1.

1 GENERAL

A space stractureis a structm,aI sySitte:m :in the fonn of a, 3-D assembmy ef ,elements, inclined a~ any amgJle~ome surfaee ,ordIDe strudme and iaot:mg in oy dj1ec:t!i . .o~".

mn s:pwoe Stn1CIMe mil' ,singlemem:ber is, fII.ooes:sa.rUy a. principm.e one -d a lwlue in an individua] member is not a matter of stnlettmd ,ronseg1ueJITlce. that's, why space struetare (3-Dful1r{:,ti~w) .is ,o,f,coootdetab~e imponam.ce,.

1.2 BASIC GEOMET.IICS OF DOMES

Domes, are loomposed ,eitiler of mem.be:m .~yil)g o'n a surf8ite Q!f rev(il~l.I!tion or ,0" straight members with the.rnr ICOimTIlwruing pW]]jUl IDymg: ,on such a sudaoe~ :all ,mangiemem~ wruch a:vo.~ds3liliy 'obstmct1on of the ma ~e. Demes may bereadwly supported. IO,ll ooltHr1!nS" without tiles 11lE' buttr'esses.,. because 'they caabe shaped~o'produ:teHnle or D:Otru.8t.

1.3 FUNCTIONAL .AP'PLICATIUN

There is ill, gn)mng use' aroUfid.~he wodd. of DOlvffi.8 to enclose spaces lnr muhitud~no1J!lS .fim:ctiona~3.ppUca:tioms. They jmci~ude c'illureheS:t civic centers. :!KId ,awwtonia, clubh0uses~ museems, art ganeri:es, ,planetoari~ aqua:ria, gynmaslia~ s, Fet'm!eation centers. ~m uenas. skating rinks. sv.rimming pool, dante hW~s. opera howes. 'tbeatre~. exmmlDioli ha:Hs~ super markets. aWlJ'lane bangert;. rail and bus temlliina!l~~ ebservateries, radar domes. r,e'51:a'lilfMts" offshore a:pp,Hcati!ons ,and sedimentation bimins.

1..4 'TYPES OF BRACHD DOMES

• Frame or ske~.ettoF!l. type (Smgle layer) '. Truss .type OJoub~e byer)1

• Stressed smtype

• F~.rmOO. surface type

From the abeve types .of domes, we 'Wlin be discussed about Single .Iayer' dome.

0)

L4.1 Single .L-3¥erDome .~ _ Ribbed domes

1.. Schewedler domes

3.. S:t~ff Jointed. framed d.omes 4 P~a:re .type domes

5. Netwolik domes,

6. Zimmermslul ciJDmes 7,. LaimeUa domes

8. GeodeS:lc domes

9. Orid. domes,

Out of these types ,ait" dome, we wm discuss Lamella domes:

1.4.1.1I.imll!lla noma

Lamella Qo,mes are cwvi.~inea:r system (!I:f ribbed dome. charncteri2ledb¥ (~.) Omly a few ()f the ribs rwming fii"omthie rim.~o~e croYm. of the ,dom.e as mmmonam spherical sector d~vldef3~ (2) Allotber nbs l11I11Illns as, inttawscemr pamUellines. curvihnear or stt'lip~. and (3) A diamond srrndbe~ns,thw formed.

Tbis .~ of st:ructtmre has the adva:Mage of (1) E[imina1i~ng~e Icrowtilng le{ffoot of merhjj,QiDaJ ribs at the croIWD ,o,f die dome. (2) D.ispmsil8 Yiith.arue neoess~ty ,of iIlftroduc.ing 3. ,eo:mpressio.nnng ,amund.dJe cro\Ylil. (3) Having all panel loads at rib intersections a~most eq~ .inmagni.tude. (4) Requiring ,oDmy short" L1g1rt sbUrtsmr .a:n .nb :segments (:s'tmighm 'of IC_unrOO)" (5) Um.{omlstress distnibmion.

1 . ct.ts CVllJIJUNEMl LAMELLA DOMBS'

Ia tbese domes the sho:rtstrurm are connected at the jWlctio:n. ,of several dJMDonds •. Each (jamond may be ~vicfed in.to WaIl_es. Individual s't:rur1s cam be smught or c-med, of steel or ,alumjnum tubiJ]g~ Qr of li\lIl1inated wood~ stee~ o.r ~wmninlUD1.when welded. at the intersections. prov.id~s a: rigid. frame asse,mb'lynot ~mring any provJjs~1!m at thebase Oif itthe dome fO.FthruSt. Th.e .IlMn types. of t;mteJ.~a, domes are shO\VllllD fill.

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saurop 'e11Clwlill ~o sa~ u:~ew 1- 'SB (~)

By r'eta~II!~ng the features of hiMng 'compression. rings ..tfue ~[iO~. .~neO'IJlOmtim:g inteml~aw Mssef ceacentne eimes •. :aIDd flmDlflg ri~s from lower.rDn te •. e mp' center oo.mpression ring. but: ~oeating ili~ ribsmrer1300bing each other on a IDWVOO p~an so asto form diamndsbaipod. panels, :results, in ·the 'cur.nril:mn~U' lamella dome, (fig,. ~. e) This system has iscreased llmtedocldng :stifm:ess~ offers tlre siJllP'1~ci.ty 0" "im:vill8 ,only two difler,ent mnsies between By 'tvI1o rings. (wwdl difier amy lindlm_r' buclengths) 6rm it prmdes duplicate lengUU and 1C0Dilil.eemrn ·between ·laalliUu1es:.

EXAMPLE OF LAMELLA DOME

Fjg. 1 sllows thecunrHim.earhuneUa dome .for a oollXr'V:atory (Jill mp of limemt'H.twl. im Queerru JElizalootfu. P:ark :in V_couver~ Canada. 11lls do.me .lIE I. base diameter ,of 42 .. 6' M. UJd a. rise ,of i. 0.3, Jl1I. It is b.lt ,out of IriodeUc comp:lnellils (mimm.wn tube size 10 ,em, ma.xi1r:rmD. tube size l2,CD1. AU the tubeshase a: tmc1mess 'ofO.315crn). AU.H1.e Simcwral oo.mpoEet1im ,of ·this dome were fa:bricatedlin Ottawa. and smpped to Vanooillver site. The ereetien \YaS oomp.Weted~D"S mm':mrouu:. The d.f)me Y/aS. oovie-KdM.tb a series o.f shaped! triamgub:rP]'e~~glas paneJs IUtd. maD.aJwolDumJ gIDmllg syMem connected to the n(!ldaru poi~(s.

1.5 CONNECTORS

The coenector, whr~C:~. is used a~ jJO.~lIjllS !Of thesitruciWQJI .memlbers. is~e mast critical c>o.mpomemts Oil' amy space sltnltmre and the fintl ClIlmmerei:d success re~YDn .ruts effectiveness, and simp:Hei.ty.

ConnedO:F$ may be elassifiedas weMed cast seeel iC(l'llIElOO~Ors {fig: 4 a}~weldOO node oonnecWfS. SC]I€:W ,comooted nede COmllfCkJ.r5 (fig.4 b),.p,ressedmeta~ CO'ltnoo®ofS (fig 4 c). k1ey cGMec~edncde comecltor (fjg 4 d) and eonneQt'lni using psse1 p~ates, .. In add:[t~.on tethese node ooma::®oiS. sepamtepyran1lids canbc 'oolmClcled at themr sides O.f C!o:mcrs.~o form s~oe d'uck-s as silovm .in fig .. 5.

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(p.n S<l.Hl~pIU~S )!l<lPOPl J;",'llHOJ) ttP'RUI11:) '.la .... nO:)UI:"!\ U! ~.lI.'J

. ~W)L11i!7.1]3 ==o u~ U~qll110W <lIWl JO dOl uo l{lO-1.~.u;)s:tlOJ c JOJ aU!O(l

;:HnlJLU~S p~l;)ldmo:) ."1

O!.iJtiv~ 00[[

(;I) We~dled em! sloel 110de (e.g, SDC node)

(0) Screw connected node (e.g. Mem joilill)

(c) Pfl':S~d! mC!lIlllode (e.g, Unistrut]

(eI) Key connected nod'e (e.g, Triod'~[ic)

Fig 4- Types of node connectors

Angles bol ted mgetheT at site

Ptefahl'icat-ed. tri ~!'IgLi.!all" pymmid

\

\0

'I

~~~

Fi,g, 5, Pr@f~bri·cated metal grids {modular)

lI::3

ForkrI.~

fig. , Details of the Nodus system

· ~/ero and Nodus joiatsbelong tethe s'Cwww.~nected.lilooe (fiS ,6). 1'hIs sy:s~em oo:ms~sts of nodes and tru.JiI:X:lS of different sizes. The bas~c prineiplleis thalt smimible nedes ,and.tuoos are cbosenfm.mt~e raJlIge according to the' Ioadto be canie~l

limSIH.1t '9I:stem be.~ong.s to the: pressed :metalnode oo.nnector. Kic:y (;omed~d nodesere ilfO,'lided 'b~ :the 'triodetie .sys,lem. Many examnples ,of nedes us~ng psset p.~ates, exist. They include TESEP~ TUB-ACCORD. CASH~ TOD~ R. DZIBWOLSKI and PIR, Oltt(¥pJatteand. I>'(}US QzimUIS' are ex~p:!es, ot'welded node oonnecmrs., Space ded and unibat ar"C ,examp~.es, of p.refabriated ~da] grid systems.,

1.6 DEPLOYABLE STKIUCfURE,

°l'HE .BOVSE IS . .4 .MACHINE 1''0 LIVE IN"" Lece ousier said. AmKIDne is not D smticobjeot ]t needs mcclla.t:mJSlDslO .move ,and,~o,worl:. As .i.,lance the ]iCver j's,tb.e sil1plest mmcimmue. Nawrei5 'a. ,complele 'catalogue of ll1Imchines done by tensors, • rigid pieces, caHed ske1e~oIl!,. :a,lI,c(IImnede(]wi,m_

Deployaibte strucmres ,maybe definedas wide spreadin,g s,pacetismes illlnU, can be stored and.tmuponed ,lD a Cmnpact (CoUa:psed) state and. CIn then be dephlyed. with ease into, their service shape. They aw often ca1led foldab~e I extensible structures, as, wen.

loJfli.lJOINTS OPDEPLOVABLE "snJ.tJC'lIIRES

The joim~. of dep~oyable SmI\Cues. Sh~IJ.d 'be desi~ m sllIcha Via, tlmt they sati s:fY the foUoMng .reqW]i~lJ11erolts,:

1. JoiBt. must assu.re scisoo.r nte han to mmtefrooly~so fuat no ~.gefrilc;tj,o:n BId deformation of hendi,s exis!tbetween jo.intsandbars.

2. The ,strucmre is packed ll, a. small! w]ume for convle1ll1ence in s.kortagc and. tr"anspoJta~ti0:l~

1.16 .• 1 'TYPES OF DE~LOYA'RLE OR COLLAPSIBLE DOm There are vanoustypes a,i DepJoyablc or CoUapsllile do,rne S~CW1!e:

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1(1) Zeigler's ClJllmlble sllff-s_upPDrti1lJ! sL~cture.~ is lit in di/(lmete.D.

In 19'7,6 it was, made up of a.~k of rod elememtspivotaUyjmnted. at their ends: and forming scissors Ij~e pairs inwii!ch rod. lelemem cro$s:~ng poimlts are piV0.nyjoi:~ed_

In this, system some: ofllie scis:sorbingesar:e mooifiedby means of loose connections sa' tMri!me dome nasa sruffic:~ellm de:gr,ee of rigjdJ~ty wbiHe one person can do erectifllgand. 00] ~a:psili!~, operatiH. (fig. 7)

(J) Pama D,~me 9Hste.nt. Alleft12mim Dep~()ytlbie Slmetu,-e.:

In Panta Dome system I, wmeis asseomiljled! ia a f(il~ded s~pe near the ,~~W1Id~ev.eL .As the entire beJght of the dome is low atthis stage ,of eoastruction, the assemMy work ean be safe~y and eoonomical1y and. the Iquality of work ean be: Icasi]y Msured. NQt onIDy ID,e stmcrurai fiarae bun also the exteriorand iMeni.or finislili1l]& eJlectricity and mechanical :€acHitles are '€iXJedand Installed. ait d\ds Sg!~. The d~me is then lifted l!lJ=1. :Ufting can be achieved either by iMoViing air ~nside the dome' to, raise the in~emal air pressure Qr by piI!JmiIIIg up the periphery of the CCM[::d dome by means of j ach,.When the dO.l1!c has taken its final shape. the hoop members who have, been, temporruily taken. aw.ay are fixed to theirproper po~~ti()n to oomplete tbe dome stnlcture. 'The lifting. me3!IlS such. as air presslWre or jacks C:aill then be ('emorv'edland. the dnme is oonlJ;I,lded.

,.iE.la.mp~e'=

1,Wor1d memorial HatUwn Kobe (fig 8)

2., Sent Jm:di S$'l01i1:s palace il .. Barcei.(!Jl1B (fig 9) 1 S~ng~re nati!ona~indloorsmdlum. (fig 10)1

(3) llel/1'4'Ct(JlJlellm_s,_sJem.~

Retractable roof is considered asa sort of stru:~tmes that chan.~e: their ge0:metrie.s after comple~~oI:!l. Retractable roofs. are so.metimes .referred to as ,c0nverll'b1:e reef as v;el] afe reefs that ean be opened ad c]osedi imt ar-e18!ti.vdy short umc so that peop1e inside tbe bui~d~ngarle prGtected when. the weather are 'bad. and they can lenj oydlle smnsmme am:l open air atmosphere when. i~ is fme.. So the roofs take different shapes and Qften-diffefient: suucmrel properties when theyaw (lipeD and when 1her are c~osed.

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'",

I. Pittsburgh Aud~torimn (bliiliit in. 1961 of diamerer m 21 m) (fig 11) :2. ']::ommlkl' Sky D~lme) CaD ('fig 12)

3. O~ympic Stadimn~ Mo»~eal ((II ll)

4" A Convertible roof 'or the ArenaJ Za:ra~orm (Spain) (fig 14-)

s. The :S~ja Ocean Dome ~ llm.dom" W,&ter Pm, ArtificiaJ

Be.acn)(ng] 5)

6. Ma.k}o~a\W GalrniN. Sarior I JImiOf Hish oo!l1ool. hldMr Pool (5g ~6) 1. Ball Dome (fig 11)

:8," Orum dome 1m! Japam (fj~ 1,8)

Rocenrdy muyothcr retractable roots, have been pmposedwn Japm by-firms and mdividub. Mmc than 2()O sports s,tlWia eve 'been bujlt in J,apan miimg[CtmCttah~eroofs.

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fig.. 1. J A typical scissor.like-e]ement (StE) Fig. ?~2 Zeigler's roUapsihle self supporting 5~fI.lcti.ue

(Air pressuse) "",,- Hydraulic jacks

(b)

r No. I. hinge No .. 2

Removed ---~--- temporarily

~---- No .. ] h:il1geline

{d} Plan

Fig. y- lPrindple of pantadoene system~l

Hy"raulic jacks

Pushing struu

(d) Completi 011

Fig. '~ Erec tion of Ba rce lOTIlI spor ts pOilaceJ'i!

• ..111' feet !!I'_ ~~ ...

: 109.feet

. Tope legs ar-e boxunits

:3 ft x 3.5 ft Bottom leg is 8: ft: x 17 ft Box

Roof di.videdm. 8: equals segments, Six of whi-cbretract over- ... two segments RiRg Girder is supported on a series of A~:fmm_es.

Figure 11

.LOC3!t;~on ! T,oro:ntt), Ca-nada 'Ctlmpldium Date: 19,~9 Cost : $, 500 million.

D131. : 614 feet

,__,...",,_ Materials.: Steel, Plastlc

Engineer( 5) :

EI~~ w"""'_'''-''''' Ellis ~ Don. Lkt

Ie STADIUM

Tenant : Montreal EX'pDS(NL)

Opened : Summer 191',6,

Capacity : 4),739 (Baseball)

Surface :Astrotu:rf

Cost : Over $ 1 Billiea

Roof Material : 160,696 sq. ft. ofKevlar weighing 50 tons ..

. Apex. 171 m &, SS6 ft. high leaning tower.

Figure 13

: 100 m x 300 m x 38 m bigb to Open Roof : 10 min.

: 101,000 persons

: 40,000,000,000 yen

:: S:mti('u~arylWof Cement 'om Ii.tamlJml Steel Plat, Retractable Roof Tetm: Fluoro ethylene~

resin coated fiber glass, doth.

·Figure 15

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Tenant : Milw,a.U!~ee Brewers, (AL)

Opened. = April 2000,

Capacity : 42~500 (Baseball Only)

Surface : Grass

Const. Company: Mitsubishi Heavy Ind. Ltd.

Figure 17

ME

Tenant : Ohita, Japan.

Designed I Const, 1996, - 2001

Building Area 5, 1 :8:30.36, m1

Total Floor Area 9288.2.08 m.2

Material Storey

The use ofultra~modem teflon membrane panels with 25:%,

li.ght - penneabiUtyremoves, the need. for

oft • 1- 11" oiTM· - - - d _.' ;I~. 1-' .... to. h

arib lela ~l~:lI~mg urmg \my_I(I-~t. ~ours,.

Figure 18

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::::: [~.~- ;;:;p. _ f.i.- **'J ~

~ ~ ~ ~_ LIT'ERA TURE .REVIEW= ::::-:-..-

I. FELIX EBeRlG" (APlUL 2M1O)\" TRANSFORMAllU A.RCHITECTURE. l.ASS JOURNAL VQL • .41Jjtl32 .. PP .. 3 -1.

In fhjspaper~ autkor d,escriped .his!tO:rl.cal impr'O¥ement iD the 'World of dome smu::rure witbfipre~.

2. lFEUX ESClUC,.ftJAN IPEI.EZ VAlJCARCEL, JOSE· sANamz,(1996], D'EPLOYABLE COVER ON Sw/1IMlNG POOL IN 8EV1LLE;JOURNAL OF THE :rNi1ER:NATIONAl. ASSOCIA110N FOR. SHiELL. AND SPATIAL" STR.UC'I"t:lRES: lASS VOL. 31~ IL. 1:20 .. pr. 39 -10.

1[1. lIDS paper the ammor describe 1hebuis o:f des:ign.ss well as details ef COnmucllOIt. process ofb1!rlldlmng ,md .. final,a~,ce ,oftfue wm.ole.

3~ L., PI)ERI'AS DEL RlO·.~,IAu .. t: 1991], SPA:CE FRAMES .FOR .DEPLOYABLE DOME" lASS JOURNAL VOL. 32,. D. 2 .. PP. ~.07- 113.

Tlwe :subject ·oftWs, pape.F is&e geommcd defimltiUllil,wrm mobiliw lo'f foldable spaltial structu:res with spherical dj[iectrlx, obtained i'rom m.eehanisms f~rmedby ,M:mJ1JJged s,trIds.. Thennx:hw:sm. mOOe:~s wmcb. 'can be generated are desorilbe:d, also its) feasib.mtyis respond ami die most iDtcrestiq; cue is· defmedg~fD;I.':tricau.y. ,aJppmachmg a. irequemJtpmticularoo11utioo: cross~point in a uianplar grld~ .projected. to the spll,crical surfaeefrom its: oenter~

41., MAJM[ORUKAWA.GUcm:l·,Ii\pril. - Au:g,usl" 1'990], lNJI1TED LECf'lJRE.iN THE lASS..cO'NGRESS IN MAJJRlD~ SEPTEJvfBER .1 '~SPACE ,STRUCTURES WITH CHAlIGJNG GE()METRJ"~ lASS JOURNAL VOL. 31.~ n. 1~2. PF. 33,- 45.

The teeMologies of space stn.c~ have sho\YEI. a mpidprogress mdle last few decades, One: ofilhe most inte.restmg: facts, in these ,developments, maybe that some 0'( ~11Iem begam to have: ,ehmtgiiog geomeuic. Thlg bas been oocwring in terrestrial IJS well as, celestials.paces in dre: £onns. ,of depJoy_le I eoUapsib!e. ,adaptive amd retractable (coavemb1e:) ,structmcs.

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Some of these sttucture:s Ichooge their shapes before and afitew tmnspo.rtatiOJl,. seme others during constnlction and. sdU. some othersevea after completion In the present Iecmre ea:chgm:crl, of such s1nlctllres MIl be dwscl\Jssed mtih. areview ,ot geneFa~ trend for 100000-PfC'hensivemKlersmnd1!ng oftil1is kind ,of .strucmr"Cs,.

s, TSmOMlJl ~o.KA.WA ,PllOl', StRUCTURAL IDEA OF RETRA:ClABLE LOOPDOklE, lASS JOURNAL VOlL. ·n~ iii. 13.3 .. PP. ~. ~ I - ~.lt5, ..

The authorprop(lS'esa j-dl~m.eFls:ional .miUl!tm.-ooguJatOO. scissor e.lem.ent as the main structura]e:I~ment of a lIDew ~: of cIDomcoaUod. 'Retractable Loop-Dome'. lit aUows r&e dometo lrontinuously c1\ian_ge iu, sbapeaoroIidiog to changeswn d1le: dianeeter ,of the eealas. Tllispaper describes 1) T.he geometry of me 3-D .nl.ultl-angmat:ed scissor el,emeJi]~ detmnimed by IC'llUmn_g a. spheremtih a pJam.e passing througbllie B:J:_'IeX, 2) A proposal f'Or a mtional strtl!cmml :sys~emMt!h expaEdablec:~rcular .rings for a Iatge s.poo and 3) A numerical simulation of the ,changing shape and. the mal construction of an. a~umjnummode~. wi'dlI a EO m base diameter.

6. WUIUN 'Cm:NJ~ FtlLING GUANu, SH..ING DONG~ I[AU'G.. 1999]1, DEVELOPMENT OF A H1GHLfSfNCHRONfZED DEPLOflWENT SPACE MAST, W:S JOURNAL vot, 40, a 130.PP. m 13 - 11 ~l

Design concepnon, dri.v.~ng mecluwism~ latch and ualstcb mechanism were earned out herein for a highly Symlchm'nized deprn.!i)yme.l1It space mest, A prototype mast was built to verifY oonoe~]ml design. f.ADda1 ualysis, frequency ana~ysis and 1Ja:iilSiel]~ .ruta]ysis. were oo.mpleled to ew~.uaute dymlamic behavruor_ Deployment dynamic ana~ysis a~gorithm. complex mlJlln~ffimdy constrained sys~m. was, developed. Dep~o)11len~ test and. its peri"tu:lru~mroeve.rificatlon were ~ond!t'I.ct:ed, S~est~ons eo ~mpmyeare presented in. accordsnoe m~h findwD:g.

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