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Prepared by: Chris Ahearn, Mary Jo Conery, Keith Greer, Linda Griffin, Cliff Moon, Ann Zeches
1900-1929: Scientific Management 1930-1964: Human Relations 1965-1980: Systems/Situational 1981-present: Emerging Theories
The Human Relations Era emerged after the Depression when institutions failed people. people were treated as if superfluous and expendable. having to do without was commonplace.
Transition from Scientific Management to Human Relations
focused on productivity and profit workers were viewed as extensions of the machine time/motion studies fragmentation of work
did not address the emotional and social needs of employees resulted in worker apathy, boredom, low creativity, wasted human resources
Human Relations Theory .
Essential Concept Leaders need to understand workers as human beings with social and emotional needs. .
.Key Principles Employee satisfaction increases productivity.
A network of human relations exists in any workplace environment.Key Principles Employee satisfaction increases productivity. .
The workplace environment should focus on needs of employees. . A network of human relations exists in any workplace environment.Key Principles Employee satisfaction increases productivity.
The feelings of people are as important as the logical and economic aspects of an organization.Key Principles Employee satisfaction increases productivity. The workplace environment should focus on needs of employees. . A network of human relations exists in any workplace environment.
. Management requires effective social skills. The workplace environment should focus on needs of employees. The feelings of people are as important as the logical and economic aspects of an organization. A network of human relations exists in any workplace environment.Key Principles Employee satisfaction increases productivity.
.Assumptions Human beings are motivated by needs.
Human beings are not always logical. .Assumptions Human beings are motivated by needs.
Human beings are interdependent and behavior is shaped by the social context.Assumptions Human beings are motivated by needs. Human beings are not always logical. .
Human beings are not always logical. The informal group impacts job roles. Human beings are interdependent and behavior is shaped by the social context. .Assumptions Human beings are motivated by needs.
. Human beings are interdependent and behavior is shaped by the social context. The informal group impacts job roles.Assumptions Human beings are motivated by needs. There is no automatic correlation between the individual and organizational needs. Human beings are not always logical.
The informal group has a strong impact on job roles. Human beings are not always logical. Human beings are interdependent and behavior is often shaped by the social context.Assumptions Human beings are motivated by needs. Teamwork is essential. There is no automatic correlation between the individual and organizational needs. .
Human Relations Theorists Mary Parker Follett Elton Mayo Abraham Maslow Douglas McGregor Chester Barnard Frederick Herzberg .
Mary Parker Follett 1868-1933 Known as a visionary genius Creative Experience (1924) Influenced theorists of the Human Relations Era and beyond ³Just about everything written today about leadership and organizations comes from Mary Parker Follett¶s writings and lectures.´ Warren Bennis .
Management is a function. Do not try to control people.Her Revolutionary Ideas Relationships matter. not a toolbox. Mutual influence is developed when people work together. . Leadership is a dynamic force between and among people. Control the situation together.
There is no progress without conflict.Ahead of Her Time Conflict can be constructive. j The individual in the organization must have a measure of control. j . j All organizations are social organizations including business and government.
but men working with him. The great leader wants to be a leader of leaders.Quotes from Mary Parker Follett ³Whereas power usually means power-over.´ ³The best leader has no followers. «it is possible to develop the conception of power-with.´ .
George Elton Mayo 1880-1949 Successful Academic Clinical Psychologist Public Speaker Hawthorne Studies .
Hawthorne Studies 1927-1932 Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago Purpose: to study productivity and work conditions Researchers desired to find what kind of changes would influence productivity Six women from assembly line were segregated with friendly supervisor so they could be evaluated for productivity using the following work condition variables: breaks. temperatures. hours. humidity .
ATTENTION = PRODUCTIVITY . security and sense of belonging is more important than the physical conditions under which the employee works.Results of Studies The women became a team Developed an increased sense of responsibility Greater productivity THE HAWTHORNE EFFECT The need for recognition.
Mayo¶s Contribution Mayo had discovered a fundamental concept. THE HUMAN RELATIONS ERA HAD BEGUN! . Thus. people are motivated by much more than self-interest. Workplaces are social environments and within them.
Abraham Maslow 1908-1970 Neo-Human Relation Theorist Investigations of human behavior occurred between 1939 and 1943 Individuals are born with innate needs The Humanistic Psychologist .
potency. a higher-order need appears that needs to be satisfied Order of needs from lowest to highest The lower the need. or priority Higher needs also appear later in one¶s life Physiological Safety Love Esteem Self-Actualization .Hierarchy of Needs Theory Characteristics of needs When lower-order need is satisfied. the > its strength.
sleep« Safety Needs Protection against danger Love Need Gregariousness Esteem Need Desire for self-respect Self-Actualization Job satisfaction .Hierarchy of Needs Basic Needs Hunger. thirst.
and the threat to a worker or his family Management reward systems are now endeavoring to satisfy the individual¶s high level needs for esteem and self-fulfillment . management reward systems have attempted to satisfy an individual¶s lower level needs. psychological.Contributions In the past. safety.
Douglas McGregor 1906-1964 Wrote The Human Side of Enterprise (1960) Coined the terms Theory X and Theory Y: Ways of viewing people and their motivation .
Contributions Theory X Assumptions: Work is inherently distasteful to most people. will avoid it if at all possible Most people must be controlled and threatened before they will work hard enough Most people prefer to be directed. are unambiguous. dislike responsibility. desire security .
Contributions Theory Y Assumptions: Work is as natural as play if conditions favorable People will direct themselves if committed to the aims of the organization If a job is satisfying. creativity. and ingenuity can be used to solve problems. the average mind is underutilized . the result will be commitment to the organization The average person learns and seeks responsibility Imagination.
Chester Barnard 1886-1961 Sociological Theorist The Functions of the Executive Progressive Contributions on the Organization .
Barnard¶s Influence on Executive Education Role of the Executive Theory of Authority Zone of Indifference Reinventing Leadership Unforeseen Outcomes of the Liberal Arts Educational Approach .
Human Relations in Management Role of the Executive (superordinate) and the employee (subordinate) Human Relations Management ± ± advancing democratic ideals advantages and problematic issues .
Barnard¶s Cautions for Future Organizations In His Own Words. . . ± ± ± ± Human and cultural diversity awareness Abnormality of organizational success Constraints on the ³executive art´ Teachings applied to modern education (K-12) .
´ . .Frederick Herzberg 1923 ± 2000 Pioneer of Motivation Work itself can be a motivator ³One of the most influential management teachers and consultants of the postwar era. .
The Motivation to Work .Work and the Nature of Man .Accomplishments Originator of Motivation-Hygiene Theory Researched work-related motivations of thousands of employees Father of Job Enrichment Authored influential books and articles: .³Managers or Animal Trainers?´ .³One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?´ .
and Security Achievement Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Advancement and Growth .Herzberg¶s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Hygiene Factors (Job Environment/Animal Needs/Extrinsic) Motivation Factors (Job Content/Human Needs/Intrinsic) Company Policy & Administration Supervision Interpersonal Relations Working Conditions Salary. Status.
then you must give them a good job to do. were not opposing reactions to same factors Shaped modern thinking about reward and recognition in the workplace Motivation comes from job content Job Enrichment versus Job Rotation (management by motivation v.´ . management by movement) ³If you want people to do a good job for you.Herzberg¶s Contributions Two Factor Theory: hygiene and motivation Satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work arose from different factors.
Conclusions About the Era Lingering Impacts ± Criticisms ± ± ± management had a positive attitude towards workers efforts to enrich jobs to keep them interesting gave rise to the Human Resources approach ± ± too concerned with worker satisfaction not much actual evidence supporting it. although it held popular appeal sometimes implemented superficially .
Conclusions About the Era ³One best way´ approaches to management not the answer Scientific = focus on production Human Relations = focus on personnel Social Systems/Situational Era -interaction of people and production -situation as determining factor in management approaches .
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