ = c on this tangent. The line LQ is tangent to the involute (Tj = N). a curve characterized by this property. when ¢ = VO.p(u)]. that is. u = const. r = f(u. If we choose the positive direction on r. so that Ti = N. d4. R = f[u. Tlds =T . For its involute we have sl = rp2/2. If (iii) leads to a relation v = p(u) (which does not make of/au oraf/av zero).
and + v dsJ x e = de) 0.sin yl r / from (44.xari = (T .T) 0+y. then v . we form the equation : (iv) arl arl _ (T as x 49V Fia.104 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 50 Consider. R) = 0. The curve enveloped by the reflected rays is called a caustic. co. ri = r(s) + ve(s). the reflected rays are the oneparameter family of lines. rl = r(s) + v N(s) If they have an envelope. If R and e are the unit vectors along the incident and reflected rays. we obtain a beam of parallel rays. 0. (R. namely the locus of the centers of curvature of the curve. When r is a circular are of radius p with center on Ox. for example. (8 = const. law of 4.e)=0+2y24.y.a de d0\ =kxe(2')=kxe(2K. Plane Caustic by Reflection. then (T. To find their envelope. the oneparameter family of normals to the plane curve r = r(s). . T) .sin y =0. Now de p=(i. Letting r .=(i. as av Hence the envelope is given by v = 1/K = p. 50d reflection. Light issuing from a point 0 is TR _ reflected from a mirror r (Fig.v. 50d). Substitution in (iv) now gives ksin ykv(2K.2/p. or R = r(s) +'N(s).1p sin y.5).cT)xN = (1 vK)B = 0. Example 4. e) = y by the. dy& .) or. namely. Denote the angles (i. r whence 1 (v) 1 r 2 p sin y v This equation determines v and the caustic curve. the caustic has a cusp on Ox at a distance vi from r given by 1/vl + 1/r .
r1=r+cT. Hence if we differentiate with respect to s.. and a is the constant angle. Helices. this gives s = c log sec for the intrinsic equation of the tractrix (cf. ex. and. In Fig. rl = OP1. if r = OP. If e is a unit vector in the fixed direction. The tractrix is a plane curve for which the segment of any tangent between the point of contact and a fixed line is constant. 2). Ifs =Owhen# 0. the defining equation of a helix is (1) (0<a<Zr) .§ 51 HELICES 105 Example 5. the constant length c. = T + cKN. i ds. A helix is a twisted curve whose tangent makes a constant angle with a fixed direction. F iu. or ds d = c tan V. 51. 50e the fixed line is the xaxis. 50e on multiplying by j we have sink.
ds and e . hence the Darboux vector 6 = N x (dR/ds) is parallel to e. Thus helices are characterized by the prop erty. the curve is therefore a helix. hence sx.a = 'r2 Nds C ds A ds dS d d\ d (K TJ Thus 6 x (dS/ds) = 0 implies that the ratio K/r is constant. theorem 2). =0. eN=0. we obtain e .r=scosa+c for the component of r in the direction of e.106 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 51 Differentiating (1) twice with respect to s gives ea dN 0. and conversely. Conversely. where cos a is a constant of integration. Every helix therefore lies on a cylinder with generators parallel to e.T .T=cosa. (2) dS SX=0 ds (§ 42. if S for a curve is always parallel to a fixed vector e. (4) r = r1 + (s cos a + c)e. Now dS (3) dr ds dK B ds T + ds for T dT/ds + K dB/ds = 0 (45. The plane curve r1 traced by r1 is a normal section of the cylinder. The fixed direction of S = TT+KB is along the axis of the helix.4). if r1 denotes the projection of r on a plane perpendicular to e.= KT . The only twisted curves whose Darboux vector has a fixed direction are helices. dT a=0. If we put T = dr/ds in (1) and integrate. Helices are the only twisted curves for which the ratio of curvature to torsion is constant. Hence. .
N = N1i and (8) K = K1 sin2 a. since K/r is constant. increases . On differentiating e = T cos a+B sin a we find K/r =tan a. .e cos a) . ds1 2 = ds (T .(T . ds Remembering that K and K1 are essentially positive. and s1 = POP1 the arc along the normal section r1 through P0. The circular helix is the only twisted curve for which the Darboux vector is constant. The only twisted curve of constant curvature and torsion is the circular helix. (5) ds1 T=T1+cosae ds (6) KN = K1N1 dsl C ds 2 From (5).e cos a) = 1 2cos2a+C082a and. that is. on integrating (7). and. on differentiating (4) twice with respect to s. such curves are helices. Finally. K1 is constant. from (6). ds1 (7) sing a. if we choose the positive direction on r1 so that s1 with s.§ 51 HELICES 107 If s = POP is the arc along the helix. we obtain (10) s1 = s sin a. the normal section is a circle. we have. For from (3) we see that 6 is constant when and only when K and r are constant. from (8). the constant of integration being zero. we now have. hence (9) r = K1 sin a cos a. since both s and s1 are measured from thesame point Po.= sin a. For.
it is constant in magnitude and direction. Then if r = OP denotes the position vector of P. 0]. s = f (t). 0]. if the arc s = POP is given as a function of the time. x = a cos t. say the origin of a system of rectangular axes fixed in a rigid body. T) = k t/I t I = b/1/a2. 52. from (46. The speed v of the particle at the instant t then is defined as (1) v= ds dt Thus the speed will be positive or negative. the velocity. choose a point PO of r from which to measure arcs. T = [a sin t. is defined as the time derivative of its position vector: (2) v= . is a circular helix. since t=[asint.). Moreover [a cos t.2).1) and (46. a cost. relative to . a sin t. and. z = bt. cos (k. The curve. To define the position P of a particle moving along a curve r. y = a sin t. but gives no information about its instantaneous direction of motion.108 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 52 Example. Then.+ b2 (const. according as s is increasing or decreasing at the instant in question. Kinematics of a Particle. the motion of the particle is determined.acost. We therefore introduce a vector quantity. and. for the curve lies on the cylinder x2 + y2 = a2. and take a definite direction along r as positive.b]. s _ ItXrI II I3 _ a a2 +b2' r b ItxiI2 a2+ b2 We now find the Darboux vector S = k/1/a2 + b2. the velocity v of P. Let 0 be a definite point of a reference frame a. The speed measures the instantaneous rate at which the particle is moving along its path. which gives the rate at which the particle is changing its position in both magnitude and direction. for its position is given at every instant.
The velocity of P is represented by a vector tangent to the path at P in the direction of instantaneous motion and of length numerically equal to the speed. the normal component the square of the speed divided by the radius of curvature at P. Thus the velocity and speed are connected by the relation.§ 52 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 109 As P moves along r. since T may be regarded as a function of s. are therefore (6) ae=. or. principal normal. The acceleration of a particle P is a vector lying in the plane to the tangent and principal normal to the path at P. and binormal. (3) V = VT. hence dr dr ds dt = ds dt = Tt ds where T is the unit tangent vector to r at P in the direction of increasing arcs. dv an.t.dt From (3). The tangential component is the time derivative of the speed. Finally we define the acceleration a of the particle as the time derivative of its velocity : (4) a dv d2r dt2 . we find dv dT a=T+Vt .. . p of The components of the acceleration in the positive direction the tangent. P v2 as = 0. r may be regarded as a function of the arc s. dT dT ds dt (5) ds dt = (KN)V=N p v a= dv dt T+ v2 N.
. z. Example 1. The path is the result of superposing the displacement "'ate. and (7 ) v dr dt dv dx dt 1 + d2x dy l+ dt d2y . y. It is easily shown to be a parabola having its axis parallel to a.0.110 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 53 The acceleration will be purely tangential when the motion is rectilinear (p = x) . the angle 0 being expressed in radians. and r = TO. let P and Q have the positions P1. the condition v a = 0 gives t = a vo/a a for the time of passing the vertex. r = xi + yj + zk. The velocity and acceleration vectors are regarded as localized at the moving particle. an = rw2. Relative Velocity. If a particle has a constant acceleration a. _ d20 dt=rdt2. v . On writing w = dB/dt for the angular speed. we have. v = at + vo. upon TO + vot due to rectilinear motion at constant velocity vo.2) and (44. on integrating dv/dt = a twice. These results may also be deduced directly from the equation r = rR of the circle if we make use of (44. how is the velocity v' of P relative to a' related to v? At any instant t let P coincide with the point Q of a'. At a later. v=rdt. Example 2. it will be purely normal when speed is constant (dv/dt = 0). 53. r = jat2 + vot + TO. The rectangular components of v and a are the first and second time derivatives of x. we have seen how to find the velocity v of a particle P relative to any given reference frame . Uniformly Accelerated Motion. we have v = rw. due to the accelera tion. In § 52. in motion with respect to .instant t1 = t + At.vo when t . At the vertex of the parabola.3). Q1. Circular Motion. In the case of motion in a circle of radius r. v is perpendicular to a. at = r dw . If ' is a second reference frame. With rectangular axes. de dv s=rO. d2z (8) a dt dt2 1 + dt2 J + dt2 k. dz dt k.
. determine the track and heading of the plane. Q1P1 is the displacement of P relative to and '. The angle (v'. and we may write (2) Vp = Vtr + VP Example 1. respectively." we may state (1) as follows: The absolute velocity of a particle is equal to the sum of its transfer and relative velocities. The magnitudes of v and v' give the ground speed (ep) and air speed (wp) of the plane. If we regard the frame as "fixed" and velocities referred to it as "absolute. from (2). PP1 = PQ1 + Q1P1 = QQ1 + Q1P1 If we divide this equation by At and pass to the limit At * 0. . QQ1 is the displacement of Q relative to a. and the air (the wind w) has the velocity V relative to the ground. V = ew. then vQ is the velocity of translation of '. thus vectors from e and w represent velocities relative to the earth and wind. v) from heading to track is the drift angle. In many applications all points of the frame ' have the same velocity relative to a.§ 53 RELATIVE VELOCITY 111 here Q is a fixed point of a'. v = ep." while velocities referred to a' are "relative. The directions of v and v'. the velocity of the point Q of R' relative to a. Wind Triangle. 53a east (clockwise). 53a. Then PP1 is the displacement of P relative to . In Fig. v' = up. is called the transfer velocity of P. given as angles a and B' w measured from the north around through the Fla. An airplane p has the velocity v relative to the ground (the earth e). and its motion is due to the motion of ' relative to a. where VQ. v' relative to the air. we obtain (1) VP = VQ + VP. then v = V + v'. The plane is pointed along its heading but travels over the ground along its track.
plane q can intercept p along two different tracks. respectively. Draw the vectors ep and ew. But if the circle cuts the ray in two points. 53b). for pq. Let the vectors es and ew give the velocities of carrier and wind. In order that plane q may intercept plane p. over what track shall q fly in order to intercept p? Solution. at what point B must the plane turn in order to rejoin the carrier at A. and the time t2.112 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 53 Example 2. 53c). giving the velocities of plane p and the wind w relative to earth e. If the fuel in the tank allows the plane T hours of flying time at a given air speed. 53b. Interception is impossible if the airspeed circle of plane q fails to cut the ray. plane q will intercept plane p on flying with the ground speed eq over the track QY parallel to eq. epl is the velocity of plane p on the leg out (ground speed vl = epl). If the air speed of plane q is given. plane q can intercept p on only one track. as in Fig. An airplane p leaves a carrier a at 0 and patrols along the track OY while the carrier follows the course OX with constant speed of v miles per hour (Fig. Interception occurs at I after a flying time of QI/eq (or PI/ep) hours. 53b 4 QP cuts the circle at point q. a plane q departs from Q to intercept plane p. With to as center describe a circle having the known air speed of p as radiusthe airspeed circle. and the ground speed vl on the leg out. With to as center describe a circle having the known air speed of plane q as radius. the velocity of q relative to p must have the direction QP.q Fia. parallel to eql and eq2.. If the circle cuts the ray in just one point. T hours after its departure? Find also the time ti. If a ray drawn through point p in the direction of . Example 3. . If this circle cuts the ray through e in the direction OY at pl. A plane p is flying over the track PX with the ground speed ep (Fig. and the ground speed v2 on the leg back. the heading. say ql and q2. Plane Returning to a Carrier. the heading. As plane p passes the point P. has the direction QP. the velocity of plane q relative to plane p. Interception. Solution.
Now sp1 is the velocity of p relative to s on the leg out. rejoining the carrier after t1 + t2 = T hours. Let a plane p depart from the airport 0 along the track OY (Fig. Alternative Airport. 53c After T hours the carrier will travel the course OA = T es. u1 + u2 These times agree with those previously t1==.= BA _8P2 ep2 Example 4. spl CB OB epl t2 = BC . t2 = BA/ep2 on the track BA. On the two legs the plane has the speeds ul = spli u2 = sp2i relative to the carrier. for u1 . At any time carrier and plane lie on a line parallel to p18p2. hence +_=T. 53c). and ep2 is the velocity of p on the leg back (ground speed V2 = ep2). BC back. The return track of p is along a line BA parallel to ep2. the carrier is at C(BC 11 pisp2). When the plane is at B. The distance r = CB is called the radius of action of the plane. If a landing at an airport Y is rendered danger . r= T r r u1 UIU2 U2 U1 + u2 t1 = r =T u1 U2 u2 + U1 t2=r=T u2 given. the farthest point out. Relative to the carrier the plane travels the course CB out. Thus p travels t1 = OB/ep1 hours on the track OB. hence the velocity of p relative to s on the leg back is a vector sp2 whose direction is opposed to sp1. Thus the point p2 is at the intersection of the airspeed circle with the line pis prolonged. p2 Fro.§ 53 RELATIVE VELOCITY 113 The course of plane p relative to the carrier s is out and back along the same straight line.
Then the angular speed w of the body at any instant is defined as de (1) dt Thus w is positive or negative. fixes the farthest point B at which the plane can change its course and still reach the airport A. 54b any instant may be specified by the angle 0 between an axial plane o fixed in our frame of reference and an axial plane p fixed in the body (Fig. . according as 0 is increasing or decreasing at the instant in question. Lay off es = OA/T and proceed precisely as in the carrier problem. By choosing a positive direction on the axis (unit vector e). The line CB. 54a). we fix the positive sense of 0 by the righthanded screw convention. 3. drawn parallel to pisp2. how far may the plane fly on the track OY in order still to reach the port A by changing its course? This problem is reduced to the one preceding if the airport A is regarded as a carrier traveling from 0 to A with the uniform velocity OA/T. 54. The time t1 when the turning point is reached is given in ex. We shall now investigate the velocity distribution of the particles of a rigid body moving in any manner. its motion is then a rotation about this axis. the plane may be directed to land at an alternative airport A.114 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE §54 ous by local bad weather. If the fuel supply allows T hours flying time to the plane. The position of the body at I Fia. Consider first a rigid body having a fixed line or axis. 54a Fia. Kinematics of a Rigid Body.
e. Then we may write di dt =aj. Let us next consider a rigid body having one fixed point 0. Let i be a unit vector fixed in the body. Then (Fig. where R is a unit vector perpendicular to the axis and revolving with the body. dt Note that w always is related to the instantaneous sense of rotation by the rule of the righthand screw. 54b)  r=OQ+QP=ze+pR. . Since ze and p are constant during the motion of P. the velocity of P is dr V dR do dt = p (do \ e J x (ze + pR) do dt = p dt e x R = do that is. Choose an origin 0 on the axis and let r = OP be the position vector of any particle of the body.#i) x j. dk dt = Rj. Thus we have dk dt = j3j. dj dt = (ak . j a unit vector in the direction of di/dt (perpendicular to i) and k = i x j. on collecting results di = aj. do w = . dj dt d dt (k x i) = /3j x i + k x aj. dk dt dj di dj =xj+ix=ixdt dt dt Hence dk/dt (perpendicular to k) is also perpendicular to i and therefore parallel to k x i = j.§ 54 KINEMATICS OF A RIGID BODY 115 The velocity distribution in the revolving body may be simply expressed if we define the angular velocity as the vector. or. (2) v = wxr. The velocity of any particle of a body revolving about a fixed axis is equal to the vector product of the angular velocity and the position vector of the particle referred to any origin on the axis.
The line through 0 in the direction of co is called the instantaneous axis of rotation. the motion is said to be an instantaneous translation. z remain constant during the motion. y. w= do dt e= d dt (oe). as before. We now shall show that. thus r=OP=xi+yj+zk. however. the motion is said to be an instantaneous rotation about an axis through A in the direction of co. Hence the velocity of P is given by dr dt (3) di dj =xd6+ydt+zdt = wx(xi+yj+zk). If. k fixed in the body. all points of the body have the same velocity v. at any instant. Finally let us consider the general motion of a free rigid body.116 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 54 If we now write w=ak . dk V = co x OP. Now. j.ii. the angular velocity. co may change in direction as well as in magnitude. and co is called. so that co may be regarded as the time derivative of the vector But with a variable axis of rotation co no longer can be expressed as a time derivative. When the angle Be. at any instant. . dj these equations assume the same form: di dk dt dt = wxl' wxjf dt = = Now Now the position vector r of any particle P in the body may be referred to the orthogonal triple i. velocity distribution is given by v = co A P. the velocities may be regarded as compounded of an instantaneous translation and rotation. in the most general motion of a rigid body. With a fixed axis of rotation. Thus. where x. the velocity distribution in a rigid body with one point 0 fixed is the same as if it were revolving about an axis through 0 with angular velocity co.
VP = V. from (31. Then the motion of the body relative to a' is an instantaneous rotation about an axis through A. relative to a'.8). its angular velocity w and the velocity VA of any point A of the body. If w VA 0 0. since A has zero velocity relative to '. its equation.§ 54 KINEMATICS OF A RIGID BODY 117 Let A be any point of the rigid body. is (7) rxw = (wxv4)xw ww (origin A). taneous translation VA and an instantaneous rotation w about an axis through A. VA.4 + wxAP. Thus the instantaneous velocity distribution of a rigid body is determined by two vectors. The content of these equations is stated in the following If A is any point of a free rigid body. (4) (4)' VQ = vA + w x AQ. on subtracting this from (4). in accordance with (31. The velocity of any particle P of the body is therefore vy = wxAP. the motor Visa screw. for. consequently. relative to R. and. . (6) VP= VA +PA xw. Since w VP = CO the velocities of all particles of the body have the same projection on Co. and denote its velocity relative to by VA. for any other point Q of the body. from (4).3). Moreover. (5) V = Co + EVA. we get VP = VQ + 0) x QP. Consider a second reference frame ' having a translation of velocity VA relative to . The axis of V is called the instantaneous axis of velocity. the velocities of its points are the same as if they were compounded of an instanTHEOREM 1. and. and w is the same for any choice of A. These may be combined into the velocity motor.
symbolizes THEOREM 2. The point Q where the instantaneous axis cuts the (reference) plane of motion is called the instantaneous center. The motion is then a pure If Co rotation of angular velocity w about the instantaneous axis. ww _ w. The instantaneous motion is then a pure translation. since all particle velocities have the same projection on Co.QR) = vQ since w x QR = 0. we see from (4) that all points of the body have the same velocity.w If the velocities of the points A. Co VA 0.uo. At any instant. and. for. If co the motion is then an instantaneous rotation about an axis. VR = VA I. BQ drawn perpendicular to VA and VB. VA = 0. respectively. Q is at the intersection of the lines AQ. . Finally let us consider the case of plane motion of a rigid body. the particle velocities of a rigid body may be represented by a screw motiona rotation about an instantaneous axis combined with a velocity of translation along this axis. This form. from (4)'. (8) VQ = VA + w x AQ = co = projw vA. and V = EVA is a pure dual motor.evQ.w x (AQ {. VB are not parallel. Referred to a point Q on the instantaneous axis. as previously. and. V becomes a line vector along this axis. B of the body are known and VA. and. the plane of the motion is perpendicular to w and vQ = 0. Moreover vQ is characterized by being parallel to co. we have vQ = 0. 0. if R is another of its points. their least nu merical value at any instant is j vQ I. in which co and vQ are parallel.9 wxVA w .VA All points of the instantaneous axis have the velocity VQ. If w = 0. the velocity motor becomes (9) V = to f.118 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 54 a line parallel to co and passing through the point Q given by AQ = Co x VA/0) . (10) AQ = . 0.
p > 0 and w < 0). The conditions for pure rolling are (1) S = Si.p<0 Fla. we have. We now differentiate the equation Ti = T with respect to t.§ 54 KINEMATICS OF A RIGID BODY Rolling Curve. Since T is a function of s and B. let s = arc Al. 54d . Hence. its velocity relative to fixed and moving frames attached to r2 and r is the same.p1<0. VQ=0. since Nl = N. r (0>0. 54c). T = Tj at I.1). from (53. Al Vt=V If I is regarded as a moving particle. vl=VQ+Vj. 1 P1 1 w v P Here N is ir/2 in advance of T and p and P1 are positive when N points to the respective centers of curvature (in Fig. fixed curve. P1 < 0. if I is the instantaneous point of contact. 54c. and. v _ ds _ dt ds1 dt The angular speed is co = de/dt. 119 Example. 54c ds VI = dt Ti = dt T = Vj. for dsl Fia. (iii) KgN1v = KNv + Nw.p1>0. Let the curve r roll without slipping over a fixed curve r1 (Fig. we have dT1 dsl OT ds 8T de dsl dt = as dt + ae dt ' or. The points A and Al were originally in contact. sl = arc All. The instantaneous center of the rolling curve is at its point of contact with the The speed of rolling.p<0 6)>O. where 0 is the angle between the tangents at A and A1. if I coincides with the fixed point Q of r.
relative to a frame a'. 54d). 55. Then the velocity of Q relative to is (2) vQ=vB+WXBQ. and the motion of a' relative to by V = w + eVB. for internal contact. V r/ ri When ri + co.1) Vp = VQ + Vp.is given by the . Let a rigid body have the velocity motor. that is. relative to a "fixed" frame . the motion is given by the motor. w V _ 1 ri ri ` r) \ 1) = I + I r r ri for external contact. Thus the motion of the body relative to a is compounded of the velocity of translation VA and the angular velocity w + w' about an axis through A . V = CO + EVB. ri becomes a straight line and v = wr. What is the motion of the body relative to a? The velocity of any point P of the body relative to a' is (1) Vp = VA + W' X AP. Composition of Velocities. and let the frame a' have the motor.120 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 55 If r and ri are circles of radius r and rl (Fig. we get VP = VA + (w+W')XAP. are (53. where B is the point of a' which coincides for the instant with the point A of the body. V' = w' + EVA. Now the velocities of P and A relative to On adding (1) and (2) and observing that AP = BQ at the instant considered. THEOREM. the motion of the body relative to a. If the motion of a rigid body relative to a' is given by the motor V' = w' + evA. V+V'=w+w'+evp. VA = VB + VA. At the instant in question let P coincide with the point Q of a'.
theorem 1). Vp = oP+OR =VP+oA + WXAR. if a' is a second frame in motion with respect to the rate of change of u relative to a' is d'u (2) dt = ve . the vector u = PQ = OQ . If V' = co' + evA and V = w + evB represent pure rotations. VQ = VQ+Vs =VQ+vA+wxAS. . the motors referred to A are V'=w'. where vp. let P and Q coincide with the points R and S of a'. hence (1) du dt = VQ .1) and (54. Two translations. >  . and. du d'u dt = dt + w X (AS .4). Rate of Change of a Vector. Referred to a fixed origin 0 in the frame a. on subtraction.OP. Then. hence the motion of the body relative to a will be a pure rotation when and only when w + w' 0 and the axes of rotation are coplanar (§ 32.vp. the motion of the body relative to is then a pure translation of velocity vB + V.§ 56 RATE OF CHANGE OF A VECTOR 121 motor sum V + V' provided A and B coincide at the instant in question. '. and. A being a fixed point of a'. vQ are velocities relative to Let the motion of a' relative to be given by the motor co + EVA. If the axes of rotation intersect at A. vector addition. and V+V'=w+w'. 56. vQ are velocities relative to Similarly. these motors are line vectors. V + V' = e(vB + vi). where v p'. Angular velocities about intersecting axes may be compounded by If V and V' represent pure rotations about parallel axes and w + w' = 0.VP1 .AR). at the instant in question. ev' and evB thus compound into a translation e(vA + VB). V=w. from (53.
For plane curves TNB has. a pure rotation of angular velocity KB about the center of curvature. dN ds = p1 x N.2+.2N and vQ = SS S = K ST r K2 + '28. dt in particular (4) if u is fixed in a'. If w is the angular velocity of TNB referred to a "fixed" frame a.122 But. The velocity of translation vanishes when and only when the curve is plane (r = 0). Example. In general. dw d'w dt (5) dt The vector dw/dt is denoted by a and called the angular acceleration vector of a. from (4).AR = RS = PQ = u. we have. a screw motion: a combina tion of the angular velocity S about an axis through Q and the velocity vQ along this axis. The Darboux vector of a space curve is the angularvelocity vector of its moving trihedral TNB. its motion is represented completely by the velocity motor. ds/dt = 1 and s = t if t = 0 at the origin of arcs. Since the vertex P of the trihedral has the velocity T. du (3) . V =S+eT=rT+KB +Er. When u = w. dT ds = . .6) shows that 0) = S. we see that the axis of this motor passes through the point Q given by > PQ = 8xT S 8 = . we have. At any point P of a space curve. since AS . PQ = pN.8).dt VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 56 > > d = du =wxu du + 0). the trihedral TNB may be used as a frame of reference.7) and (54. the angular velocity of the frame a'..U. Kinematic Interpretation of Frenet's Formulas. at every instant. at every instant. x T. and dr/ds = T is the velocity of P. A comparison with Frenet's Formulas (44. from (3). the trihedral TNB has. Then the arc s may be interpreted as the time. If P moves along the curve with unit speed. the Darboux vector. dB ds = " x B. From (54. then S = KB.
we have. Theorem of Coriolis. a=aQ+2wxv'+a'. r' = AP differentiating. thus VQ = VA + wxr'. dr' a=aA+axr'+wx+ dv' dt dt (a / dw dt J a A+ a x r' + w x ((o x r' + V) + w x v'+ a' a4+axr'+wx(wxr')+2wxv'+a'. on r = OA + r'. twice with respect to the time. aQ = aA + ax r' +wx Our equations now read (1) (2) V=vQ+V'. a d'v' dt If w is the angular velocity of ' with respect to . put v' = 0. dt v'= d'r' dt .3). v= . . we have r= OP.§ 57 THEOREM OF CORIOLIS 123 57.3 V =VA+ dt = VA +wxr'+v'. Equation (1) restates the theorem on the composition of velocities already proved in § 55. To find them. and. while v' and a' denote these vectors relative to a frame ' in motion with respect to . a' = 0 in the foregoing equations. on making use of (56. relative to a frame . dt dr a= dv . Equation (2) shows that an analogous theorem for the composition of accelerations is not in general true. dr' . Let v and a denote the velocity and acceleration of a particle P. The velocity and acceleration of the point Q of the frame j' with which P momentarily coincides are called the transfer velocity and transfer acceleration of P.. Then if 0 and A are origins fixed in and a'.
hence in (3) F . originally at 0. ma' equals a sum of forces just as in the case of a fixed frame. V O(A) If we regard maQ and 2mw x v' as fictitious forces. 57a). 57b). Therefore the equation of motion becomes (i) a'=g2o.i cos a) radians/see.k r' k) = mw2 (OP . to the revolving frame Oxyz attached to the earth: Oz points to the zenith (along a plumb line). we have maQ = mw2 (r' . (b) v' = 0. known as the Coriolis acceleration. and aQ = w x (w x r').maQ . vanishes in three cases only: (a) co = 0. 57a 2mw x v' is called the Coriolis force.124 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 57 we have. Refer the particle.2mw x v'. Taking 0 at A and the zaxis along w (Fig. the particle is at rest relative to '. a = 0. Example. 2w x v'. (c) v' is parallel to co. Ox to the south." we may state (2) as the The absolute acceleration of a particle is equal to the sum of its transfer acceleration. When ' has the constant angular velocity w about a fixed axis through A. has the equation of motion F = ma. acted on by forces of vector sum F. Coriolis acceleration. . in fact. When the motion is referred to a rotating frame the equation of motion becomes N U P(Q) (3) ma' = F .xv'. the force acting upon it is its local weight mg. the additional term 2w x v'. The term Fio. the motion of ' relative to is a translation.maQ = mg. Oy to the east (Fig. THEOREM OF CORIOLIS." while the corresponding rates referred to ' are "relative. If we regard the frame as "fixed" and rates of change referred to it as "absolute. The earth revolves from west to east about the axis SN and its angular velocity at north latitude a is _ 2r (k sin X . 24 X 602 When the particle is at rest relative to the earth. The Coriolis acceleration. Particle Falling from Rest. this vector perpendicular to the axis and directed outward is called the centrifugal force on the particle. A particle of mass m.ON) = mw2 NP. and relative acceleration. aA = 0.
With the last value of v'. . The displacement r' is along the plumb line. v' = gt . = 2gt2 .gt. 57b 2. v'=gt12wxg. v' = gt.3 taw x g = 3 t3wg cos Xj. v' = 0 when t = 0 and with g regarded as constant. a' = g. Since g = gk.3 taw x g. . If we neglect the term in w. We shall integrate (i) by successive approximations under the initial conditions = 0. a' = g . 3.t2w x g + 3 taw x (w x g). ' = zr gt2 .2tw x g.§ 57 THEOREM OF CORIOLIS 125 where a' and v' are the acceleration and velocity relative to the earth. 1. (i) gives a' = g . =zgt2. the second term gives an eastward deflection. Fla. With v' .2tw x g + 2t2w x (w x g).3t3w x g + Gt4w x (w x g).
mA (t) At + OB AtOA X m(t + At).drA and hence.4 (t) At (31. Derivative of a Motor.I t4w2g cost X.114w29 cos'.m4(t) 'At MA (t + At) + AB X m(t + At) . AMA dmA c l. Since w x g = wg w x (w X g) = wng cos x (i sin X + k cos X). If m and mA are functions of the real variable t.o dM (2) At dt  + xm. and let ' itself have the motion V= o + EV A with respect to the frame . cos X J. . If A moves to B in the interval At. we therefore define dm dt dmA drA dt dt + dr. dt Relative to the frame a. we must show that dmP dt drp dmA + dt x m = + dt  dt x m + PA X ) dm dt . the derivative of M relative to a' is d'M (1) dm dt d'mA dt + e dt In order to compute dM/dt relative to a we must remember that mA depends not only upon t but also upon the point A. cos X j.4 At mB(t + At) . ' 1 ) 6 r= 1 tow" sin X cos X i + s 9 1 taw 3 9 The first and second terms give deflections to the south and east.126 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 58 The last term is a deflection in the meridian or xzplane.X k.4 dt m) To verify that dM/dt is a motor. if rA ° OA.m. Om. Let the motor M= m + EmA be referred to the frame a' in which A is a fixed point. 58. which is in motion relative to a.(29t2 .3) mA (t + At) . the third shows that the particle in t seconds falls through a distance z = 2gt2 .
§ 58 DERIVATIVE OF A MOTOR 127 This equation.rp) x m on differentiation. its equation may be written from (31. d'M V X M + (4) dt dt This is the motor analogue of (56. its acceleration motor is dV = a+e(aA +VAXW). we may verify that the following rules of differentiation are valid : d ( 5) dM dN dt ( M + N) dt + dt ' dt ' dA d (6) dM (XM) = X dt + dt dt M. dM d ( 7) dt d (M N) = M (M x dN +N dM dt ' .8). If t denotes time.3). ( 8) dt N) = dN Mx dt + N dt Example 1. in view of (34. (3) wxm+ d'm dt ' dmA d'mA dt dt = ' Substituting these results in (2) gives dt dM = (0M+ E((axmA + VA xm) dM d'M + dt or.3). dt = and dm dt = from (56. follows from mp = mA + (rA .1). Making use of the definition (2). . in fact. If the motion of a rigid body is given by the velocity motor V = w + EVA (A a fixed point of the body). drA VA. The axis of this motor is called the instantaneous axis of acceleration.
dN =VxN. The moving trihedral TNB at the point P of a space curve r = r(s) may be regarded as a rigid body having the velocity motor._ rN . for example dB dN = 7T + KB + EB. u x v are found by the familiar rules of calculus. but for u x v the order of the factors must be preserved. fp = 0 and (ii) dF = df + Evp x f. The derivative du/dt of a vector function u(t) is defined as the limit of Au/At as At approaches zero. referred to P. C is a circle and du/dt is perpendicular to u. If u = OP is drawn from a fixed origin and P describes the curve C as t varies. d. du/dt is a vector tangent to C at P in the direction of increasing t. Written out in full they become T = KN.128 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE § 59 Example 2. B = B through P are fixed in the trihedral. 59. . V=S+Evp=8+ET. hence.=(S+ET)xB=dB EN=TNEN. Then (i) dF dt + E ( dt + VA x f) . Hence. from (4). B =VxB. u v. These are Frenet's Formulas in motor form. N = N. The three line vectors T = T. If F acts at the point P of the body. If I u I is constant. (iii) d do+E(vPxf+APxdt/ let the reader show that (i) and (iii) are consistent. Example 3. The derivatives of the sum u + v and the products fu. Let F = f + EfA be a force acting on a rigid body whose velocity motor is V = w + EvA. referred to A. as the point P traverses the curve with unit speed. The derivative of a constant vector is zero. Summary: Vector Derivatives.EN. ds =VxT. .
T+ . a = . then [TNB] = 1. the angular velocity vector. the body has a screw motion about the axis of V. and p = 1/K the radius of curvature of the path. The vectors of the moving trihedral TNB change conformably to Frenet's Formulas: dT Kft ds dN ds = SXT. Since V is a motor. for any point P of the body. a unit vector tangent to the curve the direction of increasing s.ft. If t denotes time. here co. dt dv v2 p If A is any point of a free rigid body. Vp = VA + PA Xw = vA +(0 XAP. If co = 0 the motion is an instantaneous translation of velocity VA. V = w + EvA . The unit prin cipal normal ft to the curve has the direction of dT/ds. V = VT. the velocities of its points are given by the velocity motor. For plane curves r = 0. r the torsion of the curve. . the instantaneous axis of velocity. a particle P traveling along the curve r = r(t) has the velocity and acceleration.§ 59 SUMMARY: VECTOR DERIVATIVES 129 If s is the are along a curve r = r(s). is the same for any choice of A. dr v dt ' a dv d2r  dt dt2 If v = ds/dt is the speed. KT dB ds rft = SXB. this reduces to a pure rotation if V is a line vector (co VA = 0). K is the curvature. dr/ds = T. at any instant. co 0. If. and the unit binormal B = T X N. + TB = 6 X ft. and the Darboux vector o = TT + KB is the angular velocity of the moving trihedral as its vertex traverses the curve with unit speed (ds/dt = 1).
a relative to the frame a. 0) are the polar coordinates of a variable point P on the spiral. v = VQ +v'. ro rd0 = cot a. + V'. If (r. ex. § 44.T = 0. and that the center of curvature is the point where the perpendicular to OP at 0 cuts the normal at P.130 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE If the frame a' has the angular velocity relative to . An equiangular spiral cuts all vectors from its pole 0 at the same angle a (R T = cos a). A particle P has the velocity and acceleration v'. if the motion of a' relative to a is given by the motor V = co + EvQ. 2. Show that (R . and d'M/dt refers to a frame a' having the motion V = co + evA. show that (a) (b) (c) ds/dr = sec a.ro) sec a. log r = (9 . a' relative to frame a'. v. where Q is the point of ' coinciding at the instant with P.so = (r .x = 0. 2. then. [Cf. relative to a frame . When a' is in trans lation relative to .i) . the velocity equation may be written v = vl. the rates of change of a vector u relative to these frames are connected by du dt d'u dt + w .Bo) cot a. . a = aQ +2wxv' + a'. The term 2w X v' is the acceleration of Coriolis. and interpret the equation.U. The derivative of the motor M = m(t) + emA(t) is defined as dM dm dmA at = at + at_ drA + Xm at If t denotes time. then dM dt V X M + d'M dt PROBLEMS 1. p = ds/dB = r/sin a. 1 dr s . If r and x are the distances of a point on a parabola from the focus and directrix.1 3. Prove that the tangent to a hyperbola bisects the angle between the focal radii to the point of tangency. r .
t3). r1 = r + (c . A curve r = r(s) has the property that the locus r1 = r + rT (e const. y = a sin t. [Cf.c. 8. y = 312.3).) is a parallel curve r1 (§ 45. P = 4a sin 2 (44. Find the vectors T.sin t). T) = 2 .tonst). and that s1 = Zat2 gives the arc along the involute. B and the curvature and torsion of the twisted x = 3t. (c) The equation of its evolute is x1 = a(t + sin t). 5. An involute of a curve r.cost).2 . N. cubic.) is a straight line. K = r = 1/3a(1 + . show that (a) r1 = r + eN (c cont. Prove that r has the oneparameter family of involutes.C. z = a cos t. Prove that the curve is plane.PROBLEMS 13 1 4. (a) (b) T = [sin . y2 + z2 = a2 intersect in two ellipses. x = a(3t . are y = 3at2. r = r(s). t2)2. y1 = a(sint . Show that curvature and torsion of the curve. 9. Write the equations for the normal and osculating planes to the curve at the point t = 1. 10. Show that the involute of the circle.cos t). one of which is x = a cos t. z = a(3t + t3). (b) Si = s . z = 20.s)K. is a curve r1 which cuts the tangents of r at right angles.s)T and. obtained by unwrapping a string from the point t = 0 is x1 = a(cost +tsint).l at it tance c from r. at the points where t = 0 and t = 1. ds1/ds = (c . x = a cos t. r.). 7. The equation of a cycloid is x = a(t . when . (C) P1 = P . Prove that y = all . The cylinders x2 + y2 = a2. y1 = a(1 . a tractrix. ii: l dis 5. § 50. 11. if we take T1 = N. (c = const. cos 2 t 1 2J ds/dt = 2a sin 2 >y = (i. y = a sin t. provided Si = s = 0. ex. .) 6.y = 0. ex. in fact. Show that its radius of curvature is P = a(l + sine t)I/''2. If r = r(s) is a plane curve.
. and that Ti = T. z = a cos t. 14.1 Show that the envelope has the parametric equations.. dsl/ds = K/Kt = r/T. prove that N = N1. y = C C083 0. show that Hence. Ni = eN. prove that I dp r . (In Problem 11 put p = c sins cos 0. are x = et. 13. x = a sin2 t. = as. y = a sin t cos t. A curve r is called a Bertrand curve if its principal normals are principal normals of another curve r1. The points on two curves r and r. Verify that the curve. 0 = angle (i. B = B1. r = p(O)R + XP. where R and P = k x R are the unit vectors of § 44. = pR + p'P is the envelope. show that r. y = et. if both arcs are measured from the same ray. ds pr+ ds sphere. Show that the curve has a double point at (a. 15. Sc = T z= /2 t. lies on a sphere. + at)2. and that s. R).C = pN .132 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 12. Find the envelope of the family of straight lines in the xyplane. 0) for the parameter values t = ±r/2. When both curves cut the rays from 0 at the same angle. and p is the perpendicular distance from the origin to the line.c) (r . then r1 is also a Bertrand curve. d (ldP) r ds 0 is a necessary and sufficient condition that a twisted curve (r d 0) lie on a 17.c) = a2. r. are in onetoone correspondence. Show that the curvature and torsion of the curve.TB. and that the tangents to the curve at this point are perpendicular. and rl = r + XN. Show that the curve. If T = T. dsl/de = p + p". If a curve r = r(s) lies on a sphere (r . where e = 1 or 1. at corresponding points. 0. x = c sin3 0. Find the envelope of the family of lines for which the segment included between the xaxis and yaxis is of constant length c. and that the entire length of the curve is 6c. = cr. 16. 18.
ds1 Kl ds .cK)T + cTB. 20. (r + pN) x B].CK Cr _ cos p sin (e) K1 = E(Ti cot (p + 1/c). From the result of Problem 19 show that the three families of planes associated with the twisted (r 0 0) curve r = r(s). r N). If a particle P of mass m is subject to a central force F = mf (r)R. r B). (a x a'. have as characteristics the respective families of lines: [B. 21. The characteristics of a oneparameter family of planes whose homogeneous coordinates (§ 26) are (a(t). '(f) As to the Darboux vectors. tangent to the curve (§ 48). 11 (b) If (c) = angle (B.r COS gyp. ao(t)).B sin rp. a vector constant. apa . (8. rectifying planes. = const. Bl). (T. that (a) 133 X = c (const. Prove that r x v = h. The line of intersection of the two planes has the homogeneous coordinates (26.ao(t)a(t + h) [. where r = OP and R is the unit vector along OP. its equation of motion is z m dt2 = F or dv = f (r)R. Ti d = (1 . r x T). are the limiting lines of inter section of the planes corresponding to the parameter values t and t + h as h . taken positive relative to N. and ET1 ds1 ds = K sin p . parallel to B through the centers of curvature. parallel to S through points of the curve. COS cp + T sin gyp. since K1 = 0. show that the motion is plane and that r = OP sweeps out area at a constant rate (Law of Areas).). r x 8). 19.0. the last equation determines E. in turn. (d) Eds = C2TT1 = Sin2 (P. Si ds1/ds = S.aoa') and. osculating planes.PROBLEMS Show. (T. (B. B1 = B cos (P + T sin p. {a(t) x a(t + h). hence. ds1 1 . if we divide both by h and pass to the limit h + 0. ao(t + h)a(t) . show that we obtain as the coordinates of the characteristics. r T). (N.10).. namely. normal planes. . ET1 = T cos rp .
w2. is referred to rectangular axes rotating with the angular velocity w = [wl. 1). If P moves in the pzplane so that dp/dt and dz/dt are constant while the plane itself revolves about the zaxis with the constant angular speed dip/dt = w. The distance between these tangents is the width of the curve in the direction of the perpendicular. where a is a constant vector. find the acceleration of P. z (cf.area of ellipse _ 2a h/2 and. ex. A particle P has the cylindrical coordinates p. If the plane Ax + By + Cz = 1. (02Y w3]. (f) a conic section of eccentricity a referred to a focus as pole. 7. . (d) (e) dt xh v x h = k(R + e). fixed in space. hence. everywhere convex. It can be shown that an oval has just two tangents parallel to every direction in the plane. Prove that the perimeter of an oval of constant width b is 7rb (Barbier's Theorem). that (b) (c) k = R (k rxv = h h = r2 R x dR =kdR. (See Brand's Vectorial Mechanics. § 89.r2/yM (Kepler's Third Law). From (b) and (e).134 VECTOR FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 22. show that rdA dB dC] l dt ' dt ' dt = [A. C] x [WI. thus obtain the equation of the orbit. prove that the orbital ellipse is described in the periodic time. closed plane curve with a unique tangent at each point is called an oval. r x v h = h2. 24. (b) By use of the Theorem of Coriolis. (a) By direct calculation. (g) k a' T2/a3 = 4. B. A real. in turn. .) 23. w3]. r vxh = kr(1 +acose) hz/k 1 + e Cos 0 where 0 = angle (e. § 177. When mf(r) = ymM/r2 in Problem 21 the particle P is attracted towards a mass M at 0 according to the law of inverse squares: (a) dv dt Show. When e < 1. r). 25. . p.
r = xlal + x2a2 + x3a3. when a continuous vector function satisfies the relation (2). r . linear vector functions are defined by the formulas kr. X. A vector v is said to be a function of a vector r if v is determined when r is given. A vector function may be given by a formula. Vector Functions of a Vector. a X r. a. (4) f(0) = 0. s. f(r) is a function of two or three scalar variables according as r varies in a plane or in space. A linear vector function is completely determined when f(a. Since r is determined by its components. f(a3) are given for any three noncoplanar vectors al. A vector function is said to be linear when (2) f(r + s) = f(r) + f(s). and v = OQ is the vector perpendicular on the tangent plane to the surface at P. for arbitrary r. Since we assume that (2) holds when r = s = 0. For example. It can be shown that. for any linear vector function. in which k.CHAPTER IV LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 60. it also satisfies (3) and is therefore linear. f(a2).ro This means that. (3) f (Xr) = Af (r). the components of f (r) approach those of f (ro). if we express r in terms of al. a b r. or it may be defined geometrically.). hence. a3. Thus if r = OP varies over the points P of a given surface. a2. A vector function f(r) is said to be continuous for r = ro if (1) lim f(r) = f(ro). a2. as f(r) _ (a X r) x r. a3 as a basis. f(0) = 2f(0). b are constant. and we write v = f(r). when the components of r approach those of ro in any manner. For. 135 . v = f(r).
we now regard f (r) as the scalar product of r and the operator. the "indeterminate product. If we use r as a prefactor.136 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 61 we have. we get. a3 denote the set reciprocal to a. laying down for this purpose definitions for equality. + a2b2 + ..r+..) + x2f(a2) + x3f(a3) Let a'. Since r follows. and multiplication of dyadics. from (2) and (3). + anbn. then. 61. the vectors bi consequents.. a3 (§ 23). a2. in (2). f(r) = alb." We shall find indeed that this product conforms to the distributive and associative laws. (5) f(r) = x'f(a. Assuming the distributive law for such products. (1) = alb. While a b is a scalar and a x b a vector. These formulas represent the most general linear vector function.+anbn. (7) f(r) = (b. but is not commutative (in general ab 0 ba). Gibbs regarded ab as a new species of product. In linear vector functions of the form.. we call the operator 4) a dyadic and each of its terms aib1 a dyad. xt = r at. We proceed to develop an algebra for dyadics. a2. if we write f(ai) = b1. Following Willard Gibbs. f(r) may be written in either of the forms: (6) f(r) = r (albs + a2b2 + a3b3). The vectors ai are called antecedents. Dyadics. r+a2b2. a different linear vector function: g(r) = r 4). . we call r a postfactor. the dyad ab represents a new mathematical entity. We write 4) = NY when (3) 4> r = 'Y r for every vector r. addition.al + b2a2 + b3a3) r. Definition of Equality. we now write (2) f (r) = ' r.r.. in general.
+ c. these vectors must be equal. 1 (or ') is the sum of its dyad terms. if the order of the vectors is not altered.. ab r ba r and hence ab 54 ba. for. (a + b)c = ac + bc.. (8). thus justifying our notation.. are valid. The preceding argument shows that 4) = 0 also when (6) s S. thus from a(b + c) r = (ab + ac) r. We write = 0 when (5) 4) r = 0 for every r... If ' = c1d1 + C2d2 + . for example: (a+b)(c+d) =ac+ad+bc+bd.r) = s or r Since s 1 and s ' are two vectors that yield the same scalar product with every vector r. (9) a(b + c) = ab + ac. The sum 4) +' of two dyadics is defined by the property.T for every vector s. we have from (3) s . we deduce (8). and for every r. in general. thus (4) s iD = s .. In the sense of this definition. The Distributive Laws. 4) = 0 Definition of Addition. from (4) we may deduce (3). but the order of the vectors in each dyad must not be altered. Conversely. The Zero Dyadic. Therefore 4) = T when either (3) or (4) is fulfilled. 4) +' = a1b1 + ..§ 61 DYADICS 137 If s is an arbitrary vector.. We may now perform expansions as in ordinary algebra.n. . The proof follows at once from the definition of equality.. + Cmd. (7) (4) +'Y) r= is given by (1). + anbn + c1d1 + ..(4) . for every s.d.. The order of these dyads is immaterial.
138
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
§ 62
If X is any scalar,
(10)
(Xa)b = a(Xb),
and we shall write simply Xab for either member.
From (60.6) or (60.7) we conclude that any dyadic D can be reduced to the sum of three dyads. To effect this reduction on 4) as given by (1), express each antecedent ai in terms of the basis
ei, e2, e3,
ai = ale, + aie2 + a;e3,
expand by the distributive law, and collect the terms which have the same antecedent: thus
4) _
where f;
(a1 ei
+ a2e2 + a3e3)bi = elf, + e2f2 + e3f3,
We also may reduce 4) to the sum of three dyads by expressing each consequent bi in terms of the basis el, e2, e3, and then expanding and collecting terms which have the same consequent;
then 4) assumes the form,
4) = giei + 92e2 + 93e3
Thus it is always possible to express any dyadic so that its antecedents or its consequents are any three noncoplanar vectors chosen at pleasure.
If a,, a2, a3 are noncoplanar, a dyadic 4) is completely determined by giving their transforms (§ 60). If
4)  a, =b,,
(11)
4>  a2 = b2,
(D  a3= b3,
and the set a', a2, a3 is reciprocal to al, a2, a3, we have explicitly
4) = bla' + b2a2 + b3a3.
For a physical example of a dyadic the reader may turn to
§ 116, where the stress dyadic is introduced. The name tensor, now used in a much more general sense, originally was ajTplied to this dyadic. 62. Affine Point Transformation. If we draw the position vectors,
r=OP,
r'=4 r=OQ,
from a common origin 0, the dyadic 4) defines a certain transformation of the points of space: to each point P corresponds a defi
§_63
COMPLETE AND SINGULAR DYADICS
139
nite point Q. If, when P ranges over all space, Q does likewise, this transformation is called affine; the dyadic 4) then is called
complete.
Important properties of an affine point transformation follow at once from the equations,
4) (a+b) =
which characterize a linear vector function. Since  0 = 0, the transformation leaves the origin invariant. Lines and planes are transformed into lines and planes. Thus, for variable x, the
Line
r = a + xb  Line r' = a' + xb';
and, for variable x, y, the
Plane r = a + xb + yc  Plane r' = a' + xb' + yc'.
The transformed equations always represent lines and planes when 4) is complete; for we shall show in § 70 that b 54 0 implies b' F6 0,
and b x c 5xI 0 implies b' x c' 54 0.
63. Complete and Singular Dyadics. Given an arbitrary basis, e1, e2, e3, we can express any dyadic in the form,
(1)
4) = glee + 92e2 + g3e3
If we express r in terms of the reciprocal basis,
r = xle' + x2e2 + x3e3,
then, by virtue of the equations, et e' = St,
4)
r = x1g1 + x282 + x383
When g1, g2, g3 are noncoplanar, r' = 4) r assumes all possible
vector values as r ranges over the whole of space. If we put 3 a r = OP, r' = OQ, the dyadic defines an affine transformation r' _ ( r of space into itself; 3dimensional Pspace goes into 3dimensional Qspace. A dyadic having this property is said to be complete. A complete dyadic cannot be reduced to a sum of less than three dyads; if, for example, we could reduce 4) to the sum of two dyads, ab + cd, all vectors r would transform into .vectors r' = a b r + c d r parallel to the plane of a and c.
140
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
§ 63
If, however, g1, g2, g3, are coplanar, but not collinear, we can express each gi in terms of two nonparallel vectors f1, f2, and reduce
c to the sum of two dyads:
(2)
4, = f1h1 + f2h2.
This dyadic transforms all vectors r into vectors r' = 1  r in the
plane of f1 and f2; 3dimensional Pspace goes into 2dimensional
Qspace. A dyadic having this property is said to be planar. A planar dyadic cannot be reduced to a single dyad ab; for then all vectors r would transform into vectors a b . r parallel to a.
If 91, g2, g3 are collinear, we can replace each gi by a multiple of a single vector f and reduce 4' to a single dyad:
(3)
4 = fh.
This dyadic transforms all vectors r into vectors r' = fi  r parallel to f; 3dimensional Pspace goes into 1dimensional Qspace. Such a dyadic is called linear. Finally, if g1, g2, g3 are all zero, 4' = 0. Planar, linear, and zero dyadics collectively are called singular. The point transformation,
OQ = (D OP,
corresponding to a singular dyadic 4' reduces 3dimensional Pspace to a 2, 1, or 0dimensional Qspace.
This discussion shows that, when  is reduced to the form (1) in which the consequents are noncoplanar, then 4, is complete,
planar, linear, or zero, according as the antecedents are noncoplanar, coplanar but not collinear, collinear, or zero. In particular, we have the
THEOREM. A necessary and sufficient condition that a dyadic al + bm + cn be complete is that the antecedents a, b, c and consequents 1, m, n be two sets of noncoplanar vectors.
As a corollary,
(4)
4)  r = 0 implies r = 0 when  is complete.
For, if  = al + bm + cn,
alr+bmr+cnr=0,
and hence r = 0.
1  r = m  r = n  r = 0,
§ 64
CONJUGATE DYADICS
141
64. Conjugate Dyadics.
The dyadics,
4) = alb, + a2b2 + ... + anon,
,D, = b1a1 + b2a2 +
+ bn.an,
are said to be conjugates of each other. In general 4) and (D, are different dyadics; but evidently
(1)
4) r=r
define the same linear vector function. If two dyadics are equal,
their conjugates are equal; for 4, =' implies that
4)
r, and hence 4), A dyadic is called :
Symmetric
by definition.
if
4), = 4),
Antisymmetric if
4 =  4).
The importance of these special types of dyadics is due to the
THEOREM. Every dyadic can be expressed in just one way as the sum of a symmetric and an antisymmetric dyadic.
Proof.
(1)
For any dyadic 4), Ave have the identity,
=
4)+4),
2
+
4)
2
=
+ 52;
since
4rc =
2
= *I
St, =
2
= Q,
41 and Sl are, respectively, symmetric and antisymmetric. Moreover 4) can be so expressed in only one way. For, if
41
+Q_N,,+9,
gave two such decompositions, we have, on taking conjugates,
q/  SZ =
and hence
_ V, Sl = S2'.
142
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
§ 65
65. Product of Dyadics. If the transformations corresponding to two linear vector functions,
v=4)  r,
are applied in succession, their resultant,
is a third linear vector function; for w1 + w2 corresponds to
r1 + r2, and Xw to Xr.
This function is written
w=
and 'I' ( is called the product of the dyadics ' and 4), taken in 4) is therethis order. The defining equation for the product
fore
(1)
(*
for every r.
From (1) we find that the distributive and associative laws hold for the products of dyadics:
(2)
4) ('I' + S2)
{ 4
S2,
(3)
((F +')
For every vector r,
+
(4)
Proofs.
(I' + l)] r = 4 [( + 0)
r]
r)
r+l r]
r+
[( +'F)
St]
r)+ (St
(St
r;
r)
r = ((F +'I')
r)+
' ) ' r]
r)
r)
r=
[(`I'
§ 65
PRODUCT OF DYADICS
143
Equations t2), (3), (4) follow from these results by the definition of equality. In the proofs of (2) and (3), definition (1) justifies the first and last steps; in the proof of (3), (1) is applied in every
step.
explicitly, we first find the In order to compute a product product of two dyads. By definition,
for every r, and hence
(5)
(ab) (cd) = (b c) ad.
The product of ab and cd, in this order, is the scalar b c times
the dyad ad.
(6)
Similarly,
(cd)
(ab) = (d a) cb,
which in general differs from (5). Making use of the distributive law, we now may form the product of any two dyadics,
n
m
4) = E aibi,
i=1
' = E c;d;,
i=1
m
by expanding into nm dyads.
n
(7)
=E
i=1 j=1
(bi c,)aidr
The conjugate of 4) ' is
(8)
71 (I' ) = E i=1 (c; j=1
m
n
bi)d;ai
The conjugate of the product of two dyadics is the product of their
conjugates taken in reverse order.
Making use of (8), we now find that
r
hence
(9)
(4)
 *) = (4)
'P ) ,
r = ( * ,( 1 ) , )r
r ((D 'Y) = (r (D) 4, for every r, an associative law analogous to (1) but with r as prefactor. If el, e2, e3 form a basis and e', e2, e3 the reciprocal basis, we can express any two dyadics in the form,
4) = fie, + f2e2 + f3e3,
' = elg1 + e2g2 + e3g3
144
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
§ 66
In the product 4  ', six dyads vanish, and we find
(10)
4)
`I' = figs + f2g2 + f393
If 4) and' are complete, fl, f2, f3 and g1, g2, g3 are noncoplanar sets; then ( 4, is also complete. But if (F or 4, is singular, one of these sets must be coplanar, and 4) 'Y is likewise singular.
Therefore the product of two dyadics is complete when and only when both dyadic factors are complete.
If 4) is complete, it may be "canceled" from equations such as
4.4,=O,4, (F=0, to giveT =O. Thus, if
are noncoplanar in (10), and hence g1 = g2 = g3 = 0. We also = 4) St; for this is equivalent to (4,  9) = 0, and hence 4,  SZ = 0. 66. Idemfactor and Reciprocal. The unit dyadic or idemfactor I is defined by the equation,
may "cancel"  in (F
(1)
I
r=r
for every r.
The idemfactor is unique (§ 60). For any basis e1, e2, e3, we have I e; = e I e' = e'; hence, from (60.7),
(2)
I = e1e' + e2e2 + e3e3 = e'e1 + e2e2 + e3e3;
in particular the selfreciprocal basis i, j, k gives
(3)
I = ii + jj + kk.
Evidently I is symmetric and complete.
THEOREM. In order that a, b, c and u, v, w form reciprocal sets, it is necessary and sufficient that
(4)
au+bv+cw=I.
When the sets are reciprocal, we have just proved (4). Conversely, if (4) holds, a, b, c are noncoplanar, since I is complete; let a', b', c' denote the reciprocal set. Using these vectors as prefactors on (4) gives u = a', v = b', w = c'. Multiplying a dyadic by I leaves it unaltered; for, from
r (I.4)) _
we conclude that
(5)
4I=I
(F = 4.
§ 66
IDEMFACTOR AND RECIPROCAL
145
If 4 I = I, 4) and ' are both complete, since I is complete
(§ 65).
From
T
or
(4,
4) = I. Two dyadics 4), 4, are said to be reciprocals of each other when
(6)
4) 41 _I (D =I,
and we write 4, = 4)1, 4) = T1 A complete dyadic 4) has a unique reciprocal (D1. If
(7)
4) = elf, + e2f2 + e3f3,
(D1 = flee + f2e2 + f3e3,
for their products in either order give I:
4) .
4>I
= e,e' + e2e2 + e3e3,
4)1
4) = f If, + f'f2 + f3f3.
(D1 = I;
Since dyadic multiplication is associative 4,I) _ 4) ('F 1) 4,1 = 4) (4) F) (T1
(8)
(4) . *)I = 'FI .,I>,.
(4) . * . Q) 1 = 21 ,
ggeneral,
(4)
Making use of (8), we have
q') 1 =
and, in
the reciprocal of the product of n dyadics is the
product of their reciprocals taken in reverse order. For positive integral n we define
= (P . 4)n = (4)i)n = (4)n)I;
4,n
4)°=I.
With these definitions,
(12)
4)m . 4,n = Pm+n,
(4)m) n.
_
4)mn,
for all integral exponents. But owing to the noncommutativity of the factors in a dyadic product, (4>. ')n is not in general equal
,0 cpn . *n.
146
LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS
§ 67
By means of reciprocal dyadics, we readily may solve certain
vector and dyadic equations. Thus, if (F is complete, the equations,
(F
r=v,
r 4 ) =v,
4 )4 1=2,
(F
2,
have the respective unique solutions:
r=4)1 v,
67. The Dyadic (1) x v.
(1)
If (F = Maibi, we define the dyadics:
v x 4) = Tv x aibi.
 x v = Ea1bi x v,
From these definitions we have the relations:
(2)
(4) x v)
r = 4) (vxr),
r (v x (F) = (rxv)
(F;
(3)
(r(P)v,
When 4, = I, these give
(4)
(Ixv) =
Since these equations hold for any r,
(6) (7)
r = vxr.
Ixv = vxI,
(I x v), _ Ixv.
Thus I x v is antisymmetric and planar; it transforms all vectors f into vectors perpendicular to v.
Since
aibi (I x v) = aibi x v,
(I x v)
aibi = v x aibi,
the definitions (1) give
(8)
(P
(Ixv) _
xv,
(Ixv)  4) = vx(F.
Consequently, the operations v x and x v on vectors or dyadics may be replaced by dyadic products (I x v) and (I x v). For any vectors u, v, r we have
[I x (u x v)]
r = (u x v) x r = (vu  uv)  r,
1 x (u x v) = vu  uv.
and hence
(9)
or dyadic. These functions. and the vector co = tai x bi. Again. (10) l = 21xw. THEOREM. Corollary. which remain the same. the scalar is 3 and the vector 0. the scalar (or first scalar invariant) and vector of the dyadic. First Scalar and Vector Invariant. The conjugate of f is St = 2. and expanding and collecting terms by applying the distributive law. if P = ij + jk + kk. They are called. Every antisymmetric dyadic is planar.aibi is antisymmetric. respectively. (1) (2) Cpl = tai bi. hence Proof. and we obtain these same values if I is expressed in terms of an arbitrary basis: I = ele' + e2e2 + e3e3. We may express a dyadic (P = 2.aibi from one form to another may be paralleled by the same step in transforming the scalar and the vector. vector. For all these forms there are certain functions of the vectors. . bi. in terms of which is expressed. These quantities are therefore invariants of 4 with respect to the transformations in question. obtained by placing a dot or cross between the vectors of each dyad of (D.biai. 2SZ = 2. and. For the idemfactor I = ii + fl + kk. c1 1. For example. Each step of the process in changing = 2. If the dyadic f = 2.aibi in various forms by substituting vector sums for ai. (biai . S2 = IxV = iixv+jjxv+kkxv. are called invariants of the dyadic. just as 1 is not altered by these changes. which may be scalar.aibi) = EI x (ai x bi) = I x w. for the dyadic. 68. 4)=ixj+jxk+kxk=k+i. Each application of the distributive law in the transformation of 4) is also valid in the corresponding transformations of 01 and 4. the same is true of the scalar cpj and vector 4. 4) = 1dai x bi.§ 68 FIRST SCALAR AND VECTOR IN\'AItIANT 147 From this identity we arrive at the general form of any antisymmetric dyadic.
and w=ix(ixv)+Jx(Jxv)+kx(kxv) 2v. +Ix From (6).Ix4.) and the scalar.l called by Gibbs the second of I .148 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 69 we have co. Further Invariants. Hence.1).10).ak)(bixbj . as in (67. (1) 4)2 = 2.. thus S2 = ZI x w. A necessary and sufficient condition that a dyadic be symmetric is that its vector invariant vanish.aixajbixbj. It is principally to this property that these invariants owe their importance. we have the THEOREM. The scalar or vector of the sum of two dyadics is the sum of their scalars or vectors: thus. we have expressed any dyadic 4) as the sum of a symmetric and antisymmetric dyadic: (4) The antisymmetric part S2 = z (4) . i. i. (6) 24=4) +F. The most important of these are the dyadic.i. 'Pi=4i+Wi. = 0. its scalar invariant. 4=4+w. from (4).4) has the vector. if (3) 4) =`I'+0. . In (64. (3) (P3 = * i.k (aixaj . 69. We may obtain further invariants of the dyadic c = 1aibi by processes that are distributive with respect to addition. (2) (P2 = 2 (ai x a3) (bi x bj). From the theorem of § 67 we now have (5) SZ = 2Ix4.bk).
In (3) the summation is taken over all permutations i. (n x 1) + (a x b) (l x m). k. 03 often are called the first. j. 42 = bxcmxn+cxanxl+axblxm. m. c or 1. Necessary and sufficient conditions that a dyadic CF be Complete 'P3 3' 0. and p3 = 0. the permutations i. When two subscripts are the same. linear. b. 0. Planar Linear are that <P3 = 0. The invariants considered thus far are now (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) 4 = axl+bxm+cxn. m. 4) will be linear or zero. j. if a. IP2 = (b x c) (p3 = (a x b (m x n) + (c x a) c) (1 x m n). If V3 = 0. second. b x c. c as antecedents in (4). (1) . the term vanishes.i. if 4'2 = 0. k all differ. n are parallel or zero. CF2 = 0. Conversely. 1. this doubling is avoided by the factor 2. if we choose a noncoplanar set a. 4) must be planar. m. * When CF is linear it can be reduced to the form al and cF2 = 0. when i. When i = j. then 1. the dyad vanishes. n in (4) will be coplanar. Therefore we may state the THEOREM. the antecedents a. so that each dyad occurs twice in the final sum. b. If CF is singular. j. Conversely. c or the consequents = 0. n are coplanar sets and 4) is singular. the 3! = 6 permutations of these subscripts give the same term. P2. or zero. j and j. and `1'2 = 0 implies that mxn = nxl = lxm = 0. for.§ 69 FURTHER INVARIANTS 149 In (1) the summation is taken over all permutations i. CF2 0. a x b are also noncoplanar. b. and third scalars of 4). Therefore a dyadic is singular when and only when its third scalar is zero. i this multiplication of terms is avoided by the factor s Let CF be reduced to the threeterm form: (4) CF = al+bm+cn. c x a. i give the same dyad. when j . The numbers 01. so that each term occurs six times in the final sum.
_ 'D2. which is the third scalar of 4' ' = f1g1 + f2g2 + f3g3 . VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 69 We next compute the invariants of the dyadic (7). (13) 'PI. = 0. If we express 4r in terms of a. 4) = f1e1 + f2e2 + f3e3. hence. The third scalar of the product of two dyadics is equal to the product of their third scalars. hence 'P43 = [f1f2f3][e1e2e3][e'e2e3][919293] = [f1f2f3][g1g2g3]. and the third from (b x c) (c x a) x (a x b) = [abc]2. From *2 = (c x a) x (a x b) (n x 1) x (1 x m) + cyclical terms = [abc] [lmn] (al + bm + cn) . e3 are reciprocal sets (§ 65). the term in a is ab lxm = al .'02. We now may compute the three scalars of 4. c.' This property is expressed by saying that these six scalars form a complete system of invariants. (m x n) (n x 1) x (1 x m) = [lmn]2. 412 = '3'P1. (10) *2 = t0312.(bxm+cxn) = al from (6) . b. hence (12) 4 4r = (al + bm + cn) It can be shown that all scalar invariants of 4) may be expressed in terms of the six scalars. from (9). 4 _ 4. When 4) is symmetric.150 LINEAR.'3. and the last three scalars vanish. the second from (10). 4'3 = the first follows from (8). e3 and e1. e2. where e1.: (11) V1 = P2. ' can be put in the form. For any two dyadics 4). e2. Finally. = e'g1 + e2g2 + e3g3. the vector invariant of ' is 4 = (bxc) x (mxn) + (cxa) x (nx1) + (axb) x (lxm).
elxel + e2xe 2 + e3 x e3 = 0. We have v) i . The third scalar gives [ele2e3][ele2e3] = 1. namely.§ 70 SECOND AND ADJOINT DYADIC 1. 4) = Eaibi. i. i. and the three scalars are 3. 3. on interchanging i and j. we have. . = Mai x a. (2) (4 u) x (4) v) = 4)2 (u x v). u) (bi v). for example. has the property.) (uxv) = 4)2 (uxv). Proof. the vector is zero. . the second 12 = I. (ii) I = e2xe3e2xe3 +e3xe1e3xel +elxe2e1xe2. For the idemfactor I = ii + jj + kk. I I. x ai (b. Second and Adjoint Dyadic.. From (i) I = eiel + e2e2 + e3e3. (bi u) (b. e3 = el x e2/[ele2e3] Thus (i) and (ii) give a handy compendium of the properties of reciprocal vector sets. (1) (D2 = The second of the dyadic ialai i. with regard to (20. and 1. 70.. x a.)(bixb. and the vector. From (ii) we have. bi x b.1).51 Example. for 12. u) "M(aixa. The left member also equals half the sum of the two last expressions : ij or. v) i. e3 = el x e2[e'e2e3]. = Ma.
The vector area u x v (§ 17) is transformed into (8) u' x v' = 4'2 (u x v). formation (§ 62) : (7) r' r ((P3 $ 0). m'. b'. Choose for the antecedents a. then 4)a = mxnbxc+nx1cxa+lxmaxb. we have. by direct multiplication. n' denote the reciprocal set. 4) v. if u. Then (a b x c) = (P31 x n) (1'l + m'm + n'n) If 4) is complete. b. (§ 61). P3 (5) 0. The adjoint satisfies the important relation. (U (U 4)a V) V) 4)a. Since 4'a is the conjugate of 4>2i we have. (4) Write (D = al + bm + cn. 4) by P3I. (3) 4)=gC3I. from (2). .P3[uvw]. w are any three vectors. 4) w] = . (6) [4) Proof. Proof. let 1'. n of 4) as a noncoplanar set (then a. v. If we choose the consequents 1. b. c of 4) a noncoplanar set. then (3) shows that 4'1 = 4'a/1P3 u. We now can deduce important properties of the affine trans.152 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 70 The conjugate of 4'2 is called the adjoint of 4) and written 4'a. Then. we obtain (6). c' denote the reciprocal set. c may or may not be coplanar). From (3) we also may show that. if a'. m. D 4)a = (1 mxn)(abxc +b cxa + caxb) _ (1 m x n) (a b x c) (aa' + bb' + cc') =(P3I.
I = bxc . The second box product in 43 gives. Conversely. 153 From (4).r = 0 for all vectors r normal to the plane of the consequents of T. .. it is clear that the multiplier A must make the dyadic T singular. when 4. planes into planes. If we write this equation. = a(l . b'.Xb') + c(n .Ac'). c are noncoplanar and a'. An affine trans formation invariably changes lines into lines. u' x v' 0 (thus filling a gap in § 62). the third scalars of ad and P2 equal [abc]2[lmn]2 = . Moreover (7) transforms any parallelepiped [uvw] into another [u'v'w'] whose volume is p3[uvw] according to (6).r = 0 where '1 = 4) . 4. Invariant Directions. ' a [abc] ' b x a c = [abc] ' . [lmn] . Substituting for the primed vectors gives . its third scalar 43 is then zero (§ 69).Xa')(m . is planar or linear. We next seek those vectors r which are transformed by 4) into scalar multiples of r.p3 r' Since 4) and c2 are complete. where a. 4. c' the reciprocal set.Xb')(n .Xa') + b(m .Al. 4'3 = [abc] [(1 .A { [a'mn] + [b'nl] + [c'lm] } + A2 { [b'c'l] + [c'a'm] + [a'b'n] l . then I = aa' + bb' + cc'.§ 71 INVARIANT DIRECTIONS 0.Xc')]. r 74 0 and u X v 0 imply 0. for.r = Ar. say (1) . if A is a root of the equation 03 = 0. . Let us write 4) = al + bm + cn. b. the affine transformation alters all volumes in the constant ratio of 93/1... . 71. It . As any volume can be regarded as the limit of a sum of parallelepiped elements. A is a multiplier of 4).A3[a'b'c']. on expansion.
Denote the right member of (2) by f (A) .A3.X11 is planar. say Al = a + i(3. Since 4) . on equating the real and imaginary parts of (5) 4) (a + Zb) _ (a + ia) (a + Zb). We thus have an independent proof of the invariance of <Pl.P1 . The cubic (3) may have three real roots (not necessarily distinct) or one real root and two conjugate complex roots. Then. let 4' .A{(bxc) (mxn) + (cxa) (nx1) + (axb) (lxm)} A3. b = #a + ab. (2) 43 = <P3 .X1I has more than two dyads. <P2 = X2X3 + A3A1 + A1A2.A1I = ch + dk.$b. is called the characteristic equation of 4. on making use of (69. P3 = A1A2A3.5).X1I is singular. A2i A3 of (3) are called the multipliers or characteristic numbers of 4).9). then the cubic equation. (69. (69. r1 is a real vector. If 4) . 1.8). we have (4) IP1 = Al + A2 + A3. To find the invariant direction corresponding to a root A1i we consider in turn the three cases in which 4) . then r1 = a + ib is also complex.A<P2 + A2. 4) we have (6) (D a = as . the cross product of any two nonparallel consequents will be normal to their plane and give a vector parallel to r1. (3) 'P3 = f(A) = 0.. 'P2. But if Al is complex. If Al is real.AI is singular when f (X) = 0. the coefficients of f (X) depend only upon the nature of the dyadic 4) and not upon the particular form in which it is expressed. If 4 . or. From the relations between the roots and coefficients of an algebraic equation. 'P3 The three roots A1.154 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS §71 and then multiplying the entire expansion by [abc] yields L'3 = [abc][1mn] . then the postfactor r1 = h x k reduces the right member to zero and gives the invariant direction for A1. .
v into vectors of the plane u'. 92=0. Example 2. From (5). Then. Then fit = i(4i . (Uxv). .i(3) (a . with I2=a2b. In this case there is a whole plane of invariant directions 3. . and r2 = i x j = k. for. Then 'Pi=0. 4. S3=4. r1 = X1r1. If (D . which is impossible unless # = 0. as invariant direction.X1I is linear. from (70.k) + 2kk. I'2=4+2+2=8. if b = ka. Hence the invariant planes of 4) are normal to the invariant directions of (P2. pp1= 1+2+2=5.2). X2= ai$. 4) = ij + jk + Id. 4) a = (a + i(3)a. The characteristic equation. 2. f(T)=48a+5X2X3=(1X)(2A)2=0. (a . 'P 1\2I= ii +ji+kj = (i+j)i+kj. and the corresponding invariant direction is r1= (i+j)x(j+k) =ij+k.ib). These planes will be the same if u' x v' = x u x v.XiI = ji + jj + kj + kk = j(i + j) + k(j + k). it may be reduced to a single dyad ch. from (6). if u x v is an invariant direction of 42. corresponding to X1. X2 = X3 = 2. V. X1 = 1. = ii + j(i + 2j) + k(j + 2k).2j + k) + j(2j . we have. U" V' = (D2 Now 4) transforms all vectors in the plane of u. 4 r1 = X1r1 for any vector r1. has the roots. Example 1. For the root. X2 = X3 = 2. IP3=1.X1I is zero. 4) For. (7) that is. we conclude that a and b are not parallel. if r1 is any vector in the plane perpendicular to h.ib) = (a . For the double root. All directions are invariant with the multiplier X1. X1 = 1. If 4) .§ 71 INVARIANT DIRECTIONS 155 In this case we know a second multiplier. If we write r' _ 4) r.
For X1 = 1. and `k r2 = X2r2 (X1 0 X2). 4. 4 ) b = 0a+ab. The characteristic numbers of a symmetric dyadic are all real.D (D Since cD is symmetric. c a = as (3b. From the equations. Proof. For X2 = w. But a and b are real vectors. and X1 is real.w2j) = i + w2j + wk. The invariant directions corresponding to two distinct characteristic numbers of a symmetric dyadic are perpendicular.w2i) x (k .X3 = 0.X2)rl r2 = 0. hence (3 = 0. all=i(ji)+j(kj)+k(ik) is planar. the consequents of 4' X3I=i(jw2i)+j(kw2j)+k(iw2k) are all normal to r3 = (j . which is the corresponding invariant direction. For X3 = w2. we have (§ 71) (a+ib) = (a+ii)(a+ib). we deduce (X1 . Proof. has the roots. hence or =0. 4 rl = X1rl. X3 = 1 2 = w2. . and a a + b b is positive. . X1 = 1. X2 = + 2 = w. 72.its consequents are all normal to r1=(ji)x(kj)=i+j+k. b a=a 4) b. rl r2 = 0.156 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 72 The characteristic equation. 1 . If X1 = a + i(3 is a complex multiplier and rl = a + 2b the corresponding invariant direction of the symmetric dyadic 4). the consequents of 4 X21=i(jwi)+j(kwj)+k(iwk) are all normal to r2 = (jwi)x(kwj) =i+wj+w2k. r2. Symmetric Dyadics.
11). we have a whole plane of invariant directions. and write 4) i = Xli. from (61. . j. X1 = X2 = X3.57 Consider now the following cases. then. 4> j = u. Now the symmetry of 4) requires that uj + vk = ju + kv.k = v. Then. (2) <PI = X1 +X2+y. . from (61.11). v being the (unknown) transform of k. 4 'j = X2j. we may write 4. If all three roots of f(X) = 0 are equal. 4) . k. 1. u = aj + yk. Then 4. Thus v = yj + $k. let X1 5' X2 = X3. and 'D = X1ii + X2jj + X2kk. If f (X) = 0 has three distinct roots. from (61.11). 3. 4) = X1ii + X2jj + vk. if i. (Pi = X1 + a + 0. and this in turn shows that u and v have the form. 4) = X1ii + (ai + yk)j + (yj + $k)k. o3 = Xl (a$ . 2. j are the perpendicular invariant directions corresponding to Xl and X2. Now the symmetry of 4) requires that vk = kv. the corresponding invariant directions are mutually perpendicular and may be denoted by i.y2). = X1ii + uj + vk. 4. . (D 'j = X2j. since Cpl = X1 + 2X2 by hypothesis. let i denote an invariant direction corresponding to X1.i = X1i. Thus 4' = X1ii + X2jj +ykk. (1) 4) = X1ii + X2JJ + X3kk. but.§ 72 SYMMETRIC DYADICS 1. y = 1\2. . then. 4 ) k = v. and. Corresponding to the double root X2 = X3. say yk.i = X1i. If two roots of f (X) = 0 are equal. and hence v must be a multiple of k.k = X3k.
= aii + $jj + 7kk.0)2 nor 4y2 can be negative. Example 1.y2) = (a . a=/3=y=0. by direct multiplication.4 4)1 = I. k corresponding invariant directions. we obtain (2) and (3). In the case of a triple root all directions are invariant. Moreover. 1 1 1 a a y for . and 4> reduces to (3) 4. Every symmetric dyadic may be reduced to the form. a + /3 = 2X1. Evidently all cases are included in (1). has the roots. v2 = 3. j. (7) If is symmetric and 4)" = 0. (4) 4. since <pl = 3X1.4(a/3 . Hence a = 0 = X1.158 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 72 but. 4'2 = f7ii + yajj + a$kk 4)" = a"n + a"jj + y"kk. For the symmetric dyadic. k in turn. y are the real multipliers and i. and the characteristic equation. X1 = 2. 0.(3)2 + 4y2 = 0. (D = i(j +k) +j(k +i) +k(i +j). 93 = 2. The reciprocal of 4) is (15) =ii+jj+kk. 2+3XX3=(2a)(1+x)2=0. 4) and. their sum can vanish only if ai3=0. a(3  y2 = ai Elimination of X1 gives the relation. for. j. (a + 0)2 . since neither (a . THEOREM. if r 4 r = 0 for every r. then 4) = 0. if we choose r = i. by making two or three of the roots equal.= 0. in which a. (6) Moreover. and. = X1ii + A1jj + X1kk = XII.y=0. . w1 = 0. . X03 = X1 by hypothesis. X2 = X3 = 1.
fp2dm. j' = (i . Example 2. e2) dm . f(r2x2)dm= f(y2 +z2)dm is the moment of inertia about the xaxis. if we introduce the dyadic.el . if dm is an element of mass at P.j)/V'2. Then. Hence any vector in the plane perpendicular to i + j + k is an invariant direction. the moment of inertia of the body about s is defined as the integral f p2 dm over the body. p2 =r2hence. The consequents are all normal to (2i+j+k)x(2j+k+i) =3(i+j+k). Inertia Dyadic. For example. If we choose the unit vectors. as invariant directions for the roots 2 and 1. This dyadic also has the property that. respectively. e2. Therefore gives a second invariant direction for 1.§ 72 SYMMETRIC DYADICS 159 For X1 = 2. as we may readily verify. Let 0 be any point of a rigid body and s an axis through 0 in the direction of the unit vector e. XiI=i(2i+j+k)+j(2j+k+i)+k(2k +i+j). for any pair of perpendicular unit vectors el. K . If r = OP. e2 = f (el r) (r . (9) ei. . at a distance p from the axis s. i' = (i + j + k)/V'3. 4) =2i'i'j'j'kk'. (8) =e (r2I K = I fr2dm . For a2=X3= 1.frr dm. vector. then the unit k' =i'xj' = (i+j 2k)/V. Thus K effects a synthesis of the moments of inertia of a body about all axes through 0. known as the inertia dyadic of the body for the point 0. X2I= (i + j + k) (i + j + k) is linear. hence r1 = i + j + k.
3 = 0. .A3)I. C are dyadics independent of A. The principal axes are characterized by the property that the product of inertia for any pair is zero.XI) (A + BA + CA2) = (P3 . C are the moments of inertia of the body about these principal axes. if OP = r = re. the first members camel. Hence we always can find three mutually perpendicular axes x. 73. from (1).AI gives (1) `y 'Ya = f(X)I. r = 1. V217 (4) C= I. The identity (70. The HamiltonCayley Equation.(P24) + (P1 cy . For. z through 0 such that (10) K=Ali+Bjj+Ckk. 4). (3 and add. thus j=f j) dm = fxydm. or Axe + Bye + Cz2 = 1. Since (3) is an identity in A. 42. where A. The form of ' given in § 71 shows that we may write (2) 'a = A + BA + CA2. B. y. If we multiply these equations in order by I. hence 4) A = (P3I. These axes are called the principal axes of inertia at 0. is called the ellipsoid of inertia at 0. The inertia dyadic K is evidently symmetric.V2A + V1A2 . and A. its principal axes are the principal axes of inertia at O.160 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 73 is the product of inertia for the corresponding axes. and we get (5) te3I . (11) r K . the dyadic coefficients of like powers of A in the two members must be equal. (3) (4 . B.3) applied to the dyadic ' = . It has the property that the moment of inertia about any axis s through 0 and cutting the ellipsoid at P is 1/(OP)2. The ellipsoid.(1. hence.
. From equations (4). and 03 = f(A) = (X1 ..(PI X + X2)I. * If 4.X) hence (5) also may be written (7) (4) . 91 . and (8) becomes (9) (4) . (10) 4) X1I=0. An Introduction to Abstract Algebra. This treatment for n X n matrices also applies to dyadics. X3 are the characteristic numbers of 4).cP2X + P1 X2  X3 = 0. 4. When X = X1. = (A1 . q. When 4) = X11. from (2). the HamiltonCayley Equation is therefore (11) (4) .a1I)a = (4) . Although every dyadic 4) satisfies the cubic (5). the minimum equation is linear.X1I) . the HamiltonC. pp. (1 . (6) f(X) = V3 .P1 .XI = 0 for a characteristic number X1 (then also Ta = 0). 4)2 A=4)2914) +92I. a characteristic number. we find C=I. C.X)3. = 4) . . X2. The equation of lowest degree satisfied by 4) is called its minimum equation. If the X1. * For its formation and properties see Maeduflee.XI)a vanishes for a characteristic number X j.X1 = X2 + X3.X) (X3 . it evidently is formed by replacing X by 4) in the characteristic equation. namely.X) N . AX) = (X1 .X31) = 0.X21) (4) . (. in which the dyadic factors are commutative.X)4) + (V2 .X3I).ayley Equation. regarded as 3 X 3 matrices.X11)3 = 0. 1940. New York. hence. 'P2 .§ 73 THE HAMILTONCAYLEY EQUATION 161 Every dyadic 4) satisfies this cubic equation. C.X)I. = (8) B=4) q'1I. 4) will satisfy an equation of lower degree when `"a = (4) .X2I) (4 .'P1X1 + X1 = X2X3. and inserting I in the constant term. 2246.
From 'I = A1I + uv.A3I) = 0. consequently.b . 4'2 = 0. § 69) . . = We therefore may write (§ 72) (1) (DC ' = A1u + A2jj + A3kk. from (65. If we take u = i. metric.i = 0. v = ai + /3j ± 'Yk. A2 = A1.162 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 74 If 4. hence we may write 4) = AiI + uv.4)a. When Fd = 0.X21) (.A). and.k = k. and the determinant of 'F's matrix is ¢3 = f(A) = (A1 . is linear (theorem. Every complete dyadic transforms at least one set of mutually orthogonal directions (its principal directions) into another set of the same kind.cc. does not vanish for any characteristic number.(D . A3 = Al + a. we have A)I+aIi+flij+yik. Normal Form of the General Dyadic. (Ai 0).X31) = 0. (4. 4. = 0 when X = X1. Thus the characteristic numbers of b are X1. 74. or (t i) =0. (12) (4. 4))..4). and its HamiltonCayley Equation is (13) ((D . i. but *a.A1I)2 . I = ii + jj + kk.j = j. conThe latter is complete (§ 65) and symsider the dyadic (D. in every case. To find the principal directions of the complete dyadic 1.8). we see that all vectors perpendicular to v have the multiplier A1i whereas vectors parallel to u have the multiplier Xi + u v = Al + a.4)a. . . the minimum equation and the HamiltonCayley Equation have the same linear factors and differ only in their degree of multiplicity. When u v = a = 0. We note that. (c.X)2(X1 + a .4) . (13) reduces to (11). we see from (9) that the minimum equation is the quadratic. Consequently. for.
j'. and . k' still will be dextral. we have. Example. (3) 4) = ai'i + (3j'j + yk'k. We have therefore proved the THEOREM. from (63. for example. Suppose that a particle at P moves to P' under the strain. k = yk'. (4) (5) 4rD' 4) = a2ii + a2jj + y2kk. by direct multiplication. . k' is a second dextral set of unit vectors.I)c If (P is complete. = a2i'i' + 132j'j' + y2k'k'. and hence i. Homogeneous Strain. then r' = OP' is a continuous function of r = OP. a and 0 have one sign. From (3) and . 4. 4. j' by i'. the particles of a deformable body are capable of displacements relative to one another. y are square roots of the multipliers of (D. the strain is then said to be homogeneous. and the set i'. have the same multipliers. If.Pc = aii' + 3jj' + ykk'. we can replace i'. j'. k give a set of principal directions of 4). The totality of such relative displacements is said to constitute its state of strain. where i'. We have seen in § 62 and § 70 that a homogeneous strain transforms lines into lines and planes into planes. we always can arrange so that a. Moreover. (6) r' = 4' r (4 complete). fl. we have. (3.11). These symmetric dyadics. j = #j'. 4 k are thus mutually orthogonal. 4) j. If we write (2) 4 i = ai'. In distinction to the ideal rigid body. 4) (or 4) (D. . j'. j. evidently all positive. which in general are different.) having the same sign. Any complete dyadic 4) can be reduced to the normal form (3) in which the scalars a. conversely. y the opposite. any three invariant directions of 4) that are mutually orthogonal are principal directions of (D. The simplest type of strain occurs when r' is a constant linear vector function of r. and The principal directions of 4) transform into invariant directions of 4' 4. y have the same sign.§ 74 NORMAL FORM OF THE GENERAL DYADIC 163 The vectors 4 i..
Since 4' is complete. _ Conversely. (4) Proof. and the foregoing strain ellipsoid (with a = 1) has the equation. In order that a dyadic 4 transform all vectors so that their lengths are unchanged. 1 a i'i' + j'j' + 2 k'k' ti x'2 cr2 12 . r2 The principal directions i. (1 A dyadic that preserves the lengths of vectors also preserves the angles between them: for. it is necessary and sufficient that its inverse be equal to its conjugate: (1) 1 = b'. 75. s).I is symmetric. k of 4) are called the principal axes of strain.2 + 2 + = 1. then r 4)c cb r=r 4). for any vector r. . since I 4) . . Rotations and Reflections. by virtue of (1). if (1) is fulfilled. it must be zero: 4' = I. The particles originally on a sphere about 0 are displaced so as to lie upon an ellipsoid. (2) r) I r. for r r = a2 transforms into When 4' is reduced to the form (3). since lengths are unaltered. or 4).164 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 75 evidently parallelism is preserved.2 z. If. 4) s) = cos (r. Moreover all volumes are altered in the constant ratio of (P3/1. 4'1 +jj'+ kk'. r = 41 r'.s) =r I and. r I) r= 0. they transform into ad'. (4) r)(4) . j. 1. the principal semiaxes of the strain ellipsoid. /3j' 7k'. I cos (c r. and.
Their third scalar is V3 = =L1.12). fi = i'i + j'j . since E is a linear vector function. is by no means necessary. although sufficient to ensure preservation of angles. the vector invariant of fi gives an invariant direction of multiplier. The dyadic ii + jj . j.2kk. but. j'. (8) E = ii + jj . 'P3 = f 1. this vector is fi (4) Equating these values. k in the same way. k into i. j'. k into i'. j transforms i.'. j. . k. j. and.kk = (i'i + j'j + kk) (ii + jj . fi = Vi + j'j + p3kk. But a rotation 0 about k as axis. transforms i. k'. When P3 = 1.kk). when P3 = 1. is a rotation about the axis k through an angle X determined by its scalar and vector invariants: (7) 0 = 2 sin X k. k in the same way.§ 75 ROTATIONS AND REFLECTIONS 165 Condition (1). (3) becomes IP3 = f 1. since a is linear vector function. The dyadic in the first factor is the rotation e. Moreover. or into a sinistral set i'. any orthogonal set of unit vectors is transformed into another such set. Thus. j'. j. k'. This shows that the vector invariant of fit is f+. we obtain fi + _+. fi = e (§ 60). Since fi preserves lengths and angles. k. j revolve (5) into i'. fi r transforms i. j'. and. Thus there are two possible cases: the dextral set i. fi = 0 E. But a reflection E in the plane of i. Hence we have two types of lengthpreserving dyadics: (3) fi = i'i + j'j ± k'k. through an angle X such that i. from (69. Thus (6) 0=i'i+j'j+kk 01 = 1 + 2 cos X. j.kk in the second factor transforms i.kk = I . fit = ±i'i ± j'j + k'k = fi. k is transformed into another dextral set i. j. When V3 = 1. Thus the dyadic XI preserves angles but multiplies all lengths by X. If we choose k in this direction.
and (3) c _ Z2. + u2e2 + u3e3. First. But with the same basis e1.166 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 76 THEOREM. A dyadic 4) that preserves lengths is a rotation e when (p3 = 1. we can represent 4) by the 3 X 3 matrix. If we express the vectors of 4) in terms of the reciprocal basis e we write (2) 4) The nine numbers pij are called the covariant components of (b relative to the basis ei. when O = I. Just as before. j = 1. 2. and a rotation O followed by a reflection in the plane per pendicular to its axis when c03 = 1. in (1). (p12e1e2 + cp22e2e2 032 + + P13ele3 P23e2e3 (p33e3e3. which stands for the full expression (1). we can represent 4) in two other ways.e. 76. Basic Dyads. we may represent 4) by a matrix of the components cpjj. + e3e2 + The nine coefficients 9 are called the contravariant components of 4) relative to the basis ei (cf.e1 + u2e2 + u3e3. If we express both antecedents and consequents of a dyadic 4) in terms of a given basis e1. u3). (i. e3. 3). to represent the vector a = ule. or 1 X 3 matrix.oz j eie'. This is analogous to the use of a number triple (u'. u2. . we obtain upon expansion 3 X 3 = 9 types of basic dyads eie. + + w e3e. If we drop the nine basic dyads e. On collecting terms we may write 4: (1) 4) _ (p11e1e. u3) to represent the vector u = u. the consequents in terms of e'. This corresponds to the use of the number triple (ul. § 23). a pure reflection. + c'21e2e. e2. 11 (P 1p12 V 13 = p21 031 (p22 (p23 (p33 032 a skeleton of numbers arranged in a definite order. u2. In the latter case n E will reduce to Z. the basic dyads are then eie'. we may express the antecedents of 4) in terms of ei.
If we represent 1 by matrices of mixed components.VP13)i + ('P12 .(p21)k In order to compute 'P2 and <P3i write 4 in threeterm form: (5) = i(<P11i + 'P12j + (P13k) + j (921i + 'P22i + <P23k) + k((P311 + 'P32j + p033k) . so that the basic dyads are eie. all four representations of 4) given in § 76 become the same. j. if we use the full notations (3) or (4). we write the orthogonal components of D arbitrarily as Vij. and 4) itself is said to be in its nonion form: 'P11 'P12 'P13 (1) _ 'P11ii + 'P121j + + 'P33kk = rP21 'P22 'P32 923 'P33 'P31 The conjugate of I corresponds to the transpose of this matrix: '11 (2) V21 'P22 'P23 'P31 'P12 'P13 'P32 'P33 Hence c is symmetric when 'Pij = 'Pji. k is used as a basis. the components of the matrix (<pij) shall be regarded as orthogonal. Nonion Form.. = ('P23 . p.. in general. i However.. e. for. then (4) = XMv 5eie. antisymmetric when 'Pij = ('i1 = 0). for the order of the indices then is shown by the base vectors.. 77.3 77 NONION FORM 167 Or we may express the antecedents in terms of ei and consequents in terms of e. When the selfreciprocal orthogonal set i. the The components gyp'.. Since upper and lower indices no longer are needed. When no basis is indicated.'P32)1 + ('P31 . c° The first scalar and vector invariant of P are readily computed: (3) (4) 'P1 = 911 + V22 + 'P33. cpti' are called mixed. components can be written gyp. we must indicate the order of the subscripts as shown in the preceding notation.
12 . where 'ij denotes the cofactor t of 9i j in the determinant (6) .13 (7) 4)21 2 . (70.22 . ('P211 + 'P223 + 'P23k) x (cP311 + <P32i + 'P33k) = As to 4)2i the terms with antecedent i = j X k have as consequents. hence. Making use of ati the wellknown relations in determinant theory.168 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 77 Then.33 X31 (8) 'P2 = (D11 + 11 X22 + X33. namely the determinant of matrix (): 'P11 'P12 'P13 'P23 'P33 (6) <P3= 'P21 'P31 'P22 'P32 Thus is singular when the determinant of its matrix vanishes.XI to zero. with 4) in nonion form.32 X23 . since [ijk] = 1. 'Pi1'Pj1 + <Pi2'Pj2 + 'P1i'P1j + <P2i(P2j + we may verify that (10) 4' or 4)1 4) give the idemfactor: 1 0 1 0 I= 0 0 0 1 0 The characteristic equation of 4) is obtained by equating the third scalar of 4' . it t The cofactor of vii in the determinant I pif I is defined as the coefficient of Pii in the expansion of the determinant. and (% is the transpose of (7). (P Moreover. it equals the minor obtained by striking out the ith row and jth column with the sign (1)'+i affixed. . (11i + (p1) + (D13k. since (D1 = 4)a/cp3 'P21 4031 (9) 1 = ('P 12 'P13 P22 032 033 '23 where (P''j = (I)ij/(p3 is the reduced cofactor of 'ij. hence .5). <P3 is the box product of three consequents.11 .
3 = 1. R2. IP33 . P1 are the roots of the quadratic equation b 4) b +2Pb 4) . we have 0.IPiisv2z < 1. or hyperbola.C +P2c (D c = 0.20. Math. Matric Algebra. or >1. 2) P2P3°1 = . 383. . We thus have proved Pascal's Theorem: $ The opposite sides of a hexagon (R1R'1R2RZR3R3) inscribed in a conic meet in three collinear points (Si.§ 78 MATRIC ALGEBRA (P11 .1r P1P20'3 = . parabola. S3) 78. hence S1.X 169 becomes 'P12 'P13 (11) f(X) = 'P21 (P31 'P22 . Monthly. let us consider the formation of a certain dyad of C. Ri.X <P32 'P23 = 0. R3. and r = xi + yj + k. R3.1r P3P1Q2 = . 02. CA. As to the product C = A B. Let this conic cut the sides BC. according as V12 . Am. 03. then (i) r$ r = Pllx2 + 2co12xy + P22y2 + 2w13x + 2P23Y + V33 = 0 represents a conic sectionan ellipse.83 are collinear.1 On multiplying these equations together and making use of (ii). p. Then by the Theorem of Menelaus (§ 7. ex. respectively. R'R2 meet BC.alb.2r The general result is therefore Cij = 2.airbrj . P2r P2i Par P3'. say c12ij. AB in the points S1. R2. 52. r $ This proof is due to Wedderburn. and let the corresponding division ratios be Plr p l. S2. The sum of two dyadics A + B in nonion form obviously is obtained by adding corresponding elements of their matrices. S2. 1945. This evidently results from the product of terms in A with antecedent i and terms in B with consequent j: thus C12 = a11b12 + a12b22 + a13b32 = 2. AB of a triangle ABC in the points R1. we have (ii) P1P1P2P2P3P3 = 1 Now let R2'R3i R3R1. CA. vol.10.X Example. S3 which divide the respective sides in the ratios al. = 1.If we put r = (b + Pc)/(1 + p) in (i) we find that P1. hence and c'4) 'c a'4 a b follow in the same way. S2. On multiplying these equations. If the dyadic 4) in (1) is symmetric.
With this proviso. vi = u1a1i + u2a2i + u3a3i. whose element in the ith row and jth column is (1) P cjj = E airbrj." The foregoing rules for the sum and product of dyadics in nonion form are precisely the classic definitions for the sum and product of square matrices. This extension enables us to interpret scalar products of dyadics and vectors in terms of matric algebra. w = A u. The sum A + B of two m X n matrices is them X n matrix obtained by adding their corresponding elements. namely the dyad. v1u1 (5) v1u2 v2u2 v1u3 v2u3 V3u3 Vu = v2u1 v3u1 v3u2 . r=1 Note that only similar matrices can be added. whereas in a product the second matrix must have the same number of rows as the first has columns. The product of an m X p matrix A and a p X n matrix B is the m X n matrix C = AB. the scalar product: (4) u v = u1v1 + u2V2 + u3v3 But the matric product vu of a column vector into a row vector is a 3 X 3 matrix. Since a dyadic A in nonion form is a 3 X 3 matrix. a column vector in A u. These definitions may be extended to rectangular matrices with m rows and n columns (m X n matrices). 1.170 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 78 the element in the ith row and jth column of A B is the sum of the products of the elements in the ith row of A by the corresponding elements in the jth column of Bthe "rowcolumn rule. 2. u must be a row vector in u A. wi = ai1u1 + ai2u2 + ai3u3 The matric product of a row vector u into a column vector v is a 1 X 1 matrix consisting of a single element. the rules of matric algebra give values of vector components in full agreement with vector algebra: (2) (3) v = u A. We regard a vector u with rectangular components ui either as 1 X 3 matrix (row vector) or a 3 X 1 matrix (column vector).
d(F dt d dt ds dt dr dt .ab At Ab Aa Aa = a+b+Ab. is given in the nonion form (77. The proofs follow readily from (1). Note that the derivative of <03. since (a + Aa) (b + Ab) .0. let a and b become a + Aa.). is in general not commutative. are computed just as in the calculus when the order of the factors is preserved. Matric multiplication.r. The derivative of the dyadic (D = 2. 79. dr dt dt. b + Ab when t becomes t + At. If 4. which conform to the distributive law. This formula suggests the usual product rule with the order of the factors preserved. then.§ 79 DIFFERENTIATION OF DYADICS 171 in nonion form. At At At we have. fi x r. d (3) (4) d(F r+(D For example.aibi is evidently the sum of the derivatives of its dyads.r. If a dyadic (F is a function of a scalar variable t. Differentiation of Dyadics. we define d(= dt it o lim (F(t + At) At (F(t) For a single dyad ab. although associative and distributive with respect to addition. the determinant of the matrix ('i.1)) d( (2) 'P12 'P22 dt 'P32 where the primes denote derivatives with respect to t. on passing to the limit At . s (. is not the determinant of the matrix The derivatives of products such as . (1)  d (ab) =a db dt da + dt b.
r 4) = 2. The equality of two tively as tensors of valence 0. triads may be chosen from the set ei or e' giving 23 types. 1. bi are consequents. if [ala2a3] f(r) _ 4 r. Triadics.' for every vector s. and. for any vector s. For a triadic 4). say 4) = 'Y. triadics. A triad abc consists of three vectors written in a definite order.3). and.1. A triadic is defined as a sum of triads. depends upon the equality of two tensors of valence n . we write . A linear vector function f(r) is characterized by the properties. tensors of valence n. from the defini tion of equality for dyadics (61. I are equal when either (1) or (2) holds good. vectors. f(a + b) = f(a) + f(b). r for every vector r. 3. f(Xa) = Xf(a).aibi is the sum of dyads aibi. Similarly. giving 33 components. thus 4) r = Eaibici r.r aibici.ci. We may regard a triadic as an operator which converts vectors r into dyadics. Thus from either (1) or (2) we may conclude that 4) = T. each index on the base vectors may be chosen in three ways. (D Then. Using a given basis ei and its reciprocal ei to form basic dyads.= T. If 4) and' are two triadics. for a given type. s (2) r=s 4. 3). Any linear vector function may be expressed as 4 r (or r 0 and f (ai) = bi (i = 1. The conjugate of 4) is 4 = 2. where 4) = blal + b2a2 + b3a3. as required by equations (1) or (2). . dyadics. 81. A dyadic 4) = X. 2. for each vector in the basic.172 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS § 81 80. Conversely. we have seen in § 76 that the 32 = 9 components of a dyadic are of 22 = 4 types. 2.biai. collecWe shall speak of scalars. from (2) we may deduce (1). the 33 = 27 components are of 23 = 8 types. s 4) = s . Eaib. Two tetradics 4). A tetradic has 34 = 81 components of 24 = 16 types. we define a tetradic as the sum of tetrads Maibicidi. r. Summary: Dyadic Algebra. and. for. the vectors ai are antecedents. when (1) 4) r = 4.
(I)1 i (reciprocal) : 4) xv: V x (D: c Taibixv = 4'1 4 = I. My x aibi. Planar and linear dyadics are called singular. (+'1')r= r = I (idemfactor) : (I' r). (HamiltonCayley Equation).). only complete dyadics have reciprocals.81 SUMMARY: DYADIC ALGEBRA 173 Basic definitions (r an arbitrary vector) : NP : 4) (D r0. 4PO 4) is complete if 'P3 0 0. = *' 4)" ((D . I x(uxv) = vu uv. (Da = (Da 1431 . 4)2 0 0. I r = r. *= (b x c) x (m x n) + cycl (P1 = (D2. (Ixv)c = Ixv. 4) 0 0. (P3 = [abc][lmn]. (D is linear if '1)2 = 0. In this form. Every dyadic may be reduced to the sum of three dyads. = bxcmxn+cxanxl+axblxm = = axl+bxm+cxn.F)1 = j1 4)1. 4) =al+bm+cn. 4) is planar if <P3 = 0. a planar dyadic may be reduced to two dyads. . Scalar: 'P2 = `I'1 = (b x c) (m x n) + cycl. if 4) = Eaibi. a linear dyadic may be reduced to one dyad. the principal invariants of 4) are: Dyadic: Vector: 4. Ixv = vxl. in which either antecedents or consequents may be an arbitrary noncoplanar set. (4. Fundamental identities : p).'P24) + tP1 (D2  `I' = (P3I 4)3 = 0 (the adjoint 4)a = (h.
changes lines into lines and planes into planes. A symmetric 4) always may be reduced to the form. If 4> has the characteristic numbers X1. Prove that abxc +bcxa +caxb = [abc)I. the point transformation.4> v .v 4> u =4.2'vl'P3. 2 = 'P2 . 02. '3 = 'P3 [Use Prob. PROBLEMS 1. Any dyadic 4) can be reduced to the normal form. If 4> has the characteristic numbers X1. X2. Prove that the scalar invariants of 4' = 4>2 are 01 = 'c1 . uxv. i. j'. X1X2 corresponding to the directions r2 x r3i r3 x r1. antisymmetric if 4). `1) = A1u + A2JJ + X3kk. X3X1. it is then a rotation if 03 = 1.2). (70. r1 x r2. 503 . 4.174 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS 4) is symmetric if 4).] 5.4). k and i'. 0. and alters all volumes in the ratio 'P3/1. X2. r3. the latter is . in which a.. a rotation followed by a reflection if p3 = 1.2'P2. = . (P = ai'i + $j'j + yk'k. r' = 4) r. When . It preserves lengths when and only when 41 = 4. U. + = 4 and h = cir >k2 = v2. Every dyadic 4) can be expressed uniquely as the sum of a symmetric and antisymmetric dyadic. 03 corresponding to the salve invariant directions. if Al rl 1 r2. and. k' are two dextral sets of orthogonal unit vectors. [Cf. If 4) is symmetric its multipliers Ai are all real. = 4. prove that 4)" (n an integer) has the characteristic numbers X'. j. the multipliers Ai need not be distinct. For any dyadic 4> show that 3.4). 3 and (71. X3 and the corresponding invariant directions r1i r2. 2.X11) r1 = 0. The multipliers of 4) satisfy the cubic.3 = v3 6. 4. A2i The invariant direction rl makes (4) . preserves parallelism.] . = 4).. y all have the same sign.. r3.2I x The vector r1 is an invariant direction of . . 1\3 for the directions r1r r2.. If 4.with multiplier Al if 4) r1 = A1r1. prove that *2 = 4>2.is complete.<02X + P1A2  A3 = 0 (characteristic equation). prove that 4>2 has the characteristic numbers X2X3.
axe + $y2 + yz2 = 1. namely. 4' = 1(4) +4. according as a. 4)5 = (P. + ' +. Given the invariants c2.'F r = 1. iants for (a) k4). +. and 4 4) are the 13.. . y include no. v3 of 4).+. for. 4'3. +. where 4. j3. we have This represents an ellipsoid. 14.(I . 'Pl. 1 for the dyadic 3 2 4 3 = 2 0 2 1 9.4+' 11 413 = V3 4 1 11.PROBLEMS 17 5 7. one. Any central quadric surface with its center at the origin has an equation of the form. 4 ) :1 (c) If 4) is given in the nonion form (77.1). 'P11 + V12 +'P13 +'P2I + P22 + V23 + 'P21 +'P32 +P2 Hence 4. Ifs 1=1 a. is a symmetric dyadic. + ' 4) ' +. Compute (P2. = 0 when and only when 4):4' = 0. Prove that the first three scalar invariants of 4 same. if 4) is reduced to the standard form (72.b.')2 = `1'2 *212.ee. 42 = V2 . 10.ee).c1)(b`d. has the scalar invariants h = c1. D4 = I . Show that the symmetric part of (P. and the six scalar invariants of (69. 1I j_1 Prove that (a) (b) ++4': (uv) :4' = u 4) v. Prove that ('t . 8.). (c) 41. V2. 4'3 = 4). namely. or an hyperboloid of two sheets.d1.4).13). 4' J=1 c. If D = I x e and e is a unit vector. an hyperboloid of one sheet. (1) r.). find the corresponding invar (b) P x u. + ' p2 . we define the doubledot product 'F:4' as the scalar m n E(a`. or two negative constants. . m n. prove that 4)2 = . .
the position vectors u.C)w2w3 = M1. w) on the ellipsoid r 4) r = 1. Prove that: (a) If the point (1. (1.] (b) If the polar plane of (1.(B . (1. the polar plane of (1. the equation (1) associates with every point (1. M2. its polar plane. p) the plane p. 0). 1). 4) w form reciprocal sets. v. its polar plane (4' p. deduce Euler's Equations of Motion: Awl . from (56. 15. In Problem 19 show that d7'/dt = M w (the energy equation).176 LINEAR VECTOR FUNCTIONS (4' If p 5*1 0. W passes through 0 and M = 0. w and 4' . Show that: (a) The vectors u. u). the sum u u + v. w2i w3]. (b) 4'1 = uu + vv + ww. M3] referred to these axes. 2). Show. (a) H is a constant vector. (A . If the angular velocity of the body at any instant is w. (b) T is a constant scalar. (c) For any conjugate set u. Then if w = [WI. 16. p) lies on the quadric surface. The diametral plane of any point (1. If three points (1. [Find the points where the line r = p + Xe cuts the quadric when e 4' p = 0. w. Let K = Aii + Bjj + Ckk (72. of the ellipsoid r (D r = 1. v. the equation of motion is dH/dt = M. that dH dt =K dw dt +wxK w. Prove in turn that . q) passes through (1. p) passes through (1. 18.u. p.v + w.(C . 4) v. suppose that the only forces acting on the body are its weight W and the reaction R at the support 0. satisfy the equations. w are said to form a conjugate set. ex. p). M = [Ml. Bm2 .w are constant. p) is (4). show that its moment of momentum H (defined as f r x v dm) and kinetic energy T (defined as if v v dm) are given by 19. 1) is tangent to the quadric at (1. U. v).A )w3w1 = M2. 21.w and the product u x v. q). Show that the diametral plane of (1. Verify by direct computation that the dyadic 4' in Problem 8 satisfies its HamiltonCayley Equation. If the forces acting on the body of Problem 18 have the moment sum M about 0.B)w1w2 = M3 20. 17.3). then if the center of mass is at 0. v.10) when referred to the principal axes of inertia (fixed in the body). A rigid body with one point 0 fixed has the inertia dyadic K relative to 0 (§ 72. In Problem 18. p). p) on the quadric surface (1) is the locus of the midpoints of all chords parallel to p.
= ke *. Prove that (a) The central quadrics r T r = 1 and r O r = 1 are confocal when and only when I' .01 = kI. 2.1132). 123 = j K K. The vectors of a dyadic 'F are fixed in a rigid body having the instantaneous angular velocity w. (c) The body moves so that its energy ellipsoid rolls without slipping on the invariable plane (Poinsot's Theorem). 23. (b) Two confocal central quadrics of different species intersect at right angles. defines a oneparameter family of confocal quadric surfaces r % r = 1. relative to a "fixed" frame. in. If I1. the locus of P in space is the invariable plane w H = 2T. Hence find the moments and products of inertia with respect to fixed rectangular axes x. show that dIl/dt = 2(I12w3 . If X is arbitrary parameter < a2 but b2 or c2. hyperboloids of one sheet if c2 < \ < b2.r*r*) + KG. [If K is the inertia dyadic of the body relative to 0. . z and 123. :uul the locus of P in the body is the energy ellipsoid w K w = 27'.1122. C. See § 72. Hence compare moments and products of inertia for parallel axes at 0 and G. . [O . xy. (d) The energy ellipsoid is always tangent to the invariable plane at P. w3] referred to fixed rectangular axes through O. W2.12)wl + 113W3 . These are ellipsoids if X < c2. show that the inertia dyadic at G is KG =AI+(CA)ee. x211 + b2 J1 c2kk { (a > b > c).4. the dyadic.. y. A rigid body revolving about its fixed point 0 has the angular velocity w = [wl. y. dI23/dt = (13 . zx. [See Brand's Vectorial Mechanics. . hyperbolas of two sheets if b2 < X < a2. I3 are the moments of inertia about the fixed axes x. d'F/dt=ca x4) 4) xw. The axis of a homogeneous solid of revolution has the direction of the unit vector e. § 219. z through G if e = [1. relative to this frame. n].] .] 22. Il = i K i. k.. Show that. 112 are the products of inertia for yz. If G is the mass center of a rigid body of mass in and r* = OG. I31.PROBLEMS 17 7 (C) If w = OP. 25.. If its principal moments of inertia at the mass center G are A. show that the inertia dyadic at 0 is Ko = m(r* r* I .] 24. A. 26. ex. etc. . 12.
as r approaches r1 in any manner. e =icosa+jcos/3+kcosy. and we shall on occasion refer to P as the "point r. A scalar point function f (r) is said to be continuous at a point P1 if to each positive number e. limf(r) = f(r1). in the direction e. The rectangular coordinates of any point P on the ray r = r1 }.o as the directional derivative of f (r) at P.f(r1) s s . y = y1 }.f(r1) <e when jr . The points P of a certain region may be specified by giving their position vectors r = OP. Gradient of a Scalar. or dyadic which is uniquely defined at every point P of a certain region is called a point function in this region and will be denoted by f (r).s cos y. . For example. vector.CHAPTER V DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS 82.se (s > 0) are x = x1 + s cos a. then. where s denotes the distance P1P. and f (r) is a function of s.r1 l <6. We now define (1) ds of = lim f (r. the temperature and velocity of a fluid at the points of a threedimensional region are scalar and vector point functions respectively. Along this ray r = r1 + se. + se) ." A scalar. there corresponds a positive number S such that If(r) .s cos 178 z = z1 {. If this limit exists on all rays issuing from P1i f (r) is said to be diferentiable at P1. From a point P1 draw a ray in the direction of the unit vector. arbitrarily small.
The directional derivative of a scalar function at a point P is the component of its gradient at P in the given direction. the vector of replaces the infinity of scalars df/ds. z). and df/ds is still given by (2) . (6) of = el df ds1 + e2 df + e3 ds:2 df ds3 . we have. from (24. (2) df ds . since ei Of = df/dsi are the covariant components of Vf.k = cosy. f(r) is a func tion of the are s = P1P along the curve. dy/ds = cos a. thus. (5) shows that the gradient Vf has the same property. since ax cos a + cos i3 + of az cos y. dr/ds = e (44.. For. and hence dx/ds = cos a._ .82 GRADIENT OF A SCALAR 179 If f(r) is given as a function f(x. for. . e i = cos a. does not depend upon any specific choice of coordinates. A \1 ax+iaf +kaz/ y 19 The vector in parenthesis is called the gradient of f (r) and is written grad f or (4) Vf 49 ax+jay+kc3z df Vf is a vector point function. y. as defined by (1).ax ds af of dx of dy of dz ay ds of ay az ds = or. at P1. we determine Vf by giving the directional derivatives df /dsi in three noncoplanar directions e1.1). e . dz/ds = cos y. In fact. In effect.2). Since df/ds.+ . = (3) e e j = cos a.. when (3) is written as (5) ds the direction enters only through the factor e. The gradient Vf at P effects a synthesis of all the directional derivatives of f at P. When P varies along a curve tangent to e at P1.F .
and (8) Vr=R. \ Vf = Vu Vu Of au +Vvaf +Vwaf1 av aw As this equation holds for every e. y. the normal derivative dr/dn = 1. aw When f = f (u. If n is a unit vector normal to the level surface and directed towards increasing values of f. Vz = k. z.180 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 82 We proceed to specify the length and direction of Vf independently of the coordinate system. and its magnitude is the value of df. and n = R. Writing this normal derivative df/dn. if f = r. Hence Vf has the direction of n. (9) Vx=i. (10) of Ou + Vv af av + Vw Of . we have df of du of dv of dw aw ds ds au ds av ds or. Vf is given by (4). In any direction e tangent to the level surface at P./ds in this direction. hence Vf is normal to the level surface at P. y. w) of variables which themselves are functions of x. df/ds = e . z) of rectangular coordinates. In particular. n Vf > 0. Vf = Vu of + Vv . in view of (5). . the unit radial vector. the distance OP from the origin. av au Of Vf = Du Of au . Vy = j. the level surfaces are spheres about 0 as center. v. If f is a function f(u. v) or f = f (u). The points for which f has a constant value lie on a level surface of f.Vf = 0. we have (7) For example. When f is a function f (x.
ay ax At any point P.r1 I< S. Vf = 0 implies of/ax = of/ay = of/az = 0. and f is constant. r2) of bipolar coordinates. Vf is normal to the level curve f(x. 0) of plane polar coordinates. .§ 83 C1t.ADIENT OF A VECTOR 181 respectively. V(uv) = v Vu + it Vv. Vu' = nu"1 Vu. If f(r) is given by its rectangular components. for Vr = R and V0 = P/r (from (44. for example. If moreover Vf is continuous in R. R2 are unit radial vectors from 01.R2) = 0 83. f3 are continuous there. The families of curves u = c. the ellipses rl + r2 = c and hyperbolas r. V log u = . For example.5) dB/ds = 1/r in the direction perpendicular to R). If f (r) is differentiable in a region R. we say that f (r) is continuously differentiable in R. It is said to be continuous at a point P1 if to each e > 0 there corresponds a S > 0 such that I f (r) . Let f(r) denote a vector point function in a certain region. . where R1. Vf = 0. y) = c through P. Example. The gradient of a point function f(x.f(r1) I < e when Ir . v = c cut at right angles when Cu Cv = 0. For a function f(rl. For a function f(r. f2. Cf of = or R of +00r' in the notation of § 44. Gradient of a Vector. Gradients in a Plane. Vf =OrlR1+_R2. f(r) is continuous at P1 when the three scalar point functions fi. Vf is defined at all points of R. conversely. 02 directed to the point in question.Vu.r2 = c cut orthogonally since (R1 + R2) (R1 . It 1 When f is constant. f(r) = f1i + f2j + f3k. y) in the xyplane is vf=afi+Of j.
f(r) is said to be differentiable at Pl.182 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 83 Let P1P be a ray drawn from P1 in the direction of the unit vector. as defined by (1). We now define df . On replacing the cosines by e i. (2) df ds of dx of dy of dz axds+ayds+azds of =df (3) cosa + of ay cosa+ of of cosy. In effect. e = icosa+jcos$+kcosy. e j. we have. ds = e1+ja +kaz y of of of . If this limit exists on all rays issuing from P1.= lim ds f(rl + se) . Evidently f (r) is differentiable if its rectangular components f. the dyadic Vf replaces the infinity of vectors df/ds. Since df/ds. (5) shows that Vf has the same property. . The dyadic in parenthesis is called the gradient of f(r) and is written grad f or (4) of Vf = of j . when (3) is written (5) df the direction enters only through the prefactor e.+k i+ ax ay az Vf is a dyadic point function. a formula entirely analogous to (82. thus. does not depend upon any specific choice of coordinates. The gradient Vf at P effects a synthesis of all the directional derivatives of f at P. If f(r) is given as a function f(x.f(r1) s s.3). just as in § 82.o as the directional derivative of f (r) at P1 in the direction e. e k. y. Along the ray r = r1 + so (s > 0) and f(r) is a function of s. z) of rectangular coordinates. are differentiable.
z).§ 84 DIVERGENCE AND ROTATION In fact Vf is determined by giving the directional derivatives df/dsi in three noncoplanar directions ei: df (6) + e2 df + e3 df of _ e' ds1 ds2 ds3 For. In terms of rectangular coordinates. More generally. for f(u. (2) V f = divf xf = rotf of = i ax + j  of of .+j ay +k of ax az . the right member becomes (e'ei + e2e2 + e3e3) Vf = I I. Vf = Vf. f=ifl+jf2+kf3. Divergence and Rotation. Vf is given by (4). and. ax ay az If f is resolved into rectangular components. ay az 3) of of of = ix+ jx+kx__. (7) of of of Vf = Vu+Vv+Vw au av aw 84. if we put df/dsi = ei Vf. When f is function of rectangular coordinates f (x. or curl f. from the definition of dyadic equality. w) we have df ds of du au ds C of dv of dw aw d s av ds of au + VV of av of aw for any e. rot f. v. . we therefore have the defining equations: (1) of of Vf=gradf=i . The first scalar invariant of the gradient Vf of a vector f is called the divergence of f and is written The vector invariant of Vf is called the rotation or curl of f and is written V x f. y.
div r = 3. When f = the gradient of a scalar. (9 (P f2=a y . rot r = 0. hence (9) Vr = I. (8) a a a V =axi+j+k.184 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 84 we obtain from (1) its gradient of in nonion form with the matrix: (4) afl/ax af2/ax af3/ax of = afl/ay af2/ay af31ay 8fl/az af2/az af3/az The first scalar and vector invariants of of now become (5) (6) v axl+ a19h f= Gay f3 + af2 az . ay az with the vector f = if. For the position vector r = xi + yj + zk. fl=ax. if we regard V . +k ax ay az the idemfactor.f and V x f as products of the vector operator del (or nabla).ay) / (az (ax afl af3 af2 afl az The last expression is easily remembered when written in determinant form: j k (7) Vxf = a ax fl a ay f2 a az f3 These expressions for divergence and rotation may be written down at once. f3=az a4' . + jf2 + kf3. vxf=i .fj ax }k . we have Or yr = i+ j Or Or= ii+ jj +kk.
O29. Proof of (14) : From (6). + a92 + lax ax ay a931 az J . and (14) depend upon changing the order of differentiations in mixed second derivatives. this is always valid when the derivatives in question are continuous.v291 I + .V2g. (14) Vx(Vxg) _ V(V. . g) . the correct result. = i j a tag.. . if we regard V as an actual vector and expand V x (V x g). g) . we obtain V(V g) (V V)g.§ 84 DIVERGENCE AND ROTATION 185 Using these components. the rotation of a vector g. but keep the V's to the left of g...V291 +. The proofs of (11). (5) and (6) gives a2 ( 10 ) v v'P . =i a ax (O..g) . (P a2V a2. The differential operator V V or div grad is called the Laplacian and often is written (12) v2 __ a2 a2 a2 ax2 + ay2 +az2 a93 When f = V x g. r a292  x291  a291 a293 ay ax aye az2 + az ax Jt + . C193 A 092 _a91 f2 a92 C191 ay az az ax ' f3 ax ay In this case (5) and (6) give (13) 0.p ax2 + ay 2 + az2 (11) V X VV = 0. (13). . Note that. = V(V .
rot (f x g) = g Of . (2) (3) div (hf) = (VX) f + X div f.i g +.(i g+(i axg f f. Caf We give the proof of (6) : rot(fxg) =1x ag/ axxg+ fxax +. div rot g = 0.. . Differentiation Formulas. . (84. rot (Xf) = (VX) x f + X rot f. the rotation of the velocity of the particles of a rigid body at any instant is equal to twice its instantaneous angular velocity. Hence.w x OP = vo + w x r.. Vg. Example.4): vP = vo }. Starting from the defining equations (84.(Vg) x f. rot rot g = grad div g .V2g. from (3).186 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 85 The foregoing differential relations of the second order also may be written (10) (11) (13) (14) div grad p = V2<p.f rot g. If X is a scalar point function: (1) V(Xf) = (OX)f + XOf. 85. rot grad cp = 0.w =2w.(div f)g + (div g)f .2).g div f.3).1). we now can deduce some useful identities.. \ ax! \ ax = g . (84. rotvp = rot(wxr) = ix(wxi) + =3w.f Vg + f div g . For the vector point function f x g: (4) (5) (6) V (f x g) = (of) x g . div (f x g) = g rot f . =g iax. The velocity distribution in a rigid body is given by (54.Vf .f .
From (14). the derivative of f(r) at Pl in the direction of the unit vector e is defined by (1) .6).4) =4). = Vf + I x rot f.§ 86 GRADIENT OF A TENSOR 187 For the scalar point function f g: (7) 0(f . D.4). if 4) is a constant symmetric dyadic. a unit normal to the quadric at P.= lim ds df f(rl + se) . From (72. . we also can write (7) as (10) If '1 is a constant dyadic. A symmetric dyadic I transforms any vector r = OP into a vector r' = 4) r normal to the real central quadric surface r 4) r = f1 * at the point P.g) _ (of) g+ (7g) . (11) v(r rot (r 1)) =I. = (8) (9) (of). r. Making use of (9). (Vf) . (12) (13) div (r D) = cpl. y have the same sign). If f(r) is a tensor point function of 1/I r' = valence v (cf. r' has the direction of n. Gradient of a Tensor.a = a . we see that ax2+(3y2+yz2 = f1 represents a central quadric (an ellipsoid if a. hence r'n= 1/p. 4) _+. 86. Finally. § 80). f +Ix hence From (68. Proof. (14) From this result we can prove the THEOREM. and r' = 1/p where p is the distance from 0 to the tangent plane to the quadric at P.Vf + a x rot f.f(rl) s s o * The sign is chosen so that the quadric is real.
and we employ the sumnmation convention: a repeated index (as r) denotes summation over the index range 1. When f(r) is a vector. the dots and crosses are inserted between the first and second vectors to the leftwe dot and cross in the first position. if f(r) is any tensor of valence v > 0. At any point. When referred to a constant basis..i. of is completely determined when df/dsi is given for three noncoplanar directions ei: (4) df of = e1 . we obtain from the dyadic of the invariants div f and rot f by putting dots and crosses. f(r) is differentiable when all its scalar components are differentiable. (5) of of =i . (2) (3) ds = e vf..1 and v. j. x2. z) of rectangular coordinates. respectively. df ds df of dx Ox of dy of dz ds+ay ds+azds Since dx/ds = e . just as in § 83. 2. of of of of Vf=i+j+k=i. 3.188 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 86 If this limit exists for all rays drawn from P1. If f(r) is given as a function f(x. Thus.. between the vectors of each term. the right member becomes I of = Vf. if we put df/dsi = ej Vf. if f is dyadic.+k ay ax of az of axr (6 ) Vx f = ix of + j x of ax ay + k x of _ Oz it % Of .t ay ax az axr Here Vf. respectively.+ e3 df ds1 df ds2 dsi ' for. i2. t Here i. the gradient of f (grad f) is tensor point function of valence v + 1. . we obtain from of the further invariants. axr of valence v . z are written il. xl. In forming these invariants from Vf.+ e2 . of is independent of the choice of coordinates. See § 145. x. of effects a synthesis of all the directional derivatives (valence v) of the tensor f. i3. etc. y. the triadic of replaces the infinity of dyadics df/ds. we have. f(r) is said to be differentiable at P1.+j . x3. y. Similarly. k.
a triadic. For any tensor f(r) with continuous second derivatives we have identities which are generalizations of (10). D. the Kronecker delta (23.D. a dyadic. (5) and (6): V Vf = i. V X Vf = 0.86 GRADIENT OF A TENSOR 1S9 For example consider the dyadic f(r) = fiiii + fi2ij + .Dif3t)i2it + (Dlf2t . V x Vf = it x D. (11) and. Again.f = V(V f) .f = Drfsti. (a4)) = (VX) 4).(isDsf) = i. x (is x DrDsf) = is i. all nonzero terms in V x of and V (V x f) cancel in pairs. .D.(isDsf) = i. here i.D2f3t)i3it. a vector.. Since i.D.f = D. (13). denotes a/8x Vf = i. is DrDsf = DrDrf = V2f. (14) of § 84: (10) V Vf = V2f. Vxf = i.2) . is = 6. Df) . = fstisit where s and t are summation indices.>D. V(X4)) = (VX)4).f. DrDsf = DsD. x Dr(is x Dsf) = i.D3f2t)iiit + (D3fit .V2f.i. is DrDsf = i8D5(i. Then if D. is it = (Difit + D2f2t + D3f3t)it.s. x is = is x i. (11). V x (V x f) = i.. V f = i. D.isit.V2f. if f(r) is not a scalar. x is DrDsf = 0..fst i. (7) V V. a triadic.f = Dfst i. The proofs are straightforward applications of (3). if X(r) is a variable scalar and 4) a constant dyadic. a dyadic.xisit = (D2f3t . (12) Vx x f) _ V(V f) . x is DrDsf = 0. (8) (9) Ox (A4)) = (VX) x 4). a vector. DrDsf . V (V x f) = it Dr(ls x Dsf) = i.
i j k (2) Vu x Vv = au/ax au/ay au. w) = 0. hence Vv is normal to the curves u = c. v) = it . au av of of av Vu. y. z). Vv is parallel to Vu. for. y) = au/ax au/ay I av/a. v) must contain v. Proof. y. If u and v are not constant. y) satisfy identically a functional relation f(u. z). from f(u. v(x. thus. when u is given./ds = 0. we have Vu+Vv = 0. f (u. v) = 0. y. w(x. v(x. z) au/ax au/ay au/az = av/ax Ow/ax av/ay av/az aw/ay aw/az = Vu x Vv Vw = 0. THEOREM 1. Vu = 0. Conversely. z). A necessary and sufficient condition that two continuously differentiable functions u(x. v. and again VuxVV=0. suppose that Vu x Vv = 0. v is determined. a level curve it = a is also a level curve v = b. v. z) sat isfy identically a functional relation f (u. Along these curves. If it is constant. is that their Jacobian vanish: (3) a( u. z) satisfy identically a functional relation f (u. of/ft is not identically zero. and v is constant. y. av/ay of I = 0 or Vu x Vv = 0.190 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 87 87. A necessary and sufficient condition that two continuously differentiable functions u(x.c. THEOREM 3. and Vu x Vv = 0. Instead of av/ay av/az The proof is essentially the same as in theorem 1. The condition is necessary . w) a(x. Vv = 0. A necessary and sufficient condition that three continuously differentiable functions u(x. level curves of u and v. v) a(x. if u = c. v) = 0 is that their Jacobian vanish: (1) a(u. If u is not constant. dv. we may take f (u. and v is a function of it. In other words. v) = 0 is that THEOREM 2. v(x. Functional Dependence. y./az av/ax = a. y. we now have level surfaces. y). This relation is satisfied if either u or v is constant. .
zo) the equations (1) have a unique inverse (3) x = x(u. New York. from f (u. of/aw is not identically zero. v. since Vu. w) = 0. an interchange of v and w (for example) would make it positive. z = z(u. w = w(x. to be explicit. v. in other words. In this region the correspondence (x. y = y(u. and. If Vu x Vv F. y. Vu and Ov are normal to this curve. y. y. v = b. w). Curvilinear Coordinates. 434. if the Jacobian were nega tive. 1939. . Advanced Calculus. through equations (3). 88. its sign cannot change in the region. when u and v are given. 0. and again Vu x Vv Vw = 0.88 CURVILINEAR COORDINATES 191 Proof. therefore. for. w). v. each set of values it. Therefore dw/ds = 0 and w = c along the curve u = a. If Vu x Vv = 0. z). v) = 0 from theorem 2. a unique set x. Vw is also normal to the curve. p. Vw are coplanar. In a given region let (1) u = u(x. Since the Jacobian is continuous. w is determined: w is a function of u and v. yo. Vv. consider the curve of intersection of the level surfaces u = a. f(u. v = v(x. Under the foregoing hypotheses a wellknown theorem $ states that in the neighborhood of any point (x0. v. v = b. The functions. Conversely. suppose that Vu x Vv Vw = 0. w). z). w) must contain w. Sokolnikoff. f (u. w) = 0. v. v) = 0. w yields. we shall suppose that (2) This involves no loss in generality. w) effected by (1) and $ Cf. y. and. Vu x Vv = 0. are not connected by a relation f (u. v. and also Vu x Vv Vw = 0. and that these functions are also continuously differentiable. The condition is necessary for. aw au av aw Vu+ If u and v alone satisfy a relation f (u. At least in a suitably restricted region of uvw space.(u. z. we have of of of Vv+ of Vw = O. z) . z) be three continuously differentiable functions whose Jacobian Vu x Vv Vw F4.0 at all points.0. v. If this is not the case. v. y.
y. along which only one of the quantities u. z) = vo. r. These. and.9). we now conclude that: The vector triples Vu. z) = wo. (5) Vv Vw] = 7 Here [rurrw] is the Jacobian a(x. Vr = I (84. in distinction to the rectangular coordinates x. zo) When (uo. y. and. rw are tangent to the three coordinate curves meeting there. the coordinate curves along which v and w are constant. r. from (83. yo. Po is located at the point of intersection of the three coordinate surfaces. in general. vo. we may use instead the three numbers. v. Vw = ru x J r = J Vw J x Vv. w). yo. on writing ru = ar/au. Instead of specifying a point Po by the coordinates (xo. We therefore have the fundamental relation. if r is regarded as a function of u. From the theorem of § 66. yo. the coordinate curves. (6) J= Vu = rv x Jrw. for which the coordinate curves are straight lines. wo = w(xo. av ar au ar car aw. For this reason u. will intersect in three curves. y. Moreover. u(x. z. v(x. zo). from (2). y. w can vary. v. y. from the properties of reciprocal sets. v. r.. Vw and ru. y. Vv. z) = uo. rw form reciprocal sets. z)/a(u. uo = u(xo.6). v. Vr = Vu+ Vv+ Vw. etc. (4) Vur. zo). z. w(x. v. 0. Thus at any point P(u. yo. The vectors ru are tangent to the u curves. zo). . from (23. wo) are given. w) of the inverse transformation (3).192 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS 488 (3) is onetoone. (7) Vv = rJ x ru. w are called curvilinear coordinates. v0 = v(xo. If the position vector r is regarded as a function of x.7). w. But.
Vw from these formulas by use of equations (7). from (86. .+ Vwau ov a a a aw From (11). For purposes of computation.2). We thus obtain 1 J {rvxrwfu + rwxrufv + ruxrvfw} . and corresponding equations for V f and V x f. Vv. thus (9) dV = [rurvrw] du dv dw = J du dv dw. To find the gradient of a tensor f (u. r dv. (rv x rw)u + (rw x ru) v + (ru x rv) w = 0.§ 88 CURVILINEAR COORDINATES 193 The volume of the parallelepiped whose edges are ru du. Thus. w). hence (11) of = Vu fu + Vv fv + Vw fw. these also may be written (16) Of = 1 J 1 { (rv x r f) u + (rw x ru f) v + (ru x rv f)w }. rw dw is called the element of volume dV. it is usually more convenient to eliminate Vu. (17) =J Vxf= (18) J 1 [(rv x rw) X flu + [(rw x ru) x f]v + [(ru x rv) x f]w }. we obtain V f and V x f by dotting and crossing: (13) (14) Vxf = Vuxfu+ Cvxfv+ VwXfw. we first compute (10) df ds of du of dv of dw au ds + av ds + aw ds = e (Vufu + Cvfv+ Vwfw). But. df/ds = e Vf for every e. In view of the identity. v. in curvilinear coordinates the operator del becomes (12) V = Vu+ Vv .
rv.ru(rv f)w.rw(ru f) + (rv ru f) w .v. w are said to be orthogonal if the coordinate curves (along which one coordinate only can vary) cut at right angles. With this value for the brace.194 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 89 When the triple products in (18) are expanded. + f)w . Since ru.. Orthogonal Coordinates. the coordinates are orthogonal when and only when (1) We choose the notation so that (2) ru = Ua. 89. + (r. v. The set of vectors reciprocal to ru. are tangent to the coordinate curves. the brace becomes (rw r71 f). r. rv = j. b. W are all positive.] = UVW. (19) of the preceding article we obtain Vf.u rw f) . c are a dextral set of orthogonal unit vectors and U. V f and V x f in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates: .(r rw f)u.7) when ru.u . r. r. V. then [abc] = 1. Vu = .. U V W From the general formulas (11). The curvilinear coordinates u. and (3) J = [rurvrv.(ru r f) w 1. where a. Vw = (4) Vv = .rv(rw f). rw = Wc. (18) may be written compactly in determinant form: ru (19) r a rw Vxf 1 a a aw J au av This equation reduces to (84. rw are the gradients of the coordinates: b c a . rw are replaced by rx = i. rz = k. r = Vb.(rw ru f)v = rw(rv f)u . (17). + ru(rw f) .
v. 89a).§ 89 1 ORTHOGONAL COORDINATES 195 (5) Vf = U afu + 1 1 V i18 bf + 1 W cf a (6) V f =UVW (VW a f) F a (WU b f) Lou +_ Ua (7) Vb a av We 8 Vxf = 1 a UVW au aw If we put f = Vg in (6). w). x = x(u. r. r. If p. we have rp = [cos v. v = gyp. The point P(x. cylindrical . 1 (8) o2g la UVTV a a I/V\) + av \W U gv/ + aw \ UV gw/\I1 V au \ U gu W \1 1/ 1/ When the curvilinear coordinates are given by the equations. v. z = z(u. sin gyp. y. w).p are polar coordinates of Q in the xyplane. From r = ix + j y + kz. 0]. y = y(zt. 0. The element of volume (88. v. = [0. p cos gyp. we may compute the (positive) functions U. (10) They are related to rectangular coordinates by the equations: x = p cos (p. 0]. uw = z are called the cylindrical coordinates of P (Fig. Since these vectors are mutually perpendicular and [rrr=] > 0. Cylindrical Coordinates. (9) U = I ru _ xui + yuJ + zuk = 1/x2z + z2u u + yu dV = UVW du dv dw. w). 0) in the xyplane. u = p. = [ p sin rp. z = Z. z) projects into the point Q(x. V.9) is now (10) Example 1. we obtain the Laplacian V2g = V. Vg in orthogonal coordinates. y = p sin gyp. y. TV from equations of the type. 11.
= rsin0cos p. z) are its distance r = OP from the origin. rs = [r cosBcosgyp. and the dihedral angle ' between the xzplane and the plane z OP (Fig. y. From (8). for p. (11) U= rn = 1. horizontal circles centered on the zaxis. Example 2. 0]. planes through the zaxis. we have rr = [sin 8 cos p. the Laplacian is (13) g V2g = . Spherical Coordinates. Z. J = UVW = P. the angle 0 between OP and the zaxis. c.8 (Pgp) + 1 1 P aP Pa = log P. Such a function is called harmonic. for z. sin B sin gyp. cos 0]. v = b. (12) V = rw I = p. . They are related to rectangular coordinates by the equations: (14) y = r sin 0 sin gyp. hence log p satisfies Laplace's Equation V2g = 0. r. x = r sin 0 cos p. z = r cos 0. Pgv = 1. lines parallel to the zaxis. z = c are cylinders about the zaxis. The coordinate FIG. 89b).rcos©singyp. W The level surfaces p = a. and planes perpendicular to the zaxis. rsin0]. From r = ix + jy + its. The element of volume dV =Pdpdpdz. Moreover.196 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 89 coordinates form an orthogonal system which is dextral in the order P. 89a curves for p are rays perpendicular to the zaxis. The spherical coordinates of a point P(x.
J = UVIV = r2 sin 0. Vf = I. (15) (16) U=jrr1. the position vector r = OP changes by the increment Ar = PP. In passing from the point P to P. The level surfaces r = a. when f = r. Iiir. for gyp. (2) The differential of the position vector is the same as the increment The defining equation (1) therefore may be written (3) df=drVf. Total Differential. the total differential of f (r) is defined by the equation : (1) 4 > In particular. 0. spherical coordinates form an orthogonal system which is dextral in the order r. r2gr = 1. vertical circles centered at the origin. = c are spheres about 0. From (8). 89b for r are rays from the origin. horizontal circles centered on the zaxis.rsin o. for B. hence 1 /r satisfies Laplace's Equation V2g = 0. Moreover. and dr = Or. Then. V=Irol=r. and planes through the zaxis.90 TOTAL DIFFERENTIAL 197 since these vectors are mutually perpendicular and [rrror. 0 = b. we now have (17) V2g r2 sin 0 isin 0 or (r2gr) + aB (sin 0 go) + 1 sin 0 9 0`° If g = 1 /r. O. The coordinate curves Fia. . if f(r) is any differentiable tensor point function.] > 0. cones about the zaxis with vertex at 0. The element of volume dV = 72sin0drdodrp.
the three determinants of the matrix. we shall show that f may be expressed as the gradient of a scalar V(r). ay = f2(x. o where «(x.f2(xo. Conversely.f3 (xo. y. since dr Vu = du. _ dx+= ay ay xafl Ixo ax dx+. z) = f2(x. z) dx + «(y. y. v. Irrotational Vectors. z). z). y. az = f3 (x. that is. w) of curvilinear coordinates. y. z) Let (xo._ az az a« xaf3 1o f a  ay . and f is continuously differentiable in R. (1) rot grad . yo. for. y. z) = f3 (x.dx + ax az _J 49Z f2(x. from (84. On integrating app/ax = f1 with respect to x and regarding y and z as constant parameters. from (3). etc. df = fu du + f dv + fw dw. or f3 (x. If V(r) is a scalar function with continuous second derivatives.p(r). (2) aax a/ay (fl.. z) . (3) ax = f1(x. zo) be an arbitrary point of R. y.198 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS §91 If f is a function f (u. Vf = Vufu+VvfV+Vwfw. z) + a«  . so that Vv = f. and. we have x (4) P= J f1(x. a/az\ f3 f2 all vanish (84. Hence x afl a« /' af2 a« app ay . z) + . z) . let f = f1i + f2j + f3k. then.10).7). Under this condition we shall determine a scalar function .. if rot f = 0.p = 0. A vector function f (r) is said to be irrotational in a region R when rot f = 0 in R.dx + . if rot f = 0. y. its gradient VV is irrotational. y. y. or ay . y) is a function of x and y as yet undetermined. y. z). Using rectangular coordinates. (4) 91.
z) We now have one equation (7) to determine $(z). y. z. z) for «(x. z). y. (10) c = ff2(x Y y .(p is a constant. y. y. z) = f3(xo. zo may be given any values that do not make the integrands infinite.p which may be obtained from (9) by permuting 1. yo. if is a second func tion for which V4.cp) = 0. = f. zo) dx. y). 2. yo. . for example. D irect substitution shows that Vip = f. and (8). Thus (9) gives the solution of equations (3). On integrating a«/ay = f2 with respect to y. The problem has been reduced from three to two dimensions. and. yo. There are evidently five other forms for . o On collecting the results (4). 3 and making the corresponding permutation on x. (6). y. yo. z) . z Moreover. z) + d da (7) dz = f3 (xo. or y f3(xo. z) dy + f f3 (xo. z) dz. y. y. z) dy + #(z).§ 91 IRROTATIONAL VECTORS 199 Instead of three equations (3) for gp(x. xo. and (8) J f3 (xo. we have (6) a= where $(z) is a function of z to be determined. a« (5) a« ay = f2(xo. y. y0. y. yo. V(¢ .f3(xo. and 4 . az = f3(xo. z) dx + f Yo Y z f2 (xo. z). z) dy + ffs(x. z) dz + ffi(x. we have finally (9) '= ffi (x. a«fY af2 dy az vo d(3 az + dz f f v bo f2(xo. Y a af3  dy + dz Hence . with the condition aft/az = af3/ay. yo. determined uniquely except for an additive constant. we now have two equations. z) dz.
=f X2xz dx +f 2yz2 dy 0 0 . 0 Example 2. With xo = yo = zo = 0. it is customary to express an irrotational vector f as the negative of a gradient. we have. we have. from (9). 2xz dx + 2yz2 dy + (x2 + 2y2z . when f is continuously differentiable. we have (11) f = V '. When f = 2xzi + 2yz2j + (x2 + 2y2z . the differential of a scalar. Then the vector field f(r). Therefore we may state the THEOREM. . If (i) is exact. if 4. Thus. 1.200 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS §91 In mathematical physics. is said to be exact when f dr = dp. in order that f dr = 0 be exact it is necessary and sufficient that rot f . hence f = V. is exact and may be put in the form dp = 0. If f is a continuously differentiable vector. since dr is arbitrary.z. Thus the geometrical content of the condition f rot f = 0 is that the vector field f (r) is surfacenormal. If (i) is not exact.z = C. we have rot f = 0. The condition (iii) therefore implies the existence of a oneparameter family of surfaces everywhere normal to f. Thus. and conversely. we find that rot f = 0. (i) The differential equation. (ii) rotaf = 0 or VX x f + X rot f = 0. from (90. is everywhere normal to the level surfaces rp = c.1)k.3). For this reason f rot f = 0 is called the integrability condition for f dr = 0. = c. ¢ is then called the scalar potential of f. dr f = dr vv.f Zdz = x2z + y2z2 . (iii) Con versely. Hence. Its general solution is that is. x2z + y2z2 . in view of ex. We shall prove this in § 105. The preceding theorem shows that X must satisfy the equation. f = V implies rot f = 0. when f dr = 0 admits an integrating factor. f On multiplying (ii) by f . f = When f is continuously differentiable. the equation. Example 1. a scalar X which makes Xf dr = 0 exact is called an integrating factor of (i). When f dr = 0 is integrable. being parallel to Dip. f rot f = 0. ?f = V (p.0.1) dz = 0. the condition (iii) ensures the existence of an integrating factor. and. Exact Equation.
az f2 = az . so that k a/az 93 (3) f = rot g = a/ax 91 We first find a particular solution of (3) for which g3 = 0. ay (ax .5) (2) div f aft ++af3 0. Conversely.13).§ 92 SOLENOIDAL VECTORS 201 92. ay as When we perform the integration. in view of (2). y. this reduces to f3 (x.. and a(x. for. = aft az = ax ay i j c1/ay 92 We now shall determine a vector g = g1i + g2j + g3k. let f = f1i + f2j + f3k. In order that these functions satisfy the third equation of (4). y. I. .Zaf + ay/J dz . and (84. z0)  as ay = 0. Zo in these integrations x and y are regarded as constant parameters. y) is a function as yet undetermined.f f i (x. aJ2 Zp or.= f3 (x. y. from (84. Solenoidal Vectors. z) dz. y) . . rot g is solenoidal. Zafs az dz . z) dz + 49(x. f3 = z 4992 _ 1991 ax ay The first two equations of (4) are satisfied when (5) 92 = . we shall show that f may be expressed as the rotation of a vector g. If g(r) is a vector function whose components have continuous second derivatives.as = f3. then (3) is equivalent to the scalar equations: (4) fl =  4992 a91 . z). Using rectangular coordinates. y. A vector function f(r) is said to be solenoidal in a region R when div f = 0 in R. w z 91 = f f2 (x. if div f = 0. (1) div rot g = 0.
y) dz = 0 z . Hence the vector g. When div f = 0.p/8z to the components of g given in (6).z) dz =xyz 0 Zyz2.202 DIFFERENTIAL IN VARIANTS § 92 an equation which is satisfied by taking v a (X. zo) dy.p. z) dz . rot G = rot g = f.x)k. for.Zxz2 + xyz. y. where . is a particular solution of our problem. If u and v are continuously differentiable scalars.f fi (x. a z v z 92 = . the vector Vu x Vv is solenoidal. . Conversely. Example 1.yo = 0. the solenoidal vector f = rot g is said to'be derived from the vector potential g. hence the general solution of (7) is G . we find that div f = 0. whose components are (6) gi = ff2(x.y)i + y(x .3). 8. Example 2.g) = 0.z)j + z(y .p(r) is an arbitrary twicedifferentiable scalar. its rectangular components are obtained by adding c /cx. we shall show in § 104 that a continuously differentiable solenoidal vector always can be expressed in the form Vu x Vv. zo) dy. y. Therefore f = rot g. zo 93 = 0. Vu x Vv = rot (uVv). When f = x(z . y. g2 f x(z . In mathematical physics. and hence (7) rot (G . y.p/cy. the general solution of rot g = f is therefore g + Vip. ga = 0. y) = Yo f3 (x. the particular solution (6) is 91 = f Zy(x .ff3(x. If G is any other solution. But any irrotational vector may be expressed as the gradient of a scalar p (§ 91). z) dz. from (85. if we take zo . 8.g = o.
in contrast to the regular points. v are continuous and have continuous first partial derivatives. equations (1) then represent a curve. /. y(u. a requirement briefly expressed by saying that the functions are continuously differentiable. C. (3) A = yu zu B = zu Zv xu C _ I xu Yu . Even when the matrix in general is of rank two. all may vanish for certain points u. v). We exclude these cases by requiring that the matrix (2) be. the three determinants A. In order that equations (1) represent a proper surface. where at least one determinant is not zero. v) are constants: equations (1) then represent a point. v). v). . in general. v). v). (4) (5) r = xi + yj + zk = r(u. In case (i) all the elements of the Jacobian matrix. B. respectively. y = y(u.§ 93 SURFACES 203 93. z(u.(u. we must exclude the two cases: (i) the functions x. (2) vanish. dz/dt multiplied by at/au and at/av. v. at least one of its tworowed determinants. then. and the condition for a regular point may be written (6) ru x r. v). In case (ii). the rows of the matrix are dx/dt. (ii) these functions are expressible as functions of a single variable t = t(u.O. v). z = z(u. A surface is represented in parametric form by the equations: (1) x = x(u. We assume that the three functions of the surface coordinates u. of rank two. yv zv xv xv yv is not identically zero. dy/dt. and all of its tworowed determinants vanish identically. Such points are called singular. Surfaces. If we introduce the position vector to the surface.
we have (3) ds2 = ru ru du2 + 2ru r du dv + r r. v is also regular with respect to u. and ds dt = Since du = ft dt. v = v(u. Thus a point which is regular with respect to the parameters u. dr dt v = v(t). This first fundamental quadratic form usually is written (4) . v) (8) J = a(u. on multiplying (2) by dt2. Then equations (7) may be solved for u and v. the requirement J 0 0 makes ru x rv 0 a consequence of (6). yielding (9) u = u(u. i) FK 0. First Fundamental Form. v by means of the equations. v and u. dv = v dt by definition. A tangent vector along the curve (1) is given by and (2) The are s along the curve is defined as in (43. A curve on the surface r(u. we shall require that the Jacobian of this transformation. Since (lp) X _ rU ru . ds2 = E du2 + 2F du dv + Gdv2. and the correspondence between u. v)..4) : fro' t t dt. v will be one to one. v) may be obtained by setting u and v equal to functions of a single variable t: (1) u = u(t). v). a (u. v).rU  au au av) x (ru au av au r . dv2. v). 94.204 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS §94 If we introduce new parameters u.J = J ru aU av\ X ry. D. v = 17(u. (7) u = u(u.
At every regular point the vectors ru. rv are tangent to the ucurves and vcurves. the parametric curves will cut at right angles when and only when . from (20. the scalar element of area is (10) dS = I ru x rv I du dv = E du dv. G = r r. The curves v = const (ucurves) and u = const (vcurves) are called the parametric curves on the surface. (ru x rv) hence (ru x rv) _ ru rv ru x rv 12 = EG .(8) The vector ru x rv is normal to the surface.F2 is positive at every regular point. Since the vectors ru.. for (12) [rurvn] = H = VEG > 0. (9) dS = ru x rv du dv. rv dv. respectively..1). r.§ 94 FIRST FUNDAMENTAL FORM where (5) E = ru ru.. ds2i has the vector area (§ 16). F = ru ru .ru r. tangent to the parametric curves and of length dsl. Moreover. The unit normal n to the surface will be chosen as n= ruxrt E = ruxrv H then dS = n dS. and the corresponding elements of arc are (7) dsl = 1/E du. . ds2 = N/G dv. For these curves dv = 0 and du = 0. n form a dextral set. The parallelogram formed by the vectors ru du. respectively. We shall call this the vector element of area..
c denote the set reciprocal to ru. . scalar. au r Grad f =  of av t In surface geometry we shall write of for the surface gradient. b. Surface Gradients. dv/ds = v/s. or dyadic. We shall compute the derivative of f(u. v) be a differentiable function... v). which is defined at the points of the surface r = r(u. (7) ru Grad f = of . Let f(u. . and. v) with respect to the are s along a surface curve u = u(t)..n] = H. n Grad f = 0. ds (2) ds = V L ic2 + 2Ficv + Gv2... since [rur .4). b e = dv/ds. df Grad f has the characteristic properties: (6) e. from (93. written df ds We now define afu + bf as the surface gradient of f and denote it by V8f t or Grad f: (5) V8f = Grad f = afu + b f.. vector. n. we obtain the unit tangent vector e to the curve: (3) du e=r. then.Grad f = ds .206 DIFFERENTIAL INVAItIANTS § 95 95. r. v). Along this curve. H Now from (3) a e = du/ds. df (1) du fu ds dv ds + fv ds ' where du/ds = is/s. hence (1) may be (4) a _ rvxn H b _ nxru II .+rv dv ds ds Let a. c = ruxrv = n. dt  If we apply (1) to the position vector r(u. v = v(t).
If f(r) is a tensor point function defined over the surface r = r(u. by virtue of equations (6).(u. v). n. b. x f v/H. the second scalar of V8f is therefore n f. has the invariants.. (V3f)2 = axbfuxfv = Hnfuxfv. v) of the surface. (2) (3) V. the right member of (8) may be written (elel + e2e2 + nn) Grad f = I Grad f where I is the idemfactor (§ 66). Since Grad f depends only on the point. The second of V8f is the linear dyadic. we have e3 = Xn/X = n. n is e'. V8 x f = Rot f. el = el. V8f is a planar dyadic. When f (r) is a vector. If the set reciprocal to el. In view of (8). n.f = axfu +bxf.. At any point (u. y. rv. Grad f is of valence v + 1. 1 . e3 = n. 96.96 SURFACE DIVERGENCE AND ROTATION 207 If f (r) is a tensor of valence v. v). Grad f is independent of the coordinates x. then the scalar and vector invariants of oaf are called the surface divergence and surface rotation and are written (4) V8 f = Div f. z and of the surface parameters u. At any point (u. v. its surface gradient. n is reciprocal to ru. e2 = e2.. Grad f is in effect a synthesis of all the values of df/ds for surface curves through this point. * Since el x e2 = An.. df/ds is the same for all surface curves having the unit tangent vector e at this point. In particular if el and e2 = n x el are perpendicular unit vectors..* (8) Grad f = el df + e2 df dsi ds2 for. e2. e2. (1) V8f=afu+bf. v). We recall that the set a. Surface Divergence and Rotation. v) of the surface Grad f is completely determined when df/dsi is given for two directions ei in the tangent plane at (u.
and. (10) (9) hence H Rot n = 0. n nu = n nv = 0. and. To prove this. (3). (8) Rot n = 0. a = r x n/H. then = Now. on differentiation with respect to u and v. (14) Div (g x f) _ (Rot g) f . put f = n.g Rot f. x n) x nu + (n x ru) x n. (15) Div (n x f) = n Rot f. (11) (12) (13) V. we may derive various expansion formulas.g Rot f.208 DIFFERENTIAL INVAItIANTS 196 For the position vector r to the surface.. in particular. If g and f are vectors. (7) Div r = 2. Rot r = 0. (2). For the unit normal n. (Af) _ (V8A) f + XV8 f. Div(gxf) (Rot g) Proof of (14) : f . from n n = 1. b = n x ru/H in (3). Thus.. From the defining equations (1). . V3(af) = (V3X)f + XV3f. if X is a scalar.nn. H Rot n = (rz. f a tensor. we have (6) V8r = ar.u + br v = I . from ru n = r n = 0. ru nv = rv nu = n ruv. we have. V8 x (Xf) _ (V8X) x f + XV3 x f.
Here n V8f means that n is dotted into the second vector from the left in each term of V8f. if v > 0. v).) = n V.f=n2V8fnV8f. (6) and. n is reciprocal to el. ds2 do dsl here the set e'. + from (96. x f.1). e2. e2 are vectors in the tangent plane at (u.§ 97 SPATIAL AND SURFACE INVARIANTS 209 97. If f(r) is a tensor function of valence v defined over a 3dimensional region including the surface r = r(u. from (1) and (2). df (2) V df ds2 df df ds. v) of the surface may be computed from (86. n208f nV8 f. (1) df df df df Vf = e'+e2+n. e2. therefore both may be written n x Vf. If el. this process yields (n x a) fu (nxb) f = n (a x fu + b x f. v) and e3 = n. . Thus n x Vf may be computed solely from the values of f on the surface. its spatial gradient at a point (u. from (3). Spatial and Surface Invariants. at all points of the surface. (4) nx Vf = nx V j. Thus we verify at once. Since (5) nxVf = nxafu+nxbft. These invariants remain the same when computed from the corresponding spatial quantities. then. are the same over the surface.. n and df/dn denotes the derivative of f in the direction of n.l do do (3) df df df df Vxf = elx+e2x+nx= V8xf +nx. The same is true of the invariants obtained from n x Vf by dotting and crossing in the first position.= V8f +n do .4). Moreover. ds2 do dsl do From (1). (7) nVfnV. we see that the tensors of valence v + 1.
Dotting and crossing now yields (9) n Vxf II II{(rvxf)u(ruxf)v}.. r. n are reciprocal sets. { Pq) u .(ruf).. }. n V x (pq) = (n rot p)q + p n x Vq. We now express n x Vf and its invariants (6) and (7) in terms of the surface coordinates u.. + H {(rvxn)u . Since a. if these derivatives are continuous. n V x (pq) = = that is.(ruxng)v} 1 = agu + bg.. ... v.ruf 1 II {(rvf)u .fu . we have.n Div f.7). (12) II 1 (r. 1 (10) Since ru. n rot f 0. 1 (95. rv are tangent to the surface.rugv). these invariants become (6)' (7)' n rot f = n Rot f. n and ru. When f = pq. (8) nx Vf  1 (r. For future use we compute the invariant (10) when f = ng and n2 Vf g is an arbitrary tensor: nVf= H 1(rvxng)u .n div f = (Grad f) n . (grad f) n . (9) shows that: If a vector f is everywhere normal to the surface.(ru pq) 1 H { (r. b..(ruxn)v} g. With f = V3g in (9) we obtain the important identity. from (5). rv ru f = gu f = gv. from (9). a dyad.. P)u .210 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS § 97 When f is a vector. we have. (11) for then =0.. since ruv = r.(ru P) v } q + H p (rvqu .
. V f = div f.=e V. v. n=0 (96. hence. the rotation of f.§ 98 SUMMARY: DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS 211 Now Grad g = agu + bg n Grad n = (an.W. on putting f = n in (10). a tensor of valence v + 1.5). we have n Div n = Thus. its derivative at the point P and in the direction of the unit vector e is defined as df . If the vectors ei are i. Vr = Vu ru + Vv r + Vw rw = I.= lim ds f (r + se) .). Let f (r) be a tensor point function of valence v. Vf. j. V x f = rot f. thus gives a synthesis of all the directional derivatives of f at point r. (13) 1 H { (r x n)u . + 2 (95. From Vf (valence v + 1) we derive the invariants V f (valence v . namely. Vf = if. s . with f = ng.(ru x n) v } .f (r) (s > 0). Summary : Differential Invariants. the divergence of f. w) of curvilinear coordinates Vf = Vu fu + Vv fv + Vw f.9) . grad f = Vf = e' has the property.o s If df/dsi denote the directional derivatives corresponding to three noncoplanar unit vectors ei. the gradient of f. k. 63 ds . n? Vf . + jfv + kfz (fz = of/ax. df ds 1 + e2 df 2 + e3 .n V f = Grad g . 98. When r is a function r(u. . etc.1) and V x f (valence v) by dotting and crossing in the first position. When f is a vector (v = 1).(Div n) ng.
V8f = Grad f = a fu + b f. v.212 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS r'. n is reciprocal to ru.. df and the unit surface normal is defined as n = ru x The derivative of a tensor f (r) along any surface curve tangent to the unit vector e at the point (u. solenoidal if div f = 0. r = Vb. V. are mutually orthogonal. a solenoidal vector f can be expressed as the rotation of a vector (f = rot g). V is called the Laplacian. A vector f is called irrotational if rot f = 0. Vv. the fundamental quadratic form is ds2 = E due + 2F du dv + G dv2. c denote a dextral set of or thogonal unit vectors. Vf = 0. f)u + cycl. E>0. where At a regular point. . ru = Ua. Vx (Vxf) = V(V _ f) V2f. For any tensor f (r). = Wc. b. are reciprocal. Then if a. ru. § 98 The sets Vu. r. n. V Vf = V2f. ru. the coordinates u. v) is ds the set a. w are called orthogonal. v). x ru. An irrotational vector f can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar (f = Dip) . The operator V V. we have ru. Vw and ru. and J = UVW in the preceding formulas. b.. The surface gradient. V (V f) = 0.. f)u + cycl. With J = J Vf = (r x ru. J V f = (r. a/au a/av a/aw ru..) x f)u + cycl = ru r ru. J V x f = ((r x ru. For the surface r = r(u.
div (a x r) = 0. S. n?of are not altered when V is replaced by V8. ds n Grad f = 0. 2. e. When f is a vector. Grad f = df av From V3f we derive the invariants.. They may be computed solely from the values f(r) assumes on the surface. rot (a x r) = 2a. If a is a constant vector. prove that grad (a. f = Div f. the surface rotation of f. . If R = r/r is the unit radial vector. rot R = 0. by dotting and crossing in the first position. au df r. r and f. O3 f = V8 Oaxf = axfu+bxfv.PROBLEMS 213 has the properties. If a is a constant vector. Thus.. PROBLEMS 1.u df . if H= n x of = 1 H { (ru. show that f = A/r + B. Grad f = . For any scalar function f (r) of r alone prove that V2f(r) = frr + 2fr/r. Og x f = Rot f. The tensor n x of and its dot and cross invariants.f) div (a x f) = a rot f.f) v } . rot(axf) Specialize these results when f = r. If v2f (r) = 0. the surface divergence of f. 4. prove that div R = 2/r. and the invariants follow by dotting and crossing between r. r) = a. Grad f = r. prove that grad (a .
r = 91. In particular. If is a constant dyadic. = grad div f. gyp) in plane polar coordinates is harmonic.f x Vg. 0. V x (rr) _ I x r. 15.. . V x (fg) _ (rot f)g . Sp) in spherical coordinates is harmonic. prove that rot f is constant and that the dyadic Vf itself is constant. 13. For the dyad fg prove that V V. For any vector point function f prove that 6.sin0J+ a2(rf) are 1 a2f sin 0 a0 1 a0 sine 0 5.I) V x (Of). prove that div 4 .(3RR .214 DIFFERENTIAL INVARIANTS 5. Show that Laplace's Equation V2f = 0 in cylindrical and spherical coordinates is a2f 1 of 1 a2f a2f apt and + p (9p + p2 1 a22 = 0. 17. If e is a unit vector. rot (exr) xe = 0. prove that f(p'. a/ af\ r{ . V V. If Sp and ¢ are scalar point functions. 14. (rr) = 4r. _ (V rot f). 9. 0. if r is the position vector. 8. 11. V V. 10. prove that V (I x f) = rot f. prove that r 'f (r '. rot (e r)e = 0.I) = VXI. V x (XI) = VX x I. prove that V(. prove that div (e r)e = 1. If the scalar function f(p. If Vf is antisymmetric. 18. (XI) = VX. tip) is also harmonic. prove that V (Vf). rot e r = 16. . 12. prove that V(r x a) = I x a. (fg) = (div f)g + f Vg. If f is a vector point function. prove that div (Vp x v) = 0 7. gyp) is harmonic. Prove that vC T = . If X is a scalar point function. v x (I x f) = (Vf).i =0. If the scalar function f(r. 1 where R is a unit radial vector. If f is a vector point function. div (e x r) x e = 2.I div f. If a is a constant vector. + (§ 69).
rot f = (n + 2)rna . show that V2(fgh) = fgh { f + egg + hh 21. v) is always normal to the surface r = r(u. (b) f = 2xyi + (x2 + log z)j + y/z k. If f = r"r. If a is a constant vector and f = r" a x r. If a is a constant vector and f = ar". h(w) are scalar functions of a single variable. § 92).r1) x (r . V(rrl) (rr2) =2rr1r2. Find a vector g such that rot g = a x r (cf. If f. Prove that rot f = 0. w are curvilinear coordinates. V2(fgh) = gh V2f + hf V2g + fg v2h + 2fvg vh + 2gvh of + 2hvf vg. 31. If the vector f(u. prove that div f = 0. 27. v) is a vector function defined over the surface r = r(u. g(v). If u. V2f = n(n + 3)rn2r. prove that 30. au a a ru. r2. prove the operational identities: a a a 'le = ruxrw+ru.xru+ruxrv. v. P2 are r1. 29. 24. g.PROBLEMS 215 19. of = r"I + nrnerr. h are scalar point functions.r2). v. (b) Prove that rotf =2(r2 r1). If f(u. 23. prove that V2(fg) = g02f + 2Vf Vg + fV2g. and find V so that f = vp: (a) (c) f = yzi + zxj + xyk. If f = r"r. r' 28. 20. prove that e'f = n(n + 1)ri2a.nrn2(a r)r. prove that Rot f is tangent to the surface or zero. H Div f =n (ruxf r.. w are orthogona' coordinates and f(u). cD a constant symmetric dyadic. 22.rot  . au . Prove that a r = . find a scalar function p such that f = vcp. v). f = c r. 1').V =_. 25.ruav. If u. xfu). show that divf =0. av aw au [rurvru7 a (ruxr. (a) If f = (r .)xV =rv . prove that of = nrs2ra. The position vectors from 0 to the fixed points P1. 26.
y). if a horizontal line cuts C in the points (x1. Fra.CHAPTER VI INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS 99.Q(xi. Q(x. y) dy + fQ(xiy) dy fQ(x. if P(x. Then. y). (1) J I1 CIQ x .or yaxis in two points at most (Fig. f f aQ dx dy = = = f a {Q(x2. Let R be a region of the xjplane bounded by a simple closed curve C which consists of a finite number of smooth arcs. 216 . y) are continuous functions with continuous first partial derivatives. where the circuit integral on the right is taken in the positive sense. 99a). Then. 99a Consider first a region R in which boundary C is cut by every line parallel to the x. then a person making the circuit C will always have the region R to his left. (x2. y)) dy a fQ(X2. Y) . Green's Theorem in the Plane.y) dx dy = f (P dx F Q dy). y) dy. y).
fP(x.leaving only the line integral over the external bounding traversed in a positive direction (Fig. On subtracting this equation from the preceding. If ay dy dx = f I P(x. when these equations are added for all the subregions.§ 99 GREEN'S THEOREM IN THE PLANE b 217 And.or yaxis cuts their boundary Frc. yl). since each is traversed twice. Y2) . The boundary of R may even consist of two or more closed curves: thus in Fig. we get (1). For in each subregion formula (1) is valid. and the resultant line integral over C consists of a counterclockwise circuit of Cl and a clockwise circuit of Cam. . but in opposite directions. if a vertical line cuts C in the points (x. the surface integrals add up to the integral over the entire region. 99b). (x. and. y2). y) dx. 99c the region R is interior to Cl but exterior to C2. Y1)) dx fb( yl) dx  J P(x. we may now make a cut between Cl and C2 and traverse the entire boundary of R in the positive sense as shown by the arrows. We now can extend this formula to more general regions that may be divided into a finite number of subregions which have the property that a line parallel to the x. 99c in at most two points. The line integrals over the cut cancel. 99b Fia. but the line integrals over the internal boundaries cancel. for it is traversed twice and in opposite directions. .P(x. y2) dx 6 = .
n becomes k (the unit vector in the direction +z) and the positive circuit on C' forms with n = k a righthanded screw. for. when P and Q are referred to a constant basis. This surface has but one side. and pasting the ends ab and a'b' together (Fig. v) bounded by' a simple closed curve C which consists of a finite number of smooth arcs. Let S be a portion of a bilateral surface r = r(u.) whose scalar components have continuous derivatives over S. we then have the BASic THEOREM I. Since we can travel on a continuous path from one side of the Mobius Strip to the opposite. A surface is said to be bilateral if it is possible to distinguish one of its sides from the other. erect in the direction of n. The positive sense on C is such that a person. this b may be materialized by taking a a. 100a). if we move a point P along its median line and make a complete FIG. 100. vector. will have S to the left on making the circuit C. Reduction of Surface to Line Integrals. The surface itself is assumed to consist of a finite number of parts over which the unit normal n is continuous. This is not the case with a spherical surface. 100a a b' circuit of the strip it will arrive at the point P directly underneath. If f(r) is a continuously differentiable tensor point function over S. dyadic.218 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 100 Although Green's Theorem is commonly stated for scalar func tions P. Not all surfaces are bilateral. When the foregoing conditions on S and C are fulfilled. which has an inside and an outside. If such an oriented surface is continuously deformed into a portion of the xyplane bounded by a curve C'. Such a tensor is said to be continuously differentiable. giving it one twist. the theorem holds for each scalar component. rectangular strip of paper. Q. the surface integral of n x Of over S is equal to the integral of Tf taken about its boundary C in the positive sense: (1) fn Vf dS = JTf ds. or any portion S of the surface botinded by a simple closed curve C. Let f (r) be a tensor point function (scalar. it is evidently true when P and Q are tensors with continuous first partial derivatives. . etc. The simplest unilateral surface is the Mobius strip. these sides cannot be distinguished. for we cannot pass from one side of S to the other without crossing C.
in the positive sense. du dv. fn x Vf dS = where S' is the region of the uvplane which contains all parameter values u. { (r . where the circuit integral is taken about the curve C'. v corresponding to points of S. . in the direction of a rotation of the positive uaxis into the positive vaxis.}. We now may apply U FIG. 100b Green's Theorem in the plane to the last integral. ds ds ru du ds + ry dv dr ds A = T. If we regard u and v as the functions of the are s on the curve C. that is. Formula (1) thus is established. the positive unit tangent along C. { (rtf)u  du dv = f(rtf du + dv). n x Vf = 1 II { (ref). letting u and v play the roles of x and y.§ 100 REDUCTION OF SURFACE TO LINE INTEGRALS Since 219 Proof. s' dS = H du dv.u IS.f). thus fs. it becomes I / \ du dv ruf+rf)ds =ic Tfds. which forms the boundary of S'.
since the positive sense on C regarded as bounding S1 is reversed when regarded as bounding S2. comes (2) dr = T ds. the basic theorem for transforming surface to line integrals be fdS X Vf =fdr f. When f is a vector function. in which dS and dr must be written as prefactors. c fn. (5) fnx Of dS = 0. . we may choose n as the unit external normal. we thus obtain the important formulas: (3) (4) ffl. for both of these operations are distributive with respect to addition and therefore may be carried out under the integral sign. etc. a result of first importance in differential geometry. On adding these integrals.rotfds=fT.< Vf dS = fT2f ds. from (1). hydrodynamics and electrodynamics.nV f. If S is a closed surface which is divided into two parts S1. we find that the integral of n X Vf over the entire surface is zero.T1. This process applied to the tensor n x Vf gives n V X f and n z Vf .fds . We indicate this by the notation. If f is a vector. fnxVfds = fTlf ds. dyadic. f (n z Vf .VxfdsfT. triad. then. we may obtain the other integral transformations from (1) by placing a dot or a cross between the first two vectors in each term (dyad.220 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS §100 If we introduce the vector elements of surface and of arc. S2 by the curve C. etc. where T2 = .n V f) dS = if T X f ds..) of the integrands. dS = n dS. (3) becomes Stokes' Theorem: (3)' fn.fds.
n = k. fnds = 0. this formula expresses an area in the xyplane as a circuit integral 2 J(x dy . f(n'4Vf_nV. hence f Thus. v = y. hence Jn. Put f = r in (4) and (7). on the right. from (97. 101. J'ndS = 2irxdr. we have also (6) fn. when u = x. This integral transformation is quite as general as that given by basic theorem I.1). the integrand on the left becomes a x (nuf + n f. and we may take g as uVv or vVu. whereas. Vu x Vv dS = it dv =  Jv du = 2 f(u dv . We thus retrieve the basic transformation (100. div f = 0. since grad r = I. (1) f { Grad g .§ 101 ALTERNATIVE FORM OF TRANSFORMATION 321 which denotes an integral over a closed surface. If we replace f by ng in (100.u) + b X n fv) _ n x Grad f. where g is any continuously differentiable tensor. (7) Example 1. The last result. (Txn) Xnf = Tf. since Rot n = 0. div r = 3. For. generalizes the polyhedron theorem of § 17. which states that the vector area of a closed surface is zero. When div f = 0.VxfdS=0.(Div n) ng } dS = fT x n g is. On taking dot and cross invariants in (5).f)dS=0. Example 2.13).4). then.v du). if f = Vu x Vv. . Alternative Form of Transformation. In particular. we have seen that f = rot g (§ 92).y dx) over its boundary. we have. if we replace g by of and then cross in the first position.
then J = 0 in (2). integral. (1) o J'f. When f is a vector. (1) now becomes (2) f (vsf + J nf) dS = fm f ds. a constant vector.Div n (J is not the Jacobian of § 88).  where m is the external unit normal to the closed plane curve forming the boundary. If we write f instead of g and J = . these equations become (if we write dA for dS) : (5) (6) (7) fGrad f dA = fDivfdA i(m f ds.f)ds = f f f f= Div n is called the mean curvature of the surface (§ 131). for such surfaces the integrands on the left reduce to the first term. Surfaces for which J = 0 are called minimal surfaces. consider the line Rot (k x f) = k Div f. On the right the vector T x n = m is the unit normal to C tangent to S and pointing outward. n = k. We may deduce (6) from (7) by replacing fbykxf. and Div n = 0. (3). JRotfdA = fm f ds.for m x (k x f) = km f. and (4). When f(r) is a vector.dr= rf to dr dt dt. ta ken over a curve C: r = r(t) from the point P0 to P.f+Jn. Line Integrals. 102.222 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 102 We now shall express (1) in slightly different notation. On the plane. On dotting and crossing in the first position of the tensor integrands. we obtain the additional formulas: (3) f(vs. The value of this integral depends on the curve C and the end points Po and .
by Stokes' Theorem. the line integral of f around the circuit POAPBPO is zero. if we make the change of parameter t = t(T). For. POBP joining PO to P. However in the region composed of the points within a torus. We may now prove the THEOREM. A region in which all closed curves are reducible is called simply connected.dr. If C1 and C2 are any two curves POAP. J'f dr between any two points of the region is the same for all paths in the region Proof. rotfdS=0.§ 102 LINE INTEGRALS 223 P. Hence J fPBP. and rot f = 0 in a region R. oA P f dr=0. whereas the interior of a torus is not. and then. We shall call a closed curve reducible in a region R if it can be shrunk continuously to a point without passing outside of R. the line integral of f around any reducible closed curve in R is zero. Let us consider under what conditions the line integral (1) is independent of the path Cthat is. If f is continuously differentiable. ff . t Jcu f drdt= dt pT TO fdrf . Po P . If f is a continuously differentiable vector. when its value is the same for all paths from Po to P. Thus the region between two concentric spheres is simply connected. for all closed curves in a simply connected region are reducible. and rot f = 0 in a simply connected region. Thus in the region between two concentric spheres all closed curves are reducible. all curves that encircle the axis of the torus are irreducible. dr = fn. but not on the parameter t. for we can span a surface S over R that lies entirely within R (shrinking the curve to a point generates such a surface). dt dr ar dr dt r dr . the line integral joining these points..
In mathematical physics it is customary to express an irrotational vector as the negative of a gradient: (4) f = . Yo. 103.(x0. We have . and hence d(P (0 < 9 < s). z) . for the first segment can be chosen in three ways and the second in two.p(r) = e f(r).9) the integrals. The determination of p given in § 91 is the line integral of f taken over a step path from (xo. yo.eds = sef(r+e). Line Integrals on a Surface. y.V4. in other words the integral defines a scalar point function. A region S of a surface . zo) to (x. are taken over the straight segments from P0(xo. Thus in (91. There are six such step paths. Since e . zo) .224 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 103 Under the conditions of this theorem. given by (2).p(r + se)  p(r) = since dr = e ds along the ray from r to r + se. (3) Thus an irrotational vector f may be expressed as the gradient of scalar gyp.. f s +8e f 0 8 ff. then ¢(r) = jTO dr is called the scalar potential of f. o Let us compute d<p/ds = e Vg for an arbitrary direction e. in reverse order. y. By the law of the mean for integrals.(x0. y.Vp = e f for any e. Yo.P(x. or within a certain region S of the surface. = lim p(r ds s o + se) . z). z). We next consider line and circuit integrals over curves restricted to lie on a given surface. the line integral (1) from a fixed point Po to a variable point P of the region depends only upon P. (2) p(r) = Jf dr. z) .
Along any definite curve r = r(s) issuing from P0 (s = 0) c is a function of the are s. can be shrunk continuously to a point without passing outside of S.§ 103 LINE INTEGRALS ON A SURFACE 225 is called simply connected if all closed surface curves in S are reduciblethat is. In the plane. and n rot f = 0 in a simply connected portion S of a surface. we have the relation. integral ff dr between any two points of S is the same for all surface curves joining these points. Vu on the surface is parallel to the surface normal and the condition n rot f = 0 may be written (1) 0. z) = c of a scalar function. for example. is the same over all surface curves from Po to P and therefore defines a scalar point function V(r) in S. Since the curve may be varied so that T assumes any direction e at P. we may now prove the If f is a continuously differentiable vector. the circuit integral if dr about any reducible curve of S is zero when rot f is every where tangential to the surface. Just as in § 101. Under the conditions of this theorem the line integral. s dr p(s) =J'ff Tds. hence at any point P d(p/ds = f T. the region within a circle is simply connected. for f When S is a portion of the level surface u(x. but the region between two concentric circles is not. the line THEOREM 1. If the vector f is continuously differentiable. r (2) p(r) = ra f dr. (3) d s . y. 8 where T is the unit tangent vector.
(4) Grad 'P = ft. the curves tangent to f(r) at all their points are called the field lines of f. we have (3) and. e2 are two such vectors. Field Lines of a Vector. n. (1) If f = f1i + f2j + f3k. and hence (5) Vu x Vv = Xf. From (3) and (4) we conclude that f is parallel to Vu x Vv. the vector f at any point of the surface is in the tangent plane. (1) is equivalent to the system. e2. If f is a continuously differentiable vector. y. since Vu is normal to the surface u = a. z) = a of this system represents a surface locus of field lines. Now if e1. from (95. dr/dt is tangent to the curve (§ 41) and consequently a multiple of f. theorem 1). we have. If v(x. we have also (4) If v is independent of u. The field lines have therefore the differential equation: fxdr = 0. (2) dxdydz fl f2 f3 Any integral u(x. Since f = (ele1 + e2e2 + nn) f. 104. We have thus proved the THEOREM 2. . y. from du = dr Vu = 0 and (1). z) = b is a second integral of (2).226 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 104 for all unit vectors e in the tangent plane at P. the projection of f on the tangent plane at P. the tangential projection of f on the surface is ft = Grad 9 where 9 = ro f dr. n the set reciprocal to e1. Grad cp = el ds1 d + e2 d ds2 = ele1 f + e2e2 f. and el. For.8). and n rot f = 0 in a simply connected region of a surface. e2. When f(r) is a continuously differentiable vector function. Vu x Vv 0 0 (§ 87. If r = r(t) is a field line.
we have f Vu = 0. this equation is equivalent to (7) Vu X Vv Vw = 0. (9) f X dr = Vv du . When the vector field f(r) is solenoidal. THEOREM 3. if dr is a differential on the level surface u = a. uz . If z is present.Vu dv. au/az = uz is not identically zero. v). thus both u and v are solutions of f Vw = 0.Vw =flax + f2 a + f3 az = 0ax aw aw caw In view of (5). y. Hence we have the THEOREM 1. hence. f Vu = 0. A solenoidal vector f which is continuously differentiable can be expressed in the form: (8) f = Vu X Vv. Now. z). we have k f X dr = uz dv and (10) v=  kxf dr . v = b are independent integrals of f X dr = 0. 227 But the curve in which the surfaces u = a. where cp is an arbitrary function and u = a. From § 87. we see that u and v are independent solutions of the partialdifferential equation: (6) f. theorem 3. the surfaces they represent intersect in the field lines of f. div f = 0. v = b intersect is everywhere tangent to Vu X Vv. We now deduce another form for f which gives at once its field lines.104 FIELD LINES OF A VECTOR. Proof. If u = a and v = b are independent integrals of the system f x dr = 0. Vv = 0. The general solution of the partial differential equation f Vw = 0 is w = cp(u. Hence we have THEOREM 2. from (8). we have.Vu dv = . f If we assume the relation (8). If we choose for u some integral of the system (2). on multiplying (9) by k . In § 92 we found that we could express f as rot g. From (3) and (4). In the function u(x. v and w are connected by a functional relation.. (7) is satisfied when and only when u. at least one variable is actually present.
we now have. from (85. we obtain the equations. Vu X Vv = Vu x Grad v = . .)f f2 uz Vu rot kXf uZ = fZ . v = b intersect.2z dz = 0. for.z2 = b. y. and (k X f)t is a tangential projection upon it.Vv = 0.(f . which have the integrals: y dx + x dy . uZ 1 where Grad v refers to the surface u = a. uZ az If u(x.Vu x (k X f) = f. f = xzi + yzj + xyk. 1\ 1 2(Vuz)X(kxf) k uZ Of uZ (f V i )k + (k ui 2 Vu.V it X (k x f)c uZ = . ydxxdy=0. Moreover f . With the values of it and v thus obtained. we may replace k and uz in (10) by i and ux or j and uv.6). z) contains x or y. y/x = a. The field lines of the vector Vu X Vv are the curves in which the surfaces u = a. rot kxf uz = O .Vu) = 0.3) and (85.cu uZ 1 a _. have the differential equations: (i) dx dy dz From these. xy . The field lines of the vector. Example 1. from theorem 2 of § 103. These oneparameter families of surfaces intersect in the twoparameter family of field lines.228 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 104 the integral being taken over a curve on the surface u = a. This integral is independent of the path.J X (kXf) + rot (kXf) uz U.
yx2=a. with the integrating factor 11x. then dx x _ dz dz z a a+x2+z' or dxx=xIx.z) y(z .z2 = b which intersects the first family y/x = a in the field lines. .z)i + y(z . ax dx = z dz. f = x(y . On the surface u = a. and kxf dr = x(y z)dy+y(z . namely. we put y = a + x2 in (ii).§ 104 FIELD LINES OF A VECTOR 229 When one integral. This linear equation. is solenoidal. On replacing a by y/x. as y/x = a. dx _ dy _ dz x(y .z2 = b gives the field lines on the surface y/x = a. is known.x)j + z(x . We now use (10) to compute v. The vector. z = a+x2+bx. for div f = 0. u = x + y + Z. have the differential equations: (ii) dx x dy 2x2 dz y+z From dy = 2x dx.y.2x = b. f = xi + 2x 2j + (y + z)k.x)dx = y(a2xy)dx+x(ax2y)dy. we obtain a second family of surfaces xy . Example 2. These must satisfy the equation obtained from (i) by putting y = ax. hence we may take x+y+z=a. has the solution. we obtain the family of surfaces. Its integral ax2 . Example 3. dx+dy+dz=0.y) Since the sum of the denominators is zero. As no other integrable combination is evident. we may find a second by obtaining the field lines on the surface y/x = a.x) z(x . The field lines of the vector.x . z = a . In order to express f as Vu x Vv we choose for u an integral of the system. A second family of integral surfaces is therefore z +Y x .y)k.
When f is a continuously differentiable vector. hence (§ 91) f .y) = xyz. we at once deduce (1). hence (3) Vu rot f = 0. Vv rot f = 0. this integral.uVv) = 0. this equation uniquely determines u. The determination of these scalar functions is known as Pfaff's Problem. Assuming the truth of (2). v. then Vv rot f = 0. and (2) f = Vw + uvv. we may readily verify that f = Vu x vv. With u = x + y + z. (1) rot f = Vu x Vv = rot (u Vv). Let Grad w and n denote the gradient and unit normal on a surface of the family v = const. Now on the surface v = a we have. Vw + uVv = f. v = xyz. w thus determined. rot (f . taken over a curve of the surface v = a. rot f = 0. w so that (2) holds good. On substituting the functions v and w thus obtained in (2).uVv is the gradient Vw of a scalar.230 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 105 Since this is an exact differential. Pfaff 's Problem. v. we may find three scalars u. with It. is independent of the path since Vv rot f = 0. We proceed to give a simple and direct solution. We now must show that. so that both It and v satisfy the same partial differential equation : V.x . the method of § 91 gives v= f(aY_2xY_Ydx=axY_?J_x?J = xy(a . then (103. from (2). we have from theorem 3 of § 104. Let v = a be some integral of the system dr x rot f = 0. Since rot f is solenoidal. 105.4) Vw=Grad w+ndn dw dw ft+ndn .
1942. The field lines of f are then the orthogonal trajectories of these surfaces. (4) f dr = dw i.. f. let (p(w. ex. z) hence f rot f = 0 implies that u. The unit vectors T.p/8w is an integrating factor of (4) : Then Xf = VV. Moreover u was chosen to make the normal projections of Vw + uVv and f the same. and f is everywhere normal to the surfaces p = const. * See Agnew. theorem 3). is also sufficient. v. 310. Differential Equations. w) and au/caw are continuous in a region R. that is. w) dv = 0 is an ordinary differential equation which admits solutions under general conditionsas when u(v. do From (1) and (2). N) B along the curves are then vector point functions in R.u(v. and the first Frenet Formula dT/ds = KN can be written (6) T. p. (4). In other words. w are functionally dependent (§ 87. et seq. v.rot f = a (u. A family of curves is said to form a field in a region R if just one curve of the family passes through every point of R. v) = C be the general solution of Then d(p = amp aw dw + . to be necessary for the integrability of f dr = 0.dv = 0 av must yield (4) upon division by app/8w. w) C )(X' y.VT = KN. When (5) is fulfilled. . In this case.§ 105 PFAFF'S PROBLEM 231 and the projection of Vw + uVv tangential to the surface is ft. 2. * Hence the condition (5) frot f=0 shown in § 91. X = a. New York. dw n+uVv=fft.
dx 2x _ dy _ dz y z On the surface v = a.232 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 105 Now. The Darboux vector of a surfacenormal field of curves is therefore 8 = rT + rot T. dw + udv = 3udv + 2vdu = 0. 2zx. zx. rot f = 0. 2xy] + u[0. v = z/y. and. Now u is given by [2yz. For a surfacenormal field T rot T = 0. z]. 3xy] = Vw + u Vv. from (7). v. w = 2xyz. is thus equivalent to and has the integral u9 = C. rot T = KB. rot T I = K. since the system. has the solution z/y = a.7) and (85. (i) 2yzdx+zxdy+3xydz =0. in fact w = 2uv. we take v = z/y. . v. from (85. and w must be functionally related. Find u. Example. Thus our solution is u = xy2. TT= T = KN. hence w =ff dr = f (2yz dx + zx dy + 3xy dz) = f (2ay2 dx + 4axy dy) 2axy2 = 2xyz. whence u = xy2. z = ay. w so that f = [2yz. The total differential equation. or x2yz3 = C. Solution. y. zx. z/y2. 1/y]. u. rot f = [2x. we have (8) (T x rot T) X T = rot T. 3xy] = [2yz. Since f U.9).
first. z2). y. z = z2(x. 106 silting of all the points (x. Let S be a closed surface and V the volume it encloses. Consider. whe re the double integrals are taken over the common projection A of Sl and S2 on the xyplane. Then. y. z1). a surface S which is cut in at most two points by a line parallel to the zaxis. where zl < z2. z1) dx dy. Reduction of Volume to Surface Integrals. we may effect a first integration with respect to z. Then S has a lower portion Sl conz *_y FIG. . Now let f (x. if the volume integral of of/8z over V is written as a triple integral with the element of volume dV = dx dy dz. 106). denote them by (x. and at all regular points of S we have a definite unit normal n directed towards the outside. We shall suppose that S consists of a finite number of parts over which n is continuous. y. z1) and (x. We suppose also that the points for which zl = z2 form a closed curve separating Sl from S2 (Fig. y). z) be a tensor function of valence v whose scalar components have continuous partial derivatives throughout V. an inside and an outside. z2). y. Then S has two sides.106 REDUCTION OF VOLUME TO SURFACE INTEGRALS 233 106. y. y. and an upper portion S2 consisting of the points (x. The equations of Sl and S2 may be taken as z = zl(x. z2) dx dy fff (x. y. y). (i) ff az dx dy dz = fff ( x.
y). if we divide V into parts bounded by surfaces which do satisfy this condition and apply formula (1) to each point and add the results. When x. if we denote the vector element of area in the direction of the external normal by dS = n dS. k . and the surface integrals over these will cancel in pairs as before. the vector element of surface is ry x ry dx dy (94.jzy) dx dy. For. where the plus sign applies to S2 and the minus to S1. y. ry = j }. but over Sl (z = zl) it has the direction of the internal normal n. whereas the remaining surface integrals combine to the right member df (1). For (i) holds as before. the volume integrals will combine to the left member of (1).izz . n dS = ± (k . The two integrals over A now may be combined into a single integral over 8. the same is true of y. and. x and z. Hence.kzy. y as the parameters u. We now may remove the condition that S is cut in only two points by a line parallel to the zaxis. z form a dextral system of axes. rz = i + kzz.234 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS §106 If we regard x. the surface integrals over the boundaries between the parts cancel (for each appears twice but with opposed values of n). that is. by this same process of subdivision.9). Over S2 (z = z2) this vector has the direction of the external nor mal n. Hence. if in (1) we make cyclic interchanges in x. y. Finally we may extend (1) to regions bounded by two or more closed surfaces. so that it contributes nothing to the integral over S. .f dx dy dz =f I This formula is also valid when S is bounded laterally by a part of a cylinder parallel to the zaxis and separating Sl from S2. Now from r = ix + jy + kz(x. in (1). n dS = fdx dy. we obtain the corresponding formulas: (2) fff a dx dy dz = y. k n = 0 over the cylinder. z. z. so that we may write (1) j/. y. v on the surfaces S1 and S2. z) i n dS. Additional surfaces must be introduced so that the parts of V are all bounded by a single closed surface. x. regions with cavities in them.
fds. f of d V =in f dS. z) j n dS. the integral surface. . Example. If we insert the prefactors k. respectively.fdv=Jn. add the resulting equations. If f(r) is a vector or tensor of higher valence. whose unit external normal n is sectionally continuous. i. y. and note that az ay we obtain finally (4) iof +jof +kof ax = Vf. j in the integrands of (1). and (3). (6) When f is a vector. The integrands are tensors of valence v + 1. If rot f = 0 in a simply connected origin. (5) is known as the divergence theorem. If f(r) is a continuously differentiable tensor point function over the region V bounded by a closed surface S. (2). We thus obtain the important formulas: (5) fv. and ffdV =f = fncodS. we may obtain from (5) other integral transformations by placing a dot or a cross between the first two vectors in each term of the integrands.§ 106 REDUCTION OF VOLUME TO SURFACE INTEGRALS (3) 235 fff ay dx dy dz = ff f(x. Thus the volume integral of an irrotational vector can be expressed a surface integral over the boundary. fv<fdv = JnxfdS. using J( to denote integration over a closed surface. for both of these operations are distributive with respect to addition and therefore may be carried out under the integral sign. then the integral of of over the volume V is equal to the integral of of over the surface S. We have thus proved BASic THEOREM II. f = f n f dS then is called the normal flux of f through the 102).
hence div grad 1 r = 0. and over the conical surface n R = 0.236 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 107 For example. 1 Sa where Sa is the area cut from or by the cone. 0 inside of S 0 outside of S. (2) If S is a closed surface.2). and the foregoing result is immediate. Within this region f is continuously differentiable. 107. l0. and the surface of a unit sphere about 0 intercepted by this cone is called the solid angle & of the cone. r*=mfrdm=yfrdV. The external normal n = . Hence r where P= U e Vr* = i 0 nr2 dS. When 0 is outside of S. Let us now apply the divergence theorem to the vector f = R/r2 in the region interior to a cone of solid angle 0 and limited exter nally by a surface S. hence (1) r2 dS =. and grad R = . The reciprocal of the distance r = OP is a harmonic function (§ 89. we have nR r 2 dS = 14r. for m = pV. ex. the center of mass of a homogeneous body of mass m is fixed by the position vector. In this case . Note that the ratio Sa/a2 is independent of the radius and may be computed with a=1.R over a R 0'. from (102.r2 r 1 is a solenoidal vector. 2) . r=V. internally by a small sphere a about 0 of radius a. f is continuously differentiable throughout its interior. div f = 0 and fn J f dS = 0. we have. Since rot r = 0.a2 dS = a2 = S2. The rays from a point 0 through the points of a closed curve generate a cone. Solid Angle. where p denotes the constant density.
Now div (. we cannot apply (2) to the entire region enclosed since 4. on writing the operator div grad as V2.J.41 dnl dS. where the normal derivative d¢/dn is in the direction of the external normal to the bounding surface. d do \ r/ (1l d dr \ r) (1l dp r2 e2 ' do ar ' dS = eQ. Formula (1) is known as Green's first identity. corresponding to the same ray cancel in pairs. where <p and ' are scalar functions having continuous derivatives of the first and second order. Hence. We now apply the divergence theorem (106. we may interchange (p and 4. If 0 is interior to S. we obtain Green's second identity: (2) f(v2G  4'V2 v) dV = \ do . 108. We now take . In case ' is not defined outside of S. respectively. (85.2). If both cp and 4. 2d . in a region R bounded by a closed surface S.. dn r r JS \ dn r r dn 1 1 On the sphere r = e. then 1 V24pdV = dl 1dip dl ldc co. we have (1) V p V.dS. On subtracting this result from (1). we replace d . Green's Identities.dV do dS. where r is the distance OP. (3) d1t = r 2 dS.' = 1/r.p0') _ V p V4. + p div V ' n d¢/dn. have continuous derivatives of the first and second orders./dn by the negative of the derivative along the internal normal n. in (1). becomes infinite at 0. cPdndS. dV + f g' V24. We therefore exclude 0 by surrounding it by a small sphere v of radius e and apply (2) to the region R' between S and v. d d4.§ 108 GREEN'S IDENTITIES 237 the elements of solid angle. V4.5) to the vector f = p0j.
We thus obtain Grreen's third identity: (3) Jr v2 dV + r j i dip d it do r/ \r do dS.n) ds. where p is a value of <p at some point of o.vdA+fv2dA = f (P do ds. Since log p is a solution of Laplace's Equation in the plane. where p is the distance OP in the plane.. . Div Grad # = 0. we find (4) fv. in this case the right member of (3) equals zero. With f = (p Grad ¢. We may deduce three analogous identities from (101. where we now interpret V and V2 as Grad and Div Grad and di/dn as a derivative in the direction of the external normal m. . as e * 0. Now. d1 do r 1 r do R1r dS  v2(p dV. we take 4. we find as before (5) f(cv24. By an interchange of cp and . fDivfdA the divergence theorem in the plane. = log p.'v2 p) dA t = /C do  d dip # d.238 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 108 dil denoting the solid angle subtended by dS. To obtain the third identity from (5). The integral over v is therefore J( o E2 + 1 ate) dS E ar dSt + E f a ar M= E f a or dg.fv2(P dV Rr for the integrand remains finite if we use the spherical element of volume dV = r2 sin 0 dr dB d4p. When 0 is exterior to S we may put ¢ = 1/r directly in (2).6).
. Harmonic Functions. Applying (5) to the region remaining. and we obtain 27r p(0) = d C (`p do log p . E log t log p V2. d \ R v2cp dA = d c do log p . f = Vi. we must exclude the origin from the region by surrounding it by a small circle y of radius E. ap is a value of p at some point of y.§ 109 HARMONIC FUNCTIONS 239 v24. if ' = 1. (3) . A function <p is said to be harmonic in a region R if it has continuous derivatives of the first and second orders and V2p = 0 in R. A solution of Laplace's Equation. its scalar potential 4. is called a harmonic function. If a vector f is both irrotational and solenoidal.d8 . dn/dS=0. we have .ap ' aP ds = E d6.p dA + R * 0.log p do 1 ds + . As before.log p ) ds.27r gyp. Thus. for. we have (2) divf = V2' = 0. If in Green's second identity (108. throughout R.ap E dB = E log c acv . do log p d dp 1 E log p p ' dip do = .flog p On the circle p = E. are harmonic f\odn do dS = 0.log p J do ds. from (102. is harmonic.. duo / 109. d (P do log p . = 0 in (5). When e > 0. the integral over y is therefore f\ where (0) (1) log E . for any harmonic function cp.2) cp and 4. we have.4). div grad cp = 0.
but not constant. the distance from P to points Q on the surface. do . Since the surface of the sphere is 47rr2. lying within R. we have. on which V > m at some points. we have (7) fi o1 2 dV = . attains its extreme values only on the boundary.  c'(P) = 4r2 r f p dS.3) gives the value v(P) at any interior point P. from (4).1) we take cp = 4' and assume that (p is harmonic in R. 4irv(P) = or.. where r = PQ. harmonic in the region enclosed by S. When P is exterior to the surface S. harmonic in a region R. Green's third identity (108.Js (r do do r) dS' on putting i = 11r in (2). there would be a sphere about P. If in Green's first identity (108. This theorem shows that a function which is harmonic in a closed bounded region R. we have the MEAN VALUE THEOREM.is dS. is deter mined completely at any interior point P by the values of <p and dcp/dn on the boundary. If S is a sphere of radius r about P as center and lying entirely within the region R. (6) r f do dS + r2 JCp dS. For let P be a frontier point of the set for which cp attains its minimum value m. v (4) is \r do  do r/ l dS.240 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 109 If cp is harmonic in the region bounded by a closed surface S. hence the mean value of c over the sphere would be greater than (p(P) = m. If P were an interior point of R. we have (5) 0 . Thus a function gyp. in view of (3). at any point P is equal to the mean of its values on any sphere about P as center and lying entirely within R. The value of a function.
Thus the charges repel when elel > 0 (charges of same sign) and attract when ele2 < 0. p = C in R. If 'p = 0 on S. r Since is called the electric intensity at P due to the charge e. 'p = C throughout R. dcp/dn = 0 on S and <pl = IP2 + C throughout R. Now let 'i and 'P2 be two harmonic functions in R. then their difference <p = V. the force is given in dynes.4). r = OP. (3) E _ V. e (2) E = a R. By Coulomb's Law. If a harmonic function 'p has a constant value C on S. If d'pl/dn = dSP2/dn on S. and. since I nip 12 is continuous and never negative. for (5) rot E = 0.'P2 is also harmonic. if either cp = 0 or dcp/dn = 0 on S. if d'p/dn = 0 on S. namely. an electric charge el at 0 exerts a force of (1) F = el2 R f r2 upon a charge e2 at P. R = Vr. cp = 0 on S and cpl = 'p2 throughout R. 110. .§ 110 ELECTRIC POINT CHARGES 241 Hence. the volume integral in (7) vanishes. 'p = 0 in R. for the harmonic function cp . (4) The vector E is both irrotational and solenoidal. and. Electric Point Charges.= 0. we must conclude that V p = 0. and cp has a constant value throughout R. . r 1 t In a vacuum. If 01 = 'P2 on S. The force exerted by a charge e at 0 upon a unit charge at P. and R is a unit vector in the direction OP. r e so that E has the scalar potential (102. div E _ eV2 .C is 0 on S. if the charges are measured in statcoulombs and the distance in centimeters.
++ e1 r1 e2 r2 r. If we assume that the surface density a is continuous or piecewise continuous over S. where r is the distance QP. where ri is the distance from the charge ei to P. the potential at a point P due to the charged element dS at Q (regarded as a point charge a dS) is a dS/r. Since Ei = . If a surface S carries a distributed charge a per unit of area. from (107. e rn en/ and the potential of the system is el e2 r2 (7) r1 If this system of charges is within the closed surface S. due to the charge element a dS at Q. 1/r and its first partial deriva . we have. We assume that the intensity due to a system of point charges . from (6). e1.EdS = 47r1ei.. 111. (6) n E dS = e J nR r2 dS = 147re 0 0 inside of S. e. the total potential at P is dS The electric intensity at a point P outside of S. (8) Jn. the total electric intensity at P is therefore (2) E fovr dS = Vpp. E _ . 0 outside of S. The notation Op means that P must be varied in computing the gradient. is the sum of their separate intensities: E = EEi. we have. Surface Charges. Since P is outside of S.2). is a dS Vp 1/r.Vei/ri.242 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § III If S is a closed surface. The normal flux of the electric intensity through a closed surface is equal to 4ir times the sum of the enclosed charges. e2.
112. Chapter 3. 1929. In differentiating functions of r = PQ. we may differentiate (1) under the integral sign. where o. §5. holding the other point fixed. s r /' At a point P on the surface. (3) Vpf(r) = f'(r)Vpr = f'(r) VQr = VQf(r) Consequently. r In integrals. the subscript on V may be omitted on the understanding that the variation is at dS. and. if R is a unit vector in the direction PQ. 4 Vpr = . we see that cp and E are continuous at all points P not on the surface. VQr = R. we may vary either P or Q. . when Q and P. for vp"p = I crop dS = 0.R.7) QQ'PG e e //1 1 r t See O.3 112 DOUBLETS AND DOUBLE LAYERS 243 tives are continuous for all positions of Q on S. as P approaches a surface point Q from the positive side (toward which n points) or the negative side.E_ = 47rv n. D Kellogg. under general conditions E approaches limiting values E+ and E_. From (1) and (2). in general. are varied. Thus. Berlin. The potential at P due to a charge e at Q and a charge +e at Q' is (110. p is defined on S and is everywhere continuous. such that (4) E+ .and n are the surface density and unit normal at Q. Thus the normal component of E experiences a jump of 4irv as P passes through the surface. the integrals for <p and E are improper since r passes through zero. Foundations of Potential Theory. we also may write (2) as (2)' E_ 1 dS. At such points cp is harmonic. Doublets and Double Layers. However it can be shown t that if v is piecewise continuous on S. respectively. Moreover. such as this. hence in computing E = Vpcp.
op.. frallction 1 r in the second member is the directional for the limit of the derivative of 1/r in the direction of m. If /in dS is the moment of the doublet at the surface element dS at Q.. we also may write (3) 1P _ f s Ada When µ is constant. for r At a point Q where µ is continuous and the surface has contins uous curvature. The potential of this doublet is 1 1 (1) P=QimQje(QQ')PQQQ. When µ. D. t is piecewise continuous. Chapter 6. A continuous distribution of doublets over a surface with mo ments everywhere in the direction of the normal n is called a double layer. p is continuous at all points P not on the surface. it can be shown * that cp has definite limits cp+. (p_ t In the case of a magnetic shell. the limiting result is called a doublet of moment m. Since dS=dSl is the solid angle subtended by dS (107. remains constant. u is called the density of magnetization. where Sl is the total solid angle subtended by S at P.244 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 112 If Q' approaches Q and at the same time the charges increase. the moment density. Kellogg. the potential of the double layer at an outside point P is (2) _ 1 r 1 fs r2 r where r = PQ. * See 0. this reduces to µf2. so that the product. . cit. e QQ' = m. § 6.PQ} =m . At such points cp is harmonic.OQ .3).
When ja is constant.Cpl = 4rµ.6). also a vector potential A (§ 92) : (7) E = Vp x 1 µn x VQ 1 dS. and that (4) p+ . Since pn is a function of Q (not P). GP X n x G'Q (1 \ r n VP6Q .. from (85. w(P) 47rr dS r/ dti.r. we have. for. Space Charges. E = rot pA. A may be transformed into a circuit integral about the boundary of S. Comparison with (111. (5) E cep =  1 fs = µn CQ VP r dS. (8) A = fLn VQ r dS.1) and (112. But.113 SPACE CHARGES 245 according as P approaches Q from the positive or negative side of the surface. then. If a region V carries a distributed charge p per unit of volume. at any interior point P (109. from (2). (9) A=A fnxV s r cr d (1 do Example. Let (P be a function harmonic in a region bounded by a closed surface S. where . from the basic theorem (100. At a point P outside of S. the electric intensity E = Vpca is continuously differentiable. 113.1).4). the potential at a point P due to the charged element dV at Q (regarded as a point charge p dV) is p dV/r. besides the s scalar potential gyp.2) shows that p may be regarded as the potential due to a surface change of density a = (d'/dn)/4a and a double layer of moment density IA = c/4. 1 so that we also may write (6) r Consequently the intensity due to a double layer has.
. fdiv Ed V = 47r J pdV. Yi ¶ See O. the total potential at a point P outside of V is (1) (P = I aT The electric intensity at P due to the charge element p dV at Q is p dV Vp 1/r. 1/r and its first partial derivatives are continuous for all positions of Q within V. the integrals for and E are improper since r passes through zero. The equation (110. § 3. (3) fn. The closed surface S may either completely enclose the charged region V or cut through it. Yi But. and E = . Chapter 6. it can be shown that E has the same property. hence. D. If S encloses no charges. when p is piecewise continuous. cit. (p and E exist at the points of V and are continuous throughout space. When P lies within the charged region V. Kellogg.8) also may be proved for space charges. the divergence theorem shows that fn. the integral on the right covering all space charges within S. we may differentiate (1) under the integral sign. op. the total electric intensity at P is therefore (2) E fp ©p dV = . Now if Sl is any closed surface enclosing a subregion Vl of V.EdS = 47r f p dV. When p is continuously differentiable.EdS = fdiv E dV. namely. X Since P lies outside of V. But it can be shown ¶ that. the integral (3) is zero. from (3)..Vptp. Moreover the potential p is everywhere differentiable. If we assume that volume density p is piecewise continuous over V.Vpp. in computing Vpcp.246 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 113 r is the distance QP.
or. . 114. the minus sign in (1) expresses the fact that heat flows in the direction of decreasing temperature. and the potential P satisfies Laplace's Equation: (6) v2 P = 0. According to Fourier's Law. if heat is being generated in R at the rate of h calories per unit of volume.2. at If n is the outward unit normal to the surface S. Since k is positive. if we put E (5) 4Trp. This partialdifferential equation is called Poisson's Equation.in fcp!dv FdS = f div (kVT) dV. (4) div E = 47rp. Let p and c denote the density and specific heat of the body at P. and the flow F (calories per second) per unit of surface is proportional to the temperature gradient at P. the rate at which heat flows into R through S is . the direction of flow is normal to the isothermal surface through P. consider the flow of heat at a point P of a body. a=f {div (kVT) + h} dV. As an illustration. Thus F may be represented by the vector. Then the rate at which heat is being absorbed in a region R bounded by a closed surface S is a at cpT dV = fcp aT dV./cm. Hence. At points outside of the charged region V./sec. since this holds for any subregion V1 of V. Heat Conduction. where T is the temperature and k the thermal conductivity of the body at P. In mathematical physics the integral theorems often are used in setting up differential equations. p = 0. (1) F = k VT cal.§ 114 HEAT CONDUCTION 247 and.
if there is no internal generation of heat. and. k is constant. When the flow is steady.248 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS § 115 Since this holds for an arbitrary region R within the body. * If f(r) is a continuous scalar function in a region V and ff(r) dV = 0 for an arbitrary subregion of V.17). contrary to hypothesis. Example. then f(r) = 0 throughout V. T = T2 when r = r2. the basic integral transformations are: (A) fvfdv=fnfds ( (B) fri x Vf dS = fTf ds ( f f dV Vf =ids f). A and B may be determined from the conditions T = Tl when r = rl. Summary : Integral Transformations. hence. 115. if f(r) 96 0 at a point P. we can surround P with a sphere a so small that f does not change sign in a.* at OT This is the differential equation of heat conduction." When the heat flow becomes steady the temperature distribution is constant in time. and hence f f (r) dV 0 0. dr (r2)__O. . If the body is homogeneous. T= r + B. and (1) becomes (3) cp aT at = k V2T + h. dS x Vf = fdr f). T is a function of r alone. from (89. For. we have (4) aT at = K V2 T. where K = k/cp is called by Kelvin the "diffusivity.= div (kVT) + h. Find the temperature distribution in a homogeneous hollow sphere whose inner and outer surfaces are held at constant temperatures. V 2T r dr (r2T r). (2) cp . Hence in the steady state (4) reduces to Laplace's Equation V2T = 0. If f (r) is a continuously differentiable tensor point function.
(Ax) Similarly. (A .nV f) dS = fT f ds. J = . If we dot and cross in the first position. If we replace f by of in (B x) we obtain (B') f (osf + J nf) dS = fm f ds.) is known as the divergence theorem and (B . in which V may be replaced by V8. (Bx) f(n? Vf .f)ds=fm. and J = 0. a transformation of the same scope as (B). and m = T x n is the unit external normal to the bounding circuit. In the B transformations the surface integrals vanish when taken over a closed surface.fds. f(Vsxf+Jllxf)dS = f mxfds. fvxfdv =inxfdS.vxfds=fT. From (B') we derive (B'.f.) as Stokes' Theorem. if we write dA for dS. fn. On a plane. J"T2ofds= (C) l J rl may be regarded as a third basic type. From these.Div n is the mean curvature of the surface. other integral transformations may be deduced by dotting and crossing within tensor functions. the B' transformations become (P) fV8f dA = fm f ds.fds. . When f is a vector function.§ 115 SUMMARY: INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS 249 In addition. from (A) : fv. we get. n is constant.) (BI X) f(vs. from (B).fdv=fn.fiJn.
If f = ia(x. where ft = f . If a body bounded by S is subjected to a uniform pressure pn per unit of area. If f (r) is a continuously differentiable vector and rot f = 0 in a simply connected region of 3space.fdA (Px) fvsxfdA=fmxf(1s.(n f)n is the tangential projection of f on the surface.) is the divergence theorem in the plane. . show that 5. (P . PROBLEMS 1. Show that a closed curve lying in a plane with unit normal a encloses an area A given by nA = frxdr 2.dr over surface curves is independent of the path. y). Prove that J'r x n dS = 0 over any closed surface S. If the closed curve C encloses a portion of a surface S.dr is independent of the path. Compute the integral / n rot f dS over that portion of the sphere r .250 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS fv3. If f (r) is a continuously differentiable vector. When f is a vector. and r f=V . and rf . (r) = ra dr dr. p(r) = ro f dr. the line integral of f . y) + jv(x. prove that I n x r dS = I JTr2ds. =frf. and a rot f = 0 in a simply connected portion of a surface. ft = Grad (p. the line integral of f .a lying above the xyplane when f = p(r)c. 4. show that these forces have zero moment about any point in space. 3. ff x dr = kf f div f dx dy where C is closed curve in the xyplane enclosing the region A. .
c of the ellipsoid. If the vector f is everywhere normal to S. 4) where V is the enclosed volume [p = r n.dS r i (107. prove that nx(cxr)dS=2Vc is where V is the volume enclosed by the surface S. 1/p = r results in terms of the semiaxes a. . Apply this formula to find the centroid of a hemisphere of radius a. prove that V rot f dV = 0. If r = PQ.1). 12. 8. 7.PROBLEMS 251 6. (b) R r dV = flog r n dS. the solid angle subtended at P by the surface S (over which Q ranges) is Slp =  is n VQ . Express these 10. n]. Show that the centroid of a volume V bounded by a closed surface S is given by Vr* = z _fr2n dS. Show that rmr n dS. prove that (a) 13. 9. (a) rrmR dV = M 1 rm+in dS (m76 1). b. If p and q are vector functions. lying above the xyplane. Find a vector v = f(r)r such that div v = rm (in 96 3). center 0. Prove that frmdv 11. If p denotes the distance from the center of the ellipsoid r 4) r = 1 to the tangent plane at the point r. show that the integrals of p and 1/p over its surface have the values fPds = 3V. The closed surface S encloses a volume V. If c is a constant vector. IdS/p = cv1V.
\r) = X"f(r) and g is given by g = (f x r) /(n + 2). Prove this formula directly by making use of r Vf = of and (85.4). 15. Prove that f = rot g (§ 92) where t "OD g = r X fxi(. show that if r = PP' the doublecircuit integral.] 16.r) dX o or r x j Xf(ar) dX t provided the integrals exist. where A is the vector area enclosed by C. r TxT' r a ds (is' = 0 . If C and C' are two unlinked closed curves.6). f(. Vp12p Prove that ra r 1TXVQdS where r = PQ and the curve C is the boundary of S. Show that tangential forces of constant magnitude o. . Let f(r) be a solenoidal vector function.acting along a closed plane curve C are equivalent to a couple of moment 2QA. 14. show that the preceding double integral is ±4a. If C and C' are two simple loops.) In particular if f(r) is homogeneous of degree n 0 2. (The integrand of the former may become infinite at the lower limit. the sign depending on the sense of C'. What is the moment of the couple when C is a twisted curve? [Put f = r in (100.252 INTEGRAL TRANSFORMATIONS where V0l /r is computed at Q. linked as in a chain.
and (ii) surface forces. (1) F_n = Fn. It divides the body into two portions. x). per unit of area. y) + F_ZA cos (n. per unit of mass. z). and let outwardly directed lines normal to the faces be denoted by x. y). x) + F_NA cos (n. A cos (n. the limit of P/Om is defined as the body force R. Here n denotes a directed line normal to S at P and directed from A to B. The forces acting on A are of two kinds: (i) body or mass forces which act on the interior particles. The force F dS is exerted on the element n dS by the matter toward which n points. the limit of Fn/AS is defined as the surface force F. Stress Dyadic. A within S. Let S be any closed surface inside a deformable body. If body and surface forces are replaced by averages and p denotes the average density. acting on A at P. then. the equilibrium of the tetrahedron requires that F. if AS shrinks to zero while always enclosing a point P. The surface force acting on B on the same element n dS is. if Am shrinks to zero while always enclosing a point P.A + F_IA cos (n. z. from the law of action and reaction. n. z have areas A cos (n.CHAPTER VII HYDRODYNAMICS 116. y. and the volume of the tetrahedron is 3Ah where h is the altitude of P above the base A. at P. Let k denote the average body force on the element of mass Am. 253 . y. A cos (n. denote the average surface force acting on A over the vector element of surface nOS of the boundary S. Let F. and B without S. z) + 3Ahpr2 = 0. then. which act on the bounding surface S. 116) with three faces parallel to the coordinate planes. The notation Fn thus associates a surface force with a surface element of unit normal n... If the area of the inclined face is A. the faces normal to x. Consider now a small tetrahedron (Fig.
we have Fn = n (i Fx + i Fy + k Fe). (3) c= i Fx + j Fy + k F=.. z) = 0. F.. If n is a unit vector along the line n. and thE x Fla. is called the stress dyadic at P. etc. 0 so that the tetrahedron shrink. With these values. since F_x = Fr. x) + F_ cos (n.p3k. hence Fn = pn. we assume as an experimenta fact that the stress across any surface element of a fluid in equilibrium is a pressure normal to the element.. (2) becomes pa=niplifnj P2j+nkp3k. to the vertex P. . (2) All surface forces in (2) now refer to the point P. we have in the limit F.711. 116 part toward which n points acts upon the other part with the fort( F. and. Fv = . Thus a plan( through P normal to n divides the body into two parts..254 HYDRODYNAMICS §I II If we divide out A and let h . The dyadic. + F_x cos (n. y) + F_Z cos (n. it effects a synthesis of all surfac( forces at P by means of the relation. cos (n. (4) If the deformable body is a fluid.p2J. per unit of surface at P. x) = n i. = . Fz = .
the stress dyadic is (6) `. = n 4. Viscous fluids in motion do exert tangential stresses. f[PRxr+ V. We shall develop the mechanics of fluids on the hypothesis of purely normal stress. in turn. in . but in many problems these tangential stresses are small and may be neglected. For fluids in motion it is no longer true that only normal stresses exist.4)ds= (1) and (2) become xrdS=  f(R + V )dV=0. F. for a perfect fluid the stress dyadic is pI. 255 and. 117. any portion of it bounded by a closed surface S is in equilibrium under its body forces and the surface forces acting on S. Then. If a body in a strained state is in equilibrium. we have p=P1=P2=P3 At any point within a fluid the pressure is the same in all directions. and the equations of equilibrium are (1) fRdv+fn. k . Let the body forces be R per unit of mass.. from (116. We imply this assumption by speak ing of perfect or nonviscous fluids. (2) (b) dS = 0. and let the surface forces Fn per unit of area be given by the stress dyadic 4.1) dS = f v 4dV. = p(ii + ii + kk) = pI. If we transform the surface integrals by means of (106.(xr)]dV = 0. . At any point where the pressure is p. where (2) is the moment equation about the origin. Equilibrium of a Deformable Body.ds=o J'r x Rp dV + jr x (n .117 EQUILIBRIUM OF A DEFORMABLE BODY . frx(n.5). on multiplying by i (5) j .4).
whereas the tangential components. Since 4) is symmetric. we see that the moment equation (2) requires that the stress dyadic (D be symmetric. V. j. (4) pRxr+V. Yy. the components of shear perpendicular to their line of intersection are equal. for. and a. Zx = XZ. if we write 4) = i F. a a (aFx a yy aFZ\ (Fxxr) +a (F. the stress dyadic may be written in the nonion form. The equations of equilibrium are. are equal in pairs. and hence 4) = 0. If we write Fx = i Xx f . so that 4) = a ii + j3 jj + y kk Then i. or components of shear. Xx (6) Yx Zx . . in perpendicular planes. the vector invariant of c. The normal components of stress Xx. their integrands must be identically zero. More specifically. we always can find three mutually orthogonal vectors i.(4)xr) . c = Xy XZ Y. In view of the theorem of § 68.r) +az ax y Fx'< (FZxr)  ax + a + az xr0. . (8) are the principal stresses at the point in question.z + j Fy + k F2. k.(V 4)) r = 0. ZZ occur in the principal diagonal. YZ = Zy.j Yx + k Zx. (7) Xy = Yx.(cxr) =0. by virtue of its symmetry. we obtain (5) From (5) we conclude that 4). is zero. . therefore (3) =0.256 HYDRODYNAMICS § 117 Since these integrals vanish for an arbitrary choice of S. k give the principal directions of stress. j. +Fyx+F2xar= ay az ax Fxxi+Fyxj+FLxk=0. Zy YZ ZZ where. . On eliminating pR from these equations.
A S. frxgdrn (2)  f S is rxnpodS . Floating Body. the equation of equilibrium (117. librium of the body are: (1) fgdm ispondS i+ p1ndS = 0.3) is therefore Vp = pR. pi = pgz the hydrostatic pressure at depth z. . po on S2. (1) Consider a liquid of constant density p in equilibrium under gravity. where p = po when z = 0.f rnpl dS = 0. and pgz is called the hydrostatic pressure. Let the sur face S of a floating body V be divided by its plane section A at the water line into two parts: S1 submerged. If the origin is at a free surface.§ 119 FLOATING BODY 257 118. and (2) Op = pg = pgk = pg Oz = V (pgz) Hence when the zaxis is directed downward along a plumb line (3) p = p. 119. while p1 acts on the closed surface Fia. Hence the equations of equi. The body force per unit mass is then g.8). Equilibrium of a Fluid. po is the atmospheric pressure. from (86. the weight of the body. fpondS = po in dS = 0. S2 in air (Fig.9z + po.+A We consider in turn the integrals in (1) : fgdm = W. or we may say that po acts over S. 119). po + pi acts on S. the acceleration of gravity. If po is the atmospheric pressure. 119 S1 + A (pl = 0 on A) enclosing the volume V1 below the water line. For a fluid the stress dyadic is 4_ pI and Vp.
a at dV = J at dV' . Let p and v denote the density and velocity of a fluid at the point P and at the instant t. W = W1i this is the Therefore (1) states that PRINCIPLE OF ARCHIMEDES: A floating body in equilibrium displaces its own weight of liquid. Equation of Continuity. This mass is increasing at the rate. the center of mass of a continuous body is defined by (4) mr* = f r dm. ojnxrdS = po Ifrot r dV = 0. this states that the center of mass of the body and of the displaced liquid are on the same vertical. sider the mass of fluid dV within a fixed but arbitrary closed ap surface S. the weight of the displaced liquid.r) = 0. we have the following integrals to consider: f v gxrdm = gx f v rdm = gxmr* = Wxr*. s s n x pir dS = Trot (p1r) dV = vt s+A =gx vt j(Opl) x r dV v pr dV = g x m1r= W1 x r. Similarly. we note that the center of mass of a discrete set of particles Pi of mass mis defined as a centroid (9. its position vector r* is given by (3) mr* = where m is the total mass.3). In order to interpret (2). Thus (2) reduces to W x (r* .258 HYDRODYNAMICS § 120 n pl dS = Vpi dV = fpg dV = W1. Con120. If we change signs throughout in (2).
§ 120 EQUATION OF CONTINUITY 259 the time differentiation being local. Along the actual path. notes the outward unit normal. df (3) of dt at +v Of.5) is applied. we conclude that ap (1) at + div (pv) = 0. the density p(t. . For any tensor function f(t. namely. r) of time and position.op' connecting the substantial and local changes of p.fn in pv dS. We thus obtain the important relation. where n de pv dS = . z = z(t). Since the integral of ap/at + div (pv) over any closed region within the fluid is zero. x.fdiv (pv) dV. we have. z) becomes a function of t alone. This equation of continuity may be put in another form by intro. y = y(t). in the same way. y. Hence at Iap d V = . associated with a fluid particle moving with the velocity v. (2) dt at + v . ducing the substantial rate of change dp/dt instead of the local time rate Op/at. of a fluid particle. This rate must equal the rate at which fluid is entering S. or line of motion. when the divergence theorem (106. x = x(t). and dp OP OP dx ap dy ap dz dt at OP + Ox dt + ay dt + OP az dt OP at +° \l dp OP + ap + k OZ gives the time rate at which the density of a moving fluid particle is changing.
an attenuation of the fluid at the point considered.v dS = fdiV v dV = 0. dp/dt = 0. p) of the fluid as functions of the time at all points of space (r) occupied by the fluid. together with the reversed inertia forces (ma). Hence. For an incompressible fluid. consequently. frx(R . may be treated as a system in statical equilibrium. In a perfect fluid the surface force is a normal pressure: Fn = pn (§ 116). . the body and surface forces. (6) in . and (5) div v = 0. If an incompressible fluid is also homogeneous.a)pdV  (2) f rXn pdS = 0. In the Eulerian or statistical method of treatment we aim at finding the velocity. Thus a positive value of div v implies a negative dp/dt and. This equation has the integral equivalent.2).Vp + p div v.260 HYDRODYNAMICS § 121 From (85. Consider the fluid within a fixed closed surface S at any instant t. density. hence the equation of continuity (1) also may be written dp (4) dt+pdivv=0. if the body force per unit mass is denoted by R. 121. (1) f(R_a)Pdv_fnpds=o. p. and pressure (v. p is constant. D'Alembert's Principle applied to the fluid enclosed by S gives the equation. the "flux" of an incompressible fluid across the boundary of a fixed closed surface within the fluid is zero. Since div v = . Eulerian Equation for a Fluid in Motion. By D'Alembert's Principle.(dp/dt)/p we can interpret div v as the relative time rate of decrease of density of a fluid particle having the velocity v. div (pv) = v . hence the term divergence.
the rate of change of fluid velocity at a fixed point. From (85. (5) becomes dv (9) dt = .Vp = 0. . dp P dP 1 Moreover. P 1 Here a = dv/dt is the acceleration of a moving fluid particle and must be distinguished from av/at. Under these conditions such forces are said to be conservative. P P dp then VP = . These substantial and local rates of change are connected by the relation (120. When (3) holds good.Vp.3). we have f {(Ra)pVp}dV=0. Since these integrals vanish for any choice of S. The Eulerian Equation of Motion is therefore (5) a=RVp.Vv.3) : dv av (6) a dt at +v . we introduce the function: (7) P = fe .v (Q + P). When the density p is a function of p only. the integrands are identically zero. rot (pr) = (Vp) x r. (8) R = . On transforming the surface integrals in (1) and (2).. the equations of motion are therefore (3) (4) (R .VQ. (4) is identically satisfied and may be omitted.5 121 EULERIAN EQUATION FOR A FLUID IN MOTION 261 where a denotes the acceleration of the fluid particles. if the body force R has a singlevalued scalar potential Q (§ 102). rx(Ra)prxVp=0.a)p .Vp = . f {r x (R .a)p + rot (pr) } dV = 0.
ww) r} (85.21w2(x2 + y2) = cont. from (54. is simply an identity. its velocity distribution is that of a rigid body. vp = w x OP.3) applied to r. Equation (120.14) hence. They are not the actual paths of the fluid particles except when the flow is steady.iw2(x2 + y2) = cont.2w2 0(x2 + y2). Starting with the Eulerian Equation in the form. If the fluid is revolving with constant angular velocity w = wk about a vertical axis. that is. The. Q + P . co x (w x r) = r .w2I) Now . if the density is constant. at + v we transform v Vv by means of (85.z2) . R = g. P = p/p. or simply v = w x r. Vorticity. 1 w2 v(r2 . hence. if the zaxis is directed upward.3). from (i).v x rot v = 2 V(v v) . when v is constant in time (av/at = 0).(ww .v x rot v. In this case. and Q = gz. (ii) becomes gz + p/p . V[Q + P  2W2(x2 + y2)1= 0. and. we have.9) and (85. 122.lines of the fluid which at any instant are everywhere tangent to v are called its streamlines.7) : v Vv = (Vv) v . The streamlines have the differential equation v x dr = 0. and (9) becomes (i) 4 wx(wxr) = V(Q+P). Example. Then a = w x v.2v{r (w2I . av (1) vv = . a free surface is therefore a paraboloid of revolution. At a free surface p is constant. Revolving Fluid.V (Q + P). so that ar/at = 0. with the origin on the axis of revolution. .262 HYDRODYNAMICS § 122 In the Eulerian method r and t are independent variables. For gravitational body forces. dr or dt I=v.
ex. In (3) we now replace rot v by 2w. rot av vxroty = 0. the motion of the individual fluid particles is followed from their initial positions ro . when we make use of (85. rot v = 2w (§ 84. drot y dt + (rot v) (div v) = (rot v) When v gives the velocities of a rigid body having the instantaneous angular velocity w.v . d (w _ This is known as Helmholtz's Equation.6) and (84. Lagrangian Equation of Motion. becomes ldw p dt d(1\ +wdt\p/ w = P co vv. For a liquid we may regard (4) w=yrot V as the molecular rotation or vorticity of the fluid particles. since arot y at (3) drot y dt ' Vv. diV v = p d /1\ dt p Then (3).§ 123 LAGRANGIAN EQUATION OF MOTION 263 hence (1) may be written (2) . (5) dp dt + p diV v =0.4). 123. after division by p.13) .)..11).(rot v) (div v). In the Lagrangian or historical method of dealing with a moving fluid. from (84. and. from the equation of continuity (120.vxroty = o(Q + P + 2v2). and. at arot V = rot (v x rot v) at = (rot v) Vv . at av Now.V rot v .
In particular. and.264 HYDRODYNAMICS § 123 to their position r after a time t. if we multiply (2) by vro as prefactor. since mass is conserved. and. The element of mass Po dVo becomes p dV = pJ dVo. the Jacobian a(xo. Thus the history of each fluid particle is traced. r is a function of the independent variables ro and t. z). so that the dyadics vor and vro are reciprocal. when f = ro. zo)/a(x. y. we have (3) I = vor vro. If we use rectangular coordinates. d (7) PJ = Po or dt (pJ) = 0. since (1) dr = dro vor. and vof = dro Dor of for arbitrary displacements dro. Consequently. If the function f(r) is associated with a fluid particle. Since . axo/ax (6) ayo/ax ayo/ay ayo/az azo/ax azo/ay vro = axo/ay axo/az azo/az and J is the determinant of this matrix. In space differentiation we may form gradients relative to r or ro. namely. we have dro (2) vol = vor vf. where J denotes the third scalar invariant of vro (§ 70) : thus (5) dV = J dVo. This is the equation of continuity in the Lagrangian method. we have (4) of = vro vof An element of fluid volume dVo is altered by the transformation (1) in the ratio J/1. Thus we may compute df (§ 90) as either df = dro vo f or df = dr Vf. yo. these are denoted by the symbols V and vo.
from (3). Since ro and t are the independent variables. the time derivative of Vro Vor is zero. If we make use of (4). Multiplying this equation by Oro as postfactor now gives dt \p / 10 ' Oro + d p \dt orb/ w P dt \p (00 PO fro/ . d (dJ dt (PJ) = P dt J div v = 0. from (2). and (9) becomes d w p ( (oor) v} = . With the aid of the dyadic Vor we may integrate Helmholtz's Equation (122. since. and (7) is equivalent to dJ (8) . hence the left member of (9) may be written d { (10) (Vor) v} .4). thus (9) Vor dv dt = Vor V(Q + P) _ oo(Q + P).(Vov) v = d dt { (cor) v} . . .Vo(Q + P zv2).9) is obtained by multiplying the latter by Vor as prefactor. dt The Dynamical Equation of Lagrange corresponding to the Eulerian Equation (121.vozv2. the constant wo/Po being the value of (w/p) Vro when t = 0.= J div v. Multiplication by Vor gives finally P PO This is Cauchy's integral of Helmholtz's Equation.0.6). this becomes d/ w\ dt w p d dt w p d dt p ) Vor.§ 123 LAGRANGIAN EQUATION OF MOTION 265 dp/dt = p div v from (120.Vro = . the symbols Vo and d/dt commute.
B dr= fo Bp vo(Q. then co = (p/po) X dr. Thus we have proved the THEOREM. we need only differentiate (11) with respect to t: thus d(w P = wo P0 pr = 0 Po Ov= coo G'r Po P The lines of a fluid which are everywhere tangent to w are Their differential equation is cox dr = 0. . 124. and let its differential equation be wo x dro = 0. the vortexlines move with the fluid. After a time t. the flow is called the circulation. If the path is closed. If the body forces have a potential and p = f (p) or Vortexlines always constant. if coo = X dro. w= P coo Vor. If the path AB at time t was AoBo when t = 0. that is. dr = dro Vor.266 HYDRODYNAMICS 124 To verify this integral. the flow over AB is and. f v6 dr = jOdro a { (Vor) v When the body forces have a potential Q and p = f(p). wo X dro = 0 implies w X dr = 0. from (123. consist of the same fluid particles. J. since ro and t are independent variables. Consider a vortex line at the instant t = 0. we have. Flow and Circulation. The tangential line integral of the velocity of a fluid along any path is called the flow along that path. f B v dr f dro Ao Bo (Vor) v.I+ Ao Bo ' v) LBdr V( Q+P2v2). coo and dro become called its vortexlines. Po Hence.10).
§ 125 IRROTATIONAL MOTION 267 or. in a simply connected region the lines of motion cannot form closed curves. then <p is a For an incompressible fluid.11) shows that. If the body forces have a potential and p = f(p) or constant. Cauchy's Equation (123. and harmonic function. 125.dr= d [Q . The last result is Kelvin's CIRCULATION THEOREM. the circulation over any closed curve moving with the fluid does not alter with the time. we may express v as the gradient of a scalar (§ 102) . The equation of continuity (120. the circulation around it remains zero (circulation theorem. cp continually decreases. d fv. Hence. along any line of motion.4) now becomes (2) p02(p dt  = 0. Then rot v = 0 in space and time. and the motion is termed irrotational. it will remain zero thereafter. thus (1) v = Vs . it remains irrotational thereafter. if the motion is irrota tional at any instant.P + v2]and. and (p is called the velocity potential. V2(P = 0. and. since the last integrand is a perfect differential. P=ro fr v dr. In any simply connected por tion of the fluid. dp/dt = 0. (1) in particular.dr=0. § 124). as this curve moves with the fluid. Irrotational Motion. (2) dt fv. Then the velocity is everywhere normal to the equipotential surfaces (p = const and is directed toward decreasing potentials. From this fact we again may deduce that. When the body forces have a potential and p = f(p) or constant. if the vorticity of a fluid vanishes at any instant. By Stokes' Theorem "the circulation iv dr = 0 over any re ducible curve (§ 102) . .
V (a(p/at) . Q + P + 2 v2 is an absolute constant. The problem consists in finding a solution of V2V = 0 which conforms to the given conditions. since it disappears in v = . Hence (4) Q+P+1 2 . a/at (r constant) and a space differentiation V (t constant) commute with each other. in a flow with central symmetry. A flow is said to be steady when it is invariable in time. Every harmonic function cp represents some irrotational flow of an incompressible liquid whose velocity v = VV. The Eulerian Equation (122. if the flow is steady. Thus ap/ at = 0. . and. =a. a is determined. and the equation of continuity (120. hence T V(Q + P + 2v2) _ 0. T v X rot v = 0. and the flux per second through any sphere of radius r about the origin is constant: 47rr2 (a/r2) = 47ra. for a local time differentiation.2) now becomes (2) vxroty = v(Q+P+1v2).ail = 0. from (89.r 2 d`p a Now v = aR/r2 where R is a unit radial vector. If T is a unit tangent along a streamline (T x v = 0) or a vortex line (TX rot v = 0). or (3) d ds (Q + P + Zv2) = 0 along a stream. <p must be a function of r alone.268 HYDRODYNAMICS § 126 The equation of motion (122. we choose b = 0.at = f (t) an arbitrary function of the time. The value of b is immaterial. 126. Also av/at = 0 and the streamlines are also lines of motion.2) reduces to (3) v (Q +P+ 2v2 . v2 V 1d 2 d`pl r2dr Cr drJl 0. For example.or vortexline. Then all local time derivatives are zero. since av/at = .vcp. Steady Motion. hence.1) is simply (1) div (pv) = 0. r dr=b. When this flux is given.17). as it is customary to have <p vanish at infinity.
v dS = 0. we have. (3) Q + P + v2 = const z along any 'streamline or vortexline. Now suppose that the fluid has a constant density p.Pvo C2 . (4) Q+P+zv2=C. If the tube is sufficiently thin.1) 2 2 . this is nearly fulfilled in the case of a liquid.z) . in general. p . However. Let the body forces have a potential and P = f(p) or constant. vo). we have (5) Q=gz. let the normal cross section be denoted by A. and (6) becomes (7) . where C is an absolute constantthe same throughout the fluid. we have approximately v1A1 . their potential is gz. if the motion is irrotational as well as steady.po = Pg(zo . (6) If z.v dS = 0 to the portion between A 1 and A2. V(Q+P+zv2) = 0. Along any tube whose surface consists of streamlines. v are known at the section A0 (zo. gz + p P + 2 v2 = const along a streamline. The constant will vary. or vA = const as the equation of continuity along a tube of flow. and we apply f n . p.3126 STEADY MOTION 269 We thus have proved BERNOULLI'S THEOREM. from one line to another. for a steady flow. Thus with P=p/P. po. Pg(zZ)+(ppo)+zP(v2 vo)=0. then. The equation of continuity is div v = 0 or fn . from (5). If the liquid is subject only to gravitational body forces.v2A2 = 0. where z is measured upward from a horizontal reference plane. For a thin tube we may take vA = v0A0.
The flux across any curve C in the xyplane is defined as the volume of liquid per second crossing a right cylindrical surface of unit height based on C. Plane Motion. 49Z Of and. the flow may be regarded as steady. where h is the distance from the free surface to the orifice. similarly. k x T are unit vectors along the zaxis. the flux crossing C from (his) right to left is (1) x fkxT. 127 here k. . and vo = vA/Ao. At this surface PO is the atmospheric pressure. and. Velocity. div f = Div f. With these values we have. we have. density. and pressure are all functions of x and y alone. FIG. For an observer who travels the curve in the positive sense of s. When Ao is large compared with A. for any tensor function f(x. and the outflow speed is v. the motion is said to be plane. Such motion is completely determined by the motion in 7r. Example. Consider a stream tube extending from the orifice of the area A to the upper surface where its area is Ao.dr. provided k rot (v x k) = 0 (§ 103.vds=fvxk. which may be taken as the xyplane. at the orifice p = po. When liquid escapes from an orifice near the bottom of a vessel which is kept filled to a constant level.z) = 2gh. When the flow is the same in all planes parallel to a fixed plane it and the velocity has no component normal to Tr. the tangent and normal to the curve (Fig. Torricelli's Law. a result known as Torricelli's Law. 127).1).= Grad f. y).270 HYDRODYNAMICS § 127 Thus the pressure is least at the narrowest part of the tube.A2/A0) = 2g(zo . 127. In any simply connected portion of the fluid the flux across a plane curve joining two points will be independent of the path. grad f = Grad f + k . v2(1 . T. from (6). rot f = Rot f. we have approximately v2 = 2gh. from (97. theorem 1).
§ 127
PLANE MOTION
271
From (85.6),
rot (v x k) = k  Vv  k div v = k div v.
For an incompressible fluid, div v = 0 (120.5) and F will be independent of the path. Hence
(2)
¢(r)
ro
defines a scalar point function; and, from § 103, theorem 2,
Grad 4, = v x k, since v x k lies in the xyplane. Writing V for Grad, we have
(3)
V,k=vxk,
v=kxVik.
V,' is everywhere normal and v everywhere tangent to the
curves t = const; these curves are therefore streamlines (§ 121). Consequently, the function is called the stream function.
If we set g = 4k, we have
(4)
rot g=kxV,,=v,
divg=0;
thus the velocity has the vector potential ,pk (§ 92). From (85.6), we have
(5)
rot v = rot (k x
k V2VI.
Therefore the plane motion of an incompressible fluid will be irrotational when and only when the stream function is harmonic:
(6)
V2W = 0.
In this case v =  Vq: the velocity has a scalar potential (p; and,
since
(7)
V2(p= dive=0,
v= V<p=kxV#,
the velocity potential is also harmonic. From
we have the relations,
(8)
Vp = (VP) x k,
app
VL. = k x Vsp;
or, in terms of rectangular coordinates,
i
a,k
3
=ij491P
ax
ay
ay
ax
272
HYDRODYNAMICS
5 127
Thus (8) is equivalent to the equations:
(9)
ax
at ay '
49 (P
alp
ay
ax
But these are precisely the CauchyRiemann Equations which connect the real and imaginary parts of the analytic function w = <p + i>y of the complex variable z = x + iy. We thus have proved the important
THEOREM. In any plane, irrotational motion of an incompressible fluid, the velocity potential p and the stream function ' are two harmonic functions which combine into an analytic function V + i¢ of a complex variable x + iy.
i1G), we see that, if cp + iy is analytic, 4, + i<p is also; consequently, if cp and ' are the velocity potential
Since ,y + icp =
and stream function for an irrotational plane flow, 4, and V are the corresponding functions for another flow of this type. From (8), we have Ocp 0¢ = 0: the streamlines (4i = const) cut the equipotential lines (,p = const) at right angles.
Since the complex potential w = cp + i>G is an analytic function
of z,
a w'==+i=i;
dw
dz
app
.9,P
ag'
ax
ag
ax
ax
ay
or, since the velocity has the components,
vx
1 Vc
ax
,
vY
j Vc
app
ay
,
(10)
w' _ vz+ivy,
 w' = vx+ivy)
where w' denotes the conjugate of w'. Thus the velocity at any point is given by the complex vector w'; its magnitude is I w' 1.
Example 1. Assume the complex potential w = azn (a real); then, if we write z = rete, w = arner'ne = arn(COS n9 + i sin no);
,p = amcosn9,
4, = amsinn9.
The streamlines are the curves whose polar equations are rn sin n9 = const.
For the cases n = 1, 2, 1, we put z = x + iy, using rectangular coordinates.
(a)
n = 1:
w = az = ax + iay.
§ 128
KUTTAJOUKOWSKY FORMULAS
273
The streamlines are the lines y = const, and the flow has the constant ve
locity t3' = a in the direction of x. (b) n = 2: w = az2 = a(x2  y2) + i2axy.
The equipotential and streamlines are the two families of equilateral hyperbolas,
x2  y2 = const,
xy = const.
Since the streamline xy = 0 may be taken as the positive halves of the xaxis and yaxis, these may be considered as fixed boundaries and the motion re
garded as a steady flow of liquid in the angle between two perpendicular walls. The velocity at any point is zb' _ 2a2; its magnitude varies directly
as the distance from the origin.
(c)
n = 1:
w = a/z = a(x  iy)/(x2 + y2).
y/(x2 + y2) = const,
The equipotential and streamlines are two families of circles:
x/(x2 + y2) = const,
tangent to yaxis and xaxis, respectively, at the origin. The velocity w' = a/22 becomes infinite at the origin.
Example 2. With the complex potential,
w = V(z +a2/Z) = V(reie + a2r 'e'°), (V real),
= V r + a2 r
a2
cos B,
>G=
V ra2a2sin 0. r
The streamline 4, = 0 includes the circle r = a and the xaxis sin 0 = 0.
Since w' = V(1  a2/z2), the complex velocity,
/
2b'=V(1a22/.V
as
z + oo.
Therefore we may regard the motion as a flow to the left about an infinite cylindrical obstacle of radius a. At a great distance from the obstacle, the flow has a sensibly uniform velocity  Vi.t When body forces are neglected, the Bernoulli Equation (126.4) gives p/p + 1v2 = const. From the symmetry of the flow about the cylinder, it is clear that the total pressure exerted by the fluid on the cylinder is zero. We shall consider this matter for cylinders of arbitrary section in the next article.
128. KuttaJoukowsky Formulas. Consider an incompressible fluid flowing past an infinite cylindrical obstacle of arbitrary cross section. The flow, in a plane perpendicular to the generators of the cylinder, is assumed to have the sensibly uniform velocity v
at a great distance from the obstacle. Then, if the motion is
t See Lamb, Hydrodynamics, Cambridge, 1916, p. 75, for the streamlines.
274
HYDRODYNAMICS
§ 128
steady and irrotational, and the body forces on the fluid are neglected, we have, from (126.4),
(1)
p=K v  v,
where K is an absolute constant. If n is a unit internal normal to the boundary C of the obstacle (Fig. 128),
(2)
F
=jnpds,
c
Ay
M
=frxnpds
c
give the resultant force and moment about the origin exerted by
0
FIG. 128
x
fluid pressure on a unit length of cylinder. Substituting p from (1) in these integrals and noting that
in ds = 0, Jr x n ds = J rot r dA = 0,
from (101.5), (101.7), we have
(3)
F=
2
J
When the flow is given by the complex potential w = + i4,, we shall compute these integrals after converting them into circuit integrals in the complex zplane.
The vectors r = xi + yj and r = xi  yj correspond to z and
its conjugate 2:
r
7
z = x + iy = r(cos d + i sin 0) = re'6,
2 = x  iy = r(cos 0  i sin 0) =
ret0.
§ 128
KUTTAJOUKOWSKY FORMULAS
275
By definition,
r1
r2 = r1r2 cos (02  01),
hence
r
Thus
(4)
(5)
r1
1
r2
r2 and r1 x r2 k correspond to the real and imaginary
r1
' it
r1 x r2 = rlr2 sin (02  01)k;
12
rre,(B2B,)
1
x rk =
2
= 202
parts of 21z2:
r2  (R(21x2) = 2 (21z2 + x122),
r1 x r2 . k 9(202) = 2 (21z2 
Note also that k x r ti iz; for the multiplications by k x and
i (= eia/2) both revolve a vector in the xyplane through 7r/2. When r1 and r2 are perpendicular or parallel we have, respectively,
(6)
(7)
r1
r2 = 0  21z2 + z122 = 0,
rl x r2 = 0  21z2  z122 = 0.
Turning now to the integrals (3), we have the internal normal n = k x T for a counterclockwise circuit of C; hence
nds = kxTds = kxdridz.
Moreover, if v'' v, then v v ,..' v v, and
c
The moment M, normal to the plane, is completely specified by the scalar,
2
and, since
P
c
k r x (k x T) ds = (k x r) (k x T) ds = r dr '' 01(2 dz),
M
P
v v 0? (2 dz)
2
c
2 P
G1
c
vi 2 dz.
t The real and imaginary parts of any complex number z are (R(z) _ 2(z + 2) and 4(z) = 2(z  2). Note also that the conjugate of a product is
the product of the conjugates: z
= 2122.
276
HYDRODYNAMICS
§ 128
But v and dz are parallel along C, which forms part of a stream, line; hence v dz = v d2, from (7), and we have
F = P
i
JV2 dz,
2
M
dz
2
c
for the corresponding complex force and moment. Finally we form F and replace v2z dz in M by its conjugate v2z dz; thus
(8)
P
2JC
j J02 dz=
v2
C
P z
dw 2dz,
c
dz
P
(dw
2
(9)
M =  2 6l
z dz = 
2
a?
C
\
dz) z dz,
2
since v = dw/dz (127.10). These integrals exist if dw/dz remains finite over C. Now, outside of C, v is an analytic function which approaches v at infinity. The Laurent series for v therefore has the form:
(10)
2' = P. + al/z + a2/z2 + a3/z3 + .. .
If C. is a large circle of radius R about the origin and enclosing Cwe have, by Cauchy's Integral Theorem,
ff(z) dz = ff(z) dz,
y=
if f (z) is analytic between C and C
.$
Thus the counterclockwise circulation about C is
fcv
dr ti i J(P dz  v dz)
dz
dz.
cW
c
Moreover the static moment of the circulation is
µ=
those involving
dz
fry drfzvdz = fz3dz.
C
If we replace v by the series in (10), all integrals vanish except
Reie i dB
Reie
21r
JC. z 1940, §§ 267, 268.
 i f dB = 2ri.
t See, for example, Franklin, A Treatise on Advanced Calculus, New York,
§ 128
KUTTAJOUKOWSKY FORMULAS
277
We thus find
(11)
y = 27ri al, From (10), we have
µ = 27ri a2.
We now can compute the integrals in (8) and (9) in terms of
v,,, y, and /2.
v2
2 = v2 + 2a1v /z + (2a25 + a1 ) /z2 + .. .
When this series is substituted in (8) and (9), all integrals vanish
except
(12)
fdz/z = 2rri; hence
F=2i
ipyv,,,
F = ipyv,,;
(13) M =  2 6?(2a2v + a2 l)27ri = pR?()u0)
since a2 = y2/4r is real, and ff?(2iri a2) = 0. In vector notation these give
(14)
F = pykxv,,,
(15)
M= pL
xF,
y
for the resultant force and moment on a unit length of cylinder. From (15) we see that F acts through the point,
(16)
µ/y =
Jr
v
dr/ Jv  dr,
c
which may be called the centroid of the circulation.
The equations (14) and (15) are called the KuttaJoukowsky Formulas. From (14) we see that, for a counterclockwise circulation (y > 0), the force F is upward if the flow is horizontal and to
the left (v =  Vi); we then have a lift of pyVj per unit length
of cylinder. The counterclock circulation diminishes the flow velocity below the cylinder and increases it above; by Bernoulli's Theorem this results in an excess of pressure below with a consequent upward lift. In the absence of circulation about the cylinder (y = 0), F = 0, and there can be no lift. This is the case in § 127, ex. 2, where
w = V(z + a2/z),
v = dw/dz =  V(1  a2/z2),
and a1 = 0 in the Laurent series.
278
HYDRODYNAMICS
§ 129
129. Summary: Hydrodynamics. For a perfect (nonviscous)
fluid the stress dyadic is pI; at any point within a fluid the
pressure is the same in all directions and exerted normal to a surface element. If f (t, r) is any tensor function associated with a fluid particle moving with the velocity v, its substantial rate of change is
df
dt
of
Vf, at + V
where of/8t is the local rate of change. In the Eulerian method of dealing with fluid motion, the aim is to compute v, p, and p as functions of the independent variables r, t. The (kinematic) equation of continuity is
8p
at
+div(pv) =
dp
dt
+pdivv=0;
and, for an incompressible fluid (dp/dt = 0), becomes div v = 0. The Eulerian Equation of Motion is
(E)
dt=V(Q+P),
P=f dp,
when the body forces have a potential Q and the density a function of p only. From this we can deduce the Differential Equation of Helmholtz for the vorticity co = 1 rot v:
dt \p/ =
P
Vv.
In the Lagrangian method the aim is to follow the motion of the fluid particles from their initial positions ro (t = 0) to their positions r after a time t. The independent variables are now ro and
t; the position r of a particle at time t is a function of ro and t. We may take gradients relative to ro(V0) or r(V); and these conform to the relations,
Vof = Vor Of,
becomes
Vf = Vro Vof;
Vor
Vro = I.
If J is the third scalar of the dyadic Vro, the equation of continuity
pJ = po,
or dJ/dt = J div v.
§ 129
SUMMARY: HYDRODYNAMICS
279
The Lagrangian Equation of Motion corresponding to the Eulerian Equation (E) is
(L)
Vor
dv
dt
=  Vo(Q + P).
From this we deduce Cauchy's integral of Helmholtz's Equation,
0)0 _=.Vor;
(0
P
Po
and this in turn shows that vortexlines (co x dr = 0) move with
the fluid. We find, moreover, that the circulation
f
v dr over
any closed curve moving with the fluid does not alter with the time.
When the motion is irrotational (rot v = 0), v =  VV, where
p is the velocity potential, and
iv
dr = 0 over any reducible
curve. When the body forces are conservative and p is a function of p alone,
Q+P+
Zv2
 a = f (t), an arbitrary function of t.
For a steadymotion equation (E) gives
vxroty=V(Q+P+Zv2);
whence Bernoulli's Theorem: Q + P + Zv2 is constant along a
streamline or vortexline, and this constant is absolute if the
steady motion is also irrotational. For an incompressible fluid in plane motion, the integral independent of the path,
¢(r) =
x k dr (k I. plane of motion),
defines the stream function. The curves 4, = const are the streamlines (v x dr = 0). If the motion is also irrotational, both stream function and velocity potential are harmonic (V2# = 0, V2V = 0),
and V4, = k x VV. This is the vector equivalent of the Cauchy
Riemann Equations which guarantee that w = p + iii is an analytic function of the complex variable z = x + iy in the plane of
motion. The complex potential w therefore has a unique derivative dw/dz; and the negative of its conjugate gives the complex velocity
vector: v = w'.
6. show that equilibrium is only possible when R R. With cylindrical coordinates r. if the bounding surface F(r.] 4. t) = 0 varies with the time. ex. 0. a a v=rb. show that PC.ao is not single valued (a. For a liquid of constant density p under the action of gravity alone. show that the fluid must satisfy the boundary condition v VF = 0.7).] 2. A sphere of radius a is moving in a fluid with the constant velocity u. rot v = r dr [ref (r)]c. 1 by r. 5. [Cf. show that the fluid satisfies the boundary condition F + v 7F = 0 condition [Cf. Show that for a tube PoP of length s a J8PA ds + pAv 0. prove that v = rf(r)b. rZ (Fig.] . rot R = 0. show that the pressure is given by gz+p+const. Show that at the surface of the sphere the velocity of the fluid satisfies the !vu) (r .1) show that when p is a function of p alone. b. More generally. If p is not a function of p alone. z (we replace p. A mass of liquid is revolving about a vertical axis with the angular speed f(r). If the angular velocity w = f(r)c. (120. If the motion in Problem 1 is irrotational. rg. let a. 0 to avoid conflict with the notation of Chapter VII). From the equation of fluid equilibrium (118. p in § 89.. . where r is the perpendicular distance from the axis. (89. c be unit vectors in the directions of r. [Cf. $ are and that the velocity potential v = constants). If a fluid is bounded by a fixed surface F(r) = 0. rot R = 0 and that the potential of R is P. A fluid flows through a thin tube of variable cross section A. (121.280 HYDRODYNAMICS PROBLEMS 1.3). 89a).ut) = 0. hence deduce the equation of continuity at (pA) + as (pAv) = 0. 3..7) for P.
show that fv2dv = where p is the velocity potential and the normal derivative dp/dn is in the direction of the external normal to the bounding surface. If the vorticity is constant throughout an incompressible fluid.PROBLEMS 281 7. prove that V2v = 0. r a. y 8. po into a space where the pressure is p.1 1 . show that the free surface is given by Z = za. [Cf. +2 .c2).1 (c0 .] 10.14).] 12. (84.6) that w Vv = v Vw.+(r2a2) w2a2 ! Z = Z.2J . [Cf. hence show that v2 _ 2 . p f v v dV) than any other motion (vl) satisfying [Put vi = v + v'. show that the velocity v of efflux when the motion becomes steady is given by v2 = 2y y=1 7?0 y . p/py = const. a2` Prove that the bottom of the vortex (r = 0) is a distance w2a2/g below the general level (r = oc) of the liquid. If z = za at the free surface when r = a. Show that Ti = T + T'.1). \ r r 5 a. When the motion of an incompressible fluid is steady. The velocity of sound in a gas is c = 1'yp/p.(p/po) 7 } . If an incompressible liquid in irrotational motion occupies a simply connected region. A gas flows from a reservoir in which the pressure and density are po. Prove Kelvin's theorem: The irrotational motion (v) of an incompressible fluid occupying a simply connected region S with finite boundaries has f dodS' less kinetic energy (T = z the same boundary conditions. 9.1 PO 1 . and rotates irrotationally with the angular velocity to = woa2/r2 when r = a. (108. deduce from Helmholtz's Equation (122. If the expansion takes place adiabatically. then div v' = 0 and n v' = 0. 11. where n is the unit normal vector to the boundary S. we have the socalled "combined vortex" of Rankine. show that P= y1p y p Neglecting body forces and the velocity of the gas in the reservoir. (y is the ratio of specific heats). If a body of liquid rotates as a whole from r = 0 to r = a with the constant angular velocity coo.] .
Assuming that the earth is a sphere of incompressible fluid of constant density p and without rotation. .282 HYDRODYNAMICS 13. In example 1 of § 127. correspond to the part of the xaxis from x = fc to x = f co. the attraction on a unit mass at the distance r is 47rtipr3/r2 = gr/a where g is the attraction when r = a. T f a pv2 dV. hence the body force grR/a has the potential 'gr2/a. Show that the streamlines 4. (pg = 5. irrotational motion when the complex potential w = rp + i¢ (§ 127) is given by z = cosh w. = nor.525 X 62. Hence show that the irrotational motion of a liquid occupying a simply connected region is uniquely determined when the value of either w or d'p/dn is specified at each point of the boundary. Show that for an incompressible fluid d(T[U)_15. 17./ft. Since the lines 0 = 0. 16. where a is the radius of the earth. show that the pressure at a distance r from its center is p = 2gpa(1 . Find the radial and transverse components of v at any point (r. Discuss the plane. [If y is the constant of gravitation. If we regard this as a wall. Under the conditions of Problem 11. 0). Show that the equipotential lines and streamlines are the families of confocal ellipses and hyperbolas: xz y2 c2 cosh' v x2 + c2 sinh2 .] Compute the pressure at the center if p is taken equal to the mean density of the earth. C2 COS2 ' c2 sin2 . the integrals.1' with foci at (fc. show that if (a) v = const. 0 = a are parts of the same streamline = 0. or (b) dip/dn = 0 over the boundary.r2/a2). consider the motion when n = r/a(0 < a < r). over the boundary. we have the steady irrotational motion of a liquid within two walls at an angle a. then V is constant throughout the region and v = 0. U= f pQ dV.3).4 lb. 0). where n is any positive integer. represent the kinetic and potential energy of the fluid within the region of integration. 14. If the body forces have a potential Q. we have the case of a liquid streaming through a slit of breadth 2c in an infinite plane.p 2 1.
If p = angle (N.p sin gyp. Substituting this value of B in (2) gives (T f dco/ds) T + K sin p n + K cos (p p. As the point P traverses C with unit speed. n).KB. gives the angular velocity of the moving trihedral TNB. Since the trihedrals Tnp and T T points upward from paper FIG. taken positive in the sense of T. hence N=ncosV . the angular velocity of Tnp relative to TRB is (d<p/ds)T. Consider now the motion of the dextral trihedral Tnp (p = T x n) associated with the curve (Fig.CHAPTER VIII GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE 130. (3) B =TXN=pcosp+nsincp. Let C be any curve on the surface r = r(u.psingyp. Now N X n = T sin p from the definition of p and n x (N x n) . 283 . Curvature of Surface Curves. the Darboux vector.11). Therefore the angular velocity of Tnp is (2) w=S ds \T + ds / {. (1) 6 = TT+KB. 130 TNB have T in common. the motion of Tnp relative to TNB is a rotation about T. v) with unit normal n (94. 130).
since T and N determine the osculating plane at the point (§ 48). With this notation. Since cos p = n N. the geodesic curvature. THEOREM 2. but K and r are unaltered (§ 45).T. Therefore a change of positive sense leaves t and k unaltered. But. we must replace T. the normal curvature and geodesic torsion are the same for all surface curves having a THEOREM 1. y = K sin (p. provided p 56 a/2. s. (8) do k = . ds/dt = 1. the geodesic torsion. y. not tangent to the surface. we see from (6) that the curvature K = k/cos rp is completely determined by T and N at the point considered.4) . (3)' w = tT+yn+kp. For any vector u fixed in Tnb we have du/ds = w X u (56.d<p/ds. the normal curvature. S7 P (since T determines the sense of sp). If we reverse the positive sense on the curve. common tangent there. Since P is moving along the curve with unit speed.284 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 130 The three scalar coefficients in (3) are written t. we may therefore state At a given point of a surface.T. <p by . the curvature of the plane curve cut from the surface by the osculating plane. and we take s = t.11) at all regular points of the surface and do/ds = T Grad n is the same for all surface curves through a point having a common unit tangent T. (6) k= K cos rp. ds Now n is uniquely defined by (94. . ds do t = dsnxT. namely. k and are named as follows: (4) (5) t = r }. From (7). have the same curvature there. we have All curves of a surface passing through a point and having a common osculating plane. but reverses the sign of the geodesic curvature y. hence (7) do =wxn= kTtnxT.
along a line of curvature. THEOREM 3 (Meusnier). = r + n/k. Let e and e' = n X e be two perpendicular unit tangent vectors to the surface r = r(u. The Dyadic Vn.X . according as N. the center of curvature of C at P...§ 131 THL DYADIC vn 285 In view of this theorem. If k 0. namely.n/k. y = 0: geodesic lines or geodesics. But any surface curve C tangent to T at P has c = r + N/K for its center of curvature.cn = N/K . do/ds = t n x T..cn is perpendicular to the osculating plane of C. The center of curvature of any surface curve is the projection of the corresponding center of normal curvature upon its osculating plane if the latter is not tangent to the surface. we now confine our attention to the curvature of plane sections of the surface. and an asymptotic line when r. Hence c . ds ds When k = 0. and (C .= 0. and Kn = ±k. from (7). or k vanish are named as follows: t = 0: lines of curvature. do/ds = k T. k = 0: asymptotic lines. Curves on a surface along which t.. from (6). When t = 0. For this curve Nn = fn.. y. n. from (7). = ds along an asymptotic line.ds 0. cos cp = =E1. is called the center of normal curvature for the direction T. . 131.) N=K 1 cost k = 0. Cn = r + N.. v) at the point Pl.) T = 0.C. The parametric line v = const is a line of curvature when ru x nu = 0. Consider now the normal section Cn of the surface cut by a plane through n and T at P. so that c .Cn. hence (9) dr do . and n have the same or opposite directions. = 0. (c . 1K. hence (10) dr do .
t' = .Div n. Vn = k ee . (2) We have. the values of J and K are independent of the choice of e. k + k' and kk' + tt' have the same value.= e(ke . from (130. For any pair of perpendicular tangents at P. We write (4) (5) J = k + k' = .t' n X e' do do ds' k'e' + t'e. From (1) we find that the first and second scalar invariants of On are .k'e'e' . For brevity. do ds do _ ke .tnxe = ke . t and k'.te') + e'(k'e' + t'e).t. we have (6) k= t= eVne'. _ . Rot n = 0 (96. we therefore have THEOREM 2.te'.t(ee' + e'e). K = kk' .(t + t')n = 0.7). here and elsewhere in this chapter.k'e' . . since its vector invariant. J is called the mean curvature and K the total curvature of the surface at P. we use V instead of Grad since no misunderstanding is possible. in fact. Since On and its invariants are point functions over the surface.8).(k + k') and kk' + tt'. We state the result (2) as THEOREM 1 (Bonnet). (3) Rot n = . (1) Grad n = e ds + e' . we have.t2. From (3). ds' This dyadic is symmetric. The geodesic torsions associated with any two perpendicular tangents at a point of a surface are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. t' are the normal curvature and geodesic torsion associated with these directions.286 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE If k.
it attains its maximum and minimum values for just two normal sections. If the direction el gives an extreme value k1. and char acterized by the vanishing of the geodesic torsion. k' = k2 is a minimum. ±e1 and fee are the only invariant directions at P.k2e2e2. there are certain directions for which k attains its extreme values. The orthogonal directions e1. (9) J = kl + k2. But since k + k' is constant. k2. Then the perpendicular direction e2 = n x e1.4). (7) dk de The extremes of k therefore occur when t = 0. if k = k1 is a maximum. de' =nXe'= e. we have Vn = k1e1e1 . k2. the principal curvatures. If we take e = e1.§ 131 THE DYADIC Cn 287 hence k and t are not altered when e is replaced by e. To find these we examine the variation of k as e revolves about P in the tangent plane. If the normal curvature is finite and not constant at a point of the surface. Moreover. From (4) and (5). gives another extreme value k2. If the angle 0 between e and a fixed line in the tangent plane is taken positive in the sense determined by n. k2Jk+K=0. e' = e2 in (3). the characteristic equation (§ 71) for the symmetric planar dyadic . we have (§ 44) de do =nXe = e'. If we assume that k remains finite at P and is not constant. if k is not constant. and vice versa. Evidently el and e2 are the invariant directions of Vn with multi pliers k1. e2 are called the principal directions at P. do and. K = k1k2. consequently k1 and k2 are roots of the quadratic. (10) On. tl = 0. for which t2 = 0 from (2). and the corresponding normal curvatures k1. at right angles to each other. from (6). We state these results in THEOREM 3. (8) and the symmetric dyadic Vn appears in the standard form (72.
At a surface point the directions for which k = 0 are called From (12). k = K cos p = 0.k1) sin 0 cos 0. Therefore the only surfaces whose points are all umbilical are the plane and sphere. moreover y = ±K. and t = T. the asymptotic directions are given by tan20 = ki/k2 and are real and distinct only when K = klk2 < 0. Along an asymptotic line. 0. V (n + kr) = 0. Since 2t = (k2 . we have (12) (13) e' = elsin0+e2cosO. k2 0 0.nn). it is clear that t attains its extreme values ±(k2 . radius 1/k). Along a curved asymptotic line. If k 0. then kl/k2 = 1. from (7). Taking Vn in the form (8). both asymptotic directions coalesce with the principal direction el. Any direction in the tangent plane at P is an invariant direction with multiplier . and (3) becomes (11) On = k(ee + e'e') = k(I . from (5). All curves on the plane or sphere are lines of curvature (t = 0). to Euler and Bonnet. if K . and. .ki) sin 20. Formulas (6) give k and t for any direction e.k. Example 1. and the surface is a sphere (center c. and P is called an umbilical point or simply an umbilic. When kl = 0. asymptotic. n Irc12 = 1/k2. Example 2. kr=c. k = e (klelel + k2e2e2) e = ki eos2 0 + k2 sin2 0. If k = 0. and the surface is a plane. we have Vn = k or. t = 0 for all directions. In an asymptotic direction. t2 = K. Referred to the principal direction el the asymptotic directions have the and are perpendicular when and only when these slopes slopes f are ±1. and n + kr is constant over the surface.kl)/2 for the directions 0 = fir/4. t=e (k1elel + k2e2e2) e' _ (k2 . and . These equations are due.p = =1= 7r/2. the osculating plane remains tangent to the surface. If the angle (ele) = 0 is reckoned positive in the sense of n (el x e = n sin 0). cos v = 0. If k is constant over the entire surface. and J = kl + k2 = 0.288 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 131 Consider finally the case when k is constant at P. n is a constant. e =elcos0+e2sin0. respectively.
v) : (5) Vr acts as an idemfactor on vectors tangent to the surface at the point (u. Vr = aru + br = I . Fundamental Forms. 132. (15) ds . where a. Vv=b. v) is given by (95. the same is true of the expressions. On differentiating equations (6). and ds = cu x e = kn + ye'. we now have ds ds dVn U / e. ds Since dVn/ds is the same along all surface curves having the common tangent e at a point. the trihedral ee'n has the angular velocity.. On the surface r = r(u. . If e is the unit tangent vector of a surface curve. respectively discovered by Laguerre and Darboux. v).3)'.ke' + yn de (130. in particular. r. (Vr) (Vr) = (aru + (rua + r. n is the set reciprocal to ru.5). b.ye. n: (2) aru + br + nn = I.§ 132 FUNDAMENTAL FORMS 289 Example 3.b). v) and on dyadics whose vectors lie in the tangent plane. (1) Vf = afu + bf. de' ds = w x e' = to . If we form the product. it transforms any vector f(u.k'). (14) w = to . The dyadic Vr is symmetric and may also be written rua + rub. along the curve.27t and ds + y(k . the gradient of a tensor function f(u. (3) (4) Vu=a. we have. v) into its projection ft on the tangent plane at (u.nn. From (1).
Remembering that Vn is symmetric. E = ru ru. by computing the product dr Vn dr. n. from (3). G = rv r. (11) From (9) we obtain the second fundamental form.Vn = L as + M(ab + ba) + N bb. dr do = L du2 + 2M du dv + N dv2.(vr) = (anu + bn. (10) M = nu r _ nv ru = n ruv. we next compute (Vn) (Vn) = (anu + bnv) (nua + nab) to obtain (12) (Vn)2 = e as + flab + ba) + g bb. . =0. nv ru + n ruv = 0. b dr = dv. The relations between scalar products in (10) are obtained by differentiating the equations. In fact (8) follows from (6) when we form dr yr dr and note that a .. with respect to u and v : nu ru + n ruu = 0. If we compute (vn) . are the coefficients of the first fundamental form. in similar fashion. nu rv+n rvv=0. (9) .290 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 132 we obtain (6) yr = E as + Flab + ba) + G bb.nu ru = n ruu.) (rua + we obtain. where (7) F = ru rv. defined in § 94. dr = du. (8) dr dr = E due + 2F du dv + G dv2. where L = .
e2 are unit vectors in the principal directions at P. K.. (17) bnxru. (14) do do = e due + 2f du dv + g dv2. J. n. and... (on)2 = ki e1e1 1. (nu x ne.. on multiplying these equations in turn by K = k1k2. b. This is the HamiltonCayley Equation for the planar dyadic Vn. and adding. r.. H ru x r.n . (On)2 = axbnuxn. ruxrv n K = (a x b) . n. If e1. we obtain the following relations between the fundamental quantities: (16) eJL+KE=0.. and Vr is the idemfactor in the tangent plane.. hence (18) We now may compute the invariants J and K of Vn: Vn = anu +bn. second.§ 132 FUNDAMENTAL FORMS 291 where (13) e = nu nu. _ k1 + k2. we obtain the third fundamental form. by computing the product dr . gJN+KG=0.. respectively. r.(Vn)2 dr. and (12) for the dyadics in (15). we get (15) (on)2+JVn+KVr=0. Example 1. Vr = e1e1 + e2e2. The quantities (7). as the fundamental quantities of the first.. Substituting from (6). 1. and (13) are known. f JM+KF=0. and third orders. f = nu n. Vn = k1 e1e1 .k2 e2e2. for its first and second scalar invariants are J. x .) = nu x nv a ruxr. n and ru... 9=nn From (12).k2 e2e2. (9). (10). From the reciprocity of a.
) . Example 2.292 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE Since the cross products in these equations are all parallel to n. apply (20. hence. N=t/H.y)k. K ru x rn = nu x nv. y).. (22) These values of J and K also may be found from (9) Vn = a(La + Mb) + b(Ma + Nb). we have (21) J(EG .. by making use of (18). The principal curvatures k1..y.1). = nu x r. r. G = 1 + q2.F2) = GL . T. hence. zyy by p.s2 K = (1+p2+q2)2 k2 .2F31 + EN. =ry=l+qk. can be written in the parametric form x=u. r. L=r/H.. = tk. y=v. If we multiply these equations by (ru x r.gl+k.. z=z(u.v). F = pq. zy. E = 1 + p2. k2 are the roots of the quadratic (131.. zxy = zyx. from (7). the total curvature K from (22): (23) (24) rt . Hn=ruxru= pi . zxx.. ruu = rk.F2) = LN .10): (25) . K(EG . from (10). we have ru=rx=i+pk. Furthermore. and introduce the fundamental quantities from (7) and (10). with the position vector. H=EGF2=1+ p2+g2.Jk + K = 0.. + ru x n. M=s/H. If we denote the partial derivatives z.312. respectively. q. t. r. these equations may be written also in the vector form: (19) (20) J ru x r. s. ru = sk. r=xi+yl+z(x.. The surface z = z(x.(1+q2)r2pgs+(1+p2)t (1 + p2 + q2) We may now compute the mean curvature J from (21).
r are tangent vectors to the curves v = const.) (ru + A2r. du a u + av au is tangent to the field curve through the point (u.pu/p is known. Field of Curves. Since ru. or. At every point (u. and the surface normal n form a dextral trihedral of unit vectors e1e2n.. their differential equation is ccudu From this we may compute Al = dv/du at all points of S.) = 0. the vector ru + A2r is a tangent to the curve through (u. v). v) their unit tangents e1. ar av dr ar ru I Alrv. e2 = n x e1..k1e2 + yin. Consider a field of curves C1 and their orthogonal trajectories C2 on a portion S of the surface r = r(u. Standard existence theorems for differential equations of the first order guarantee.§ 134 TIHE' FIELD DYADIC 293 133.3). (1) is the differential equation of the orthogonal trajectories of the field curves. (ru + Air. a solution of (1). Similarly if A2 = dv/du for a second oneparameter family of curves. in terms of fundamental quantities. the parametric curves cut at right angles when (2) 134. v) = const. (1) wl = t1e1 . . (1) E + (A1 + A2)F + A1A2 G = 0. Then the vector. under very general conditions. A oneparameter family of curves on a surface r = r(u. As a point traverses CI with unit speed. The Field Dyadic. v). v) is said to form a field over a portion S of the surface if one and only one curve of the family passes through every point of S. When the second family cuts the first everywhere at right angles. e1e2n has the angular velocity (130. If the curves of the field have the equation p(u. the positive direction on the others is taken so that the unit tangent vector to the curves is a continuous vector point function over S. u = const. After the positive direction on one of the curves has been chosen. Since Al = . v)..
the field dyadic Grad e1 for the curves Cl becomes do (4) vet =  n + R e2ds1 If we replace e1 and e2 in (3) by n x e1 = e2.. R is unchanged. (2) (02 = t2e2 + k2e1 + y2n.7). Similarly. Now. de1 ds2 = w2 x e1 = t2n + y2e2 We now have. if we write (3) R = y1e1 + 72e2.t1 n x e1.ds2 . since p2 = e2 x n = e1.8). since y2e2 + (y1)(e1) = R. since t2 = t1 by Bonnet's Theorem (§ 131). along C2. ds2 ds2 ds1 ds1 With the notation. n x e2 = e1. do ds1 k1e1 . from (130. Therefore the field dyadic for the curves C2 is (5) do vet =. de1 de1 Grad e1 = e1 ds1 + e2 ds2 = e1(k1n + y1e2) + e2(t1n + 72e2) = (k1e1 + t1e2)n + (y1e1 + y2e2)e2. n We have moreover (6) do do do do Vn=e1+e2=e1+e2. Therefore de1 ds1 = w1 x e1 = kin + yle2. and. (7) P = do ds1 do ds2 .294 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 134 since p1 = el x n = e2. from (95.Re.
Consider now a. (6)' From (4). (8) y = n rot e = 1 H { (r e). ds dO \ dO The left member of (11) shows that y . the angular velocity of e1e2n along C is (10) hence w asn=to .9). curve C which cuts the curves Cl at an angle 6 = (eli e).. The geodesic curvature is therefore a surface invariant.Re 1 .(de/ds) n relative to ee'n. v) has at every point the geodesic curvature. y1 = n rot el. since the trihedral e1e2n has the angular velocity .dB/ds is the same for all surface having e as common tangent vector. THEOREM.(ru The last expression follows from (97. .ke'F de1 ds dB dB\ y ds n' \ / w n Xe1.§ 1.Qn. De2 = . we have or. .14). A field of curves having the unit tangent vector e(u. Vn = Pel + Qe2.34 THE FIELD DYADIC 295 the preceding equations become (4)' (5)' Vet = Re2 . Along C the trihedral ee'n has the angular velocity (9) w = to . reckoned positive in the sense of n.Pn. in view of (3). and.ke' + yn (131.
'Pu _ ` . pv = 1. a e3 = r/1'G. Example.296 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 134 Since Vel e2 = R. vu = 1.and R=ye+y'e'.  (Pa v A and. (14) a (EPv .2F vupt.. we may write (11) in the form: de (12) e R = ds If C is a member of a field of curves. hence in the respective cases. and (13) R= =ye+y'e'OB. For a field of surface curves p(u. (15) Y1 = H S av E} ya = G 1 } l iau G av \1 These formulas also follow at once from (8) when the foregoing values of el and e3 are used. 1 where puu. from (4)..+cvv =0. vu = 0._ . the angle 0 = (el. . Let us apply it to find the geodesic curvature of the parametric curves in the sense of increasing u and v.. we use the subscript 2. when this angle is it/2.Fvu)1 H lau Gpu) _ av This formula is due to Bonnet. v) = c. for the curves u = const. + G wo to find X. VO=0. The subscript 3 refers to the curves u = const when they cut the curves v = const at an arbitrary angle. the unit tangent vec tor is e =dr/ds Therefore U . The geodesic curvature now is given by (8) : (FP.2 = 1. For the curves v = const. a = 1/E. if we substitute these values in e e =Eci2+2Fuv+Gi. 'RU = 0. el = ru/N/r. Thus e= where the sign is chosen to give the positive sense desired. y 'Pv X u _ cv . e) is a point function over this field. and C cut everywhere at the same angle. If the field curves C. we have = E Vn .
= T. or or d2r ds2 = 0. Along a geodesic the normal curvature is numerically the same as the curvature and the geodesic torsion equals the THEOREM 2. y must change sign with T (§ 130). if the geodesic is straight (K = r = 0) and the same equations apply (k = t = 0). If a geodesic is curved (K 0). On putting y = 0 in (2). t = T + . y = 0 implies sin <p = 0 and <p = 0 or 7r. we obtain the scalar differential equations of a geodesic: (5) ru d2 r d82 = 0. If we replace Vr by aru + br. ds dip and. Along a curved geodesic the principal normal is always normal to the surface. Since dT/ds = KN. the angle (N. as dT/ds is unaltered by a change in positive direction. (2) xn = KNXn = KSin VT = yT. Along a curved geodesic.. The geodesic curvature of a curve C has been defined (§ 130) as (1) K sin gyp. a geodesic may be determined by two conditions. if a straight line can be drawn on a surface. A surface curve for which y = 0 is called a geodesic. is taken positive in the sense of T. dS2 d2r These differential equations of the second order show that the geodesics on a surface form a twoparameter family. Thus. since the tangential projection of d2r/ds2 is zero (132. n). it is necessarily a geodesic since K = 0. (3) k = K COS p = ±K.= 0. torsion. ds dT and. We thus have THEOREM 1. we have (4) d2r ds2 . by specifying (a) .. Geodesics.5).x n = 0. r .§ 135 GEODESICS 297 135. where p. In general.
298 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE a 1:35 that it shall pass through a given point in a given direction.0. A particle constrained to move on a surface and fief from the action of any tangential forces will describe a geodesic writi constant speed.5). N = ±n. where v is the speed and pn the normal force. THEOREM 4. and the line of contact is a geodesic.FOTO + o s pn 0 ds = 0. and the particle describes a geodesic. distant s (arc POP) from the fixed end of the cord. The pressure I p I = mKV2. 135). Since the cord is in equilibrium. that it shall pass through two given points. ing theorems from mechanics. its tension is constant. the equation of motion ma = F may be written (ddt m T + Kv2 N) = pn. If K F4. Proof. Let F denote FT Fia. 135 the magnitude of the tension at P. the particle describes a straight line. or (b). and sin cp = 0. Then from the equilibrium of the length s of the cord (Fig. . v = const. Multiplying by T gives dv/dt = 0. the vector sum of all the forces acting upon any portion of it vanishes. THEOREM 3. If K = 0. Proof. y = 0 in both cases. If a weightless flexible cord is stretched over a smooth surface between two of its points. Since either K or sin (p must vanish. FT . In view of (52. That a geodesic on a surface in general can be found to fullill conditions of the type (a) or (b) is plausible in view of the follow. and pn the normal reaction of the surface per unit length.
Let AI'B be a geodesic arc of the field and AQB any other curve of surface covered by the field (Fig.dS=0. 136a). 136. for any sectionally smooth closed curve lying entirely within S. fT (2) e1 ds = fn rote. the line of contact is a geodesic fulfilling condition (b). are APB < are AQB. from Stokes' Theorem. An arc of a geodesic that is one of the curves of a geodesic field is shorter than any other surface curve joining its end points and lying entirely within. If K = 0. we have. and the line of contact is a geodesic. Proof. . As a cord can be stretched between any two points of a convex surface. since y1 0. Writing 0 = angle (e1. hence dF/ds = 0. (1) Then. and I p I = KF. and F is constant. the line of contact is straight. y = 0. Geodesic Field. if K n= ±n. that is. Applying (2) to the circuit APBQB formed by these arcs. This formula leads to THEOREM 1.§ 136 GEODESIC FIELD 299 On differentiating this equation with respect to s.T+FKN+pn = 0. On concave surfaces we must imagine the cord replaced by a thin strip of spring steel laid flatwise. In either case. we have dF ds . we have f ds + PB BQA f PB(ls = f QBcos 0 ds < /QBI cos 0 1 ds < fQBds. T) gives fcos 0 ds = 0 as the integral equivalent of (1). Consider now a oneparameter family of geodesics that form a field of tangent vector el over a portion S of the surface. the field.
Then applying (2) to the circuit ABB'A'A. 1. The orthogonal trajectories of a geodesic field intercept equal arcs on the geodesics. noting that cos0 = 1. Equations of Codazzi and Gauss. 136b Proof. we make use of (97.V x (Ve1) = 0. Ve2 = Re1 . Vet = Re2 . BY cutting them at right angles (Fig. (3) P = do/dsl.300 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 137 We next consider the orthogonal trajectories of a geodesic field. we have.Vx(pq) _ On substituting Vn = Pe1 + Qe2 (5) in (1). Their basic property is given by THEOREM 2 (Gauss). Q = dn/ds2.rotP)e1 + and. n . A'B' be geodesic arcs intercepted between the curves AA'. Q _A' B! B A FIG. 136a FIG. A'A. In order to express these identities in terms of the vectors. BY.11).0 over AB.0. 136b). and. These celebrated equations in the theory of surfaces simply state that (1) n . (n .Qx(Vn) = 0.Qn. if we put (§ 134) (6) 0. 137.12) : (4) n . B'A'. both identities follow from (97. from (4). we have are AB = arc A'B'. R = y1e1 + '2e2.Pn. . (2) If we remember that V means V8. Let AB.
This equivalent to the two equations: (7) n. K.tin x e. we have This is also equivalent to two equations. = Re2 . Q = tie. The equations of Codazzi and Gauss can be expressed in terms of the quantities ki. (8) n rot Q = n R x P. only when t1 = t2 = 0 are k1 and k2 principal curvatures (§ 131)..7). In the righthand member. These are the Equations of Codazzi.QxR.rot P = n . (8). the other. One of these is the same as (7) . P = kie.t2n x e2. (§ 131).Pn in (2) and obtain (n . (9) is the Equation of Gauss. the second scalar invariant of Vn or the total curvature Gauss's Equation thus becomes (10) n rot R = K. (10). We next put Ve. tt. 2 do and.yi along the field curves.  do i = kie.(n  Replacing vet and Vn by the foregoing values.rot R)e2 . + (n rot Q + P n x R)e2 = 0.2 _ (11) ei.§ 137 EQUATIONS OF CODAZZI AND GAUSS 301 we have (n rot P .t From (130. (12) t Now k1 and k2 denote the normal curvatures of the orthogonal field curves. as = k2e2 . n. + tie2i In order to compute the left members of (7). . we apply the identity..7). . + k2e2 (134. since t. This is perhaps the most important result in the theory of surfaces._.Q n x R)e.
+ ds2 dsl n rot Q = 'Y1t1 + 12k2 dt1 dk1 dt1 ds2 + dk2 dsl yi+y2 and. or dr do = 0. ds2 d11 ds1 Equation (14) states the same property for the e2field that (13) states for the elfield. Lines of Curvature. then. since k1 = k1i ds_1 = ds1. 0.k1) + 2y1t1 + 2 . change the subscripts 1. parametric curves are lines of curvature..ds2 0. 138. t2 = t1.3).. dsl dye yi+yi++h'=0. n R x P = yltl + y2k1. . Remembering that n rot ei = yt.k2) + 2724 + . 1 (n x e2 = e1) .302 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 13S which follows at once from (85. y1 = 71. the Equations of Codazzi and Gauss become (13) y1(k1 . since .dcp/ds. The curves on the surface which are everywhere tangent to the principal directions (§ 131) are called lines of curvature. Along a line of curvature the geodesic torsion is zero (t = 0). Q and R. 2 in (13) into 2. we obtain (14). we thus obtain n rot P = y1k1 + y2t1 . we have do/ds = kT along lines of curvature.dyl + dye ds ds 2 1 n Q x R = ylk2 . In particular.y2tl. to both terms of P. the dsxds = 0. and the torsion z = . To show this. Their differential equation is therefore dr do (1) n'dsxds for (dr/ds) x (dn/ds) is always parallel to n.ds = 0. if ruxnu = 0.7). = ds1 dk2 dt1 2 dt1 dk1 (14) (15) 72(k2 . From (130.
15). If el and e2 = n X el are the corresponding unit field vectors. Since K = klk2 = 0. all curves are lines of curvature (§ 131). dk2 ds1 dye 122) dsl 2. n) is constant along a ruling. Proof.1). On other surfaces there are in general two orthogonal principal directions at each point.7).§ 138 LINES OF CURVATURE 303 then. if k1. On the plane and sphere.14) and (137. . If K = 0. Hence yl = 0. = y2i _ d _ 'Y2 dsl = 0. k2 0 0. These lead to a simple proof of THEOREM 1. J 0 0. the lines of curvature along which the normal curvature vanishes are straight lines. since kl = K1 COS cp = 0.k2). we may suppose that k1 = 0. k2 But y2/k2 = tan P2. and the lines of curvature form two fields cutting each other at right angles. and the trihedral ele2n has a fixed orientation along a ruling. However the ruled surface under considera tion has the same tangent plane along an entire ruling and is therefore the envelope of a oneparameter family of planes. From (137. yj = Kj sin c = 0. (2) nu = klru. k2 are the principal curvatures. and N2 as well. and do/dsl = 0 (130. from (2). we conclude that K1 = 0. In general a surface has a different tangent plane at each point and is therefore the envelope of a twoparameter family of planes. This also follows from (134.. hence n has a fixed direction along a ruling. Consider now the lines of curvature cutting the rulings orthogonally. Such a surface is called developable. for co = 0. kl = 0. n = k2r. and. Along the rulings of the surface (which are asymptotic lines as well as lines of curvature) t1 = 0. hence X02 = (N2. the Equations of Codazzi become dk1 (3) // dk2 = y2(kl dsl k2). = 'Y1 \ki . J = k1 + k2 0 0. This property lends plausibility to the fact that the developable surface may be bent into a plane (after certain cuts are made) without stretching or tearing. Their tangent vector e2 = n x el is constant along a ruling.
when t = 0 and X = 1/k. If N is the unit principal normal along the curve of intersection.Pl = (N. n2) . The points on the family of normals have position vectors r(s) + X n(s).Xt n x T = 0 (130. . in this case the envelope is the locus of the centers of normal curvature along the curve. the curve of intersection has the same geodesic torsion whether regarded as a curve of Sl or of S2. cones. We shall see in § 142 that developable surfaces are of three types. and then the envelope is the curve f = r + n/k. We turn now to some theorems relative to the lines of intersection of surfaces. cylinders (including planes). n2) = 0. and r(s) and n(s) the position vector and unit surface normal at a point of C. n2) = (n1. that is. The normals to a surface along one of its curves have an envelope when and only when the curve is a line of curvature. the locus of the centers of normal curvature along C. N) + (N. Let s denote the are measured along the curve C of the surface S. say X = X(s). Proof. the envelope will exist only when T+X do = (1 . THEOREM 3. S2 cut under a constant angle 0.304 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE §138 We now may amplify theorem 1: If K = 0. where X is a variable scalar. Therefore the normals have an envelope only along lines of curvature.(N. If two surfaces S1. f = r(s) + X(s)n(s) will be the envelope of the normals if df do  =T+X dX + dsn or do T+X  is parallel to n. THEOREM 2. P2 . But since both T and do/ds are perpendicular to n. the surface is developable.7). Proof. nl) = (n1. the curve C. and tangent surfaces (generated by the tangents to a curve which is not a straight line).Xk)T . If we take X as a function of s. J 54 0.
z = z(u). Then tij = tik (§ 131. Now ru=R+kz'.2) nu =  z" (1 + z. Now at the point P we have tij = tji (theorem 3).§ 138 LINES OF CURVATURE 305 and t2tl =T }. Two surfaces belonging to different families of a triple orthogonal system cut one another in lines of curvature of each. according as the curve is regarded as belonging to Si or Sj. n u(1 + z' z'2)= . Proof. and. ruXr k . we have at once THEOREM 4 (Joachimsthal). v are the plane polar coordinates (p. These give the vector where R is a unit radial vector (R k = 0). 3. if the line of intersection is a line of curvature of both. z = u cos v.tki = tkj = tik = . equation. 2.2)2 ru. Denote the geodesic torsion at a point P on the curve of intersection of the surfaces Si and Sj by tij or tji. so that tij = 0.z'R n = ru x r _ (t + z. r. where u.. ds ds d..tji = .T (lg'_do =O. k represents any permutation of the indices 1. the surfaces cut under a constant angle. their curve of intersection is a line of curvature of both or of neither.tik = . where i. j. r =uP. tij = . y = u sin v. r = u R(v) + k z(u).tij. gyp).s From this result. A surface of revolution about the zaxis has the parametric equations. If two surfaces cut under a constant angle. conversely. We are now in position to prove the celebrated THEOREM 5 (Dupin). . theorem 1). Example.
9). Orthogonal geodesic fields can exist only on of zero total curvature. We now compute K from the Gauss Equation (137. ds2 shows that. we have (2) . and (6) K_ Cos0 b(a+bcose)' cos0 J ba+bcos0 + 1 139.a K J a2u bu b2u If we introduce the latitude 0 on the generating circle. about the zaxis.{ (r R)u . and K = 0.15).yz + dyl ds1  + K = 0.2)z Consequently.306 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § l39 The last equations show that the parametric lines (the parallels and meridians of our surface) are the lines of curvature. we find zt = au z 1 +z'2 b2 z2 b2 z" _ 2 3 hence. if orthogonal geodesics can be chosen as fielt ^urves. 71 = 72 = 0. f.(ru H 1 . from (4) and (5). On differentiation.K = n rot R = .2)2 (5) J=k1+k2= uz" + z'(l + z'2) u(l + z'2)2 Let us apply these results to find K and J for the torus generated by revolving the circle. using (97. z' z" (4) K = k l k2 = u(l + z. and that the principal curvaturv are Z/1 z' k2 = kl = (1 + z) 1' u(1 + z. Total Curvature. (1) 1Y1 The Gauss Equation (137.10). (ua)2+z2=b2. _u . hence THEOREM 1. u = a + b cos 0.
THEOREM 2 (Gauss). and (4) F \/EG EG II = (5) When the parametric curves are orthogonal. EG. we set K = 1/a2 in (138. The resulting differential equation.21i NIT ' h' 1 73 1 aG/au .H 1av (yl 1/E) a 020 au (I"\/G' ) + au av.F2.V0. G of the first fundamental form and their fir f .7). To find a surface of revolution of constant negative total curva ture. from (134. F. Let the parametric curves cut at an angle 0 = (el. (3) K 1 ja . R = ylel + y2e2 = y3e3 + y4e4 .211 \/G and Liouville's Formula becomes (6) 211 aau (il_ aG I a / 1 aE)l au + av \II a v f From (3).4).13). e3 = r.idamental theorem was first proven by Gauss after long and t' iious calculations. yl and 73 are given by (134. we obtain an immediate proof of The total curvature K of a surface depends only upon ' e coefficients E. Gauss's name of "Theorema egregium" (La' n egregius means literally "out of the herd") for this result shows that he was fully aware of its importance. e4 = n x e3i we have. if e2 = n x el.15) now give 1 aE/av yl = . in which II = 1/EG . e3) where el = Then.and second partial derivatives with respect to u and v. and yj Vi. Example. / / ae y3VGav (95.. 0 = it/2 and F = 0. This iu. Equations (134. Substitution in (2) now gives the elegant Formula of Liouville for thi' total curvature.§ 139 TOTAL CURVATURE 307 ru//E.15). 2z'z" (1 + z'2)2 a2 ' 2u .
This curve. + tan ik) . > a/2. Therefore the meridian of our surface of constant negative K has the parametric equations: u = a cos ¢. 140.a sin ik. FIG. + tan p) . is called a tractrix. A = 0 and u = a Now dz d.308 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 140 has the first integral. we have. The differential formula for the total curvature. § 50. If we impose the condition u = a when 4. 139 and B = 0 if z = 0 when ¢ = 0. 5).a sin ¢ + B. z = a log (sec V. asymptotic to the zaxis as 4. Bonnet's Integral Formula. has an important integral equivalent.cos 0. by Stokes' . 139). 1 u2 1 + z'2 a2 A or cost i = u2 a2 + A. If we integrate K over a portion of a surface S bounded by a simple closed curve which consists of a finite number of smooth arcs. (1) K = n rot R. The equation u = a cos yG shows that the segment of any tangent between the curve and zaxis has the constant length a. where >G = tan l z' is the inclineftion of the tangent to the uaxis (Fig.k = dz du du dik = tank a sin 0 = a(sec ¢ . This property is characteristic of the tractrix (ef. ex. z = a log (sec V. = 0.
The integral f K dS over S is called the integral curvature of S. in 1848.§ 140 BONNET'S INTEGRAL FORMULA 309 Theorem. two geodesic arcs Fu}. 140a FIG. This very important formula was discovered by the French geom eter.(ir .B) =A+ B. = 2ir and (2) becomes (3) fdo fKdS = 2ir fds. If the bounding curve has a continuously turning tangent. hence.A) . y ds. fKdS= from (134.12). 140a). on a surface of negative or zero total curvature. Bonnet. hence (2) fKds = f f do  f(. Since A + B > 0 this equation is impossible when K = 0.  ds. Let us first apply (2) to the figure bounded by two geodesic arcs APB and AQB meeting at A and B.(ir . Then denoting the interior angles at the corners by A and B (Fig. 140b . we have (4) fK dS = fdo = 2ir .
(irB) . We next apply (2) to a geodesic triangle ABC (Fig. Since S is regular and bilateral. If K 34 0. consisting entirely of regular points (§ 93). The integral curvature of a geodesic triangle THEOREM 2 (Gauss). Let us decompose a closed bilateral surface S.(rrC).rr2 8 e. is equal to its "angular excess. the area of a spherical triangle equals the area of a spherical octant times the angular excess in right angles. For all normal sections at a point are great circles of curvature 1/r. the figure enclosed by three geodesic arcs. we therefore have the formula. we have fKdS = fdO=27r. all points are umbilical points and k1k2 = 1/r2. Again denoting the interior angles at the corners by A. If K is identically zero. the excess of the sum of its When K is constant. 140b) : that is.310 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE 3 14t) cannot meet in two points so as to enclose a simply connected area. (5) fKds=A+B+C_. the sum of the angles of a geodesic triangle is 7r. C. into a number f of curvilinear "polygons" Si whose sides are analytic arcs. the integral curvature f K dS is the prod uct of K by the area S. The integral curvature of a geodesic lune is equal to the sum of its interior angles. When positive circuits . the area of a geodesic triangle is equal to the quotient of its angular excess by the total curvature. These sides meet in vertices at which at least three arcs come together. we have THEOREM 3 (Gauss). Example 1. We may state (4) as follows: THEOREM 1. A sphere of radius r has the constant total curvature K = I /r2. On a surface of constant nonzero total curva ture. Area = r2 2 e = 4. If e denotes the angular excess in right angles." that is. the surface has a continuous unit external normal n which defines a positive sense of circuit on each polygon by the rule of the righthanded screw. angles over 7r. as on a plane. Example 2. B. that is.(7rA) . Formula (5) now states that: The area of a spherical triangle is r2 times its angular excess in radians.
§ 140 BONNET'S INTEGRAL FORMULA 311 are made about two adjoining polygons. Moreover the sum of the interior angles about any vertex is 27r. J(i KdS=27r (7rai. where v is the total number of vertices. by Bonnet's Theorem (2). if S is transformed into a polyhedron (a closed solid with plane polygons for faces).2:7r = 2eir. even though the resulting surface is not completely regular.)Js where ail are the interior angles at the vertices of Si. we have fKdS i j 2irf  (a  for the integrals f y ds over adjoining sides cancel in pairs since y changes sign with change of direction. the relation (8) still holds good and constitutes the famous Polyhedron Formula that Euler discovered in 1752: Faces + vertices . We thus obtain (6) fe+v=1 KdS. Now for each Si we have.edges = 2.e + v is not altered by any continuous deformation of S.6). and (8) f . . hence TdIai. we have (7) fK dS = 47rr2 = 4a for a sphere. = 0. where e is the total number of sides or edges. Evidently f . for example. for a torus. If S can be continuously deformed into a sphere. Thus. Next suppose that S can be continuously deformed into a torus. From (138.e + v = 2. hence 2. = 2v7r. This relation holds. hence f . From the right member of (6) we see that the number on the left is independent of the manner in which S is subdivided into polygons. is. for any ring surface with polyhedral faces. their common side is traversed in opposite directions. In each polygon the number of interior angles equals the number of sides. (9) f"KdS=ffKb(a+bcoso)dedv 2 = 0 f 0 2" cos e do dv. If these equations for all of the f polygons Si are added. From the left member we conclude that cb K dS is not altered when S is deformed into another completely regular surface.e + v = 0 for any surface continuously deformable into a torus.
the unit tangent vector of C. hence df/ds = St x f. orJK dS by JJJJJ . it will revolve through an angle. and dfxn = (12 xf) xn = (n . Hence. Hence f will undergo a parallel displacement along the curve C when and only when (11) y+ . that always remains tangent to a surface S. the total rotation of f is 27r  fy ds. is said to undergo a parallel displacement along a surface curve C when the component of df/ds tangential to the surface is zero. f will undergo a parallel displacement along C only when C is a geodesic.fl)f = C'Y +do> f. From (11) we see that f revolves through the angle. more generally. w = tT + yn + kp (130. then (10) df nx=0 or df ds=>`n. f) is reckoned positive in the sense of n. (12) 27r .if y ds = f K dS. the trihedral fng revolves with the angular velocity.=0. SZ = to + n . the trihedral fng (g = f x n) has the angular velocity n dB/ds relative to Tnp. Parallel Displacement.3').= tT + (y + dB/ds)n + kp. THEOREM. ds  fy ds relative to T. Since the length of f must remain constant during a parallel displacement. If the angle 0 = (T. Now the trihedral Tnp associated with the curve C has the angular velocity.312 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE §140 Example 3. as f moves along C with unit speed. If a tangential surface vector is given a parallel displacement about a smooth closed curve C. if Bonnet's Integral Formula (3). de If f is tangent to C (or. Proof. when 0 remains constant). A vector f. Since T itself revolves through 2r in passing around C.
v) form a normal system. Vr1 = Or + (VX)m + AOm.VA = (Or) m = m . We have thus proved THEOREM 1.(m n)n (132. it is necessary and suffi cient that n rot m = 0. (3) implies that (4) mg = (Or) m = VA where X=  f m dr. hence. from (1). Under what circumstances do these lines admit an orthogonal surface? That is. v) + Xm(u. At every point of the surface S. we can find a oneparameter family of surfaces normal to the lines r + Am. ro the integral being taken over any path from ro to r(u. since m m = 1.. In Vr1 = arlu + brl. (2) . when do they form the system of normals to a surface? When A is a definite continuous function A(u. a straight line is defined by the unit vector m(u.. If V denotes a surface gradient relative to S. The points of this twoparameter family of lines are given by (1) rl = r + Am. +VA. v). theorem 2. v). where n is the unit normal to the surface r = r(u. we have. Normal Systems. v). We need only determine A(u. it is necessary and sufficient that (Or1) m = 0. Since ro may be chosen at pleasure. v) from (4) with some definite choice of ro. r = r(u. When m fulfils condition (3). v) on S. conversely. all possible values of A are then given by . the postfactors are tangent to S1. v).5). that is. from § 103. r1 is the position vector of a surface S1. in order that m be normal to S1.§ 141 NORMAL SYSTEMS 313 141. But (2) implies that (3) n rot m = 0. In order that a twoparameter family of lines r(u.
e2 = (I . Consider now a geodesic field over S with the unit tangent vector e. For the reflected ray (§ 75). THEOREM 2 (Bertrand). normal to the lines. We thus obtain a oneparameter family of surfaces. n FIG. e2. THEOREM 3 (Malus and Dupin). A developable is therefore a ruled surface.µ1e1) x n = 0 and nrot (µ2e2 . or ruling. we have The tangents to the geodesics of a field form a normal system of lines. 141 Let el denote the unit vectors along the incident rays and e2 the unit vectors along the refracted (or reflected) ray (Fig. by the theorem following (97. The equation of a ruled surface may be written (1) r = p(u) + ve(u). r1 = r + (X + C)m.314 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 142 X + C. it still remains a normal system. We conclude with an important theorem in geometrical optics. n are coplanar.2nn) e1 and n . µ2 sin 02 (Snell's Law) and e1. . µ1 sin 01 = Proof. hence.rot e2 = 0142.10). (µ2e2 .µ1e1) = 0. 141). A developable surface (§ 138) is the envelope of oneparameter family of planes.rot (e2 . Since y = n rot e = 0 at every point of S. Developable Surfaces. If a normal system of lines is reflected or refracted at any surface. In either case: n rot e1 = 0 implies n . If µi denotes an absolute refractive index.e1) = 0. The limiting line of intersection of two neighboring tangent planes is a line. on the surface. where C is an arbitrary constant.
Case 2: e x eu 34 0. q(u) = p(u) + X(u)e(u). however. and (1) represents a general cylinder. With a function A(u). The surface normal is parallel to ru x rv = (Pu + veu) x e.§ 142 DEVELOPABLE SURFACES 315 where p = p(u) is a curve C crossing the rulings and e(u) is a unit vector along the rulings. the surface is enveloped by a oneparameter family of planes.{3u)e. In general. if we choose X = . cones or tangent surfaces. Therefore e is constant. we have e . (6) qu = (a . cylinders. Case 1: e x eu = 0. let us write (1) as (4) r= (P+Xe)+(vX)e=q+(vX)e. We then may write (§ 5) (3) Pu = a(u)e + 5(u)eu. a 0 $u. When the normal maintains the same direction along a ruling. eu = 0 and hence eu = 0. e and eu are coplanar: (2) pu e x eu = 0. . Then (4) represents a cone of vertex q if the vectors e(u) are not coplanar. that is. The surface (4) then is generated by the tangents of the curve q = q(u). a plane if they are coplanar. as yet undetermined. where (5) Then qu = pu + Xue + Xeu = (a + Xu)e + (S + x)eu. as each value of u corresponds to a ruling and hence to a tangent plane. If a = l3u along C. For the same plane is tangent to the sur face along an entire ruling.6. Developable surfaces are planes. and. the surface is developable. it is the tangent surface of this curve. Since e e = 1. Consequently the surface (1) is developable when and only when pu x e and eu x e are parallel. then (6) shows that q(u) traces a curve having e as tangent vector. when pu. qu = 0 and q is constant. and.
In § 131 the mean curvature of a sur face was defined as J = . We therefore conclude that (3) p = 2Jq. Next put f = r in (101. A surface whose mean curvature J is everywhere zero is called a minimal surface. Thus. the surface tension q is doubled. we must have fpn dS + 2q Jmds= f (p + 2Jq)n dS = 0. thus the pressure inside of a soap bubble exceeds the pressure out side by an amount p = 4q/r. now. and we have (2) fr x Jn dS =Jrxmds. Since any portion of the film bounded by a closed curve C is in equilibrium. With f = 1. Let So be a minimal surface bounded by a closed curve C. then. Minimal Surfaces. Consider. These equations admit of a simple mechanical interpretation: THEOREM 1. the normal curvature is everywhere k = «x . a soap film with a constant surface tension q per unit of length and subjected to an unbalanced normal force pn per unit of area. p = 0. Its existence is guaranteed by its physical counterpart. the soap film . Thus a soap film spanned over a wire loop of any shape and with atmospheric pressure on both sides materializes a minimal surface. In particular. the integral theorem (101.Div n = kl + k2. then J = 0 at all points of the film. if the film is exposed to the same pressure on both sides. Rot r = 0. The normal pressures Jn (per unit of area) over any simply connected portion of surface S bounded by a closed curve C are statically equivalent to a system of unit forces (per unit of length) along the external normals to C and tangent to S. for a soap bubble of radius r. since Or = I .316 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE §143 143.nn.11r and J = 2/r.2) becomes (1) fJnds=Jmde.4) . because it is exerted on both sides of the film.n = rc cos Tr =.
§ 143 MINIMAL SURFACES 317 spanned over C. hence z + k =Ccoshr C . uz" + z'(1 + z'2) = 0 may be written z'z" z72 z'z" +z'2+u=0 1 and has the first integral uz'/1/1 + z'2 = C. Catenoids are the only minimal surfaces of revolution. . A minimal surface spanning a closed curve and belonging to a field of minimal surfaces has a smaller area than any other surface spanning the same curve and lying entirely in the field. that is. This represents a catenary in the uzplane. Example 1. Now let S be any other surface in R spanning the curve C and enclosing with So a volume V of unit external normal n. From the divergence theorem. we set J = 0 in (138. n= f n no n no over cos dS < fdS. and. when revolved about the zaxis it generates a surface known as the catenoid. for example.C2. u =Ccoshz Ck. Imagine now that So is embedded in a field of minimal surfaces. The resulting differential equation. Such a field may be generated.5).2). the unit normal no to the minimal surfaces may be so chosen that no is a continuous vectorpoint function. div no = Div no + no dno do = J + 0 = 0. At each point of R. a oneparameter family of surfaces in a certain region R enclosing So. from (97. such that through every point of R there passes one and only one surface of the family. Solving for z'. by the parallel translation of So. we have z' _ C/1/u2 . In order to find a surface of revolution which is also minimal. We have thus proved THEOREM 2.
and. (5) r = u R(v) + av k. The right helicoid is a minimal surface. k1 = k2 = 0. n r = uP + ak. ruxr uk . On a minimal surface. .a2 (u2 + a2)2 and. (rudu +rvdv) x (nudu ruxnudu2 +rvxnndv2 = 0. k = 0). z = as. or du2 . v are plane polar coordinates p. we have K= Along the lines of curvature. A right helicoid about the zaxis has the parametric equations. Equations (4) give the vector equation. Its negative total curvature is constant along any helix u . y = u sin v.(u2 + a2) dv2 = 0.20). and the Codazzi Equations (137. . the lines u = const are circular helices on the cylinder x2 + y2 = u2. (137. Example 3.= c f v or u = a sinh (c f v) a as the finite equations of the lines of curvature.aP = a2 _ I ru x rv I nu = (u2 + a2)2 rv. a a nv = (u2 + a2)2 ru. If we choose them as our field curves. In other words. these give u sinh1. 2). (4) x = u cos v. since nu x r + ru x n = 0. On integration.const. r n = 0. Now where R is a unit radial vector (R . Since ru r. J = 0 (132. since ru . the parametric lines are orthogonal. they are also asymptotic lines. the right helicoid is a spiral ramp.318 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 143 Example 2.13). p in the xyplane. ex. ru = R. The two families of these lines therefore satisfy the differential equations: du/ u2 + a2 = fdv.14) become 27211 + i = 0. 2y1t1   ds2 = 0. = 0. where u. The lines v = const are the horizontal rulings on the surface. the asymptotic lines form an orthogonal system (§ 131. nu = 0.19). From nu x n = K ru x r (132. The right helicoid is a surface generated by a line which always cuts a fixed axis at right angles while revolving about and sliding along the axis at uniform rates.
ds2 dK dK VK = el . = ds = 0 or Vr d2r ds2 = 0. K = kk' + tt' = kk' .144 SUMMARY: SURFACE GEOMETRY dK dsl dt1 = 2t1. 319 Since K = ti. the total curvature. and t + t' = 0. If (p = angle (N. ds If e and e' = n x e are perpendicular directions in the tangent plane.3). Since Rot n = 0. From do (1) ds =wxn= kT . n). 144.tnxT. The equations for geodesics follow from dT xn=KNxn=yT. positive in the sense of T. dK ds2 ds1 dt1 = 2t1. we conclude that k and t are the same for all surface curves having a common tangent at a point. geodesic curvature. respectively. Summary: Surface Geometry. the angular velocity of the trihedral Tnp (p = T x n) along a curve is w = tT + yn + kp. k = K cos V are the geodesic torsion. y= K sin cp. J = ._ 472K. Vn = k ee + k' e'e' + t ee' + t' e'e.t2.= 4y1K.= 0. . Vn is symmetric.Vn.72e1) = 4K n x R dsl ds2 (134. The first and second scalar invariants of .Div n = k + k'. and normal curvature. t = r+ dv/ds. v) of unit normal n. Important surface curves and their differential equations: Lines of curvature (t = 0) : Asymptotic lines (k = 0) : Geodesics (y = 0) : d2r nx ds2 dr do x. the mean curvature.= 4K(y1e2 . ds ds dr do .+ e2 . On a surface r = r(u.ds 0.
Codazzi Equations: n V x (Vn) = 0. k2. e2 for which t1 = 0. When embedded in a geodesic field.V0. r. t2 = 0.. R = y1e1 + y2e2 = ye + y'e' . b. Vn = Pet + Qe2.Pn. F. . N = rv nv. If e1i e2 = n x e1 are the unit tangent vectors along a field of surface curves and their orthogonal trajectories.Qn. If the point is not an umbilic (k constant for all directions). G and their partial derivatives.. In terms of the principal curvatures k1. For any field of curves of tangent vector e. where Ve2 =Re1 . n. M = ru nv = rv nu. If a field of curves of tangent vector e cuts the field e1 at the angle 0 = (eli e). the first and second fundamental forms are Or = E as + F(ab + ba) + G bb. J = k1+'k2iK=k1k2. or Gauss Equation: n V x (De1) = 0.rot e. k attains its extreme values in the orthogonal principal directions e1. positive in sense of n. or n rot R = K. Vn = Las+M(ab+ba) }Nbb. R = y1e1 + y2e2. The last two equations show that y and K may be expressed in terms of E. we have Vet = Re2 . and the fundamental quantities are given by L = ru nu. If a. Q = dn/ds2.320 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE § 144 have the same value for any pair of perpendicular directions. P = do/ds1. n are reciprocal to ru. the arc of a geodesic is shorter than any other curve lying within the field and having the same end points. y = n.
fK dS = al + a2 + a3 . 2. A sphere of radius a has the constant positive curvature 1/a2. y = u sin v. y = u sin v. are plane polar coordinates r. z = av. prove that the surface obtained by revolving the curve z = f(x) about the zaxis has the parametric equations: x = u cos v. v. The catenoid is the only minimal surface of revolution. The right helicoid is a ruled minimal surface. fdo = 2ir If C is a geodesic triangle. which always cuts the zaxis at right angles.Rot R = K. show that the conoid has the parametric equations: x = u cos v. The central quadric surface. 0. 3.as). If u and v are plane polar coordinates in the xyplane. x2 a2 ± b2 ± y2 z2 _ 1. A straight line. and. The surface thus generated is called a conoid. Soap films spanned over wire framework materialize minimal surfaces. is the integral ("Stokian") equivalent of the Gauss Equation. but if the path has angles (in. fK d S= fdo ously turning tangent terior angles ai).PROBLEMS 321 Bonnet's Integral Formula. n . A minimal surface (J = 0) embedded in a field of minimal surfaces and spanning a closed curve C has a smaller area than any other surface lying within the field and spanning C. y = u sin v. a tractrix of revolution for which the tangential distance to the asymptote is a has the constant negative curvature 1/a2. on a surface of constant K 31 0.ir. .ir)/K. is revolved about and moved along this axis. z = z(u). PROBLEMS 1. If the simple closed curve C has a continu fdo = 27r. z = z(v). ds. the area of a geodesic triangle is (al + a2 + a3 . If u. In particular when dz/dv is constant the conoid is a right helicoid: x = U cos v.
4) and (138. x = a cosh u cosh v.22) deduce the values of K and J and from (132. t =. N = uz'/(1 + 2'2)1. § 132. y = b sin u sin v.) may be obtained by giving the curve rl = g(v) a translation f(a). For the surface of revolution about the zaxis. Show that a right circular cylinder of radius a has the constant mean curvature J = 1/a. +) or (+.5). ex. Show that the corresponding parametric equations are x = a sin u cos v. (+. +. 4. z = c sinh u.322 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE is an ellipsoid. z =. y2 b2 2z c is elliptic or hyperbolic. x2/a2 + y2/b2 = 2z/c prove that the total curvature K 5 c2/a2b2. . or a hyperboloid of two sheets according as the terms on the left have the signs (+. 7.21) and (132. G=u2. traces a surface of translation. For the surface xyz = a3 show that 3a6 Jr = 2a3(x2 + y2 + z2) (x2y2 + y2z2 + 22x2)7 (X2y2 + y2z2 + 22x2)2 ' [Cf. x = a cosh u cos v. z = c sinh u. The paraboloid. What are the surfaces. y = b cosh u sin v. +). 9. . [Cf. Check with (138. +. x = au cosh v. ). according as the terms on the left have the signs (+. ). show that E=1+z'2 F=O. y = bu sin v. 2. r = f(u) + g(v). z = c cos u.] 8. Show that the corresponding parametric equations are x = au cos v. 2'2)1. r=au+bv+c? 6. ). r=f(u)+bv. x2 a2 y = b cosh u sinh v. 5. M = 0. y = bu sinh v.25) find the principal curvatures. r = iu cos v + ju sin v + kz(u). For the elliptic paraboloid. 4cu2.1 L= From (132. Show that any curve u = a (const. (+. a hyperboloid of one sheet. § 132. and that any curve v = b may be obtained by giving the curve r2 = f(u) a translation g(b). The position vector. z = Zcu2.
§ 95]. 7..GM H2 FM . K = z'2/H4.. [With the notation of § 138. show that E=1.a) when the directrix is the zaxis and u = 2a at the focus.] 17.. N = uz"/H.] . the parabola has the equation z2 _ 4a(u . 16. Verify this in Problems 6.GL)ru + (FL . 12. Prove that H2a = Gr . show that the resulting right helicoid is minimal (§ 143). 14 and (132. M = z'/H. n and ru. F=0. 11. [Use Prob. Show that this tangent surface has the curvatures K = 0. The position vector of a twisted curve r is given as a function ro(s) of the The surface generated by its tangents is r=rc(v)+uT(v) where v = s and u is the distance along a tangent measured from r. [Use Prob.. and that its principal curvatures are fa/(u2 + a2). 14 and Prob. If a parabola is revolved about its directrix.PROBLEMS 10. J = z/i u Jx... For the conoid. Prove the derivative formulas of Weingarten: HZnu = (FM . Prove that FM .EM)r. may be written f 15.. show that the principal curvatures of the surface of revolution satisfy the relation 2k1 + k2 = 0.18). b.EM H2 . ex.EN)r. Show that the curvatures J and K have the dimensions of (length) 1 and (length) 22. n form reciprocal sets of vectors over the surface r = r(u.1 When z = av.] H2b = Fru + Er.EN H2 [Use Prob. 15.GL H2 ' 'b= I FL . 10. What are the principal curvatures? 13. L = 0. r.. 9.. Hence show that any vector f(u. [Cf. J = uz"/H3. v). a FN . 8. defined over the surface. 16. G=u2+z'2=H2. v) [Cf. 323 r = iu cos v + ju sin v + kz(v). II. are..] 14. § 132.Fr.GM)ru + (FM . The vectors a. H2n _ (FN ..
Show that the parametric curves are lines of curvature when. and only when. 24. F = 0.2). (ii) A sphere: E/L = F/M = GIN. In the notation of § 132.1)]. 19.10)]. (138. r = p(u) + ve(u). Show that the asymptotic lines of the surface r = r(u. . (b) An asymptotic line of curvature is plane. are the generating lines (counted twice).1). or. y) have the differential equation. (130. Show that the lines of curvature of the surface r = r(u. (142. (ru du + r dv) (nu du + n dv) = 0 [Cf. it is also a line of curvature. dv) = 0 [Cf. prove that M = pu e x eu/H. or. (d) The square of the torsion is equal to the negative of the total curvature: 2 = K.] 23. along a curved asymptotic line. Prove that a ruled surface is developable when. Prove that the following conditions are necessary and sufficient in order that the surface be (i) A plane: L = M = N = 0. Prove that (a) If an asymptotic line is a plane curve other than a straight line. prove that the lines of curvature on the surface z = z(x. and only when. in terms of fundamental quantities. in terms of fundamental quantities. [Cf. not a plane. M = 0.] 22. 21. 20. M = 0. v) have the differential equation. 2. (a) The osculating plane is tangent to the surface. (b) The geodesic torsion equals the torsion: t = r. 28. Ldu2+2Mdudv+Ndv2 = 0. M N 27. Prove that. Prove that the asymptotic lines on a right helicoid (Prob. For the ruled surface.. 10) are the parametric curves and form an orthogonal net. (142. 26. N = 0. Prove that the asymptotic lines of a developable surface. (c) The geodesic curvature is numerically equal to the curvature: y = ±K.324 GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE 18. [Differential equation: du 2 = 0. du + r dv) x (nu du + n. I dv2 E L du dv F du2 I G = 0. ex. v) have the differential equation. 25. n (r. dy2 dx dy pq dx2 1 + p2 1 + q2 = 0.
Xu = Xv = 0. 4 has the parametric x = 2a(u + v). Prove that the distance X between the parallel surfaces is constant. 30. Prove the "Theorema egregium" of Gauss by establishing Baltzer's formula for the total curvature K: Fuv .xk2 K Hence the mean and total curvature of S are given by E(J . Prove that the differential equations of its asymptotic lines and lines of curvature are. Prove that the lines of curvature on parallel surfaces correspond and that the corresponding principal curvatures satisfy the equations.Xk2)rv + Xn ffn. z = cuv. Two surfaces that have the same normal lines are called parallel.Xk2)n x rv + X .UGuu Evv H4K=I Fv2Gu 2Eu Fu .= (1 . Gu E F F G 'Gu E F F G .v).Ak2)Hn + Xu(1 . thus r(u. If the parametric curves on a surface are its lines of curvature. (Prob. rv = (1 . v) determines corresponding points on the parallel surfaces S and S.PROBLEMS equations: 325 29. show that nu = kiru.Xki)(1 . y = 2b(u . kl _ Ekl Eke 1 . ru. and as n. Show that the hyperbolic paraboloid of Prob. H = E(1 .Xkl)ru x n. Show that surfaces parallel to a surface of revolution are also surfaces of revolution.Xki)(1 . 31. du dv = 0. and. Now ii = En where e = ±1. dvl2 \du / a2 + b2 + c2y2 a2 + b2 + c2u2 and find the uvequations of the asymptotic lines and lines of curvature.Xkl ' T2 = 1 .Xk2)H.Aki)ru + Xun.2XK) J _ 1rJ+X2K' K _ 1xJ+x2K 33. 30). nv = k2rv.(l . ru = (1 . [If we take the lines of curvature of S as parametric curves. on cross multiplication. 34.2Ev 0 ZEv U Ei. r are mutually orthogonal. respectively.1 32. Surface points on the same normal are said to correspond. v) + An(u. v) = r(u.
2). respectively.g=EGF2. GEOMETRY ON A SURFACE From (132. (f) Daep = ey(Dagp .h=LNM2. y = 1. . . g"p is the reduced cofactor of gap in det gap. i2Gu. 2). g. .g12=F. (e) Dagpy + Dogy.h22=N.. D2 = av .14). 2) for a surface r = r(ul. rvv rv = ruv rv = 2Gu> ruu r. Now. § 145. ruu rvv . el = ru. (c) h11=L. + Dpgya .D.. (g) e" = g"pep (summed over (3 = 1. by differentiating we may show that rut. el = a. Moreover let 911 921 gap = ea ep.10) and (132. g = det gap = 912 922 hap = n DaDpr = hpa.] .326 Method. u2 = v. 2. 9ap = ea e$. (d) Daep .. the right member becomes ruu rvv ruu ru ruu rv ruv ruv ruv ruv ruv ru ruv rv ru rvv rv rvv E F F G ru rv E F F G In both determinants the upper left element has the cofactor EG . e2 = rv. ru 2F!u. 35.rgap = 2ey Daep. e2 = b. The Christoffel symbols Papa. rvv ru = F. a then e" ep = SQ.Dygap) + nhap (summed over y = 1. [Cf. (a) 9u= E.Fu  2Ev.22) show that H4K = [ruurx][rv. u2) having gap du" dup as first fundamental form (§ 132) are computed from the equations: Pap = ey . D1 = a au . v) let us write u1 = u.ruv ruv and 0.F2. i ruv ru = 2iEv.] 36.r r. On the surface r = r(u.2 vv. zGv. Daep. (b) 911 = 922 g12  912 922 = 9 922 9 9 that is.h12=M.ruv ruv .[ruvrurv]2.. hence we may replace these elements by ruu rvv .922=G. Using (24. Prove that h = det ha p. where the Greek indices have the range 1.Fuv 1Guu !Evv ..Dpea.
+ raA ds ds B dua duDr summed over a.912(2D1912  (d) From the formulas for r. 2.D1911) + 91Y(D1912 + D1921 .# obtain the formulas for rap. y = 1. 29t1 = 922 Dig. 39. 2). 0 summed over 1.922 D1922 [Use the formula of part b. Hence prove that the equations of a geodesic on a surface are y dua d3 1 T = ep ds . (e) From Prob. + rad ds ds =0 a 8 (Y = 1. Prob.. 2). 17. 35 show that equations (132. Cf.2g12 D1912 + 912 D29uu. Dan = hafieO (summed over S = 1.PROBLEMS 327 With reference to Prob. (c) 29r1i = 922 D1911 . 2).912 D1922. From n efl = 0 show that eo Dan = han. Check these results with Prob. K = h/g (a. = ep ds2 + Daeg d Vr = eyes. 21'1ii 1 = 911(D1911 + D1g11 . ] .Dyga#) (summed over p = 1. 35 (f) prove the derivative formulas of Gauss: X Daep = raryea + heron (summed over a = 1. 36. 37.D2911). Show that the tangential projection of the vector curvature dT/ds = KNi of a surface curve is d2r = ey ds2 (. With the notations of Prob. .#. . Hence prove the derivative formulas of Weingarten. 2). for example. 38. 0. 29ri2 = 922 D2911 .21) and (132. 35 prove that (a) ra0 = r'a (b) rP# = Diggya .22) may be written J = g0h. 2). 29r22 = 912 D2922 + 2g22 D2912 ..
e'. is stated precisely in the following SUMMATION CONVENTION. shall stand for the sum of all such terms obtained by giving this index its complete range of values. 2. Similarly. Any term. if not understood. v = (uiei) . in which the same index (subscript or superscript) appears twice.v. u = u. The two forms of a vector (24.) = uiv' S = u1vi. By way of illustration. must be specified in advance.e') = uiv. without any essential loss of clarity. we repeat some of the formulas of § 24. The index range is 1. 3. 328 . Expressions which consist of a sum of similar terms may be condensed greatly. we here use different indices in expressing u and v in order to get the 32 = 9 terms in the expanded product (six are zero). But any other letter will do as well.1) and (24. This range of values. Now (3) u . In these equations i and j are summation (or dummy) indices. thus u = carer = ule1+ u2e2 + u3e3. 'Vi' = uiei.3). we first recall the defining equation for reciprocal sets. (vie. (4) u v = (uiei) . This usage. (v. (2) ei e' = Si (23. In order to compute u .CHAPTER IX TENSOR ANALYSIS 145. originally due to Einstein.2) become (1) U = uiei. using the summation convention. The Summation Convention. by indicating summation by means of repeated indices.
when n = 3. 146. 132. The significance of this arrangement (not required by the summation convention) soon will be apparent. when n = 3. 312 are even permutations. 321 are odd. For example. 123. but all the formulas apply without change of form for any value of n. k produce 33 = 27 terms. When r. s. t are 1. A permutation of the first n natural numbers is said to be even or odd. the epsilon is zero.r and as equal to 1 or 1. 3. . 21 involve repeated indices and therefore give a zero epsilon. if any index is repeated. according as it can be formed from 123 n by an even or odd number of interchanges of adjacent numbers. one half of these are even and one half odd. Since rst changes sign when two adjacent indices are interchanged. Determinants. We then define the permutation symbols ijk. equations (2) reduce to (1). (Write them out!) The theorems relative to an interchange of rows and columns are given by (2) eijkarasat aer8t = i ijkarL atk a8 ' Proof. but. 112 = 122 = 222 = The epsilons just defined are useful in dealing with determinants. Consider now a permutation ijk r of the numbers 123 n. .. j. 213.. of these. n. according as ijlc . To be specific. 2. 231. whereas 6 involve permutations of 123 and give precisely the 3! = 6 terms of the determinant. we shall take n = 3. For example.§ 146 DETERMINANTS 329 Note that the summation indices in the preceding examples appear once as subscript and once as superscript. From the definition of a determinant : a1 1 a1 2 2 a1 3 3 ei jka 12a3 (1) a = det a _ as a2 a3 2 a2 a3 1 a3 3 1 ak e'k ai aj2 3 The implied summations on i. r is an even or an odd pereijk""r mutation of 123 . .1 0. E123 = 231 = 312 = 1 E213 = 132 = 321 = . The total number of permutations of n different numbers is n!.
the last expression becomes . Now Eijkarasat = eijkasarat = . on the right. A. (6) But. and each nonvanishing term such as a1la2 a3 appears six times. summed over the 3! permutations of 123. if the elements of any row (column) are multiplied by the corresponding cofactors of another row (column) and added.ejikasa r aki and. and we get (5) a7AT = a. corre23 sponding to the 3! permutations of its factors. These important properties both are included in (4) aiA. we obtain the Laplace expansions. = a'Ai = a S . we obtain (3) 3! a = eijkerstarasae. is denoted by A'. its importance rests on the information it gives about the determinant when its elements are transformed. The cofactor of a.eijkasajat . a7. we obtain the determinantits Laplace expansion.* strike out the row and column in which ai stands. The cofactor of an element az in the determinant (1) is defined as its coefficient in the expansion of the determinant. equals 3!. Here r is the summation index. where S = Si + S2 + S3 = 3 (n = 3). Equation (3) thus is not useful for computation. = a Si. On the left er8tergt. To find A'. the sum is zero. the summation extends over all six indices and produces 36 = 729 terms. if we interchange the summation indices i. but. then A equals the resulting minor taken with the sign (1) i+j. Many with zero epsilons vanish. If we multiply the first equation of (2) by e" and sum on rst.Ar = arAi = a (i fixed). If in (4) we put j = i.330 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 146 (2) will beestablished when the right members are shown to have this same property. if we put j = i in (4) and suspend summation on i. both r and i are summation indices. If the elements of any row or column are multiplied by their respective cofactors and added. . for S = 1 for a fixed i. j.
The reduced cofactor of a2 is therefore (7) a. equations (4) become (8) aTc = 8a. are functions of a variable x. In terms of reduced cofactors. 3). x' = xk.= daii Ai' dx d. da3k\ a2ja3k + a1i a3k + aiia2i = x x dx ) E = dalAli+da2jA21+da3kA3k dx dx dx ' where A 'j denotes the cofactor of aij.§ 146 DETERMINANTS 331 A cofactor divided by the value of the determinant is called a reduced cofactor. the equations: (12) ax' = yt (i. . Consider. multiply (12) by the reduced cofactor ak and sum on i : the left member becomes S. (i.'kalia2Ja3k = E1Jkailaj2ak3 The reduced cofactor of ai3 then is written ai become (10) aira'r = aria'' = SL. Summing on two indices. a 0). da dx _ ilk (dali dal. j = 1. we have. 3). The properties (8) of reduced cofactors enable us to solve a system of linear equations when the determinant of the coefficients is not zero. 2. To solve these for x'. and we obtain xk = a./a (a F6 0). its definition becomes (9) a = E'. on replacing k by j. 2.yi. j = 1. or. 2. = A. (13) x' = aiyi (i. The derivative of a determinant is the sum of the products formed by differentiating each clement and multiplying by the cofactor of the element. j = 1. 3.r. for example. and equations (8) If the elements ai. When the elements of a determinant are written aid. from (9). we may write (11) da .
c% = aabj = aib1 F a2b2 f.'.332 TENSOR ANALYSIS 5 147 To find the product of the determinants a = det a. 61 = cie1 + ciez + Cie3. from (1) and (2). . the reduced cofactor of a in its determinant is a. If a determinant a 0." and "columncolumn" rules. For example. If we solve equations (13) for yi by using the reduced cofactors in det a. e3 by means of the linear transformation. the determinant formed by replacing each element by its reduced cofactor is 1/a.. From (15). Since the value of a determinant is not altered by an interchange of rows and columns. Let us now introduce a new basis e1i e2." "columnrow. we see that the element in the ith row and jth column of the product ab is given by the sum of the products of the corresponding terms in the ith row of a and the jth column of bthe socalled "rowcolumn" rule. e3 = c3e1 + c3e2 + c3e3. . Contragredient Transformations. in other words. THEOREM. we also can compute ab by "rowrow. b = det b. (1) e2 = c2e1 + c2e2 + 4e3.a2b33. the product a1 1 al 2 al 3 a1 1 a2 a2 a2 3 1 a3 a3 a3 3 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 (16) a2 a2 a3 z a2 a3 3 ai a1 3 2 0 = 1. we have. (14) ab = EiJkaia2a3b = a1 s t ia2 ja3 kEr8tbsrbjbk = Erst(albi)(aabj)(a3kbk) = where (15) r 8 ErstC1C2Ct3. 147. we will obtain (12). The two determinants in (16) thus are reciprocally related: each is formed from the reduced cofactors of the other. a3 1 0 0 by use of the rowrow rule.
This argument applies without change to space of n dimensions. since c P 0. 'Y3u3.0. we have 161 . or. (5) ut = ul = riu1 + 'Y2u2 + Y3u3. in which a basis consists of n linearly independent vectors. on substitution from (1). written out in full. we have on solving equations (4). ujej. From (1). u = 'uiei = ujej. u2 (5) = 'Ylui + Y2u2 + Y3 u3. For any vector u.§ 147 CONTRAGREDIENT TRANSFORMATIONS 0.u If y is the reduced cofactor of c in the determinant c. hence c E 0 and the linear independence of the vectors e1. e2 x e3 = cic2c3 ei ej x ek = C'iC2iC3Eijk e1 ' e2 x e3. or. (1) The condition c 0 ensures that e1. we have (2) E _ (det c')E = cE. 0 implies Since the vectors ei form a basis E 96 0. In the present case (n = 3).l = Ci. 333 where the coefficients ci are real constants whose determinant c In brief. if there were three constants At such that Aiei = 0. and. e3 are linearly independent. For. u3 = 'iu1 + Y32 u2 + 3 . then Aicej = 0. c = det ca /. hence. these equations only admit the solution Ai = 0. on writing E = el e2 x e3. ei = c'ej. the linear independence of the vectors ej requires that c'Ai = 0. since the vectors ej are linearly independent. (4) u. we also may argue as follows. (3) hence. e2.
When new base vectors are introduced by means of the transformation. we see that contragredient matrices are so related that the transpose of either is the reciprocal of the other. Two matrices whose product is I are said to be reciprocal. we remind the reader of the following definitions from matrix algebra. zeros elsewhere). 72 73 C= C2 C3 1 1 r = 71 71 3 72 72 3 2 73 73 3 2 2 C3 are so related that any element of r is the reduced cofactor of the corresponding element of C in its determinant c. Covariance and Contravariance. These equations characterize contragredient transformations. From (7). . In view of (24. 7rc1 = bj. det c 0.334 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 148 The linear transformations (1) and (5) are said to be contragredient. this may be written uei=7jue'. (2) ui = 7. 148.u'. Cl C1 2 C2 c1 3 C2 3 C3 71 . (1) ei = c e5. In order to state this definition analytically. The product AB of two square matrices A and B is the matrix whose element in the ith row and jth column is the sum of the corresponding products of the elements in the ith row of A and jth column of (rowcolumn rule).3). and any element of C is the reduced cofactor of the corresponding element of r in its determinant y. Thus C and r' or C' and r are reciprocal matrices. Their matrices. (6) cz7r = S. the components of any vector u are subjected to the contragredient transformation. If we compute Cr' or rC' and make use of the equations. The unit matrix I has the elements Si (ones in the principal diagonal. we find that (7) Cr'=rC'=I. The transpose of a matrix A is a matrix A' obtained from A by interchanging rows and columns.
To find the transformation for the components ui. (4) ui = cu a transformation cogredient with (1). u2. . Thus quantities written with subscripts transform in the same way (cogrediently). the covariant components ui. the transformation (1) is regarded as a standard. = Yi = ai. u3] a co' Actually. u3J often is called a contravariant vector. variant vector. as this holds for every vector u. uz . we find that ei ' e' = cier yie8 = ciYaSr = c 'Yr = 31j. By using the properties of the reduced cofactors. ui = ciuj. in the second to the reciprocal basis e' [u1.yiu'. u2i u3] are two ways of representing the same vector u. [u1. u3] and [U1. e' = c . but invariant. ei = ?j6j. reciprocal to ei. Note that the matrices c. u2. From (1) and (3). have the solutions. which shows that the new bases have the fundamental property of reciprocal sets.4). in other words.'e. These terms suggest variation unlike and like that of the base vectors ei. and quantities written with superscripts also transform in the same waybut the latter transformations are contragredient to the former. ui = Yiui.§ 148 COVARIANCE AND CONTRAVARIANCE 335 and. u2. To be quite clear on this point the reader should write out equations ei = (. in the first it is referred to the basis ei. y' of (6) transposed. thus is transformed in the same way as ui. (3) The basis ei. Thus the equations. multiply (1) by u . and et = c. the vector u is neither contravariant or covariant. y in (7) are the matrices cz.ei. from (24. Thus [u'. we may solve equations (1) to (4) for the original base vectors and components (§ 146). (5) eir'Yr i r i (6) ei = c. then. et = 'Yie'.%J.ei in full. A vector u is said to have the contravariant components ui. Thus the position of the index indicates the character of the transformation. (7) ut = c ui.
the transformation. the scalar product uivi: making use of (2) and (4). Take. the corresponding transformation (148. for example. Every element of an orthogonal matrix is its own reduced cofactor in the determinant of the matrix. From (2). the coefficients of an orthogonal transformation satisfy the equations: (3) crc. Since this transformation must be the same as (1). such as uiv i.3) between the reciprocal bases. we have. we have the THEOREM. In view of the properties of reduced cofactors. we have uiv2 = Ciur78vs = bryurv8 = u'1T. c = f 1. is called orthogonal.7) characterizing contragredient transformations becomes (4) CC' = I for orthogonal transformations. . = Cic. maintains its form under the transformation. 149..336 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 149 An expression. = 8L. If c denotes the determinant of C. ei e i. The matric equation (147. summed over the same upper and lower indices. When the basis ei and the new basis ei both consist of mutually orthogonal triples of unit vectors. (1) ei = ciei. now becomes ei = 7e. Orthogonal Transformations. Since both bases are selfreciprocal (§ 23). ei = 7e'. The index notation thus automatically indicates quantities that are invariant to affine transformations of the base vectors. (5) c2 = 1. from (4). C11 ci c2 C3 ci c3 3 C3 7i 72 73 (2) C= c2 1 = 71 2 72 72 3 q 7s 73 3 =r C3 71 3 The matrix of an orthogonal transformation is called an orthogonal matrix. uie i. Thus a real matrix is orthogonal when its transpose equals its reciprocal.
e1e2e3 and ele2(e3) have the same orientation. thus c = 1 when the bases have dife2 = C3er. If one basis is dextral. c. a = det aij. namely. since this determinant equals =E1 at all stages of the motion and must change continuously if at all. the form (1) becomes (5) B(y.0. 2. y) + X2A (y. c = 1 when the bases have the same orientation. and c = det ci becomes det S = 1. by a rotation about an axis through the origin. must equal 1. x2. x) = aijxixj (i. and. el = c1er. ferent orientations. is called the discriminant of the form. (3) A (x + X y. But. if aij 0 aji. Associated with the quadratic form A (x. as the motion progresses. x) is the bilinear form. x) + 2XA (x. Hence the determinant of the transformation. (1) A(x. x + Xy) = A (x. At any stage of the motion.F. the coefficients c change continuously from their initial to their final values S . j = 1. Quadratic Forms. the other sinistral. nonsingular if det aij 0 0. known as its polar form.§ 150 QUADRATIC FORMS 337 If the bases ei and ei are both dextral or both sinistral. e3 = caer. If we make the linear transformation. loss in generality. y) = br4yry8 where . bra = aijcTc'. c=detc. x). A real quadratic polynomial. we can bring the trihedral e1e2e3 into coincidence with e1e2e3 by continu ous motionin fact. (2) A(x. (4) xi=c yr. x"`. y). for which aij = aji is called a real quadratic form in the variables The symmetry requirement aij = aji entails no x1. The expansion of aij(xi + Xyi) (x' + Xyj) shows that a quadratic form and its polar are related by the identity. n). y) = aijx'y' = A(y. the form is not altered if we replace aij and aji by (aij + aji). . 150. for. The form is said to be singular if det aij = 0. the base vectors are related by equations of the form (1). . 2 The determinant of the coefficients.
y3. (i = 1. terms of the n . y) is therefore (6) b = det bra = c2a. the quadratic equation (7) in A must have a pair of either complex roots or equal roots. Then. x) > 0.xi = 0 has a solution (xa. for Consequently. det bra = det (ai. x)A(y. xi + Alyi and xi + A2yi and therefore cannot be definite. is a quadratic equation in A having two distinct real roots A1i A2. x)A(y.1 variables y2. for the set x1. irrespective of the value of A. y) < 0 pose that A(x.cT) det c8 = det ai. Since y' = 0. y) = ai. A nonsingular form is said to be definite when it vanishes only for xl = x2 = = x" = 0. it can be expressed in terms of fewer than n variables which are linear functions of x. n). i + Axp = x i . . y) > 0. y) is expressed in . xo. x) is singular. . y) 12 .A(x.A(x. For since det ai. from (3). y". a definite quadratic form is always the same. (8) JA (x.338 TENSOR ANALYSIS §150 From the rule for multiplying determinants. and write If we now choose A = xl/xo y i = x. x). x2. xo) which does not consist entirely of zeros. the discriminant of B(y. = 0. (7) A (x + Ay. thus we may assume that xo 54. x + Axo) = A (x. for the set y'. y2. from (3). for a definite form. For all other sets of values. If the form A (x. For a definite quadratic form. sup. the form vanishes for two different sets of values. . and. y) 12 . Linear transformations of nonzero determinant do not alter the singe lar or nonsingular character of a quadratic form. det cr det c8. A (y.0. the equal sign corresponding to the case xi + Ayi = 0.xoy' = 0. the system of n linear equations ai. x). in which the sets xi and yi are proportional. .x4x1 /x0. Now A(xo. we have A (y. Henceforth we shall consider only nonsingular forms. A (x + Axo. hence. y) = A (x. the sign of y". x" and A(y. x + Ay) = 0 {A(x. y) < 0. To prove this.
uiu'. and a = 1/c2 > 0. A nonsingular form which is not definite is called indefinite: such a form may vanish for values x` other than zero. u2. when the six constants gij are known. we have (3) (4) I UI= gijl(itljr Cos (u. 1907. 150. From (2).§ 152 RELATIONS BETWEEN RECIPROCAL BASES 339 A definite quadratic form is called positive definite or negative definite according as its sign (for nonzero sets) is positive or negative. 2923u2u2 Thus u u is a real quadratic form. V) = gijuw' UV _ VgijuiujVVgijvivi lUl VI Thus. 151. since they make measurements possible. x) is positive definite. this form is positive definite. we can find the lengths of vectors and the angles between them when a fixed unit of length is adopted. + ynyn The discriminant of a positive definite form is therefore positive. The Metric. When A (x. are said to determine the metric of our 3space. x) to a sum of squares: (9) B(x. (1) Using the notation. . for the nine scalar products of the base vectors. 9i. The quantities gjj. from (6). The discriminant c' the metric form is 911 (1) 912 922 932 913 923 9= 921 931 933 :" Bother. u3. = ei ej = gji. u v is given by the associated bilinear (polar) form in ui. vj. b = 1 = c2a. we have (2) u u = gi. giiU'u1 + g22u2u2 + 933u3u3 + 2g12u'u2 + + 2931u3u1r in the variables u1. Moreover. it is well known that we can find a real linear transformation (4) which will reduce A (x. Introduction to Higher Algebra. and. p. and gijuiuj is called the metric (or fundamental) quadratic form. x) = Siyiyj = ylyl + y2y2 + .. Relations between Reciprocal Bases. New York. u . (viej) = giptivj. for.. v = (uiei) . since u u > 0 when u 0. 152.
if we interchange i and k. x3. The components xi of OP are called the Cartesian coordinates of P relative to the basis ei. Finally.r Si. thus k j 9ikei = 9ikgije = 3jej = e k. (4) ei = 9kiek From (4). When an origin 0 is given. for any point P is determined by the components of its position vector : OP = x'el + x2e2 + x3e3. and we have. (6) (7) ui = ei u = gijuj The equations enable us to convert contravariant components of a vector to covariant and vice versa. we have also ei ej = gkiek ej = gkiak = gji (5) gij = ez e' = 9'i Making use of (3) and (4). (9) det gij = det (ei ej) = [ele2e312 = E2 = 1 9 153. The Affine Group.10). the relations: (2) = 9rigr' = Since any vector may be written girg. ei = gije' We may solve these equations for ej by multiplying by gik and summing on i. from (24.340 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 153 The reduced cofactor of gij in this determinant is denoted by gij. we now have. we have (8) g = det gij = det (e1 ej) = [eie2e312 = E2. the constant basis el. e2. . e3 defines a Cartesian coordinate system x1. or. for any vector u. u= (3) ei. x2.14). from (146.
that is. the invariance of OP. = xk. But the reverse point of view is adopted when transformation groups more general than the affine are under consideration : the coordinates are transformed. The centeredaffine transformations with nonzero determinant form a group. (a) the set includes the identity transformation: ri = S . (c) the succession of two transformations of the set is equivalent to a single transformation of the set. or (4) x' = y2xi. For. (3) xi = c.0. if we substitute from (1) in (2). det ck = (det a) (det bk) F4. that is. or. Our present point of view is that a transformation of the base vectors induces a definite transformation of coordinates.x'. a x'. where ck = a bk and x' = bj. a . thus we find xiy. ' = x`. Thus the transformations. . The transformation (3) is called affine. namely. i''es = xZei. more specifically. and summing. The matrix c? in (1) is transposed in (3).§ 153 THE AFFINE GROUP 341 When the base vectors ei are subjected to the transformation. since the origin 0 has not been altered. (1) et=ce.. while (1) expresses the new base vectors in terms of the old. and we then inquire as to corresponding transformation of the base vectors. (2) induces a contragredient transformation on the coordinates. We now can solve (3) for the new coordinates by multiplying by the reduced cofactors ti. (b) each transformation of the set has an inverse. (3) expresses the old coordinates in terms of the new. det 6 = 1. we find that x' = ci"xi. centered affine. and. y = det yj = 1/c.xk. give xa = Ckx1.
For. All forms of T given . we have xi(czej . (5) T. (1) must hold. that is. respectively. The sets of components u i and ui often are called contravariant and covariant vectors. Ti. namely.i which transform like u ivi or uivi. respectively. we have also (2) ei = y. T:' = are called mixed components of a dyadic. (3) U = uiei = uiei. if we put x' = x'cy in (2).. xi = y. Under the affine transformation. Similarly.. namely. 154. in Tii the lower index.ei) = 0 for all xi.TB. (7) T = Tiieiei = Tiieiei = Ttieiei = Ti eiei. (4) Tii = yryBT'8 are called contravariant components of a dyadic.xi (c 0). nine num bers Ti. T.i are four representations of one and the same dyadic. Nine (3 X 3) numbers Tii which transform like the nine products of vector components uivi. (6) 7.342 TENSOR ANALYSIS a 151 In the case of the affine group the transformation (3) of coordi nates obviously entails the transformation (1) of base vector. namely. Actually they are different representations of the same invariant vector. or T. transform like x i and xi.6). Just as ui and ui are two representations of a single invariant vector u. Finally. Note that the indices on components and base vectors always are placed in the same order from left to right. Note that in Tti the upper index comes first.i = ('icjTra. nine numbers Ti.ei. (1) ei = c ei. which transform like uiei. Dyadics. are called covariant components of a dyadic. ut and ui. Tii. ti = e xi (148.'i = yrc. the components Tii. Contravariant and covariant components of a vector.
(c.e8 = girgj8Trs 155.e i jTrsc'eh ckek = 3.a8. (12) ei = girer.erei = eje'. 9i7 in agreement with (5). We next define absolute tensors with respect to the centeredaffine group of transformations: xi = cxj . For example..es) = Yrc. b. from (7) and (12).ej = 9trer'T'ej = 9irT.jug. any two members of (11) can be shown to be equal.1). if we use the formulas. namely.T.T .J.§ 155 ABSOLUTE TENSORS 343 in (7) are invariant. we have T'16x. we have. from (151. (9) = e ' e' = (Yrer) .8). on using (1) and (4). Absolute Tensors. Any component of T may be expressed in terms of components of another type by means of the metric form. ei = girer (§ 152). gij and b are all components of the same tensor. gije ej = gc. The same is true of gij. S transforms in agreement with (4). gij. the order of the indices in its mixed components.ek = Thkehe b. Tit = ei. and remember the properties of gij. for example. the Kronecker deltas. = 9'r ei'T er = girgjs er . the idemfactor (§ 66).h6kTr8e1. = YrYs i r from the properties of reduced cofactors (146. is immaterial.5). gijeie' = 9ij9irere' = b. In fact. i i r ti i Since eiei and eiei represent the same tensor. for example. for. (11) gijeiej = gijeiej = beiej = 8jeiej = eiei = eiei. (10) ei ej = (Yrer) . for. The coefficients gij of the metric quadratic form are tensor components.e gjrer = Sie er = e ei. g" as reduced cofactors. Again. Indeed. if we define as a mixed tensor. from (152. (8) 9ij = ei ' ej = (tier) ' (cjes) = c'.(Yses) = Y:Y39r8.
t. x3) = P(x'. uivj of components of two absolute vectors. Dyadics have 32 = 9 components. (2) 2li = ciuj. The dyadic itself. If these components transform. an absolute tensor of valence m is a set of 3' components that transform like the product of m absolutevector components. x3) are said to be absolute tensors of valence zero. (4) Ti jk = ea'Ya t Tr rjk at The tensor itself. for example. Consider. a tensor T of valence three (a triadic). another purely covariant (Tij.. and the mixed components Tijk like uivjwk. T'j. uiv. like the products ujv.344 TENSOR ANALYSIS Scalars p(x'.k).. ui = Yu characterize absolute tensors of valence one. and these may be of 22 = 4 types: Ti. Tij. x2.. is invariant to the transformation: T = T.. u = uiei = uiei.. uivj. and. the remaining types are mixed and have both upper and lower indices. the components are of 2' types. namely. they are said to form absolute tensors of valence two. (3) Tijk = c2cjckT. and these may be of two types u.. respectively. . is invariant to the transformation: u = u. One of these types is purely contravariant (T1 . namely.k). Tij.k will transform like uiv. x2. ui.wk. Its covariant components Ti. since each of these may be covariant or contravariant. T = T. its 33 = 27 components may be of 23 = 8 types. The vector itself. In general. Vectors have three components. x3) which have one component in each coor(linate system given by (1) gxl. T = Tijeie' = Ti'eiej = TZjeie' = T'jetej.. The laws of transformation. x2..keiejek = Tijkeiejek = .
we thus find yaybycTijk = SaSbScTrst = Tabc j k (5) r s t In similar fashion we find. the transformation equations. More generally. for all tensor components thus far considered contain only the coefficients c.jk = CNCr j i t r . (iii) its weight: the power of c that enters into the transformation equations. We may solve the 27 equations (3) for the original components Trst by multiplying by yayby.§ 156 RELATIVE TENSORS 345 is invariant to the transformation. The law of transformation of a tensor component is determined by (i) its valence: the number of its indices. for example. which involve the Nth power of the determinant c. such as (2) T. the relative tensor T = Trseere8et becomes (3) T = cNT when the transformation (1) is effected. (1) xi = Cr. When the coordinates are subjected to an affine transformation. When N = 0. In this case the quantities in question are said to be components of a relative tensor of weight N. y. and summing. from (4). T = Tijkeiejek (CiciCkTrst) (7ea) (' beb) (} cec) SaSbS. Note that the indices on the base vectors in T have the same order as the indices on the component but occupy opposed positions. Relative Tensors. equations (2) reduce to (155. 156. . . As a consequence of (2). (ii) its type: the position of its indices from left to right.xti = yrxr (c = det c s 0).4) for an absolute tensor. we may have equations of transformation.'Trsteaebec = Trstereset = T. (6) yaCbCkijk = brbbb 'r = Tab`.
Three equations. is a relative scalar of weight . for. is a relative scalar of weight 2. E = el e2 X e3. el . The permutation symbols Eijk and eijk. are components of relative tensors of weight . The determinant. (5) E = cE.(x1) x2. x3). (2) xt = gi(xl 22. from (5). The box product of the reciprocal base vectors.2).1 and 1. Eijk = Eijk by definition. determine a onetoone correspondence between the sets of numbers xi and xi. A relative scalar so of weight N (valence zero) is transformed according to (4) gxl. x3) = CNc. e3 = E1. Since Eijk = Eijk. x2. is a relative scalar of weight 1. THEOREM. If we regard both sets of numbers as coordinates of the same point. it is assumed to be zero. z Eijk j kerat _ Y iryayt required by relative tensors of weight 1 and 1. (1) x' = f z(xls x2 x3) f in which the functions f i are singlevalued for all points of a region R and which can be solved reciprocally to give the three equations. for E1 = c1E1. these equations assume the form.1. 157.= 1/c . respectively. regarded as the same set of numbers in all coordinate systems. the tensor is then absolute. 3) in which the functions gi also are single valued. (6) g = det gij = E2 (152. . General Transformations. from (147. If the formulas (146. e = C8Ctk jarat. iCjCkerat' we have CEijk = YEzlk = yr"Ys7 Brat.2) are applied to the determinants. for E2 = c2E2. Proof.346 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 157 If the weight of a tensor is not specified. c = det c2j y = det ?j. e2. The box product of the base vectors.8).
The affine transforma tion is the particular case of (1) in which the functions f i are linear and homogeneous in x'. x3). x3) are analytic functions having a nonvanishing Jacobian in R: ax (3) ax' The implicitfunction theorem ensures the existence of the solutions (2) of equations (1) in a sufficiently restricted neighborhood of any point.f3(x)] = ji(xl. for (a) they include the identity transformation xi = xi whose Jacobian is 1. we must assume that the solution (2) exists and is single valued throughout R.f2(x). Consider now the totality of such transformations in which the functions f i(x'.6 0. x3. since f i and hi are analytic functions. we have axi (5) yr axr =r axr axi z. (b) each transformation (1) has an inverse (2) whose Jacobian ax/ax I is the reciprocal of (3). In the affine transformation. x2. xL = fi(xl x2 x3) xz = h'(x' x2 x3) are equivalent to xz = h'[f`(x). (4) xi = yrxt. for which the Jacobian. (c) the succession of two transformations of the set is equivalent to another transformation of the set.= det (ax' / ax' \axr = (det / \ axi ( det ) / \ L 0. In order to have a transformation of coordinates OX =det. azi in R. x2. are likewise analytic. The coordinate transformations (1) thus defined form a group. . /0xi axr axi ax'/ ax Moreover.3. the functions ji axr det . the two transformations.§ 157 GENERAL TRANSFORMATIONS 347 (1) defines a transformation of coordinates. i xi ir = crx . As to (c). x2.
dx3 = . (10) uy = . for contravariant and covariant components of an absolute vector. this equation may be written (8) Ti'k. axi axi axi axi dxI + (11) dxi = dx2 + . $t is said to form a tensor of valence 3 and weight N with respect to the general transforma tions (1) provided the components transform according to the pattern (8). they vanish in all coordinate systems. by definition. ordinate systems.= c. In particular.348 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 157 the Jacobians. with respect to the affine group. Although the coordinates themselves are not vector components in the general group (1). . This equation becomes (7) when the transformation is affine and constitutes a natural generalization of (7).at ax axi ax' axt IN axr axs axk Now. tensor equations maintain their form in all coIf any geometrical or physical property is expressed by means of an equation between tensors.dxr. axr axi det . The corresponding equation for a tensor of any valence or type is now obvious. for. (9). A tensor of weight N.= y. their differentials dxi are the components of a contravariant vector. axr axi ii = ax ur. i _ axr Since the new tensor components are linear and homogeneous in terms of the old components. this equation in an arbitrary coordinate system expresses the same property. ax' axi axr ax2 We regard the differentials dxr as the prototype of contravariant vectors. (6) det .k = CNyTy3CtkTrst. (7) TU'.ur. . axr axi and yc = 1. we have the important result: If the components of a tensor vanish in one coordinate system. a set of 33 functions Tr. transforms according to the pattern. from (1). More generally. and the rule of total differentiation gives the correct pattern for their transformation. In view of (5) and (6).
' x2. x3). when we replace xi on the right by the values (2). x3) are the components of a covariant vector. In the affine transformation. then (14) ar ar axr ei===er. are all components of the idemfactor ere' = erer.§ 157 GENERAL TRANSFORMATIONS 349 The partial derivatives app/axi of an absolute scalar p(x'. We now can show that (16) gij = gij = S transform as tensor components. ei axr axj 49V ax8 axr axj a. . and the chain rule for partial differentiation gives the correct pattern for their transformation. erer = girer. The base vectors ei must transform after the pattern in (9). (12) ax ax 1 ax i + ax2 ax i a. x3) = a P ax2 P(xl. and (13) ei = ar/axi. namely. we need only make the replacements indicated by (5) in the proofs of § 154. thus S. S. In fact gij. x2. ei = ei. t for. gi'. the position vector r = xiei. axr a.p ax3 ax3 at i _ axr aV ax ax r We regard the derivatives ap/axr as the prototype of covariant vectors. (17) Moreover. (15) ey = .er. sometimes is written gg. e' are also reciprocal. since 0(. axr axz axi axraxt The base vectors ei thus transform after the pattern in (10) and therefore merit a subscript. for. x2. ei = ei ere' = gire'.2'i ax' axj axi and the sets ei. since er e8 = S8. We now adopt (13) as the definition of ei in any coordinate system x'.
V. Permutation Tensor. 1.ej x ek eiejek = ei ej x ek eiejek. . Multiplication of tensor components of valence m1i m2. Moreover.1 and 1. N2. we see that the covariant and contravariant components of the permutation tensor are (4) e1 . 2. Example. From (2).350 TENSOR ANALYSIS e2 x e3 is 158. The permutation tensor is defined by (2) e1 . This is the theorem of § 156.14) and (157. 159.)a. Qij are both of weight N. the left member becomes er es x e` ereset. The three basic operations on tensors are addition. Moreover.ej x ek = EijkE. ei ej x ek = EijkE1 Since E and E' are relative scalars of weight 1 and 1. Operations with Tensors.ri azj Hence Tit = Pij + Qij transforms in exactly the same manner as Pij and Qij.15) show that (3) C = ei ej x ek eiejek. Fij + Qij _ ax N axr ax" ax . (157. weight. The box product E = el a relative scalar of weight 1: ax ax E for the proof of (147. These triadics are equal absolute tensors. of weight N1. Eijk and Eijk are components of relative tensors of weight . If Pij. if we put ek = gkter.2) applies when we replace c. and of arbitrary type generates a tensor component of valence m1 + m2i of weight N1 + N2. E' = e' e2 x e3 is a relative scalar of weight 1. Addition of tensor components of the same valence.(Pre + Qr. and of a type which is defined by the position of the indices in the factors. ej = 9ise3. multiplication. and type generates a tensor component of precisely the same characters. the former proof still holds when obvious changes are made. ei = gireT) For. and contraction. by axe/a.
.11'+'V. Its type is determined by the remaining indices.jk = T.k9i*.t .22+T133 is a contravariant vector. T = T!. setting i = j now gives the covariant vector ! Vk = T :: ..e ek. In the preceding examples.§ 159 OPERATIONS WITH TF''\SORS Let Pi' and Uk have the weights 2 and 1.keiej ek = r'. for Tt = a . of weight 3. then at'. and of the type indicated by its indices. In the absolute component T'!. j we first lower the index j 4 !r T. Hence T'jk = P''uk transforms as a tensor of valence 3.kgir = T . Contraction. u = Ti'..ei = T ..kgi.ei. We may also obtain this vector by lowering the index i and setting i = j: Tick = Tt"k = V" k9ri Contraction on a pair of indices is equivalent to the scalar multiplication of the corresponding base vectors in the complete tensor. 351 Example.ek . To contract the absolute component V% on the indices i.ks. the product Pu = Pi'ukeie?ek. are not the same.* axr T "` = ax" ur.kgij. PT8 ut. Example 1. Even though P''uk = ukPi'. v = T:'. not involved in the summation.k set j = k.ke. In any mixed tensor component an upper and lower index may be set equal and summed over the index range this generates a tensor component of the same weight and of valence two less. uP = ukPz'ekeie 3. Example 2. we need only raise or lower one index and then contract as previously. ax az axt axkut Ox 3 = az' axt as ax'' ax8 D.. then u=_VV jT1. ax ' ati a' P'uk = I ai ly axr axe Pr8 tensors. A tensor component may also be contracted with respect to two indices on the same level. .kei ejek = Tt'.ax"" ax ax TT3 = az ax ax8 all Of i i t i t ax8 Trt al' all =38T'st = ax..
It is antisymmetric or alternating in two indices of the same type if permuting them in any component merely changes its sign.kgiiek = As long as a contracted tensor has two or more indices. B = Bkhekeh. Thus. each contraction reducing the valence by two but leaving the weight unaltered. if A = Ati. respectively.keie.. A tensor is said to be symmetric in two indices of the same type (both covariant or both contravariant) if the value of any component is not changed by permuting them.i. Thus the tensor T!. V = T'.kh may be contracted twice to yield two different scalars 7". v.'.ek. Again the product A B of two dyadics defined in § 65 is equivalent to tensor multiplication followed by contraction on the two inner indices. These are obtained from the invariant tensor TT'. ek. we obtain their scalar product u'vi.eV . alternating in a. and. When the new base vectors on the left are expressed in terms of the old. Symmetry and Antisymmetry. but the contracted products reproduce T: m is a tensor IT of valence m + 2. if we multiply the vectors u. e. c.ek.352 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 160 The proof that contraction produces tensors follows from the equation : T'.keie. Contraction often is combined with multiplication. Thus. . since scalar multiplication is distributive with respect to addition.Bkhe'e' . b.eh. the foregoing process may be repeated. each consisting of nine terms. For example. Tabc = Tcba. 2. ekeh = Aj. eh and ei . Thus.'. v. if Tabc = Tbac.ek = TY?. in ex. e. A . it remains an identity when base vectors in the same position are multiplied on both sides.kheiejekeh by the formation of ei . The product of the idemfactor I = ere? and a tensor T of valence In general IT differs from TI. 160.. and then contract. this becomes an identity. and T'!.i.B'he'eh.B = Ai. the tensor T is symmetric in a.
Thus. 161. all components having two equal indices are zero. In a trivector Tijk. moreover.T. We now generalize the simple Kronecker delta S by introducing two others. defined as follows: aiajbkc (1) . ba"bk. formed by contracting S. for a property such as Ti j = Vi i does not subsist after a transformation of coordinates. Kronecker Deltas. A tensor is said to be symmetric in any set of upper or lower indices if its components are not altered in value by any permutation of the set. the contracted product.§ 161 KRONECKER DELTAS 353 Symmetry or antisymmetry are properties that subsist after a general transformation of coordinates. The subsistence of this property in one coordinate system ensures it in all. In such alternating tensors. the nonzero components can have but two values. we have Tijk = axa axb axe ax ax axk axe axb axa a axb axa a. Tijk) which is alternating in all indices is called a bivector or trivector. for the preceding example. A tensor is said to be alternating (or antisymmetric) in any set of upper or lower indices if its components are not altered in value by any even permutation of the indices and are merely changed in sign by an odd permutation of these indices. The permutation in question is said to be even or odd in the respective cases. . is an absolute tensor of valence six. is an absolute tensor of valence four.Eabr E ijk ijr ijr = aabr (2) aab = EabrE ij Since the epsilons have weights of 1 and 1.e Tabc = ax ax £ axk Tbac = Tjik axk axj axi (Tcba) A tensor cannot be symmetric or alternating in two indices of different types. EijkTijk = 3!T123 In this connection we remind the reader that a given permutation of n indices from some standard order can be accomplished by a succession of transpositions of two adjacent indices and that the total number of transpositions required to bring about a definite permutation is always even or always odd. hence b b. A tensor Tij or Tijk (T ij. respectively. ±T123.
2. for example. 1. 6213 32 011 = 021 v321 23 13 o. v = uivi = uivi = gijuivj = giju1vj. Their precise values in any case are as follows: If both upper and lower indices of a generalized delta consist of the same distinct numbers chosen from 1. the delta is 1 or 1 according as the upper indices form an even or odd permutation of the lower.354 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 162 Those definitions show that S b and bay can only assume the values 0. its covariant components are (2) Pjk = UjVk . . 1. 012 12 = 123 1.UkVj = 8jkuavb.u1V3. (1) u . obviously vector addition is commutative and associative. § 170) is the contravariant vector of weight 1: (3) p = 2 e ijk Pik = E''ikujvk. in all other cases the delta is zero. the components E'p' are absolute. This rule is a direct consequence of the properties of the epsilons. uv yields the scalar product. we have vi =ui+vi.u2v1Y are the same as the nonzero components Pik. v is the dyad uv. From (1). 3.u02. or wi=ui+vi.1. we have U. Vectors are to be regarded as absolute unless stated to be relative. U2V3 . . Vector Algebra in Index Notation. 231 023 . If w = u + v. = 0123 8123 = 0 162. Since E1 is a scalar of weight 1. and we shall often speak of components as vectors. Z its components. We have.. The tensor product of two vectors u.1. u1V2 . x123 = 0123 . On contraction.vu is called the outer product of u and v. they are evidently alternating in both upper and lower indices. The three operations on tensors enable us to give a succinct account of vector algebra. The dual of Pjk (cf. The corresponding vector. U3V1 . (v+w) = The antisymmetric dyadic (bivector) P = uv .
. we have uXv = . el e2 u2 v2 The absolute components Epi again give u X v : e3 u3 v3 (4)' Epiei = Eeijkeiujvk = E ul vl = uxv (24. hence u X (v X w) = (u w)v .(u v)w. P'k = bab26avb = u'vk .ujvkwi = E1 Vi W1 U1 W2 u2 V 2 W3 u3 V3 (5)' (u X v)zw = Eeijku'vkw' =E V1 w1 w2 w3 in agreement with (24.(u .§ 162 VECTOR ALGEBRA IN INDEX NOTATION 355 (4) Elpiei = E1EijkeiujVk = E1 v1 = uXv (24. ul (5) u2 V2 U3 V3 (U X V)'wi = E'Cijk.9).V)wi.vjwi) = (u w)vi . U. The box product u x v w is given by either of the absolute scalars.2) = uj(viwj .ukvJ.10). V2 V3 Similarly.1: (2)' (3)' _i pi = ZEijkPJk = eijklljvk. u x v + U X W.12). From (4) or (4)'.(v + w) . from the outer product. we obtain as dual the covariant vector of weight . The components of the triple product u x (v X w) are (u X (v X w))' = E1EijkUj(V X w)k (4) = EhE'fkujEEkabvawb (4)' = EijkEabkujvawb = SabUjva'Uib (161.V X u.
ax` . axk ax` e axa axb ( a2xb eb+raber axiax' axi axi Since e° eb = bb. = axk ec ax c Die. ax' 49Pi axi and hence xb = c. Therefore r is a tensor component when and only when = 0. In (3).axb axk rab axiaxj axb axi ax' a2xb a2xb axk for the desired law of transformation. (1) Die.er.. The law of transformation for r is given by (3) \ / .DQ I I axb eb )._axaaxa_ axb . if the coordinates xi and xi have a common origin. hence (2) r = ek r = ek Die. axi axi The differential operator Di transforms like a covariant vector (hence the subscript).356 TENSOR ANALYSIS § m3 163. from (1). The Afne Connection. When the 32 derivatives of the base vectors ae. . ec er = 6'r./axi = Die. hence. = ref + r e2 + r 'e3 = ri. / l ax i / \ax ' where (4) Di =a . the 33 coefficients r. the righthand member becomes rzJj r = r . this gives (5) + axa . The components r of the affine connection (between the deriva tives of the base vectors and the vectors themselves) are tensor components only with respect to affine transformations. axb .x'. Da acts on both scalar and vector factors following. are called components of the affine connection.a axi Da. If we multiply (1) by ek . Any vector can be expressed as a linear combination of the base vectors.= CJ (const). are thus expressed.
§ 163 THE AFFINE CONNECTION 357 Although the Irk are not tensor components for general transformations. x i = x'. For afflne transformations they are components of a vector.. in particular. we see that the symmetry of P in the subscripts persists after a transformation of coordinates. we have.\axk k/ \ax1' \4924 or. . k axP a:rq axk These equations constitute the transformation inverse to (5) and also may be derived by solving these equations for P'ab. ax' eb. We express this property by saying that the transformation (3). on making the replacements. (9) a2xJ P. the succession of transformations r p I` > f produces a transformation r . (7) P4 . ec/ \a2p Da/ \ai7 eb/ l l a relation of the same form as (3). If. axr axP axq ax' I'2J. a. e = . on expansion. j Since e1 = D. or its equivalent (5). If we transform coordinates from x to IF. axb e. is transitive.13). from (3). k axk ax.r (157.Dir = Pk. we shall see that the index notation still serves a useful purpose. we may delete all the tildas () in (7) . This solution may be effected by the multiplication of (5) by axi ax' axr axp ax4 axk t The coordinates xi present a similar situation. (6) P = ek DiD.r of the same form as r + 1.r = ek D. this equation then gives. and. air a.es.Da. but the indices still serve to indicate that their differentials dxi are vector components. from (5). _r _ (8) PPQ axa (axb  ax. Consequently. axi axr (9x. for general transformations this is not the case. Di = .
we have (§ 89. ayj ayi ay' i axb 1 ayk axc If we now make the change of coordinates. y.sin gyp. the brace in (10) becomes (r )0 +aj(rab)o = 0.0. Die. 1) r = [x. cos (a. Since ay'r/ayi = ayi = ax.NSOR ANALYSIS §163 On writing y = x. z]. = 0. where the gammas are computed for x = xo. we have (§ 89. Such a system of coordinates is termed geodesic. ex. 2) r = [x. = 1/P. = 0 (y = 0) do not imply r = 0 (x = x0). Consequently. e2 = D2r = p[. (11) xr = xo + yT  2(rPq)oypy4. sp. . D2e2 = p[cos rp. z] = [P cos ip. all the gammas I'. P sin . cos 0]. sin p. Si  ayi a y.(r)o. 0].rab lay. the equation of transformation (5) becomes: (10) ax.= 0 vanish at the origin y'' = 0 of the new coordinates.. If we put x1 = p. e3=D3r=[0. z] = r[sin 0 cos p. hence. D2ei = [. y.x3 =z. 0] = pei. ex. z. For spherical coordinates r. sin 0 sin p. a2' + . B. D3e2 = 0.. 0] = 1 e2. Example 1.p. the point x" = xo corresponds to yr = 0. el = Dlr = [cos p. Since the gammas are not tensors. the equations riI. p. P D3ei = 0. sin p. at the point x' = xo (yr = 0). x2 ='P.i a2xr .sin p. cos {p. 0].1]. r22 = P Example 2. Hence all gammas are zero except rig = r2. D3e3 = 0. For cylindrical coordinates p.358 T1E.
sin 0 cos 0. The nonzero gammas are therefore r12=r21=1/r. cos 01. 164. thus transform as contravariant vector components. 0]. and.* ei = Djr = [sin 0 cos gyp.7). dxk/dt (52. 197. k in the last term.sin 0].§ 164 KINEMATICS OF A PARTICLE 359 If we putxi =r. cos 6 sin gyp. p. D3e1 = 1 I e3.x2= V.sin 0 cos 0 e3. from (1). r22 = . these components become vk = . e3 = D3r = r[cos 0 cos gyp. (4) Since the base vectors ei are not. sin 0 sin gyp. = 1132 = Cot 0. on interchanging the summation indices j. a'lell. D1e1 = 0. akek. D2e1 = 1 1 e2. in any coordinate system the velocity and acceleration components are vk = xk ak = xk + x°'x'I'). r D2e2 = r sin2 6 e1 . (2) 8xk dxi dxk a= (3) dvk dt ek + vk aek dxi ax i dt = vkek + vtvkr:kei. p. r13=r31= 1/r. e2 = D2r = r sin 01 . x2 = y. in general. * The order r. we must distinguish between the components vk and ak and the numerical values of the terms in vkek. unit vectors.sin gyp. . 0 is sinistral and [ele2e3] < 0. a = (vk + viv'r . For the acceleration we have. in general coordinates 2i. cf. x3 = z we have vk = (1) V = vkek. Hence._ axi dt dt The time derivatives of the coordinates. a'e1 have the numerical values vllell. which we write ±k. In rectangular coordinates x1 = x. Kinematics of a Particle. r23 r22= r sin2 B. D3e3 = rel. cos p. . r33 = r.x3=0. We now may find velocity and acceleration of a particle in general coordinates: a = dv/dt = akek. r D2e3 = cot 0 e2. Thus the terms v'e1..)ek Therefore.
r22 = . with r13 = 1/r.. r33 = r we have.e' Deer = . From the relation e' er = S*. rcc sin B. el. p' + 2p'. . r9 + 2r9 . r23 = cot 6.Pcp2. z. p.sin 6 cos 0. a2 = sp + 2Pcp/P. a3 = z.pr12 + 2. hence the values of the velocity terms in (1) are a. r. z. e3 have the lengths 1. its partial derivatives may be found by the familiar rule for differentiating a product. we have a1 = a .p2 sin B cos 0.p2r22 + O2r33 = r . on differentiation. e2 x e3. and.rreer = 0.p. from (4). r. e2. From § 163. z From the nonzero gammas r22 = p.rsr. Hence the values of the acceleration terms are 1' . j in the second term. and the numerical values of the acceleration terms are P . rig = 1/p. § 1& 1.rrp2 sin2 B . pp. 165.r'1er e 2 x e3 + ri2e1 er x e3 + ri3e1 e2. we have. a3 = 9 + 2rOri3 + . DiE = (Diet) .r02 sin B cos 0.p sin 0 + 2r09 cos 0. 1.r92.. e2 x e3 + el (Die2) x e3 + el e2 x (D:e3) = r. From § 163.pOr23 = + 2r(p/r + 24 cot 0. al = r . Derivatives of e i and E.Psp2. (Die') and hence (1) er = .2r22 = 9 + 2r9/r . have the lengths 1.er _ (ri1 + ri2 + ri3)e1 . 0. we have (2) Di(e.360 TENSOR ANALYSIS Cylindrical Coordinates p. = r jer and (1). ex. Since the product E = el e2 x e3 is distributive with respect to addition. hence the velocity terms in (1) have the values. r. Spherical Coordinates r. a2 = + 2r. With the nonzero gammas r22 = r sin 2 0. Example 2. ex.p2 sin2 0 .e') = rz. e2. Die' rrer From Die. r9.ere' . 1 2 3 .p sin 0 + 2i . e3 Example 1.r92. on interchanging the summation indices r. r sin 0. with r12 = 1/r. 2. p.r. e1.
(5) Dj rir = Dir. On differentiating gij = ei ej. we have DjDiE = (Djrir + rarr . Moreover (4) Diej = F jer = rij. (1) (2) F9rk = rij.ej + rkjei .. j. If we permute i. rjk. DiE = rirE.r 166. The derivative of Ei = el e2 e3 is therefore (3) (4) DiEi = E2DiE rirEi From (3).k.j + rkj... Relation between Affine Connection and Metric Tensor.i + rji. .k + rik. we obtain the equations.§ 166 AFFINE CONNECTION AND METRIC TENSOR 361 or.se9.rgrk = r . k is also symmetric in the indices i.i = Dkgij.)E. j.er = rkjJrj + rkjgir Since Dkgij and F are both symmetric in the indices ij. rij. Equations (1). there are 3 X 6 = 18 quantities in each set. we have Dk9ij = rkier . if we apply the summation convention. just as if r k were a tensor whose upper index was lowered. since DjDiE = DiDjE. k cyclically in (5). We first introduce the notation. Then we have also (3) rij. if we put e. We may now write (1) in the form: (5) rki. = g. and. may be solved for the latter.k = Dj9ki.j = Di9jk.ses. ri. 18 in number and linear in the 18 gammas.gar9rk = I't S = r for the left member equals We note that Fij.
k. . The gradient of an absolute tensor T is defined as aT (7) (1) Since T = T. In the older literature. [ii.gki .= e _ aT ax8 8 aT axr ax8 axh 8 aT axr . ENT is an absolute tensor.. [ [ij. upon subtracting (5) from their sum. hence VT is a tensor of valence one greater than T.... this tensor is defined to be the gradient of T and written (4) VT = ENehDh(ENT). J l 7 vT=eh axh eh aT axh =axh ar__ = Sre r. the index h on V corresponding to the differentiation a/axh. we obtain (6) ri.i.Dkgii). we again obtain a relative tensor of weight N.k = Z (Digjk + D.. + D7gki . whose gradient. k] = (Digik. the components of the affine connection are denoted by [ } = r. Covariant Derivative. for the operator Dk = a/axh transforms like a covariant vector: (3) axr axr a Dh==Dr.'.k (the order of the indices is not specified). . If the components of T are T . If this is multiplied by EN.V Z) These Christoffel symbols of the first and second kind.k] = rij. This is a covariant index. is an absolute tensor of valence m + 1. z 167. the components of VT are written (2) Vh Tab i.k.Dkgi1) We may now compute r from (3). respectively.'. therefore are defined by the equations: } = gkr[ij. ehDh(ENT).362 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 167 and. r]. axh axr a axh axh For this reason the components (2) are called covariant derivatives of Tab If T is a relative tensor of weight N and valence m.
ek. ek + eceiej .. ab . eye iaj .. where T = Tq '.§ 167 COVARIANT DERIVATIVE 363 When N = 0.. are called covariant derivatives. When this is done.. = and in the successive terms interchange the summation indices In the third line put r and a. Dhe . r and j.ceaeb . ek + ... ek. . we have DhE_N = NE'V1DhE = NrhrEN. . . denoted by prefixing Vh to the components of T as in (2).... From (165. r applied to any invariant tensor T (with its complement of base vectors) generates another tensor VT of the same weight and valence one greater... r and k. Now Dh acts on the "product" of T . i j k ec(Dhe )e .e iej N rr hr It remains to compute the part of VT due to the operator ehDh. eceiej .rhre r . e + In the second line put Dhea = rhaer..k and a series of base vectors. ' e k.rhre r. V = eh(Dh ...... r and b. .k)eaeb ..Nrhr)T. hence c ab DhT = (DhTi.. DhT may be computed by the usual rule for a product. Since this product is distributive with respect to addition.eiej .. VT = eh(Dh .NrhrT).'. .3). . e. If T is a relative tensor of weight N... Thus the operator. eheaeb . i k i Dhe k..'. . and in the successive terms interchange the summation indices r and i. We next compute the components of VT explicitly. . . (4) reduces to (1).. (6)  Tab' ij.. and hence (5) Dh(E'YT) = Ev(DhT . r and c. VT contains the term. k eheaab e. each term of VT contains the same complex of base vectors. .Nrhr). Dhe.. The components of VT. .
since g = det gij = E2 is a relative scalar of weight 2.k a Tij. VhTij = DhTij . (8) vhcp = Dhp .Trjrhi .2r. For an absolute dyadic T.3) and (165.rE2 = 0.Nrhr(c Since E and E1 are scalars of weight 1 and 1. (9) (10) vhE = DhE . The last term is absent when T is absolute (N = 0).'. . OhTa' *:: ° k . We consider now some important special cases.k rhi r + Tij.Tij. VhT`j = DhVj + T'jrhr .rhrE = 0..4). for every lower index *. C q.T" ' a rr... r vhvi = Dhvi . from (165.. we have. (11) Vhg = DhE2 ...r::k r* t hr y and. Again. absolute or relative.vrrhi. (12) VhV = Dhvti + vrrhr. If v = vie1 = vie' is an absolute vector. If p is a relative scalar of weight N.r rhk r v Ta*: Nrr rTab c hr This is the general formula for the covariant derivative of any tensor component.krhr + Trj.k rchr .rrhj. For every upper index hik contains a term contains a term T°::. vhE1 = DhE' + rhrE1 = 0.T.364 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 167 and the component VhTt6.Tirrhj. the components of VT may have the (13) forms : (14) (15) (16) VhT2 = DhT'' + Tr1rhr + Tirrhr. These expressions are the mixed and covariant components of one and the same dyadic Vv..k of VT equals the sum of their scalar coefficients : 17 v Tab e = D k Tab .
168.r=DTab. We note that (21) applies to relative as well as absolute tensors. Covariant differentiation then is defined by this operational equation.Nrir) .eirise'(Dj .5).Nrrr.T. Example.N rir) (Dj . will all vanish at the point yi = 0.Nrsr)T . Vh(Tt'uk) = (VhTz3)uk + T''Vhuk.DjDi)T. Chgij = 0. Vhbi = 0.Nrit) (Dj . The second member may be written eiej(Di .rij(D. from (165. .. .. the corresponding gammas 1 . Nr )1T when indices j and s are interchanged. we have.)T .. Rules of Covariant Differentiation.T.Vjvi)T = (D1Dj . at the origin of geodesic coordinates. OTab.§ 168 RULES OF COVARIANT DIFFERENTIATION 365 For the metric tensor. VG = e'DhG = ehDh(eiei) = 0. ViViT = (D. from (167. For example..k.Nrjr) (Di . and.r (1) h ij.Nrjr)T . With this convention. we have also VVT = ei(Di .rijV.Nrhr)T = ehvhT.Nrr )T = eiej ( (Di . on subtraction. which moreover can be chosen at pleasure..Nrit) (Dj . On the left the operators Vr act only upon the scalar components of T. We can write i20) VT = eh(Dh ..Nrir)ej(Dj .k h ij. we have the tensor equation. 1. The covariant derivative of the sum or product of two tensors may be computed by the rules for ordinary differentiation.7).. Note that (166. If we introduce a system of geodesic coordinates yi 1163). in view of (165.2).. hence viv jT = (Di . (18) The components of VG therefore vanish: (19) Vhgii = 0.r! v.Nrn)T = eiejVjVjT.1) is equivalent to Vkgij = 0. (21) (CiV1 . (17) G = gijeiej = gijeiej = eiei = I. if we regard Vh as an operator that acts only on scalars. hence.
if we contract T=jk on the indices i.ai I < ki (a1 and ki > 0 are constants). but the actual objects may be very $ Veblen. Divj and Vivj are components of one and the same tensor: Vv = V vieiej = V1vjeiei. the sum and product rules of ordinary differentiation also apply in covariant differentiation. E1 and g may be treated as constants in covariant differentiation. Since these tensors have constant components. hence they vanish in all coordinate systems. x") satisfying certain inequalities. 4. Any set of objects which can be placed in onetoone correspondence with the totality of ordered . from (167. we have OhVik = BiZVO jk.r. 2. Evidently the operation of raising or lowering an index is commutative with covariant differentiation. Cambridge. The components of the metric tensor (gij. For example. x") as a point. sets of real numbers (. their covariant derivatives vanish at the origin of a system of geodesic coordinates. S) may be treated as constants in covariant differentiation. 1. I xi . . 5. This follows at once from (167. is said to form a region of space of n dimensions. 1933. x2.$ We speak of '=0. 13. (x1) x2. . In some applications the numbers xi may be complex.366 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 169 in geodesic coordinates and therefore in any coordinates (§ 157). VE = 0. 2. gij. in other words. . The covariant derivatives of the epsilons and Kronecker deltas are zero. The relative scalars E. Consequently. .19). Since E. respectively. for in each case Dh(ENT) = DO = 0169. 3. Invariants of Quadratic Differential Forms. Civj = Vi(g7rvr) = gjiViv'. p. Thus we may find Vivj by lowering the index j in Divj. Riemannian Geometry. V Vg = 0.4). j to form T?ik = SiT jk.1. we have. The operation of contraction is commutative with covariant differentiation. E1 and g = E2 are relative scalars of weight 1. For example.
ei = they permit us to raise and lower indices (§ 154) and thus represent any tensor of valence m by 2' types of components. x2. . We assume that the coefficients gij are continuous twicedifferentiable functions of x. The reciprocal base vectors now are given by (3) ei =9irer. often are regarded as points in nspace. equations (6) show that gjj and gi' transform like absolute dyadics. girer. By use of the equations.er. we have a Riemannian space with a definite system of measure(1) 9ii dxi dx'. and the geometry of this metric space is called Riemannian geometry. g = det gij 0). The base vectors ei are not specified.rer. where gii is the reduced cofactor of gij in det gij. x") with an arbitrary nonsingular quadratic form.§ 169 RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 367 diverse. = girgir = d Moreover (5) ei e' = girS* = gij If we now transform coordinates from xi to xi. These tensors often are called the fundamental covariant and contravariant tensors of Riemannian geometry. we assume that the new base vectors are given by (6) ei = . ax8 axi then ei and e' still form reciprocal sets. axb axr ei = . In view of (2) and (5). (152. for axr a'V a:C i ax8 8r = o. (9ij = 9ii. (7) e = g. and the configurations of a dynamical system. If we associate the space (x'. determined by n generalized coordinates. ment prescribed by this form (§ 151) . but their lengths and the angles between them may be found from the relations: (2) 9ij = ei e. for (4) ei e.es. Thus an event in the spacetime of relativity may be pictured as a point in fourspace. ..2).
op. ..1). we have also (9) We now assume that the affine connection is symmetric (r = r ).. In order to determine the relative orientation of sets of base vectors at different points. (9. for any coordinates 2i in flat space. Unless the surface is flat (a plane. p. = 0.. Here r is a position vector in Euclidean 3space. 2. § 163. y = y(u. just as in § 165. 1. constant base vectors cannot be introduced. .. . the base vectors on the surface may be taken as ei = ar/axi. see Veblen. Die' Tier (165. for equation (i) shows that these vectors transform in the manner prescribed in (6). is Riemannian (n = 2).ej.t axj xi axk Eb. possible to introduce coordinates xi for which the base vectors ei are constant. = 0 (i. cit.ax` ax° ' axa axb ax ax` 49V t We shall call the base vectors constant if Die. 2) (i) ei = ax' 021 e' = or ax'ar ax' &V = .. Then.axk Eab. we have (cf. Only flat space (§ 175) is compatible with such Cartesian coordinates. z = z(u. ax . and hence Die. defined in § 146. 69..k = . ex. v) are the Cartesian equations of the surface..Drgij) I 29 V The epsilons in nspace. Conversely. In Riemannian space it is not. have n subscripts or superscripts.. then each point has the position vector r = xiei and ei = ar/axi. This theorem has not as yet been rigorously proved. for example). x2 = v. axa axb IEij . where x = x(u. defined by (8) Diej = rer. If we write xl = u. then raf = 0 and the functions gij = ei e. in general. v). in general. (10) shows that r!J = 0. (11) ax ax .. n). The equations. Any Riemannian space of n dimensions may be regarded as immersed in a Euclidean space (§ 178) of n(n + 1)/2 dimensions.. we must know the components r of the affine connection.368 TENSOR ANALYSIS § lti'9 At a given point. are also constant.. If we regard the surface as immersed in Euclidean 3space each surface point has the position vector r = xi + yj + zk. The gammas then are determined by the metric tensor (§ 166) : (10) rk = 1 kr(Digjr + Djgri . the surface points have no position vector in the Riemannian 2space they define. j = 1. at i The geometry on a surface with the metric tensor gi. when gii are constants. (12) . but. v). Moreover. gij gives the orientation of the base vectors ei relative to each other.
s. In defining the gradient of a tensor. we have Dhg = gg"Dhgij = ggi (rhi. In the case n = 4.3). for these are the powers of the Jacobian I ax/ax I when it is transferred to the righthand side... hence.11) and (166. gkt n! [cf. aabcd = eabcde ijkh ijkh The rule given in § 161 for the value (0. 1.f with 2n indices...tgir9js .. up to Sa'bc'.eabcde 2! 1 ijcd . a result of the same form as (165.ke. j + rhj. alternating in both upper and lower indices.eabcde 3! Sab . As in § 161... The components of VT again are given by (167. = 2grhr From (14).4). The nrowed determinant. is the contracted product of two epsilons of weight 1 and n absolute dyadics. (146. (13) g = 1t etii. show that eij"'k and eij. The cofactor of gij in g is ggij. i 1 ibcd Sa = . from (146.. (14) (15) Dhg = grhi + gr..1). or 1) of a generalized delta still applies. N (16) N VT = g2ehDh(g 2T)... or..3) with E replaced by /g.. for example.. S bc. 42. we replace E by \/g in (167.7). See Prob.2).3)]. generalized from (152. in Riemannian nspace. we have also DhV_ \'gr. . in view of (166. Hence the discriminant g of the fundamental quadratic form is a relative scalar of weight 2..k are relative tensors of weight 1 and 1. they are defined in terms of the epsilons. Hence this formula for the covariant derivative is still valid in Riemannian geometry.5). There are n types of Kronecker deltas in nspace: S. Moreover the preceding definitions show that all the deltas are absolute tensors.§ 169 RIEMANNIAN GEOMETRY 369 generalized from (146.. thus. ijk 1 abc eabcde ijkd . S b..
vq = gehDh1 = 0... 42.m)vector. The dual of an nvector Tijk. Tijk. gab. Write T = P.c ij.. respectively. Prob. we have If T is an mvector (0 (dual 1 pab 1 c (n . hV...c (n ..t _ ..htp..brs tPi. and. ab.. In nspace we can associate with any mvector (0 < m < n) an (n ... Dual of a Tensor. An mvector is a tensor of valence m which is alternating in all indices (cf.k m. m < n)..c.kEij. in the contracted products. VG and its components vanish as before: Vhb = 0..k...] . (1) 1 ab. (18) 170. dual dual T = T. they have the same numerical components but different weights.... (2) Pj.m) !m! 1 ra.k m. of weights N + 1 and N ... § 160). dual T = p.h is the scalar: 1 E ijk. and the summation indices are adjacent.. according as we use (1) or (2). their duals are the (n . the contravariant tensor is written first.m) ! rs.. (3) Proof.h = T123. defined as follows: If and Qij.. Ohg J = 0.k [Cf. its dual..1. A scalar Sp has two duals... Ohg = 0...k m! = Pra. Eab . = Eab. Moreover..c  li Qij.370 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 170 Since the metric tensor G = gjkejek = ekek still has the property DhG = 0... For convenience in wording. we also regard scalars (m = 0) and vectors (m = 1) as mvectors.. Eab ...m)vectors.t) i.h n! THEOREM. from (16). and (17) Ohgij = 0.n.. Using (2) and (1).k are mvectors of weight N.. Note that the epsilons have n indices in nspace.
the second and third terms cancel.. and. Vi = 9irDrcp. in view of (2). say Tijk.k is alternating in all indices. from (3).7). dual q = Q. Hence (2) div v = Divi (wt.n = Thus the theorem holds in this case also. /.§ 171 DIVERGENCE 371 since Pip . the divergence is the absolute scalar Viv'. Thus (3) div v = 9 Di( / vi) (wt. similarly. The gradient of v = viei is Vv = vhviehei.vtrhr (167. since r and i are summation indices. (1) gives the dual T123 . If rp is absolute. The first scalar of this dyadic is V11) div v = %ib = If vi is an absolute vector. 171. v = 0). vi has the weight 1 imparted by the scalar viva = vi(9i91vi) = 9lvd(91v=) = 91Di(91vi). Divergence. for vrrsr = virir. When vi is a relative vector of weight 1. .h. and.. When T is an nvector. (2) are used.. VhV' = Dhvi + 17rrhr . The Laplacian V2p of the scalar p is defined as div Vp. provided both dualizing equations (1). Thus if T has the com . Hence dual p = P. hence If vi is absolute. n now (2) gives dual dual T = Eijk.. On contracting with h = i. v = V p is an absolute vector. v = 1). this definition applies in nspace and for any coordinate (1) system.hT123.. then Vr = Drop.. (4) v2(p Di(V J 9irDrcp) The divergence of any tensor T is defined as the gradient VT contracted on the first and last indices.
From (6) and the alternating character of T.. hVk rrhkvr.kh + (m > 1).kh is a tensor of valence m .hrTrj..1)vector. for rh... kr ..kh = DhTij. cit. since az4r (2) = 0 owing to the symmetry of rr . (5) (divT)ij.. (div T) ij.. (7) div div T = 0 From (167. = DkDhT'j. kh is an mvector of weight 1. v = 0).kh. we have Pij = SfDhvk = Divj .7). p. Thus (6) is proved. The gradient of the covariant vector vk is the dyadic Vhvk. known as the Stokes tensor. Proof..D2v1 (wt. t Veblen. The remaining terms containing 1'hr vanish separately on summing over h and r. VhTij.. V = 0).1 and weight N. (6) where V in the defining equation is replaced by D. Stokes Tensor. In 2space we can form from Pij the relative scalar of weight 1.rh + rhrT ij" . .. kh = 0.k = DhTij. 64.... t Ohvk = When Vk is albsolute.... THEOREM. Moreover. . From this we form the antisymmetric dyadic..Djvi 2eijPij = P12 = Dlv2 .372 TENSOR ANALYSIS 1 172 porients T 'j. is symmetric and T antisymmetric in these indices. The two final terms cancel.. 172...kh + 1. . (div div T) 'j. r in the last term. kh.k = VhTij. as we see on" interchanging the summation indices h. (3) (wt.. op. (1) Pij = Sf V hvk....rhrT ij. + rk Tij.. When T i' . div T is the (m .kh of valence m and weight N.. and..
. etc. V = 0).=DivaD. In nspace we have the corresponding R. H=v19. in our present . In (97. (4) 1 Vg (Dlv2 . (5) wi = 1EijkP7k = Ei'kD7'v k. Proof. § 146): el (7) e3 rot v = 1 V9 D1 V1 D2 D3 V2 V3 Comparing this with (88. written n rot v or n V X v $ in § 97. The condition is necessary. r.* In § 91 we proved that a vector v is the gradient of a scalar in 3space when and only when rot v = 0. v=x2. ru = el.vi=0.D1v3. THEOREM. ru=el.9). (8) vi = Dip.§ 172 STOKES TENSOR 373 and from this the absolute scalar.D2v2. owing to the continuity of the second derivatives of cp. This is the absolute invariant on the surface with the fundamental form gig dxi dx'. In 3space we can form from Pii the relative vector of weight 1.D3v2i The absolute vector. J notation. u = x1. D1v2 . Let v be a continuously differentiable vector in a region Then. D3v1 . vanishes identically. (6) rot v = 1 wiei = 1/9 e2 1 Ei'keiDjvk. = f2 in our present notation. D2v3 . ru f = fl. in order that v be a gradient vector.19) now shows that rot v is in fact the rotation of v previously defined.f * In (88.19).. it is necessary and sufficient that the Stokes tensor vanish in R: (9) Pi. for. Pi.D2v1) (wt. u=x1. may be written as a symbolic determinant (cf. rv=e2. 2 having the components. V = OAP. if vi = Dip.
. a2.. ...374 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 173 The condition is sufficient. D3v2 = D2v3 in the first and second. When m = 1. hence D34P = v3(xl.. xn). x2.v3(al. For the method of § 91. bhij . x2.. (10) (P = f al z1 vj (xl.. their derivatives with respect to x3 are. for example..k = 1 m.. and curl cp = ahV aco = V MP is the gradient of gyp.. x"). v3(a1 . . 173. k = Shaijc . We define the curl of a covariant tensor Tb. an1 xn) dxn where all a2.. When Tab. T = P (a scalar). . x2) .kD.. respectively.. .. when we make use of D3vi = Dlv3... . an are the coordinates of a fixed but arbitrary point. we have the THEOREM. a2. xn) . Let us compute.. xn) _ v3(al) x2.. extended to case of n coordinates. .. ... We now can .. x2. d is an absolute tensor of valence m < n.k VaTbc. In general. (2) (curl T)hij . . . .1).d of valence m (m < n) as the (m + 1)vector: (1) (curl T)hij.... curl v is the Stokes tensor (172. v zn (ai a2 .. . v3(al. T = v (a vector).Tbc. In the ith integral xi is the variable of integration while xi+1' ..... x2 + " f" v2 (a'. f n a2 3 v3 (ale a21 x3. show from (9) and (10) that Dig = vi. 0! = 1. . leads to the function. D3V. 'X n). xn) dxl I. d When m = 0. Curl. x2) . xn). xn) dx2 xn) dx3 .... v3(xl.. xn are regarded as constant parameters. . Only the first three integrals in (10) contain x3. b M.d.
. ..d (m < n .. When S is an absolute tensor of valence m . from (2)..dl..d .VkThij When Tbc. (curl T)ijk = ViTjk + VJTki + VkTij. k in order and placing (. From (2) we have Sahi kD (1.. .a DgDaTb.d which vanishes when we sum over g and a. have (4) k in turn and summing over the other m indices. In the cases m = 1.Sab d D T (..'_ 1 = (curl curl T) 1)' 1 (m + 1 g a . 3. (curl T)hijk = VhTijk ..d = DaTbc. m! these all vanish separately when we sum over the subscripts of I'a*.. an equation of the form (4) with V replaced by D..k = VhTij..kh + .h + .1). Thus. ab rc. 2...r.. T = curl S is an absolute mvector and curl T = 0. 1 Sabc. When Tbc. (3) curl curl T = 0 From (167...7)..ViTjkh + VVTkhi ... the summation in (1) or (2) may be carried out in m + 1 stages by setting a = h.rabTrc. taking the m + 1 cyclical permutations of the subscripts hij . 1'adTbc. we have VaTbc.k + (1)mViTj.. j.. we obtain.. fourth.d is an mvector. (curl T)hij. we . we thus obtain (curl T)ij = VjTj .§ 173 CURL 375 where V in the defining equation is replaced by D. Moreover. Then (4) becomes (8) 0= (1)'DiTjk. Hence in the right member of (1) there are m terms of the type..d. terms. m! Sfet..ojTi.d is an absolute mvector.. i. Thus (2) is proved..... Proof..r 7.1)' before the second. from (1)...1.
174..376 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 175 Thus if vi is absolute... For alternating tensors. and (9) DiTjk + DjTki + DkTij = 0. we have the THEOREM. (dual curl T)pq"'r ii .d = Va(dual T)P . E pq "r Tb ... dp dt (+pr)ek. Proof.ek axi dt dt dt dt or. div T = dual curl dual T. dp If p = pkek. T i j = S Davb is an absolute bivector.d M! Va (1. we have also (3) 175. (1) dual curl T = div dual T. Moreover....r ij. we have dt dpk .. on interchanging summation indices j. A vector p is said to undergo a parallel displacement along a curve xi = pi(t) when dp/dt = 0 along this curve.. if we replace T in (1) by dual T...d (m + 1)!m! pq..kdOaTb. Parallel Displacement.kaab ..ek + pk aek dxi = dpk + pk dxi rikej. If T be d is an n2vector (n2 < n). r ab.k Epq. From § 170. k in the last term. dVaT b. we have (2) curl T = dual div dual T... ra = (div dual T)pq*'*. .. Relation between Divergence and Curl. k(CUrlT) ij. 1 provided dual T is taken contravariant when T is a scalar. On taking duals of both members of (1)... dt .
When equations (1) can be satisfied by functions pk(x'. satisfying the arbitrary initial conditions pk(0) = ak. we have gjjziz' = 1. placement. if dp/dt and dql dt vanish along a curve. In other words. pk = dxk/ds. ds2 t' ds ds  The path curves are the "straightest" curves in our Riemannian spacethe analogues of straight lines in Euclidean geometry. Then dpk apk dxi dt axe dt . q remain constant during a parallel displacement. . it is said to be a path curve for the parallel displacement. upon the path connecting these points. . dxi dx1 = g.P) =0.§ 175 PARALLEL DISPLACEMENT 377 Hence. the parallel displacement is independent of the path. A solution pk(t) of this system. d2xk (2) dxi dx' 0. ii). d We shall say that a vector remains constant during a parallel disIf s is the are along the curve. If we choose the are as parameter (t = s). hence. 2. in general. d dt(P . (1) gives the differential equations of the path curves. the components pk satisfy the differential equations: dpk (1) dt + pj dx' dt r". in general. an equation which states that the tangent vector dxi/ds to the curve is of unit length. = 0 (k = 1.xix' dt2.. The vector ak at the point PO (t = 0) is said to undergo a parallel displacement along the curve into the vector pk(t) at the point P. With t = s. if dp/dt = 0. for. . If a curve has the property that its unit tangent vectors dxi/ds are parallel with respect to the curve. x") of the coordinates alone. the solutions pk(t) will change when the curve is altered. In (1) dxi/dt depends upon the functions pi(t) defining the curve. the vector pk obtained by a parallel displacement of ak from PO to P depends. defines a vector at each point t of the curve.q) = 0. and the space is said to be flat. The length of a vector p and the angle between two vectors p. ds2 = gi. we have also dt(P..
Di. hence eh DiJek = . for axb a2xb axa axb DiD'  (at.D. .. (§ 172.Di)ek = 0.(p Diek) = 0 or. and for this it is necessary and sufficient that (5) Di(p D. X').D. Dip = 0 Since pk = p ek. axa axb \1 ax. Dabat.3).ek are components of a gradient vector. . n). axa axb axc axh axd ed Dabec . Dab/ \axk ec/ at .D.378 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 175 and the ordinary differential equations (1) are replaced by the partialdifferential equations: (3) ap'' axi + p'1' = V pk = 0.. or (i = 1. Di. .Dkxc = 0.4921 axk since D. Da) \ax1 Dbl axiaxI Db + azs a D0Db.D. _ DiD. Since Vipk are the components of Vp = e'Dip (§ 167). we see that a flat space contains vectors p(x'. = DiD.Di)ek = 0.axk at t at. we see that (4) is equivalent to (4) D. such that Vp = 0. axb . the operator (7) transforms like a covariant dyadic.Di = a bDaDb. .ek Caxi at. . . For any fixed value of k.Di = Moreover. These equations must hold independently of the initial conditions imposed upon p and are therefore equivalent to (6) (DiD.D.ek) .Pk = p Dzek. ax' (axc axa axb axc Dabec. ax. Since Di transforms like a covariant vector (167. 2.. since Dip = 0. Di. the n functions p D.. p (DiD. . theorem) .
ek = Dke. (10) h Rtijk = 0. For these base vectors.. rA axi axk From (11). = ai a. we can choose n linearly independent vectors ai at a point P and..9) with Tj = 0. (9) Dijek = Rijkheh. the condition (6). member for member. now assumes the tensor form. necessary for flat space. When the space is flat. by ay8 . we have gi. by giving them parallel displacements to neighboring points obtain a set of constant base vectors ei = ai in a region about P. . = const. axr ays (12) r a2y3 t ax.er = a8 .jek = 0. aek OX.§ 175 PARALLEL DISPLACEMENT 379 This equation shows that e' Di.ek. To determine the Cartesian coordinates y = x corresponding to the base vectors ai. on dotmultiplying (11). Di. The components of this curvature tensor R are thus the coefficients in the equation. we have ayr ek =axk a. t This equation also follows from (163. it holds in all.ek is an absolute mixed tensor of valence four. and. we have the necessary conditions for the integrability of equations (12): D. If it holds in one coordinate system.6). I'k = 0 (166.. c12yr ax' axk ar. say (8) Rijkh = eh Di. and the corresponding coordinate system x is called Cartesian.
a = p2. . axi . x2. (12) ad. Rijk = 0. (13) eh e8 = 887 we have Ri. Veblen..$ When these conditions are fulfilled. x") which with ay/axi take on arbimits solutions y(x'. These conditions are also sufficient for the complete integrability of equations (12). n). In brief. 701. we have y = 0 when x = x0. .D. cit. Dijek = ji rer. the n functions yj(x) thus obtained define a Cartesian coordinate system. and. we obtain the covariant components. From the defining equation for the curvature tensor. (1) eh Dijek = Rijk r9rh = Rijkh $ Cf. and. .. r r  176. In the region about x = x0 for which I ay/ax 19 0. h § 176 that is.pi. p. op.380 TENSOR. ANALYSIS r r rjk = rkj.Diek) = eh {Di(r. . ax" = pn (i = 1.. on putting eh e.rikrjres}.ker) . .Dj(riker)I {(Dirjk)er . We may readily compute the components Rijkh from (8): *.k'. A necessary and sufficient condition that a Riemann space. if we choose n linearly independent sets of initial values. with symmetric afne connection. we have the important THEOREM. when x = x0.. 2. we obtain n corresponding solutions y'(x) whose Jacobian I ay/ax I = det p 0 when x = x0.(Djrik)er} + eh {rjkrires .Djr k + r. If we place the origin of the Car tesian coordinate system at the point x0.. trary values at a given point.kh = D2r' . Curvature Tensor. eh eh (DiDjek . be flat is that its curvature tensor vanish identically.
Hence. we have (4) Die.h .Djrik. Since the scalars ek eh = gkh have continuous second derivatives (§ 169). Proofs.rria .Dkej) = 0.h . Rijkh has the following types of symmetry: Rijkh .krjh. we also may write (2) in the form: (3) Rijkh = Dirjk.Dj(rik. (I) follows from Dij = Dji. Di(Djek . which.Djrik. on adding the identities.Djrik.h .Djei) = 0.rjk.rrih = grerikrih = rjkrih. .rik.h .§ 176 CURVATURE TENSOR :381 We now can express the covariant curvature tensor Rijkh in terms of the gammas : Rijkh = eh (DIDjek .rrjh Since rjk.rrik + rik.4) = eh' {Di(rjk.Diek) (166. Since the affine connection is symmetric (§ 169).r .0h{ rjk.Rkhij = 0..r.rI . = r er = r. we obtain Dijek + Djkei + Dkjej = 0.s. Rijkh + Rijhk = 0. gives (II). Rijkh + Rijkh = 0.rer)} Sh{Dirjk.rikrih. gives (III).ier = Djei. Thus Rijkh is alternating in its first two and last two indices. Dk(D1ej . (2) Rijkh = Dirjk. on multiplication by e h.re') . Dj(Dkei . Rijkh + Rjkkh + Rkiih = 0.r + rr.D.Diek) = 0.rrja}.
we have Rijkh + Rikih + Rkiih = 0.382 TENSOR ANALYSIS § 176 Now (IV) is a consequence of (I). when ij . only the underlined terms survive. When we add these equations and make use of (I) and (II).1) + 2 1=*n(n1)(n2n+2).1)2/4. if we add the number nC2 of unpaired components Rjjij to the preceding total. j.1). the contracted product. Example 1.Rhhkj . 2Rijkh . 3. in general.Rijkk . For n = 2.3) 24 = nents Rijkh. hence. 20 linearly independent compo = 4R1212. Riikh + Rikih + Rkiih = Rikih + Rkiih = 0 is already included in (I). the number of nonzero components is (nC2)2 = n2(n . But. respectively. Rkhij . and we obtain (IV).. (II). 4 this gives 1.2Rkhij.kh n2(n2 . II).n + 2)  n(n . . . Rjkhi + Rkhji + Rhjki = 0. and (III). i = j. 6. These are still further reduced by the . The symmetry relations (I) to (IV) reduce the number of independent components of Rijkh to i22n2(n2 . Proof. The number of linearly independent components is therefore n(n .C4 relations (III).1)(n . hence.Rjhik = 0.. Rijkh = 0 when i = j or k = h (I. From (III). When n = 2. because Rijkh = Rkhij (III). kh. h must all be different in order to get a new relation.1).2)(n . If. namely. The number of components with distinct values thus is reduced to 1n2(n 4 1)2 n(n . these are paired.Rikhj = 0. we obtain double the number of components with distinct values. k.1)(n2 . for example.Rhijk . for i. eijEkhR.
is precisely the total curvature of the surface whose fundamental differential form is = gll dx1 dx1 + 922 dx2 dx2. (7) R41k h = ghrRijkr.r21. g22 = G. Now.2r22 = r11. for. x2 = v. (D2911) (D2g22) 4922 Substituting these results in (5) gives 81212 . Moreover. (6) agrees with (139.1 911 + rll.2 = 3Dzg22. since g = 911922. in essentially two different ways.2r12 = r21.r. 911 = E.2.1 911 + r21.2 g22 (Dig. r22.) (D1922) 491. We may contract the tensor.2r22.§ 176 CURVATURE TENSOR 383 is a relative scalar of weight 2 (§ 169)..1 r11.ri2 + r21.6). = 2D1922. (5) R1212 = D1r21.lr22 + r11. hence R1212/g is an absolute scalar.1 = !Digll.2 = 2D1g22. r12.2 = iD2g11. 911 = 1/911.rr22 = rll.2 . = ZD2911. from (2).D2r11.1r22.DiD1922 + 2 D2D2911 St l\ 911 Dlgll + D1922 D19zz + Dw11 + D2922 D2g11 l j 922 911 922 J 2 The absolute scalar.. hence r21.2 g22  (D2g11)2 4911 + (D1922 )2 4922 r11. if we put x1 = u.. Example 2. r22. H =. rll.2.2r. ..rr22 From (166. g2 = 1/g22.6). r12.ri2 + rll. We shall compute this expression when the base vectors are orthogonal: g12 = 0.rr12 = r21.2 .\/g D19zz + D2 D2 911 J \ .. (6) \ 1 J K _81212 9 ( 219 ds2 Dl 1 (.
The first scalar of this dyadic.21) becomes (1) VijT = DijT for any tensor. from (IV). (4) Vijvk = v8RtijB'k. Rik = R0 ' = 9ihRijkhi this is a symmetric dyadic. With h = i. (12) is an absolute invariant. we also write Vij = ViVj . gkryh8Rijrhee For the vector vkek. Ricci Identity. Equation (3) is proved as follows: Dijek = Dijgkrer = gkrR. . we obtain the Ricci tensor. we have Dijvkek = vkDijek = vkRijk aea = vaRija kek. (167. (11) (10) Rkj = 9''`Rikih = 9'Rihik = ghiRhiki = Rik.aea = kr ha _ g g Rijhrea = R. for Dij<p = 0 when cp is a scalar. since gkr and Rijkr are. With this notation.jhkeh .V. r. From (175.).r.9).13). § 167. we see that (8) is equivalent to the identity: (9) Dirjr = Djr. symmetric and antisymmetric in k. we have (8) Rt1x = gkrRiikr = 0.Dj . on the right Dij acts only on base vectors.. R = gikRik = gikgihRijkh. absolute or relative. On the left Vii acts only on scalars (cf. In the case n = 2. Identities of Ricci and Bianchi. for. Vi. respectively. we have (13) R = 2g11g22R2112 = 2R1212/9 = 2K.. with its base vectors. 177. g12 = 0 considered in ex.384 TENSOR ANALYSIS k § 177 With h = k.Rijh keh. Equation (1) yields the Ricci identity when we evaluate DijT by making use of the formulas : (2) (3) Dijek = Rij'heh Dijek = . (175.DjDj. ex. In analogy with Dij = D.. 1.
§ 178 EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY 385 Similarly. we find that the right members cancel. the Kronecker delta. Bianchi Identity..... for every lower index * in T. vijTh::. + yny+l. The corresponding base vectors ai then form an orthogonal set (ai .. and the coordinates yi are said to form an orthogonal system. we thus obtain the Bianchi identity: (6) DiRjkhm + OjRkihm + OkRijhm .aj = b). Th.m contains a term. Thus. If in addition the metric form gijxixj is positive definite. On adding the three equations. Vijvkek (5) = vkDijek = vkRijs ke3 = v3Rijk'ek. if the components of T are Thk:::. it is also true for general coordinates. the space and its geometry are termed Euclidean. and the metric form becomes a sum of squares (§ 150) : b yiyj = y'y' + y2y2 +. The general Ricci identity now is readily established.DiDkrjh. DijTh::. 178. we have.0. for every upper index * in T. If we transform to another Cartesian system xi with the base vectors Ai.mRij.13). At the origin of geodesic coordinates (§ 163)..:: . We can then always make a real linear transformation to coordinates yi for which gij = b... for vkek. The corresponding metric tensor gij has then constant components. When the space is Rat.a.. Euclidean Geometry. DiRjkhm = DiRjkhm = DiDjrkh . By permuting ijk cyclically in this equation. we can determine a Cartesian coordinate system xi (§ 175).' .. contains a term. from (174. Since this tensor equation holds at any point. . we obtain two others. Vijvk = v8Rijk8. Let xi denote a Cartesian coordinate system with the base vectors ai. we have aj =  8xt ai .. and.
386
TENSOR ANALYSIS
§ 178
and, since both a, and ai are constant,
aa;
a2k
a2xi
aXk a2
ai = 0,
exi
82k a2'
= 0.
On integrating this equation twice, we have
(1)
xi=c;2'+Ci,
where c and Ci are sets of constants. The transformation between any two Cartesian coordinate systems is therefore linear with constant coefficients. As in the general transformations of § 157, we require that the Jacobian,
(2)
ax' det  = det c 54 0.
a2'
The transformations (1) with nonvanishing determinant form a groupthe affine group. When the Cartesian coordinate systems y and y are both orthogonal, the law of transformation,
aya gi; = ayi ayb  gab, becomesJi aya =
aya
S;.
09)
If we multiply this equation by ayi/ayk and sum with respect to i, we obtain
(3)
ayk
ay' = ayk
ay;
Since orthogonal coordinate systems are also Cartesian, the transformation between two orthogonal systems has the form:
(4)
yk = c;4j' + Ck.
The inverse transformation is
(5)
yj = Yk(yk  Ck),
where Yk is the reduced cofactor of c; in det c;. Equation (3) thus becomes
(6)
This is precisely the condition that the matrix c; be orthogonal
(§ 149, theorem); thus a transformation between orthogonal coordi
§ 178
EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY
387
nate systems is orthogonal (has an orthogonal matrix). Condition (6), which characterizes an orthogonal matrix, also implies that
(7)
c'iCj = cic = Sj,
in view of the relations (146.8) between reduced cofactors. Conditions (7), in turn, imply (6); either (6) or (7) is a necessary and sufficient condition that the matrix c; be orthogonal. Two orthogonal transformations,
yz=ay'+Ay,
have an orthogonal resultant,
yi
s
yj =bkyk+Bj,
i i
i, j;
we have, for example,
s a r s a r a r r cic; = (aebi)(atbj) = Stbib; = bib; = S;.
t
t
i
Moreover (5), the inverse of (4), and the identity transformation yi = S;yj are orthogonal. Consequently, the orthogonal transformations form a group.
In view of (3), the equations,
ayk
Vi = ayj vk,
ayj U' =ayk tlk
show that covariant and contravariant vectors transform alike under orthogonal transformations. Within the orthogonal group,
the distinction between covariance and contravariance vanishes, and
tensor components may be written indifferently with upper or
lower indices. For example, we may write Sij or Sij for the Kronecker delta.
The orthogonal group of transformations admits as a subgroup those transformations for which
(8)
det c =
ayy a
= 1.
If we regard (4) as a transformation between the points y and y in the same Cartesian coordinate system, the transformation is
called a displacement or rigid motion. In fact in 3space the trans
formation (5) may be written
(9)
s=ra,
388
TENSOR ANALYSIS
§ 179
where the dyadic CF in non ion form is given by the matrix (ck). Since this matrix is orthogonal and its determinant is 1, the transformation (9) is a translation followed by a rotation (§ 75, theorem), in brief, a displacement. The subgroup characterized by det c = 1 is therefore called the displacement group. In view of (8), we see that, within the displacement group, the distinction between absolute and relative tensors also vanishes.
A displacement which leaves the origin invariant is called a Thus the transformation y' = c;y' is a rotation if the matrix (c) is orthogonal and has the determinant 1. Rotations
rotation.
form a subgroup of the displacement group. 179. Surface Geometry in Tensor Notation. The equations,
x' = xi(ul) u2)
(i = 1, 2, 3),
define a surface embedded in Euclidean 3space. The space coordinates xi are rectangular Cartesian and are designated by italic indices (range 1, 2, 3); the surface coordinates u" are curvilinear and are designated by Greek indices (range 1, 2). If we write
al = i, a2 = j, a3 = k, the position vector to the surface is
r = xiai. The metric tensor in space is then
(1)
Si; = ai  a;.
If we limit the coordinate transformations x  x to the displacement group (§ 178) the distinction between covariance and contravariance as well as the distinction between absolute and relative tensors does not exist in 3space.
First fundamental form.
(2)
The base vectors on the surface are
ar axi ar a"===x.ai, axi au" au"
where x" = axi/au". Since
e"e#=
the metric tensor for the surface is
(3)
=x'xp'si; =xaxs,
gap = e., ep = x;.xP.
This tensor defines the first fundamental form on the surface:
ds2 = g"g du"du#.
§ 179
SURFACE GEOMETRY IN TENSOR NOTATION
389
Note that x, is a covariant surface vector; for if we make the transformation u + u, we have
axe aic"
axi auo
aufl au"
If a vector v has the "surface components" v" (a = 1, 2),
v = vae« = and vi = v"xa (i = 1, 2, 3) are the "space components" of v.
Unit surface normal. The space vector,
N = el x e2 = Eijkaixix2, has the components Ni = Eijk xix2; moreover
N2 = EijkEist xix2 x1x2 = sit xix2 XIX2
= xix2 xix2  xix2 xix2 = 911922  g12
Thus N2 = det ga# = g t; hence the unit normal n to the surface
has the components Ni/\:
(4)
ni = ni =
eijk xix2.
Second fundamental form. On the surface with metric tensor gang, the Christoffel symbols are given by (cf. § 166)
(5)
is = ZgX7(D«goti + DRgy«  D7g«#)
In particular we have, from (167.13),
Vaxkp
Covariant derivatives are then computed from the formulas of
§ 167.
(6)
= DaDftxk 
VPxQ.
Since the covariant derivative of the metric tensor gij is zero
(167.19),
(7)
Vagoti =
V. xksxy
= 0.
If the product rule (§ 168, 1) is used, this equation and its cyclical permutations give
(7a)
(7b)
(7c)
xyV 4 + x0Vaxy = 0,
xgVVxy + xyVflxx = 0,
xkovyxa + xxVyx1
= 0.
(e1 x e2) given in (20.1).
t This also follows from the expansion of (el x e2)
390
TENSOR, ANALYSIS
§ 179
Subtract the third equation from the sum of the first two; then, in view of (6), we obtain
xyDax3 = 0.
This equation states that the space vector Vax is perpendicular to both el and e2 (whose space components are 4, x2); that is
Vax, is a multiple of the unit normal nk, say
(8)
oax3 = ha#nk.
ha0 = nkVaXQ = hha,
k
The symmetric covariant tensor,
(9)
defines the second fundamental form on the surface: ha#duadus.
Derivative formulas. From (6) and (8) we have
(10)
Daxkg
=F
xk\ + haonk;
these equations are the derivative formulas of Gauss. If we adjoin
the (constant) base vector ak to each term they become (10)' Dae# = raaea + hafln. f
On multiplying (10) by xry and summing on k, we have also
(11)
'xk Da
X = raggay = rap,7.
Since nk is a space vector with no components along el or e2, Vank = Dank. On differentiating nknk = 1, we obtain
(12)
nkVank
= nkDank = 0;
hence Dank (1 nk) is a tangential surface vector. Similarly, from nkx' = 0, we obtain
nkvaxp
i
xpvank
= 0;
or, in view of (9) and the symmetry of hao,
(13)
hp = xxVank = xaV nk.
hapxa
90XhaflxX
Hence
= 9aavpnk, o Vpnk =  Yank,
Dank = Dank ham xa. (14) t Note that the term hapn in this equation is in apparent disagreement with

(163.1); this is due to the fact that our 2dimensional geometry is not intrinsic but that of a 2space embedded in a 3space.
§ 179
SURFACE GEOMETRY IN TENSOR NOTATION
391
These equations are the derivative formulas of Weingarten. If we adjoin the (constant) base vector ak to each term, they become
(14)'
Osxy
VaV#xky
Dan =
From (8) we have
Equations of Codazzi and Gauss.
=
hsynk,
= (Vahs.y)nk + hsyVank,
= (Vahsy)nk  hsyhaIxk
in view of (14). Now form V$Vaxk, and subtract it from the last we thus equation; writing Vas for the operator VaVs obtain
VasXY = (Vahsy  V$hay)nk + (hayha"'  hsyha")xx. If we replace Vasx1' by the value,
(15)
Vasxak
= Raay
X
xkx,
given by Ricci's Identity (177.5) and adjoin ak to each term, (15)
becomes
(16)
Rasyx ex = (Vahsy  oshay)n +
(hayhft"
 hsyhal')ex.
This vector equation is equivalent to the scalar equations :
(17)
(18)
0 = Vahsy  vshay,
ROT" = hsyha)` 
Equations (17) are the Equations of Codazzi. When a = /3 the right member vanishes identically; and an interchange of a and 0 repeats the same equation. Hence there are but two independent Codazzi equations; these may be written with a = 1, S = 2, y =
1, 2;
(19)
V1h21  V2h11 = 0,
V1h22  V2h12 = 0.
On multiplying (18) by gas and summing on X, we obtain the covariant curvature tensor:
(20)
Rasys = hsyhas  hayhss.
From the symmetry has = hsa we may verify at once the four
symmetry relations of Rasys :
Rasys =  Rsays, Rasys =  Rassy,
Rasys = R,ysas.
Rasys + Rsyas + Ryass = 0,
392
TENSOR ANALYSIS
§180
As Greek indices range over 1, 2, these relations show that there is but one independent equation (20). This Equation of Gauss may be taken as
(21)
 81212 = h11h22 
22
= h,
where h = det han.
Total and mean curvature.
The contracted product,
and g = 811922  912
E"S Erya R,,,#,3 = 4 R1212
are both relative scalars of weight 2; hence,
K = R1212/9 = h/9 is an absolute scalar, namely the total curvature of the surface
(22)
(§ 176, Ex. 1).
The mean curvature of the surface is defined as the absolute scalar J = g"0hg.
Since g"R is the cofactor of gag in det ga#,
(23)
911 = 922/9, 922 = 911/9,
912 = 921
= 912/9;
hence
(24)
J =
9a,6haQ
= (922h11  2g12h12 + 911h22)/9
180. Summary: Tensor Analysis. Under general transformations,
.ti ={i(x1,
J
x2, . . ,
xn)
ax
,
001
ax
the component of a relative tensor of weight N transforms accord
ing to the pattern:
Ti'.k =
ax ax
N axi ax' axc
axa
axb axk
b
When N = 0, the tensor is absolute. For brevity, components of tensors often are called tensors.
The number of indices on a tensor component is called its
In nspace a tensor of valence m has nm components. A tensor of valence zero is a scalar. A scalar p(x) has one component in each coordinate system given by
valence.
ax N
,7p (.t)
=
I
ax
'P(x)
I
§ 180
SUMMARY: TENSOR ANALYSIS
393
A tensor of valence one is a vector. The differentials of the coordinates and the gradients of an absolute scalar are the prototypes of absolute contravariant and covariant vectors :
dx' _  dzr,
axr
axz
 _ a.axr axi
axraxi
Measurement is introduced into Riemannian geometry by the nonsingular quadratic form:
ds2
= gi; dxi dx.'
(gi; = gji,
g = det gi; F6 0).
The character of the geometry depends upon the choice of the n(n + 1)/2 functions gij(x) of the coordinates. The relations ei e; = gij determine the lengths of the base vectors ei and the
angles between them. Any vector in nspace at the point x is linearly dependent upon the n base vectors ei at this point. The reciprocal base vectors e' are defined by e' . e; = S . If g = det gij and g'' is the reduced cofactor of gij in g,
(1}
ei = girer,
ei e; = gi;,
ei = girer;
(2)
ei e' = S,
e' e = gi'.
In passing from coordinates x to x, the transformation of the
base vectors is prescribed by
(3)
axr ei= er, axi
axi ei=er. axr
These equations show that gjj, M, g2' are components of an absolute dyadic, the metric tensor G = gi,eiel = e;e'. Use of equations (1) permits indices to be raised or lowered on tensor components:
T.i. = girT*r. 9irT.r., If T is a tensor of weight N (say T = T?'.ke,ejek),
T =
 T. at
l
ax
IN
Addition of tensor components of the same valence, weight, and type produces a component of this same character.
394
TENSOR ANALYSIS
§180
Multiplication of tensor components of valence ml, m2i of weight
N1, N2, and of arbitrary type produces a component of valence m1 + m2 and of weight N1 + N2. Contraction of a tensor of valence m > 1 results on forming the dot product of any two of its base vectors. If the vectors in question are ei e' = s, the components of the contracted tensor are obtained from the original components by putting i = j and performing the implied summation. The components of the affine connection rk are functions of the
coordinates defined by
(4)
Die; = I'er
(rk = ek Diei).
Then also
(5)
(6) (7)
Die' =  rrer;
DiG = 0
(G = eye');
Dig = 2grir
By definition,
ri,,k = gkrr,
When r k is symmetric in ij,
13
then
rk. = gkrri;,r.
ri7,k = 2(Digik + Digki  Dkgi.l) The gradient of a tensor of weight N and valence m is defined as the tensor,
N
N
(9)
VT = g2ehDh(g 2T)
of weight N and valence m + 1. When T is absolute, VT =
ehDhT.
The components of VT, denoted by prefixing Vh to the components of T, are called covariant derivatives. For any tensor we have
(10)
VhT : = DhT;  NrhrT:
+ (T rhr + ...)  (TK:rr +
the first parenthesis contains one term for every upper index, the second contains one term for every lower index. The metric tensor G is absolute and VG = 0, from (6); hence
Vhgii = 0,
Vhba = 0,
Vhgii = 0.
We then can . Rijkh . a necessary and sufficient condition for a flat space is that the curvature tensor vanish. and the absolute scalar R1212/g = K. The curl of a covariant tensor fined as the (m + 1)vector: of valence m < n is de 1 abc. Rijkh + Rikkh + Rki h = 0. Rijkh = eh (DZDj . and the base vectors ai remain invariable in space (aaj/aye = 0).. The covariant derivatives of the epsilons and Kronecker deltas are zero. The Riemannian space xi with metric tensor gjj is said to be flat if it is possible to transform to a Cartesian coordinate system.. we may replace Va by Da.Di)ek.d.. the total curvature of a surface whose fundamental form is gij dxi dxj.§ 180 SUMMARY: TENSOR ANALYSIS 395 Since g is a relative scalar of weight 2. When T is absolute. we may replace Oh by Dh. RiJk h eh (DiDj . then all t = 0.k when T is an mvector of weight 1.kh. and Ohg=0.kVaTbc .. m. there is but one independent component. have four types of symmetry: Rijkh + Rjikh = 0. Its covariant components... These relations reduce the number of linearly independent components Rijkh to n2(n2 . say R1212.. = (divT)ij. Vg = 0 from (9). the space and its geometry are termed Euclidean... If the space is flat and the metric form gijxixj is positive definite. When n = 2.. Rijkh + Riihi = 0.1)/12.DjDi)ek... The divergence of a tensor T is defined as the gradient VT con tracted on the first and last indices: thus VhTij. A Cartesian coordinate system yi is one in which the components gij of the metric tensor are constants.k = ' Shij. A Riemannian nspace xi with the metric tensor gij and base vectors ei has the associated curvature tensor. When the affine connection is symmetric.D.d (curl T)hii.Rkhij = 0.
3 unless otherwise stated. 2. A transformation y i = c)y' + C' between orthogonal coordinate systems is characterized by the relations: ayi ay' or c.W3 = Eijk UiVjWk. PROBLEMS Summation Convention. the transformation yi = c)y' is a rotation when its matrix is orthogonal and its determinant +1. Si = 3. bix' = 0 is x' = X ajbk. = y= (orthogonal matrix). j of the matrix.396 TENSOR ANALYSIS make a real linear transformation to orthogonal coordinates yi for which gij = S. = cTcT = S. 3! and that the vector invariant has the components z fi k'Pik.1 2. 'P3 = 1 Eijk Erat 'Pzr'Pjs'Pkt. Show that u1 V1 u2 v2 1U2 v3 . Orthogonal transformations for which det c) = 1 form the displacement subgroup in which the distinction between absolute and relative tensors vanishes. 'P2 = fit. Stjk = 3! [§ 161. yn) is ST8 xrys... 5. S =3 143 2. the metric form then becomes a sum of squares. 1. Index range is 1. xi x2 . When yi and y' are regarded as points in the same coordinate system. Eijk Srst = 3! Erst. ay' ay.. 4. the distinction between covariance and contravariance vanishes. Show that the tworowed determinant formed by columns i. xn Y y2 . and det c. then crx. _ ± 1. Show that the general solution of the equations: aix' = 0. For the dyadic vi. Within this orthogonal group of transformations.1) show that the scalar invariants are 'P1 = 'Pit. W1 3. in (77.. . Prove the following: (a) (b) (c) Etjk ETjk = 2! Si.
y2. If the elements of a = det aii are functions of x1. y3) . the functions z` (yl. prove that as _ aa. ax = 1. show that ay ax 8. in particular. ay a(xl.t Aat axr axr axi axr axi ayi 02y' 11. or. x2. If yl. x2. a21 a22 a31 a32 u3 This determinant is formed by bordering det aii with the vectors vi and ui. y3) = x`.2 E Eiik aPaa k i = l rat : f ' =l = 'l E rat E pat a = b r a. x2. y3. Prove that ay a(y'. prove that Oz az ax ay ay ax If. . If aii is symmetric it also equals viuiA `i. Prove that a axr ay ax ay ax [Apply Probs. z2. y2.PROBLEMS 397 is 6. Y2. z3 are functions of yl. x3. y3) . y2. Show that the cofactor Arl of the element a= in a = det a Atr = 1 Eiik Erat 2 [ At al . x3. Prove that the t Cofactor of ay. ay' ax t ak r ay i = = a yk ax' a yk ay' axi 10. y3 are functions of x1. x3) rat a(xl' x. 9 and 10.] 7. more briefly. y2. is called their Java bian and written a(yl. det (ay'/axi).] 12. y'. x3) x If z1.' xt) a( xr' x2. 9. Prove that the bordered determinant: vl V2 V3 0 ul U2 all a12 an a23 a33 = uiviAii. in axi ay Ox I isax' I ay . yk) = Stik a(yl.
must have a solution zi = xi + iyi other than (0.. (aij . Show that the linear equations. and A = det Aii. aij yi . xi = yi = 0 and consequently zi = 0. . for if gii xx' = gij y'y' = 0.. j = 1. ' .. aij xi = 0. n). Eij.] .. and subtracting. is a root of (1). prove that the roots of the cubic equation. = 1.. . 0 aii ui _ 1)n+lusy7iAi7 (i. 15. 18..0 gii xi = 0. (i. ank = j8 .a gii yj . 14.X gii) = 0. and that the cofactor of ari is Ari = 1 (n . for which det aij = 0 and not all the cofactors Aij vanish has a nonzero solution of the form xi = Aki for some value of k. V.. atk 16.X gii)zj = 0. If det aii is symmetric (aii = aii). If Aij is the cofactor of aij in a = det aii. on equating real and imaginary parts to zero..6 gii y' = 0. Hence ..k ari aaj . i$)gii11 and.. 2. (i.. and hence 0 = 0. show that aA = a3 (and hence A = a2 when a 96 0). contrary to hypothesis. show that a = 0 when n is odd. [The system of n linear equations. j = 1. n). (1) det (aii . 2. 19. 17.. 2.k a8. we have aii xi . show that det Aii is also (A ii = Aii). we find that 0(gii xx' + gii yy') = 0. 0. . . a = det apq = ij"'k aii a2i .. State the corresponding theorem when the index range is from 1 to n.(a + (2) (3) l(x1 + iy') = 0. are all real. On multiplying (2) by yi and (3) by xi..1)! Erd. If aij and gii are symmetric dyadics and gijx`xi is a positive definite quadratic form (§ 150). 0) when X = a + 1$ [aii .398 TENSOR ANALYSIS 13. Show that the nrowed determinant. If the nrowed determinant a = det aii is antisymmetric (aii = aii). n! E ii. When the index range is from 1 to n show that the bordered determinant (written compactly). .a gii x' +. aek.
Bii. the cofactors Aii.n. Sz1"'h are absolute nvectors (§ 170) in nspace. 2..(b) (a) a23. 23. 13 is a relative scalar of weight 2. Z Vi = 2 Eiik bik]. Let u.PROBLEMS Tensor Character. v. Bii/b. c = det cj are scalars of weight 2. base vectors.. 0.. Show that. 27.n and S12 ' are relative scalars of weight 1 and 1. prove that T12. then Tz:: c is a tensor of the same weight. Show by direct calculation that the operator Dii transforms like a covariant dyadic: Dii = ax. prove that the bordered determinant in Prob. a12 are components of a contravariant vector ui of weight 1. If T1. for the equation is then equivalent to dp = 0 and _ const is an integral.. If aii and b" are absolute antisymmetric dyadics in 3space. and the reduced cofactors A"/a. . a31. Dii(uv) = (Disu)v + u(Di v). 20. tensors) whose "product" uv is distributive with respect to addition but not necessarily commutative. 28. . 15. b31. 399 a = det aii. = 1 Eijk aik. Prob. 25. Prove the theorem: If aii. w are absolute vectors.. [n! T12. b12 are components of a covariant vector vi of weight 1: [ux... If uk is a covariant vector. 26..Dab. This equation is said to be integrable when there exists a function X such that Auk = aw/axk. If vi. cj are absolute dyadics.h T". Cs/c are all absolute dyadics.] 24. 0. prove that the total differential equation uk dxk = 0 has the same form in all coordinate systems. .. show that . [Cf. ui Vi u2 V2 u3 V3 u1 U2 V2 u3 V3 and vl W1 W2 W3 W1 W2 w3 are relative scalars of weight 1 and 1.. Show that eilk uiDjuk = 0 is a necessary condition for the integrability of ilk dxk = 0 and that the form of this condition is the same in all coordinate systems. b = det bii. v be quantities (scalars. 22.. Prove the "quotient law": If the set of functions viTi:: a are tensor components of the type indicated by the indices for all absolute vectors vi. Show that the differential operator Dii = DiDi . Ct in these determinants are dyadics of weight 2. bii. aii are absolute tensors. . if u. b23. = e ti . ui. 2. axb a2i a2i .DiDi has the property.1 21..
e .2) by applying the operator Dii to eh [Cf. from Prob. we obtain the Laplacian.. In particular. hence. In Riemannian nspace with the metric tensor gii show that the divergence of an absolute vector v is given by div v Di(9 (1)n+l Di 1/9 9ii 0  D' (!'L G t') V9 or by the bordered nrowed determinant. R5'NT = ENT. 28. 2. If T is a tensor (complete with base vectors) of weight N and valence in. 3. Show that za = au t au (i = 1. 26). prove that eiei DiiT is a tensor of weight N and valence m + 2. xn) is given by Vv = eiDi. 13. [Since ENT is an absolute tensor.1 30.T) = eie1 N_ . Prob.p = eigii Div = 1 (Div)e7Gi1. by the bordered nrowed determinant (1) vw = (1)n+i ei 9 0 Disc 19ii (2) Show that the scalar product of (1) by VV = elDkv gives (1)n+1 Disc 0 9 19ii Div I 32. (_1)n+1 V9 Di 0 9ii 9 Di'v 33. eie _i Di (R. in view of Prob. The equations of a surface in 3space are xi = xi(ul. 2) .3) from (177. = EN eiei DiiT is an absolute tensor. 9 or.] 31.400 = Bt TENSOR ANALYSIS ek 29. u2). 27. (1) dlv v = 9 1 1 Vi where the determinant is to be expanded according to the elements of the first row and the operators Di applied to differentiate their cofactors. vi = Dip. which multiplied by EN yields the relative tensor eiei DiiT of weight N. . . if v = Vv.axa axb N axi ax' Dii(ENT) eaeb N Thus (Prob. In Riemannian nspace with the metric tensor gii show that the gradient of an absolute scalar p(xl. « = 1. Deduce (177.
Write out its three components in full. c). x4=ct where c is the speed of light.dye . c). 0. z) in space we now have the event vector xi = (x.dz2 = gii dxi dxi. uo = (0. x2=y. y. Thus the velocity fourvector has the constant magnitude c and is always perpendicular to acceleration fourvector. a fixed) and a covariant vector in the 2space (a = 1. Corresponding to the position vector (x. y.v2 from (1). utui = c2. 941 = 1. 0). 34. ct) in space time. and hence (3) ds dt=y c where y=( /1 v' \\ ) In a rest frame ao attached to the particle a clock registers the proper time r. ui = 'Y(x. Prove that i k pi = 21eao ziik xa x9 is an absolute covariant space vector normal to the surface. Putting v = 0. z.dx2 . 35. Prove the product rule (§ 168. If v is the speed of a particle relative to a frame j5. z. Z. y. wtui = 0. =dui dr dr Denoting t derivatives with dots. 2. uo = (x. The velocity and acceleration fourvectors are now defined as (5) U =dxi . 0. Z. 'Yy + 'Yy. we have (ds/dt)2 = c2 . y. . ic). Show also that in the rest frame ao (t = r). 2. 3. prove that Eli _ _y (1. gii = 0 (i j). 'YZ + ?'z. t = r in (3) we have ds (4) _ dr = c and dt dr = y. Covariant Differentiation. 1) for covariant differentiation without resort to geodesic coordinates. xl=x. The interval ds between two events in space time is defined by (1) ds2 = CO dt2 .PROBLEMS 401 is a contravariant vector in 3space (1 = 1. w' 'Y(7x + Yx. y. x3=Z. i fixed) formed by the surface. W. c). In special relativity it is customary to use the independent variables. Hence the metric tensor is given by (2) 9i1 = g22 = 933 = 1.
p) + zk twice with respect to the time.1SjR is zero. 41. The generalized Kronecker delta 6a'. prove that Dh(gij UV) = ui. Rij = R = Rii = Rr4i (its first scalar). chosen from 1. Its value is defined as follows: If both upper and lower indices consist of the same set of distinct numbers.". By contracting this identity with h = j. each ranging from 1 to n. ex. show that div T = vi 7'ij = .6) raise the index h and contract with j = h. Rijkh + RJkih T RkjJh 0 [Cf. . If u and v are absolute vectors.Dj(V'g Tij). k = m to obtain vi Rjk'k + Vi Rki + vk Ri1'k = 0.3). 2. show that the Ricci tensor Sik (§ 176. Prove that if Som.402 TENSOR ANALYSIS 36. the delta is 1 or 1 according to the upper indices from an even or an odd permutation of the lower.2) and (44. 1. n. Prove that 39. (177..5). .] 42. by differentiating r = pR(. Check the results of § 164. ex. in all other cases the delta is zero..k)! Sab. 40. Vhv2 + vi Vhuh.': d has 2k indices. 2) is symmetric. 1 37. In the Bianchi identity (177.d . Prove that Ui Vh U Vijvk + vjkvi + Vkivj = 0. prove that DI I38.' d has k subscripts and k superscripts (1 5 k 5 n). show that this equation implies that the divergence of the tensor R*j . If I u I is the length of u.E where the epsilons necessarily have n indices. (n . If Ti iis an absolute bivector. [Apply (44. On introducing the mixed Ricci tensor. Hence show that the delta is an absolute tensor.
Multiplication by a Scalar X: (2) Negative: q = (1)q. (p+q) +r = p+ (q+r). we proceed to a brief account of quaternion algebra. b'. Without attempting to motivate Ham ilton's invention. before a serviceable algebra for number triples. was possible. quaternions obey the rules of ordinary algebra: (3) p + q = q+p. 0. Addition: q+q' = (d+d'.aa'. q' = d'. We shall designate quaternions by single letters. and multiplication by scalars are concerned. 0.q' = q + (.q'). p.CHAPTER X QUATERNIONS 181. q. thus q = (d. A real quaternion is a quadruple of real numbers written in a definite order. (4) (5) (X + µ)q = Xq +µq.q' = (dd'. (Xu)q = X(µq). Xc). or quaternions. The problem of extending 3dimensional vector algebra to include multiplication and division was first solved by Sir William Rolvan Hamilton in 1843. The zero quaternion (0. b = b'. Hence q . He found that it was necessary to invent an algebra for quadruples of numbers. c'). From these definitions it is obvious that. Xa. or vectors. subtraction. r. Xq = qX. a = a'. 0) is denoted simply by 0. c). Subtraction: q . b. Xb.cc'). The fundamental definitions are the following. a'. as far as addition. c=c'. X(p + q) = Xp + Xq 403 . a. Xq = (ad.bb'.a+a'.b+b') c+c'). Quaternion Algebra. (1) Equality: q = q' when and only when d = d'.
we shall denote the four quaternion units as follows: 1 = (1. qq' = (dl + ai + bj + ck) (d'l +a'i+b'j+c'k). 1. With this definition we find that qq'=dd'aa'bb'cc' +d(a'i+b'j+c'k)+d'(ai+bj+ck) Ii j b b' k c c' + a a' If we form q'q by interchanging primed and unprimed letters. k = (0. is obtained by distributing the terms on the right as in ordinary algebra. Then. kj = . 0. j = (0. jk = i.k. 0). c) = dl + ai + bj + ck. hence . Definition of Multiplication: The quaternion product. ik = j. the first two lines above remain unchanged. 0. 0. in view of the preceding definitions.i. except that the order of the units must be preserved. i = (0. and then replacing each product of units by the quantity given in the following multiplication table: 1 i j k (7) First factor 1 i j k k i 1 j k k 1 j i j i 1 Note that i2 = j2 = k2 = 1. 0). (8) ji = . 1). ki = j. 0. 0. we can write any quaternion in the form: (6) q = (d. 1. but the interchange of rows in the determinant is equivalent to changing its sign. 0). a. 0. b. and the cyclic symmetry of the equations : ij = k.404 QUATERNIONS § isi In order to define the product qq' of two quaternions in a convenient manner.
if we make the orthogonal transformation. Henceforth we shall write dl or (d. With Hamilton we use the symbols Sq and Vq to denote the scalar and vector parts of q. or the vector parts of both factors are proportional.§ 181 QUATERNION ALGEBRA 4U3 q'q = qq' only when the determinant is zero. (dl)(d'l) = dd'l. (12) pq = qp only when Vp = 0. 0) is regarded as the real unit 1. C32 since the elements of det cii (= 1) are their own cofactors (§ 149). li j C22 k C23 C33 3k = C2. from the table. That q'q and qq' differ in general was to be expected. We are now in position to prove the fundamental THEOREM. C3r + C21 C31 = c11i + c12j + C13k = i. 0. but the commutative law pq = qp holds only when one factor is a scalar. or Vp = XVq. or Vq = 0. j. Thus every quaternion q = d + ai + bj + ck is the sum of a scalar d and vector v = ai + bj + ck. i = c11i + e12j + c13k. Quaternions of the form dl therefore behave exactly like real scalars and may be identified with them. dl + d'1 = (d + d')1. k with a dextral set of orthogonal unit vectors. = S. ij = k. In symbols: (pq)r = p(qr). for. We also may identify i. 1 or (1. 0. 0) simply as d. For. thus (9) Sq = d. we have the relations cirri.3) and i2 = . Vq = ai + bj + ck. hence (dl)q = q(dl) = dq. Quaternion multiplication is associative and distributive with respect to addition. . I6 = c3ii + c32i + c33k. 0.j (149. and. c21i + c22j + c23k.Clr Clr = . q = Sq + V q.1. from (1).k. The table shows that multiplying a unit by 1 leaves it unchanged . (p + q)r = pr + qr. 0. in particular. p(q + r) = pq + pr. ji = . The operations S and V are evidently distributive with respect to addition.
From (13). we need examine (10) only for those products whose left factor is i. Proof of (12). a' b' c' that is. either q or q' must be scalar. This occurs only in the three cases: a b c a=b=c=0.cc'. k. We have. It will suffice to verify (10) for all possible combinations of the units i.bb' . hence they will agree also after the table is used. Since the multiplication table is unchanged under a cyclical permution of i. p) = S(q . We have seen that q'q = qq' only when the de. for both scalars equal dd' . thus we find Proof of (11). we may prove that. and hence (14) S(pqr) = S(qrp) = S(ppq). Kq = Sq . From (8). If we form p(q + r) and pq + pr by formal expansion and without use of the multiplication table.Vq. S(p . rp) = S(rp . or Vq and Vq' must be pro __. written Kq. is defined as (1) The conjugate of a quaternion q. terminant in (8) vanishes. . qr) = S(qr . j. k. the value of the scalar part of a quaternion product is not changed by a cyclical permutation of its factors.406 QUATERNIONS § 182 Proof of (10). portional. for example. the two expressions will agree term for term.q). Conjugate and Norm. j. we have (13) S(qq') = S(q'q).aa' . 182. a'=b'=c'=0.
If q=d+ai+bj+ck.§ 182 CONJUGATE AND NORM 407 The conjugate of a sum of quaternions is evidently the sum of their conjugates: (2) K(q + q') = Kq + Kq'. i j (4) vv' (aa' + bb' + cc') + a b a' b' k c c' Since changing the sign of the determinant is equivalent to interchanging the second and third rows. (3) Nq = q(Kq) = (Kq)q = d2 + a2 + b2 + c2. since Nq is a scalar and therefore commutes with Kp.8). q(Kq) _ (Kq) q. from (181. Kq . Since Kv = . we have. If v = ai + bj + ck. Since the vector parts of q and Kq differ only in sign.d'v + vv = (d' . Nq . (5) On taking the conjugate of every term in qq' _ (d+v)(d'+v') = dd' + dv' + d'v + vv'. This product is known as the norm of q and is written Nq.K(pq) = pq .v) = (Kq') (Kq) Therefore the conjugate of the product of two quaternions is equal to the product of their conjugates taken in reverse order. Kp = p .Nq. from (181. that is. we have N(pq) = pq .v. . Kp = pKp . (5) is a special case of (6). and Nq = 0 implies that a = b = c = d = 0. q = 0. We now use this property to compute the norm of a product. we see that (6) K(qq') = dd' . q is called a unit quaternion.dv' . Therefore Nq is a scalar. Kq=daibjck.8). From (3). If Nq = 1. hence (7) N(pq) = Np Nq.v') (d . we have. The norm of the product of two quaternions is equal to the product of their norms. K(vv') = v'v.
Nqn. TO = Kgn .ba')2.. a set of numbers in which the sum. 0) with a single unit 1. Moreover.. or light. whence p = 0 or q = 0.Nq = 0. + xnen. full grown. 0) with two units 1. That is to say..2 + a. Hamilton himself has written: "They started into life. since the norms are scalars. . if pq = 0." t Dickson. 1914.2) (dd'as'bb'cc')2+(ad'+da'+bc'cb')2+ (bd' + db' + ca' . t As to the genesis of quaternions. 0. But (4) shows that the product of two vectors is not in general a vector. k. Kq1. and quotient (the divisor not being zero) of two numbers of the set must be definite numbers belonging to the set.2 + b12 + c. and.. 0. linear in the units ei. Thus.. we conclude that the product of two quaternions is zero only when one factor is zero. N(g1g2 . Np . but a quater* This theorem applied to qq' gives Euler's famous identity: (d2 + a2 + b2 + c2) (d. i. Nq2 .408 QUATERNIONS § 182 By mathematical induction we immediately may extend (6) and (7) to products of n quaternion factors: (8) (9) K(gig2 .1 .. x. and the sparks which fell from it were the fundamental equations in i. t For quaternion algebra has a unique place among the algebras of hypernumbers. Linear Algebras. with coefficients xi in the field of real numbers. product. Np = 0 or Nq = 0. For it can be shown $ that the most general linear associative algebra over the field of reals.. 0.. Both real and complex numbers form a field. We now can appreciate Hamilton's exceptionally happy choice of a multiplication table for the quaternion units. I then and there felt the galvanic circuit of thought close.. difference. qn) = Nq1 . as I was walking with Lady Hamilton to Dublin. quaternions include vectors (0. and the complex numbers (x. London.. and for which the associative law of multiplication holds good. z) in space of three dimensions. 10. j.' From (6). Quaternions include the real numbers (x. y. y. and came up to Brougham Bridge. Kg. 1843.ac')2 + (cd' + dc' + ab' . exactly such as I have used them ever since. p. x = x1e1 + x2e2 + . which my boys have since called the Quaternion Bridge. that is. is the algebra of real quaternions. on the 16th of October. in which a product is zero only when one factor is zero.
or (2) Nq1 =  Nq In order to divide p by q ( (3) (4) 0). (r . or qq = 1. r2 = q1p. These solutions are unique. on the left in (4). We therefore define Kq/Nq as the reciprocal of q and write (1) q1 = Kq Nq . The notations (5). a pure vector algebra having all the desirable properties of quaternion algebra is not possible. 183.r1 = 0. r . consequently. the righthand quotient. Division of Quaternions. For this reason the symmetrical notation p/q will not be used. and. Unlike additionthe sum of two vectors is always a vector the multiplication of vectors leads outside of their domain. then qq1 = q'q = 1. for example.3) as Kq q = 1. and. Nq is a nonzero scalar. The norm of either quotient of two quaternions is equal to the quotient of their norms. or r = r1.r1)q = 0. We thus obtain the two solutions. and we may write the defining equation for the norm (182. . and r2. This is easily done by multiplying by q1 on the right in (3). (6) are unambiguous: r1 satisfies (3) and may be called the lefthand quotient of p by q. since q 0 0. r1 = pq1. we have Np (7) Nrl = Nr2 = Nq rq = r1q.Nq1 = 1. if. Vector multiplication is not closed. satisfies (4). (5)(6) which are in general different. we must solve the equation rq = p or qr = p for r. On taking norms in (5) and (6). The last equations show that Nq .§ 183 DIVISION OF QUATERNIONS 409 nion. If q is not zero.
qi 1. q=2i2k.7).(aa' + bb' + cc'). k form a righthanded set. From (1). qn 11 .9).8) and (182.84. V(vv') = IvI sin 8 k. Product of Vectors. we have vli. k. v') is not greater than 900 (Fi g.410 QUATERNIONS § 184 From (182. 184 ). j. we see . k.)i = N(gig2 . (8) (gig2 . v' = Iv'I(icos0+jsin0). v') = 0.13) and (182. r2 =q 1p = 1(2+i+2k)(1 +3i . hence ri=pq 1=1(1+3ij+k)(2+i+2k) = 1(3 + 5i . the reciprocal of a unit vector is its negative. (1) (2) S(vv') = . 184 v. The definition (1) shows that the reciprocal of a unit quaternion is its conjugate.j+k) = y(3+9i+3j+3k). we have q' = (2 + i + 2k)/9. v' S(vv') = .. The product of two vectors vv' is the quaternion (182. Noting that k is the unit vector perpendicular to the plane of v and v' and directed so that v. qn. If the angle (v.. Solve the equations (3) and (4) when p=1+3ij+k.I v I v' I cos 0.. . Th en k i s the un it vec t or which completes the righthanded orthogo nal basis i. v' and so directed that the angle (j.. n n The reciprocal of the product of n quaternions is equal to the product of their reciprocals taken in reverse order.7j + 5k). v'. j as the unit vector perpendicular to i in the plane of v. Nri = Nr2 in conformity with (181. v vv' = (3) (4) I vIv'I(cos0+ksin0). Choose i as the unit vector along v' v ° k Fia. i j k V (vv') = a b c a' b' c' In order to find their geometric meaning we adopt a special basis i. Example... j. q) = qn i . Note that Sri = Sr2.4) whose scalar and vector parts are .
Suvw = SuVvw. we have (13) Suvw = Svwu = Swuv Since Kuvw = (w)(v)(u) = wvu (§ 182). A change in the order of the vectors in (3) has no effect. who defined the scalar and vector product of two vectors u.V UV.v(uw + wu) + (vw + wv)u. (14) (15) Suvw = SKuvw = Swvu Vuvw = .vuw . uv = Suv + Vuv. vu = Suv .v=S(uv). (11)(12) Suv = 2(uv + vu).vu)." Henceforth we shall use Suv. hence (7) (8) Svu = Suv. Turning now to products of three vectors. . but in (4) reverses the direction of k. Also from uvw = u(Svw + Vvw).vwu + vwu + wvu = (uv + vu)w . Since Kuv = (. Vu(v + w) = Vuv + Vuw. Kuv to denote S(uv).§ 184 PRODUCT OF VECTORS 411 that (3) and (4) are geometric expressions for the scalar and vector parts of vv'. (181. (16) (17) We now compute Vuvw in another way: 2Vuvw = uvw .v) (. k. K(uv). v as (5)(6) u.14). using the dot and cross to distinguish between these two types of "multiplication. They form the cornerstones of the vector algebra of J.VKuvw = Vwvu. Vuv = 1(uv . u X v = V(uv).Vuv. Vuvw = uSvw + VKVvw. etc. j. Willard Gibbs. V(uv).u) = vu. entirely independent of the basis i. Vuv. Vvu = . (9) (10) Su(v + w) = Suv + Suw. From u(v + w) = uv + uw and the distributive character of S and V. similarly Suvw = S(uvw).Kuvw = uvw + wvu = uvw + vuw .
but ab denotes the quaternion (not dyadic) product. sin 9 = f \/a2 + b2 + c2/h 0. v.412 QUATERNIONS § 185 hence. from (11). (13) (14) (19) uX(vXw) = From (5) and (6) we have also (20) uv = as the connecting link between quaternion and vector algebra.(v+w) =uXv+uxw. 0 < 0 < 27r. . d2+a2+b2+c2.vSuw. vxu= uV. when a2 + b2 + c2 (2) e = f ai+bj±ck 1/a2+b2+c2 t In this and following articles we again denote vectors with boldface letters.v)k. uXv = Jul lvlsin(u.t Every quaternion q = d + ai + bj + ck with real coefficients may be written as a real multiple of a unit quaternion : (1) q = h(cos 0 + e sin B). Comparison with (17) now gives the important formula: (19) VuVvw = wSuv . (10) u. Finally. e is the unit vector: and. 185. we express these results in the dot and cross notation of Gibbs: (5)(6) (7)(8) (9) Jul Ivl cos(u. (18) V uvw = uSvw + wSuv .v). Here h= cos B = d/h.vSuw. Roots of a Quaternion.
0 =2mir/n (m=0. and n nth roots of Q are given by (1). 1. THEOREM. cos no = cos cp. and e may be chosen at pleasure. the positive root.n1). e = (i + j + k)/1'3. 0 = (gyp + 2irm)/n (m = 0. the angle always may be taken in the interval from 0 to it by choosing the appropriate e in (2). We now may find the nth roots of a real quaternion (4) Q=H p I. . In every case some values of 0 (0 ir) give nonreal roots q with which any e may be associated. sin 0 = 0. Then hn = H. sin no = sin gyp. .a sin gyp).n 1). In solving q' = Q.§ I35 ROOTS OF A 413 When q is a real number. IfQ<0: p =ir. If Q is a positive real number. These n values of 0 comprise all values in the interval 0 < 0 < 2ir which satisfy the preceding equations. sin p = 0: the e in q is then an arbitrary unit vector. For example. we choose the e in q the same as in Q. 2. both real.r. we have. we write Q = 2(cos 60° + e sin 60°). IfQ>0: o =0. 0=(2m+1)ir/n We summarize these results in the (n=0.1. by De'Xloivre's Theorem. When n > 2. the values 0 = 0. Tr give just two roots =LA/Q.1. has exactly n nth roots. . provided (5) (6) h = H' I'. we consider two cases: 1. In all cases the roots may be computed from (5) and (6). A quaternion with real coefficients. Since e2 = . sin 0. if Q = 1 + i + j + k. . some values of 0 (0 0 or ir) give nonreal roots q with which any e may be associated.n1). it has just two square roots ± /. When n = 2.1. in all other cases a real number has infinitely many quaternion roots with real coefficients. (3) q' = h"(cos no + e sin no). but not a real number. 0 < (P < .
(iv) a. b) as positive relative to e. 0 < 0 < 7r. 186. THEOREM. Proof. when less than 7r.2). we may write IaI2 hence. b) = 0 or 7r. In view of (i). b) = 0. is counterclockwise. If we choose the plus sign in these formulas. when a. b.414 QUATERNIONS §186 The cube roots of Q are then q= (cos 0 + e sin 0).1).Vba Na ba Ka = =bNa Na or.140'. viewed from the tip of e. q is 1 or 1. zr. e. if q = 1. 186 we see that. the angle 0 = 0. (iii) Plane a. 1. sine = a2 + b2 + c2. the angle (a. re spectively. Every unit quaternion q=d+ai+bj+ck can be expressed in the form (1) (Nq=1) q = cos 0 + e sin 0. 0 = 20'. b. (iii) and (iv) are fulfilled. in view of (183. The unit quaternion cos 0 + e sin 0 may be expressed as the quotient ba1 of any two vectors which satisfy the conditions: (i)lal=lbl. In particular. e form a dextral set. and 0 satisfies (2) cos 0 = d. From Fig.260'. 2 7r. Great Circle Arcs. cos9+esin9= Ial bIcos0+Ial bIsin0e cosh+esin0= (3) Sab + Vab Na _ Sba . cos 0 + e sin 0 = ba1. We shall describe the sense of (a. When the angle (a. . if we choose the vectors a and b so that conditions (ii). b). and e is entirely arbitrary. e form a righthanded set. respectively. b is perpendicular to e. Here e is given by (185. (ii) Angle (a.
§.,%
G 'ItEAT
CIRCLE ARCS
415
To every unit quaternion, q = cos 0 + e sin 0 corresponds to a great circle are AB of a sphere centered at 0, provided OA = a
and OB = b satisfy the preceding conditions (i) through (iv).
Thus q corresponds to an are of a great circle whose plane is normal to e and whose central angle 0 has the positive sense relative to e. All such arcs of this great circle are equally valid representations. If the are AB represents q, AB is free to
move about in its great circle, provided its length and sense remain unaltered. The cases q = 1 (B = 0) and
q
q = 1
(0 = 7r),
in which e
FIG. 186
is
arbitrary, are exceptional. Any point of the sphere represents q = 1; and any great semicircle represents q =  1. A unit vector q = e (0 = 2 r) corresponds to a quadrantal are in the plane through 0 normal to e.
If q = cos 0 + e sin 0 corresponds to the are AB,
(4)
qI = Kq = cos 6  e sin B
corresponds to an are having the same plane and angle, but whose
sense is positive relative to e. Hence q' corresponds to the
are BA.
(5)
Moreover,
 q =  cos 0  e sin 0 = cos (ir  0)  e sin (7r  0) ;
hence, if q corresponds to the are AB, and AOA' is a diameter, q corresponds to are A'B, the supplementary are reversed in
Sense.
Using the sign '' to denote correspondence, we sum up our findings as follows:
1 ti point,
1  semicircle, e
quart.ercircle;
q  are AB, qI  are BA, q '' are A'B.
The utility of this representation is due to a simple analytical method of adding great circle arcs "vectorially." To add two arcs,
shift them along their great circles until the terminal point of the first
(AB) coincides with the initial point of the second (BC); then the
great circle arc AC is defined as their vector sum.
If a = OA,
416
QUATERNIONS
§186
b = OB, c = OC, the preceding theorem shows that the arcs AB, BC, AC are represented by the quaternions ba1, cb1, ca1, respectively. Write
p = ba1, q = cb1;
and the equation,
then
ca1
=
cblba1
= qp;
are AB + are BC = arc AC,
may be written
(6)
are p + arc q = are qp.
For three arcs,
(7)
arc p + are q + are r = arc qp + are r = arc rqp;
and, in general, the vector sum of any number of great circle arcs is given by the arc corresponding to the product of their representative quaternions taken in reverse order.
In interpreting such arcquaternion equations, remember that are q = 0 means that q = 1; and, if are q is any great semicircle, q = 1. For example, if arc p, are q, are r form the sides of a spherical triangle taken in circuital order,
arc p + arc q + arc r = 0,
arc rpq = 0,
rpq = 1.
In general, the arcs representing the quaternions q1, q2, , qn, taken in this circuital order, will form a closed spherical polygon
when and only when
(8)
qnqn1 '
g2g1 = 1.
Example. Spherical Trigonometry. Consider again the spherical triangle ABC of § 22. With the notation of this article
are BC ' cb1 = cos a + a' sin a,
are CA ' ac1 = cos $ + b' sin Q,
are AB  ba 1 = cos y + c' sin y.
The "vector" equation
are CA + arc A B = arc CB
corresponds to the quaternion equation (bat) (ac 1) = be 1, or
(i)
(cosy + c' sin y) (cos i3 + b' sin 3) = cos a  a' sin a.
§ 187
ROTATIONS
417
If we expand the left member, put
c'b' =  b' c'  b' x c'
(ii)
cos a'  a sin a';
and equate scalar parts in both members, we have cos 0 Cos y  sin 3 sin y cos a' = cos a.
This is the cosine law (22.6) of spherical trigonometry. On equating the vector parts in both members of (i) we have,
(iii)
a' sin a + b' sing cos y + c' cos l; sin y = a sin a' sin 0 sin y
,
and hence, on multiplication by a
sin a' sin /i sin y = a a' sin a = a bxc,
or
sin a'
a bxc
sin a sin#sin y
sin y' sin y
sina
sin a'
Since the right member is unchanged by a cyclical permutation, we have
(iv)
sin /3'
sina
sing
the sine law (22.5) of spherical trigonometry.
187. Rotations. With the aid of quaternion algebra, finite rotations in space may be dealt with in a simple and elegant manner. This application depends upon the fundamental
THEOREM.
If q and r are any nonscalar quaternions, then
(1)
r' = qrq1
is a quaternion whose norm and scalar are the same as for r. The vector Vr' is obtained by revolving Vr conically about Vq through twice the angle of q. Thus if
q = Nq(cos 0 + i sin 6),
Vr' is obtained by revolving Vr conically about i through an angle 26.
Proof.
(2)
(3)
The norm and scalar of r' are
Nq1 N(qrq1) = Nq Nr = Nr S(qrq1) = S(q 'qr) = Sr.
(182.9),
(181.14).
Moreover on writing r = Sr + Vr,
qrq1
= Sr + q(Vr)q1;
418
QUATERNIONS
q(Vr)q1 has
§ 187
Now, from (3), fore a vector; hence
(4)
the same scalar as Vr and is there
V (qrq1) = q(Vr)q1
Let us now write
r = Nr(cos c + e sin (p);
then from (4),
Vr' = Nr sin
e' where
e' = qeq1.
If we choose j in the plane of e and i
(Fig. 187a) and k to complete the dextral
set i, j, k, then
e = icosA+ Jsin A
e' = (qiq1) cos A + (qjq 1) sin A. Since Vq is parallel to i, qi = iq and
qiq1
Flo. 187a
=
iqq1
= i.
Moreover,
qjq1
= (cos 0 + i sin 0)j(cos 0  i sin 0)
= (j cos 0 + k sin 0) (cos 0  i sin 0)
= j (cost 0  sine 0) + k(2 sin 0 cos 0) ;
hence j goes into
j' = j cos 20 + k sin 20,
a vector obtained by revolving j about i through an angle 20 in
the positive sense.
Consequently
e = icosA+ jsinX *e' = icosA + j'sinA
and also Vr . Vr' by a conical revolution about i of the same
amount. This completes the proof. We note that vectors transform into vectors.
In particular, if
q = a, a unit vector,. 0 = 90°, and
e' = aea1 = aea
is obtained by revolving e conically through 180° about a.
The
transformation a( )a thus gives vectors a halfturn about a.
§ 187
ROTATIONS
419
The transformation a( )a may be regarded as a halfturn followed by a reversal; a vector thus transformed is simply reflected in a plane normal to a (Fig. 187b). Thus aea is the reflection of e
in the plane normal to a.
A rotation through an angle a about a
implies that the angle turned has the positive sense relative to a. If
a
p = Cos. a+asin1a,
q= cos 2 S { b sin 3 z are unit quaternions, the operators p( )p1
Fia. 187b
and q( )q1 effect rotations of a about a and ,3 about b; for brevity we call these the rotations p and q. The succession of rotations p, q corresponds to the operator,
qp(
)p'q1
= qp( ) (qp)1;
21
since qp is also a unit quaternion, say
qp = cos zy + c sin
'Y,
the resultant is equivalent to the single rotation qp, that is, a rotation through the angle y about c. Similarly, the resultant of the rotations q and p corresponds to the operator,
pq(
)q'p1 = pq( )(pq)1
Since pq = qp only when Vp and Vq are parallel (the values p, q = 41 are excluded), the composition of rotations is noncommutative except when they have the same axis.
The rotation p followed by the rotation q is equivalent to the single rotation qp. More generally, the succession of rotations q1, q2, qn is equivalent to the single rotation gnq,,1 . g2g1. (q)1 Since = q1, the rotations q( )q1 and (q)( )(q) are the same. If q = cos B + a sin B,
q = cos(Tr9)+(e)sin(7r8);
thus the rotation q is a rotation through 27r  20 about e; this produces the same result as the rotation q, namely 20 about e.
Since qlq( )qlq = 1( )1, the rotation q1( )q is the reverse of q( )q1; this is also evident from q1 = cos 0  e sin 0.
420
QUATERNIONS
§ 187
Example 1. The rotation of 90° about j followed by a rotation of 90° about i is represented by the quaternion product
(cos 45° + i sin 45°) (cos 45° + j sin 45°) = !(I + i + j + k);
that is, by
1
\/3 The resultant rotation is therefore a rotation of 120° about an axis equally inclined to the (positive) axes of x, y and z.
2 2
+
i+j+kV'
V3
 = cos 60° +
i + j + k

sin
60°.
Example 2. The resultant of two reflections in planes normal to the unit vectors a, b corresponds to the operator
ba( )ab = ba( ) (ba)1.
But if a b = cos 0, a x b = e sin 0, we have
ba = a b  axb = (cosB+esin0)
(184.20).
Now the rotation q( )q' = (q)( )(q)1; hence successive reflections in
two plane mirrors is equivalent to a rotation about their line of intersection of double the angle between them.
Example 3. From (181.13) we know that S(qp) = S(pq); moreover from (4)
V (qp) = V (gpgq1) = qV (pq)q1
Hence V(qp) is obtained by revolving V(pq) about Vq through double the angle of q. Thus, if u is a vector, V(up) is obtained by revolving V(pu) 180°
about u; that is, the vector u bisects the angle between V(pu) and V(up).
Now let a, b, c be three radial vectors from the center of a sphere to its
surface. Then a, b, c bisect the angles between Vabc, Vbca; Vbca, Vcab; Vcab, Vabc respectively. In other words, if we form a spherical triangle
whose vertices are Vabc, Vbca, Vcab, the middle points of the sides opposite lie on the vectors b, c, a respectively.
Example 4. If the sides of a spherical polygon are represented by the quaternions qi, q2, , qn taken in this circuital order, gnqn1 g2gt = 1 (186.8). Hence the succession of rotations,
gnqn1 ... q2ql( )gig2 ... q.1qn = 1( )1,
about axes through a point 0 will restore a body to its original position. We state this result for the case of a triangle as follows: THEOREM (Hamilton and 1)onkin). If ABC is any spherical triangle, three
successive rotations represented by the directed arcs 2 BC, 2 CA, 2 AB (about their
polar axes) will restore a body to its original position.
This same theorem applies to the polar triangle A'B'C'. Since the side B'C' = a' = 7r  A (§ 22) and has OA as polar axis, successive rotations of 2ir  2A, 27r  2B, 2ir  2C about OA, OB, OC will restore a body to its original position. Since the rotations 2ir  2A and 2A about OA give the same displacement, we may state the
§ 188
PLANE VECTOR ANALYSIS
421
THEOREM (Hamilton). If ABC is any spherical triangle on a sphere centered at 0, three successive rotations about OA, OB, OC through the angles 2A, 2B, 2C in the sense of CBA will restore a body to its original position.
188. Plane Vector Analysis. The threeterm quaternion c + ai + bj has given rise to two types of vector analysis in the plane. The one interprets c + ai as a vector w in the complex plane; then the product wlw2 is always a complex vector. The other interprets ai + bj as a "real" vector w and decomposes the quaternion product w1w2 into its scalar and vector parts, which are used separately as "products." To indicate the interpretation used, we denote complex and real vectors by italic and boldface letters, respectively. Thus the plane vector whose components are u, v may be written as
w = u + iv,
In the first case,
(1)
or w=ui+vj.
w1w2 = (ulna  vlv2) + (ulv2 + u2v0i;
w1w2 =  (ulu2 + vlv2) + (u1v2  u2v1)k.
in the second,
(2)
In Gibbs's notation,
ulu2 + V1V2 = w1 w2i
u1v2  u2v1 = k w1 x W2.
Let w = u  vi denote the conjugate of w; then, from (1) and (2), W2.+ik.wlxw2, w1W2 = W1
W1W2 = W1 W2  i k W1 x w2,
and hence
(3) (4)
W1 W2 = 2 (wlw2 + W1w2),
21i(w1w2
 wlw2)
The conditions (128.6) and (128.7) for perpendicular and parallel vectors may be read from these equations. We next consider corresponding differential invariants. The operator, a a a a
V =i+j+iax
ay
ax
ay
422
QUATERNIONS
§188
(read  as corresponds to). If we introduce the conjugate variables,
z=x+iy,
a a
az
az
2=xiy,
a
+i _ +i az (ax ay a2 + +i ay
az
az
a
ax
ay
ax
(1 + i2)
or
a
+ (1  i2)
a 8
a
az
a
(5)
a2,
ax + Z y
a
a
_
0
_
a
2 az '
ax
 Z ay
2
az
follows in the same way. Corresponding to the gradient V of a real function p(x, y), we have 2 a(p/az in the complex plane, in which the variables x, y in are replaced by the values,
y = 2i(2  z). For example, x2 + y2 = z2, and hence 0(x2 + y2) = 2z in the
x = 2 (2 + z),
complex plane.
The unit vector,
(6)
e = icos0+jsin8NeiO = cos0+isin9.
In view of (3), the operator for differentiation in the direction e,
namely
(7)
Therefore
(8)
dw
ds
 = e Vw e t8 aw + ei0aw , az
az

and hence dz/ds ti eie. If w is a complex function, dw/dz in the direction 0 corresponds to the ratio of dw/ds to dz/ds; hence
dw
aw
(9)
dz
az
+
e
_2. aw
az
in the direction 0.
When dw/dz is independent of 0, w is said to be an analytic func, tion of z; for this, it is necessary and sufficient that
aw
az
=0,
or
+i ay (u+iv)=0, ax
a a
§ 188
PLANE VECTOR ANALYSIS
423
in view of (5). The last condition is equivalent to the familiar
CauchyRiemann Equations :
(10)
au
ax
av
ay
=0,
au +=0.
av
ay ax
We next find the correspondents for div w = V w and k rot w = k V x w by making use of (3), (4) and (5) :
3z' divwti +aw ,
a2
az
(12)
k rot w /aw aw tii(az \az
V2=2
a2
Moreover, for the Laplacian V2 = V V, we have
(13)
a2
a2
azaz+2azaz  4azaz
Thus a real function cp(z, 2) is a harmonic when a2,p/3z ai = 0; for example, log I z I = 2 log zz = (log z + log z) 2 is harmonic. If the plane vector w  w(z, 2), the condition,
(14)
Ow aw rotw=ON=0.
az
az
When rot w = 0,
w = VX, where
a=
:o
w dr;
hence, when w(z, 2) is irrotational,
(15)
is
w=
z
,
where
p
=
f
(w dz + w dz)
the real function 2X(z, 2). The field lines cut the curves const at right angles. If the vector w is plane, the condition,
Ow
(16)
aw
a2
div w = 0   +  = 0.
az
In order that the complex vector w(z. Conversely. From this result. The field lines are the curves From these results we have = const. If <p(z. 2) is a real function with continuous partial derivatives. there exist real functions gyp. w. if w = W1 + w2i rot W1 = 0. .424 QUATERNIONS § 188 From (85. w2 = i ay/az. rot w = 0 implies that w=. hence. app a2 a2 az ' + i¢ = Jw(z. If the vector field w(z. THEOREM 1. Since k X w is w revolved through +7r/2. app/a2 and i app/a2 give.w d2) zo is a real function. when w is solenoidal.6). 2) d2 (z const) is determined to an arbitrary additive f (z) and w1 = app/az. The preceding results give a simple method for decomposing a plane vector function into an irrotational and a solenoidal part. 2) is solenoidal.' such that a. k X w is irrotational. if w is an analytic function of z. (9w/a2 = 0. Thus when w(z. we conclude that (17) w=i az where = ifZ(w dz . it is necessary and sufficient that its conjugate be an analytic function of z. az Hence p is a real harmonic function. 2) is both irrotational and solenoidal.iw. and a solenoidal field with lines = const. k x w . rot (k x w) = k div w. respectively. (15) applies when w is replaced by iw (and iv by iw). For. hence aw/az = 0. az az p then = asp divw=2 dz dz =0. w=+i=( o +ii'). and w is an analytic function of z. THEOREM 2. a div W2 = 0. and (11) and (12) show that w is solenoidal and irrotational. an irrotational field with lines orthogonal to cp = const. 2) be irrotational and solenoidal.
y2) . i Stokes' Theorem in the plane. On adding these equations and then replacing w by w. Since . w = 22 = of Z. w = z2 = (x2 . dr. and (18) reduces to Cauchy's Integral Theorem: . for its conjugate z2 is an analytic function Example 2. aw/a2 = 0.dA = a az i f(afv+ az (18) aw = dA az 2 J(w dz + w dz). When w is analytic in the region within the circuit. = 1 2z2(2 + z). we obtain. az Jw dz = 0. ANALYSIS The vector 425 Example 1. into its irrotational and solenoidal parts. corresponds to i by virtue of (12) and (3). rot w dA = fw . aw aw . To decompose the vector. If we replace w by iw (and iv by i4 b). (x2 .y2) + 2xy i.z). we have fw dz = 2if awdA.. we may take v + ik = fz2 d2 = z22.(x2 + 3y2) + xy i.i= 22Z. after canceling i. is both irrotational and solenoidal. wl ¢ = Zi z2(2 .§ 188 PLANE VECTOR.2xy i.P . (3x2 + y2) + xy it 2 _ av a2 = z2 + 2z2 = w2 = i ak a2 = z2 + 2z2 = . 492 fk . (w d2 + w dz).
Summary : Quaternion Algebra is a linear. Since i. 2iA = 12 dz = J(x . but not in general commutative. in fact pq = qp holds only when p or q is a scalar or when the vector parts of p and q are proportional. j. d + ai). i.(aa' + bb' + cc') + = v . expressed as circuit integrals.426 QUATERNIONS § 189 Example 3. and N(qq') = (Nq) (Nq'). hence. either q = 0 or q' = 0. if qq' = 0. The unit 1 has the properties of the real one. fourunit (1. Thus q = d + v. On a fixed great circle. The equation q = 0 implies Nq = 0. and i2=j2=k2= 1. ij=k. Quaternion multiplication is associative and distributive. Quaternions q = d + ai + bj + ck include real and complex numbers (d.iy) (dx + i dy) = i f (x dy . a scalar plus a vector. This gives the wellknown circuit integral for a plane area. The quaternion q = d + v has the conjugate Kq = d . and associated with the great circle are of angle 0 and pole e on the unit sphere. The norm of a nonzero quaternion q is the positive real number. quaternions also include vectors v = ai + bj + ck. the last equations admitting cyclical permutations. With w = z2. 189.v. Nq = q(Kq) = d2 + a2 + b2 + c2. and conversely. The product vv' of two vectors is the quaternion : vv' = . we obtain the static moments of a plane area about the axes. A unit quaternion q (Nq = 1) may be put in the form q = cos0+esin9 (IeI = 1).v' + v x v' in Gibbs' notation. all arcs of the same length . j. The conjugate of the product qq' is K(qq') = (Kq') (Kq). k) associative algebra over the field of reals. ji= k.y dx). When w = z in (18). k may be interpreted as dextral set of orthogonal unit vectors.
The operator e( )e reflects vectors in the plane normal to e. Show that if we identify the quaternion units with the 2 X 2 matrices j 1 .v2. hence factor its left member in two different ways. L2 = 1. w are vectors prove the following identities: (a) (b) (c) u22 _ Nu. respectively. Great circle arcs may be added vectorially. then rpq= 1. Solve the quaternion equations. the operator e( )e gives vectors a halfturn about the axis e. qs = p. . The scalars 1 and . known as its principal equation. (d) S(u + v) (v + w) (w + u) = 2 Suvw. If three arcs form a spherical triangle.2qSq + Nq = 0. q1 = e. v. 4. 2 Vuvw = uvw + wvu. Show that 2 + 5i and 2 + 3j + 4k have the same principal equation. PROBLEMS 1. If q = Nq(cos 0 + e sin 0). and are p + are q = arc qp.PROBLEMS 427 and sense correspond to the same q and are denoted by arc q.wvu. If u.  \c0 0/' where L (iota) is the complex unit. 2 Suvw = uvw .1 correspond. When q = e.+ 2Vuv . these matrices satisfy the multiplication table (181. 2. Verify that Vr = Ns. for r and s when q=2i2k.(0 1 ). the operator q( )q1 effects a conical revolution of 20 about e on the vector of the operand.v)(u + v) = u'. q2 . (u . p= 1+3ij+k. 5. T Y = Vr revolved about e through 20. say arcp+arcq+arcr = 0. then Nr' = Nr. 3. to any point and to any great semicircle of the sphere. The conjugate Kq satisfies the same equation. ( 0 0)' L \1 0).7). thus if r' = qrq1. rq = p. Every quaternion q satisfies the quadratic. a unit vector. Sr' = Sr.
cb)/(Nb . in terms of "arc vectors.. 2. 12._1 an is the product of it unit vectors. Show that if Sq = 0.ji. c are vectors for which Vabc = 0. Show that the succession of reflections in three coaxial planes reduces to a single reflection.Na). Solve the equation aq + qb = c for the quaternion q if a. b. ij = k. This may be accomplished by two reflections: the first takes i + i1. prove that (a) bed is a vector parallel to a. If the successive reflections ai( )ai in the order i = 1. 14. d are vectors for which Vabcd = 0. Interpret the equations. c.] 10. 13. If a and b are unit vectors along intersecting axes.when n is even). show that the half turns a( )a. hence Sbc = 0. j.428 QUATERNIONS 6. b( )b in this order are equivalent to a rotation of twice the angle from a to b about their common perpendicular." 8. 3. j s j'. Prove the famous theorem of Euler (1776): Any displacement of a rigid body which leaves the point 0 fixed is equivalent to a rotation about an axis through 0. show that the rotation q( )q1 followed by the reflection a( )a reduces to a single reflection b( )b when and only when a e = 0.) 9. [Reduce to aq1 + q 1b = 1. b. A body is revolved through 90 degrees about two axes e1. q is the vector q = ±anan1 . (d) cda is a vector parallel to b. . a2a1 (+ when it is odd. VaVbc = 0. (b) Vbcda = Vcdab = Vdabc = 0. 15. [q = (ac . show that this is true for any cyclical permutation of this order. jk = i. The quaternion q = a1a2 a. it reduce to a single reflection or halfturn. 16. b. prove .] 18. Show that the multiplication table of the units i. 7. b.. b. show that any quaternion may be expressed as the power of a vector. prove that a. Hence show that the successive reflections ai( )ai in the order i = 1. If we define qn for arbitrary real n by (185. If q = cos 0 + e sin 0 (not scalar).cos 0) and about an axis parallel to e1 + e2 . If a. b = aq = a cos 0 + a x e sin 0. 17. ki = j and kji = 1. and to a halfturn q( )q when n is even. 2. . c are known quaternions and Na 5x.. k is completely given by i2=j2=k2=ijk= 1. When q = cos 0 + e sin 0. Show that the equivalent single rotation is through an angle 2 cos' z (1 . leaving i1 undisturbed. [Vabc = aSbc + VaVbc and VaVbc 1 a. 3. d are coplanar. (c) the vectors a. c. c are mutually orthogonal. and thus cyclically.e1 x e2. 19. Nb. If a. n reduce to the single reflection q( )q when n is odd. [Let the displacement move the trihedral ijk in the body to the new position ijj1k1.3). moreover.1 11.. e2 which intersect at an angle 0 (cos 0 = e1 e2). the second takes j' . . Solve the equation qa + bq = q2.
PROBLEMS 429 that q = e2e/r. and that the r( ti tion of angle about the axis e is represented by the operator e ' n ( )e " Oi*. OB: Draw great circle arcs AC m. 22. If r = xi + yj + zk and r' = x'i + y'j + z'k. 4. Prove that successive rotations through angles of gyp.ee successive rotations represented by the arcs AB. angle (BA. BC. CA of a spherical triangle ABC are equivalent to a rotation about OA through an angle equal to the spherical excess (A + B + C . 20. y. o about the axes of x. then rotation a about OA followed by 0 about OB is equivalent to the rotation y = 2(CA. z' in terms of x. express x'. ABC is a spherical triangle and P. 117se Hamilton's Theorem given in §187. show that the transformation r' = qr(Kq) represents the most general rotation and expansion of 3dimensional space. y and z respectively are equivalent to a rotation of 7r/2 about the yaxis. 25. Ex. .7r) of ABC. BC. AC) = !a. What is the ratio of expansion? If q = d + ai + bj + ck. BC) = 2 determining the spherical triangle ABC.nd BC such that angle (AB.] Give the construction when rotation 0 about OB is followed by rotation a about OA. 24. Prove the theorem: Th. CB) about OC. 23. Z. . Prove . Q are the middle points of the sides AB.r/2. 21. Draw a figure to illustrate both constructions. BC are equivalent tc the rotation represented by twice the great circle are PQ. Show that successive h iliturns about three mutually orthogonal and intersecting axes will restore a body to its original position. respectively. are position vectors and q is an arbitrary quaternion. y'. Prove Rodriques' Cons'ruction for the composition of two rotations through the angles a.hat two successive rotations represented by the arcs AB. f3 about he axes OA.
.
25* instantaneous. of a polygon. 37*f Areas. 347 of complex variable. 310 of a triangle. 162 of inertia. 359 normal component of. 422* Angular acceleration. 109 transfer. of a dyadic. 62 Asymptotic lines. 164 of stress. 352* Archimedes. 123* uniform.. J. 386 transformation. 25." Terms under an adjective (key word) are to be read in after this word. 141 * tensor. 353* B6cher. 62 group. 122* excess. 356*f. 303 Axes. cosine). 349. unless preceded by a preposition such as "of" or "for. 147. 24. 340f. 137* of forces. 401 general components of." Terms under a noun (key word) are to be read in before this word. 25 Bernoulli's Theorem. the repeated adjective is indicated by dash. 127* of a motor. 415f of motors. 132. 113 Analytic function. 367. 403* of tensors. 3* statical. 109 of Coriolis. The letter f after a number means "and following pages. 368 dextral and sinistral. 39 of a spherical triangle. Absolute tensors. rectangular. M. 122* fourvector. Law of. 92* Bivector. 343f Acceleration. 368 Antecedents of a dyadic. 134 Base vectors. 152* Af ine connection. 109* angular. 24. 124 rectangular components of. 4* Addition theorems (sine. 339 . A starred number locates the definition of the term in question. 218 Binormal. 310 speed. 67* of quaternions. Principle of. 385 Bilateral surface. 258 Arc vector.. 41 Basis. 124* of gravity. 75 of great circle arcs. 110 Addition. 110 relative. 26 principal. 415f Area. 160 of strain. 44 vector. 279 Bertrand. of (real) coordinates. 117* of acceleration. 123 tangential component of. 115* 431 Barbier's Theorem. 138 Alternative airport. 133 Astatic center.INDEX The numbers refer to pages. 350* of vectors. 28 Adjoint dyadic. 285*. of dyadics. 66* radical. 114* velocity. 361. 256 Axis. of velocity. 272. 314 Bianchi identity. 288. 136* Antisymmetric dyadic.
287. 141 of a quaternion. 285* Central forces. Equation of. 104 Center. 8f vectors. 366 of Kronecker deltas. 136 Continuity. contravariant. 335. necessary and sufficient. 306f. 283f principal. 365f. 401 of dyadics. 288. 48 of velocity. 133. 296. 423 Conjugate. 376 of a vector. 364 Covariant vector. 62 instantaneous. 120f Conditions. 265 Integral Theorem. 392 normal (k). 118* mean. 287. 284*. 164. viii* Cone. 379 *f. 309 Bonnet's Integral Formula. 34 Curl. 120 Circular motion. 79. 331 * of a dyadic. 366 of tensor product. 99. 133 Christoffel symbols. W. 99 rolling. 317 CauchyRiemann Equations. 99*. 323 Cogredient transformations. 97 center of. 362*f. 9* Ceva. 342. 285 circle of. 304. 93* total (K). 364 of epsilons. 351 *f Covariant derivative. Theorem of. 344 . 2* Complete quadrangle. 25 Carnot's Theorem. 315 Bonnet.. 392 Curvature tensor. 103. 101 of surface curves. 166. 96. 309*f lines of. 335 Collinear points. 256 of a tensor. 365 of vectors. 258f. astatic. 276. 321 *. 99 geodesic (y).. 236 of normal curvature. 422 Cauchy's integral. 364. 302f mean (J). 342. 26. 222. 14 Characteristic equation. of a tensor. 16 quadrilateral. 425 Caustic. 342 of stress. ninepoint. 80 Conoid. 134 Centrifugal force. 20* of curvature. 359 Composition of velocities. 99* of mass. 366 of metric tensor. 286*. 406* Cc njugate lines. 335. 385f Catenary. 285*. 342 of a tensor. 258*. 300f. 380 *f Contragredient transformations. 334* Contravariant components. 264 Contraction. 92*. 365 of tensor sum. 154*. 389 Circle. Equations of. 164. 272. 110 Circulation. 287 of plane curves. 154*. 183* Curvature (K). 344 mixed. 342. 344 covariant. 42* Bracket notation for vectors. 292. 168*. 60 Cartesian coordinate system. 18 Components. 374*. 362*. 330*f reduced. 359 of affine connection. of a complex number 274. 286*. 156 Characteristics. 286. 33 of curvature. 344 of acceleration. 98*. K. 64 Codazzi. 344 of a vector. 309 Box product. 168f numbers. 335* Cross product. 326. 0. 356 Consequents of a dyadic. of a dyadic. 391 Cofactor. 292. 366 of scalars. 379. 284* integral. 287* radius of (p). 124 Centroid.432 INDEX Components of a dyadic. 266*f Clifford. 317 Catenoid.
207* Divergence Theorem. 337 Displacement group. 44 for spherical triangles.. 232 Del (V). 51 spherical. 253f symmetric. 223* space. E. 305 Dyad. 52. 342 adjoint. 178. 182. 97 field of. 354. 340*. 141 complete. 51f line. 303. 140*. 195 geodesic. 171 of a motor. 144* zero. covariant. 124" Theorem of. 166 Dyadic. 131 Cylinder. 327. 335 Contravariant vector.I \ DEX Contravariant component. 315 Dot product. 388* Distributive Laws. of a dyadic.. acceleration of. points. 344 of a vector. Bertrand. 29 Doubledot product. 141* field. 335 curvilinear. '23* Cartesian. 397. 136*. 51 Pliicker.. 46 417 Covariant components. Kronecker. 15 Determinants. 342 of Weingarten. 150* linear. 260*. 159* invariants of. for plane triangles. 126 of a vector. 136*. 147. 180 of a determinant. :187 normal. 304. 408 Differential. Theorem of. 205* plane. 152* antisymmetric. 183*f. barycentric. of a . '100 parallel. 390 orthogonal. 140* second of a. 191 cylindrical. 48. 25*. 137 Divergence. 35. total. 184* Deltas. 391 Desargues' Theorem. 327. 52 433 Derivative. 131 parametric. 151* singular. 94*. V f). 90* Direction cosines. 100f reducible. 156 unit. G. of Gauss. 132* congruent. 105. 140* planar.ayadie. 30. 400 Developable surface. 88f Cycloid. 136* D'Alembert's Principle. 63* Dual of a tensor. 148f. 84f Derivative formulas. 371 of a tensor. 140* stress. 235* Division of quaternions. 55.366. V f). 241 Coriolis. 64 * vector.. 231*. 260 Darboux. 93*. L. 12f vectors. 304. 196 Coplanar line vectors. c a ve:tor. 358* homogeneous. 140 Dyadic equality. 323. 69* number. 137*. 370*. 253:'. 124 Cosine law. 331 . 334i Coordinates. 27 Discriminant of a quadratic form. 335 Curves. 244 Dual angle. 329*f bordered. 175 Double layer. 409* of a tensor. 1:!2. 376 surface (Div f. 402 Derivative. 139* conjugate. 293f inertia. 244 Doublet. 371 *f. 289 Darboux vector. 36:2*f 365f directional. of a vector (div f. 314*f Dickson. 48. 63 point. 2 Coulomb's Law. 293* of constant curvature. 376 Dupin. 89f plane. 46*.
385f space. 176 Evolute. definite. 290*.291* Einstein. 200 integrable. 307. 385* Euler. 423f. body. Harmonic function. 255f of a fluid. 216f Group (definition).g. 297 Gammas (rte). 75f surface. 388 indefinite. 392 Theorem of. 160* Energy. 253. 408. 311. 288. 346. 29. 429 Hamilton. 291 160f. 214. 122 Functional dependence. 231*. 421. 340f of general transformations. 103* Equiangular spiral. 238 Theorem. of a fluid.f. 403. 136. 285 Floating body. W. G. 298 of a deformable body. 75 Form. 405. of a scalar. 377*f. 428 Eulerian Equations. 293f Field.369 third fundamental. 305 triangle. 290* e.. 204*. P.. 337 * E = [eie2ea]. 326. of curves. 101 * Falling body. 282 (kinetic) of a top. 200. 285* lune. 205* 291 Halfturn. 197. 310 torsion (t). 124* on rigid body. 261 Coriolis. 206 * for a top. for fluid motion. 260. 301. 237. 339*. 132 Epsilons 366. 339 329*. 299 of numbers. 49* E. 299 line. 285*. 297 field. 253. of inertia. 387f H = [rrn] = E(. 301. 338* first fundamental. 239*.. 284*. 205*. 266* Force. 176. 124 Field dyadic. 291 quadratic form. exact. 295. 337* quadratic. of a plane curve. 408* of surfaces. 299 of geodesics. 426 Gradient. 181 * surface. J. 297f Geodesic coordinates. 290*. Equation. 255 transmissibility of. 387 of rigid motions. 341* displacement. 427*. 176. 103. 276 Frenet's Formulas. 424 . 291 * Franklin. L. 320. 421 HamiltonCayley Equation. 358* curvature (y). 124* conservative. W. 317 Field lines.. 420. 302. F. 179* of a tensor. 339* metric. 190f Fundamental quantities. 310 Gibbs. 286. 260f g = det gij. 356*. 387f of affine transformations. 390 Equation of.434 INDEX Form. 76 Euclidean geometry. polar. A. 177 Envelopes. 347 of orthogonal transformations. 295. 300. C. 231 intrinsic. 339* Green's identities. 368.. 176 Energy ellipsoid. 389 singular. 368 Gauss. 284*. 306. 307 Geodesic. 255 centrifugal. F. 408. 328 Electric intensity. 226f Flat space. 369* y (geodesic curvature). 130 Equilibrium. 293*. 247. 257 of a rigid body. 241* Ellipsoid. 244f. 310 derivative formulas of. 284*. 100. 257 Flow. 337f second fundamental. 196. 187* of a vector.. 327. 93*. R. of a cord.
167. 17. 238. circuit. 216f line. k. 290* Lagrange's Theorems. Theorem of. 151. H. 149 second scalar. 169f Matrix. 103. 13 Metric. 248 Laplacian (V2). 247 Helix. N.305 K (total curvature). 330 Laplace's Equation. 221f. 46*. 7* relation between vectors. 265 Laguerre. 159* product of. 51 435 strain. 292. 316*f Minimum equation (of a dyadic). 173 third scalar. 26* i. 70 Mobius strip. 161* on minimum energy. 224f Liouville. E. Formula of. 163 i. 273 Laplace expansion of a determinant. 131 * Irrotational vector. 22 first scalar.83. 185*. 222f. C. 264. M. 276 Lift. 287. j. 343. 159* moment of. :.3 vector. 96 Kelvin's Theorem. 244 Males and Dupin. 286* k (normal curvature). 176 Kronecker delta (Sji). 366 generalized. 289 Lamb. 222. 173 Invariant directions. 147*f. 222f. 423 Laurent series. Theorem of. 353*. 281. 359 of a rigid body. Theorem of. 347 Joachimsthal. 177 Invariant. 273f Inertia. 108f. 20). 349. 366 Meusnier's Theorem. 267 tensor. 197. 103 of a circle. 134 Involute of a catenary. 286*. 155 Inverse square law. differential. 366. 233f Integrability condition. 107 Helmholtz's Equation.. 392 J= 192* value theorem (harmonic tions). 247 *. 21. 9. 156. 68. of a fluid. 12. von. dyadic. 144*. 153f. 307 Macduffee. on circu' ation. C. 169f. 281 Kepler's Laws. 402 KuttaJoukowsky Formulas. 203. 92*.. 214. 114E Kinetic energy. 134 Mises. 161 Magnetic shell. 160* Integral. 216f. of it. 190*f. 218* . 73 vector function. 286* Jacobian. 196. 207. 233f volume. 240 Menelaus. 198*f curvature (J). 231 Interception (of a plane). 34i3 Kinematics. R. 147*. 263 Homogeneous coordinates. 277 Linear dependence of vectors. 62 Lagrangian Equations for fluid motion. 284* K (curvature). 149*. 149. 339* Metric quadratic form. 135* Line integral. particle. 102* of a space curve.. 19. k. 282 of a top. 369. 336 Mean center. 209 L. 147*. 11': Intrinsic equation. 314 Matric algebra. 105*f circular. 334.' relation between motors. 181. . 20* planes.. 400. 103* Invariable plane. 224f surface. 339* func J (mean curvature). 149 1'13 of a dyadic. 131 of a plane curve. j. 218f. 404 * Idemfactor (I).INDEX Heat conduction. 218f. 285 Minimal surface. 149*.
268f of a particle. Q. 387 triple of unit vectors. 77* pitch of. 363 V2. 127* axis of. 78* system. 63*f of a vector.D. 110 of a rigid body. 122. 322 of a paraboloid. 124 Pascal's Theorem. 194*f Dij = vivj group. 92*. 133 system of lines. 294* Parallel displacement. 159* of momentum. 267. 55*f about a point. 376f curves. 384 V. 346 tensor. 316. 133 osculating. 336 Outer product. 78*f Operators: ta()a. 110f. 312. 322 of a general curve. 176 radical. of a quaternion. 205*. 123f under gravity. 134 derivative of. 184*. 66* velocity. 194. motion of. 127 Motor. 167*f Norm. 231. 66* proper. 230f Pitch. 51 normal.Di. 370* Nabla (V). 67 Moving trihedral. Theorem of. 117*. 117. 92* Normal derivative. 321. 26*. 114f. 300 transformations. diametral.418. 263f irrotational. 176 equation of. 387. 378. 362. 78* plane. 362 . . 133 polar. 407* Normal. 203 of a hyperboloid. 70* sum. 208. 126* force. 134 Orthogonal coordinates.419 Di = a/axi. 354* P. 176* of a motor. 350 * Peterson and Morley. 73f product. principal. 128. 260f. 386. 48. 63. of inertia. 128 Motor identities. 169 Path curves. 312 mVector. R. of vectors. 286. 66 * Dij = DID. 77*f about a point. 124 uniformly accelerated. 419 Orbit. 185 Vh. 363. of a fluid. 389 Null line. 215. of a motor. 322 of translation. 232. 268 plane. 283. 55 *f Motion. 384 V (grad). 222. 323 of an ellipsoid. 94 * Parallelogram law. 396 surfaces (triple system). 120. 322 Particle. 66* Plane. 318 of a surface. 356. 329. about an axis. 180* form of a dyadic. 365 Vjvi. 305. (Grad). 98*. 206 q( )q'. 336*. 267 line of. falling. 133 Planet. of a planet. of revolution. 88 of a general surface. 322 of a right helicoid. 270f steady. 65* acceleration. 313*f vector to a surface. about an axis. 74 Pfaff's Problem. 377* Permutation symbols. 62 rectifying. 305 trajectories. 162f plane. 108f circular. 3 Parametric equations: of a circular helix. 110 relative. 108 of a conoid.436 INDEX Operators: Moment. 421 Nonion form of a dyadic. 184.
a. 409* sets of motors. 409* roots of. 354* scalar. 255. 38 Polyhedron Formula )f l:. 70* of dual numbers. 27'4' * scalar. Poinsot's Theorem. 170* of quaternions. 175. 256 * Principles..60* of strain. 13(. 367 Principal normal. 403 reciprocal of. 75f Product. 5*. 6. 209 Reduced cofactor. 90. 335. 261 Reciprocal bases. 8 Postfactor. ler. 420 Polyhedron. 412f scalar part of (Sq). 420 Polygon. special. 287* Radical axis. 34*f vector triple. 91 Ricci identity. 384 . k).. . 39 spherical. 294 * R. 311 * Position vector. 2 7 dyadics. 1. 136* Pressure. complete. 203 Rate of change. 144. 29 doubledot. 203* Relative acceleration. 412. 142* of four vectors. 28(1 Principal directions. fluid. 94* Rank of a matrix.t"' Polar form. 404*. 321. 405 zero. 404*f units (i. 136* Potential. 410* by numbers. 46*f. 29. 337 triangles. 62 Radius. 123* motion. conjugate of (Kq). 16f Quadratic forms. 259*. 262 unit vector. plane. 46*f. 92' stresses. 41 * vector. fundamental c f statics. 403 Quaternion algebra. 409* multiplication. 175* indeterminate. of ine 1t. 403f division. 245 velocity. Poisson's Equation. . 117 scalar. complete. 345*f velocity. '& 5i' Quadrangle.s" of vectors. 414 vector part of (Vq). 6* outer. 419 Regular point of a surface. complex. 261 of a vector. 145* quaternions. 401 Revolving fluid. 200*. 384 tensor. 202*. 337*f. 1150* of vectors. 43 of matrices. box. 45. 322 Quadrilateral. 267* Prefactor. 207. 164* of stress. motor. 40* Pythagorean Theoroii. 123* Relativity. 399 R. 331 * Reflections. of curvature (p). 408 Quotient law. 241f vector. 164f. 162* on a surface. 34 dot. 90* Principal axes. 18 Quaternion. 404" of tensor componcnl. of motors. of a 1 yadic. 121 substantial.INDEX PI(icker coordinates. j. 110*f. 407*. 64'' of dyadics. 192. 94* of torsion (v). 416. 407* real. 346* tensor. 256* Principal curvatures. 29*f scalar triple. 8*i 437 '. 2. 367 Quadric surfaces. 405 unit. 259*. 406 * norm of (Nq). 74*f sets of vectors. 62 plane. Point of division. 42 cross. local.
322 of translation. 194. 207* gradient (Grad f). 323 Surface charges. 403* of tensors. 339. 205 * rotation (Rot f). 67* of quaternions. 256 T. developable. 344 covariant derivative of. 233f invariants. 68*f of two vectors. 284 z (torsion). 361 point of a surface.. 227 Solid angle. 203* quadric. 207* divergence of. 92 Taylor. 305. 164f. 377 Rodrigues' construction. components of. 380*f differential invariants of a. 92* t (geodesic torsion). 366*f. 183*f. 75f Step path. 140* divergence (Div f). 119 Roots of a quaternion. Principle of. 304. 42 Tensor. of constant total curvature. 352. 206* metric. 420. 41f Shear. 44f. 92*. 207* Rotations in space.188* f. 262*. . 303. 348* absolute. 195. V. 365*f curl of. 209 normal. x f. 314 Scalar. 353 contraction of. 188* V8f. 236* Space charges. 362*. 256 Shift formulas. N. Symmetric dyadics.Vxf. grad f. 417f. 224 Stokes tensor. 322 ruled. 344 covariant. 366 mixed. 357. 309 Strain. 374 * Spatial invariants. 372* dual of. 96 Tangent vector. 253f for a fluid. 209f V f. 316*f 303. 268. 52 Singular dyadic. 416 Static Equilibrium. 269 Stress dyadic. of dual numbers. 352 * Symmetry. 206*f integral. 366f space. 421 Ruled surface. Grad f. 137* of matrices. 361. 350* of vectors. 188. 76 Statics. 156f tensors. 315*. 11. 344 V. 160 of stress dyadic. 263 * surface (Rot f. 218f. B. 307f. 170* of motors. 337 Solenoidal vector. 344. 351 contravariant. 372* Theorem. unit (T). J. 108* Spherical trigonometry. homogeneous. 396. 325 parametric equations of. 310 of revolution. 429 Rolling curve. 303. 381 of inertia dyadic. curvature.438 INDEX Surface. 1 Scalar product: of two motors. 314 Ruling. 201 *f. 362* Of. 220*. 370* gradient of. 141*. 321. 412 Rotation (rot f. 203* quadratic form. 242f Riemannian geometry. V x f). V. 172. 90*. of affine connection. 349. 303. 379. 322 parallel. 343f algebra. 314*f minimal. 175. 328*f Surface. x f). 163 Streamlines. 209 Speed. 350f antisymmetric. 64* of dyadics. 245f of curvature tensor. 307. 255 Sum. 3*f Summation convention. 29*f of three vectors. 314* tangent.
401 quaternion. 4 Vector addition. 270 Torsion (r). 380 Vector. 366.INDEX Tensor. 281 Vortex lines. 63 * operations. 92 derivative of. 2*. 384* Stokes. 287. 5*. relative. 348 vector. 169 Weingarten. 221f volume to surface. 48*. 1 * motor. 122. 11. 106. of a matrix. 137* motor. 2*. 64* are. 63* position. 216. 111 angular. 391 Weight of a tensor. 354 equations. 66* quaternion. 286*. 21 spherical. 172 Theorems egregium (Gauss). 3* algebra. surface to line. 92* along surface normal (n). 2* contravariant. 21f. 368. 110f transfer. 116*f complex. 50 quantity. 308 Transformation of integrals. 335 139 transformation equations of a. Derivative formulas of. 1 rate of change of. J. 4 . 1 *. 91* radial (R).. 227 unit. 197* Tractrix. 66 moment. 348 Darboux. 108* absolute. 281 rectangular components of. 198*f line. 2* irrotational. 327. 272* general components of. 121 resultant. 90*. 172* Trigonometry. 8 proper. 205* along tangent (T). 48*. 90* revolving. 92* geodesic (t). IV. 110 relative. 359 of sound. 335 covariant. 105*. 0. 416 Trivector. 133. 115*. 111 Zero dual number. M. 345 Veblen. 92* along principal normal (N). 111 * Velocity fourvector. 414 Unit vector. 117*. 407*. 167 Triadic. 307 Torricclli's Law. 201 *f. 269 Vorticity. 284*. 415 base. 372*f Vector. 263* Wedderburn. 350 Tetradic. 120 Vortex. bound. 3f. 2* zero. 63* solenoidal. 218f. 403* tensor. 55. 292. 2fi6*. 348* Tensor equations. 144* free. 172*. 29f. 90* Uniformly accelerated motion. 345 in general. 194* Umbilical point. 63. 412. combined. 353 * U. 90 transverse (P). 286 radius of (v). 345f Iticci. 1*. 344. 93* Total curvature (K). 110 Valence of a tensor. 344. 2* along binormal (B). 93*. 233f Transpose. 1 * Velocity. 24f dyadic. 306f. 345* Wind triangle. V. 392 differential. plane. 232 dual. 288* Unit dyadic (I). 323. in afline group..
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