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R. H KENNETT .
THE SCHWEICH LECTURES OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY '93'
PUBLISHED FOR THE BRITISH ACADEMY By HVMPHREY MILFORD, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
AMEN HOUSE, E.G.
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS AMEN HOUSE, E.C. 4
L O N D O N E D I N B U R G H GLASGOW LEIPZIG NEW YORK TORONTO MELBOURNE CAPETOWN BOMBAY CALCUTTA MADRAS SHANGHAI
HE Lectures contained in this volume were delivered in December, I 93I, by the late Professor Kennett, and the preparation of the MS. for the printers was far advanced at the time of his regretted death last year. In fact, there was only a small section (pp. 79-89) where the full notes were wholly unrevised. The perorationwas alsowholly unwritten, as it was taken from the late Mr. Austin Kennett's description of an actual Ordeal by Fire. The work required, when the papers were put into my hands, was therefore little more than verifying the quotations and correcting the proofs. The labour of making the Indices I was able to entrust to the careful hands of Mr. G. A. Yates, B.A, of St. John's college, Cambridge, who is the last of Dr. Kennett's pupils. I was the first, having begun to learn Hebrew from him in the summer of I 886. The many pupils who came in between Mr. Yates and myself will recognize in this book the characteristics of Kennett's spoken voice, the amazing fullness of detail, so easily and so lightly employed to illustrate and not to confuse, and the happy mixture of critical boldness with appreciation of what is preserved in the text. Kennett was above all things what the Gospel calls an instructed scribe, and in this book he brings forth out of his treasure things new as well as old.
F. C, BURKITT.
PUBLISHER TO THE UNIVERSITY
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN
L E C T U R E I1
BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS
HOUSES F U m R E FOOD
. . .
MEALS AND BANQUETS
CLOTHING MOURNING DEATH
L E C T U R E I11
MANLY OCCUPATIONS: WARRIORS OWNERS OF FLOCKS AND HERDS HUNTING
WORKERS IN WOOD WORKERS IN METAL GOLDSMITHS AND SILVERSMITHS
PHYSICIANS AND APOTHECARIES JEWELLERS AND WORKERS IN PRECIOUS STONES ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE AND LAW INDICES
ADDENDA PAGE19. and from the customs of peoples of more or less primitive culture in various parts of the world. . the treading of a path trodden in many generations by many earnest explorers.P. That light should be thrown on a nation's social life and custom by its laws and by its stories of its past is indeed self-evident . Accordingly. I94 LECTURE I INTRODUCTION HE subject of ancient Hebrew social life and custom must of necessity attract all serious students of ancient Hebrew literature. before attempting to illustrate an ancient Hebrew phrase or story by modern usage. add ed. accordingly. Any one. Although much useful illustration can be gained both from the Near East as it exists to-day. of 1903.p. . but is rather. and therefore that it must not be assumed that what may be observed at the present time is in all respects identical with what existed in the age covered by the Hebrew Scriptures. of 1903. In this course of lectures it is proposed to consider only the evidence supplied by the Hebrew Scriptures. and need in places both widening and strengthening by the application of fresh material. 207 . The present treatment of it therefore is no pioneer work. ed. and his only justification for traversing the path which they have trodden is that even the most carefully constructed and most frequented roads sometimes prove inadequate to the exigencies of modern heavy traffic. 3. in the main. 20. who attempts to deal with such a subject is indebted to the labours of many predecessors.. it must not be forgotten that even the ' unchanging East' has changed in the course of centuries .note 3. In this connexion it is particularly important to emphasize the paramount necessity of a careful study of Hebrew metaphor. but it is too often overlooked that equal light B T ... it is desirable to subject such a phrase to careful scrutiny in order to determine whether the proposed illustration is suitable to each occurrence of it.
that in times past. Even the word commonly rendered ' glory '. It is surprising. Even in words which we translate by abstract terms a careful examination of the original roots will frequently show that in these words we have metaphors not as yet completely crystallized into abstracts. Metaphors must. Disregard of this characteristic of Hebrew diction has had most deplorable consequences. it will be evident that in the use of metaphor we have a store of evidence bearing on life and custom. be overlooked that there are various kinds of parallelism. Thus. even among the most learned exponents of the Hebrew Scriptures. English figures of speech.. and its use may continue after the passing away of that which suggested it.A. I t is scarcely an exaggeration to say that the serious differences of belief and outlook among religious people at the present day are in most cases due to a literalizing and a consequent misunderstandingof Hebraic figures of speech. In particular.P. pigs were frequently carried to market in sqcks. and mixed metaphors greeted with ridicule. though in its ext~mal characteristics that which is used as an illustration may appear to be quite dissimilar to that whichit is intended to illustrate. in view of the abundant use of metaphors in Hebraic speech. be taken from what is familiar. Hebraic diction is essentially a metaphorical diction. for example. of course. Inasmuch as a considerable portion of the ancient Hebrew literature which has come down to us is in poetry. and though a metaphor may become crystallized into a proverbial expression. for example.S. attention is almost invariably directed towards the efect of what is used as an illustration rather than to its progress or to its external characteristics-with the result that a Hebrew may illustrate the idea of something which he has in mind by anything of which the e$ect is similar . it is essential that some of the common characteristics of this poetry should be clearly understood. the common maxim that it is unwise to ' buy a pig in a poke ' may be accepted as evidence that at one time. which in turn-perhaps in consequence of the weighing of uncoined gold and silver-is associated with the idea of heaviness. it must always be possible to infer from it the state of things which originally caused it to be used as an illustration of an idea. has not entirely lost its earlier meaning of that which is valuable. considerations of time forbid reference to more than one of its special characteristics. Yet it should surely be evident even to the casual reader that whereas among ourselves consistency is insisted upon. It may. Every one is aware that the most prominent feature of Hebrew poetry is parallelism. and that this is particularly true in connexion with Hebrew metaphor. A caution is here necessary. a Hebrew could combine in one sentence two or more figures of speech which to our English minds are totally irreconcilable. very little attention has been paid to this leading characteristic of Hebraic metaphor and to its strongly marked difference from.C. one of which in connexion with our present subject must be clearly understood.2 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM HEBREW METAPHOR 3 may be found to proceed from a careful study of the metaphors which are commonly used. before the activities of the R. But though it would be easy to devote a whole lectureindeed a course of lectures-to the subject of Hebraic metaphor. If such a deduction is once accepted as reasonable. which in their original connexion were understood by those to whom they were addressed as not intended to be taken au pied de la lettre. This peculiarity is due to the fact that in the Hebrew mind the idea conveyed by each metaphor was immediately separated from the particular figure of speech which illustrated that idea. however. if in such an august audience as the present it is not out of place to use a very homely illustration. a statement in one clause being followed by a parallel clause containing a similar idea. This is what is known as 'divided parallelism ' in which the ideas expressed in the two parallel clauses must not be taken separately .
and new wine the maids '. among which may specially be mentioned The Witch Cult in Western Europe. it is increasingly difficult to find water that is not to some extent contaminated. Similarly the prophet's hope that the non-Jewish peoples should bring Zion's sons in their bosom and that her daughters should be carried upon their shoulders. and by archaeological exploration. It is important therefore to emphasize the fact that though it may be considered proved that certain veryprimitive customsexisted in Palestine during the period covered by the Hebrew Scriptures.I The author certainly did not hope that the young men should have all the corn and the maids all the new wine-a most undesirable arrangement-but that corn and new wine. a period during which more than one foreign influence must have made itself felt.4 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM DIVERSITIES OF BELIEF AND PRACTICE 5 but combined together. Not only are the canonical Hebrew Scriptures spread over a period at least as long as that which has elapsed between the poet Chaucer and our own time. the one clear. John Buchan has made to live in his novel Witch Wood. both in belief and practice. it does not follow that such customs were observed by all who called themselves by the name of Israel. alike by a careful examination of the Hebrew Scriptures. religion. In connexion with the title of this course of lectures. so we cannot reconstruct the social history of Israel without recognizing the presence in the population of elements differing almost as widely in belief and practice as may exist to-day in a country the inhabitants of which are in the main illiterate pagans. as it is to imagine that a Bishop Fisher or a Thomas More took part in the orgies ofwitches' sabbaths. i . there must of necessity be a certain amount of blending after they have come in contact. 22. in the days of the Hebrew monarchy. and girls in another. should make the young men and maids flourish. The clear stream may to some extent purify the muddy: but in so doing its own volume of clear water must be diminished-with the result that after the confluence of the two streams. and heterogeneous as is the pedigree of the 'true-born Englishman '. Recent researches. ship of Moses. as there was between a Richard Hooker or a George Herbert and the rabble who assembled for their primitive pagan rites on All-Hallows Eve or on May Day. and the contemporary aristocracy-not necessarily rich-who cherished the tradition of the higher religion of their forbears during the sojourn in the wilderness under the leaderZech. by Miss Margaret Murray.2 must not be understood to mean that boys were carried in one way. But as it is impossible rightly to reconstruct the social life and custom of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in our own country without recognizing the diverse elementswhich Mr. . while on the one hand the mud gradually becomes less evident. It is just as unreasonable to suppose that an Amos or Hosea or Isaiah-not to mention the rest of the goodly fellowship-practised some of the customs the existence of which in their days is abundantly proved. xlix. A good example of this is found in the anticipation that 'corn shall make the young men flourish. signeing the abundant satisfaction of physical needs. x Isa. Further. viz. to use Daniel Defoe's sarcastic term. Between the servile and totally illiterate peasantry of Palestine. the subjects of King David were even more heterogeneous. ' Hebrew Social Life and Custom '.it must be emphatically stated that under this heading a considerable diversity of usage will be included. but it must be recognized that the Hebrew-speaking population of David's kingdom was composed of many ethnic elements representing different stages of culture and of what is intimately connected with culture. I 7. the other turbid and muddy. there may well have been as great a difference. have made us familiar with the extraordinary vitality of pre-Christian rites and beliefs in our own country. it must be recognized that when two streams meet. though some have responded to higher civilizing and religious influences.
^^ and sometimes from those who officiated at the birth or to whom the child was first presented. i. and for the political changes before mentioned.5 After the cutting of the umbilical cord. Exod. 157.9 the infant was presumably laid on the floor or on a bed. 24-41 . Ordinarily the child seems to have received a name at birth. 5 I . We cannot m m that customs. 4. iv. Sam.Job xxxviii. especially on the edge of the desert. and to give an account of the various activities in which they might engage. On thewhole. introduced into Northern and Central Palestine. 242. " Gen. Ezra iv. the Hebrew Scriptures present to us a fairly persistent culture. 6.8 There is no mention of a cradle. contrast xxii. 26. Roscoe. of the existence of which there is evidence in the Greek period.7 and then wrapped in swaddling bands. At any rate.14 The story of the vicarious circumcision of Moses 15 was perhaps told as a precedent for such a practice. nor that what may have been prevalent in the early days of the Israelite conquest of Palestine. I 7. iv. the Palestinian population was subjected to a number of external influences which must have affected to some extent social life and custom. 4. 28. however. 20 . I Sam. Although we may well believe that the life of the peasantry remained comparatively little changed. Isa. 16. Gen. xvi. =v. the mother was delivered either. i. i. 30 (Heb.13 only becoming general when the sacrifice of the firstborn on the eighth day was entirely prohibited. particularly after the conquest of Palestine by Alexander the Great in 332 B. and if not carried at the breast. In accordance with this policy the Assyrian government during the seventh century B. With this proviso. 7 Ibid.C.16 The purification ceremonies prescribed for the mother 3 J. pp. still survived in the Hellenistic period. 19. 9 Ruth iv. 18. xxiv. 24.. 23~ Bakitara. " Ruth iv. '5 Exod. as among the modern Bakitara. 12 (P). cf. 20. * Ibid. xvii. sometimes from the mother. 15 . Exod. Hos. due allowance being made for such a far-reaching reform in the religious cult as the limitation of sacrifice to one altar.6 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM NAMING AND CIRCUMCISION BIRTH AND EARLY YEARS 7 Moreover. It was the policy of the Assyrian and Babylonian kings to prevent revolt in the districts which they had conquered by breaking down nationality. iv. g . 26. cf.12 The circumcision of male infants on the eighth day appears to have been a comparatively late development. had come down from more ancient days. solely on the evidence of the Hebrew Scriptures. I . 29. 29. 5-7. even after the incorporation in Israel of various ethnic elements. 3. 2 At the birth of a child. viii. g. " Gen. iv. v. to sketch the life of Hebrew men and women from birth to the grave. . Ezek.IO sometimes from the father. xxxv. 21. Exod. 28. 25. 20. 18. 2. except in so far as they make clear what might otherwise be deemed uncertain. .1 in addition to which the successive political changes in Western Asia can scarcely have been without effect on the population of Palestine. c f . iv. fromwhich the leading and influential inhabitants had previously been transported. 29). xxxviii. Gen. when the book of Joshua took shape it was believed that those who had grown up under Moses' leadership were uncircumcised. ' I Sam. '3 Gen. the omission of which is mentioned by Ezekiel in the case of an infant neglected from birth. iv. the contact with Hellenism undoubtedly exercised no small influence on city life and also directed Hebrew thought into fresh channels.I standing in a crouching postureYz supported on a small stool resembling a potter's or revolving wheel. g f. Kings xvii. i 16. cf. I6 Joshua v.3 We read of professional midwivesf but in many cases the attendants were probably merely some experienced married women. v. groupsof settlers from other conquered regions .6 the infant was washed and rubbed with salt. it is proposed h this course of lectures. &v. 59. It is not intended to consider modern customs or even the discoveries of archaeological excavation.C.
&. 5 . Isa. she and her husband lived apart. 21. vii. xiv. Jer. 8. 11. I Kings xx. 5 Gen.' and though there is good reason to believe that the law in this respect is in accordance with ancient Palestinian custom. xv. C . sing. according to our notions. Isa.I1 older children astride on the hip Iz or on the shoulder. both below and above the age of three had nurses both female9 and male.e. 21 (Heb. I t is uncertain precisely what period of childhood this covered. 9 2 Sam. Zech. 8. weaned children (Heb. 8 . 7 Hos. 3 Gen. I Sam. yaldi) able to take care of themselves. iv. I 12 .Joel ii. xi. x i . Rebekah 3 and Joash 4 were thus suckled-the mother suckled her own children. yiledh. 10. 24. 16. 245. sucklings (Heb. I ) . 7 See Hos. ix. 12 . above three. at all events of an heir. 3. 246.8 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM after giving birth to a child are found only in the later stratum of Pentateuchal law. sing. vi. also Isa. The Bakitara.viii.' and. lx " Num. I0 Num. 13. 4 . a I Chron. 2 . I . g . ii. p. Te Bangarhol. i. xxi. The weaning of a child. boys and girls (Heb. 5 2 Macc. and the before-mentioned mother of the martyred brothers seven sons.e. xlix.7 which doubtless indicates the date at which her father Hosea predicted the realization of the miseries suggested by her name. I . 16. if the Chronicler. 8.6 Another term in use to denote a child was 'blil or '61~1. viii. Baby children were carried in the arms. xiii. 12. 4 secondly.4. 3 Gen. 23. xxxvii. 2. 1 7 .3 I t may be noted that the various stages of childhood were designated as those of: first.7 The Hebrew d a r answers generally to the English boy. 2 Kings X. Jesse indeed had eight sons. I Sam. Gen. lxvi. xlix. i. 5. 14. h i . For a similar indication of a date cf. cf. xi. I I. children under three years of age . but it seems certain that a child so designated would be classified by a modern Board of Education as an infant. This is stated by the mother of the seven brothers martyred under Antiochus Epiphanes to have been three years. a Purificatory ceremonies after childbirth survive to this day among primitive people : see J. but. ii. and.z but it is not stated whether they were all by one wife. I 2.14 I Sam. still in infancy . 6 . 20) . is also applied to servants and subordinates of various ages. as was apparently sometimes the case with the wealthier classes-e. xxiv. 14. xii. h. h Bagesu. 24 and Hos. xxi. whose genealogies are not above suspicion.10 consequently there would normally be an interval of from three to four years between the births of children of the same mother. Unless a wet nurse was employed. 16. 4. p. 27. as in colonial usage.Io who may be compared respectively to the Indian ayah and bearers. ii." Thus Leah had six ' Lev.2 i t is not evident whether such customs belonged originally to what may be called the Mosaic as well as to the Canaanite elements of the population. compared with i.5 thirdly. g. viii. sing. who were not weaned for a considerable period. 59. of servants Judges vii. xliii. 4 I Sam.8 Children belonging to the wealthier classes.6 The length of time that intervened between birth and weaning gives point to the mention of Lo-ruhamah's weaning. 16. xvii. Roscoe. may be trusted.g. gimdl). " I Sam. See Exod. Roscoe. i. vii. 4 2 Kings xi. STAGES OF CHILDHOOD 9 sons and one daughter. i. 8. ii. Ruth iv. pp. 22. Isa. 12 . 22-4. The Bakitura. ii. " J. 16 (Heb.s and as long a period is implied by the fact that the infant Samuel was actually given over to the sanctuary at Shiloh as soon as his mother had weaned him. ii. two daughters. Isa. 25 . 3 f.9 as is the case at the present day among various African tribes . 23. I4 Isa. whether very young or adolescent. Ruth iv. 9 I Sam. " Isa. 247. Mic. xv. 4. ybnzk).8 During the time when a mother was suckling a child. was the occasion of a feast. Jer.13 It is pleasant to know that children sat on the lap and were played with. This fact explains why seven children were commonly regarded as the maximum number that a woman might be expected to bear. pp. i. I3 Isa. 23. 12.
7 General education. I t is possible that an argument as to a general ability to write may be urged from the statement that words of t6ri will be written on the door-posts of the houses. when young boys and girls will play in the more open parts of Jerusalem 1 was surely written by a child-lover. 5. who could not afford postage. however. X. 7. 3 Gen. 19.22 . however. 10 3 2 Kings iv. Many will wonder how under such conditions a pawnbroker's business could be canied on. xxiv. d i . 24 . xxii. xxxi. 5 I Sam. 18. by the return of the letter might have the same assurance about his sister. The anticipation of a good time coming. ii.Heb.6 and fetching water. and likewise the ideal picture of infants playing without risk of hurt. in order that she might then know that her brother was alive. ii. 3. Further evidence of a common inability to write may be found in the custom of giving some article of personal property in lieu of a written IOU. Cf. xi. vi. but happily there are some. such as gathering fuel. Exod. I I. The great importance attached to the signet-ring I must originally have been due to the fact that the owner of the ring could not necessarily sign his name. 8. as we understand the term.3 In like manner Jesse bids David bring back from his brothers at the front some article or articles as a proof that they are alive +-which reminds one of Rowland Hill's discovery of a blank letter sent to a sister by a brother. Hag. however. 22 . Zech. 23. xxxi. &C. I Isa. 21. which should be written on the heart (cf. 32). 7 Gen. l0 Isa.~ and the poems in which the prophets set forth their teaching. mdrl is not a teacher of secular accomplishments. received not only moral instruction from their parents's but were also taught historical ballads. Indeed the of presence of an official at the royal palace styled s6phe'rYI2 which perhaps 'secretary' would be the best rendering. xxix. It is at least possible that the original meaning of this passage is that the words of t6ri (or Jehovah's direction as to what is right and wrong). xxix. 12. 11. Children. ' 4 EDUCATION II makes it not improbable that at all events in the early days reading and writing were not necessarily royal accomplishments. Of the way in which those children who were taught to read received their instruction we have no direct informa7 tion. Ia 2 Sam. which had to be returned at nightfall. At an early age both boys and girls appear to have taken their part in the various activities connected with their homes.5 This injunction. Of professional teachers (Heb. Reading and writing were not. viii. xvi. 16. and he. 9 Judges v. Heb. Deut.~0 ment that the trees of the (Assyrian)forest would be so few that a child could write down the number of them. and the metaphorical stateuniversal accomplishments.2 Similarly the story of the little Shunammite boy who went out to his father to the reapers 3 implies a love of the presence of children. xvii." is no proof that most children learned to write. g. viii. the Hebrew Scriptures do not afford much evidence. vi.s driving them to the watering place. 18. 6 .6 which is doubtful. 19. Jer. melammedhim) there ' Jer. even if it was intended to be taken literally. iv. such as the song of Deborah. ' Isa. g. 17. iv. does not prove that each householder could write. 5 Deut. This will explain the giving of garments in pledge. .+ overlooking sheep and cattle. 8. xi. 7 The . was almost non-existent in the days of the Hebrew monarchy.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM Concerning childhood and its interests. 18. vii. 15 ff. who delighted to watch children's games. I I. PS.Joshuaiv. Jer. I 7.or written on the door-posts. 18. Prov.2 Thus Judah gives Tamar his signet with the cord suspending it and his staff as a pledge till he sends her the promised kid. For love of children as such-apart from the great desire to keep the father's name in remembrance and to maintain the family in power-there are not many examples. h i i . and probably to a much later period. 4 I Sam. Gen. are to take the place of written amulets whether bound on the a. 33 .
In addition to Isaiah's hint as to the sort of spelling lesson given to children. 15. Lam. 2 . ' spell .e. and his answer when given is made the basis of a lesson. Isa. which have long puzzled commentators. 7.' and the abominable suggestion of Lot and of the old man in Gibeahp are Amos vii. Ixvi. x i 18-21. xxx. reading was a somewhat more common accomplishment than writingf though we find writing where we should scarcely expect it. as though he regarded them as mere infants. v. 2 Kin@ xxii. Exod. kdjh wiw spell kB '. but in the older Hebrew literature we do not find inculcation of severity towards children such as characterizes and disgraces the Hebrew literature of the Greek period. 1 ff. Judah in an earlier period is represented as ordering his daughter-in-law Tamar to be burnt. The prophet Isaiah states that his jeering opponents complained that he dinned the same lesson into their ears over and over again. 13. Ecclus. viii. i. thus : ' jidM wciw (i. We may reasonably suppose that. which are probably imitations of the mode of teaching given to children in schools. limmddhim).3 Respect for parents. become both intelligible and pertinent.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM is no mention before the Greek period. 12 3 5 ISAIAH AND THE SPELLINGBOOK '3 Amos I and Jeremiah. compared with xxii. 17 ff. 9 3 4 5 Isa. if without any correction of the consonantal text. 2 because the sound of them would suggest connexion with the words for ' filth ' and ' vomit '.Jer.. Deut. Prov. xxxviii. viii.2 but the term would be applicable to the recipients of oral instruction. vii. 8. 15. 2 Kings iv. concerning which Isaiah says that all tables are full of them.'' . this may be by way of reform. There is no close relation between the teaching of " Isa. 27 .2 Apparently it was always fairly strict.koph wiw spell kB. The prophet is asked what he sees. k. based on some external object. it is true. cf. and reflects the growing sense of individual rights.5 Parental power over children was almost unlimited.6 In any case.ad& wiw spell . 7 Gen. 99. they follow a formula which in all likelihood was derived from some common experience. 6 . the prophet's books also contain lessons. 18-21. x. 16. xxi. Deut. nevertheless. at all events in earlier times. 13. 9 Deut.iw lqiw. Prov.5 It is to be noted that ' to read ' sometimes means to ' hear read '. 14. I 1-14.3 The curious words . Judges xix.. and with merely a slight separation of some of the letters now joined into words. iii. 2.' We hear indeed of disciples (Heb. the syllables ~ 1 and kd being chosen as examples of spelling. . Happily there is another side to the picture. as in the Middle Ages. 2 10. xltr. was insisted upon to an extreme extent.4 I t had not occurred to Hebrew legislators that parents might wantonly and unjustly provoke their children to wrath. 2 Sam.d . kiw likiw. I Kings xvii. I Kings i. 8. and with the consequent change in vocalization. 4 Judges viii. Gen. and the love of a mother for her children is implied in more than one passage. the letters of the alphabet) are for .ti '--or. Kings v. not improbable that we have a reference to a spelling lesson given to children. xxviii.iw l@iw. 14. 5. I t is. viii. 24. The Deuteronomic law. such as exists between Hosea and Jeremiah.B. PS. 9-13. they are understood as an elementary spelling lesson. 16. however. kiw lfkiw. does not allow the parents themselves to put their children to death : 6 but like much else in Deuteronomy. g. 17 . I . and the punishment of a son who flouted his parents or struck them was as severe as that which in Europe in comparatively recent days was inflicted on a soldier found guilty of similar disrespect to a superior officer. 14. and as is evident from ' the use of the word kdri. 13 . all reading was reading aloud. xxiii. yet in certain passages which have no direct connexion one with another. xix. . xxi. In general the discipline of a child was mainly in the hands of his father. as we should say. which occur in the preceding verse. 24.
5 Exocl.8 There is pretty clear evidence that. hod. 20. but to Abraham's superstition. however.' but in insisting that a firstborn son by a hated wife must not lose his birthright in favour of a younger son by a beloved wife. I n the Jahvistic recension of the law 5 a rider is added to the effect that all human firstborn must be redeemed. 2-5.I 4 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM HUMAN SACRIFICES I5 related without reprobation. 15-17. 5 ff. 2 . 4 Exod. Lev. children could be sacrificed on the eighth day from birth. vi. or if not then. Jer. not only in forbidding that they should be punished for their father's offences. 3. 7 .g. I . xx. 7 . Jer. Neh. when a boy reached manhood. however. among the Canaanite elements of the population. 29. Lev. Deut. not to a divine command. 25. xxv. Lam. In any case a father might voluntarily sell his daughters into bondage. " hod. g .3 and it is also to be observed that the Elohistic version of the law claiming all firstborn for God4 makes no distinction between the firstborn of men and cattle. xxii. 29 . 25. or they were brought up as slaves of the sanctuary.' A man's sons might be seized by his creditors. xv. Jer.S but there is no evidence that he could voluntarily sell his sons. can be based on exceptional cases. Similarly no one who cherished the teaching found in the great Prophets could have told 2 Kings vi. v. ver.' It may. 12. 3 I.9 When Moses is taken ill in the first years of his married life. 2 Kings iv. The primitive character of this ceremony is sufficiently indicated by the fact that it was performed with flint knives. He says that such laws were given as a punishment for the people's sin. It is. at some later period. Deut. ii. as indeed the father himself might be .6 The Deuteronomic law. his Midianite wife concludes that he has incurred the Divine wrath by omitting to be circumcised. Obviously no one who felt towards human sacrifice the burning indignation of a Jeremiah 6 or a Micah could have drawn up ab initio the lawsjust referred to in the form in which we have them . and indeed the prophet Ezekiel7 shows that he is acquainted with laws professing to emanate from Jehovah. note that the word rendered in the English version ' dam ' is the ordinary word for ' mother '. Not that we are justified in concluding that all the firstborn males were actually sacrificed. xxi. a Judges xi. demanding the sacrifice of the firstborn. safeguards the rights of children. cf. be considered certain that before the reforming movement which originated in the eighteenth year of King Josiah. iv. xxi. as noted above. God. ' Mic. 2 I f .10 The story of the circumcision of the 3 5 7 9 Gen. xxiv.26.3 The later law mitigated the rigour of ancient custom. for doubtless in many cases a price was paid to redeem them. 14. which among her people was a sine qua non before marriage. at all events in what may be regarded as the more Canaanite section of the community. 53-7 . In like manner the narrator of the story of Jephthah clearly recognizes Jephthah's determination to sacrifice a human victim. of course. 20. She therefore decides on bringing about the vicarious circumcision of Moses in the manner described in the account of Moses' return to Egypt. 7 Ezek. and the contrary is implied by Jeremiah.Joshua v. xxii. See e.26 .2 Fatted calves do not ordinarily go out of the door of a house to meet a returning conqueror. xxviii. 28 . to be noted that Micah's vehement denunciation of the sacrifice of the firstborn 2 was uttered at a time when the brother of the reigning King Hezekiah had been sacrificed by his father Ahaz . 25. 6 . No argument. 39 . but this rider is doubtless the work of the redactor who combined the two documents. Deut. in the earlier period covered by the Hebrew Scriptures. xxxiv. 3 2 Kings xvi. the story of Abrahamr without making it clear that Abraham's determination to sacrifice his son was due. Deut. iv. 30. vii. xxvi. ii. he underwent an initiation ceremony of which circumcision was a prominent feature. 16. before he married. such as from time to time occurred in the stress of famine. 19. xix.
" Judges xiv." and presumably was married. Deut. xxxii. The ages of the patriarchs when they inarried. who was not the eldest son of Ahaz. xxxiv. 13. 5 The comct text is undoubtedly 1 (not in$). g. ii. For a discussion of an historical incident underlying this story. 5. xii. I I. for Adonijah. &c. Jer. see Old Testament Essays. It is implied that Nahlon and Chilion were still young men when they died leaving widows. by the present author. as arrived at by a combination of various passages of the Pentateuch. 20. Hezekiah. xxv. 3. ii. 4 Judges xx. I I.6 If we may accept the number given in 2 Sam. 6. Yet for five years before his death. xxxv. however. 20.I6 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM AGE OF MARRIAGE I7 ShechemitesI has doubtless been modified in accordance with later orthodoxy. 46.2 The reference to circumcision by Jeremiah 3-which in the unqualified injunction ' Be ye circumcised to Jehovah ' may show signs of modification by a later hand in accordance with later orthodoxy-implies that circumcision which is outward in the flesh is of no avail. x v i 2. Adonijah at the beginning of Solomon's reign was an applicant for the hand of Abishag. 26. xi. cf. I 2 ff. 4.7 who. when her husband Isaac was extreme old age'-Isaac is said to have lived to the age of one hundred and eighty=-should have represented herself as weary of her life from anxiety lest her darling son Jacob-born when his father was sixty 3-should follow the bad example of his twin brother Esau. 3 .8 and something of the nature of a tournament seems to be implied by Abner's proposal to Joab that the young men should come and #1uy before them '. cf. xiii. 5 2 Sam. 26 . " I Kings ii. Judges viii. xxxvi. and gain the masteryY6 that it was not 'playing the game ' to grip ' below the belt '. I 6 . can obviously not be used as a criterion. 4f.9 and therefore cannot have been much less than twenty when David died. . cannot have been born at Hebron. The story of Jacob's wrestling and the device resorted to by his opponent when the latter found himself unable to suggests definite wrestling rules.Iz is said to have been twenty-five years old when his father died at the age of Gen. xxv. xxxii. 18 .4 Moses according to the correct translation of the Hebrew text 5 seems to have married soon after he arrived at man's estate. as approximately correct and may suppose that Absalom was born in Hebron. The correct rendering is.P A certain amount of betting is implied by the story of MARRIAGE There is no decisive evidence in the Hebrew Scriptures as to the average age of a man at the time of his marriage.IO Absalom had his own establishment. 14. I t may be taken for granted. 'Q Sam. he can scarcely have been much more than twenty at the time of his death . ii with Acts vii. cf. 7 Adonijah. in taking to wife a Hittite lady. Ruth i. 9 I Kings ii.7 T h e training of youths for war by letting them slay prisoners is suggested by Gideon's bidding his elder son slay Zebah and Zalmunna. 5. 28-9. 41. however. 25.8 was not born till after Absalom's untimely death. a admit the probability that Rebekah. ii. 7 Gen. ' It came to pass in those days that Moses grew up and went out '. 8. that truly marvellous dexterity in the use of the sling was gained by many a friendly contestf Similarly we cannot doubt that Asahel's fleetness of foot 5 had been proved in many a race. 23. Gen. 22. xvii. ' When Moses was grown up ' is a harmonizing mistranslation. Isa. Gen. a Gen. 40-5 1. iv. 5 Exod. Of the sport of youths there is little direct evidence. 28. I Sam. m See 2 Kings xvi. Few people will Gen. v. The rendering of the English version is a dishonest attempt to harmonize Exod. 3 Jer. was older than Solomon. 24. who had married when his father was a hundred years old. 9 2 Sam. xxvii. according to what is evidently the true text of I Kings i. 4 Gen. pp.
19. iii. and is more likely to have been a mere child. 12. in the fact that a man could marry his half-sister on his father's side. cf. 21. 2. viii. Happily it is clear that marriage was not so sordid a business as might appear from the custom of buying the bride. xv. Mal. 2 Sam. I 6. that ' the husband is conceived as adopted into his wife's kinat any rate he goes to live with her people '. ii. Ezek. 2 Sam. The prohibition in Lev. Isa.'o there is no passage in the canonical Prophets which so much as hints at the recognition of such practices. 12 . 2 ' Cf. 15. The Law of Holiness. 3 W. xviii. xiii.I8 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM MARRIAGE AND CONCUBINAGE I9 thirty-six.8 . compared with xvi. 18. 21. 1-6. 20. however." Here as in much else we may doubtless trace the higher ideal to the Mosaic Hebrews.6 the age of marriage would doubtless depend upon the time when the prospective bridegroom could raise the purchase money. 18. blood relations. 9 Gen. concerns only sisters. however. not only of married I o v ~ but also of love at first sight.4. we can scarcely take the age of royal princes at the time of their marriage as a sure indication of the age at marriage of the average peasant. I Chron. i xiv. xxv. 2.4 In this sort of marriage kinship was of necessity reckoned not with the father's but with the mother's people. iii.3 and Joash when his father was sixteen. or. Lev. 4 2 Kings x . 21. I 76. xxi.. I n the fifth century B. 8 . and there are several which apparently presuppose monogamy. Kings xviii. x i i g vi. I . son of Jehoram of Judah. 3. 5 . xviii. I Sam. in which his wife remained with her people and he visited her from time to time. S Gen. While polygamy and concubinage were taken for granted in the narrative of the Hebrew Bible. 5 ff. I Sam. compared with viii. 26. 27 . 2. l' Cf. 16. 18-21.' the author of the book of Esther. l v 5 . it is true. xi. 18. Gen. p. 5 Sec Num. for example. The transition from the reckoning of I Esther ii . Isa.~ In the matter of marriage generally there was evidently a wide diversity of custom. Thus the statement in connexion with Adam and Eve that a man is to leave father and mother and cleave to his wife and that they are to become one flesh. 13. 26. 2 . 26. 4 Judges xiv. xxix. Since in ordinary cases a man purchased his wife from her father. 2. 4. 5. xviii. in the words of Robertson Smith. i.6 but from the contradiction between the marriage laws in Deuteronomy as compared with the Law of Holiness. a Gen. which from our point of view is not a very satisfactory arrangement. 3 Compare 2 Kings viii. xiii. xxiv. 14 ff. 1 8 I0 Deut.c. Kinrh* and Mam'age in Early Arabia. i. Hos. xviii. 7 Deut. xvi. and the Chronicler.2 is directed against an obsolescent custom of certain exogamous clans. 10. 3 (P). and traces of mother kinship are found.9 and the former at all events is definitely recognized in Iaw. he cannot therefore have been twenty-five years old at the time of his accession. and it is implied. . xxviii. xviii. and we have examples. i. B Gen. Lev. g. ii.' but this is obviously impossible. I I. xx.~ twenty was regarded as the lowest age for military service. 18. is at least a great improvement on the sort of marriage which Sarnson contracted.28. Ezek. 25.2 Ahaziah. 20. ii. 3. xxiv. 16. 19. . In the more primitive strata of Hebrew literature we find distinct traces of forms of marriage of which there is no evidence at a later date. 7 I Sam. 2 Chron. and the lower to the Canaanite elements. was born when his father was about eighteen. that nowhere is polygamy regarded with more complacency than by certain late writers.S This. xxx. i .s but not on his mother's side. 7. Robertson Smith. contrasted with Lev. 24. 3. xxix. even when the form of marriage on which it was based was probably obsolete. xxix.4 I n any case. as we should put it. forbids marriage with the daughter of either father or mother. i Cf. I Sam. It is somewhat remarkable.7 it may well be that the prohibited degrees as stated in the latter were not at first generally accepted. 16i. 16.
. 1-4. 9 Cant. I Kings iv. xxii. 34 f.9 but it may doubtless be regarded as a common custom. Gen. Gen. 23 ff. and Samson having left before the week is up. Jer. 2 Sam. whether the bride remained with her clan or took up her abode with her husband.5 The comparative novelty of a wife's accompanying her husband instead of remaining with her own people is clearly shown in the story of Jacob. cf. maids with the bride is found as early as the story of Samson. Laban. 14 a Jer. xxix. 15 ff. and his procession to fetch his bride was an imitation of a royal progress. In any case. .3 The later nuptial canopy (huppa) may be regarded as a survival of this. xviii. Gen. xxxi. 20. I E . xxix. The fact that she does so is represented as her own decision. 23 f.6 and that their children belong to him. Gen. 27 ff. 8 Gen. xiv. not the husband's.. 67. 1 5 ~ 4 3Exod. xxvi.* Another trace of the time when the wife normally remained with the clan is found in the fact that the nuptial tent is regarded as the wife's. 23.. though it is not improbably hinted at in the presentation of valuables to her brother and mother. Deut. . ii. xxiv. .3 Laban is afraid that Jacob may decamp leaving on his (Laban's) hands a daughter not legally married. I Sam. .* The earliest record of a wedding being celebrated by a feast is the story of Jacob. 4-8 . 25. iii. 7 Gen.xxviii.9 10 ff. p.7 Betrothal was regarded as binding. 2 I ff. PS. '"Judges xiv. 34. 5 Judges xiv. 43 . insists that Jacob has no right to take them away from him. 33 . xxiv.6 though Esau married in defiance of his parents. xxxi. reasonably enough from our point of view. whereas Leah and Rachel. 9 Gen. 31. 58.4 the father of the woman he has espoused considers the marriage as null. xlv. 53. 168. ver. 32. 12 f. xxiv. I Sam.Judges xiv. 3 ' Judges xiv. 22 . 4 The correct rendering in Judges xiv. 14. Of some of the ceremonies at such a feast we get a glimpse in the account of Samson's wedding. 7 Gen. . A feature common to the stories both of Jacob and Samson is that the marriage contract was not final till the bridegroom and bride had cohabited for a week. 12 E.8 the bridegroom seems to have played the part of Solomon. though he cannot deny that Jacob has paid a price for Leah and Rachel. and gives her to another husband.10 The association of bridesa Gen. Judges iv.Judges i. xxxiv. cf.7 In the Greek period when the magnificence of Solomon was popularly related as a set-off against both Persian and Greek splendour. xxii. vii. xxix. 18 is not before the sun went down ' but before he went in to the (bridal) chamber '. S Gen. In the betrothal of Isaac and RebekahI it is not clearly understood at the time that Rebekah shall go to Isaac. 17 . xxxi. 4 Gen. xxiv. 16. I 8.20 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM BETROTHAL 2I kinship through the mother to the reckoning of it through the father. a riddle and a wager. xxxi. xxiv.5 I n any case the parents normally arranged the marriage.17. 45 ff. a purchase price was paid to her father or male guardian. doubtless was only brought about very gradually. Kinship and Marriage.1 The mention of certain girdles worn by the bride suggests that the unfastening of these by the husband was a ceremonial act. Robertson Smith. 14-16. maintain that their father by accepting a price for them has forfeited any claim to them. iii. see W. I 2. 6-1 I. cf. X 14 ff.4 This indeed is not definitely stated in the story of Rebekah.
* or of unhewn stones cemented with clay. 16 . That baked bricks were not commonly used in the construction of houses is probable from the fact that it is mentioned as a peculiarity of the people of Babylonia that they burnt their bricks which served them as stone. I Kings viii. Gen. liv. I. even when the reference is not to any temporary encampment. C . a household consisted of more than one tent. xxxviii. 10. xviii. of black haircloth.LECTURE HOUSES independent housekeeping take up their abode ? At least as late as the exile there were a considerable number of people. As noted above. like a fifteenth-century Manor House. not necessarily all regarding themselves as the spiritual sons of Jonadab the son of Rechab. Judges xix. 5. cf. PS. Cant. i. 7. i.xci. 5. 12.6 It is to be noted that the word 'tents' (in the plural) continued to be used in the sense of ' home '.3 Such tents were similar to those of the modern Bedouin. 66.Isa.5 At the entrance to such a tent there would commonly be a projecting awning. xi. f 3 Cf. m. The majority of poor houses were constructed either of unbaked bricks. Cant. I I .z who continued to live a nomadic life in tents. 9 Gen. or even more courtyards. xii. 19). 33. Gen. xxxi. g .9 It See Jer. round one. commonly built. from the single-roomed cabin of the peasant to the mansion of the wealthy.' In the matter of permanent houses there was evidently nearly as wide a diversity as existed in the British Isles down to the beginning of the Tudor period. This is perhaps indicated in the metaphor used by Job (iv. 5 Isa. 3. a I N what sort of a home did a young couple setting up . 2 .h and their structure is referred to as something familiar. 10.Judges iv.
" I Kings xxii. 8. in use in Palestine. 9 Amos v. XI Isa. h 3. " Cant.xix. 14. xix.13~XKVii. g. Hag. would leak in heavy rain.' and in the latest period. 4. 39. 24. xii.).I was evidently housed with him and his children. 10 (Hcb. 38.15. g. 4. 12. 10. " 2 Sam. xiv. 2 . 20. 13. 2 . which drank out of the poor man's cup and lay in his bosom. Job xxiv. '3 Judges xx. 14 . Isa.I. . ii. xxxiii.9 Since no outlook was afforded by the windows. 7 h v . 2. ix. Such a roof. whether of unbaked bricks or of unhewn stone cemented with clay. I 3 . xxi. Hence darkness became a natural metaphor for a time of danger and light of security. g.9 Such houses might have the inner walls lined with wood. in the Hebrew phrase ' dig through '4 the wall.1g.4 On such roofs arbours (Heb.7 Some sort of superficial plaster to hide bad building is mentioned by Ezekiel. The little ewe lamb of ' Exod. those who wanted fresh air I 0 or desired to see what was going on outside the house naturally went on to the roof. 8. 12. Ezek. 2.xii.6 With or without such a shelter the roof afforded an asylum to a harassed husband. 4 h o d . 15. Judges iii. 8 the word ' beam ' is used in the sense of ' roof'. Baked bricks were.viii. however. I Sam. Jer.5 Lime is mentioned as produced by burning: but there is no reference to its use as mortar. xiii. xi. Amos ii. 2.12 but the better class of house might have an upper floor. sukkdth) of interwoven boughs could be constructed. 2 f .~O which might be painted or even inlaid with ivory. The witch of Endor had a fatted calf in the house.= The bricks mentioned by the Prophet Isaiah 3 may have been either baked or unbaked. " Jer. " I Kings vii.24 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM ROOMS AND ROOFS 25 was also noted as a Babylonian peculiarity that they used bitumen in lieu of clay as cement. This metaphor was so common that the word ' corner ' could even be used alone to denote prorninent men. 2 Kings iv. g. ii.14 Roofs were also used for other purposes ." The house was commonly of one story. In Gen. xi 12.1o. A house.2 A like state of affairs has lasted in Irish cabins till recent times. which was rolled or beaten hard.12 Stone quoins in the superior sort of buildings are referred to metaphorically as that which insures stability. xxiii. and it seems rather to have been used in whitewash or to form a thin coat of plaster. i. h. however. r 7-is perhaps indicated in the account of the proclamation of Jehu as King.13 An upper room apparently not covering the whole roof seems to be indicated in the account of the guest chamber constructed for Elisha. The roof was ordinarily flat. xxii.. 11 . sNeh. viii. Brushwood was laid above these and covered with earth. x i . I .8 Houses of hewn stone were regarded as a mark of wealth and luxury. Deut. a land to which Jehovah's eyes are directed likewise is safe. 7 Deut. xi. Ezek. and may still be seen in the East. 'Prov. in the absence of a courtyard they could be utilized for various 2Sam. d v . Isa. for the unorthodox construction of altars.s or more solid summer houses. xxiv. '3 2 Kings i. 7 ff.' A parapet to the flat roof is made compulsory by the Deuteronomic law. Matt. 34 . Jer. Isa.13 The poorer one-roomed house or cabin commonly sheltered cattle as well as the family.8 and a staircase leading from the roof to the ground -the existence of which is presupposed in St. cf. 2. and the annoyance caused by the continual dripping is used as a graphic illustration of the misery of living with a nagging wife. ' I Sam. ix. constructed of beams 3 laid in the walls. xxviii. as pavement. where. 2.16. xxvii. Isa. The comparison of seven lamps to Jehovah's eyes is to be explained as follows : a house brilliantly lighted up would be safe from attack. the part of the floor occupied by the human inmates is generally on a somewhat higher level.Zech. iv. 7. 5 5. xxii. 10. though it might resist a shower. xi 9 2 Kings ix. xxii. 3 Isa. 16 . I. Nathan's parable. afforded little protection from night attack by a burglar who could.
l2 in which case the inner room would presumably be the bedroom. xi. 2 Kings i . 5 2 Sarn. 1 8 .IO and one is perhaps implied in Amnon's bedroom. 3 I Chron.' We read of locks and keys in connexion with the palace of Eglon. ii. 7 . 19. is best understood as the dormitory in which the female servants and attendants slept. King of Moab. 5 I Kings vii. 7 Deut.10 The unsatisfactory character of such cisterns as compared with a spring is the point of the emphatic words which Jeremiah puts into the mouth of Jehovah :11 ' Me they have forsaken. 2 Sam. ii " Jer. 2 Kings vi. 25 . houses which could not depend on a well or a perennial spring in the neighbourhood stored water in rock-hewn cisterns.26 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM FIRE AND WATER SUPPLY 27 domestic needs such as the drying of flax. g . iv. 3. 30. I I. 12. I t was in such a vestibule 5 that. 5. xxxvi. 8-12. and we have mention of wine-cellars 3 and oil-stores. Amos v. 13. however. ii. to be ground in a hand-mill. Joshua ii. 3 I 4 2 valuables.4 and contained a number of apartments. . 2. xvii.9 For their water supply. 23.11 The slightly superior houses seem to have been ' but and ben '. viii. xviii. 4 I Chron. xxvii. in much the same way as the incumbent of a present-day parish is. g. Jer. v. g. 2 Kings xi. 8. " 2 Sam. 22.5 The very wealthy had different residences for summer and winter. 25 . 13.xvi. XI Prov. cxxxii. 7 Cant. 6. mentioned in the royal palace. 23. Jer.8 In the latter case the key of the palace is part of the insignia of office with which the chief official of the palace is invested.'. 22. xi. i. 15. PS. and doubtless other mansions. x I3 Judges xv.I and in the later days of the monarchy we even read of altars upon them. 15. xxvii. 9 Joshua ii. 3.6 The outer door-posts seem to have had inscriptions probably originally of a magical character to protect the house. a spring of fresh water.2 The large houses. Matt. I I . The bedrooms of the larger houses would seem to have been as a rule on the upper floor. 3I . into which a man would not penetrate. also St. 18. had store-rooms for Jer. 4 . which would frequently be constructed of hewn stone. xxii. xix. hewing out for themselves cisterns-broken cisterns at that-which cannot hold the water. xxii. The ' chamber of beds '.3 might be built round one or more courtyards. I . 9 Cf. 2. in which Joash as a little child was hidden from Athaliah. cf. xxxviii.I and even lumber-rooms. x Sam. Judges iii. 14. 27.2 We may be sure that Solomon's daily menu required extensive kitchen premises and larders. I 5. Isa. Ishbosheth's portress was sifting wheat. A brazier with a fire is. 2 Kings xviii. Hence to drink the water of one's own cistern was a proverbial expression meaning to be content with what home afforded. Amos iii. 16. I Kings xx.4 The larger houses sometimes had a porch or vestibule. 2 Sam. Neh. Jer.6 Windows were closed in with lattice. xxxvi.~. Isa. vi.9 I n the poorer houses the fire was doubtless on the floor. 15. the smoke of the fire escaped. when overcome by the noon-day heat she dozed and fell fast asleep. '5 2 Kings i. 8.' A projecting window in a house built on the city wall is probably indicated as that through which the spies were let down. according to the more correct reading of the LXX. 28. g. Kings vii. xvi. at least this is the natural inference from such expressions as ' to go up upon a bed '. royal palaces. so that Rechab and Baanah slipped past her and murdered Ishbosheth in his bedroom. upon his induction.I5 I n addition to sitting-rooms and bedrooms. Zeph. and of the royal palace at Jerusalem.7 through which. Bedchambers are mentioned at various periods.' A few fortunate people have wells in their I Kings xv. 2 Kings xiv. given the key of the church door. iv. Hosea xiii. i. 22. g. 6. since there was no chimney. cf.
King of Moab. 9 Cant. whether open or closed. which was often a mere rug on which the clothes worn in the day-time did duty as bed-clothes. xi. vii. and a like inference is to be drawn from Amos's picture of those who.*O were sometimes of elaborate workmanship inlaid with ivory. in the poorest houses scarcely existed. as the word is nowadays understood. perhaps of basalt. 2 Sam. ate the flesh of lambs and fatted oxen.3 has been explained as a sarcophagus. 15. 26. x i i 41. xlix. 10. iii. called ' ark of the covenant '. however.^^ suggests that the kind of thing indicated by the word was not unknown. Ezek. Sam. . 3 2 Kings xviii.2 Water was brought into Jerusalem. 20. I t may. 2 Kings iv. and that his coverlet is of maggots. The richer houses appear to have possessed some sort of portable bedsteads. and large reservoirs were also constructed. xlviii. however. and a chest for the reception of contributions to the restoration of the temple.'+but it is not clear whether in this connexion some portable contrivance is meant.s the so. and. cf. Deut. The table (shulhdn) in the ordinary houses was not necessarily more than a mat or skin spread on the ground and reserved for food. 26. 27. xix. 4 Judges iii. which might be used as divans during the day.XX.' It is contemptuously said of the King of Babylon in his death that his under mattress consists of worms. 12. used in commercial transactions. and one or Eccles. 12. Earthenware jars. iii. have been a state bed. 9 Exod. The bed.V. 3. xxiii. xxii. were probably placed in earthen vessels. was not neglected. Amos vi. xxi. xxiii. xiv. 19.28 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM BEDS AND TABLES 29 courtyards. and perhaps into other large towns also. 33. I 2. cf. xxviii. G n 1. such as may still be seen in what remains of the apartment in which Mary Queen of Scots was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. . 2. vii. xvii. or some permanent arrangement in the outer wall. 12. Eglon. while reclining on ivory couches and sprawling on divans. 18. 7-1 I. a 3 Deut. as in the days of Samuel Pepys.' The water from such wells appears to have been drawn by means of a rope and pulley. 17. xxxv..13. 6. Ezra vi. Gen. I Sam. 4 Isa. by means of a conduit.5 It is probable that there were sewers. 27 .l appears to have been lifted off the floor.5 In houses where there was a raised table there would be stools or chairs for those who sat at it. Valuables. Such bedsteads. of various sizes and shapes. 23 . 4 . " Amos v. 5 2 Kings X. which was long to be seen in Rabbah of Ammon. Isa. 31.3 There are 'several indications that sanitation.6 and. Esther i 6. ' Litter' (R. divans. but merely to megalomania. Such seems to be the meaning in the description of the careless feasting in Babylon 4 where by fciphith we are perhaps to understand the carpet spread on the floor round the mat or skin on which the food was placed. " 2 Kings xii. hidden in the ground. * Prov. The use of the same word shulhdn. which might be of rich materials. 4. 11. xii. as we understand the term. 2 more coverlets. 16.vi. FURNITURE Furniture. Ezek. I I . cf. There were public conveniences. but the use of the same word to denote a coffin. but they are not actually mentioned. such as uncoined silver. e.) the same word as is translated is c bed' in the passage referred to above . 24. i " Amos iii. The sanitary regulations to be observed by an army in the field6 doubtless represent what was the rule in country districts at home. 41. 5 7 " . but there would be a mattress or rug to lie upon.' I t is somewhat strange that we have no mention among household furniture of anything of the nature of a chest .s and was probably on a ledge by the wall.1' We have no mention of linen sheets. in the description of the Temple furniture certainly implies that it might be a table in our sense of the word . 5. the huge size of which was not due to the stature of the king. 10. iii. 4 . in the houses of the wealthy. 7 Exod. could satisfy his natural wants without leaving his cool sitting-room. I I. Amos iii. Og's c iron bedstead '. cf. I Sam.
but also as receptacles for such things as documents. I Kings xvii. I Kingsx. '"PS. xiii. 3. Ia Gen.13 Besoms for sweeping were in use. Candelabra supporting more than one lamp were used by the wealthy.s and Amnon's bedroom seems to have been warmed in a like manner. Lam. and hence considered degrading. 10. 14. 12. 18. xii.30 HEBREW LIFE AM) CUSTOM regarded as of little value. of various sizes and shapes. " 2 Sam. 2. Job xviii. 13. 4 2 g. xxii. 2. 8. In Nathan's parable the lamb drinks out of the poor man's cup. Kings iv. 2. sufficient of itself to safeguard the house from attack by nocturnal burglars. " Zech. xxi.13 Among what we should regard as the kitchen utensils were pots. 7 . xvi. 4 . 16. '3 Judges v. 2 . however.12 Hewing and carrying wood for fuel were unskilled occupations. 14.5 Pegs were affixed to the walls of the house on which various articles could be hung. '4 I Kings iv. 6 . 3. &v. mention of skins for holding liquids in passages both pre-Deuteronomic 7 and late. vi. 8. 23. 4 I Kings xvii. 3. . Jer. xv. xxii. xxxvi. In general. I Sam. xxiv. 15. 20. 10.cxix. PS. x ' Isa. LAMPS 3I indeed the sign of the occupation of a house. 22. 23. xxxii. l PS. and was a Gen. vii. iv. 12 . 36. xii. There is. 23.9 the supply of crockery in the poorer houses was extremely limited. iv. so that the light of seven lamps3 would be considered a very brilliant illumination. and the wash-basin 10 may well have been used for many purposes.1 Such a lamp was presumably of earthenware with a wick of flax. and also the somewhat flatter bowl in which Sisera was given curds and milk. " Ezek.8 and the scarcity of fuel would necessitate great economy. 14. Where wood was unavailable the thorns 9 and moor plants 10 in which Palestine abounds would be used. 3. 25. vii. who was compelled most carefully to husband his supply of oil. xii.' were used not only for holding water 2 or 0il. 9 Eccles. 83 : see also Prov. '5 Cf. 5 3 Zech. X. Isa. i. but even so the poor could scarcely have kept fires of wood continually burning. xlii. 19. xiv. for boiling meatwhich seems to have been the most usual way of cooking it in earlier times-and for heating water. iv. 4. cxx. 20.I4 but there is no indication of the material of which they were made. for the skin of a domestic animal which had been presented at the altar would have been sacred and unavailable for ordinary use. ii. 14. 15. meatf &C. wood fires depended on dead branches and sticks that could be picked up. 21. It is remarkable that there is no mention of kindling a fire ab initio by striking flints. 27 . 2 Kings viii. xliv. Sam.3 or storing grain. l POTS.~sand to avoid the necessity of so doing a lamp was kept always burning. Eccles. 0 '3 Joshua i .2 The poor man. 9 Gen.6 Skins for containing liquids. 5 Jer. and the hospitable couple of Shunem4 provided one for Elisha's room. '4 Isa. v. 19. 14 ." Even to-day guests who partake of the courteous Bedouin hospitality may be offered milk from the vessel out of which he has seen the goat drinking a few minutes before.8 While drinking vessels and the like in the houses of the rich were not uncommonly of precious metals. Fires specially for heating appear to have been a luxury. 2.. could scarcely have been in use before the publication of the Deuteronomic law.I4 I 3 2 Kings xi. Hag. We hear of a brazier in the royal palace in December. Prov. Lam. could probably not afford to keep more than one lamp burning at a time. 33. CUPS. except the skins of game. 2 Sam. 6. and (probably by the poorest) dried cattle dung.6 As late as the time of Haggai 7 the district about Jerusalem was evidently far better wooded than at the present day. So likewise the bowls which were used to contain intoxicating liquor 12 served other uses. 2 Macc. xxx. 7 Gen.24. 6.11 Wood specially hewn was doubtless expensive and was mainly used for the altar fire.Jer. h 8. 38. xiii.
xiii. I Sarn. Each household would possess one. 33.g and a similar utensil is used in one sort of cereal oblation. but is shown to be correct by a like metaphor of Ben Sira : In the shaking of a sieve the refuse remaineth. I 7. xxxvii. 3. which were heated by a fire lighted within them. m i i . but in the reign of Zedekiah Jerusalem had a 'street of the bakers' where ordinary bread was ~0ld. each household would possess millstones for grinding. I Sam. iii. iv. The Revisers of the Authorized Version have entirely missed the point in Amos i . 26. x. Ezek. Judges xvi.= The grinding of corn was considered derogatory to manly dignity. 2 . Gen. I Kings xvii. 5 2 Sam. where there were female slaves. xvii.3 Normally every household would have home-made bread. n53b9 is to be connected with the Syriac b.? it seems to be meant that they were cooked over a brazier in some sort of liquid. The staple food of nomads is milk. Ecclus. 4. Gen. Jer. and the pebbles and other refuse be retained in it. 2 . 24. xi. like the old English ovens. and we read of pails or pans for milk. according to the more correct Hebrew text underlying the Septuagint account of Ishbosheth's murder: the word is the same as is used in Isaiah's parable of the vineyard 5 to denote the cleaning of the ground. viii. 4. xi a Lev. Deut. 38. ii. So the filth of man in his reasoning. and. 2 I. for which of course a sieve was required. xii. iv. 13.11 4 Among the necessary utensils.2 they were presumably of coarse earthenware. they have translated the word which means ' pebble ' 6 by ' grain '. . xii. Isa. v. xxvi. This is not only suitable to the metaphor which Amos uses.3 Preliminary to grinding it was necessary to sift the grain to separate from it any pebbles which might have been taken up with it from the threshing-floor. x v . was known as ' cleaning '. xv. is mentioned by Ezekie1. Eccles. 2I. As in 2 Sam. 35. 5. Amos ix. Compare the mention of bakers.32 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM ' CLEANING ' AND GRINDING CORN 33 For baking. Although great reliance cannot be placed on the text of the passage concerning the cakes which Tamar cooked for Amnon. and it is likely that even among those who 5 3 Lev. In addition to the various appliances for cooking there would necessarily be various vessels for holding both liquid and solid food . or round them.'. 3.xix. Isa. 12. xlvii. g. Lam. though such doubtless existed.4 though it is not improbable that in the more prosperous times the shops in the street would have sold what we should rather classify as confectionery.2 it was ordinarily done by the women of the household.5 Since in Nehemiah's time there was a 'tower of the ovens ' 6 a guild of bakers may have found some form of cooperative baking more economical. portable ovens I were used. by them. Neh. 6. 8 . At any rate a flat iron plate. l 7 2 Sam. But the purpose of sifting corn is that the grain may fall through the meshes of the sieve. and this suggests a frying pan. 13.7 FOOD In the food of the inhabitants of Palestine during the period covered by the Hebrew Scriptures there was doubtless as much variety as in their homes. " Job xxi.IO and also of some comparatively small jugs or jars. I I . v. There is no mention of any dish specially intended for holding cooked meat. ' Num. 9 Lev. apparently a ' girdle'. 6 . 13. and it is a sign of the breaking-up of households by war and famine when the women bake their bread in one oven. a 3 P . xxiv.4 This process. g . I I. g. Since they started with the x preconceived idea that ' to fall to the ground' must necessarily be something bad. It is reasonable to suppose that the counterpart of some of the utensils mentioned in connexion with the Temple would also be found in domestic kitchens.16 f. xi. 6 . Since they were breakable. 2.
28. 9. 4. Fine flour (so'kth) was also used. 2 Sam. 9 Ezek. a Gen. 14. 4 . straw chopped up by the threshing-sledges. xxv. 18. 15. xix. xvii. xxiii. 3 ' Jer. 5. 22) . were punished for the rest of the day by being given nothing but bread and water. Isa. xviii. I g. xxv. m. vi Ezek. Gen.Is baked into loaves of various shapes. 22. i. 19. 2 Sam. 13. xviii.I4 or kikprdth Ubm. .2 I t is remarkable that nowhere is there any reference to the process of milking. xxxii. 28. I I . Gen. 5 Deut. xvii. g . 2 I . iii. Gen. Exod. 8 . Deut. e.' from which apparently the bran was not separated. 19. 2 (E.5 Abraham gave his guests . 33. xvii. g . Ezek. XXX. a Judges viii. were probably better fed than the children in many English schools a century ago. xxxii. 17. 28 . Cheese. 7 Ezek. 9 I Sam. ix. iv. 9 . vii. that the ward commonly rendered 'bread ' is frequentlyused in a much wider sense. 2 Kings iv. however. The most common cereal appears to have been barley. xxiii. 25. I1 I Sam. I Kings iv.6 In addition to milk was also made into gbfna. We know that to the end of the Jewish monarchy the Rechabites cultivated neither cereals nor vineyards. and the meal so obtained might be hastily mixed into dough. xxviii. 3 . xvi. and doubtless other sorts of grain also.7 lentils. was sometimes by the very wealthy given even to horses.12 Lentils.~and this is the view taken by the R. Ruth ii. xxiii.9 What is meant by the skjhdth bdkdr which was brought to David at Mahanaim I0 is very doubtful. and milk to drink. 34. V. The non-nomad majority of the population doubtless subsisted mainly on various sorts of bread. iv. Corn was usually ground as required. g. iii.10 We read also of what may perhaps be some sort of cereal called 'ahdth (plural) : the meaning of the word is.34 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM cultivated the land milk formed a considerable portion of their diet.7 Since the curds (. 28.g. 2 . '"Exod. but the former seem to have been far more numerous. xxvii. Ewes may have been milked.2 but this was a luxury. Gen.9 spelt.1 Both goats and cows were kept for milking. x i . compressed curd. .6 Inferior cereals were also used. but in this context cream does not appear very probable. Isa.Judges vi. 25 . 17. Prov. I t must not be forgotten. and while still unleavened.4 Wheat was naturally more prized than barley. Ruth ii. It might mean cream if we suppose that the pointing as sMn is incorrect.s and we may assume that the fine flour mentioned in Solomon's bill of fare was of wheat.V. 19 . 6.e. cf. very uncertain. . curds and veal to eat. The prophetswhom Obadiah supplied with 'bread and watery 1notwithstanding MILK AND CEREALS 35 the prevailing scarcity. Joshua v. 42. Grain entirely uncooked was sometimes eaten. 8 " 2 Sam. Various sorts of grain were sometimes roasted whole and eaten "--as formerly both in England and Scotland. 1 . 29. who having failed to repeat some lesson by heart before breakfast. I I . The ordinary bread was made of meal. 2 Sam. xii. 7 Job X 10. 25 .3 which.e. 'uggdth. Judges v. together with tkbhn. iv. beans. 14. 5 Isa. 22. l Deut. 1 4 . of Deut. " I Kings d. iv. thus causing a shaking up of the milk as in a chum-we should perhaps understand butter to be intended.* this cannot be positively asserted. 4 I Kings iv. were sometimes boiled into some form of porridge. 5. 6 . ~ ' a modern leben). iv.hmYa) latter was produced by squeezing the skin which contained the milk 8-presumably in different parts. xvii. but n inasmuch as se (the nomen unitatis of which ~ d is the collective) may denote either a sheep or a goat. 14. 3 'Prov. i. 13 Gen. I Kings v. Ezek. since milk in a vessel which has contained curds would curdle of itself without being shaken.8 millet. Hos. 27 . seems to have been known. and that it should be sin. &i.15 The unleavened 'uggdth would ' Judges vi. Exod. i. I Sam. Milk would ordinarily be consumed in the form of curd (Heb. vii. 24. xviii. however. 7. 15. 32 .
22 . I.= and professional bakers or confectioners were of both sexes. possibly some sort of perforated cake or biscuit. " The cultivation of such vegetables in Palestine is certain from I&. xii. xii.9 That they were not synonymous may be inferred from their occurrence together in the same . xli. since they required to be turned in baking. 2.12 The home baking was done sometimes by the women. was made by Tamar in order to tempt the appetite of her malingering and rascally half-brother Arnnon. ii. Since associated with d c b h h . I Kings xix. Amos iv. and. VEGETABLES 37 appear to have been somewhat thicker than the modern Passover cakes. I t is. xvi. 39. was bread. ' Exod. . gourds or cucumbers. Exod. " Exod. 3. since there is no mention of bee-hives or of apiculture. 17. 27 . Gen.~~ were '. I t is possible that in some cases 3 it denotes boiled down fruit juice.4 Honeycomb is definitely mentioned. iv. xliii. 5 . 39. Sam. 4. 8 . I Sam.context. 6. xiii. Exod. In this connexion it is interesting to recall that the late Patriarchof Antioch stated when he visited Cambridge that his flock were reduced to digging up thistle roots in the lack of all other food. xxxii. but of this there is no proof. e. 8. l" Num. cf.s and also run honey. 3 ' Gen. presumably oil. very remarkable that the narrator saw nothing unusual in first mixing meal into dough and afterwards adding the leaven. Deut.2 Oil and honey were used in cooking.36 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM BAKING : OIL. xviii. xi. xii. Exod.g. ' Gen. x . e. 13. 7 . vii. 15.g.6 Leavened bread naturally took longer to make than unleavened. i. I I . other than milk. 26. Ezek. however. 15. Under such circumstances a ' portion of green herbs ' 7 was all that the poor man could get. Ezek. 6. 4 . the mingling with the fresh dough of a piece of the fermented dough from the last baking. sometimes by 3 2 5 7 9 'O the men. vi. The leavening in this connexion is in accordance with a method still used in Europe. 8. xxvi. xxvii.* was eaten by those who were famishing. 13. l 5 I Sam. " 2 Sam. I Kings xiv. v. NU^. vi. The story of the baking by the Israelites of the unleavened dough which they brought out of Egypt 7 is clearly aetiological.6 Although we may suppose that the staple food." and what appears to have been a kind of pancake cooked in liquid. 8. 16. xiv. 7. 8 .Io we find the latter (SYGr) it may be that some mixture containing honey or grapejuice was sometimes used to promote fermentation. At any rate the taste of manna is compared to that of some sort of sweetened flat cake. 25. xl. I Sam. Two terms are used to denote leaven. The former (hime) probably refers to the method of leavening mentioned above. honey. 34. xxxi. wild honey is implied. 23 .Jer. PS. Hos. 3. 7 Prov. Exod. viii. viz. vii. and even juniper root. but we cannot decide with certainty how they differed. xiv. 70. 3. Job xxx. hdm@8 and S'Gr. but it is not quite certain what is to be understood by the word translated honey. It is therefore likely that honey is everywhere to be understood in the natural sense of the word . xv.1 The modern Passover cakes would perhaps have been called r'kEkim. Deut. Baruch vi.9 into which wild gourds (pakkzir6th s d h ) had been put in mistake for kishWEm-some sort of cucumber or gourd 1°-a mistake which recalls the not uncommon confusion in modern times between poisonous fungi and mushrooms. 27 .xiii. 15. I t is noteworthy that the Hebrew gtphen denotes ' bine ' as well as ' vine Certain vegetables. 38. 31.3 Bread was baked in an ovenf or on a girdle. xxk. 19. Cant. I . xix.2 What sort of cake is denoted by k l l a is uncertain. it must have happened from time to time that the produce of one year's harvest was exhausted before that of the next harvest was ready. I I . and due to an attempt to connect the feast of unleavened bread with the Exodus. xvi. ii Lev. I 7. HONEY. Judges xiv.^ or on hot stones. 19. Isa. Some sort of mallow. Lev. 5 i . 3. In times of dearth the prophets of Elisha's time concocted a stew of wild vegetables. 9 2 Kings iv.
20.l. Mal. 2 I.20 The eggs which were eaten must have been those of wild birds. 22 and probably I Sam. 6. 17 ff. " Amos vi. xii.3 but even when account is taken of the absence of game laws. xiv. xii. xiv. When flesh was eaten it seems to have been originally boiled in water or milk. xiv. xv. Amos v. 24. Deut. Deut. iv. xxix.9 Beef. xvi. v. 23. strange to say. 20 (iv. such as gazelles. S Deut. 23. 6 . Exod.16 Of domestic poultry there is no mention. i. 24. 5 Deut.' Before the publication of the Deuteronomic law. Isa. Cant.cf. they could be sacrificed. 8. Of wild birds partridges. E. ' 9 Exod. 3. Ezek. 38. Deut. Isa. xxii. 219. xii. except on the occasion of an obligatory sacrificial feast.15 and therefore it is the more surprising to find them specified as sacrificial victims. 3 (E. Deut. g. 15. 5. xiv. Isa. xii. 5. I Sam. 7 Deut. cf. 2nd ed. the poor man's larder. 20.6 Of the flesh of domestic animals the most commonly eaten was probably mutton. as well as of the fact that Palestine in the days of monarchy afforded more cover for game than the ~ e b r e w at the present time.ls quails. 4 Exod. Jer. I Sam. 11. 5 .7 of which the fat tail 8 was esteemed a great delicacy. garlic. could not often have contained flesh or fowl. ANIMAL FOOD 39 A considerable variety of game existed in Palestine.4 At a later period it was roasted. Lev. 23). 26 . . unless certain fatted creatures called barbidm 17 were birds. ' Num. 12. xiv. l6 Cf. xiv. xliv.. g. and of pretty general skill in the use of the bow and the sling and in the setting of snares. 'g I Sam. I 1-20. 18. . ii. ' I Kings v. is not prohibited as stringently as the eating of blood . whether Israelite or stranger.2 animal food scarcely-entered into the diet of the poorer section of the population. The popular taste inclined to strongly flavoured vegetables such as onions. 22. xlvi. and leek. 27. 7 I Sam. 5 Exod. 18. g.22 although ' Deut. 22. xiv. W.14 Turtle doves are mentioned as migrating. 15. xxii. HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM cultivated and were evidently regarded as luxuries. 4 .V.21 Fish is not mentioned in Solomon's bill of fare. xxxi. xiv. and goat's flesh. 13. 21 . xvii. I 6. * Exod.3 various kinds of wild goat 4 and antelope. 22. 23 (Heb.V. xxxiv. Isa.11 The term ' fatling ' seems to denote beef. ii. Various sorts of game could be eaten when it was available .5 The legislation in regard to that which had been killed by a beast of prey. xxvii. Gen. 8. Robertson Smith. 17. li. Gen. which deals only with that killed by a wild beast. xii. '7 I Kings iv. or has died a natural death.6 The Deuteronomic legislation prohibits the eating of that which dies a natural death. ii. w s the flesh of stall-fed fattened animals. lx. '3 " 2 Sam. d 24. Cant. or that which served as such. xi 15. 7. " Isa. xiv. vi. 13. cf. ' Deut. 22. 5 . v. xi. The later legislation on the subject 8 puts that which dies a natural death and that which is killed by a beast of prey on the same level. i. xxii. ix.xxxiv.7. '5 Jer. 5. 2. 3).7 but allows it to be eaten by the stranger that is 'within the gates ' or to be sold to foreigners who may eat it. x i .10 The beef a more ordinarily eaten would be the flesh of oxen which might have been used for ploughing. xxiii. 5.xi. " Deut. The eating of such flesh.~deer. suggests a growing fastidiousness in the matter. xxxix. Lev. 14 . 19. 22. 34. g . only any one who is guilty of it. Religion ofthe Semites. xxvi.s and possibly moufflon. 7 .z roebuck. Ezek. 6. when eaten by the rich. 13. 15. 14. Exod.13 and were apparently kept in dovecots. g. viii.12 I t is somewhat strange that although doves and pigeons are never mentioned among the ordinary food in ancient Palestine. 21 . 4 . 3I. i. xlvi.) . xi " I Kings iv. forbids the eating of it by man and directs that it should be thrown to the dogs. xv. p. 3 Deut. 9 Gen.Jer. Ezek-xxxix.19 and small birds other than beasts of prey were eaten. iii. I 5 . The earliest legislation.. I Kings v. 7 . 4 Deut. must wash himself and his clothes and be unclean till the evening.
10 . iii. in the shade of which he might sit. The staple drink among the nomads would be water 10 or milk. 23. and says nothing about sycamore-figs. ii a Cant. 13 . I Chron. 16. 22. 14). 11. 3 ! I t is possible that the word taMzPh was once applied to some other tree. but the uplands were too cold for them. xiii. I2 Hos. Ezek. xvi. of course. 18. Lev. 3 Leather from the dugong is Lentioned (Ezek. l '3 Zech. '4 Amos vii. 6. Prov. cf.I and were evidently prized for their fresh juice. 19. 10. King of Moab. 4 .7 The supply seems to have come from the Dead Sea and its neighbourhood. 2 . 4 is applied to Mesha. Num. xvi. Has. were not highly prized as fruit. freshly pressed out grapejuice10 was sometimes taken as a beverage. m. viii. however.rendered ' sheepmaster '. s that the Greek translator.5 Dried and preserved fruits were also known. is taken by the Greek translator as a proper name. such as figs 6 and raisins. FRUIT 41 have been fairly common. 7 I Sam. ix. The Greek translation of Kings transliterates the Hebrew.13 The so-called ' sycomorefigs '. 15he says that he G* has been taken from following the flock. 23. I I. Applesf if the word tapp2i"h should be so understood. is by no means certain. be interpreted as meaning that the scent of the fair lady's breath is as delightful in its way as are apples in their way: compare the simile in PS. 'O Gen. xxv. I . v. &c. 3. cf. 20. xvii. Cant. i. xiii. 0 ' Amosiv. 25. xxiv. 15. xxvi. xlvii. xviii. 10. like the certainly not a b k . The simile in Cant. were regarded as fish. Num. xlvii. xxvii.8 and may originally have had a ritual significance. Salt was. 5. It may have meant some kind of fruit dried and pounded. 2. 7. vii. xiii. I . Job xli. 4. " Judges iv. 12. g. for in ver. apart from the manufacture of wine. cxxxiii. being familiar with the process but udhmiliar with the technical use with reference to sheep. 5 Lev. 46. Isa. x . Next to grapes were figs.8 Of fruits au nature1 we read of the following: grapes9 naturally head the list. In post-exilic times the Tyrians carried on a fish trade at Jerusalem. xi. It should probably. in districts sufficiently warm for their growth. 14 the Greek has mi[wv. In the later title of the book Amos is described as ' one of the ndpdhtm from Tekoa '. The text of the passage. The trees are mentioned as abundant in the foothills west of the main mountain range of Judah. v. Mic. 16.2 Water-melons are mentioned as growing in Egypt 3 and were evidently not unknown in parts of Palestine. ii. We also hear of nuts. 9 Num. Num.^^ wine not being drunk by those who. 8 is at first sight somewhat surprising. and in the E. 18. . ' scraping ' or ' pricking '. or possibly bruised grain.3 There is. 7 Job vi. a tender of oxen. iii.1 Cetaceans. which in 2 Kings iii. Mic. and as covering for the Tabernacle (Exod. 9 Hos. xvi. 2. 19.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM there are a considerable number of references to fishing. both ritually6 and as a condiment. 40. vii. xvi. no proof that the flesh was eaten. and it is not improbable that. I .7 Raisin cakes of some sort are mentioned. 4 Neh. i 9 2 Sam. What is meant by rQho"th9 is uncertain. The sycamore-fig is commonly infested by an insect which must be o removed by nipping or pricking. are mentioned among various other fruits. I . SALT. xi. The word for which bdkb is a misreading is probably nS&ih. 10. understood 733 to mean pricker '. iii. 2. Isa. 4 Joel i. xxv. 2 Sam. though they were eaten by the poor. v . xxx. 12. " Jer.12 I t was an ideal of peace and plenty that every man should possess a vine and a fig-tree." of which the first ripe fruit was considered a great delicacy. I Sam. Here the unfamiliar word. 14 is commonly supposed to refer directly to this fruit. however. however. needless to say. xxviii. xii. vii. commonly used. xi. Gen. xxiv. IO). 19. b * ~ p W~h is then an incorrect gloss to 733. 12. ii. 5 .V.5 The precedent for this may have arisen when the locusts had stripped the land of all other food. Isa. Ezek. Hab.14 Pomegranates seem to 40 2 . I I. Jer. h s was a LOCUSTS. 7 (sic). ix. 22. misread. vi. 19 . ' Num.4 I t is remarkable that locusts were regarded as legiti&ate food. and the fish-spears of which we have mention2 may have been harpoons used in spearing the dugong. In Amos vii. 2 Sam. 5 Cant.
4 The Hebrews liked rich greasy food and also sweet things. m. but it is suggested by the combination of shkha'r with yuyin (wine) otherwise than in parallel ism. 14. Religion ofthe Semites.^ Commonly mentioned in connexion with food and drink. 14 is an exception. Exod. 15 . 6 . ' Deut. needless to say. xxiv. 24 . 13. xxvii. xxx. Isa. . 14. cix.I2 and the guests at a feast. xliii.10 At feasts to which guests had especially been invited it was customary to send servants to fetch them.6 Ordinary wine was sometimes mixed with spice7 to make it more palatable. i. Ruth ii. 6 . but there happens to be no reference to such a thing. maintained unchanged the nomadic mode of life. Ruth iii. and when it was possible it was stored in rock-hewn cisterns. like ' old crusted ' port. ' the two oil-abounding ones '. 5 . who remember -r whose fathers have told them-what the water used to be like in the days of the old sailing vessels. I Jer. 11. 5. Judges ix. v. xxxi. Mic. xix. xxxv. ii.7 though hospitality to guests was bound by no set rules. 22. Cant. 2 Kings xviii. with a more intelligible translation of the idiomatic Hebrew phrase. Judges xix. xliii. xxix. 7 . ' Isa.+ I t is noteworthy that the word for a banquet or feast is literally a drinking. as being fermented. are the two olive-trees mentioned above (ver. XX. Robertson Smith. Lev. Wine which had been kept for a considerable time and had been carefully strained. 3. 4. 6 ff. p. viii. xxv. was not confined to the nomadic population. ii. v. 8 . XXXi. Judges xiii. . 3 . ii.1 Water dri-ng. 16. 6.Jer. 13 . ix. xviii. 6 . 23. 3 Amos vi. hence the metaphorical expressions ' the kidney-fat of the oil ' and ' the kidneyfat of the vintage and of the corn '. i29-31. Hag. I. 4. xviii. i.9 The topers whom Isaiah denounced began their potations in the early morning and continued till evening. " 2 Kings iii. 34 .3 it is evident that a certain amount of alcoholic exhilaration at a feast was not only condoned but regarded as proper. which provide a continual supply of oil to the reservoir of the lampstands. i.3 especially of the kidney fat . g . 1 2 . Prov. 14 ff. was much prized.. Whether any kind of alcoholic liquor (Heb. cf. cf. shkhir) other than grape-juice was drunk is uncertain. 3 Isa. Vinegar was taken as a condiment : it was forbidden to Nazirites. 11. and such people will readily conjecture what the water collected in the rock-hewn cisterns was like when the supply was getting low ! It is therefore probable that all who could afford it mixed wine with the water. " Prov. It is noteworthy that this word is newer used of the sacred anointing oil. xxv. xxx. 2 . cf. 18 ff. i. 26. 25 . Exod. 12. 9 I Sam. even when we should expect it. v. 6. 6 .2 I t isnot improbable that there are some still living.X. ix. at all Zech. 7 ." Before a meal began hands were washed by having water poured over them. but in many places fresh spring water was not available throughout the year. I I ) . 2nd ed. 'O Isa. LCV. xxviii. I I . 4 Num. Saul took leave of Samuel in the early morning without partaking of any breakfast. I Sam. Gen. iv. I Sam.5 MEALS A N D BANQUETS The chief meals of the Hebrews appear to have been at noon and in the evening. I.* Presumably some light refreshment was taken in the morning before work was begun. d . Prov. 7 for unction. 11. Gen. Isa. Zeph. 20. I. yiShar). 4. was olive oil (Heb. Isa. 4 Gen. The two 'sons of oil ' or. though perhaps more frequently used in lamps and "er.1 Sltmen is actually used of olive oil. xlviii. 7 Gen. Prov. 32 . See W.6 . 24 . 2. which is always sltmen. ix. xxviii. 5 Isa. 2. I I . From the warnings against the misuse of wine in the Book of Proverbss the temptation to drunkenness would seem to have been somewhat greater in the Greek period. i. 17. PS. Although drunkenness is unsparingly denounced in the Hebrew Scriptures. v. viii. 383.42 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM WINE AND OIL 43 Rechabites.= but its original meaning seems to have been animal grease.
I x 7 Prov. I Kings ii.4 The portion of each guest was separately served. '3 I Sam. when every great feast was a sacrifice held in the vicinity of an altar. Amos vi. 1 . 157 f. 3 I Sam. unlike the latter appears to have been a fairly tight belt or sash. It is not impossible that the 'snow in the time of harvest '. If made of leather. 5 . xix. I I. was common2 and these would naturally be provided for guests. Elijah's W r is of skin or leather. cf. Dan. . N o r t h JVigcria. 13. " 9 Gen.6 In the Greek period the wealthy delighted in that which was rare. xviii. X k . and I King 1 Cf. Aii.. I I. 3. Zech. 8 .8 Feasts. Chronicurn Syrianrm. xii. 24.1 CLOTHING In clothing.44 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM events those who had come from a journey. 7. 3 . Isaiah 5 contrasts the pgdrb of such with the rope or leash with which the ladies captured by the enemy will be tied together and carried into slavery. it would afford some protection to the lower part of the body. iii. a BANQUETS. xliii. i. xxviii. 4. 14 a Gen. as at the present day.3 At such a feast grace was said before meat. as might be expected.9 Ruth ii. i. i. g . 3. In the later period good manners at meals are insisted upon. which. cf. 4. X w t h Nigeria. " ROV. See Meek. which in form is identical with the Arabic kdr. xxiv. had their feet washed. ba'al sirdr). iii. xliii. xiii. 8. till the word covered not only the simple loin-covering. XX. . 10. xxv. was a special feature in the sumptuous banquet when the physician Bochtyeshua entertained the Chalif Mutawakkil. Deut. d. I t is nowhere stated that the sword was directly attached to it. Such conventionswould not be observed by the poorer classes. xxiii. I Sam. 24. apparently. was something tied round the waist and seems to have developed in different ways. 2 Kings iii. 3 Gen. but he is described as a 'hairy man' (Heb. strictly speaking. pp. li. Mic. 2 4 Amos vi. 11. i. 2. 4 4 I Sam. v.g worn round the waist to gather in the coat or mantle. 4 f. Sarah does not eat with Abraham and his guests I2 and it is implied that Elkanah takes his meal apart from Peninnah and her children and from Hannah. was fetched from the top of Hermon and took the place of ices with us. vol. 2 Sam. 5. At any rate many centuries later snow. 2 Kings l. xviii. 6. vi. 21 .* but also the elaborate broad sash worn by wealthy ladies. Jer.6 It was.9 were frequentlyenlivened with music. and we find Ruth eating with the reapers. 20. 5. a t least among those who could afford them. Gen. 3. xvi. X. In pre-exilic times. i Sam. 7. cf. The story of Adam and Eve's girdles of fig-leaves2 is due perhaps to the knowledge that somewhat similar girdles were worn by various tribes in Africa.s and the amount of food sent to each was in proportion to the honour it was desired to pay him. Meek. See Barhebraeus.I0 but it is not clear whether this was during the actual progress of the meal. there is evidence of as much diversity between poor and rich as in our own country in the Middle Ages between the peasant and the prince. pp. iii. ' Isa. the izdr. 8. 41 f.3 The simplest clothing appears to have been the girdle (Heb. PS. xviii. Some sort of Pgdri was also worn by warrion. . I f. Paris ed. I 2 . 32. 40. Gen. xiii." In earlier times it would seem that women took their meals apart from the men.1 The use of unguents. CLOTHING 45 ample of Hebrew usage. 6 . more than a mere belt and rather of the nature of an apron hung from the waist and reaching to the thigh.13 Esther can scarcely be quoted as an exGen. Dan. 5 Gen. *gdrd). iii. xviii. in summer time. 5 . it seems naturally essential that all the guests should be consecrated. v.7 mentioned as something rare and acceptable. 2d. xii 34. loc.? On the other hand. which were often held in the open air. 15 . 10. Isa. 5 Isa. ix. (m) Sam.
23. xiii. 46 I 47 CLOTHING The tunic was not worn in bed.I6 and also weaving. d. and the priests when not engaged in sacrificial ritual. a. i. xxxi. 2. and with the object of doing some manual labour. Judges m. who states that the tunics were of skin or leather. i.' but it was the custom entirely to undress. 18. 20. 21. 4 . 13. 26) . xxii. s. 25 (E. xi. As worn by the gentry it was a long-sleeved garment reaching to the ankles. Prov. X.12 The tunic was of woven fabric. 18. Cant. 27.11 For active exercise the tunic would be pulled up above the knees and tucked into the belt. It was worn both by men 6 and by women.4. 9 Exod. 6. 6 . 3 ii x s. Jer. Jer. which served as bedclothes. I . xviii. although the superficially similar Exod.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM that is. i. Deut. Cant. Deut. not open down the front. 26. but the narrator of the story of Adam and Eve. Judges viii. we read of scarlet (shcini.e. Sam.13 perhaps inferred this from a knowledge of some primitive African tribes. the one &p being pulled over the other and secured by the strap or sash. I' Joshua ii. xi. xxxi. Isa. xxiv. 21. 42 . the chief official in Hezekiah's palace. 2 Sam. 26 . 13. 4 Num. vi. 24. f ii ' Gen. On the extremely probable suppositionthat Jeremiah ii went not to the Euphrates but to Wady Fara. 22. 30.Is but these seem to have been used for costly fabrics. xli. 18 Num. The part between the folds above the strap served as a pocket. xxii. 7.I and not like Esau growing his own hair. 12. xi s.3 It appears to have been slipped over the head. 13. 7 Prov. g. x i 10.7 Varieties of linen seem to have been used. 26 . '3 Gen. . It had wide skirts which would fall into folds. Prov. xxxi. Jonah iii.Zech. iv. Under the simla' or next the skin a tunic (ktho'tuth or kutto'ruth)I0 was worn. iv. iv. wrapping oneself up in the outer covering (simli). and in a royal robe might be extremely voluminous. 18f.23.xxiv. Jer. 4.4 Jeremiah's Zzdr was of linen. I. i. I I. 4 Exod. i . the natural appears in inference from the fact that the word &cth general to be a woven fabric. Certainly the hairy mantle worn by the later prophets 3 was of woven hair.5 Woven fabrics were composed of wool6 and of flax. 13.14 and vio1et. X.24. I. xiii. Spinning was done at home. 5 Ia vi. What the material called dshi 11 was is quite uncertain. 13. v. Ia iii. 2 Sam. Ezek. Ezek.6r in order to remove the coat which it fastened. It is scarcely possible to interpret this law otherwise than literally. Ezek. 21. d. 7 Dem. x i 13. we may suppose that he took off the G. 3. x i . Zech. 38. xxxix. Exod.i x " Gen. was the simlti or salma'. xxxi. xxvii. This is. Exod. 2 Sam. wore as an outer garment a long robe (m"t4. I I. Isaiah pictures Jehovah enthroned as King.Job i. purple. 3. Shebna. " Ezek. 3 5 . at least. 6 f.2 It is not suggested that the hair is on the leather Zzdr. the word in the plural being used for clothing generally. It is not impossible that they were originally amulets or charms to which a new significance was given. wearing a garment of woven hair.'.12 also t6la-"3). 4. It is probable that there were many recipes for dyeing homely stuffs. 3 .Jer. 18. '7 Judges x i 13. Ia xlii. Prov. I C . 19. 27. " Gen.V. Deut. A person wearing such a tunic was fully dressed. 3I . 18. 18. xxii.xii. * Prov. since in addition to the ordinary word for flax 8 we find badh 9 and shsh 10 used to denote some sort of linen. 20.7 and appears to have been practically unshaped.17 The stringent and curious law which prescribes twisted thread tassels on the corners or flaps of the outer garment 18 is difficult to explain. and similarly the camel's hair worn by John the Baptist was distinct from his leather belt. iv. xxvii. . '5 Jer. v. g . xv. i . Dyeing was practised . xxxvii. viii. v. 17.2 The upper classes. 14.* The & was open down the front. 9 I S m i . " Gen. s. iii. 3 I 4 Joshua i i 21.xxii. 11 . xv. 5. 11.39 . xi.4 i.24 .5 The ordinary outer garment. the skirts of His robe covering the Temple floor. wore a tunic with a girdle or sash round the waist. ver. '3 Isa. Ia xxii. which was perhaps sometimes worn merely over a loin-cloth. 13. iii. v.
iii. 26). for a woman in her position. 8. 3 (LXX). g. 5.20. 37. Isa. 25 (E. 16. 24. ' Gcn. 6. a ' pair of shoes ' being a proverbial expression for something of little value. 37. I=. xvi.48 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM SANDALS. iii. In the days of the monarchy and even later the head was shaved in mourning. G . xxii.vii. but from other indications also. Isa. 5 Amos ii. 4 . Jer. Isa. For the reading p o t & h of the Massoretic text we should probably readf'at&hZn. Jobi. vi. was de rigueur. 30 . cf. except in mourning. xv. appear to have worn some sort of turban or headband. xxiv. however. xli. 23. xliv. 6 . 5. Isa.9 Shaving the hair on the forehead is forbidden in the Deuteronomic law. 2.3 if it were always covered ? Moreover the anointing of the head 4 with oil implies that the head to which the unction is applied is bare. in the case of men. cf. xiv. It would be interesting to see the conclusions at which an expert etymologist would arrive. xx. 3 . cf. or perhaps shoes which covered merely the front part of the foot.5 Considerable attention seems to have been given to hairdressing. ' 2 Sam.7 Jezebel has frequently been blamed unjustly for what in her days.Jer. if with nothing to guide him but etymology he attempted to interpret a catalogue of an Oxford Street or Regent Street drapery firm ! Mention may be made of the common practice among women of blackening the edges of the eyelids to increase the apparent brilliancy of the eyes. Esther vi. 15. xlviii. i .6 A large number of articles pertaining to ladies' dress and adornment are enumerated in Isa. Compare the similar metaphor in PS. i. a to a very limited shaving of the head. 31 . iii. lxii. 26. however.xvi. o . 29. Jer. v. 30 . 17. however. xxv. which we may perhaps translate 'their shingled hair 7 Lev. xxiii. Joshua ix. meaning that Jehovah's teaching written on the heart is to take the place of amulets bound on the arm and of magic formulae inscribed on door-posts and gates. 5. " Deut. x a . HAIRDRESSING 49 injunction to bind certain commandments on the hand and to write them upon the door-posts and on the gates I may be metaphorical. xix. 23 . xxviii.2 This may be inferred not only from actual references to the covering of the head in mourning. the corner of the beard also. as ' Jer. xiv.s which was also worn by women. and etymology in such a connexion may well prove an ignis fatuus. 6. 12.Jer. xv. 18. Men of rank.4 They were usuaJly of simple construction. r Sam. Ezek. In regard to many of these. 5. impossible to accept as accurate the weight of his yearly growth of hair! Two hundred shekels must be equivalent to nearly three pounds and three quarters-enough to stuff a very large sofa-pillow. cxli. Although in Old Testament times women in general were freer and held a higher position than under Islam. xiv. x n 2 Sam. Prov. Eztk. we have no guide to the meaning except etymology.3 These were fastened by a thong. If we may take Absalom as an example of what was usual. and this latter injunction was certainly not enforced before the exile. laymen as well as priests. How could a hoary head be generally regarded as a crown of gl0ry. 3 5 '. xi 5. There was a fashion (condemned as foreign and heathenish)' to clip the hair short on the temples and. 30. for it is associated with a prohibition of laceration of the flesh in mourning. 2. 9 Mic.* It is.V. xii.' I t would seem that in general men left their heads uncovered. I. l.= On the feet were worn sandals. Some sort of elaborate coiffure seems to be referred to in Isaiah's threat to the Jerusalem ladies of the fate in store for them. viii. In fairness to her memory let it be said that nothing so became her in life as the dignified and courageous way in which she left it. 4 PS. 3 Deut. 18. 27. xvi. ICY. 3 .Io but it cannot safely be argued that this law refers Deut. xlviii. 2 Kings i . 20. 1 2 . iv. Sv. 27 . 6. men had their hair cut from time to time.6 The point is that that which they regard as an adornment will be shorn off when they are sold as slaves.
2.Pmv.3 This is also indicated by the historian's care to give the names of the mothers of kings. Cant. 15. Ruth iii. Isa. 65. and the sage who compared living with a contentious woman to the misery of experiencing a continual dropping of water from a leaky roof 7 seems to write from experience. 9 I Sam. cf. clearly had a religious significance.ii. though we have a full appreciation of the blessings of married love. 34 . would doubtless have found a common bond of sympathy. v. Lam. I 5. g. Jer. 2 Kings iii.xiv. 10.xvi.16ff. xx.6 but in connexion with both it is difficult to say what was merely the expression of jou & vivrt. 1-12. i I Sam. 15. 27. cl.xxxviii. which would of course be celebrated with a great amount of eating and drinking.Ps. Similarly Esau. xxxviii. vi.. cf. Job d. xiv.viii.2 The fiht lady in the land. 14.s we read of both music and dancing . Pmv. though even in this case the dancing may well have originated in some religious or superstitiousideas. " Gen. v. Ezek. and one possessing no small amount of influence.d 4 . i . howesco rtf~tm. Isa. I t would seem that except young girls at work women habitually were veiled in public. 16. 7.8 but music was not confined to professionals.'. Neh. Abraham does not introduce Sarah. The ch%telaine of a mansion.12 So with dancing : on some occasions '3 the dancing. 26. Gen. 7 Gen. Prov. MUSIC. Bishop Proudie. xxxi. Sad's daughter. they were nevertheless subject to a considerable amount of social disability. xv.2f. so charmingly described in the Book of Proverbs. 18. v. 10.19.10but the music mentioned on the occasion of David's attempt to bring the Ark from the house of Abinadab. neither asks to be introduced to his sisters-in-law nor shows that interest in his nephews and nieces which might have been expected from a new-' found uncle. Prov. 29 . 6 f. The ' strange woman '.s would have stood no nonsense.v.~g-21. 5 . 4 I Kings xi.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM is instanced by such characters as Deborah. WOMEN. xxx.5ff. .3qYxxi. 14. David's dance ' before the Lord ' 14 was Prov. xxii. who took precedence of the Queen Consort. xviii.e. 14. xviii. had quite as much spirit as any of Jane Austen's heroines. Nevertheless many women were people to be reckoned with. xxvi. was the Greek Cralpa.9.16. Job d. Lam. 8. S I Chron. xix. 22 . xxiv. xxi. 3 rKingsii. v . We read of professional musicians both in the early 7 and late periods . and others. 21. Isa. xlvii. ii. what it was to be henpecked. v.1 Apparently. &c. 2 Sam.I I .12 . Judgesxi.. nor would any one have attempted it with her. Michal.4 Apropos of festive occhions. 4 Gen. d . DANCING 51 ings. 12. Eccles. and her mother-in-law Naorni has to ask who she is. PS. xxxi. 2 . Moreover. 21 . in which men and women danced separately. 42.1 Ruth keeps her veil on when she returns home after spending the night at the threshing-floor. X. 31. and what had a quasi-religious significance and was due to superstition. d 15. i.vii. could he have compared experiences with several patriarchal characters. 5 ..10. xvi. Huldah. 3 Gen. the foreign woman against whom the Book of Proverbs contains such earnest warn50 Gen. was apparently the expression of jou & Uivre. i. .3ff. was the Queen Mother. 16. '3 Judge x . xxiv. iv. prostitutes could be distinguished by their dress. while the music of the ecstatic prophets obviously was used to stimulate the prophetic ecstasy.9 The music mentioned in connexion with social festivities may perhaps be regarded as due to joie & Uivre. 2 S 7 Sam. " 2 Sam. though both in her case and that of Rebekah 3 an introduction by the husband might have saved the wife from insult and mortification. the wealthy Shunammite lady who showed hospitality to Elisha. when his cowardly brother sends his wives and children on before him." being ' before the Lord '.2 A woman was not introduced to her husband's guests. 35. 4. x x 13.6 we have also descriptions which show that the Hebrews knew.vii.
likewise forbidden by the Deuteronomic law. but great catastrophes produced in many respects like manifestations of grief. the head was shaved-apparently entirely ~I-and the beard clipped. 30 . iv. 3 2 Sam. 37 . 6 . xxxi. 5 . x i 10. The dances of girls in the vineyard. it was customary to rend the clothes4 and to sprinkle earth or ashes upon the head. 28. c. i. iii. 12.5 Hair cloth (' sackcloth') was adopted as clothing. 4-21. iii. iii. &C. 17. I Kings xx. 9 2 Kings xix. For the dead.6 This. 2. 11. Ezek. 31. 3 . 33 f. 3 Exd. vii. xxv. v#. 18. i. 18. 1 . Upon the receipt of bad news or in the presence of sudden calamity. was the laceration of parts of the body. 8. 17." Besides the Book of Lamentations (over Jerusalem) we have David's ktndth over Saul and Jonathan I 2 and over Abner '3 : there is also a mock lament in the form of a ktna over the King of Babylon. xxiv.7 was regarded as a painful indignity. 7 9 2 Gen. which resembled the outer covering of the professional prophets. Jer. LAMENTS 53 In the strongest contrast to occasions of rejoicing were those of mourning. 7 2 Kings i. 6. iv. 15. '3 2 Sam. 2. 27 . Gtn. Ezek. 17-27.15 which normally ' Isa. I Sam. death .13.Jer.6 or buried without due form and ceremony. xiii.1 It seems also to have been a sign of mourning to go barefoot. Another sign of mourning. clothes should be rent 8 and audible lamentation made. 8 . '4 Mic. X. Joshua vii. Ig ff. Amos vi.I0 Professional wailers. iii. 34 . xiii. 2 Chron. xiv. xix. xiv.22 . Jer. Zech. 2 Sam. 30. xvi. 4. 10. Ezek. 25. xiii. 12. cf. xlviii. Job xvi. a Hos. cf. xvi. . 24. 30. 4 31. i . I 2 . 2 Sarn. 13 ff. ?S Lev. I Kings xxi. 2 Kings vi. xxxv. I 7 . and also of the lips. contrast Lev. usually women (mekdn'no"th) were employed to sing the lament or wake-song (kfna).Jer. 2 Sam. " 2 Sam. 16 . were subject to various taboos.' like the vintage songs. Isa. 4 34 . 16 (E. 19.Joshua vii. . Isa. xv. xix. vii. xli.HEBREW LIFE A N D CUSTOM obviously apotropaic and was intended to avert an occurrence of the catastrophe when Uzzah died. " Mic. * 2 Sam. xxxiv.9 . &c.Jer. but others also joined in. 45. i. i . xxiv. Jer. cf. xxii. xx.15 ' Jer. ) " Amos v.3 DEATH Dead bodies. xiv. 4. 4 (like the hair of an orthodox Greek priest) would be coiled up. 5 . xli. Ezek. iv.2 Mourners beingregarded as under Divinedispleasure. I Sam. Ixv. xv.2 as well as the dancing after a sacrificial feast. I Sam. 12. Sam. cf. 5 . Isa.12 We read also of the covering of the head '3 in mourning. 2 Chron.14 Among those who habitually wore some covering to the head it was a sign of mourning to let the hair go loose.Io which forbids the shaving of the front part of the head. iv. 5 . xxii. 52 MOURNING M O U R N I N G . Previous to the introduction of the Deuteronomic law. x I 7. 3 I .5 To be unburied. x. i. Gen.7 was worn next to the skin.s probably had their origin in nature-worship superstition. 7 . 18. I o. 4 x . 'O Deut. naturally. 4 '5 2 Chron. 16. I .14 At burials there were also burnings of spices. f Judges xxi. I Isa. 5 Num. Lev. 2 f. 33 f ' . xix. . d 19. 'O Jer. I . 8 .8 but sometimes apparently over other clothing 9 or at least externally. xxxvii. 2 . Jer. The most common cause of ceremonial mourning was. xv. xxiv. their food being regarded as unclean. 6. 30. 6 . even of heroesf were regarded as unclean. xxxv. Ezek.V.
e. whereas the base-born Jephthah is evidently so called 3 because he is already recognized as a doughty warrior. The word seems to have come to mean one who belongs to the knightly class. xvi. So likewise it is clear from several passages6 that the gibbdr is not necessarily identical with the man of war. xxxix. although we find him employed in a civil occupation. or perhaps agricultural and pastoral.g. I . 28. I Sam. Ezek. or ben ' son '. alas. This is indeed evident h m the fact that the words gibbdr I and &yr'I. too Commonly rendered in the English version ' mighty man'. 20. 7 . xiv. 5 I Kings xi. 3 Judges xi. though there is no hint of his having distinguished himself in war. and consequently those who had won their possessions by the sword became the aristocracy of the land. that of the expert warrior. and p which is then rendered ' valour Z followed by & P a This word. who up to the time of the Theophany vouchsafed to him seems to have led an agriculturalist.g.when used to qualify M ' man '. 52. Saul's father 4 is similarly described. or in other words a gentleman. life. even when there is no hint of a military career. THE '. The same term is applied to Jeroboam 5 also. the most honourable career was. is addressed by the angel as gibbdr &y'I . . loses all sense of military force. 2 Kings xv. more plutocratic days the expression could be used of the wealthy. 20. It is no argument that in later. I 8 .? for our own English history affords. sometimes seem merely to denote high rank. which seems originally to mean ' force '.I .LECTURE MANLY OCCUPATIONS : WARRIORS Hebrew Scriptures afford several indications that. for a considerable period after the final settlement in Palestine of the Hebrew invaders.* which in their original significance suggest martial prowess. e. I Sam-ix. Thus Gideon. as we should expect.
33.16 but the art was doubtless developed normally in hunting rather than in war. That the ro'mah was much shorter than a modern lance is implied by the fact that ecstatic dervishes used it to lacerate their own bodies. iii. PS.6 and Abram's 318 home-born slaves are ' trained '. a lady. 7 Judges iii. 20.'s and the use of the sling was brought to as high efficiency as the use of the boomerang among Australian aborigines.4 The sword might be of full length.. 4. I . the latter was sometimes ' Judges xx. 4 . Num. 16. Prov.5 I n either case it was kept in a sheath attached to a belt worn round the waist and carried on the left thigh. xxii. 5 Judges iii.e. I Sam. 5 . cxxvii. is a lady. however. &c. ' 5 2 Kings iii. I6 Judges xx.8 The Deuteronomic law 9 lays down regulations for mitigating the hardships of conscription. thus disarming suspicion. Job xvi. Whether there was any difference between the warrior's quiver and that of the hunter (tdli.7 i. Deut. 12. xviii. for warfare. 47. &c. the organization of which she keeps in her own hands and in the work of which she takes a prominent part. 2. I2 Isa. when not in use. ordinarily consisted of a sword (hbrebh). I Kings xxii. xx.10 I The offensive equipment of a warrior. 16. Thus there are indications of archery practice at targets. Isa. Gen. Judges xviii. and a spear or pike (rimah) 3 used like a modern bayonet at close quarters.e.IZ and (at least sometimes) were poisoned. accustom him to the use of the sword. cf. &c. 10 f. and while being held for stringing was kept in place by the foot : hence ' to tread the bow ' 14 means to string it. 9 f. cxlix. 3 4 3 5 7 9 e. xlvi. Thus Boaz declares that Ruth-about whom there is nothing virago-like-is a woman of hayil. I Kings xviii. 2 . 4. which originally denoted warlike efficiency. I4 Isa. I7 I Sam. 20. xvii. By reason of his social pre-eminence Boaz is styled gibbdr hayil. the savage brutalities and the looting which were allowed after the capture of a besieged city. xlix. 7 . 8 . xlviii. 5 ff. ix. v. 4. 12 f. xxvii. . I.gfm). 3) is uncertain. EQUIPMENT 57 many examples of purchased aristocracy. xiv. Ruth ii. 16. Judges viii.' a javelin (hanfth) for hurling at the foe. 6. or short and two-edged. I Sam. 13 ff. 2. Prov. Defensive equipment consisted of a helmet (ko'bha') '7 and a breastplate (shirydn or sirydn)18. Similarly the word hayil. 38) . 28. cf. Gen. WARRIORS. Judges v. xxxi. 3. being lefthanded. was of course left unstrung. I' Isa. though there are a few hints of some such training. 25 . 28. Slingers are mentioned as taking part in warfare. 33. xx.Io which were sharpened I1 and rubbed smooth. xx. xxii. xx. xvii. iii. Moreover Goliath is described as a warrior from his youth. 46. Judges viii. I Sam. hardships which to some extent explain. xvii.8 and a quiver (ashpa) 9 containing arrows (hi.13 The bow.4 The selection of a mere youth to slay notable prisoners of war 5 is evidently to. 4 I Sam. Gen. xxv. xvii. I 4 .56 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM GENTLEMEN. Amos v. 28 . 9 Isa. Lam. 44. 16 .' though of his fighting proclivities we find no hint. 2. xx. 5. 39. In ver. carried his sword on his right side. 32. xix. the head of a large household. I8 I Sam. 6. The ideal matron whose praise is sung in Prov. '3 Job vi. In war-time.7 In addition to these was a bow (kbsheth). 20 . PS. 12. if they do not extenuate. 22 . 54. I0 2 Kings xix. 34.. &c. v. 45. Of actual training for war we have no precise description. 6 (Heb. v. and therefore above suspicion. lix. Lam. Jer. Ruth iii. xviii. 17. 5 . a I Sam. I I . Judges xx. xlix. 10 we can keep the rhythm of the English version by substituting c Who can find a Lady Bountiful ? ' for the pessimistic (and inaccurate) query ' Who can find a virtuous woman ? ' But to return to the warriors. and those to whom the term is applied are gentlemen and ladies.z acquires the meaning of that which entitles to respect. the whole male population might be called up. (see also uer. I0 Deut. Note that Ehud. unit being the contingent furnished by a particular town. the military.g. xvii.3 i.).
2 I. is that the overlapping plates were attached to the lower edge of the breastplate and formed a protection for the lower part of the body. Isa. 23. 7 Deut. those who fought from chariots and those who rode on horseback. have a somewhat wider meaning. ver. xvii. 37. xviii. I .5 Their later emulation of their neighbours in this respect called forth many an indignant protest from the prophets.4 I t was pointed out by Robertson Smith that the right translation of I Sam. xiv. 6. 2 Sam. xvii. xiv. Mic. xxi. . The former interpretation has been inferred from Jer. 41 is ' the man (sc.6 Horses were not bred in Palestine. to be noted that the word hdrkh. 6. I . Deut. 7. The mention of the anvil in Isa. however. ' Rivets ' would. and when not needed in actual conflict it was carried before the warrior to whom it belonged by a person called a gear-carrier (Scottice 'caddie ') . where the ass was the ordinary beast of burden. g (E. when worn. d'bhakim). 2 I . that the corresponding verb 6 is used for putting on various sorts of equipment. 5. Hos. 34. 7 Isa. 54. i. I Kings xx. which receives some support from Jer. xxv. Isa. or towards the manufacture of armour. 5.. I . xxiii. The shoes mentioned in Isa. I I. 27. i. however. rendered ' goldsmith '.3 This seems large shield (~inna) to have been part of the equipment of the ordinary soldier. xli. xliv. Goliath) was carrying the great shield in front of him '-consequently no part of him was exposed except his face. 2 Sam. 16 . 8 . but were imported from Egypt. xvii.7 to which the sword was probably attached. is equally applicable to one who smelts any sort of ore. I . 10.4 It is not quite clear what is to be understood by the warrior's girdle (hago"ra). &c. xvii. 27. 16. 5 2 Kings iii. xli.swhich perhaps formed some protection for the lower part of the body.V. 5 I Kings xx.8 Goliath were of bronze.V. 4 Judges ix. I Sam. 8 (E.V. and also I Chron. X. Isa. 28). 12 ff. Isa. This word is usually rendered ' nails '. 7 is directed towards the making of idol images to help in the crisis. 3 . I Sam. Amos iv. Judges v. xvii. and that sdrt'ph. 16 . 4 I Kings xxii. Besides the mtfghZn there was a very covering the whole body. 1 In addition to the armour which he wore the warrior carried a shield (mtfghZn). though commonly used of one who refines precious metals. and there is no evidence that the plates hung down below it. ver. WAR-HORSES 59 formed of overlapping plates (kaskassim) I attached to the the breastplate with rivets (ma~merim). Deut. 13 . xli. when used of a warrior. v. X. iv. The former interpretation best suits the description of Goliath's breastplate. i. 16 . xi. xli. 3) . v. Unfortunately it is not quite clear whether the sarcasm in Isa. and fought best on foot. 7.3 Another interpretation. 5 . suit that passage equally well. 26. 7. iii. Zzo"r. g. 41 .z which was greased to make the surface more slippery. v.7 Cavalry. 1 Sam.58 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM ARMOUR. I t is to be noted. xvii. According to the former explanation of the breastplate the arrow that killed Ahab penetrated between the overlapping plates and the frame to which they were attached. Isaiah mentions a belt. 28. 3 I Kings X. appear to have been of the ordinary kind. 2 Chron. xxii. Kings ii. The legs were somewhich in the case of times protected with greaves (mi~ha). 11. 4 (E. ' I Sam. who saw with alarm the growth of a jingo spirit . rendered ' carpenter' in Isa. 5. 4. 10) . It is. xli 7 does not seem applicable to the beating of gold plates. Isa. I Sam. 7.* That division of the army which may be regarded as cavalry seems to have consisted of two classes. 41. so that it required an expert marksman to hit a vulnerable spot. Eccles. however. ii. may equally well mean ' smith '.). 5) are those worn by foreign soldiery. seem to have been employed by the Hebrew kings in early times.V. however. 39 . and the word hagdra may therefore. I Kings X. 7 . xv. 4 (cf.~ point of junction of the plates with the frames of the breastplate being called dibhek (pl. xvii. I Kings v. ix. a rendering a Isa. I Sam. did not originally possess cavalry. 3. 3 Isa. however. Shoes. 4. ver. The Hebrews being highlanders rather than dwellers in the plains. xxxi. 2 Sam. 4 (E. Judges iii. xii.
Gen. In fact. iv. '3 Judges vii. 32. in later times. I Kings xx. 5 I ff. since there is no mention of infantry. 31 ff. meaning ' horse '. 2. We read also of cavalry officers. l' Gen. cavalry formed an important part of an army. Camels were a source of wealth to those who continued to lead a nomadic life. 9 Exod. " I Kings xxii.2 Besides the rakkibh of a chariot we hear of a warrior called shilish. Among those elements of the population of Palestine who could trace their lineage back to the people whom Moses had led out of Egypt. Shepherding is regarded in that document of the Pentateuch known as J as one of the earliest occupations. 2. for example.3 Abrahamf Isaac. however. connected with the noun rakkibh is also used of the rider of the ass behind which apparently the Shunammite lady rode pillion (2 Kings iv.II but merely that such agriculture as they undertook was not their main source of wealth." &c. xxx. In Jer. 3 See 2 Kings vii.. 2 Sam. I g. I 7. xxxvii. xi. having under them respectively a thousand. I 6 . 10.9 &C. 8 . 19. and it may originally have denoted the third man in a chariot. 2 Kings xiii. I0 I Sam. Jer..6 Jacob and his sons. The verb. The King was. the war-lord.~ Jabal. which the Mmsoretes always understood in the sense of ' horsemen '. are large sheep-owners. 32. the possession and care of flocks and herds seems to have been regarded as altogether superior to agriculture as a livelihood. 12. 5 Gen. 37 . 4 Exod. the most common source of livelihood and. 28. xxxvi. Jer. . Jesse. Gen.ix. The connexion in which we find the word. 21. 5. " Gen. Gen. xuii. xiii. 25.6 and the numerous references to infantry 7 make it clear that. Although the owner might. 4 . " 2 Kings i. I 5.~ Laban. 29 . cf. as is instanced by Abel. 6 . 7.g. the next in importance to the life of a warrior. xiv. But under him there was a chief of the army (sar ha.7 and. 21 . 2 Kings iii. 4. 2. X. xvii. 25.ibhi)B together with a number of subordinate officers. 25 ff. S I Sam. socially. Isa. 5 See Exod. 11. 7 . to the rank and file. xlvi. 9 I Sam.60 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM TACTICS : FLOCKS AND HERDS 61 Ahab rides in a chariot driven by a charioteer (rakkibh). xvi. 7. xlvi. 14. I ff. I Sam. 2. xxx. 34. This word apparently means ' a third man '. We may be pretty certain that flocks and herds had been seized by the Chaldeans. xviii. Isa. at all events when the narratives took shape. 7 Exod. 7 Gen. 24). 17. 43. xxx. OWNERS OF FLOCKS AND HERDS ' 2 Kings ix. xlvi. . xxviii. . horses. 20. 2 . 4. 19.' but if we may trust the pointing of the Hebrew the same word elsewhere is used of a rider on horseback. xxvi.g a hundred. of course. 55 . . Num. I Sam. Cavalry (in our sense of the term) evidently existed. g-H. was the possession of sheep and goats and cattle. iv.10 This must not be understood as meaning that those who led the life of Bedouin never cultivated land. xiii. I I . there was nothing derogatory to his rank in tending the animals himself with the help of his family.8 Nabal. * E. 16. xii. are indicated. cf. and to make the attack at three points simultaneously. 23. Of military organization we have a few hints. xlv. iv. 2 Kings xxv. xii. " See.~~ The siege opera' I Kings xxii. It is to be noted that there is a word pirhsh. g. scarcely favours such an etymology. but otherwise it is unlikely that they were in general use.3 The shiltshtm of Pharaoh4 belonged apparently to the cavalry. employ slaves to oversee his flocks and herds. 3 Gen. xv. xxv. 10. for example. I Kings i. xiv.12 The favourite tactics in attacking seem to have been to divide the attacking force into three. Of the sieges carried out by Israelites I we have no precise information. not horsemen. however. Judges ix. 2 Sam. like Abraham. I Sam.Io fifty men.s but not. Judges xx. tions of which we read are for the most part directed against Israel by foreigners. Isa. it would seem. I 7 . and the possession of them would be almost a necessity to those who lived on the edge of the desert. and therefore need not be discussed here. and it has evidently come to be the title of an officer. xxii. xv. xi. 4. xi.
6. I 3 7. 19. Zeph. 8. xxv. 20 . 8 .9 which were evidently sheep dogs. i. 17. 13 . '3 Jer. Hab. 7 2 Sam.IO a lion might be scared away with shouts. PS. 12. 1. &c.9 Occasionally. i. 6 . 9 Isa. There was. feared than lions. which gives the Hebrew equivalent for ' out of the frying-pan into the fire '. I g. was shearing-time. Gen. . much to be done in a shepherd's life beyond taking care that his sheep should not stray and bringing them to the watering: as a matter of fact a shepherd's life was a hard and strenuous one. 13-20. Shepherding involved watching in the cold of the night and in the heat of the day.xi. Jer. A bear robbed of her whelps is an example of the fiercest of living creatures. 13. xlix. such as lions. however. 17. Job xxx. xliv. 38. 6. however. xxiv. 4 . 8 . 26. . xxxiii. into which the sheep could be gathered for counting 3 or other purposes. 40. 4. xiii. lvi. X . I Sam. 4. he carried a club (shibet)7 as a means of defence against both man and beast. xxii. xvii. which Gen. 34. in addition to the staff (matte)6 which served as an alpenstock. HUNTERS 63 Young boys and girls were employed to overlook flocks in their pasture-ground and to lead them to the watering place. Hos. The hot valley through which the Jordan flows with its thickets afforded cover to lions6 and other wild beasts. I I. if not more. however. xxrrviii. 4. 6 ff. PS. lions and the still more dreaded bear were sometimes attacked and killed with a club. 10. though the latter was not despised.10 The shepherd was held responsible for keeping the flock intact.5 For this purpose. xvii. xvii. xxxi.' Incidentally it may be noticed that the value of sheep lay in their wool 2 rather than in their flesh. xii. xxvi. ii. Tobit v. Exod. l0 Gen. xxxi. xviii. and in certain districts. I I. 5 Cf.3 The warm garments made of the yarn spun by the great lady of the house and her maidens were evidently woollen . cf. Jer. " 2 Sam.15 The occasion of merry-making in the pastoral life. 5 Ezek. That they did once exist there. Gen. 7 .4 and the express prohibition of wool in the garments of the priests 5 is a clear indication that it was normally worn by others.'2 and wolves were evidently a continually recurring scourge. Hos. 12 . 4 2 Chron. I t would seem that noxious beasts.* nor indeed in pre-exilic times is there any hint of domestic dogs. Prov. He had to guard not only his sheep. xl. I Sam. 16. Job xxxi. 2 Kings iii. though the Septuagint translators found a reference to them in Jer. I X Exod. v. Jer. '4 Gen. 2 I. 6 . 20 . xix." so that he would attack in defence of the sheep not only the lion. e. ii. and we read also of towers 4 as a protection for the shepherds. 3. '"mos iii. 8. I Sam. 8 . 34 f. I I ." Leopards appear to have been as much. 4. were either caught in pits 7 or ensnared in nets. g. 10. Jer. not merely for the sake of obtaining food. xix. xlv. xvii. = S Ezek. but also himself from raiders who sought to take possession of his flocks. xiii. but also in order to keep down the number of beasts of prey. 20 . 44. cf.13 He has to take care that the flocks were not overdriven. '5 Isa. xxxi. We have in later literature mention of watch dogs. 13. I corresponds to the harvest or vintage in that of the husbandman. A better translation. xxxi.' I n the wilderness pasture-grounds folds2 were constructed. Ezek. Sheep dogs are not mentioned till the Greek period. 8 . would be mace. 16 . hunting was a necessity. Isa. 10 9 I Sam.14 and frequently to carry the lambs.I2 but also the still more dreaded bear. xxvii. 7 This when used as part of the insignia of royalty is commonly rendered sceptre. xxiii.62 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM SHEPHERDS. cf. 13. xxxiii. Zeph.Ij There is no certain evidence that hyenas existed in Palestine in Old Testament times. Wool was in great request for clothing. I . xii. '3 Amos v. Job i. cf. 12. iii. Hab.* Incredible as it may appear to those acquainted with the African lion. Prov. v. 18. Prov.g. xvi. xxix. HUNTING T o a certain extent. but by no means always.
10 Snaring by means of various contrivances of nets 11 was extensively employed. 8 . 15.' This general truth. 36. 13 . 5. 22 f. xxxvi.2 whose dismal howling suggested the wailing of mourners. 25 R. 14. 5. iii. 3.5 and that the three obligatory feasts ' 2 Kings xxiv. Isa. though even these had their fields.18 but this does not appear to have been a n Israelite industry. i.3 I n any case it is likely that in the days of the Hebrew monarchy the small cultivators were to a large extent descended from the Canaanite population. especially for birds. xi. and were accordingly regarded by the conquering Hebrews much as the Norman settlers regarded the pre-Conquest inhabitants of England. ii. but were not regarded as a menace to the living. 18. 10. Lev. are evidently regarded as belonging to the gentry. 3. 7 Cant.7 I n the hunting of game (including antelopes and various kinds of deer and wild goats). 14. ' 5 I Kings iv.12 and traps were also used which sprang u p with the weight of the bird and caught it. I n the greater part of the country. xxxiv. Amos iv. 34. 3. "er. I t is significant that fish is not mentioned in Solomon's bill of fare. cxli. xliv. the cultivators of which lived within the walls. iv. Boaz. 'Vrov. 1 0. 4 . and fishhooks. I Sam. 10 and the true text of 2 Kings xxiii. xxxviii. 5 I Kings xiv. however. viii.3 foxesf and pariah dogs. 7 2 . E. an indication of the great importance of agriculture in primitive times that the year ended after the ingathering of the summer fruits. there were no streams in which fish could live. mix. xiii. PS. '7 Job xli. " Isa. 2 . Jer. however. 39 . Exod. See Deut. in the late post-exilic ideal of peace after victory. I I (Heb. xvi. cf. iii. 20 . 16. are the most ancient divisions of the year.g.16 The dugong was harpooned 17 for the sake of its skin. I8 Ezek. xiii. I g . i. I I . certainly pre-exific. xi. Neh. I t is noteworthy that those who cultivated the land. such as jackals (tannfm). ix. 4 Ezek. ix. '3 Amos iii. the father of Saul. Ecclus. Ezek. The Book of Hosea. 5. xiii.I4 and it may be assumed that fishing was always a n important industry in the neighbourhood of the Sea of Galilee. however. It is possible that the same word was also applied to jackals. 2 . cf. 3 Apart from the large towns. 23) imply that the dogs only attack the dead or dying. ' Zeboim '. and that seed-time and harvest. the greater part of the population was engaged in agriculture.13 There are various references to fishers. This might mean that the Israelites will no longer be obliged to maintain themselves by hard work : nevertheless Ben Sira seems to consider husbandmen of least account among those who live by manual labour. '"Job vi. 8 .4 is sufficient evidence of this Canaanite element in the population . 10. Nevertheless. . '4 Jer. PS. seem to have been regarded as socially somewhat inferior. with its vehement denunciations of the superstitions surviving among the agricultural community. or even without. Mic. see Zeph. Mic. ii.8 bows and arrows 9 were used. lxi.15 I n post-exilic times there was apparently a fish-market a t Jerusalem. xxvii. xlvii. Neh. 9 Gen. Ezek.1 Other wild creatures. li. 2 Kings ix. I t is. 2 Chron. 4 See especially Hos. since. 3 (Heb. 16.6 and would not normally be hunted unless they were a nuisance in the vineyards. and Kish. the ' ploughman ' and the ' vine-dresser '. 9 E The ' Fish Gate ' was I6 Neh. the latter being apparently sometimes poisoned. xxv. 22.64 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM SOCIAL POSITION OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURE 65 is evident from place-names. 10). xxxiii. summer-used also to denote the fruit which ripens in summer-and winter. K 5 Gen.2 husbandmen together with shepherds held a subordinate position in society. 35). xiv. i. xii. 4 . must not be exaggerated or unduly insisted upon. Eccles. fishing. 12. xxv. I 7. Isa. 4 ff. and we know how frequently both in Britain and on the Continent primitive paganism has survived with.s were plentiful. Isa. for example. the trade being in the hands of Syrians. a veneer of Christianity. g f. 12. 7. xvi. xv. 19. 4 . . 2 0 : Lrviii. vii. The references to dogs in the Psalms (xxii.
We should therefore read ' I (sc. 21. PLOUGHS. 4.^ The yoke for animals ('61) must not be confused with the n " or mo'ta. Isa. with two pairs of short thick wooden rods mortised into the beam and projecting downwards from it at right angles to it. Hos. of metal (R&. v. 24. The only horses mentioned in the Hebrew Scriptures were cavalry horses. Prov. ii. SOWING 67 of the oldest legislation l are the feast of unleavened bread a t the beginning of barley harvest. The word rendered in the E. 10) . (mdsirdth).10 so that the wheat and the barley when in ear might escape being plucked by passers-by. 22. Joel iii. The word 'aycirfm. i. xxviii. 12. commonly rendered ' mules '. for running in such a case would be out of the question. to a husbandman who takes kindly care of his beasts. Hos. which was some o! sort of pole borne on the shoulders of two men.* Of the process of sowing. After ploughing some sort of harrow was used for breaking clods and levelling the surface. Jehovah is not compared to an ox which draws a wagon--a comparison scarcely compatible with reverence--but. 5 The exact point of Arnos vi. 24. 25. lviii. including the vintage. except that the inferior seed-crop was sown a t the border of the plot of ground. xxviii. Hos. 18. xxiii. as the subsequent context shows. 25. Jehovah) made them (sc.3 Hybrids are forbidden by the law.s but the text of the passage in which the word occurs is too corrupt to speak with certainty. xiii. 18. &c. the feast of weeks about the conclusion of wheat harvest. 3 Isa. the feast of the ingathering of summer fruits. '. xxiii. 10 . ' arbours'. xxviii. xi. xxxiv. xxii. which the English versions here render ' young asses ' rather means ' fine ass stallions 4 Lev. I I . 19. For the figure. who takes thought for his beasts and lifts the yoke away from their jaws to enable them to eat. A ploughshare. cf. xi. 14-16. Eth) .~ and in dragging loads ropes ('abhdthim or habhilim) were used as trace^. pirda. 8. xix. a wooden beam slightly shaped where it rested on the neck. 12 is not quite clear. xiii. 3 Nurn.6 The yoke was fastened beneath the neck with bands Exod. In any case the horses mentioned are not thought of as used in agriculture. 6. 10.o we have no precise information.3 The word is also used of a similar contrivance intended to be borne by one man. xxx. Above the beam. 23. xxx.s and these were not bred in Palestine. . 4.e.4 Of agricultural implements the one of primary importance was. " Deut. 10. 9 Isa. 13 . Isa. The beasts of burden used in agriculture were the ox and the ass. xxviii. 25. There can be little doubt that the vocalic punctuation here should be amended.^ though it is mentioned as used in tillage. Jer. The wooden rods would be apt to press on the back of the oxen's jaws. This was perhaps known as a mahartsha. fem.V. '" Isa. X. 20 f. which was of course broadcast. viz. X. 7 I Sam. ' in rows' is merely an incorrect form of the word for barley. of course. and sukkdth. 10 (Heb. 5 I Sam." Jer. Isa. the plough. Isa. stout projection to which the plough was fastened. half-way between the above-mentioned pairs of rods. but it is probably merely an example of the impossible. There is no reference here to planting the seed in any sort of shallow furrow. was a short.4 and it is therefore probable that the word pkredh.66 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM YOKES. iv. xiii. Job xxxix. and similarly the word rendered ' in the appointed place ' is a mistaken form of that rendered ' spelt '. 4. ' Deut. xiv. 10. originally denoted asses specially broken in for riding. The yoke ('61) used in ploughing or drawing loads was presumably like that which is still in use in Palestine. in lieu of a whip a goad (dorbin) 7 was used to drive the oxen. also translated 'yoke '. and Hosea draws a picture of a humane husbandman. 4. I I . presumably so arranged on a man's shoulder that a load could be fastened to the projecting ends in front and hehind. Israel) draw '.6 is mentioned . iv. Hos. The latter was of little use for really heavy work. each pair serving as a collar. and therefore was not to be yoked with the stronger OX.
excluding tlbhm. of a word from the same root denoting apparently snuffers for trimming the wicks of lamps may xix.12 Threshing. 16 . 32 . 5. 9 Gen. '5 Isa.8 Fodder. xxv. 3 . The lifting up from the ground of such a heap or shock is compared to the burial of a man in a good old age. 25. 9 Amos ii. After the corn was bound. h i . FODDER 69 teeth was not only to loosen the grain from the chaff. I 7.Judges ' Jer. d i . in Judges v. 25.Judges xv.7 and it is implied in the food taken into the Ark for the animals. 27. generally translated ' pruning-hooks '. 22 . xli. 7 Prov. 3 Gen. xxiii. I I .HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM Corn was reaped with a sickle (magga'l or !wmZsh2). The plough would. vi. 27. xxiv. 5 Isa. 21. like a tent-peg. 24. 13. xxviii. 4.Amos i. to beat out the grain. 10 (Hcb. pl. somewhat as brewers' 'grains ' are nowadays given to cows. 4 Exod. xliii. though in much of the land the nature of the ground would make their use almost impossible. PS. xxx. 26 em it s e s to mean a hammer. " Gen. is called micpB. Gen. with which Delilah tapped to summon the Philistines. which was a circular enclosure bounded by big stones. xxiv. used in the making of wine were sometimes mixed with the provender. and winnowing was effected by throwing into the air with large shovels (which seem to have been of somewhat varied forms2) the mixed grain and chaff. 14 the shut& (hti-'rrcgh is a gloss. vii. xxii. " Joel iii. " Deut. 1. however. 10). xxxvii. however. g. 25. xxx. 13 (Hcb. Num. rndriggfm). but of other articles which. vii. !1~@6th. 19. Isa. 4 Isa. xvi. xxviii. xxviii. 2. when not done on a small scale with a flail or rod. xxiv. cf. 5 Job v. CARTS. 24. This was drawn by oxen 16 over the corn strewn on the threshing-floor. Job vi.6 suggests that grape-skins. Isa. 6 (Hcb. and some sort of digging-stick (ya'tbdh) is mentioned among other implements (azznfm) In connexion with vine-culture we have mention of mam&dth. g.l1 The use. projected at the top on one or both sides. pl. like shocks in an English cornfield. 22 . but also. so that the chaff and fragments of straw were blown away. 26.I4 sometimes called merely ' sharps ' (@@). The heavier threshing-sledges or carts were not used for the softer grains.28. 2 Sam. O ' Isa. gleaners were allowed to collect all that was left on the ground and to take standing corn in corners which could not easily be cut with a sickle. 24. 7. 27. and in Judges xvi. the ground so enclosed being beaten hard. I 5. 7. " Num.1 The threshing-floors were in exposed situations. xxx. xiii. ii. '3 Judges vi. after which it was bound into bundles. iii. xlii. the barn or store. 32.6 We may perhaps infer from the story of Ruth7 that all harvesters were not as kindly as Boaz. 24. ' Gen.9 Of the breaking up of the ground for cultivation otherwise than with the plough there is no definite mention. xxiii. The effect of the sharp stones or iron 68 Deut. possibly. 3. and should be deleted). like threshing-sledges. 19. Deut. unbound corn were collected into some sort of heap (gh-dsh)4 in the field. 4.. cxxvi. Thus. xi..I3 was effected by means of a threshing-sledge (mbragh. 5. They would usually be drawn by a pair of oxen. iv. 24. 3.Joel " . THRESHING. 25. 3 Hos. Isa.~sfrom the fact that sharp stones or iron teeth were fastened to its under surface. cxxix. xix. xxiv. It is not only used of a tent-peg. iv. xhr. 6. 13(Heb. as Robertson Smith pointed out.* The mention of mixed provender. but hlso to chop up the straw. 27.* and were not only used for carrying sheaves 9 and the like. Some sort of hay is mentioned.3 These bundles or sheaves and. 7 Ruth ii. &C. This chopped straw (tlbhen) served as provender. 19 .s where the point of comparison seems to be the bringing of it to its final resting-place. xiii. Carts were in use. Jer. Ruth ii. Isa. 5) . Dtut. 13). Lev.10 When used for carrying persons or valuables they were sometimes covered. 3. The wordydthc'dh seems to have been used to denote a variety of utensils. Isa. 7 .s which might be seasoned or leavened (ha'mQ). 14). have been impossible in gardens.
HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM
MANURING, SEEDS, HARVEST
perhaps indicate that the maznzZr6th were not 'bill-hooks, but rather shears for pruning. I t may be noted that the word zdm&,I often rendered ' the singing of birds ', more probably means ' the pruning ', sc. of the vines. The peasant cultivators of the land in Palestine were for the most part poor, and doubtless many possessed but one ox or cow.2 The Deuteronomic code-in strong contrast to what may too often be seen in the East at the present time-is remarkable ininculcating a kindlycare foranimals,3 forbidding the muzzling of the ox when treading out the corn 4 or the yoking together of animals of such unequal strength as the ox and the ass.5 From the mention of a muzzle6 it may be inferred that there was a use of the muzzle which was regarded as legitimate, probably to keep it from eating standing corn in the field of another.? For riding-animals some sort of bit (dthgh)8 was in use. There are some slight indications that some attempts to manure the arable lands were made in both pre-exilic and post-exilic times ;9 and a dung-heap is rnentGned.10 Every seventh year the land was allowed to lie fallow." After the ploughing, which took place in autumn and, except in the case of the lazy, was mostly finished before
Cf. Isa. vii. 2 I. Cant. ii. 12. 4 Deut. xxv. 4. Cf. also Hos. xi. 4. 5 Deut. xxii. 10. Since this prohibition is immediately followed by a law forbidding the weaving together of wool and linen, it may perhaps be imagined that it is due not so much to humanitarian considerations as to some ancient and perhaps forgotten taboo. The conjunction of the two laws, however, may be reasonably explained by their general similarity, and the latter is enjoined for a reason totally distinct fmm the former. We know from Ezek. xliv. 17 that woollen garments were forbidden to the priests while ministering in the inner court, and a similar prohibition may have been in force for the laity when taking part in holy rites. It would therefore be essential that there should be no risk of mistake. 7 Exod. xxii. 5. PS. ruorix. I (2). Prov. xxvi. 3 ; Isa. xxxvii. 29. 9 2 Kings ix. 37 ; Jer. viii. h, i . 22, xvi. 4, xxv. 33x Exod. xx%. 10 ff. 1s. xxv. 10.
the beginning of winter,^ the sowing naturally followed. I t would seem from the corrected text of Hag. ii. 19, which if we may accept the date given in W. 10, 18, was uttered on the twenty-fourth day of the ninth month-i.e. apparently, mid-December-the seed was then not yet sown, and agricultural operations were at a standstill. The ordinary sowing-time therefore would appear to have been not earlier than mid-December. The seeds sown were wheat, which was naturally most prized,2 barley,3 lentils,4 millet,s spelt,s and beans.5 The bread which Ezekiel baked, by way of illustrating what might be expected in a siege, was made of mixed meal and was evidently not unlike the composition which was called by courtesy bread during the late War. Agriculture was considered a somewhat hard life ;6 in fact, work in general was regarded as a necessary evil.7 Barley harvest began as a rule before the end of April,8 and wheat harvest was usually finished about seven weeks later.9 The corn was reaped with a sickle, and afterwards bound into sheaves.10 As in England before the invention of reaping-machines, much corn was left on the ground, which was eagerly sought by gleaners.11 The harvesters were also expected to leave on the stalk corn growing in corners not easily cut with the sickle." Of domestic animals other than those used for ploughing or for drawing loads the -ordinary peasant possessed but few. Indeed even his cows were, when possible, used for ploughing.12 The rnilch cows which drew the cart containing the Ark,13 being sacred, were offered as a whole burntoffering, but the oxen with which Elisha had ploughed provided a meal,14 which, at that date, was of course at a sanctuary.
Prov. xx. 4. a Exod. xxk. 2. 3 Isa. xxviii. 25. Gen. xxv. 34 ; 2 Sam. xvii. 28. 5 Ezek. iv. g. Gen. iii. 17 f. Prov. xvi. 26; Eccles. vi. 7. Exod. xxiii. 15. 9 Deut. xvi. g. '" Gen. xxxvii. 7. 11 Lev. xix. g, xxiii. 22. " Hos. X. 1 1 . I3 I Sam. vi. 14. 4 I Kings xix. 21.
HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM The animal called in the English versions a ' fatted calf' ('kghl marbtk),~ beings pecially fattened and not used for work, was a delicacy. In general, beef when it was eaten must have been pretty tough. Two or three sheep or goats were kept by the small holder.2 I t is unlikely that unclean animals, such as pigs, were kept to any extent before the Greek period, when there were not only many Greek settlers, but also a considerable number of lax, if not actually apostate, Jews.3 The comparison of the beauty of a fair woman without discretion to a gold ring in a swine's snout4 suggests that, as at the present time, pigs were ringed to prevent them from routing. Of domesticated birds we read of the dove and the pigeon : the words so translated (t6r and ybna) being, apparently, used somewhat less specifically than the English renderings would imply. It may certainly be inferred from a late passage 5 that dove-cots were in use. According to Jeremiah,6 however, the t6r (i.e. turtle-dove) is a migratory bird, and this seems inconsistent with its domestication. On the other hand, doves and pigeons are prescribed as the victims in certain sacrifices,l and such a prescription can scarcely apply to wild birds. Perhaps the explanation is that the same words were applied both to domesticated an& to wild doves and pigeons. Those doves or pigeons which constituted the 'sinoffering' as distinct from the ' burnt-offering' were, of course, holy, and could therefore only be eaten by priests in a holy place. I t has been suggested that the reason why,
72 The 'ighel m r E was not a c f (i.e. its flesh was beef rather than ab k d veal) but a w b dcvcloped beast, which not having been worked was ft and tender. The word rendered ' gambol ' (Mal. iv. 2j means rather ' to tread heavily'. The point of Hab. i. 8 is not that the horses (read pCrcIsh6w for pa'rcSsh6w) rear, but that those who are prostrate before them are crushed. Similarly, the cow that trod on the corn (Jer. 1. I 11 trod heavily and not like a mere calf. 4 Prov. x . 22. i 3 Cf. I Macc. i. 13 ff. a Isa. vii. 21. Jer. viii. 7 ; cf. Cant. ii. I 2. 5 Isa. Ix. 8. 1 Lev. i. 14, v. 7, xii. 8, xiv. 2 2 ; cf. Gen. xv. g.
CALVES, PIGS, DOVES
in the case of birds as victims, two were required, whereas in the case of mammals one sufficed, was because birds were deficient in those portions (kidney-fat, &C.) which were normally burnt on the altar, and that this deficiency was compensated by the burning of one bird as a ' burnt-offering '. This will also account for the fact that they could not be used for the ordinary ' peace-offerings '. Moreover in connexion with sacrifice they were prescribed for the poor, who could not afford as much as a lamb. The evidence, so far as it goes, suggests that before the adoption of the Deuteronomic law, that allowed the nonritual slaughter of creatures which previously could only be slain at a sanctuary, doves and pigeons were only kept to supply sacrificial victims. In later times there was no objection to their consumption as ordinary food. Of other domesticated birds there is no hint, with the possible exception of the fatted barbdrtm (A.V. ' fowl ') mentioned in Solomon's bill of fare.1 It is, however, very uncertain what the barbtinin were.
L A N D DIVISION
At this point it is desirable to treat of the division and ownership of the cultivated land. There are three terms applicable to the ownership of land, yemhsh6, a&.zzQ',and nahala'. The first of these words need not necessarily apply to land, and merely denotes property, the existing owners of which have acquired it either by what we should call inheritance, or by dispossessing its former owners-by fair means or by foul. The word ahu.f;zdis nearly equivalent to ' freehold ', though not necessarily the freehold of an indiuidual owner. The third term nahala' has no exact equivalent in modern English, and requires more careful consideration. The verb nihal (from the same root as naha16) in its various conjugations is in frequent use : in the causation conjugation it has the
Kings iv. 23 (Hcb. v. 3).
HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM
sense of apportioning land,' and both in the primary and intensive reflexive conjugations it means to receive land as apportioned.2 The familiar renderings ' inherit ', 'cause to inherit ', are entirely misleading. Even in the law respecting a man's apportionment of his land among his sons 3 it is contemplated that such apportionment will take place in the father's lifetime, and there is nothing to prove that the reference is to inheritance after his death. The apportionment of the land of Canaan after the Hebrew conquest is said to have been made by casting lots ;4 and centuries after the conquest the same method of apportioning land is seen to be still in use.5 It will be remembered that the result of lots cast with due formalities was regarded as a divine decision.6 Land so apportioned was known as nakld, and each of the parts into which it was divided was known as a ' portion ' (glek).7 Both the verb ntihal and the noun nahald are frequently used metaphorically of Jehovah and Israel, Israel being represented as Jehovah's nahald, that is as the portion of land which He, so to speak, specially cares for and cultivates. The locus classicus of this metaphor is Deut. xxxii. 8, g. According to the reading of the Hebrew text, followed in the English versions, the meaning is that when the Most High allotted to the various nations their territory He so divided the earth as to give to Israel sufficient land. According to the reading of the Septuagint, however, which harmonizes much better with ver. g, the passage should be translated as follows : ' When the Most High allotted the' Nations '-the nations being
compared to land which is to be allotted to various cultivators-' when He separated mankind, He set the boundaries of peoples according to the number of the gods.' For His people is Jehovah's portion (klek), Jacob is the measure (lit. ' line ') of His nahali ' : that is to say, Jehovah has allotted to each god a nation as a nahali, but He has reserved Israel to be His own nahali. If Deuteronomy may be dated in the sixth century B.c., or even if it be as early as the eighth century B.c., it is sufficiently far removed in time from the allotment of land after the Hebrew conquest of Canaan to make it extremely improbable that it was this which suggested the poet's metaphor. We may therefore conclude-which is indeed pretty clearly indicated-that the apportionment of land was a familiar process long after the first allotment of the conquered territory. A metaphorical expression may indeed be used proverbially after the usage which originally suggested it has become obsolete ; it will,
Literally, ' sons of EIBhim '. The word ' sons ' is frequently used to denote members of a class, e.g. ' sons of the prophets ', ' sons of the door-keepers' (Ezra ii. 42). The sons of the el6hfm (Job i. 6, ii. I ) are obviously not regarded as sons of Jehovah, but as members o the f class o supernatural beings, subordinated to Jehovah, whom He is f represented as taking into His confidence (Gen. i. 26 ; I Kings xxii. 19). In such a connexion the rendering ' gods ' is the best. It is, however, a wholly gratuitous and unwarrantable assumption that the a poet quoted above intended his words to be taken au pied de L lettre. When Gustave Dord painted ' The Triumph of the Cross ', and depictedJupiter with his thunderbolts falling from heaven, it would be doing the French painter a gross injustice to argue from his picture that he believed in the objective reality of Jupiter. The author of Deut. d 8, g, is poetically stating the undoubted fact that Jehovah . was not worshipped by nations other than Israel or regarded by them as caring for their we&re. Such nations, if they had used the Hebrew metaphor, would have represented themselves each as the na!iulci of some pagan god. The poet of Deuteronomy evidently felt it hard to understand why Jehovah has not always asserted His right over all nations, as the poet ofps. lxxxii (cf. ver. 8) believes that He will ultimately do. Compare Acts xiv. 16, xvii. 30.
' Deut. i. 38, xix. 3, xxxi. 7 ; Joshua i. 6.
xxiii. 30, xxxii. 13; Num. xviii. 20 ; Deut. x x 14. i. Deut. xxi. 16. 4 Num. xxvi. 55, 56, xxxiii. 54, xxxiv. 13 ;Joshua xviii. 6, &C. Joshua xviii. 6 ; Prov. xvi. 33. 5 Mic. ii. 5. 7 It is noteworthy that the word Gle&, which originally means merely a portion or share of anything (e.g. of booty of war, Gen. xiv. 24), may be used of land without h t h e r qualification (e.g. Hos. v. 7 ; Mic. ii. 4).
and these Acts were not passed without a considerable amount of opposition. we may be pretty sure that such land (mhald) was periodically1 divided into set portions and allotted to those freemen of the village who possessed the right to cultivate it and enjoy its fruits . That this was the septennial year of fallow appears certain from another statement.in the allotment of the land in the township of Anathoth). Gomme.3 I t is true that the evidence for this is inferential rather than direct. xxi. I am pleased with my nahala". will conform to the ideas of the modern economist. is no proof that it had not existed at an earlier period. xxvii. fimsirn. shows Aramaic influence. . 3 same as Cf. I* 145. Reader in Rabbinic in the University of Cambridge. we may fairly conclude that at such a period the usage on which the metaphor was founded had not very long passed away. when we find metaphors derived from the allotment of land used at a very late period. that there is no trace of this system in the Talmud. Primitive man's customs are not dictated by economic considerations. Prov. Jer. and will actually have a portion of nu?~~Id by earning his freedom) (sc. says (ver. among the kinsmen who have this right by birth. cf. and I am informed by my friend Mr. at least as late as the end of the Jewish monarchy. we may assume that the village communities of ancient Palestine formerly held land in common like the former village communities of Western Europe. ii. I I f. 5. Deut. 3 See G. &v. It is noteworthy that the verb here used is the that which is used in comexion with nuw in Prov. Thus the poet of PS. in such order that I get a good share of ground I-and he goes on to say 'The cords ' (viz. Loewe. 28. 33. Nor is it any argument against the existence of such a system that it is uneconomic. This. xxxvii. scarcely survive indefinitely. and the guess may be hazarded that the re-allotment took effect after the septennial year of fallow. Thou insurest that the lot which represents my claim comes out of the garment into which the various lots are cast. 12. J. 4 Exod. In Prov. Ant. Accordingly. H. also Isa. and in ages when all custom was closely connected with religious tradition it would be long before utilitarian considerations could sweep away age-old customs. xvii. M. L. cf. by the way. 10. 12. The facts mentioned above make it extremely probable that there once existed in ancient Palestine a system of land-tenure similar to that which once prevailed in regions as widely separated as India and Britain. xxiii. 2. xxii. The frequent references to the apportionment of land by lot in a document as late as the Priestly code certainly makes it probable that such allotment was the regular usage. 5) have fallen for me in pleasant places . Mic. Joscphus. 5). 'Thou holdest my lot '-that is. It may be well to 76 HEBREW LIFE COMMON m 77 remember that even within sight of Cambridge the inconvenient system of open fields continued till swept away by the Enclosure Acts of the beginning of the nineteenth century. those used in measuring. xv. will be ruler over a good-for-nothing son. however. &ut. X. whose language. xvi. then. In this connexion the law against removing a neighbour's landmark is most significant. lhs Village Commwn'l~. 7 (5 3). whether at home or in Palestine. where it is said that a slave-who of course has no claim to a share in the mWi-if he be prudent. I7. I t was an ancient custom that Hebrew slaves should be released in the seventh yearf and we may take it as practically certain that the septennial year of fallow normally coincided with the year of liberty or release . I h c Village Comrnunily. ' Jer. pp. inasmuch as in a year when no ploughing or sowing could be done the release of slaves would cause the least See in particular Gomme.AND CUSTOM however. It is easy to understand why an uneconomic system should ultimately be given up. but we must not expect to find that ancient customs. yea. xxxvii.the land has perhaps become fnehold. If. . 2. xvi. when he was arrested on the charge of deserting to the Chaldeans. I t is remarkable that after the Chaldeans had raised the siege of Jerusalem 2 Jeremiah was leaving the city in order to receive his portion 3 (SC. 17.
Ihc Village Community.4 Did nakld ever include vineyards ? One's first impulse is to answer in the negative. B. Ezek. and the probability that it goes back in this country beyond the Celtic periodf makes it at least not improbable that it had been long known among the Mediterranean agricultural peoples generally. 205. vii.I but being panic-stricken at the presence of the Chaldean army outside Jerusalem he entered into a solemn covenant to comply with it. in the cessation of agriculture wild animals. C. p. &v. 29. 5 Isa. v has a rock-hewn wine-press. but traces remain of the existence of terraces in districts so widely removed as Great Britain and Ireland. and the re-allotment of the land of Anathoth. When. the danger was temporarily over. Prov. but belonged to certain localities.xlix. 4 Cf. 1 0 ~ 1 1 .3 I n the exilic and post-exilic literature we read of various open lands surrounding the various townships and apparentIy belonging to them. but which will not be trodden down by oxen and sheep. "er. 95. however. where the unenclosed fell lands. I) is in harmony with Jer. that people do not hesitate to tie to the vines their riding-animals. Gomme. 8. with only such a rainfall as the land now possesses. . and there can be little doubt that the fertility of Judaea in the days of the Hebrew monarchy was very much greater than is possible on the present hill-slopes with their scanty soil.3 So far as I am aware there is no direct reference in the Bible to terracing. xx and xxi (cf. FERTILITY 79 inconvenience. 206. Zedekiah had tried to set aside this ancient custom. Such a vineyard as that which is described in Isaiah's parable is evidently freehold. Judaea. since they are pictured as places in which ' Jer. v. therefore. to which it is unfortunately impossible from the evidence to give a quite certain answer. clearly refers to fencedin vineyards. pp. and a tower. I h e Village Community. is unrevised. I I . Only the piece concerned with the administration of law and justice was actually given in the lectures (F. Note that the diting of Ezek. 3 See Dtut. such as leopards. and the people of Judah can habitually drink wine enough to make their eyes bloodshot. the soil being thus prevented from being washed away in heavy rain. The vineyard of Isa. a Cf. 5. l. China. though now freehold. 30. which suggests that in parts of it the rock was pretty near the surface. could scarcely produce the best grapes without artificial irrigation. though of course the language is poetical hyperbole. i. xrt. If then all the soil were shallow. the freeing of them under pressure. v. lii. xxiii. x v 2 . for no one would go to the expense of building a surrounding wall. or were the grazing grounds of the village community allotted in a similar way ? There are traces of the former allotment of pasturage even in the British Isles : such a trace may be found in the Lake District.* those who under pressure had released their slaves reclaimed them. I t is difficult. 3 See for example. 8. the raising of the siege of Jerusalem. In the pre-exilic account of Judah is clearly regarded aspossessJudah (Gen. I Chron. Balaam in eastern Palestine rides From this point onwards the MS. as above.). can find cover. Was it only arable land that was nahali.e. Gomme.2 I t is impossible to apply such a description to modern Judaea. From the first appearance of the Chaldean army in Palestine to the temporary raising of the siege of Jerusalem was apparently less than a year: hence the refusal to release the slaves. xxxvii. 8-1 Q). I t is noteworthy that Palestinian vineyards were not apparently scattered all over the country. The 1 mention of vineyards raises another question. ing such a multitude of vines.78 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM TERRACING. and constructing a wine-press in a vineyard of which he had the use fbr only six years. 29. 16. may all have occurred within a twelvemonth. There is a difference of one year in the dating followed in 2 Kings xxv. xi.5 Moreover the prediction in Isa. 23 f. to resist the conjecture that the hill-slopes were formerly terraced. I f. are apportioned to the various farms by a system of ' stints '. each farm is 'stinted ' to a particular number of sheep which may graze on the fell. and India.
5. 5 E.' It was for a kitchen garden that Ahab desired to get hold of Naboth's vineyard. . 20. I I. 13. 19. however.2 In like manner in the dances of the girls at Shiloh 3 the original meaning of the dances was probably forgotten. also xvi. but in general it seems to have meant plantations of other fruit-trees. xxk. was a time of rejoicing and merry-making. cf. Jer. vi. Cant. d. 4 Deut. After vineyards we naturally consider plantations of solives. 5 is more stringent. viii.5 The charm of the vineyard in springtime is indicated in Cant. v. 4 M . is clearly an afterthought. 3 Judges mci. ' Judges ix.4 Just as the arable land lay fallow every seventh year. xxiv. or of vegetables. 8 .4 The olive oil was trodden out. 25. There is. I 2 . Isa. a strong probability that both the Shiloh maidens and the Thanet little girls were alike celebrating something that did not originate in mere joie de vivre. for the olive oil was the only source of artificial light. xxv. 2 Kings ix. 27 .8 Similarly the shout of those who trod the grapes may have been 80 VINEYARDS. Deut. g that there were vineyards in the district of which Bethel was the chief sarictuary. This Feast of Arbours is stated 7 to be a memorial of the fact that the Children of Israel dwelt in arbours when they were brought out of the land of Egypt. The cutting of the first grapes was apparently accompanied with what was doubtless in origin a ritual act. See Isa.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM between walled vineyards. OLIVEYARDS. Cant. 21. just as the little girls who in my early days danced round a garland on May Day were in intention innocent of perpetuating a pagan rite. 43. GARDENS 8 1 originally something more than an encouragement not to relax activity . Cant. 2 (cf. I I . . xi. 6 Jer. 15. The initial preparation of a vineyard is described in Isa. 27. Olives were an important crop. x 3 5 Num.6 The word ' garden ' may have included olive plantations. and such fruit as they produced was left for the poor. it was followed by a religious feast at the sanctuary. Eccles. iv. 5 Exod. 23. however. xxiv. h 8 . xxv. Isa. also 2 Kings xxi. see above on Food. and the value of a vineyard may be gathered from Isa. . i 8 . I 2 I 5 . Those who took part in the vintage constructed temporary arbours (sukkcth)in thevineyards. 30. 6 . See Jer.5 Next in importance to the olive plantation was the fruit garden.3 It may be inferred from Amos iv. including both the gathering and the treading of the grapes. 10f. for whence would the boughs for the arbours be procured in the desert ? The vintage. &c. 40-2. xxxi. 5. vii. . i. I Kings xxi. When the grapes were ready for the vintage there came the most joyous and-inevitably it would seem-the most pagan festival of the year. 8 Mic. Of the operations of viticulture we have some indications. 18. 16). . ii. 24. I I . and when this was done any that remained could be gleaned by the poor. iv. vii.10 It would seem that in pleasure-gardens aromatic plants were chiefly grown for their scent wafted by the wind (Cant.. as well as being used for anointing the body and perhaps in cooking. Iviii. 7 Lev. I0 See 2 Kings i . I 2. when all the work was over. This. ii. Cant. xxiii. v. ' Judges xiv. 2 . 9 Num. Isa. ii. The olives were beaten off the trees as we beat walnuts. 8) .' and Samson in the foot-hills of Judah meets a lion at the vineyards of Timnah.6 These arbours were continued for the feast of the summer ingathering. I I . 10 Isa. Jer. the most highly prized being that which produced grapes of a reddish colour.Job xxvii. Judges x i 2 I. 2 . the later legislation of Lev. lxi. so the vines at the same time were left unpruned. pp. I 2. and there was more than one variety of vine.9 It is evident that the gardens of the rich were mere pleasances and possessed buildings in which feasts could be held. 7 For the fi-uits and vegetables grown in gardens. cf. xxiii. v. Gen. x. vi. I 8 . I ff. I I . i 30.8 The gardens of the wealthy appear to have been frequently irrigated artificially.z and there are vineyards in the district of Shiloh. xlix.
9 For the relative value of iron compared with other metals. cf. Iron was apparently not in general use in the early days of the Hebrew conquest. 4. 14. and even the timber linings of walls were sometimes adorned belong to the art of the goldsmith. Jer. 22. Judges i .II and of a hammer 3 Joshua i . 18. 'I Jer. 17 . 5 2 Kings xxi. xliv.82 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM Cant. Isa. I . From various sources we learn something of the tools used in working wood. v. xxii. 5 (tdmcr m i w ) . . Iron ore is mentioned as plentiful in Palestine. 48 . 5. though the text is unsound. ii. xxii. ' Jer. Jer. 3. 2 I.10 It was not unnaturally often used in metaphor to denote what was a symbol of strength. iv. On the other hand the mention of hammer and anvil and the soldering or riveting hvours the other. however. liv. 2 mentions the gathering of lilies : it is. x 5 I Kings v.6 and the iron-smelting furnace. I I . xix. h. 16 . 17. 70. All the different sorts of work involved in the hshioning of an axe are there described. 8 . 9 Isa. 20 . 4. PS. 19. 13. ii. Deut. WORKERS IN METAL For the relative values of metals see Num.Job xxviii. vi. Isa. A skilled worker in wood-a carver and more than a mere carpenter-is' mentioned in Isa.' of a compass or divider. 2 7 Deut. ver.' The plumb-lines mentioned 5 were probably masons' rather than carpenters' tools. and the non-Israelite Gibeonite slaves who performed this necessary service 3 for the Temple at Jerusalem were evidently held in inferior estimation as compared with the rest of the Temple personnel. xl. xliv. 20. xxxiv. 22.7 garzen 8) : whether the implements denoted by these different names differed one from another. cvii. Isa. xx. xxxi. 13. vi. The carpenter also made use of a cord. xliv. Baruch vi. as also presence of the word ~GrZflh. xi. or weapons? The which is not used of smelting iron. I 2 mcrrs~a'dh is probably to be retained. vii. whether the lilies are in the garden.9 and also some sort of chisel. Isa. apparently to rule a straight line. will to a great extent depend upon the view taken of Isa. See Jer. X. 48 . xxii. X.7 The fuel used by smelters generally appears to have been charcoal (pe!zdm). viii. 4 Lam. cf. 7 f. x Ezek. 25.8and the bellows are mentioned several times. 20.= WORKERS IN WOOD Hewing wood for fuel and drawing water is unskilled labour. xliv. xxii. The gold plates with which wooden figures. Are the peoples in their panic manuhcturing gods." of what is unbreakable. X 15. 28. B Isa. 2 . or not. and owing to its comparative novelty its use was forbidden in the construction of stone altars. xlv. 20). Iron. . 16. is figuratively used of great oppression. Deut.6 mara@lh. 20. xxviii. 29 . The reference to the skill of the Sidonians in timber work 5 indicates that in consequence of their large forests on the Lebanon they were able to supply timber to countries producing none. and. I 2 The handling of the word commonly rendered nails . Ezek. somewhat doubtful. " Ma&pta. 13 . 3 stredh. xli. 18. furniture. rather than that for other metals. it is impossible to say. X. 1 .Isa. Amos vii. g . " Jer. I Kings viii. see Jer. xxviii. They were all used in felling trees. 2 *O Exod. Isa. . x 7 Jer. and were therefore able to deal easily with larger trees than the Hebrews commonly had to cut. In general each household in which there were not slaves would provide its own fuelf and fetch or draw its own water.z and of what appears to be a sharp engraving tool 3 for marking out the design. I Chron. The first of these is naturally the axe (kardCm. 5-7. 3 . Ezek. Isa. xlvi. 16 . 6 (Hub. 4. favours the former suggestion. &C. Jer. 4 ' See also Cant.Jer. Saws were in use. cf.IZ of what cannot be Isa. X. Deut. the general resemblance between this passage andJer. i. 13. Isa. 1 .' Scarecrows were put up in gardens. xliv. xliv. judging from ver. 21.10 We read of nails or rivets. 4 TRADES AND PROFESSIONS 83 for fastening them. xx. 51. in Isa.
All of them brass and iron. 29.3 Of manufactured iron. an early foreshadowing of the modern armoured car. like iron. but since it is in poetry we have both parallelism and the kfna-rhythm as aids in its restoration. 7. 25 . 21 . Isa. Isa. 12. ' Ezek. cvii. The first word of the line beginningJer. lead. I . Jobvi. xv. Ezek. 3 Exod.5 GOLDSMITHS AND SILVERSMITHS Gold ore. 3 Deut.'' The two mountains of copper or bronze in Zech. ' a heavy block '. 4 In Zech. PS. it was a natural metaphor for the strong or indestructible. or roughly smelted gold. 5 &ek. and the parallel I p n J ~5 D-YTl suggests that an is m a blunder for m . V. vi.6 of a pan or griddle for cooking. viii. In vain do they go on refining.] they are all revolters going with slander. the indestructible gate-posts on each side of the road to Jehovah's palace. I 6. Before iron came into common use bronze. 9 PS. i. xli.s of knives. i. which to the Hebrew evidently included bronze. 6. . 3 .xli. taking the place of the more primitive stone rnas~zbdth. 3.46. ' Y I Sam. 4 Isa. 3. iv. 24 we may infer that. as well as iron. 7 Ezek. 18 ff.10 For the plates of warchariots. 2 . '3 Gen. Copper. 5. The bellows blows up the fire. was obtained from mines in or close to the borders of the Holy Land itself. xli. Isa. 4. Hence. Copper. contrast sadd. was used as an alloy. 7 [Behold. cf. Judges iv. 23. iv. 7. The two great pillars for the Temple. as noted above. Jer. A metal used as an alloy (b"dhz"1) mentioned in Num. xlviii. needless to say. 2. It is mentioned as heavy. xxxi. and perhaps 2 Sam. are probably to be understood allegorically and not of actual mountains : they are.?. 3. 1sa. 2 . were cast in Palestine by Tyrian workmen. xxiii. xlv. 27. Prov. 24 . * Ps.84 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM TRADES AND PROFESSIONS 85 pierced by arrows. they do the damage . I Kings xiv.Job xxviii. we read of the blacksmith's sledge-hammer ( pafftsh) . 28 is missing : perhaps it was n?. iv. 3. I. v. as it were.7 of the bars of the city gates.'4 Many of the vessels used in the Temple. 7 f. 8 . 5 2 Kings xxv. which in the Hebrew form ant~kh occurs in Amos vii. vi.12 Iron and copper were apparently forged by the same smith. Obviously *?D (omitted by LXX) is an incorrect anticipation of the following D~TVD. Zech.* of fetters. 2. xvii. but the bad are not outed. 12. 5 Isa.. xxvii. X. 7. The massoretic text of the latter passage is unfortunately somewhat corrupt. was the hardest metal known. 29. 1 I1 Deut. Job xxviii. Eccles. Isa. I 0.iv. in addition to the carpenters' utensils already mentioned. Jer. xli.' ofwhat is hard or unyielding. Hence the two verses should read ' Isa. were made of it. and presumably elsewhere.6 and references to the refining of it are I Kings vi 15. 22 . 6 Prov. I 7 . and of a sharpening steel. 7. 18. vi.3 From Job xix. and is rendered in the Peshitta by ankhd. xxii. and tin. rwriii. 16. g . the lead still remains. I 8 . 8. The false concord rimy an is a sign of corruption. cf. xxii. see Joshua xvii. xlv. xii. 3.15 Hebrew coppersmiths in the early days of the monarchy were apparently not capable of making very large casts in bronze.' Copper.cvii. see Job xx.=of earth which through drought cannot be ploughed. 16. 7 . cxlix. xxvii. l0 Amos i. 6 . xxvii.4 Like lead and iron it was imported into Palestine by Sidonian merchants. as at the present time.4 of an anvil. Ezek. xxviii. I I . 14. is referred to in Proverbs and Job.2 L a d was also in use. 10.Job xiii. For armour.~and of iron instead of stones under the threshing-sledge. It is stone. 10 is corrupt (derived from the following M) : contrast Zech. xvii. it was used to fill up letters engraved in may be Tin.13 Bronze was used for armour. 2 2 . which without their capitals were some twenty-seven feet high and nearly six feet in diameter. 28.
cf. 6. xxi.11 It is indeedjust possible that the laceration in mourning. 34) .8 and then for circular vessels was worked on a revolving disk fixed to an upright piece of wood which turned on a pivot : ' Jer. but There is no mention of gold being found in Palestine. I . xii. only mentioned incidentally to describe a particular sort of razor. Ezek. 7 Neh. 5 I Kings i . xviii. xxiv. 10. Mic. also Isa. 4 . We have no account in the canonical Scriptures of the firing of earthenware. a Lam. 23. 6. and the potters apparently formed guilds or communities. This may have been because of its use in exchange. Gen. 5. 30. 3. hence the price had to be weighed out to the vendor.lxvi.1 Gold is said to come from Havilah 2 and from Ophir. equally forbidden by the Deuteronomic law. 3 I Kings ix. 10 .86 HEBREW LIFE AM) CUSTOM TRADES AND PROFESSIONS 87 frequent. 4. Judges vii. I. I Kings v. Arnos viii. 5 Isa. iii.? and not improbably. but we do not hear. X I . xlix. 4 Ecclus. xxvi. 2) implies a locality given up to the pottery industry. vi..6 In the time of Nehemiah they seem to have formed a guild. The poor man's cup could scarcely be of more costly material.~ the situation of these districts is much disputed. I . xxxviii. x Judges xvii. i. The potter's clay was first worked with the feet to make it equally plastic. xvi. like the bakers. xv. 3 . 32. xxix. g .s also jars of various shapes for holding water. xix. 16. X. 23. 2. which included the cost of much gold work. xlvi. 14.Jer.:app&ath. cf. Isa. and was compelled to cede to Hiram a portion of his kingdom. xix. X.I0 hence a barber must have been needed whenever there was a death. " Deut. 2. ii. I 2 ff. which the potter turned with his feet. g as coming from Tarshish. Various sorts of bottle are mentioned.4 The mention of the ' Earthenware Gate ' (Jer. Solomon. cf. 14. &c. but some sort of glazing with silver dross is mentioned.9 was in pre-exilic times general . they carried on their business in some particular street. 25) . I that the poet was acquainted with mining for silver. Earthenware jars were also used for preserving documents. though he could pay for Hiram's work by the agricultural produce of Palestine. Gen. Prov. xiii. PS. X. xxi.3 and in the Apocrypha both the glazing and the furnace.5 It may perhaps be inferred from Job xxviii. 4 . 20. that articles of common personal adornment were constructed of it. i. Ecclus. Kad. I .Jer.' Earthen vessels were cheap. xviii. however. which as savouring of heathenism is forbidden by the Deuteronomic law. xii. a 4 The shaving of the head in mourning. uncoined. Jer. I I (Hcb. xiv. I I .= and from their brittle nature broken earthenware was used as a figure of irreparable damage. apparently. 19. Lev. Jer. xxii. 7 2 Sam. 6 . 16. 5. Naturally the articles made of earthenware were of many different forms and designs for different uses. The craft of the goldsmith was an ancient one in Palestine. cf. There is no clear indication of what the Palestinians gave in exchange for it. xxxviii. which may have been of earthenware. 9 Deut. Silver. g. Jewels appear to have been mainly of gold. v. xxx. I I ff. and it seems almost certain that it was all imported.4 found himself quite unable to pay Hiram's bill. Isa. xli. as we should expect. They are. cf. iv. xxxii. 16.12 was performed by barbers.6 cups. I Kings xvii. xiv. 6 .7 besides various sorts of bowls and boiling utensils. 33 (Heb.* BARBERS Of an inferior status evidently. Lev. 28. I Kings xix. 14. were the potters (ydfdrn). Gen. 29 f. 3 . 48. 6 . 25 . 29 . was the ordinary medium of exchange . XI. 25 . but supplying a universal need. ' Jer. Zech. 7. xli. Silver beaten out into thin plates is mentioned in Jer. Eccles. I Kings xviii. Isa. Jer. It was used for articles of choice manufacture. MECHANICS below this disk was another somewhat smaller.both together.
v. viii. 15. 13. seems to be implied in Lam. xxx. vi. 3 See also Deut.4 Personal washing done in courts or gardens appears to have been restricted. 4. 2 are Egyptians rather than Hebrews. I 5. xix. 15. 13. 10.3 Even in the Greek period the popular estimate of the healing art is summed up by Ben Sira : ' He that sinneth before his Maker-let him fall into the hands of the physician. PS. just as was the case in rural districts of England almost within living memory. 9 I Kings X 10. ix. 50. 13.I2 also the which came from Gilead 13 and had resinous gum (M). ii.10 ivory was in use.9 They were mixed with oil for unction. xvi. xix. Ezek.26. 4 Ecclus. xxxix. xxi. The preparation of perfume was carried out both by men. We read also of poultices 10 and of bandages. Those mentioned in Gen. 8. i. " Isa. Clothes were washed. iii. xxviii. 2 Sam. 3 4 Susanna 17. parallel with wormwood.3 presumably mixed with oil or melted-down fat. Jer. 10.' who perhaps not only washed clothes but bleached fabrics. '3 Cant.2 the latter implying some decoction of bitter herbs. i. Exod.'* ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE AND LAW IS We hear of physicians or apothecaries in Jer.2 The soap used was made of carbonate of soda (nkther). There is also wormwood. xxix.i. cf. 58 . Ixi. but we do not hear of it as jewellery. Prov. PHYSICIANS AND APOTHECARIES What in later times was worn merely for adornment 5 was in many cases originally connected with religion. xv. viii. '3 Jer. If we may estimate the importance of any factor of national custom from the frequency of references to it in metaphor there can be no doubt that the administration Deut. Hag. they used also corals 9 and glass. long been a famous product of Palestine. i. 1. I . " 2 Sam. . 18. 3. viii. li. 13. Hos. Lam. xxxviii. xlv.6 From a number of references it is clear that the jeweller's art had been brought to a high pitch of perfection. 8. I 7. Isa. H m the r~llhed MS.begins again. 25. 9 Prov. iii. I I . vii. 32. m 4 15 Gen.= PERFUMERS 89 Other vegetable drugs may perhaps be implied by the ' tree ' of Exod. 14-16. ' Jer. 14. 22 and in 2 Chron.I2 perhaps chains of beads. C. PS. iii. . xlv. lye was used. iv. 7 I Sam. 13. 22. 2) and of Susanna. xxiii." There was salve. " Isa. 22. (F. some of which cannot be identified with certainty. PS.7 The scents used appear to have been derived from spices or sweet gums. xlvi. 12.6. Num. 'O Isa." necklaces. xvii. 23. ' Acid ' and ' bitter ' seem not to be distinguished. 7. 8. I I .* which were for the most part imported from South Arabia. There were lapidaries who could cut and engrave precious stones. 5 Isa.14 2 Kings x i i 17. . 6. Lev.88 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM FULLERS Another common trade was that of the fuller. In addition. a Exod. 10. iv. by treading upon them. 10. Cant.I and gall-water. I I. i.7 which might be set as signet-rings. 2 I. 5. 15. by a method still practised in the British Isles. ashes of vegetable substance. whom in the days of Nehemiah we find forming a guild. V Gen. vi. 14. cf. 16~30. viii. xxxii. 5 Set the tales of Bathsheba (2 Sam. Neh.' 4 TRADES AND PROFESSIONS JEWELLERS AND WORKERS IN PRECIOUS STONES Of luxury trades may be mentioned that of the perfumer. xxxviii. xi. 42.8 In addition to precious stones. Ordinary washing appears to have been done at home. m Job xxviii. ii. xxxi. 18. cf. xiii. Zech. d 25. &c.6. 2 Sam. Jer. 10. 24. xli. xxviii. Among the trinkets made were crowns and tiaras.i. 15. Job xxviii. B.) N . 11. I 2. Some sort of bitter drink.13 and armlets perhaps worn above the elbow.21. Soap-balls are mentioned in the story of Susanna. v.6 and by women. but whether the art of extracting the scent of blossom was known is uncertain.e. ii. 7 Jer. xliii.
David arbitrarily puts to death seven of Saul's descendants to satisfy a blood feud. Nehemiah. Even before the election of Saul. It is significant that Naboth. I I. xxii. Indeed. Even when he was the vassal of a foreign potentate he was in his own kingdom absolute. on the flimsiest of pretexts has his half-brother Adonijah. and who desired that the government should be in the name of the priestly class. in a state of things which reminds us of the Saxon Heptarchy. I. 3 Sh6pkM and ~Mfrfm. xix. JUDGES noteworthy that he represents the demand for a king as made by the ' elders of Israel '. iii. anarchy which was to some extent repeated when the Hebrew monarchy came to an end. who is accused of blasphemy (which will bring Num. . 7. ' h u t . unduly blamed for being addicted to litigation it must be remembered that they lived in an age when there was no idea of the prevention of crime or of any system of police. however. however. The Seventy Elders on whom the spirit cameY1 and Eldad and Modad who remained in the camp. the rightful heir to the throne. viii. 24. 6. In Northern Israel. I 1-17 seems to be founded on fact. Samuel's rebuke of the people for asking to have a king is clearly the work of one who perhaps belonged to the age of. and his right. unless indeed the word is here used of those who have arrogated to themselves power. his property. but each man had as far as possible to protect his life. and it is clear from Num. 18. Mic. however. In Judges xi. xi. Samuel indeed is represented as virtually ruler of the district represented by Bethel. I t is extremely significant that the historical retrospect with which the Book of Deuteronomy begins starts at the organization of government by Moses. the ki$n seems to have some recognized authority. xxi. Solomon. But in Isa. 3 . The whole number seventy-two implies an ideal of six such officials for each tribe. viii. 1-3. iii. a somewhat more democratic spirit seems to have prevailed. xviii. What constituted a man an ' elder' is not quite clear. Saul has certain Gibeonites put to death apparently without any judicial sentence. Lest the Hebrews be.' 2 It is not my object to trace the gradual unification of the tribes under one king. xvi. and Joab with even less justification. and in contrast to such organized government we have the well-known description of the anarchy which sometimes prevailed in the days of the 'Judges '.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM of justice was a matter of absorbing interest to the ancient Hebrew population of Palestine.s and as going on circuit like a modern judge. Sam. after the institution of the monarchy. there was some rough administration of justice. his rule might have become hereditary. Gilgal. 10. xi. i. put to death. I t is. 25. and he threatens death to any one who has broken his rash taboo on food. The Deuteronomic law orders the appointment in all cities of judges and officers. every man did that which was right in his own eyes. The king. is not clear. was the head of justice and of the judicial system. and Mizpeh. and Isa. I . 16. are elders before what may be regarded as their solemn commission. vii. a Judges xvii. he appears to be what we should call a dictator in a time of national distress. if we may trust I Sam. 90 3 I KINGS. Deut. What was the exact function of the k e A n . ' In those days there was no king in Israel .I in the appointment of duly constituted officials and judges. Accordingly a duly organized system of government and the administration of justice was held to be a matter of paramount importance. and in the event of any injury done to him he could only obtain redress by bringing his case to be legally decided. g.3 and it would seem that the ' elders ' were those recognized as possessing the tradition of the customary law and that they acted as assessors to the judges. 6. i. 6. The sketch of a king in I Sam. 9-17. as distinct from the ddphi[. 16. I. had it not been that his sons whom he made judges were of unsatisfactory character. I 6 that they are considered as already possessing some secular authority.
have been taken literally.. This is true in connexion with all those words and expressions for that for which a man might be brought to trial. xix. one against whom the verdict has been given.i. In accordance with the same use of metaphor the words which we render 'righteousness'. and yet intreat that his ' sin ' may be taken away. li. since sentence. A consideration of the forensic metaphor in words translated ' righteousness ' and ' sin ' will explain how Job can vehemently deny that he has sinned. one who has won his case. the open space just inside the city gate. as he used them.2 The mere agreement of two witnesses or their disagreement on some unimportant detail to our sense of legal justice may seem insufficient either to confirm or disprove their evidence. Thus it can be said that a man receives 'righteousness'. and incalculable harm has accordingly been done to the cause of religion. xvii. 16. I 5. which has also come upon him. knew to be such. The words which are commonly rendered ' iniquity'. which is held before the elders and nobles of Jezreel. 7. which the Hebrew. Unfortunately these metaphors. is unconscious of sin in our sense of the word. 8-14.which means primarily the act of judging and then. that ' righteousness '.1 Nevertheless Ahab imprisons Micaiah merely on the ground that he does not prophesy good concerning him. &C. Susanna 54 ( h 6 evov). The sight of the administration of justice. that metaphors drawn from the lawcourt--or what did duty as such-have profoundly affected Hebrew diction. MISDEMEANOUR.' or (as we might say in modern English) whatever he does he turns up trumps. JUDGEMENT 93 wherever he goes. ' trespass '. ' transgression ' (rebellion would be a better translation for this last). He concludes therefore that it must be some inadvertent sin against God that he has committed. who in other respects agreed. but evil. In the older period legal procedure probably simply followed tradition.4 would scarcely See Isa. xi 2.3 while the other stated he had seen her under a holm tree. In like manner the poet of PS. In other words.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM down divine wrath). In the first Lecture it was stated that in Hebraic metaphor attention is almost always directed not to the process but to the effect. and like Job in the Prologue-but not in the Poem itself-he deems it impious to charge God with waywardness. viz. the slight disagreement in the trial of Susanna. has the pretence of a trial. was so much enjoyed by them. if they resembled the modern Bedouin. stated that he had seen Susanna under a mastic tree. 6. was given in accordance with the law-frequently traditional custom'judgement ' comes to mean justice or custom. like Job. meets him 92 I SIN. and they may be used metaphorically to describe the status of one is against whom the divineVverdict supposed to have been given as manifested in trouble which has come upon him. . l.e. the words are used for the status of one who is unsuccessful. the winning of his case. 3 Kings xxi. was so familiar to the people and. There is no idea whatever in the Psalm of ' original sin '. But for our present inquiry the most important adrninistration ofjustice was the summaryjurisdiction administered in what corresponded to a forum. Another illustration of the influence of legal procedure on popular diction is the word commonly rendered 'judgement '. ' sin '. Rather than that he declares that his father and mother before his birth were under divine sentence of punishment indicated by their suffering. or has ' righteousness' imputed to him. Susanna 58 ( h 6 wp~vov). when one of the two witnesses. are used to denote the status of one who has secured a favourable verdict. xlii. are used to express the status of one found guilty of any misdemeanour. 6. but in the Deuteronomic period certain rules are laid down. For example. ' Deut. if the court was a just one. He knows that he has not wronged his fellow man in any way which would bring down upon him the divine judgement indicated by his calamities. whether in criminal or in civil cases. An illustration of this is found in the statement concerning Cyrus.
whose duty it is to watch fair play between the two. Deut. Austin Kennett's book Bedouin Justice (pp. it may be mutually agreed that the case shall be taken to the Bisha for decision. In connexion with the sentences inflicted. ' The trial by ordeal is employed to settle disputes in the absence of evidence. would greatly deter perjury in the trial of a person found guilty would be the rule that they first must take part in executing the death sentence. Austin Kennett.' Mr. it must be remembered that in primitive thought the tribe or family is the unit rather than the individual. A false witness would thereby incur blood-guiltiness. xvii.). unless it has been found impossible to come to a decision by any other means. the kind permission of the Cambridge Univrrsity Press. and the wrong is redeemed by a similar weakening of the tribe a member of which did the wrong. In giving the Lecture he went on with what he had so ingmiousb led his audience to. There can. z q J. Th& close to the miraculous and therefore sacred spring (Exod. m&. being anxious that the solemnity of the ordeal shall not be lost by frequent appeal in trivial cases. The spoon referred toy1rather like a flattened-out soup-ladle.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM be held by*a modern jury altogether to invalidate their evidence ! What. 2 ff. the ordeal may have been of more than one kind.5 94 TRIAL BY ORDEAL 95 In this very region an Ordeal by Fire still survives. but since Meribah (which means a place of litigation) was in the same region.4 and the defendant ' responded '. Num. The accuser and accused must first agree upon a neutral third party. An ordeal with holy water does indeed survive in the law. There are traces of more primitive methods of settling disputes or deciding criminal cases. or any other serious charge. I t has been suggested by Robertson Smith that the word Massah means a place of ordeal. Deut. There is in Sinai only one man-a quaint little old Arab called Sheikh Hamdan of the Ayayda tribe-who inherited the post from his father. ' 2 Sam. . after heated affirmation of the truth af the charge on the part of the accuser and equally violent denials and repudiation on behalf of the accused. however. v. as actually witnessed by his son. Mr. however. especially the Iex talionis. be little doubt that Trial by Ordeal was once not uncommon. 7) was a place called Massah and also Meribah. theft. b y ' The actual spoon was brought to the Lecture and exhibited by Professor Kennett. 3 Deut. the whole proceedings . Deuteronomy shows a sense of individual justice I foreign to the older thought (which is seen. e. for example. either in his own house or at some pre-arranged place in the desert. and who carries out his Ordeal all over Sinai. xix. xxi. but we cannot say how late they were in force. when Administrative O#cer for the Egyptian Government in Sinai. xxiv. and he conjectured that the ordeal involved the use of 'holy water ' (cf. Austin Kennett then goes on to say that he was an actual witness to a Trial by Ordeal by special invitation from Sheikh Hamdan. and it is further remarkable for the humanitarian limitation of the stripes inflicted. is such as is used by the Sinai Arabs for roasting coffee-beans. 109 R . so do they reserve the " Bisha" (as they call the trial by ordeal) for the more important cases only. xxv. the Biblical Kadesh Barnea being located at the modern 'Ain Kadis. in David's concession to the Gibeonites 2). . The procedure is as follows : 'When a suspect is accused of murder. viz. 6. Austin Kennett says : ' The most interesting hereditary expert in Sinai is the individual who cames out the Trial by Ordeal.3 The prosecutor or claimant was called the ' witness '. 17).g. 5 Here Professor Kennett's M S . It had been presented to his son by the Sheikh. Just as the Sinai Arabs are loath to employ the oath in their disputes. 16. Thus a physical injury done to a tribesman is a weakening of the tribe. 3. and another near Medina in the Arabian Peninsula. the Ordeal by Fire among pr~s&-& B e h i n in the Sinaitic Peninsula. . both in subject-matter Md geographical s i t t d o n . I give the dcsm'ption from the late Mr. " pp. usually only the more serious charges being disposed of in this way.The three then go to the sheikh of the Bisha. 16. There is a similar expert among the Amran tribe east of Akaba.
and clearly visible to all was his tongue looking perfectly healthy and natural. and a group of onlookers (including the writer) went up to examine his tongue and mouth more closely. and threatened that reprisals would be taken. ' In the particular instance in which the writer was an eyewitness. declaring that he would not shirk the ordeal at this stage of the proceedings. The meeting was fixed for late afternoon. . and this time rather frightened and unwilling he forced himself to comply. one Arab from Southern Palestine had accused another Arab from Khan Yunis of murdering his son. T h e dramatic narrative of Mr. A third time he leant forward-this time recklessly-and licked the spoon. As his tongue returned to his mouth. a swarthy Arab with finely chiselled features and a short black beard. A small pot of water was then passed to the accused. Some of the men were smoking cigarettes. and again the water boiled away. and after again rinsing out his mouth. who rinsed his mouth and spat noisily.. The sheikh poured some water into the spoon. sat the sheikh. A charcoal fire was burning. their mutual assessor. the father persisted in his accusation. and the two chosen by the sheikh himself. the Compassionate ". whom he invited to be present at any time or place convenient.' [I d o not remember that Professor Kennett made any further peroration o r summing u p of his three Lectures. ." declared the sheikh . stoking up his charcoal fire. together with the complete disappearance of the water. ' " In the name of Allah. He seemed quite unconcerned. the sheikh withdrew the spoon from the fire. alas. and there being no secrecy or staging of any kind. the Merciful. flicked the ashes off its upturned bottom with his other hand. the accused returned the water to the sheikh. satisfied any doubts as to its temperature. ' In spite of the entire absence of evidence. while the onlookers strained forward eagerly to watch the ordeal. the black mark of the ashes was clearly seen. " Clean. crooned the sheikh. in which all present reverently joined. and the four then ordered the accused to put out his tongue. . the sheikh of the Bisha came from his house in Central Sinai up to El Arish to meet the litigants half-way. Three times the sheikh poured water into the belly of the spoon-twice it boiled away immediately. who had by now released his nervous grasp on his sword . With supreme selfconfidence he obeyed." echoed the witnesses. who had found no signs of violence . on which the " spoon " was laid. ' The sheikh passed the pot of water to the accused. and the body had been examined by the Government doctor. pulling himself together and tightly grasping his sword with both hands.HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM TRIAL BY ORDEAL 97 being open to anybody to watch. The boy had been found dead in the desert. His effort was unsuccessful. lenged the other to support his charge by evidence. The accused-apparently unwillingly-eventually consented to undergo the trial by ordeal. after which the three assessors carefully examined his mouth. I n the centre of the group. took out a cigarette and lit it from a burning stick at the edge of the fire. and paid an official call on the writer. and a group of fifteen or twenty onlookers squatted in a semi-circle round the fire. and squatted on the ground. the accused himself. Austin Kennett (now. and once it remained. Then he poured more water into the cup-like depression at the base of the handle. others puffed contentedly at their enormous pipes. and directed the accused to come and kneel just behind his left shoulder. 'For one brief moment the accused paled. in the shade of a tree near the Government offices. with the sticks of charcoal built up round it. On closer inspection the faintest possible trace of a black ashy smudge was just visible in the centre of his tongue. and tongue. Arrangements were duly made. he put out his tongue and licked the hot spoon. his fate hanging on the ugly iron spoon in the charcoal fire. and then. and the other agreed that if the Bisha decided in favour of the accused he would drop his claim. and the noisy boiling and the steam. I t was difficult to believe that in a few moments one of those present would be tried for his life. the sheikh called together his two witnesses and the assessor nominated by both litigants. and appealed to the accuser to accept some form of compromise. . When the spoon had been completely cooled. and the shadows from the big tree over the yellow sand completed the peaceful scene. and presented it glowing red to the accused at his left elbow. " Again " called the crowd . his dusky skin showing ash-grey . which was otherwise perfectly healthy and normal every way. in company with the accuser and the accused. The accused protested his innocence and chalwhatsoever. Taking the handle of the spoon in his right hand. as he quietly said a prayer. two or three paces in front of the rest of the assembly. ' After a few minutes the sheikh of the Bisha intimated that the spoon was hot enbugh. as one of those present made a last effort to reconcile the litigants. 0 . ' The buzz of conversation suddenly stopped. lips. " Clean.
67 Beans. raised above the line). not Seeds. see Girdles Arbours. humane care for. 68 c . see Marriage . Bridegroom. 57. 59. quoted. 31 Carpenters. 2 I Bettina.] GENERAL INDEX In this index are included all the Hebrew words. 61 Candalabra. 25 Archery. 20 Bine (g~phth). 24 Amulets. E& Badh (linen). 5 Burglars. 95 ff. Caddies '. 45 f. 39. The value of diacritic points ' and rough and smooth breathings is. Bottles. 62. 47 Bedouin Justice. A d h . . 47 f. ~abhillim. 84 Arrows. baked. The English alphabetical order is followed. Carts. 31 Burial customs. more real and vivid. 61 . quoted. 57. 83 Belts. 43 Breastplates. not indicated in the index. 43 E Barbers. 30 Buchan.social position of. 46 Agriculture. foreign policy of.and S & follows SGphir. 84 Apothecaries. 82 Azbfrn (implements). 39. regarded as binding. sowing of. Brooms. sprinkled on mourner's head. 38. 'Abhdthh (traces. precisely transliterated. 87 Bows. 34-7 . 29 Beef. 16.98 HEBREW LIFE AND CUSTOM dead in Nigeria) and the presence of the actual spoon had indeed on all who were present the effect intended by the Lecturer. 59 Calves. 71 Bears. 6 Axe. 20 . which occur in the text of the Lectures. 70 Antelopes. 88 Apples. 64 Bread. 7 I Breakfast. also. 28. 37 Anvil. 41 Aprons. 21 Bridesmaids. 39. v. 35. 57 ff. occurring in the first syllable of a Hebrew not word. 35. 37 Bish (Trial by Ordeal). Patriarch of. see Girdles Betrothal. in war-time. unbaked. of baked brick. but a half-vowel or a Shcwci(indicated in transliteration by a small letter. 69 Baral S' (a hairy man '). of common land. Bricks. 89 Armour. pg6rci follows ~ermZsh.' refers to the notes at the foot of the pages. 24. 35. 65. 72 Camels. procession of. 88 . Thus.369 37 Bandages. 70 leachi in^. 58 n. Witch W d . periodic. 47 Bakers. ropes). 71 . which was to make Meribah (' place of litigation') and Massah (' place of trial '). something strange but true and in touch with human life. 57 Asses. together with the ritual drinking of the Water of Jealousy described in Num. 95 Bit (harness). 63 Bedhfl (tin).. Baking. 32. 64 Antioch. c n. 66 Assyrian kings. 85 Bedclothes. Bedrooms. 52 Ashpa (quiver). finally confirmed by cohabitation for a week. 85 Animal food. 41 n. 87 Bmblirb. 73 Barhebraeus. 2 I Bronze. 84 . 44 Barley. 67 Addlreth (prophetic mantle). ~hroninrm S y k . 57 f. 88 ' B6ke (tender of oxen). 26 Bedsteads. John. 7' Ahwci (c freehold ') 73 Allotment. 77 Altars. Banquets. is ignored for purposes of indexing. 35 Armlets. 23 f. 72 Bellows. 64 Ashes.. 39 Animals. 53. 28. 82 . 56 'Arfrsth (sort of cereal ?).
34. 74 f. 23 ff. 49 . in internal house-decoration. Gold. 69 Disciples. 89 Hyenas. 40. bedrooms. 46 ff. 28 . 52 Hebrew metaphor. 35. 30 Crowns. love tl d . 87 Education. 26 . 58 Deer. 33 . g . 81 Dlbhash (wild honey). 16 Cisterns. 29 Charcoal. by mourners. Kard6m (axe). 28. 25 . 27 Harvest. 55 f . rights safeguarded by Deuteronomic law. . 82 inscriptions on outer door-posts. 87 Curd. . 62 . disposal of the. pl. au naturcl. warrior's. Armour. in ovens. hair cloth adopted as. sanitation.couches. use of sling in. 58 GENERAL INDEX c 101 Carvers. 45. 27 . of vihtage. purification ceremonies after birth. 57 Gcimtil (weaned child). traces). 21 : made into woven fabric. 69 n. 70 . 3 1 ~ 8 2 Fullers. 58 n.~fine. 68. 52 . 6 I &!?2ez . . ' gridHunting. -. wake-song). 58 n. 7. 68. 27 Clay. I 3 . 83 f.. 23 . head covered in mourning. . 72 n. dried.. 37 Horses. Clothing. 8 Gomme. Teachers.reaping. 34 Chests. 34 23 f. 69 Jackals. bine).72 Goldsmiths. 80 . 37 flabhZlfm (ropes. 68. 64 Fishmg. birth. 89 Green herbs. 25 Garlic. 93 Judges. 45 . 40 Chairs. dcbhak&. 82 HGsim (arrows). 26. on outer door-posts. biscuit). 57 dles '). 77 Equipment. 34 Gall-water. Harrows. sacrifice of. smeared on Jars. 17 Griddles. asfosum.IOO GENERAL INDEX Dead. 82 Cavalry. with spears. 26 . 77 c Fatling ' (denoting beef). allotment of. keys. 71 Cetaceans. 67 Dort.. skins mixed in provender. 45. sons of. 29. spelling-book. 86. discipline. 91 Hammers. 72 Doves. feeding of. I I f. 81 . 79 Ivory. 64 Grazing grounds. 68 Hem's (curds). 84 Husbandry. 37 houses.. 75 Dovecots. 36. see Marriage Conduits. Cud~els. 41 . T e Village Community. run. 82 ~acfccassfm (armour plates). wild. Fl&ds. of hewn stone. locks.yaldci (boy. on Hebrew life and thought. not in jewellery. 58 wanfth (javelin). cf. 67 (bow). 15. fires. lonians in lieu of. poetry. 57 Greaves. gcfmtil (weaned child). preserved. respect for parents. girdle). resinous. 68 Keys. 61 . feeding of infants. potter's. boys' sports. 84 f. 57 Eth (ploughshare). 85 f. 91 '. 33 Gum. 20 . dancing associated with. 28 Confectionery. 31 . g2 comb. I 2 . 78$ Grease. 26 . 64 ~reehbld. Infants. 71 . 77 Compasses (dividers). 40 . 88 Jugs. Coverlets. 67 Eye-painting. 69 Food. 59 E. Cereals. 34.. 37 . 15. 91 El6hfm. teachers. in every septennial year.37 . Gourds. of animals. 86 f. 89 Grapes. guild of. 45 E . not of sons. '61U (child). Mr. I ff. 88 Furniture. 89 Cord (used as a ruler). 71 Feasts. 39. 39 Herebh (sword).82 . 89 Drunkenness. 28 ff. 80 f. 36. lighting of. Austin. GibbBr kyil (a c gentleman '). weaning and its festival. 40 . Enclosure Acts. Out of the '. 58 Garzen (axe). 93 Judgement Grinding corn. 32. . possession of. vegetable. 16 Chisels. . 68 Gardens. 40~64. 82 HcimE~(leaven). gardens. 29 Dogs.73 Fruit. 89 Cucumbers. 63 . 3 ~e'lek (portion. Pariah-dogs. education. City. I 2 Divans. cleaning. 39 Houses. on eighth day from birth. 53 Dibhek. y!e h fem. 49 Drugs. Inscriptions. g Herm-sh (sickle). care of. as receptacles for documents. Gustave. 59 f. . '81i1. in garden-houses. nurses male and female. 37 CUPS.56 cooking ute&ils. of earthenware. 39. at child-weaning. military. Administration of. 71 Ices. (equiv. 83 Concubinage. at Shiloh. maternal love. on roof. 29 cows. 81 Fetters. 82 Circumcision. 89 Herds. c The Earthenware ' 87 . 57 fIcir@ (c sharp'). bodies of the. 66 . summerGLphen (vine. 14 . 43 . 62 n. furnishing of. customs at. regarded as unclean. 10 . 70 Dyes. y6nZk (suckling). the. occupations of. 34 ffFoxes. cistern. ~omkon land. 55 f. GCbfna(butter). sale of daughters. 8 . 83 Chariots. Bedourn Justice. 44 Goad. sweet. 24. .62. 72 Dress. 64 Flax. of the Gentry. 55 fwealthy. music. 48 walla (? perforated cake. 87 . 32. Girdles. 32 Conscri~tion. 32 Juniper root. 35 Hay. varieties of. on roofs. circumcision. woven. 75 n. 38 Hag6rci (girdle).dried. 66. g . Hellenism. 87 shields. 47 . 67 Justice. 69 m a (lament. influence of. see Agriculture Glass ornaments. 71 Corners of the field. inlaid in bedsteads. 51. 71 KikkCr6th ld&m (round loaves). Charioteers. 47 Earthenware. 52 . 40 . 58 Jewellers. 57 Gdbh (shock of corn-sheaves).30 . 29 Children. 84 Figs. wild. Grace before meat.rent as sign of mourning. bridal. roofs of. 6 Helmets.weddings. 42 Dugong. Gibeonite slaves. 709 7' Crockery. . 52 Clubs. 72 Elders. (smith). 32 Copper. 41 Fires. ?g EZ6r ( Arabic izdr. of earthenware. 35 Fodder. 64 Dosbcin (ox-goad). 36. 27 . 51 f. 26. 59 Javelins. for oxen. of unbaked bricks. 36 Frying-pan into the fire. 34 Dancing. 30. 3 9 ~ 6 4 Infantry. 89 ff. 32 Fish. agricultural. 30. honey. 45. 43f. 2 I .nd'ar (boy). 26 . Writing of wild birds. 61 Game. 81 Head-dress. 37 f. 24 . 28 . 7 . 40. 61 ~lour. 83 Corn. . 69 K@fn (dictator). sec Children. 39364 Digging-stick. Corals.85 f. bitumen used by Baby. wicks of.with hooks. 27 . 39 dghel marbck fatted calf '). 60 Cheese.grindig. 46 Fallow ground. seesGirdles Job.. drying of. Ladies'. Disciples. redemption as alternative. 64 Dung-heaps. Fuel. share). Hair-dressing.. 57 Kennett. . 63 Glazing. 60 Goats. 25 . 53 n fIayil (warlike efficiency). 27 h Iron. 87 Gleaners. girl). Gazelles. . 39 f. 77. 69. mode of teaching. 57 Gate. for. The Honey. 28 - Fabric. 67 Implements. 58 . &C. 39.
47 c Sharps '. 37. Turbans. professional. 95 ffSport. 69 Witnesses. 78 Stools. Tkbhen (chopped straw). I n Spelt. 71 . nature. 40 Tabernacles. 89 Silver. 42 S h h n (sacred anointing oil). 59 Ship& (breastplate). 71 Spices.. 35. I I . sledge for. 86 f. 68 Shaving of the forehead and beard clipping. military. Violet dye. used in woodwork. 69 Tent-peg. of the vintage. 23 Terracing. 77 f. 36 GENERAL INDEX Wailers. 59 Shdphrfm (judges). 83 n. 78 ff. 72 'Uggdth (unleavened cakes). 29.for washing before meals. $innu (very large shield). 71 Shtbet (club). contentious. 62 Steel. 50 Wres Ydt&dh (digging stick). 57 Sycomore-figs. 47 . 42 . 30 Slaves. 39. 63 Work. 27 Wheat. professional. 47 Shields. 57 Skins. 57 Smith. hewing. 35. 34 Songs. 44 Unleavened bread. 94 ff. 42 Yiledh. structure of.87 Sheaves.. 67 Spears. 37 Vineyards. 60 S k i (scarlet). 86 SimlZ (ordinary outer garment)? 46 c Sin '. 69 n. 68 . Sickles. see Goad Windows. brushwood. 62 Shish (linen). 84 slings. 72 2T6nik (suckling). 57 Shocks (of corn-sheaves). metaphorical use of origmally legal term. system of. 48 Threshing. Tents. 82. 29 Taboos. for drinking. 66 . 43 Shepherds. 27. 29 Shuttle. 53 Wall-pegs. 25 Swords. see Military exer'"3 ShZlEsh (an officer's title). 59 SirySn (breastplate). regarded as necessary evil.85 Sieges. 69 Soap. 88 Staves. 49 ff. wild. for men's use. 94 Weaning. out of season. training for. quoted. 16 Sort^ (resinous gum). 43 Yoke. in mourning. 67 Y6na (dove). herd). 35 Unguents. 60 f.sc. Wolves. 52. 89 Tin. 41 Water supply. 53 . feeding of Weaving. 35. 79 Thong. 599 69 n. sowing of. 67 Trades. for sharpen in^. 29 c Strange woman ' (Proverbs). 29 Vegetables. 73 Yijhar (olive oil). Wood (panelling). burnt at burials.3 94 Smiths. Laws concerning.. 34 Shulkn (table). I Water-melons. of the vines). . 82 n. 42 Winnowing. uses of.104 GENERAL INDEX spinning. 84 c Stints '. 50 Vestibule. 85 Tdmcr ri n* (scarecrow). 43 . 35 $6n (flock. Tannfm (jackals). no matter how acquired). 10 P&(leaven). 88 44 Valuables. I I.69 Sukksth (arbours). Sledge-hammers. 25. 9 Y6Crfm (potters). T6W' (scarlet stuff). 9 YerwhsM (property. 63 Women. 19n. yaldi (boy. Snuffers. girl). Snares. Trapsy64 Trial by Ordeal. 26 Wine. 44 Tables. 35. 53 Wake-song. Robertson. social position of. 47 Wells. 48 . 69 n. 64 Tassels. see Infants. 57 Spelling-book. 42 Vines. 67 Whip.91 Shcph6th bZkcTz (?cream). 35. 52 S6fih& (c secretary '). 47 Teachers. 47 Spoon. c holy water '. storing of. 27. 93 f. 50 Straw. release of m seventh year. g I Sh6tCrim(officers). 36 $&@h (refiner). 68 Tiaras. 69 n. 72 Sheepfolds. Feast of. 82 ff. 53 Tactics. 27 Vinegar. fem. 41 f. 58 n. process of. 68 Sidonian merchants. 58 n. . 80 Summer houses. 47 Tools. 68 Shoes. 60 f. <Zmtr 70 (6 the pruning '. 80 Table manners. Signet ring. 88 S6kth (fine flour). 46 Sheep. locality of. 49 Turtledoves. 86 Silversmiths. 38 Veils. number.of morals. 48. I I n. m Bedouin Trials by Ordeal. 72 Traces. yielding scents. 92 f. chopped. 61 f. 62 Shebna. 82 T' (turtledove). 24 . 64 Snow. 69 . 30 War. 25 . mourners subject to various. rayin (wine). 68. W. 25. served at feasts. 82 Wool. 62 Shikhci* (alcoholic liquor). Sowing.
36 xix . . . . . 26 38 xiii 23 40. . 58 ?v 59 xxlv. . . . 62 62 x b. . . . 93 xxviii. . .. . . . 47. 7 . . .24 43 xi . . 21 60 xxi . . . . 68. . . . . g 6 . . . 18 . . . . . . 45 . . 4 46 . . . . 67 xxii . 12 . . . 68 ii. 30 xvii 16 59 34y xxiv . 71 xiv. . . .22 40 i. . . xviii. 44 xxx. 18 x x i . . 20 xviii. . . . . 7 . . . . . . . 62 xxxv . . . 39 xliii. . . . . . . . 22 . . 43 xxx. 25 iv 26 v 29 vi . . 9 11 27. 50 xl. 52. . . . 48 . 83y43 8 84 x x i i . 19 10 xxii. . . 57. . . . . 30 89 xix. . . . . . . . xlix. . . . 16 19 viii . 36. . . .9. .. . . . . 18 xlviii. 35. 91 xxi. . . 7 . . 27 ff. 24 iii 7 iii 17f iii 21 iv I iv 2 iv 10 . .. . 7 93 NUMBERS xxiii. 38 . . 24 91 xxi . 37 " . . 6 . 74 xxvii. 15 . . . . . . . 81 xxiii. 41 xx . . . . . . . . . 80 xvi. . . . . . 65 xxiv. . . . 5 . 18 . . I I xxvii. 19 . . . . . xur. . xxxviii. 51 i. 1 3 ~ 2 5 ii. . 43 xiii. 7 xii. . . 61 xlv . 7. . . . . 26) . 74 xxxiv. . . . 16. . . 4 '7 0 INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES GENESIS i. . . . . . . 26 .. . . 13 . . 27 48 xi . . . . 24 . . . . I I 29 58 xvii. . 45 . . . . . . 13-20 . . 30. . 24 . . . . 8 . . 16 . 71 xxiii 15 . . 57 . . . . 61 1. 12 29 xv . .61. . . . . . 65 25 . .. .. . . . . 2 0 xxxviii. . . . 7 . . . 89 v1. 7 xix. xxxviil . . 16 94 xxix. 71 xii . . 15 xv . . . 46 . xxiv. 87 xxxv:-28 . . 70 .26 . 15 13 xviii.6 . 22 . . . yh 69 xxxvi! . . 24 80 xxiii . . 44 30 . . . . . . 34 . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . 4 ff 64 xxii. . . . . . 89 xxiv. . 6 39 xxxiv . . 14) 28.8 . . . . . . . . . . . 51 . 74 . . . . . . 80 xiv. .5ff. 43 . . 46 xii. 88 . 43 xx . . . 39. 34 xxiv. . xxix 11 xxix . 23 . . .23. . 71 viii . . 7 . 18 . . 71 vii. 26 .. 52 xxxiv. 32 . . 25 xxxvi. 72 iii. . . . . . 16 . 86 2 . . . 22 . 13ff . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 . 7 0 ~ 8 0xxv 5 . . m xxxvu. . . . 47 xxli . . . . 3 . . . . . . no . g 68. g . . 33 ii. . . . . 3 . 66. 38 xiv.68. . 13 62 x k .4 . . 46 h i . . 28 . 25 . . . 62 ii. 37 .31ff . . . . . . . g 87 xii. . 8 i . + .7. . . 27 28. . 62 H. . 6 . . . . . 47 xxiii. 22 . . . . a RONO~ I . 8 . 46 xliii. . . . . 26 . 6 . . . xv. . . . 6 . . 37. . . . . . iv 20 iv 21 iv. 8. . . 14-16 . . . 20 .) 24 .15 . . . . . . . . . 18 xlvi. . . . . . . 61 . . . . . 14-16 . . . . 26 ii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13f f 53 xxii. . . . . . . 59 xxii. 8 xxii.. . xx. . . . . 28 . 18 xxxii. . . . . . . 88 xii. . . 16 iv. . . 32 . 13 40 xxxi. . .. . 46 xxi. 2 . . . . . 22 xi. . 17 xli. 17 . .. 32 xxv1. . . . 22 iv. 28 xviii. . . . 24 xix. 39 47 xxii. . . . . . PAGE a . . . g xxi. . . . . .4. . . . 10 (Heb. 82 xxx. . . . . . . 60 . xxiv. . g . 3 xiii 2 xiv. 61 . . 15. PAGE . . . . . 66 xxvi. . . . . . 23 47 xviii . 31 m xu 5 . xxvi xxvi 14 xxvi. . g . . . 18 18 viii . xxix 22 39 xi . . . . . . . . . 3. . .. . go xvi. . . . 17 . . . . 33. . . . . 41 xxxvii. . . . . g . . . . . . . .2 xviii. 11 ii. 36 xxiv.. . . . . 44. . . g xv: 17 xvi I X . . . . . 8 xxxviii. . 17 xxxix. . . . 27 . . 16 . . . . 28 LEVITICUS xxiv . . . . . 14 . . . 30 xxiii. . gg . 69 . . . . . . 87 xxii. . . . 47 ii. . . .. . g . . .37. . . . . . . . . . . 43 . . . 15 . . . . . I3 . 28 52 xi . 17 xlii. . . 50 m . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . 47 20 xxii. no i. 19 xxxii. 6. . . 26 . . . 46 xliii. . . 15 .. . . . 79. 10. . . . 13 . . 7 . . . . . . xxxl. . . 45 ff. .20 7. . . . 16 . . . . . . . . 19 64 xviii I 2 43 xxii . 72 xxv: 7 . . 71 . 18 . . 13 . . . . 7 . 21. . . . . 29. . . . 61 . 67 xxv . . . 32. . 3 18 xix. .4. xvii. .23. . . . . . . g . . . PAGE xxiv 46 xxiv 53 xxiv.) . . . . 41. . . .67. . 4 3 . 4% 43 17 . . 23 f.. . . 13 . . 10. . . .. 20. 79 . . . . 6 (Heb 5) 68 xix. . . . . . . . 52 ! . . . . . '3 xx1. . 19 &X 40 xxii . 56 .. 39 xxxv . . . 50 . . . . . . .42 . 12 . . . .. 26 28 xxii . . 14 xxiv n . . . . 19 66 xi. . . 7 xxix. 7 39. '5 xxxiv. . 7 . . . . 32. . . . . 10 . . . .g3. PAGE . 85 xi . 15 ff xx? . 7 . . . . 7 . . . . . . . 6 xxix 6ff.g-17. . . . 18 . 14 39. 34. . xvii.15ff. . .. . 15. . . . . . . 48 xxl. . . 61 1. . . 69 xxxvii.. . . 15. . . . . .. . 7 xlv. . . . . . 46 xxi. . . . 39. 25 (E. 38. 19 . . 12 15~77 xxiii. 7 . . . . 69 i. . . . 68 . . . . . . . . 18 xlviii8-12 . . . . . 25 60 xiii. . . . 22 . 23 ii. 28. . . 56 xxix. . . ii. . . . 32 . 18 xlii. 31 . . 36 xxiii. . .. . xxii. 17. 50 86 . . . . . 16f. 8 33 xx: 19 . 16 iv. . . . . . 39 xliii. . . . 12 . . . 2 . . . . . . . . 14 xiv 15 xiv. . . . . . . 61 . . . . . . 17 . .. .. . . . . . . 34f xxvii 2 mii 3 xxvii g xxvii. 61 . 54 60 x . . 35. . . xliii.. 43 xiv 21 38 I 38 xxv . . xv:ng 89 xi. . 44 -27 xviii. . 44 33' . . 11. 2 77 xviii. 72 . . . 12 67 xix 5 82 xxvi. . 23 xxx. . 52 xiv. 25.. . . . . . 83 10 xx: 25 83 xvii. 19 52 xi . 23 . . . 58 88 m. . . . . g 19 viii . . . . . . . 8 . 20 xix . . 37. . . . . . 50 . 36 xxiv. . 20 40 xxii. 18 66 xi . . . . 3 . . . . 2 1 ~ 2 6 . 62 . . . . . . . . . 31 36 xii . . . . xxvii 41 xxvii 46 xxix. . g . . 36 xvi. . . . . 36 . . . . . . . 35 xxii. 25 . . . . . 16 . . .14. . 35. . P2 . . . . . . . . 94 + . . 47 74 xxii. . 83. . 20 . . . . . . 7 xviii. . . . . . . . 52 75 14 . . . 34. 89 xviii. 16 . . . . . 20 mi i 21 X ! ! 10 36 v. . 94 xii. . 18 xlii. . . . . xliv . 38. . 25 . 53 . . 15. 6. 12 . 12 . . . . 13 47xix. . . . . . 81 xxii. . 11 . .40 . . . . . . 44 . . 37 xl . . 19. . 15 38 vi. 21 xxxiv. . . 22 66 xiii. . . . . . . . . . . PAGE PAGE 20 11 1 11 21 II 10 10 20 20 11 2I 10 2 11 10. 39 xi . I 48. . . . 69 . . . . 17 xxxv11. 36 xxxi. : : . . .29 14 xvi. 29) .. . . 57 xxiii . .16 . .2 .V. . . .. . . 69 . . . . 20 mix . g 64 iv. . 11 . no xxxviii. 71 xxvi. . . 4-8 . . . . . . 10. 29 i xviii. 10 v xviii. 41 xvii. . . . . . ..34 . . . . . . 23 xxxl. . 13 (Heb. g. g xxiv. 20 xxi. . 34 . 68 xx. xiv 24 xv. .. . . . . . . . . 94. . . . . . 23 36 xi . . 85 xxiv. . . . . . 55. . 19 . 8 . . 26 xxv. 51 19 . . 50 iv. 62 xlv. .INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES EXODUS (cont. 2 . 72 xxxiii. . . . . . . 18 91 xxiii. 9 . xxiv. .3 .4 .. 32 2 xlix . . . . . . 10 . . 70 xix. . . . . .38 32 xxi. . . . 15 e i vi. 16 . 22 . . 3. . . 89 . 15 xx!: 14. . . . . . . . . 5 . . . g ~ 1 . . 88 . 17ff xxvii. . . 15-17 . 72 vi . . . . . .38. . 8 . . . . 39 xxii. .1b2r 13 xxxiv . . . . I 5 xviii. xl. . . . . g xxxii: 25. 24. 13 74 xi . 30 . . 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 74 60 X . . . . 43 xxx? 38 . . .. 18ff. 74 xxiv.34 . . . 80 . 3 74 xxv. . . 98 xix. . . I . . . . . 14 xii. .8. . .24 . . 71 xl. 84 xlii. .32 . off. 5 . .31 . 6. . 2 . . . . 38 74 xvi. . . . . . . . . . 16 h:. . 14 40 iv. . . I 1-20 39 (Heb. . . . . 20 43 v: 17 . 20 EXODUS 15 . . . 43 . . 21 viii. .2. . . .. . . . . 1 9 . 1-4 . . 40 . . 64 . .10 . . . . . 16 . . . . 5 . . 35 32 i . 88 xiv. . . . 57 . . . . . I 1. . .
. . . . . . . 35 iv. 23 xiii. . . . . 87 iv. . . 26. xviii.15 . iv. .2 . . . 24 . . 64 . 34 . 17 xxi. . . . . 51ff. . 26 xiv. .33 xxll . 61 23 . . . 44 v. . . . . 35 xiv . g iii. 19 xi. . 28 . 59 xx11 42 .. 5 . . . . . 86 ix. . . .52. . 63 xi. . 03. . . 13 . 75 iii .18 . . .3 . . .4 f. . . .. . . . . . go xv.338 . . . . . . . . xxix. . xxiii. . 6 (E. .) xxiv 19 xxiv. . . 1 1 . . . .39 . 51 . i+ 54 XI . . . 16 . 55 . 88 vii. . g f. . 2 I . . . . . . .4 . . . . . . 51 . . . . . . 56 xi. 55 5 . . 37 . . 42 . 41 KINGS xix. g JUDGES xix. . . . . .8-14 . . 52 XVI . 8 JOSHUA xiv. . 85 vii. . . . 15 . . . 7 ii. . . 34 . 90 v. . 26 iii . . . . 60 iv. 32 . . 16 . . . 18 xiii. . 11 .31 . . . . 13 . . . . 31 .5ff.g. . . 2 . ..14 . . . . 63 x. . 11 xviii. PAGE 68 81 94 68. . . 74. . g . 7 ii. . . 57 1 S . . . . . . . . . . 14 . . . 16 viii. . 2f. . . 4 . 16 . . . . 12ff. . 39 iii . . xvii. 34 ix. . . 56 xvii. . . . . . 36 16 . .5 . . 51 xx. . . ix. . . 53 ii. 3 . . . . . . 24 XXX I S M E (c 0nt.V. . . . 14ff. . . . . . . . xvii. 14ff. 18 . . 23 (Hcb. . . 38 vii. . . . . xxviii. 9 xv. 20 . . . . 15 xxviii. . . . . . 17 xx. . v. . . . 42 ii. . . . 45. . . . v. .20 . . 59 xx. . 21. xviii. . xix. 59 xiv. . . 51 vii. . i6. . . 7 .4f. . 2 xxv. . . 57. 25 . . 30 57 . . . . . . 37. 66 . go xii. . . . . .49. 57 xii. I . . . . . . 84 28 . .24 . . . 37 . . . go . . 32 . 41 xv. 26 ix.4 .. . 62 v. . . . . 91 i. 39.21. . 31 . . 4 . 35. . . . 59 xii. 7 . . . 17ff. . . .. 13 . . 29 . . . . . 2. . . . . 32 . . . . .4. . . . 24 . . 43 xvii. . 26 vii. . . . . . 57 xvii. . 35. . 27 . .25) 86 "5 . 12ff. . . 19 vii. 51 xi11. . . . 74 xiv. 10 .18 . 62. 59 . . . . . . . . 23 xxviii. . .4. . . 28 . . . . . . . 59 iii. 68 xvi. 39 xxl. 28. . . . . . . . . 60 xvii. 6 . . 4 . . . . .5. 39 xxi. . .6. . go v . 6 . 3 . 34 . . . . . . 12 xxv . xvii. 48 . . 88 xvii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60. . . 74 xix. . . . 47. . 88 viii. 8 xxix. . . .21 . 11 . 69 xiii. . 28 . . 53 . 18 . 27 ix. . . . . . . 52. 57. . 20 f. 60 iii. . . . 50 . . . . 81 ii. . . 27. 68 . 7 . . . . . . 1 3 ~ 1 7 . . 51 xvii. 5. . 42 i. . 9 xxxii. 18 . . . . . 19 ii. . 53 iv. 9 xx i . . . 21 ii. n . .8 . . 31 . . .22 . . 33 . . . . . 22f. 39 . 4 . 25 xx. . . . 15 .6. . . . 25 . 47 i. 32. . . g . . 51 . . . 35 . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . 19 .. . . . .4 xxv. . . . . . 59 . . 8 . . . 60 xiv. 67 ii. . 21 iv. . 31 . . . . . 16 iv. ff . 19 . 86 .9 xvii. 16 . 52 viii. . . . . . . . . . . m v. 1 1 . 58. . . I .30. 59 . 42 xxviii. . 45. . . . 34 . . . . . . . . PAGE Q xi. . . . . . . . . 71 v. . . . . . . . 20 . . 3' 61 xvii . . . . . . 8 . 64 i. . xxv. . . 84 xxi. . . . .31 .21 . 2) 35. xiii. . . 38 xmii . 31. . . g . 4 . 7 . 52 xii. 1 . 17 . . .32 . . . . . 18 xiv. 34 xv. 16 . 57 . 24. 27 . 5 . . . 51 . 17-27 .11 . .23. . . . . .18. . I . 45. . . . 60 i v . . 6 . . . . 21 iv. 58 xii. 50 . . . . . 26 . . 16 . . . . . . 7 iv. . . . . . . 28 xxiii. 59 jI. . 10 xv. . 23 . 8 xxv. .. . 47 viii. 67 iii. . . . . . . . 20 . . 53 v. .. 7 . . . . . .48 ix. . . 55 .18 . 14 . 82 xvii. . 18f. 1g . . . 27 . . 18 . 39 xxjii. . . . .. iv. . . . . . . 46 xvi. . . . . . . . 60 i. . . . . 43 . .g . . n ff. . . .4. . . 59 xxii. . . . . xxii. 7 xv. . . 41 xvii. . . . . 85 i. . . 31. 51 . . 20) . . . . . . 17 . . 18 . 16 iv. .3 (iXX).) A UL PAGE PAGE 11. . . 27 . . . . 21 xix. . . . . . . 55 iv. . 36 . . 18 xxvii..10. 13 . . .4 484 . . . . 28 xv. . . . 21. . xv. . . . 59 i. . . 36. 64 xxii. . 10. . . 87 xriii . . . . 2 0 xxviii. . .V. 5 . . . 31 . . . . 37 x!n. . . . . 20 nr. . . . . . . . . . 7 L. . 46 xi. 41. . . 21 . . . . 71 53 x x . 89 xiv. . . 26 i.11. . . 58 . . 47 xiv. . 24 . . 27 . 16. 26 v. . . 25. . 94 xviii. . . . . . ( H b. 11(Hcb. xviii. 84 mriii. . . 87 6 . . . 20 . . . 35. . . 41 . 39. . . .61. 59 . . . . n . 63 . 47 xvii. . xviii. . 57. . 58 2 S M E A UL i . . . g (E. 47 xiv. 23 . .V. . . . 13 . 30 iii. 14 . 63 xiv. . 25. . . . .3 . . . . 25 . . 21 iv. . 16 . 30 13 . 47 viii. 18 xxviii. . 51 . . . . . . . . . 10 ii. . . 6) . . . . . 52 iii . . . . 18 xxvi. 10f . . 40-51 xvii. . . 52 i. 21 xii. 32 . 31. . . .40 . . . 11 . . . n . 13 . . 13 xiii. 6 . . 2 . 19 .8. . . . . . 14 . . 63 xviii. 45. iv . .. 27 xx: 44. 28) . . . . 55 . 60 xiii. . . . 24 . . 51 11. . . . . . . . 23. . INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES PAGE '9 0 PAGE . 41 i . 2 .46. . . 8 . . 47 iv. . . . . 60 . 21 xix. . 81 xiv . 34 . 14 viii.21 . . . . . . . 60 viii. . 26 i. . 4 . 16. . . 91 vii. . 35 xviii. . . . xviii. . 1 3 . . 27 m . . E. 7 . . 18 .30 . . . . . . . 56 xi. . 28 . . 44 x ix. I . . 52 . 2-5 . . . I . 35 xv: 14 . . 27 . 19-21 . . 25 xix. . . . 53-7 . ng . . . 18. .48 . . 22 . 24 . . 88 . . (LXk) . . 33 v. . . . . . . . xxuii. . .13. 1-6 . . 26 i. . . . . . 55 . . 38 . . . . . . 13 . 73 4. 20 xxv. xi. . ff . . 26 vi. 56 xvi. . . . . 31 xvii. . . 17 xvi. . 20 RUTH xv . . . . . . 51 vii.. . 80 xiv. . vii. 44 xxvii. . . . iv. . 20 m 1 V 20 V vl 2&GS v l I 10 . xvii. . 12f. . . . 89 ii. 41 xix. 8 . . ~f. . . I I xxv . . 71 27 . . . . . 14 .. . . 38 . . . . . 15 xv. . 59 xviii.18 . 60 i. . . . 25. 57 xiii. . . . .21 . 13 vii. . . . . . . 33 xv. 4 ix. 48 4 . 57. . 1 . 17 v. . . 86 . . 35. . . . 19 . . 28. . 75 xL. 15 ii. 57. . . 35 iii. 2 39 ?.14. . 82 i . off. L xxv. . . 28 . 10 . 86 . . . 21 .8 . 60 xx. 36. . . go x . 87 xvii . . . .. . . . . 12 . 32 . m. . 52 jv ii. 70 19 48 16 24 76 84 44 83 14 42 89 74 vi 19 vi. 7 xi. . . 26 .. g . . 8 (E. iv. 57 #. 5 . . 48 xiv. . . . . . 43 xiii. 26 xiv.2. .21ff. xxi. . . 37 iv. 23 . 11-17 . . . 3.6. . . . . . 86 v. 1 6 ~ 2 0 . 61 i. 16 . 25 . 7. . 83 iii. . .17 . . xvii. 32. . . 21 . . 37 iii . . . . . . . 1-3 . . .23). . 14. . 34) . 4. . g . . . . . . 81 i. . . . . . . I7 . 84 xviii. . . 30. . 15 j: 24 +. 5 .. . 23 f. . 26. 22 . . 51..23 . . . . . 7 . . 2 . 19 . 16 6 . 18 xxiv. . . . . . 3) 39. . . . . . . xmii . . . 45 xvii. 3 3 i x . . 20 xviii. . 4. 6 .. . 52 i . jv 39 xx+ gg . 2 1 . . 20 .V. . . . 41 vii. . . 28 . . 6 f. 24 iii. . . . . . . . . . 33 f. 47 11. 5-7 .I 08 DEUT (cont. 15 xx. 38 . . . go i . 11 xxvi. . . . 6 . g.g . .3 xxv. . 5 . . . . . 19 . . . . .8. 87 X . . 52 . . . . . 14 . 7 . 18 iv. 6 . 69 ix. . . . 22 . 24 iv. 60 xvii. . . 31 . 13 . 14 . 33 xvii. . . . 11 . . . .5 viii. . 35 . . 8 . . 6 . . 51 . . . . 14 .25. .22-4. . . . . 56 xiv . . . x x 1 I 10 21 22 2.26 . 4 . 44 xuviii. 57 xiv . 34. . . 68 viii.13 ..28 (Hcb. . . 17 . . . xix. . . 92 ii. . . 37 xxij. 35 . . 47 xvii. . 8-12 . . . i. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 xx. . 23 iv. . . . . . 51.. . I II X 10 II 20 X X X 21 X I 21 I II XV I X V ! XIV 10 II 10 12 X+ X? 20 II 20 I2 12. 13 . . . . . 10 xj. .46 . . viii. . 47 xvii. . 80 ii. . 5. 17 . . 57 xvi. . 59 ii. 19. . . . . . 51 . . . . .
. . 52 31 . i. 3 . . 64 . . . 83. . . . . .. . . . .6. . . . . . . .25ff. 1 4 1 . . viii. 40 . 4 . 87 . 37 . . . . . . . 50. 8 . . 25. . 8. 27 xxx: 33 7 . . . . . . 15 xii. . . 12 v: 7 12 xxvii. . . . . 84 . 20 F 17. xiv. 29. . . . . . 37 . . . . 30 . 7 . . . . 15 xlv. xxvii. 51 v. . . . 7 . . . . . 43 xii. . . . . . .. 16 2 5 2 6 xlv. . 78 33. 28 19 xxi. . vi. . . . 62 . i . . . . . . 13 xvii 24-41 xii..22 . 47 85. .. . 10 xxxi. . . . . 17. . . 25 i. . 93 . . . . . . .. 18 . viii. . 18 10 xiv. 12 viii. 71 v. . . 76 xiv. . . . . .7. 3 0 . . 41 . . xx. .7 cloaii. .6 viii. . .5) . I 0 42 xii 3. . . 69 . 32 86 xxxk . . 21 vi. . . . . . v. . . . . . 10 i II i . . xxxi 6 xxxi. .27. 85ii. m. I I 72 . . . . . . . . . . . 20. . . 6 i 8 . 22 . . . . . . . ix. 40 iv. . 14 . . . . . . .2 .13 . 30 49 EZRA 75 xli. . . . 24 JOB xxi. . . . . . . . . . 30 . .. . . . . . . .1 . . .27. . . . . . . . 57. . . . .29 =. . 17 lxvi. . . . 21 . 4 iii. . . . 14 . v. . .. 80 . 1 2 . . . . 39 . . . . . g . . . . . . . 19 60 iii.15 . 8 . .. . . . . . . g f. . 63ii. . . . . . . . . .11 xvi. . .19 xxv 8 . cxli 3 . . 34 . .1 xx. 49 iv. . . 29 iii . . iv.16 9 vi. . . v i i . .10. . . xi. . . 25. . . . 29.17. 31 12 30 .. . . 56 . . . . . . . 80 43. . 18 . 84 .37 70 iv. 13 xviii.3 . . 39 v 37 xxii:. . . . . . xvi . . . .. . 18 ix . . . . 8 . .I 10 INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES PAGE III PAGE 2 Kmos (cont. . . . I4 64 xxvi. . 46. 1-9 19 X .24. .5 liv. . . 64 . S xxiii 12 75-:6 ii. . . 84 . . .. . 10 . . . BI . xxii. . . . . . X1. . 9 . . . . . . . . xx. 80 40 1 X: IV 87 viii. 17 xxvii. . . . 1 vii. . .4 iii. . . . . . . . I (2) xiv. .14 1 27 xxi. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 I . .7 . . . . . 14 xxiii. . 89 . . . 15 . . . . 47 47 63 47 47 ISAIAH i. g xvi. . . . . 12 . . . . xiii. 5 3 . 48. . 10 78 xiii 27 30 v. 70 64 .) cxxix. . 51 . . 25 xxvii. . 20 47. . . . cl. . . . . . 50 . . . . . . . 3 83 xx. g . 21 xxxi. 27 27 xxi. . . 31 xvi. . 4 2 ~ 1 . . . . . . iii 12 . 4 11. .. . . 12 . .2g.5ff. . . . . . . . . . . . 5oii. 64 xliv. .2. xxii. . 24 iv 24 60 xxii. . . . 25. . . 1g . 86 . .. . . . .6. . . . . . . . PAGE 68 26 41 41 48 11 64 57 84 51 64 51 89 10 . . . 42 PAGE . 5 28 X: 27 xxi. . . . . . V 2 . . 38 . . v ~f . . . . . 89 . . . . . . . . . : 2 SONG SOLOMON vii. . . . . . . 14 53 xxxi. V. . . . xx. . .8 X k . . 32 xlv. . . . xiii. . . . . XVII 3 xvii. . . 10 xxiii. . 26 . . . 3 . 68 57 xiv. . . x v i . . 64 76 PROVERBS i. . . 67. . . . I I IV 42 35 m . . . xv . i. I .29-32 =v 2 0 xxv:13 T . 48 cxx. 34. 77 . 69 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 . . 37 . . . 12. VI . 15 xxvii . 12f 25. . . .. . . . . . 61 . i . . . . 24.6. . 23CXXm. . xiv . . . . . 19 60 xxxv 24 53 d 1x. 16 . .3. . .5 xii 10 . .12 . v.. . ~ g f f 13 xvi . 68 . . . . .23 iii. . . . . 47. v . 85 . . . 4 . 6 5I ix 12 29 X . . . . . .) PAGE PAGE iii. 4 . . .4 XX. . . . . 32 4gxci. . . . 41 . 51 PSALMS (cont. .3 . 3 xi. n cxxxiii 3 cxli 2 . .gf. 2 4 . . 18-2 I 19 xxviii.6 45r iii. 2 . . . . 16 iv 2 41 xvi. . . . . 16 xix I . . 6 f. 34 . . . . 67 . . . . . . . . . . 7 64 ii. . . . . . . . 99 xxiii. . . . . .28.8 xviii. . 91 . . . . .12 xviii. 26 xvi. .84 . . 78 .2 . . xxiv. 3 . . . . . . . cix. . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 57789 ECCLESIA~TEI I2 ii. . . . iv. i . . . . . . .4 v . . 4 ix 13 25 xxxiii. . 16 . . 26 53 xxviii. 85 . . . iii. . .1. 42jv. 37. . . 79. 62 . 2 26 xvi. . 25 ?: 30 ??. . 3 51 xviii. 85 . . . . . . . .10. . .4(E. . . 22 xix. . 21 . . xxi. 32 . 4 . 19 iv. . . xiii. . 40. . . . . . 31vii. 64 50 . . . 2 . . . . . . . . I X xxxviii. v. 24 . . . . . . . iv V. 21 &i . . iv. . . . . . . 85. . . . . . . . .5 I CmomcLES iii 25 vi. . . 26 xxviii. . . 33 vii. 63 . . . . 1 1. . 42 . . .5 . 5 7 . 52 . . . 62 xxx . xxii. . . . .12. 30 . 24 ! . . . . . 22 4 . 34 . 8 . . . . . . 2 f 58 xix.40. . . . . .. 19 31 xiii. . 20 18 iii. . vii. 39 . . . . . . . viii. 18 . . . . . 71 it. . . 86 . 18 58 xxviii. . . vii.2 "3 'x. . . 30. . 88 ..V. . 5 .4 . . .33 xvly2 . . . . . v. I f xxiii. 1 19 lxuxii. . . . . 2 3 . 81 xxxix. 18 . . . . 21 88 xxviii. 64 . . g1 . . . . . . 5ff vii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21 . 24 80 . . . 447 49 . . . 3 cwmiii. . . .n. . .13 V. . 4 . 8 . 16 40 lx. . 50 iii. . . 26 xxvii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 62 CXiY . viii. 10 19 xvi . 16 vi. . . . . . 6 29 lxxxi. . . 13. 47 . . . . . 39 64 1i xiii. . . . .80. .g xxii 6 xxii 28 xxiii. . . 49 viii. . . . . . . . . xi .I. . . .15 . . . . iii. . . . . . 86 81 . . . 7. 59 . xv. 76 v . . . . . . . 25 . . . . . . 5 . . . . 12 V111 I . . . .. . . . 84 . . .. .. . . . 59 ~ v i i . . . . . . 11 43 xxv 12 6 1 ~ 6 5 . I 0 .. . 10 . . . 2. . .. 75 6 . 51 . . 7 60 iii 11 xiii 7 iii. . . . . . . . 15 . . .. 84 . 6 cxlix. .16. . . 89 . . v. . . 75 23 . . I7 ii 16ff iii. 16 ix. . 29 . OF. . .I. . . 5 . Q vi.3f. . . . 71 .9-11.13 xxvi 23 . . . . 69 . 80 .. . . . . . . 22 xxvii. . . 49 48 . . 26 N E H E ~ XI. . . iii. 59 . 14 vi . . . 89 q: . . ~ 8 ~ X. . 31 xii. . . . . . . I 6 18 xi. . . . S . . . . . .7 . . . . . . . 34 64 xlv . .8 . . . 24 . 2 . s8 vii. . . 79v. . . .6 . 13 xxxi 19 xxxi. .15 vi. . 52. 70+. . 8 .13. . 25 60. 3 (Heb iii 35) xv 20 . .17 . . . . .22 . . 10 cxlix. . 15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . 88 81 91 . . 84 . . 20 cvii 16 xxi 13 . . . . . 4 . . . g 19 xxviii. . . . .10 xviii 31 ESTHER lxviii 23 xviii 32 i. 81 xxxv. . . 82 . . ix. 88 12 m . 16 i . . . . 37 . . . g ix. . . . 22 .. . . . . . 61 ii. xviii. . . . xi. . . . . . . 5 . 23 . . I ix 10 64 xxx. 13 ii. .11. . . . . . 39. . . 7 vii. . 56 . 17 18 xvi. . . 8 11. . 42 ix 36 6 ix. . . . . . . . . I 2 . . . . 3 ff. 56 v . . 2 viii. . . . 2 . . . ix. . . 18 . cxli. 7-11 . . xiu. . 25. . . . .. . . . G. . .12 iv. 5 . . . . . . . . 18 . . . 69 . . . . xvi . . vii. 747 76 11. . 14 xviii. . . 14-16 . . . . 63 . .2 40~64 16. . . x. .2f . xxii. 10-12 51 AV 8 xvi 3 . . . 8 3 d i. x1. . 15 . I 15 iii. . . . .10. . . 52 2 CHRONICLES xxvii. . .. . . . . 63 . . . . 26 v iii 15 51 xxv 14 84 vi. . . .6 xvi. . . . . . '7 ii 8 46 vi. 6-11 . . . . . 13 v . . . 1 f f . . . .1 . . . viii. . . . 10 .4. vii. . . . . 23 f. xxiv. . . . . 6 42 xii. . . . . 45. g.
. 12 f f . . 7 . HOSEA i. 89 xxviii. .8 . . . . 4 . xiii 4 . . . 82 xlviii. 10 . 4 . . . . . . . 10 v.4 . 74 . . xiii. 46 liv. 83 xv . . . 86 1. . . . . .15 . 12 . . 8 . . 6 . . . . . 64 ii. . . . . . . 87 iv 7 . . 14 viii. 12 lx. 7 . 11 . 21 . . v.4(EsV. . . 86 xlviii . 5 . 13 xvi 19 . 4 . 87 iii. 5 ix. . 2 I (Heb. . . . . 40. . 49. . xxxw. . 2 h3 . 88 v. . . 12 iii. 80 xxii. . . xiv. g . 12 . 38 vii. . .9. 83 xxviii. . 16 . 18 =ix . vii. . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . 13 . 31. . 84 xxiv. . . 47 . 81 xvi. . 58. .25 . 20 . . . . . . . . . . 15 x x x . . 8 . . . . . . 5 iii. . . . 20 xliv. I I . . . . viii. .81 '4 vii. 68 1. . . . . 83 ix. . 14 xxviii. 48. . . . . . 23. 10. . . 27 13 iv. 11-14 . 8 ix. . . . . 12 xxvii. . . 15 xii . 7 vii. . 24 . 1.13 iii. 17 . 8 i. . 89 ii. . 13 xxviu. vi . . 1g v . . .10 78 vi. . 20 (E. . 10. . 23. . . 17 . 21 f. . . 49. 35. . . 24 xxxi. . . . 53 xl . 10) . i 48 ii. . 36 . 81 xxxvi. . . xm. . . . . xliv. . . . g . g . . 12 . . . . . . 6 . 10 xlvii. 6 . 10. 8 . . 64 xiii. . g . 68. . 63 xlix. 39. . . 40' : . I . . . . 47. . 46. 21 . 49 xxii. 17 . IX X: 11 . . 67 lxi. 7 . 14 . 78 xl . xxiv. . . 47. 11 . . . . 6 . 64 . 63. . . . . .6. 27. . . . 9 iii. 4 1. . . . 88 xxxi. . . 6ff. ZECHARIAH iii. . 60 Ixvi. . . . . g xviii. . 10 xvi.8. . 30 . 5. . 58 ix.12 . . . . . 40 vii. . 26) . . . 23 . 52 liv. .iv. 67 xvi. . 10) 67. . . . iv 2 . . S 4gvi. 42 xl . 41 xxiv. . i .67. . . . 24 xvii . . . . . . 6 . . . 17 (Heb. . . . 70 xxx. 1 6 ~ 6 0 xlix . 88 xliv. 40 JOEL . 45 li. . 2 . . 2 . . . g xlvi.49. 76 y. 57 xvi. 29 . . . . xxii. 8 . . 2 . . . 2 iv.27 . . 7 i. 34 xli . . 9 xiii. . . . . . . 48. . . . . . . . I4 xxxvi. I .8. . . 63 i . 42 91 iii. . 30 lviii. 18. 57 iii. 69 M . 40 XXX. .. . . 87 . . xiii. . 20 . 8 iii. .14 . 15 . 29 . . . . . 10 . .3. 2 30. . . 11. . . . 81 xxxiv. . iv. 8 . g . 19 . . . .15 . . . . . . 69 viii. 28. . .4 . . 48. . 6$ n i 22 . . xiii. 67. . 5. . 93 vii. 47 viii. . . . . . .) xxii. . . . . . ii . 31 xli. . . . . 42 xxix. . 43 1x. 23. . . . . 19 . 62 xxxviii. . 16 . . . .V. . . . . 11. . 77. 62 vi. n . xxii. . . .3. . 52 xxxii: 14 . . 10. . 72 xxxvii. 81 xix .15 51 . .26 xxii. 27 . 21 . . . . 87 xxv. . 16 .. . . 86 viii. . . I I . m i i . . 18 . 1 xxxiv.36. . 10 . 82 xlvi.35. 17 . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 1. 84 ix. 16 . . I . . . . xxviii. . . .xxi . 83. . 49. . 41 ii. . . .7 . . . . . PAGE 46 . . . 70 lix. . .4 . . 80 xxx . . 49 1x. . 5 . . I I .g . 22 vi. 9. 44. 8 . . 15 . . . 16. g . I . . . 66. . 89 xli. . . g xxiii. . . . 26. 3 .I . 53 . . . 17 xxiv. . . . . . 64 35. . . . 12. . . . 70 xlvi. 84 . . 82. . 22 . . . . 17 . 42 xlvii. . . . . 86 X . 39 xlix. . 38 U . . 32. 2 . 39 11. 20 . 53. . 6 . . .8. 15 v. . . xiv. . . 28 . . 72 xlix. . . . 89 xix. I. . . . . I I xxxvii. 13 . . . 3 . . 84 . 21 . 3 . . 86 vi . . . 74 . . 63 xxxlv. . . 52.. 24 xix . . . . . . . 69 lii. 7 . 10 . 10 (Heb iv. . xxviii. . 2~ . . 24 lxv. .12f. 26. . . 70 xxv. 16 . . 67 6 . .11 v 16 v. 87 . xxii. 29 . . 43 xxv. . 29 . 52 xlviii. . . . I . . 53 xliv. . .I 12 INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES PAGE INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES PAGE ISAIAH (cont.. . . 44ix. 13 e . . 39. . . 8 ix. . . . . . . . 70 xxxvii. 59 MICAH . . xxv. 10) . . vi I . 12 xii . . . . g. 7 40. . .. .. 5 iv. . . 3 . . . . . 1. . . . 81 xxx . . .3 . 17 xliv 18 . . . . . . . 2 viii. 2. 6 ii. . . . g (E. . g . 11 . . 23 iv. . 26 xxviii. . I xxx. . 16 . . . 15 xxiii. . .. . 13 xxiii. 33 (He6. . 53 xxix. . . . 57. . . . xxiii. 82 xlix. . . . . . 60. iv. . OS . 13 . . 4 . 26 x l 7 . . . . . 21 . . 82. 64 vii. 78 ~ xli . 61 11 I PAGE JONAH . 40 .4 "3 . . .16 9 iii. . . . . . . . ng . 65 i. . 52 xiii. . . . . 4 . 52 . I 1 . . 65 xix . .4. 43 lviii. 20 . 37 . 12 41 ii. . . . i. .23 . . 15 xvi. . . . . . 12 .2 iii. 50 . 60.20 14 iii. . . 83. . . . 3 1 ~ 8 2 xxxv . . 16 . . 24 . . . . . 22 . xxvii. . . xx. 64 . 31 xi. 24 xiii. . . . . 53 xlv! . . . 8 . . g iv. . . 18 . 71 . I iii. . . 82 vii . . . . xiii. . . 86 viii. . xlv. . . . . 24 . . 63 xxviii. 40 vii. . 13 .3) . . 67. . 83 xviii. 24 xlvii. . . . . 2 v. . . . 63 . 19 . . 16) . . . 83 xxxiii. . 2 . g . . 88 xxxviii. . 2 . 59 i . 48. 16-18 xxiv. . . 71 . m i i i . . . . 20) . . . 89 xxxvii. d 27 h i . 32) . . 83 vii.5 . 4. 42. . . 8 . I I .13 . . . 60 xliv. . . . . 32 xlii. . 48. I I (Heb. . 69 lxi. 15 . 33. 27 xlii. 4 . . 70 . . . . . . . 3 0 ~ 8 7 xxxviii. . MALACHI . . . 52 v . . viii.52. . . . I . . .22 . 93 ix. 3 . xiv. . . . 24 . 7 . 16 xxxi. 1 6 ~ 6 0iv. 19 . . . . 34 . . 3 . 83 1. . 76 .8. . 5 . . 16 . 74. . . 4 . 64 xli.30 . I I . . .15 . . 5-7 . 22 . . . . . . 62 xv. . . . 18 . 87 lxvi. 2 xxviii.43 1x. . . 12. . . 51 xxxiv. . liv . . 25 (E. 21 . xlvi. . 4 . . . . . . 22 . . 42. . . 13 . 13 . . X: XI EZEKIEL iv. . . ii. . 6 . 72 . I . 12 xxii. . . . .V. g xxxiv. 18 . . . . .7. 25. ii ii. . .. . . 4 . 35 xiii. 13 ii.V.58. 89 v 13 31. I I . . . . . 24 . . . . i. . . 4. 87 xxviii. 57 g . . . . .9 I. . . . 85 xxxv. . .1 . . 20 xxxvi. 4 . . . . 7 . 7. . 4. . xxix. . 14 v. . . . . . 13(Heb. . . . . ' . . . . 12 . . . . . . I I . 19 iii. 42 h . g li. . . 24 xxii. . . iv. . . . . 14 . . 18 . 10 . 3 . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . . . 83 ii. . . . 2 . . 14 . 8 . . 5 .33 . . . x. . . . . I I 2 23 DANIEL v. g . . . 18. . . 2 . . . . 77 xli . *. 23 . . . . . . 48 xlvi. 2 . 39. 5. . 47. 5 ~ . 14ff. . xxxiv . . . . . . . . 82. 44 viii. 83.. 13 . 48. . . . . . 2 . . . . v. . . 16 (Heb. . . iii. . . xii . .34 . . . .8 . . 5 2 . . 3. . . 28 . . 24 . . 78 10 I 10 I X X PAGE LAMENTATTONSPAGE ii. . . . .44 .4 xvi.84. . . . 12 . . . 6 . . 37 . . . 70 iv. . . . . . 83 ix.15 89 iii. . . . 35 ii. . . . 33 v. . . . 83 ii. . . iv. . . 71 h i. . . .9 xii. . . . 14 51 v. 51 J xxxi. .10 . . 39 xlv. . . 22 . 87 xiii. 4j 24 63 6a = 24 7 40. vi . 72 xviii.7. . . . I I . . 86 Ixv . 13 . . .8. . 68 Ixii. . 12 56. 89 xxx . . . . . . . . 4 . . 4 . . 15 iv. . 13) . . 4 0 ~ 6 4 xxviii. 29 . . 49 xxx!ii . 6 . .14 . 59 vi . .52. . 13 .29 . .
X. . .3. 37. . .16 INDEX OF BIBLICAL PASSAGES xi. . 27 . . xiv.17 A m .. 7 ($3) PRINTER . .16. xxiv.. .. . 2 3 . . .4 . 77 TO THE UNIVBRSITY . 30 . 93 v i i . . .82 PAGE MA~THEW xvi. . . . . . 72 xvii. . GREAT BRITAIN AT THB UNxvsrtsITY PRHSS 75 75 OXFORD BY JOHN JOHNSON 8 J~PHUQ 30 Ant. .. . .. PAGE 72 25 17 PRINTED I N . . . 70 62 . PAGE BARUCH 62 vi. . vii. X... . . . . . . ..114 Tosrr v. 19 . .. .
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