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over Mobile Radio Channels
JeanPaul M.G. Linnartz
Philips Research and TU/e
Outline
• Introduction to OFDM
• Discussion of receivers for OFDM and MCCDMA
• Intercarrier Interference, FFT Leakage
• New receiver designs
• Simulation of Performance
• Conclusions
OFDM
OFDM: a form of MultiCarrier Modulation.
• Different symbols are transmitted over different subcarriers
• Spectra overlap, but signals are orthogonal.
• Example: Rectangular waveform > Sinc spectrum
Applications
Fixed / Wireline:
• ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
Mobile / Radio:
• Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)
• Digital Video Broadcasting  Terrestrial (DVBT)
• Hiperlan II
• Wireless 1394
• 4G (?)
IFFT: OFDM Transmission
Transmission of QAM symbols on parallel subcarriers
Overlapping, yet orthogonal subcarriers
cos(ω
c
t+ ω
s
t)
cos(ω
c
t)
cos(ω
c
t+ iω
s
t)
cos(ω
c
t+ (N1)ω
s
t)
User
symbols
S
e
r
i
a
l

t
o

p
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
=
S
e
r
i
a
l

t
o

P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l
I

F
F
T
P
a
r
a
l
l
e
l

t
o

S
e
r
i
a
l
IFFT: OFDM Transmission
Transmission of QAM symbols on parallel subcarriers
Overlapping, yet orthogonal subcarriers
 
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
∈
=
otherwise 0
, 0
1
) (
s
t j
s k
T t e
T t
k
ω
ψ
1 ,..., 1 , 0 ; with
0
− = + =
c s k
N k kω ω ω
Although the subchannels overlap, they do not interfere with each other
at f = f
k
; (k = 0, 1,...,N
c
1). Indeed, they are orthogonal:
∫
− =
s
T
l k
l k dt t t
0
*
) ( ) ( ) ( δ ψ ψ
OFDM Subcarrier Spectra
Symbol duration : inverse of
subcarrier spacing plus cyclic
prefix
Sampling rate : inverse of
transmit bandwidth
Frequency
Pulse shape in time domain: rectangle Π(t / NT
s
)
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )Ts N N f
Ts N N f
Ts N N f a
T N N
t
a t s
cp
cp
cp
N
n
n
F
s cp
N
n
n
+
+
= + = ÷→ ←


.

\

+
Π =
∑ ∑
−
=
−
=
sin
sinc S(f) ) (
1
0
1
0
OFDM Subcarrier Spectra
OFDM signal strength versus
frequency.
Rectangle < FFT > Sinc
before channel
after channel
Frequency
Cyclic Prefic / Cyclix postfix
The length of the cyclic prefix should be made longer than the
experienced impulse response to avoid ISI and ICI. However,
the transmitted energy increases with the length of the cyclic
prefix. The SNR loss due to the insertion of the CP is given by
where T
cp
denotes the length of the cyclic prefix and T=T
cp
+T
s
is
the length of the transmitted symbol.
CP OFDM SYMBOL
T
cp
T
s
T


.

\

− − =
T
T
SNR
cp
loss
1 log 10
10
Coded OFDM
Received signal at a subcarrier is not affected by transmitted symbols in
any other subcarrier
Symbol data can be recovered using simple single tap data estimation
Viterbi decoder helps recover bits from subcarriers in deep fade
+
=
− − − − 1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
N N N N
n
n
a
a
H
H
y
y
M M O M
=
−
−
−
−
−
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
0
0
ˆ
ˆ
N N
y
y
H
H
a
a
N
M O M
Static Environment
Ave BER curves:
slope ~ degree of
diversity on fading
channel
∑
−
=
l
mf j
l m
l s
e h H
τ π ) ( 2
Single Frequency Networks
OFDM is robust against delay
spread
We can “mis”use this by transmitting
a synchronous signal from two
transmit sites
The Wireless Multipath Channel
OFDM and MCCDMA in a
rapidly timevarying channel
Doppler spread is the Fourierdual of a delay spread
Mobile Multipath Channel
Collection of reflected waves, each
with
• random angle of arrival
• random delay
Angle of arrival is uniform
Doppler shift is cos(angle)
Ushaped power density spectrum
Doppler Spectrum
Crosstalk β caused by Doppler
For uniform angles of arrivals of waves, ICI power spilled from transmit
subcarrier n into received subcarrier m = n + ∆ equals
where
f
∆
is the maximum Doppler shift, and
P
T
the local mean received power, per subcarrier
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
Normalized Doppler [fm/fsub]
P
o
w
e
r
, V
a
r
ia
n
c
e
o
f IC
I
P0
P1 P2 P3
P
o
w
e
r
o
r
v
a
r
i
a
n
c
e
o
f
I
C
I
Doppler spread / Subcarrier Spacing
Neighboring subcarrier
2nd tier subcarrier
3rd tier subcarrier
)} ( ω ) ω ω ω ( exp{
ω
ω
sinc
2
2
1
1
0
,
m n j T j T n j
m n
D
s i i s i c
I
i s
i i
n m
w
− + − + + −


.

\

+ − =
∑
−
=
π
β
( )
∫
−
∆
∆ +
∆ + ∆
−


.

\

+ ∆
= =
1
1
2
2
,
*
,
1
sinc
8
E
x
dx x
f
f
P
P
s
T
n n
n n ch
π
β β
Y = [y
0
, y
1
, .., y
N−1
]
T
, with y
m
= Σ
n
a
n
β
m,n
T
s
β
m,n
is the ‘transfer’ for a signal transmitted at subcarrier n
and received at subcarrier m,
ICI caused by Doppler
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
Normalized Doppler [fm/fsub]
P
o
w
e
r
,
V
a
r
i
a
n
c
e
o
f
I
C
I
P0
P1 P2 P3
P
o
w
e
r
o
r
v
a
r
i
a
n
c
e
o
f
I
C
I
Doppler spread / Subcarrier Spacing
Neighboring subcarrier
2nd tier subcarrier
3rd tier subcarrier
Maximum attainable speed
BER in a mobile channel
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
10
7
10
6
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
10
0
Antenna Speed (m/s)
L
o
c
a
l

M
e
a
n
B
E
R
f
o
r
B
P
S
K
OFDM, 10 dB
MCCDMA, 20 dB 30 dB
MCCDMA, 10 dB
OFDM, 20 dB
OFDM, 30 dB
• Localmean BER for BPSK,
versus antenna speed.
• Local mean SNR of 10, 20
and 30 dB.
• Comparison between MC
CDMA and uncoded OFDM for
f
c
= 4 GHz
• Frame durationT
s
= 896us
• FFT size: N = 8192.
•Sub. spacing f
s
= 1.17 kHz
•Data rate 9.14 Msymbol/s.
Antenna Speed [m/s]
Mobile OFDM weakness: InterCarrier Interference
An effective description of ICI
y = [H + Ξ H’] a + n
where:
• H is a diagonal matrix with the complex transfer function per subcarrier
• H’ is the temporal derivative of H: H’ = dH/dt
• Ξ is the ICI spreading matrix: a system value, fixed!
• a is a vector of transmitted data
• n is vector of white Gaussian noise
selfinterference
desired
Random ComplexGaussian Amplitude
It can be shown that for p + q is even
and 0 for p + q is odd.
• This defines the covariance matrix of subcarrier amplitudes and
derivatives,
• allows system modeling and simulation between the input of the
transmit IFFT and output of the receive FFT.
( )
s rms
q p q
q p
D
q
m
p
n
T m n j
j
q p
q p
f H H
ω
π
) ( 1
) 1 (
! )! (
! )! 1 (
2 E
) *( ) (
− +
−
+
− +
=
+
+
Channel estimation DVBT
H estimation based on pilots in frequency domain
frequency
time
pilots
empty carriers
OFDM symbol
data carriers
Estimation of H
DVBT pilots
In every OFDM symbol, initial estimates of H at every pilot subcarriers can
be obtained.
In every OFDM symbol, estimate of H at each subcarrier is obtained:
– Spectral Wiener Filtering
– Input: Initial estimates of H at several (scattered) pilot positions .
frequency
time
pilots
empty carriers
OFDM symbol
data carriers
Wiener Filtering for OFDM
Achievable car speeds with BB signal processing
Single antenna CoSyS result
On the market
50
120
Receiver 1: MMSE Matrix Inversion
Receiver sees Y = QA + N, with Q=DIAG(H)+ ΞDIAG(H
(1)
)
• Calculate matrix Q = DIAG(H)+ Ξ DIAG(H
(1)
)
• Compute MMSE filter W= Q
H
[Q Q
H
+ σ
n
2
I
N
]
1
.
Performance evaluation:
• Signal power per subcarrier
• Residual ICI and Noise enhancement from W
ICI Handling: Brute force Matrix Inversion
SNR of decision variable. Simulation for N = 64, MMSE Wiener filtering to
cancel ICI
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Subcarrier number
O
u
t
p
u
t
S
I
N
R
Conventional OFDM
MMSE equalization
MMSE ICI canceller
Conventional OFDM
Doppler Diversity
Performance of (Blocked Band) Matrix Inversion
N = 64, v = 200 km/h, f
c
= 17 GHz, T
RMS
= 1 us, sampling at T = 1us.
f
Doppler
= 3.15 kHz, Subc. spacing f
sr
= 31.25 kHz:
Compare to DVBT: v = 140 km/h, f
c
= 800MHz: f
doppler
= 100 Hz while f
sr
= 1.17 kHz
5 10 15 20 25 30
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Input SNR
Conventional OFDM
MMSE equalization
simplified MMSE
k = 4
Conv
OFDM
MMSE
O
u
t
p
u
t
S
I
N
R
ICI cancellation
If H’
n
and a
n
are known for all n, ICI can be removed
almost completely from any subcarrier.
Implement Ξ as “FFT  Ramp  FFT”
k m m
N
n
n n n m m m
n a H a H y y + = Ξ − =
∑
−
=
1
0
,
' '
ICI Cancellation
+
Cancel
Doppler
weigh
ICI

+
Y
0
FFT
FFT
H’A
Ξ
ICI cancellation
However, H’ and a are not known to
the receiver: They have to be
estimated
– Full cancellation
– Partial cancellation: â
n
is used
only to cancel interference it
caused to p closest
subcarriers
∑
+
− =
Ξ − =
2 /
2 /
,
ˆ
'
ˆ
'
p m
p m n
n n n m m m
a H y y
∑
−
=
Ξ − =
1
0
,
ˆ
'
ˆ
'
N
n
n n n m m m
a H y y
ICI Cancellation
On average:
Canceling ICI originating from 4
closest subcarriers reduced the ICI
power by 6 dB
Canceling ICI originating from 10
closest subcarriers reduced the ICI
power by 10 dB
Receiver 1: Matrix Inversion
Simulation of channel for N = 64, v = 200 km/h f
c
= 17 GHz, T
RMS
=
1 us, sampling at T = 1us. f
Doppler
= 3.14 kHz, Subcarrier spacing
f
sr
= 31.25 kHz, signaltoICI = 18 dB
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
10
Subcarrier number
M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
i
n
d
B
Amplitudes
Derivatives
Amplitudes
First derivatives
Determined by speed of antenna,
and carrier frequency
Receiver 1: Matrix Inversion
SNR of decision variable. Simulation for N = 64, MMSE Wiener filtering to
cancel ICI
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Subcarrier number
O
u
t
p
u
t
S
I
N
R
Conventional OFDM
MMSE equalization
MMSE ICI canceller
Conventional OFDM
Simplified Matrix Inversion
Rationale
• ICI diminishes with increasing subcarrier difference
• Approximate Ξ by band matrix with 2k+1 nonzero diagonals
• Matrix Q is approximately Q = [I + ∆] Λ
– ∆ small, ∆ ~ Ξ diag(V
(1)
./ V)
– Λ diagonal of amplitudes V
• Approximate Q
1
= [I  ∆] Λ
−1
Complexity ~2kN
Performance of (Simplified) Matrix Inversion
N = 64, v = 200 km/h, f
c
= 17 GHz, T
RMS
= 1 us, sampling at T = 1us.
f
Doppler
= 3.15 kHz, Subc. spacing f
sr
= 31.25 kHz:
Compare to DVBT: v = 140 km/h, f
c
= 800MHz: f
doppler
= 100 Hz while f
sr
= 1.17 kHz
5 10 15 20 25 30
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Input SNR
Conventional OFDM
MMSE equalization
simplified MMSE
k = 4
Conv
OFDM
MMSE
O
u
t
p
u
t
S
I
N
R
MultiCarrier CDMA
MultiCarrier CDMA
Various different proposals.
• (1) DSCDMA followed by OFDM
• (2) OFDM followed by DSCDMA
• (3) DSCDMA on multiple parallel carriers
First research papers on system (1) in 1993:
– Fettweis, Linnartz, Yee (U.C. Berkeley)
– Fazel (Germany)
– Chouly (Philips LEP)
System (2): Vandendorpe (LLN)
System (3): Milstein (UCSD); Sourour and Nakagawa
MultiCarrier CDM Transmitter
What is MCCDMA (System 1)?
• a form of Direct Sequence CDMA, but after spreading a Fourier
Transform (FFT) is performed.
• a form of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM),
but with an orthogonal matrix operation on the bits.
• a form of Direct Sequence CDMA, but the code sequence is the
Fourier Transform of the code.
• a form of frequency diversity. Each bit is transmitted
simultaneously (in parallel) on many different subcarriers.
P/S
IFFT
N
S/P
N
B
Code
Matrix
C
N
A
MCCDM (Code Division Multiplexing) in Downlink
In the ‘forward’ or downlink (basetomobile): all signals originate at the
base station and travel over the same path.
One can easily exploit orthogonality of user signals. It is fairly simple to
reduce mutual interference from users within the same cell, by
assigning orthogonal WalshHadamard codes.
BS
MS 2
MS 1
Synchronous MCCDM receiver
The MCCDM receiver
• separates the various subcarrier signals (FFT)
• weights these subcarriers in W, and
• does a code despreading in C
1
:
(linear matrix over the complex numbers)
Compare to COFDM:
W := equalization or AGC per subcarrier
C
1
:= Error correction decoder (nonlinear operation)
S/P P/S
ICode
Matrix
C
1
FFT
N N N
Y
Weigh
Matrix
W
N
A
Synchronous MCCDM receiver
Receiver strategies (How to pick W ?)
• equalization (MUI reduction) w = 1/β
• maximum ratio combining (noise reduction) w = β
• Wiener Filtering (joint optimization) w = β/(β
2
+ c)
Next step: W can be reduced to an automatic gain control, per subcarrier,
if no ICI occurs
S/P P/S
ICode
Matrix
C
1
FFT
N N N
Y
Weigh
Matrix
W
N
A
Synchronous MCCDM receiver
• Optimum estimate per symbol B is obtained from B = EBY
= C
1
EAY = C
1
A.
• Thus: optimum linear receiver can implement FFT  W C
1
• Orthogonality Principle: E(AA)Y
H
= 0
N
, where A = WY
H
• Wiener Filtering: W= E AY
H
(EYY
H
)
1
• EAY
H
diagonal matrix of signal power
• EYY
H
diagonal matrix of signal plus noise power
• W can be reduced to an AGC, per subcarrier
S/P P/S
ICode
Matrix
C
1
FFT
N N N
Y
Weigh
Matrix
W
N
A
B
s
*
*
T
N
β β
β
w
0
+
=
MCCDM BER analysis
Rayleigh fading channel
– Exponential delay spread
– Doppler spread with uniform angle of arrival
Perfect synchronisation
Perfect channel estimation, no estimation of ICI
Orthogonal codes
Pseudo MMSE (no cancellation of ICI)
Composite received signal
Wanted signal
Multiuser Interference (MUI)
Intercarrier interference (ICI)
− + =
∑ ∑ ∑
≠
−
=
−
= 0
0 0 ,
1
0
, ,
1
0
, 0 0
] [ ] [
m
n n
N
n
n m n n
N
n
n n
s
m n c n c w w
N
T
b x β β
=
∑ ∑
−
=
−
=
] [ ] [
0 ,
1
0
,
1
1
n c n c w b T x
k n n
N
n
n n
N
k
k s MUI
β
∑ ∑
≠ ∆
∆ + ∆ + ∆ +
−
=
∆ + =
0
0 n , n , n
1
0
n
] [n c w a T x
n
N
n
s ICI
β
Composite received signal
Wanted signal
MultiUser Interference (MUI)
Intercarrier interference (ICI)
 
− =
∑ ∑ ∑ ∑
−
=
−
= ≠ ∆
−
=
1
0
2
, ch
1
0
2
, ch
0
2
0
1
1
2 2
E E ) ( ) ( E E
1
N
n
n n
N
n
n m k
N
k
k ICI
w m n c n c b
N
β σ
2
, , , , ch
1
1
2
2
2
*
ch
2
E E E E
− = =
∑ ∑ ∑
− ∈ + ∈
−
=
n n
A n
n n n n
A n
n n
N
k
k
s
MUI
MUI
MUI
w w b
N
T
x x β β σ
n n
N
n
n n
s
w β
N
T
b x
,
1
0
, 0 0
∑
−
=
=
BER for MCCDMA
BER for BPSK versus E
b
/N
0
(1) 8 subcarriers
(2) 64 subcarriers
(3) infinitely many subcarriers
(4) 8 subc., short delay spread
(5) 8 subc., typical delay spread
10
5
10
4
10
3
10
2
10
1
5 10 15
Localmean E
n
/N
0
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Avg. BER
AWGN
OFDM
Localmean E
b
/N
0
Capacity
relative to nonfading channel
CodedOFDM
same as N fading channels
For large P
0
T
s
/N
0
on a Rayleigh
fading channel, OFDM has 0.4 bit
less capacity per dimension than a
nonfading channel.
MCCDM
Data Processing Theorem:
C
OFDM
= C
MCCDM
In practise, we loose a little.
In fact, for infinitely many
subcarriers,
C
MCCDM
= ½ log
2
(1 + ςP
0
T
s
/N
0
).
where ς is MCCDM figure of merit,
typically 4 .. 6 dB.
( )
∫
∞
+


.

\

− =
0
2
2
1
0
0
0
0
2 1 log exp 2 dx x x
T P
N
T P
N
C
s s
OFDM


.

\



.

\

=
s s
OFDM
T P
N
E
T P
N
C
0
0
1
0
0
2 2
exp
2 ln
1
Capacity
• Capacity per dimension versus localmean E
N
/N
0
,
no Doppler.
5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Localmean En/N0 (dB)
C
a
p
a
c
i
t
y
:
B
i
t
s
p
e
r
S
u
b
c
a
r
r
i
e
r
* : Rayleigh
* : MCCDMA
 : LTI
Nonfading,
LTI
Rayleigh
MCCDM
Advantages
Simpler user separation than with DSCDMA
Higher capacity than DSCDMA in downlink: elegant frame work for
doing simultaneous antimultipath and interference rejection
FFT instead of rake: simpler training of receiver
MCCDMA in uplink
In the ‘reverse’ or uplink (mobiletobase), it is technically difficult to ensure
that all signals arrive with perfect time alignment at the base station.
Frame misalignments cause severe interference
Different Doppler spectra for each signal
Different channels for different signals
Power control needed
BS
MS 2
MS 1
Outline
• • • • • • Introduction to OFDM Discussion of receivers for OFDM and MCCDMA Intercarrier Interference, FFT Leakage New receiver designs Simulation of Performance Conclusions
OFDM
OFDM: a form of MultiCarrier Modulation. • Different symbols are transmitted over different subcarriers • Spectra overlap, but signals are orthogonal. • Example: Rectangular waveform > Sinc spectrum
Applications
Fixed / Wireline: • ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line Mobile / Radio: • Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) • Digital Video Broadcasting  Terrestrial (DVBT) • Hiperlan II • Wireless 1394 • 4G (?)
yet orthogonal subcarriers User symbols Serialtoparallel cos(ωct) SerialtoParallel ParalleltoSerial cos(ωct+ iωst) cos(ωct+ (N1)ωst) IFFT cos(ωct+ ωst) = .IFFT: OFDM Transmission Transmission of QAM symbols on parallel subcarriers Overlapping.
.IFFT: OFDM Transmission Transmission of QAM symbols on parallel subcarriers Overlapping. they are orthogonal: Ts ψ k (t )ψ l * (t )dt = δ (k − l ) ∫ 0 .Nc −1 Although the subchannels overlap. (k = 0.. Indeed.. yet orthogonal subcarriers 1 jωk t e ψ k (t ) = Ts 0 t ∈ [0. they do not interfere with each other at f = fk.. k = 0..1..Nc1). Ts ] otherwise with ωk = ω0 + kωs ... 1.
OFDM Subcarrier Spectra Symbol duration : inverse of subcarrier spacing plus cyclic prefix Sampling rate : inverse of transmit bandwidth Frequency Pulse shape in time domain: rectangle Π(t / NTs) N −1 F sin ( f (N + N cp )Ts ) t ← s (t ) = ∑ an Π → S(f) = ∑ ansinc( f (N + N cp )Ts ) = f (N + N cp )Ts n =0 n =0 (N + N cp )Ts N −1 .
Rectangle <.OFDM Subcarrier Spectra OFDM signal strength versus frequency.FFT > Sinc before channel after channel Frequency .
However. the transmitted energy increases with the length of the cyclic prefix.Cyclic Prefic / Cyclix postfix CP Tcp T OFDM SYMBOL Ts The length of the cyclic prefix should be made longer than the experienced impulse response to avoid ISI and ICI. The SNR loss due to the insertion of the CP is given by SNR loss Tcp = − 10 log 10 1 − T where Tcp denotes the length of the cyclic prefix and T=Tcp+Ts is the length of the transmitted symbol. .
Static Environment Coded OFDM Received signal at a subcarrier is not affected by transmitted symbols in any other subcarrier 0 a0 n0 y0 H 0 M = M + M O y N −1 0 a N −1 nN −1 H N −1 Symbol data can be recovered using simple single tap data estimation Hm = hl e − j 2 π ( mf s )τ l ∑ l Ave BER curves: slope ~ degree of diversity on fading channel Viterbi decoder helps recover bits from subcarriers in deep fade −1 ˆ 0 y0 a0 H 0 M = O M −1 0 a N −1 H N −1 y N −1 ˆ .
Single Frequency Networks OFDM is robust against delay spread We can “mis”use this by transmitting a synchronous signal from two transmit sites .
The Wireless Multipath Channel .
OFDM and MCCDMA in a rapidly timevarying channel Doppler spread is the Fourierdual of a delay spread .
Mobile Multipath Channel Collection of reflected waves. each with • random angle of arrival • random delay Angle of arrival is uniform Doppler shift is cos(angle) Ushaped power density spectrum Doppler Spectrum .
nTs βm. yN−1]T.5 5 10 4 Doppler spread / Subcarrier Spacing β m ..5 2 2.n = ∑ I w −1 D i i =0 ω sinc n − m + i 2 ωs 1 2 exp{− j (ω c + ω i + nω s )Ti − jω i Ts + jπ ( n − m )} For uniform angles of arrivals of waves..n is the ‘transfer’ for a signal transmitted at subcarrier n and received at subcarrier m.5 3 Normalized Doppler [fm/fsub] 3.n where f∆ is the maximum Doppler shift. Variance of ICI 10 2 10 3 3rd tier subcarrier 2nd tier subcarrier Neighboring subcarrier 0 0. 10 0 P0 10 1 P1 P2 P3 Power. per subcarrier ( ) . y1. with ym = Σnanβm.n β *n + ∆ .5 1 1. .5 4 4.Power or variance of ICI Crosstalk β caused by Doppler Y = [y0. ICI power spilled from transmit subcarrier n into received subcarrier m = n + ∆ equals f sinc 2 ∆ + ∆ x dx fs PT 1 = ∫ 8π −1 1 − x2 P∆ = E ch β n + ∆ . and PT the local mean received power.
ICI caused by Doppler 10 0 Power or variance of ICI P0 10 1 P1 P2 P3 Power.5 2 2.5 3 Normalized Doppler [fm/fsub] 3. Variance of ICI 10 2 10 3 3rd tier subcarrier 2nd tier subcarrier Neighboring subcarrier 0 0.5 4 4.5 1 1.5 5 10 4 Doppler spread / Subcarrier Spacing .
Maximum attainable speed .
versus antenna speed. spacing fs = 1. 10 6 10 7 0 5 10 15 20 Antenna Speed (m/s) 25 30 35 40 Antenna Speed [m/s] . • Local mean SNR of 10. •Sub. 30 dB 10 4 MCCDMA. 20 and 30 dB.BER in a mobile channel 10 0 10 1 OFDM. 20 dB 10 5 30 dB • Localmean BER for BPSK.14 Msymbol/s.17 kHz •Data rate 9. • Comparison between MCCDMA and uncoded OFDM for fc = 4 GHz • Frame durationTs= 896µs • FFT size: N = 8192. 10 dB OFDM. 10 dB 10 2 MCCDMA. 20 dB LocalMean BER for BPSK 10 3 OFDM.
Mobile OFDM weakness: InterCarrier Interference An effective description of ICI y = [H + Ξ H’] a + n desired selfinterference where: • H is a diagonal matrix with the complex transfer function per subcarrier • H’ is the temporal derivative of H: H’ = dH/dt • • • Ξ is the ICI spreading matrix: a system value. fixed! a is a vector of transmitted data n is vector of white Gaussian noise .
Random ComplexGaussian Amplitude It can be shown that for p + q is even ( *( E H n p ) H m q ) = 2πf D ( ) p+q (−1) q j p + q ( p + q − 1)!! ( p + q )!! 1 + j (n − m)Trmsω s and 0 for p + q is odd. • • This defines the covariance matrix of subcarrier amplitudes and derivatives. . allows system modeling and simulation between the input of the transmit IFFT and output of the receive FFT.
Channel estimation DVBT H estimation based on pilots in frequency domain data carriers pilots empty carriers time OFDM symbol frequency .
initial estimates of H at every pilot subcarriers can be obtained.Estimation of H DVBT pilots data carriers pilots empty carriers time OFDM symbol frequency In every OFDM symbol. . estimate of H at each subcarrier is obtained: – Spectral Wiener Filtering – Input: Initial estimates of H at several (scattered) pilot positions . In every OFDM symbol.
Wiener Filtering for OFDM .
Achievable car speeds with BB signal processing 120 Single antenna CoSyS result 50 On the market .
Performance evaluation: • • Signal power per subcarrier Residual ICI and Noise enhancement from W .Receiver 1: MMSE Matrix Inversion Receiver sees • • Y = Q A + N. with Q=DIAG(H)+ Ξ DIAG(H(1)) Calculate matrix Compute MMSE filter Q = DIAG(H)+ Ξ DIAG(H(1)) W = QH [Q QH + σn2 IN]1.
ICI Handling: Brute force Matrix Inversion SNR of decision variable. MMSE Wiener filtering to cancel ICI 30 Conventional OFDM MMSE equalization 25 MMSE ICI canceller 20 Output SINR 15 Conventional OFDM 10 5 Doppler Diversity 0 10 20 30 40 Subcarrier number 50 60 70 0 . Simulation for N = 64.
25 kHz: Compare to DVBT: v = 140 km/h. TRMS = 1 µs. Subc. sampling at T = 1µs. fc = 17 GHz.Performance of (Blocked Band) Matrix Inversion 30 Output SINR MMSE 25 k=4 20 15 10 5 0 Conventional OFDM MMSE equalization simplified MMSE Conv OFDM 5 10 15 20 25 30 Input SNR N = 64. v = 200 km/h. fc = 800MHz: fdoppler = 100 Hz while fsr = 1. fDoppler = 3.17 kHz . spacing fsr = 31.15 kHz.
ICI can be removed almost completely from any subcarrier.FFT” . FFT y 'm = ym − N −1 n =0 Ξ weigh ∑ Ξ m .n H ' n a n = H m a m + n k FFT H’A Implement Ξ as “FFT .Ramp .ICI cancellation ICI Cancellation Cancel Doppler Y0 +  + ICI If H’n and an are known for all n.
ICI cancellation ICI Cancellation However. H’ and a are not known to the receiver: They have to be estimated – Full cancellation y ' m = ym − N −1 n =0 ˆ ˆ ∑ Ξm.n H 'n an .n H 'n an On average: Canceling ICI originating from 4 closest subcarriers reduced the ICI power by 6 dB Canceling ICI originating from 10 closest subcarriers reduced the ICI power by 10 dB – Partial cancellation: ân is used only to cancel interference it caused to p closest subcarriers y ' m = ym − m+ p / 2 n =m − p / 2 ˆ ˆ ∑ Ξm.
14 kHz. sampling at T = 1µs. and carrier frequency First derivatives 10 20 Magnitude in dB 30 40 50 60 70 Amplitudes Derivatives 80 0 10 20 30 40 Subcarrier number 50 60 70 Simulation of channel for N = 64. v = 200 km/h fc = 17 GHz. fDoppler = 3.Receiver 1: Matrix Inversion 10 0 Amplitudes Determined by speed of antenna. Subcarrier spacing fsr = 31.25 kHz. TRMS = 1 µs. signaltoICI = 18 dB .
Simulation for N = 64.Receiver 1: Matrix Inversion SNR of decision variable. MMSE Wiener filtering to cancel ICI 30 Conventional OFDM MMSE equalization 25 MMSE ICI canceller 20 Output SINR 15 Conventional OFDM 10 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 Subcarrier number 50 60 70 .
/ V) • – Λ diagonal of amplitudes V Approximate Q1 = [I .Simplified Matrix Inversion Rationale • ICI diminishes with increasing subcarrier difference • Approximate Ξ by band matrix with 2k+1 nonzero diagonals • Matrix Q is approximately Q = [I + ∆] Λ – ∆ small.∆] Λ−1 Complexity ~2kN . ∆ ~ Ξ diag(V(1) .
fDoppler = 3. TRMS = 1 µs.Performance of (Simplified) Matrix Inversion 30 Output SINR MMSE 25 k=4 20 15 10 5 0 Conventional OFDM MMSE equalization simplified MMSE Conv OFDM 5 10 15 20 25 30 Input SNR N = 64.25 kHz: Compare to DVBT: v = 140 km/h.17 kHz . v = 200 km/h. Subc. sampling at T = 1µs.15 kHz. fc = 17 GHz. spacing fsr = 31. fc = 800MHz: fdoppler = 100 Hz while fsr = 1.
MultiCarrier CDMA .
Sourour and Nakagawa .MultiCarrier CDMA Various different proposals. Linnartz. Berkeley) – Fazel (Germany) – Chouly (Philips LEP) System (2): Vandendorpe (LLN) System (3): Milstein (UCSD). Yee (U.C. • (1) DSCDMA followed by OFDM • (2) OFDM followed by DSCDMA • (3) DSCDMA on multiple parallel carriers First research papers on system (1) in 1993: – Fettweis.
Each bit is transmitted simultaneously (in parallel) on many different subcarriers. a form of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). but after spreading a Fourier Transform (FFT) is performed. but with an orthogonal matrix operation on the bits.MultiCarrier CDM Transmitter S/P N B Code Matrix C N IFFT N P/S A What is MCCDMA (System 1)? • • • • a form of Direct Sequence CDMA. but the code sequence is the Fourier Transform of the code. a form of Direct Sequence CDMA. . a form of frequency diversity.
One can easily exploit orthogonality of user signals. BS MS 1 MS 2 . by assigning orthogonal WalshHadamard codes.MCCDM (Code Division Multiplexing) in Downlink In the ‘forward’ or downlink (basetomobile): all signals originate at the base station and travel over the same path. It is fairly simple to reduce mutual interference from users within the same cell.
Synchronous MCCDM receiver S/P N N FFT Y W eigh N Matrix A W ICode Matrix C1 N P/S The MCCDM receiver • separates the various subcarrier signals (FFT) • weights these subcarriers in W. and • does a code despreading in C1: (linear matrix over the complex numbers) Compare to COFDM: W := equalization or AGC per subcarrier C1 := Error correction decoder (nonlinear operation) .
per subcarrier. if no ICI occurs .Synchronous MCCDM receiver S/P N N FFT Y W eigh N Matrix A W ICode Matrix C1 N P/S Receiver strategies (How to pick W ?) • equalization (MUI reduction) w = 1/β • maximum ratio combining (noise reduction) w = β • Wiener Filtering (joint optimization) w = β/(β2 + c) Next step: W can be reduced to an automatic gain control.
per subcarrier Ts .Synchronous MCCDM receiver S/P N N FFT Y Weigh Matrix W N A ICode Matrix C1 N P/S B • • • • • • • Optimum estimate per symbol B is obtained from B = EBY = C1EAY = C1A.C1 Orthogonality Principle: E(AA)YH = 0N. where A = WYH Wiener Filtering: W = E AYH (EYYH)1 EAYH diagonal matrix of signal power β* w = EYYH diagonal matrix of signal plus noise power N β β* + 0 W can be reduced to an AGC.W . Thus: optimum linear receiver can implement FFT .
MCCDM BER analysis Rayleigh fading channel – Exponential delay spread – Doppler spread with uniform angle of arrival Perfect synchronisation Perfect channel estimation. no estimation of ICI Orthogonal codes Pseudo MMSE (no cancellation of ICI) .
n w n .n c 0 [ n ]c 0 [ n − m ] n =0 m ≠0 n =0 Multiuser Interference (MUI) x MUI N −1 = Ts ∑ bk ∑ β n .n + ∆ c0 [n + ∆ ] ∆ ≠0 .n c0 [n ]ck [n ] k =1 n =0 N −1 Intercarrier interference (ICI) N −1 n =0 x ICI = Ts ∑ a n ∑ β n + ∆.n w n .Composite received signal Wanted signal T x 0 = b0 s N N −1 N −1 ∑ β n .n + ∑ ∑ β m .n wn + ∆.n wn .
n n∈A+ n∈A− 2 Intercarrier interference (ICI) 1 N −1 2 = E ∑ bk N k =1 N −1 N −1 2 2 2 E ∑ [c0 ( n )ck ( n − m )] E ch ∑ β m.n MultiUser Interference (MUI) 2 σ MUI = E ch E x MUI x * = MUI Ts2 N2 E N −1 k =1 2 ∑ bk E ch ∑ β n .Composite received signal Wanted signal T x0 = b0 s N N −1 n =0 ∑ βn.n wn .n − ∑ β n .n E ch ∑ wn .n ∆ ≠0 n =0 n =0 2 σ ICI .n wn.n wn .
. short delay spread (5) 8 subc.. BER 101 102 103 104 105 5 AWGN 10 (4) BER for BPSK versus Eb/N0 OFDM (5) (1) (2) (3) Localmean En/N0 (1) 8 subcarriers (2) 64 subcarriers (3) infinitely many subcarriers (4) 8 subc.BER for MCCDMA Avg. typical delay spread 15 Localmean Eb/N0 .
.Capacity relative to nonfading channel CodedOFDM same as N fading channels COFDM N N = 2 ∫ 0 exp − 0 P0Ts 0 P0Ts ∞ MCCDM Data Processing Theorem: COFDM = CMCCDM x 1 log 2 2 (1 + 2 x )dx In practise. 6 dB. where ς is MCCDM figure of merit. . COFDM = N0 1 exp ln 2 2 P0Ts N0 E1 2P T 0 s For large P0Ts/N0 on a Rayleigh fading channel. typically 4 . CMCCDM = ½ log2(1 + ςP0Ts/N0). for infinitely many subcarriers. OFDM has 0.4 bit less capacity per dimension than a nonfading channel. we loose a little. In fact.
LTI Rayleigh 5 Capacity: Bits per Subcarrier 4 MCCDM 3 2 1 * : Rayleigh * : MCCDMA . .Capacity 7 6 Nonfading. no Doppler.: LTI 0 5 0 5 10 15 20 Localmean En/N0 (dB) 25 30 35 40 • Capacity per dimension versus localmean EN/N0.
Advantages Simpler user separation than with DSCDMA Higher capacity than DSCDMA in downlink: elegant frame work for doing simultaneous antimultipath and interference rejection FFT instead of rake: simpler training of receiver .
it is technically difficult to ensure that all signals arrive with perfect time alignment at the base station.MCCDMA in uplink In the ‘reverse’ or uplink (mobiletobase). Frame misalignments cause severe interference Different Doppler spectra for each signal Different channels for different signals Power control needed BS MS 1 MS 2 .
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