Taal Lake: Batangas

RIVERS A sea is a body of water that is slightly smaller than an ocean. To make matters confusing, the word sea is used many times in referring to oceans. Also several seas such as the Caspian Sea are really lakes!

A sound is a narrow body of water separating an island from the mainland.

A strait is a narrow body of water between two large bodies of water. Cebu Strait, sometimes called Bohol Strait, is a strait in the Philippines that
separates the island provinces of Cebu and Bohol. The Cebu Strait connects the western part of Bohol Sea withCamotes Sea, and is a major sea-lane connecting Cebu City on its northern end with port cities in the south such as Dumaguete City and Cagayan de Oro City

A gulf is a part of an ocean extending into the land. The Gulf of Mexico, a part of the Atlantic Ocean by the southern United States and Mexico is an example.

A bay is a part of an ocean or lake extending into the land. It is similar to a gulf but usually smaller.

A waterfall or falls is the steep descent or falling of the water of a river or stream.

Maria Cristina Falls Iligan city,Lanao, Mindanao

Lakes are bodies of water surrounded by land. Lakes generally have fresh water, while oceans and seas have salt water. While lakes are a small percentage of the earth's total water, they are important for our economy and transportation. A lake does not flow along a certain path as a river does. Lakes are larger than ponds.

Lakes were formed many thousands of years ago by glaciers. At that time, huge glaciers covered the earth. When the glaciers melted, some of the water that was over hollows in the earth became lakes. Other ways lakes were formed include man made lakes, natural dams and craters formed in great volcanic explosions. Lakes get bigger and smaller, depending on many factors. Lakes get smaller if they get filled up with silt or other material. They also dry up if they are not replenished with water through rainfall. Other lakes get deeper and bigger as rivers, rainfall and underground water make the lake expand. Below is a list of the world's biggest lakes. Even though some are called seas, they are actually lakes! Several of the world's largest lakes are the Great Lakes of North America.

Rivers are defined as narrow bodies of water that move along a certain path. They have a source, which is where the river begins and a mouth which is the larger body of water where the river flows into. Since water flows downward and along the easiest or deepest path, many rivers start in a higher area such as mountains. As rivers move along, they change the face of the earth

that they flow over by wearing away the land and also by causing buildup at the end of the river. This crack allows molten rock and other hot materials to be thrown out from the earth.The mud and sand that builds up at the mouth of a river is called a delta.When the magma come to the surface. The magma is forced up and then spurts out of the crack. the rock becomes a liquid called magma. When the pressure upon some of this solid rock is reduced or there is an escape route through a crack. often poisonous is also forced out. Volcanoes erupt differently. Below is a chart of some of the earth's largest rivers River Nile Amazon Ob Yangtze/Kiang Continent Africa South America Asia Asia Length in Miles 4. The rock inside the earth's mantle is very hot.200 3. Some erupt quietly and the lava flows down the side of the volcano and some are more violent.890 3.160 3. Gases. but solid because of the great pressure on it.100 Mississippi/Missouri North America Below is a map of major rivers and streams in the United States: A volcano is a mountain or hill formed around a crack in the earth's crust.900 3. Rivers are fresh water bodies. it is called lava. .

Most volcanoes occur in the same area as two earthquake belts. Mountains are places that are much higher than the land around them. They are different from plateaus because plateaus have flat tops. Volcanoes are classified as: y y y Active . the windward side. Mountains also protect valleys from extremes in weather.The opening in the top of the volcano is called a crater. If they are crosswise to the winds of the areas. They also taper and have a peak.These volcanoes are no longer active and do not erupt. One circles the Pacific Ocean and the other is around the Mediterranean and Asia Minor.These are erupting or keep erupting Dormant .These are not erupting but could at any time Extinct . Mountains are made in several ways. The other side called the leeward side is much drier as the rain has already been deposited on the windward side of the mountain. is apt to have heavier rainfall as the wind drops the moisture before going over the mountain. Some craters are filled with water and become lakes such as the Crater Lake in Oregon. although they can be as high as mountains. . mountains have an important role in affecting the climate of an area. A mountain range is a group or chain of mountains that are close together. The side of the mountain that faces the wind. Mountains have had an important place in history as they have offered protection from invading armies and are frequently the boundaries between countries.

250 feet. The highest mountains in the world are in the Himalayas that were formed when the areas of India and the rest of Asia came together.These mountains form when faults or cracks in the earth's crush force some materials or blocks of rock up and others down. Sometimes inland plains are formed when seas or lakes get filled in with sediment or soil and become flat plains. . Fold Mountains . Plains and plateaus are different from mountains in that they are made up of rock formations that are in the same horizontal position . The highest in Africa is Mount Kilimanjaro which is 19. much as a piece of paper folds when pushed together.These are mountains that are really plateaus that have worn down from erosion. 028 feet. The very highest peak is Mount Everest. 340 and the highest is Europe is Mount Blanc at 15. Residual Mountains .081.they are flat! Plains are flat surfaces at low levels. 781 feet.y y y y y Dome Mountains . The highest peak in North America is Mount McKinley (Denali) which is in Alaska and is 20. which is 29. The next highest is K-2 which is 28.These are formed as layers of the earth react to forces pushing in on either side. Over thousands of years the dome mountains form in the place where the earth is pushed up.These are formed from the vast amounts of lava that have hardened after spurting out of a volcano. Coastal plains are made up of bits of rock that are carried along from rivers to the ocean or are worn away from rocks along the seashore. Volcanic Mountains .These mountains are the result of a great amount of melted rock pushing its way up under the earth.269 feet. The highest peak in South America is Aconcagua which is in the Andes and is 23. Fault Block Mountains .

A large chain of islands close to each other with the same plant and animal structure is called an archipelago. Oceanic islands have their own plant and animal structure. Many islands are really places where volcanoes built up under the ocean to the point of peaking above the water. Australia. The lava continues to pile up as the volcano explodes to the point that there is enough solid ground to form an island. A mesa is a plateau with quite a flat top.continental and oceanic. There are two types of islands . A butte is like a plateau but its top is a bit more rounded. Plateaus form either when mountains get worn down and their tops are not as jagged or when a large portion of flat earth is pushed up from the earth. There is even a continent that is an island. slands are bodies of land completely surrounded by water. Other islands are coral islands. . Islands are formed in several ways. There are several special kinds of plateaus. These are formed when the skeletal material of corals piles up over years and years. Continental islands have plant and animal structures like the continent near the island. One is a butte. It differs from a mountain in that a mountain has a jagged peak at the top.Plateaus are raised areas of land with a flatter top. Some islands such as Great Britain were attached to a continent but was separated by erosion of the land between the two land masses.

wet land on which grass and trees grow. A valley is low land between hills and mountains. The state of Florida would be an example. A cliff is a very steep slope of rock or soil. steep sides. The isthmus of Panama in Central America is a good example. Frequently valleys are formed by rivers carving the land. Valleys are wider and the sides are less steep. A swamp is low. A canyon is a deep narrow valley with high. .A peninsula is a body of land with water surrounding it on three sides. A cape is a point of land extending into a body of water An isthmus is a very narrow band of land between two bodies of water.

channel canyon cape A cape is a A channel is a body of water A cave is a large hole in the ground that connects two cave . butte A butte is a flattopped rock or hill formation with steep sides. The coral usually smaller in a sea or ocean. sits atop a than a gulf). submerged volcanic cone.atoll An atoll is a ring bay archipelago (or partial ring) A bay is a body of An archipelago is of coral that water that is a group or chain forms an island partly enclosed by of islands in an ocean or land (and is clustered together sea.

A channel is also a part of a river or harbor that is deep enough to let ships sail through. south poles. the water is Australia.A canyon is a deep valley with very steep sides often carved from the Earth by a river. or in the side of a hill or mountain. delta A delta is a low. or river. pointed piece of land that sticks out into a sea. watery land formed at the mouth of a river. cliff A cliff is a steep face of rock and soil. A cove is small. Asia. America. col A mountain pass. continent The land mass on Earth is divided cove into continents. Dunes are around the earth. Europe. surrounded by North America. It is formed from the silt. equator . Antarctica. and change the north and all the time. lake. A dune is a hill or The equator is an a ridge made of imaginary circle sand. along the coast. sand and small rocks that flow downstream in the river and are deposited in dune desert A desert is a very dry area. ocean. larger bodies of water (like the English Channel). shaped by the halfway between wind. land formed of and South soft rock. The seven current horseshoe-shaped continents are body of water Africa.

glacier A glacier is a long-lasting. planets).the delta. . steam above the ground. how landforms are spring that narrow sea inlet formed on the occasionally that is bordered Earth (and other sprays water and by steep cliffs. island An island is a piece of land that is surrounded by water. delta. geomorphology estuary An estuary is where a river meets the sea or ocean. hill A hill is a raised area or mound of land. Geomorphology is geyser the scientific field A geyser is a fjord that investigates natural hot A fjord is a long. gulf A gulf is a part of the ocean (or sea) that is partly surrounded by land (it is usually larger than a bay). A delta is often (but not always) shaped like a triangle (hence its name. a Greek letter that is shaped like a triangle). slowly-moving river of ice on land.

isthmus An isthmus is a narrow strip of land connecting two larger landmasses. Marsh plants grow up out of the water. to a particular location. Really huge lakes are often called seas. The equator has a latitude of zero degrees. The North Pole has a latitude of 90 degrees North. The marsh A marsh is a type of freshwater. lagoon A lagoon is a shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast. mesa A mesa is a land formation with a flat area on top and steep walls usually occurring in dry areas. The tallest mountain on Earth is Mt. Everest. lakes and coasts. An isthmus has water on two sides. Greenwich. . England has a longitude of zero degrees.latitude Latitude is the angular distance north or south from the equator to a particular location. brackish water or saltwater wetland that is found along rivers.higher than a hill. natural place on Earth . mountain A mountain is a very tall high. lake A lake is a large body of water surrounded by land on all sides. pond. longitude Longitude is the angular distance east or west from the north-south line that passes through Greenwich. the South Pole has a latitude of 90 degrees South. England.

prairie pond A pond is a small body of water surrounded by land. flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land. the greater your longitude.farther east or west of Greenwich you are. A sea is a large river relatively body of salty A river is a large. or completely . plateau plain Plains are flat lands that have only small changes in elevation. ocean An ocean is a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent. A plateau is a large. A pond is smaller than a lake. A prairie is a sea wide. Oceans cover more the two-thirds of the Earth's surface peninsula A peninsula is a body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides. Midway Islands (in the Pacific Ocean) have a longitude of 180 degrees (they are on the opposite side of the globe from Greenwich). flat area of water that is land that has flowing body of water often connected that usually empties grasses and to an ocean. A into a sea or ocean. only a few sea may be partly trees.

it is the land and a lot of water. separates a coastline from a nearby island. muddly A tundra is a cold. swamp tributary valley A valley is a low place between mountains. it often of a river. and shrubs grow in swamps.surrounded by land. larger river. treeless area. A swamp is a type A tributary is a stream or of freshwater river that wetland that has tundra flows into a spongy. strait A strait is a narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water. volcano A volcano is a wetland When a river A wetland is an area falls off waterfall . Many trees coldest biome. Surface runoff is water flow on the land that occurs when the soil is saturated with water and the excess water (from precipitation or snowmelt) runs over the surface. surface runoff sound A sound is a wide inlet of the sea or source ocean that is A source is parallel to the the beginning coastline.

and hot adapted to life in wet gases from deep soil. types of wetlands.mountainous vent steeply. delmarva. muskeg. it low in oxygen. marsh. Wetland plants are ashes. When a wetlands are often volcano erupts. wet meadow. wet. bottomland. spews out lava. bog. the soil in crust. fen. moor. there of land that is often in the Earth's is a waterfall. peatland. mire. including: swamp. slough. riparian. . There are many inside the Earth. etc.

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WATER FORMS 1 .

Oceans cover more the two-thirds of the Earth's surface. . An ocean is a large body of salt water that surrounds a continent.An Ocean is the biggest body of water.

A Bay is a body of water which is almost completely surrounded by land. A sea may be partly or completely surrounded by land. . The bay is the best place in which to build piers. ships may dock safely and load and unload passengers and cargoes. In the bay. A sea is a large body of salty water that is often connected to an ocean. except for the water passage connecting it to the sea.A Sea is a salt water form which is smaller than an ocean.

Some rivers flow rapidly. A lake is good for fishing. The largest lake in the Philippines can be found in Laguna. . It contains fresh water. others flow slowly. Taal Lake: Batangas A River is a current of water that flows downward until it reaches the sea. Rivers start as underground springs that form brooks and streams.A Lake is a body of water surrounded by land. boating. and swimming.

water seeps in the ground and comes out at the side of the mountain as a spring. . Ponds are used as drinking places of carabaos and goats. When it rains in the mountains. Some are made by human hands to beautify parks or plazas A Spring is a natural source of water that comes from underground. Some ponds dry up during summer.A Pond is still a body of water which is smaller than a lake.

Waterfalls are found on hill and mountainsides.A Waterfall is a body of water that drops from a high place. Maria Cristina Falls in Mindanao is a source of hydroelectric power. . MARIA CRISTINA FALLS (ILIGAN CITY. MINDANAO A Geyser is a hot spring with boiling water that often shoots water into the air like a fountain. LANAO .

A cove is a small sheltered inlet or small bay . Many plants such as trees and shrubs grow in swamps.A Swamp is a place where the land is muddy and wet.

Angat Hydroelectric Dam (Angat. Bulacan ) PLATEAU A plateau is a large.A dam is a barrier that holds water back and sometimes forms lakes. flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land .

.higher than a hill.MOUNTAIN A mountain is a very tall high. The tallest mountain in the Philippines is Mt. Apo. natural place on Earth .

PLAIN Plains are flat lands that have only small changes in elevation .

The endless green expanse of the Adelaide Plains HILL A hill is a raised area or mound of land. .

VALLEY A valley is a low place between mountains. .

MESA .

A mesa is a land formation with a flat area on top and steep walls .usually occurring in dry areas .

LAND FORMS .

JAYE KRYZTEL B. ALBAO .