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Pro/Beava AASHTO Code
IEG Group, Bentley Systems Bentley Systems Inc.
March 12, 2008
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Introduction………………………………………………….1 Creating the Bridge Geometry/Structural Analysis…………2 Generate AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response……………13 Bridge Design as Per AASHTO…………………………...31 Conclusion…………………………………………………36
The combination of STAAD.pro and STAAD.beava can make your bridge design and analysis easier. STAAD.pro is first used to construct the bridge geometry and STAAD.beava is used to find the AASHTO 2002 load positions that will create the maximum load response. The maximum load response could be any of the following: 1. Maximum plate stresses, moment about the local x axis of a plate (Mx), moment about the local y axis of a plate (My) etc. used to design for concrete deck reinforcement. 2. Maximum support reactions to design isolated, pile cap, and mat foundations. 3. Maximum bending moment or axial force in a member used to design members as per the AASHTO code. 4. Maximum deflection at mid span. These loads that create the maximum load responses can be transferred into STAAD.pro as load cases to load combinations for further analysis and design. Figure 1 shows the bridge design procedure discussed above.
Figure 1: Bridge Design process in STAAD.pro The purpose of this document is to explain these steps in more detail.
0 Creating the Bridge Geometry/Structural Analysis Figure 2 shows a bridge with the dimensions. Figure 2: Bridge Dimensions Figure 3: Completed Bridge Model in STAAD.2.pro 2 .
Click the Next button and select the Add Beam mode. 3 . Open STAAD. Click Finish.1. 2.pro with the default units of Kip-Ft and use the Space option.
Create four grid lines in the z direction at 10ft spacing. Click on the Snap Node/Beam button and draw the beams and the girders as shown below. Select the X-Z grid option. 4. To break these beams at the intersection point. click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Intersect. First draw five 160ft girders. 5.3. the beams and the girders). STAAD. Click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Highlight.e. 4 .pro will highlight all the beams that intersect each other no common nodes. Create two grid lines in the x direction at 80ft spacing. The goal of the next few steps is to draw the stick model of the Bridge Structure (i. Then draw the 40ft beams in the z direction.
and 7 using the nodes cursor as shown below. Select the y direction for the translational repeat and select enter a Default Step Spacing of -25ft as shown below. The beams have been created.6. 5 . The columns will now be created using the translational repeat command. Select nodes 6. 14. The node numbers may vary depending upon how the model was constructed. Select Geometry->Translational Repeat from the menu.
8. In reality.7. Select four nodes that outline the 160ft x 40ft deck. spacing of beams etc. The deck of this bridge structure will be created in the following steps using the Generate Surface Meshing Tool. and 10 and select node 1 again to complete the command. The Parametric Meshing Mode could become very useful in these circumstances. Simply click on node 1. Select the Quadrilateral Meshing option. 11. 6 . may not be regular and hence it may become difficult to create the deck of the bridge using the Generate Surface Meshing Tool. Select the Geometry->Generate Surface Meshing tool from the menu. 3.
Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->z from the menu. To view the mesh properly. 13. You should note that the girders and beams are automatically broken down into smaller elements. 11. Hence. the concrete column to beam connectivity is lost. The mesh will be created. click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members>Intersect. 7 . Hence. we should merge the beams in the z direction.pro will highlight all the beams that intersect each other no common nodes. Select each entry and press the Merge button. the girders are physically attached to the deck hence it is ok to mesh them.9. 2ft x 2ft element size is adequate for this type of model. The load from the deck is transferred to the 40ft steel girders. click on Geometry->Intersect Selected Members->Highlight. To break these beams at the intersection point. 10. you will need to click on the Setup Control Tab on your left. The concrete beams parallel to the z-axis are not attached to the deck. Select Geometry->Merge Selected Members to merge the split concrete beams. 12. Hence input the parameters as shown below. By merging the beams together. The load from the girders is then transferred to the concrete beams. STAAD. In reality.
00 section that has been created.5 x 2.044167 ft + 0.5 thickness of slab = 2ft + 2. Press the Thickness button the right and input 1ft in the Node 1 input box and press the Add button. 21.5 x 2ft + 2.044167 ft + 0.5 x Depth of Concrete Beam + Depth of Steel Beam + 0. Input an offset of -1. The properties and specifications have to be assigned. Select the Rect 24. 24. 18. 8 . Select the Offset tab. Press the Close button. 19.044167 ft + 0.00x24.5 x 1ft = 3. Concrete Deck Steel Girders – Parallel to x axis Plate elements . Press the Add button. Click on the General->Property control tab on your left and click on the Section Database button.14. 22. Click on the Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->Y from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. Select the local option from the Direction selection box. Click on the Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->Z from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. Select all the plates using the Plates Cursor and press the Assign button. Select the W24x103 section that has been created. Select the Spec sub-control tab on the left.544167 ft at both ends.Concrete 40ft Beam elements – W24X103 Material – Steel Offset = 0.12in thick Material . Select the Rectangle section profile and input 2ft in the YD and ZD input boxes. Select the W24x103 section from the American W shape database and click on the Add button.5 thickness of slab = 0. Press the Add button. Select the newly create Plate Thickness entry in the Properties dialog box. Select the start option from the location selection box.5 x Depth of Beam + 0. 25. 2ft x 2ft Sections Material – Concrete Offset = 0. 16. Press the Beam button.5220835 ft at both ends. Input a 2ft diameter and press the Add button. 2ft Circular Sections Material – Concrete Offset = Depth of Concrete Beam + Depth of Steel Beam + 0. Select the Define button on the right and select the Circle section profile. The geometry has been created. Concrete Beam – Parallel to the z axis Concrete Columns 15.5 x 1ft = 4. Select the Cir 24 section that has been created. 17. Click on the Select the Select>Beam Parallel To->X from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right.5 thickness of slab = 0. 20.544167ft at the end connected to the concrete beams. 23.5220835 in the Y input box.5 x 1ft = 1.
544167ft at the end connected to the concrete beams. Select the End option from the Location selection box. 28. For the columns assign a local x-offset of 4. Repeat Steps# 25 to 28 for the concrete beams but use a y-offset of -3.26. 29.52208 0 specification that has been created.544167 ft at both ends. Click on the View->3D Rendering in the menu. you will need to select beams parallel to the z-axis.52208 0 specification that has been created. Click on the Select the Select->Beam Parallel To->x from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. Input an offset of -1. 27. For Step# 28. Select the Local option from the Direction selection box.5220835 in the Y input box. Select the END LOCAL 0 -1. Click on the Select->Beam Parallel To->x from the menu and click on the Assign button on the right. Press the Beam button. 30. 31. Press the Add button. 9 . Select the START LOCAL 0 -1. Assign these specifications to the steel girders parallel to the x-axis. Select the Offset tab.
17. and 18. Select the General->Support tab on the left and click on the Create button in the right hand side Data Area. 33. Click on the Assign button. 10 .e create a fixed support entry). Select the newly created S2 Support 2 entry and using the nodes cursor select nodes 16. Click on the Add button (i.32.
Click on the Analyze->Run Analysis menu. Select “Dead” in the Loading type selection box. Click on the Add button on the right. 36. Select the General->Load tab on the left and click on Load Case Details on the right hand side in the Data Area. Try to find out any connectivity problems etc. 35. Press the Add button. If the analysis completed successfully. Select the Selfweight item and press the Add button.34. Click on the Analysis/Print control tab item on the left and press the Add button. 11 . Select the newly created 1: Dead Load entry in the data area. Use the STAAD Analysis option and click on the Run Analysis button. you should look at the exaggerated deflected shape of the bridge under the action of selfweight. Input the “Dead Load” in the Title input box. Press the Add button. You can go to the Post-Processing mode by clicking on Mode>Postprocessing command in the menu. Click the Close button. 38. 39. 37.
You can look at the bending moment diagram for the bridge by clicking on the Beam>Forces control tab on your left in the Post-Processing mode.40. 12 . You can look at the stress distribution diagram for the bridge by clicking on the Plate control tab on your left. 41. Select the Max Absolute stress type from the Stress Type selection box and click on the Ok button.
moment about the local y axis of a plate (My) in plate # 967 and 1046 that will be used to design for concrete deck reinforcement.foundation.0 Generate AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response The purpose of this section is to generate the following AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response: 1. Maximum plate stresses. The plates are located at the center of the two spans as shown below. moment about the local x-axis of a plate (Mx).3. 13 . Maximum support reactions at the three supports which will be used to design pile cap footings using STAAD. 2.
1944. across the bridge as a result of loading a certain place with unit loading. etc.e. 4.7in. 964. The next few steps will illustrate the creation of lanes on the Deck 1 that has been created. To generate a deck and define a roadway. The last step is to use the Load Generator to generate the desired maximum responses and transfer them into STAAD.beava will be used to generate the above maximum responses (i. select the Plates Cursor and select all plates in the model. STAAD. The origin of the deck is at the top left hand side corner. The second step is to generate the influence surface and view the influence surface diagrams. and 2023 used to design members as per the AASHTO code. Using the Nodes Cursor. the user may find out the coordinates of the deck as shown below. Maximum bending moment (Mz) in members 65. you are allowed to create multiple decks and multiple roadways on a single deck. 14 . Maximum deflection at nodes 842 and 881 to check if the deflection of the girders is less than L/360 = 80ft x 12in/360 = 2. Click on Deck->Define Roadway menu and click the New button. To accept the default name of the deck click the Ok button. 145. 555. The influence surface diagram will give a clear picture of the distribution or stresses. forces. The first step in STAAD. moments.beava is to generate a deck and define a roadway. 1043. 476. the location of the AASHTO HS-20 loading or lane loading on this bridge that will generate the maximum responses listed above).3. In STAAD. 4. Click on Deck->Create Deck command in the menu. 1456. 3. 1.beava.pro as independent load cases for further analysis and design. Click on Mode->Bridge Deck Preprocessor menu 2. 1535.
and Custom.5. Namely. Straight. The Define Roadway dialog box contains three tabs. 15 .beava will calculate the lane widths automatically. The Straight option allows users to simply define the outer curb origins and STAAD. Curved.
if the lane starts at the center of the bridge. the engineer may enter 16 . The Curved tab is used to create a curved lane on any deck. The Angle input box simply allows the user to define a roadway which is placed at an angle in the Global XZ-plane. The Angle input parameter will control the starting point of the lanes on the bridge. For example.If the designer has no idea about the lane widths of this bridge. if curved lanes were desired. he/she can simply enter the following inputs. the engineer first has to know the center of the curve. in this case. For Example. The meaning of the Curb A and Curb B Origin input parameters can be best understood from the above figure.
-270 degrees for both Curb A and Curb B. 17 . In the example shown in the following figure curved lanes have to be generated. Suppose the lanes are only to be generated on the region that lies between 0 and 65.4 degrees angle in the anticlockwise direction (plan view). The Angle is measured with respect to the line parallel to the global x axis which passes through the center of the circular lane. Curb A radius is 10ft and Curb B radius be 100ft. The engineer needs to provide the following inputs in the Define Roadway dialog box.
Suppose the lanes have to be generated for the entire circular deck. These lanes can be created using the Custom tab. 18 . In this example. STAAD. The Anticlockwise direction has been provided.5 degrees and the direction of lane generation is in Clockwise. the start Angle of the Curb A and Curb B are 65.4 degrees angle in the anticlockwise direction (plan view).Note that the Curb A radius of 60ft and Curb B radius of 100ft have been provided. there are four 10ft wide lanes. The user may enter in the following inputs. In the Straight and the Curved tabs discussed above.beava. The center of the circular lanes is located at x=0 and z=0 with respect to the global coordinate system. Note that in this case. The Spacing Between Points input box lets the user control the increment of the moving load on the bridge deck. the numbers of lanes are automatically calculated by STAAD.beava will automatically generate lanes for the deck region that that lies between 0 and 65.
6. 19 . Enter in the following parameters in the input boxes. To create the second lane click on the Add Lane to Right Button. Click on the Custom tab and enter the following inputs: 7. The first lane has been created.
20 . To create the third lane click on the Add Lane to Right Button. Enter in the following parameters in the input boxes.8. The third lane has been created. Enter in the following parameters in the input boxes. Press the Ok button. The second lane has been created. 9. To create the last lane click on the Add Lane to Right Button. Press the Close button for the Roadways dialog box.
The following is just an example and you are not required to test this out on this model. For example.The Custom tab allows users to create lanes with/without curbs. 21 . the following scenario can be created in this example.
12. One of the maximum response conditions is the maximum absolute stress in plate 967. Max Absolute for the Stress Type selection box. Click on AASHTO HS 20-44. This will generate the influence surface diagrams for the entire deck. This menu will display the vehicle database. Select Plate Stress for the Diagram Type selection box. This process may take long depending upon the number of plates in the model. and plate 967 for the Plate number selection box. Click on the Loading->Influence Diagram from the menu. The influence surface diagram should be displayed in the graphics window along with the legend on the left hand side. Click on Vehicle->Database from the menu. You will notice the point loads that are associated with this vehicle in the Vehicle Database dialog box.10. Press the ok button. The engineer can look at the influence surface diagram for this plate using the Loading->Influence Diagram from the menu. 11. You may also create your own Vehicle definitions by pressing the New button. Click on Loading->Influence Surface Generator. 23 .
24 .beava to find the AASHTO HS 20-44 load position/conditions that will generate the maximum plate stresses. The Figure shown below explains the definition used to create the third axle which does not have a fixed location. Click the Ok button on the Vehicle Database dialog box. Click on Loading->Run Load Generator command in the menu. Let us instruct STAAD. Select the Ultimate Limit State for the Limit State selection dialog box. 15. Select the AASHTO ASD/LFD design code from the Design Code selection box. STAAD. moment about the local x-axis of a plate (Mx).beava will place the third axle anywhere between14ft to 30ft whichever location generates the maximum response. 13. 14. Click on the AASHTO tab in the Load Generator Tab and select the HS 20-44 in the Loading Class selection box. moment about the local y axis of a plate (My) in plate # 967 and 1046.The Figure shown above explains the input parameters used to create the HS 20-44 vehicle.
Please refer to section 1.pro Technical Reference Manual for a description of the stress types.1 Plate and Shell Element of the STAAD.16. The top side of element 967 is shown in the following figure.6. The first instruction in the above dialog box instructs STAAD.beava find out the AASHTO load positions/conditions on the four lanes that will generate the maximum positive stress on the top side of element 967. Click on the Plate Center Stress tab in the Load Generator Tab. 25 . Input the parameters as shown in the following figure.
17. 476. and 2023 used to design members as per the AASHTO code. The second AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response Criteria is the maximum support reactions at the three supports which will be used to the design pile cap footings using STAAD. The third AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response Criteria is the maximum bending moment (Mz) in members 65. 26 .beava to find out the AASHTO loading on the four lanes that will generate the maximum Fy reaction at support #16. The first instruction in the above dialog box instructs STAAD. Select the Support Reactions tab and enter the information as shown in the following figure. 1535. 555.foundation. Select the Beam End Forces tab and enter the information as shown in the following figure. 18. 1043. 1456. 1944. 145. 964.
Select the Node Displacements tab and enter the information as shown in the following figure.19. The Last AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response Criteria is the maximum deflection at nodes 842 and 881. 27 .
You will notice the vehicle positions on the deck. 21. Right click on the graphics window and select the Labels command. Press the Ok button. Click the Ok button. 22. Click the Close button. Selection box. Select the Deck tab and check the loads and vehicles options. The vehicle positions generating the maximum Response for each desired response can be viewed in the STAAD. 28 .beava AASHTO 2002 Maximum Response load locations for the desired responses that we entered above.pro graphics window. You will notice a list of all the desired responses that were entered. You will notice the following dialog box which will summarize the STAAD. You may get accurate load positions for each lane using the Lane No. Click on the response selection box located on the top right corner of your screen.20.
These loads can be transferred to STAAD. Click on Model->Modeling command to return to STAAD.pro as individual load cases for the slab.23. These loadings do not include the selfweight of the structure that will be needed for the design.pro input file editor.pro Model command from the menu. 30 . In the General->Load control tab you will notice that all the AASHTO loadings have been created.pro. select the Loading->Create Loading in STAAD. You may add this load item to each load case using the STAAD. You may simply add the SELFWEIGHT Y -1 command to each load case using the STAAD. member. 24.pro GUI. To transfer these loadings into STAAD.pro.pro. and foundation design using the code check features in STAAD.
We will accept the default steel design parameters in STAAD. If the beams pass in Step# 2. After obtaining the analysis results. 964. 1944. 964. 1535. Perform Analysis 2. 4.pro Technical Reference Manual. If the beams fail after Step#6.13. and 2023 are used to design members as per the AASHTO code and all the load cases that we have created. and 2023 using the Tools->Create New Group menu command. 555. Select the AASHTO design code in the Data Area. 1535.pro except for members 964 and 1043 have to have proper DFF. 3. 1456. 1456. Select beams 964 and 1043 in the graphics window and click the Define Parameters button in the Data Area. Members 65. the subsequent steps can either be used for optimization or may not be required.1 AASHTO (ASD) of the STAAD. The deflection of beam 1041 with respect to nodes 14 and 7 have to be checked. To minimize the number of cycles. For more information on the Ratio design parameter please refer to Section 2. Perform Analysis 6. The deflection of beam 964 with respect to nodes 6 and 14 have to be checked. 555. the entire design cycle from Step# 1 to Step# 6 have to be repeated. 1944.0 Bridge Design as Per AASHTO Steel Design as per AASHTO can be summarized in the following steps: 1. Code Check We have already completed the first step. 145. 476. 1043. one may take advantage of the Ratio design parameter which is not discussed in this manual. Create a group of members 65. DJ1and DJ2 parameters assigned for the deflection checks. 145.4. 1043. Grouping 5. we could design the steel beams using the following steps: 1. in the Modeling Mode. click on the Design->Steel control tab on your left. Code Check 3. 2. 31 . 476. Hence. Select 4.
Click on the Assign button. Select the DJ2 parameter and enter node number 7 and press the Add button. select the DJ1 parameter from the Design Parameters dialog box and enter node number 6 and press the Add button. Click the Close button. Click on Analyze -> Run Analysis command from the menu. click on the RESULTS tab and click on STEEL DESIGN. On the left hand side. DJ2 7.Hence. Select the Select->By Group Name command from the menu and select the beam group that we have created. Under the Parameter 1 tree item in the Data Area. After the analysis is completed click on the View Output File option to view the steel design results. This is the L/360 deflection criteria. The DJ1 14. assign the remaining design parameters using the procedure described above. Click on the Commands button in the Data Area and select the Check Code option in the Design Commands dialog box. Again. Select beam 964 in the graphics window. you will notice the following items with question marks besides them. and DFF 360 parameters have to be assigned to beam 1043. Select the DJ2 parameter and enter node number 14 and press the Add button. Click the Close button. Select the Assign to Selected beams option and click the Assign button. and DFF 360 parameters have to be assigned to beam 964. 5. Similarly. The DJ1 6. DJ2 14. Select the STAAD Analysis option and press the Run Analysis button. Select the DJ1 parameter from the Design Parameters dialog box and enter node number 14 and press the Add button. 6. These design parameters have to be assigned to members 964 and 1043. Select the DFF parameter from the Design Parameters dialog box and enter 360 and press the Add button. Click the Close button. Select the DJ1 6 parameter in the Data Area. Uncheck the Highlight Selected Geometry check box. 32 .
Assign the Select and Ratio 0. The Ratio 0. Let us limit the depth of the girders to 2ft and 2. Select the Check Code entry in the Data Area. 1456. Click the Commands button in the Data Area and select the Group option.3 design parameter at the correct location. the selection needs to be applied to all beam members. 555. 145. 1944.3 design parameter to members 65. 1043.pro to perform member selection. and 2023 using the instructions in Step# 4 discussed above and must be placed before the Check Code command with the rest of the design parameters. Click the Close button. 476. Select Ax in the Property Specification dialog box and check the After Current check box. 1944. You can instruct STAAD. you will notice that there are two sets of steel design results. After running the analysis.9 command must be placed before the Check Code command with the rest of the design parameters. Select the design group that you had created in Step 2. Click the Assign button. 8. The After Current check box will enable you to place the DMIN 2 and DMAX 2. as per Step 6 discussed above.You will notice that all the beams have failed as per the AASHTO code checks. 1535. 1456. Staad.pro has to be instructed that all members in the design group have the same section profile. Select the GROUP AX MEMB design command in the Data Area and click on the Select Group/Deck button. 33 . 1043. 964. and 2023.3ft for the selection. Click on the Add button in the Design Commands dialog box. the design results are shown in the Beam->Unity Check Tab. The After Current check box will enable you to place the Ratio design parameter at the correct location. After performing the member selection. 1535. The offsets have to be manually updated. 964. In the Post-processing mode. 476.9 command to members 65. one for the initial selection and the other for the member selection. Close the output file. 145. 7. Create and assign the DMIN 2 and DMAX 2. 555.
WAS W24X103. Perform the analysis as per the instructions in Step# 6 and you will notice that the beams are passing. The W24X192 have a depth which is 0.9. it is not necessary to change the offsets of the beams and the columns in this case.pro editor. Select W21X275 and select the Select->Beams parallel to->x command from the menu. Open the General->Properties control tab in the Modeling mode. Hence. 10. Select the Assign to Selected Beams option and click the Assign button. The last step in the design process is to check if this member selection is ok because of the changes in the force distribution in the entire structure and the proposed new member property proposed by STAAD.03ft less than that of W24X103.pro. comment out the following lines as follows: *RATIO 0.PRO SELECTION. 34 . *SELECT MEMB 65 145 476 555 964 1043 1456 1535 1944 2023 *GROUP AX MEMB _MIDSPANBEAMS INITIAL SECTION 11. Using the STAAD.9 ALL *WE SELECTED W21X275 AS PER STAAD.
beava can be used to analyze bridges as per the AASHTO code.pro as load cases to load combinations for further analysis and design.5. 36 .beava is used to find the AASHTO 2002 load positions that will create the maximum load response.pro is first used to construct the bridge geometry and STAAD. These loads that create the maximum load responses can then be transferred into STAAD. slab elements and foundations. STAAD. This manual has demonstrated the design of the steel girders.pro in combination with STAAD.0 Conclusion STAAD. A similar design approach can be used for design of concrete members.
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