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Guided by: DR.SUNIL SRIVSTAVA Submitted by: ADITYA K. SRIVASTAVA(07401G) GAUTAM TANEJA(07405G) DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, Guna
confirming the ethanol as better solvent for Neem oil extraction.38%.ABSTRACT:In this experiment. The Neem oil was found to have a colour of golden yellow due to the presence of Nimbidin.43% while ethanol gives a yield of 46.122g/mol.95ml/g. Soxhlet extractor was used for the extraction purpose and two solvent was chosen to determine which is better. acid value 1. Neem oil extraction from Neem seeds with n-hexane and ethanol are presented. The basic properties of the oil were determined as follows. saponification value 215. . Nhexane gives a Neem oil yield of 45.
There are several methods to obtain Neem oil from the seeds like mechanical pressing. and Nusa Tenggara Barat. and grows rapidly in the tropic and semi-tropic climate. since it turbid and contains a significant amount of water and metals contents. East Java (Situbondo. Mechanical extraction is the most widely used method to extract Neem oil from Neem seed. However. Barks of Neem can be used to make toothbrush. drugs for variety of diseases such as diabetes and tuberculosis. Neem oil is widely used as insecticides. Extraction using supercritical fluid. fruit. supercritical fluid extraction. This tree is belonged to Meliceae family. West Java. this tree is not very popular in Indonesia because it is only used as a canopy tree. All parts of Neem plant such as leaves. the oil produced with this method usually has a low price. Neem tree also found in Indonesia in several areas such as Bali.INTRODUCTION Neem is one of the very few trees known in the Indian subcontinent. Central Java. Lombok. eczema and reduce fever. lubricant. but it may become leafless for a short period in certain conditions. Ngawi). This oil could also prolong leather goods when it is applied on them . flower. Neem tree is an evergreen tree. Its leaves can be used as drug for diabetes. and solvent extraction . seed and root have advantages in medical treatment and industrial products. the oil produced has very high . Neem seed is a part of Neem tree which has high concentration of oil. It is also observed that this tree could survive in very dry and arid conditions. bark. Neem roots has an ability to heal diseases and against insects. However.
purity. The next operation is drying. these are preparatory stage (pretreatment) and extraction stage. the procedure was repeated until constant weight (W2) was obtained. The effects of parameter process such as temperature and particle size were studied. and W2 weight of dry sample. where W1 weight of wet sample. The percentage moisture of the seed sample was calculated from Moisture content = 100∙(W1-W2)/W1 %. Extraction using solvent has several advantages. MATERIALS AND METHODS The process of the extraction of the oil from the seed can be broadly divided into two stages. As the solvents. we used ethanol and n-hexane. The drying was done so that the seed could be stored without deterioration and to enhanced high yield of oil. . It gives higher yield and less turbid oil than mechanical extraction. and relative low operating cost compared with supercritical fluid extraction. In this study we used solvent extraction to extract the oil from Neem seed. the clean seed was dried in an oven at temperature of 100°C for a period of 1 hours to remove the moisture content the kernel was weighted before it was placed in the oven (W1) and thereafter the weight was re-taken at an interval of 1 hour. however the operating and investment cost is high.
Extraction of Oil from Neem Seed with a Soxhlet Extractor Soxlet extractor The dried Neem seed was crushed in a mortar. The sample was expressed on a sieve screen to obtain a particular size of 0- .
The colour solution observed to be the oil remains in the flask. The weight of the initial samples weight was taken & noted. which is poured back into the flask. this process continued for 2 hours and the same process was repeated for 4 hours. The golden yellow colour of a solution was observed in the extractor. 250 ml of the solvent (n-hexane and purified ethanol) was then the assured out suing a assuring as under and poured into the extractor flash which gave 4/5 of the volume of the flask. The soxhlet apparatus was then heated up using a heating mantle. After heating and cooling for the required time.25mm.the samples was then inserted into the extractor. . 50g of the sample was weighted and a cotton is placed in the thimble. The oil evaporate along side the solvent and then condensed into the extractor.0. This is because the sample with the smallest particle size range gives yields the highest quality of oil. the waded thimble containing the sample was brought out and the oil was distilled off the solvent or evaporation of the solvent was allowed to occur while the oil was collected as extract and the solvent as raffinate. The weight of the flask and the thimble of the extractor were noted as F1 and T1 respectively.
The oil extracted can be calculated from weight of oil extracted (W1-W2) and % of oil = 100∙Oil extracted/Weight of sample.Molar mass of potassium hydroxide. The end point was reached when pink colour persisted for 30 seconds. c is concentration of potassium hydroxide. The diff between the weight of the thimble before and after extraction gives the approximate weight of the oil extracted The experiment was repeated twice for the various time (2 hrs & 4 hrs) using the different solvent in-hexane and ethanol. Determination of Specification Value . where W1 weight of sample before extraction.1 .An approximate method of obtaining is to take the weight of thimble with samples before and after extraction. where v is volume of potassium hydroxide (ml). Analysis and Characterization of Extracted Oil Determination of Acid Value 2g of the test portion was dissolved in some neutral solvent (toluene/ethanol mixture) the solution was thoroughly mixed and then titrated with 0. m is mass of the test portion (g).1/m. Two determinations was carried out on the same test sample. and 56. The acid value is given by the expression: Acid value = v∙c∙56. W2 weight of sample after extraction.1 KOH using 1ml of phenolpthalein indicator or solution.
1ml of the phenolpthalein solution was added to the hot solution and titrated with 0. c is exact concentration (mol/l) of the standard volumetric HCl solution.2g of Neem seed oil was weighed into a conical flask. 25ml of alcoholic KOH was added to the test portion with using a pipette. m . The blank test was carried out following the above procedure but test portion was omitted.07 14.19 13. V1 is volume (ml) of the standardized HCl solution used for the test with the oil.19 14.23 . The saponification value is given by the formula: (V0-V1)∙c∙56.1/m.mass in gram of the test portion. 56.31 13.89 14. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Table 1 Result of Extraction Oil from Neem Seed at Different Time for Different Solvent Solvent Sample number Time (hr) W (g) n-Hexane Ethanol 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 4 6 8 2 4 6 8 14.9 14. A reflux condenser was connected to the flask was placed on the heating mantle and boiled gently at temperature of 35°C shacking from time to time for 60 minutes.5 HCL and until the purple colour of the indicator disappear to give light yellow. where V0 is volume (ml) of the standard volumetric HCl solution used for the blank test.1 is molecular mass at KOH solution.23 14.
Determination of Saponification Value Chemical Properties Determination Sample Mass 1st titre 2nd titre Mean value S.3705 1.30 yield per time (g/hr) 5.38 1.6 18.60 9.08 9.3 3.6 215.60 1.40 1.yield (g) 10.3675 Saponification value 175-205 215.16 Table 2.5 1.98 Table 4.40 0.00 3.04 2.04 2.6 18. Comparison between Standard Literature and Experimental Values Property Literature Experimental Unit Refractive index 1.3675 Garliclike Brown 46 Units % Table 3.00 0.40 0.30 9.19 5.V (ml/g) (g) (ml) (ml) (ml) Neem 2.36 1.3610-1.122 oil Table 5.07 9.02 9.98 ml/g . Physical Property Determination Experimental Result of the Characterization of Extracted Oil Physical property Refractive index Odour Colour Percentage yield of oil Value 1.52 9.2 oil Blank 18.50 10. Acid Value Determination Sample Volume 1st titre 2nd titre Mean value Acidity value (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml) (ml/g) Neem 2.1 3.
Conclusions In conclusion.98 compared to the standard value of 175-205. The extract has an acid value of 1.3675 compared to the standard values of 1.927 and pH of 5. saponification value of 215. hydrolysis.5.02.122 - Effect of temperature to quality of oil Oil quality was affected by temperature. oxidation.3705. The difference in the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted compared to their standard value was as a result of slight impurities present in the seed and some of the solvent. and another compounds in the oil. Based on the analysis of the experimental result obtained the quantity of oil extracted from Neem seed was found to be directly proportional to the time of the extraction and the solvent type.Acid value 1. boiling point of 258°C. the specific gravity 0.2 1. refractive index of 1.122. . and iodine value of 71. The solvent used for the extraction were n-hexane and ethanol.3610-1. the method of solvent extraction was used in this project. lipase enzyme.
. it can be deduced that the yield of oil increases as the time increases due to the model equation.From the regression and correlation analysis.
. (b) saponification value.Figure-1. The effect of Neem oil extraction temperature on (a) acid value. using n-hexane and ethanol.
The solvent used for the extraction were n-hexane and ethanol. which is polar solvent.The quality of Neem oil decreased as the temperature increased. It implies that n-hexane as non-polar solvent suitable for free fatty acid extraction compare to ethanol. Acid value indicates the amount of free fatty acids presents in an oil. Saponification value indicates the average molecular weight of triglycerides in the oil . Vegetable oil contains lipase enzyme which has an optimum temperature about 35-40o C. increased the saponification value because higher temperature caused lipid to breakdown therefore reduced the average molecular weight of the oil . This is shown in Figure-1(a) and (b) where the acid and saponification value increase. however it influenced the acid value. The type of solvent did not affect on the saponification . Figure-1(b) shows that an increase in temperature. Acid value is good indicator of oil degradation caused by hydrolysis. Figure-1(a) shows that higher extraction temperature increased the acid value because the extraction temperature influenced the hydrolysis of Neem oil. . the method of solvent extraction was used in this project. Based on the analysis of the experimental result obtained the quantity of oil extracted from Neem seed was found to be directly proportional to the time of the extraction and the solvent type. is able to extract bio-active compounds Conclusions In conclusion. Lipase enzyme hydrolyzes oil become free fatty acid and glycerol.
The difference in the physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted compared to their standard value was as a result of slight impurities present in the seed and some of the solvent.122compared to the standard value of 1.2. REFERENCES : . saponification value of 215.The extract has an acid value of 1.98 compared to the standard value of 175-205.