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CHAPTER III
MECHANICAL DESIGN OF EQUIPMENT
3.1 REACTOR 1, R1
3.1.1 INTRODUCTION
In the mechanical design of process equipment, there are many aspects of
design and reactor safety factors should be considered. Among these is the stress
analysis, the burdens imposed on the reactor and the reactor design supporters. All
these aspects are based on a standard code of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers (ASME).
Tube and shell reactor was operated in the gas phase and liquid phase at a
temperature of 185
0
C and pressure of 6.5 bar (650 kPa) design pressure, P took a
safety factor of 10% above the operating pressure.
3.1.2 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION
Materials selection was based on the consideration of four main factors:
resistance to ammonia, nitric acid and ammonium nitrate vapours and condensate,
strength, ease of fabrication, and low cost. Much of the vessel (both the shell and
the tubes) will be in continuous contact with ammonium nitrate aqueous at high
temperatures. Therefore, particular attention was given to corrosion resistance
under those conditions. The tubes are in direct contact with both the cooling medium
and the reaction gases.
The preferred construction material for the reactor is stainless steel 16Cr
2Mo8Ni (316), which is described by the materials specification given in Table 5.2
and composition of material in Table 5.3. Ammonium nitrate, ammonia and nitric
acid are not particularly corrosive to most steels. The average corrosion rates are
generally less than 0.001 per year. The addition of chromium also improves the
mechanical properties at high temperature. Several stainless steels, notably type
316, satisfy all the material requirements. However, A387 is substantially cheaper
and can be used with little penalty to the corrosion rate. At high pressures (and,
2
hence, large wall thicknesses), cladding is normally recommended in order to
reduce the vessel cost when alloy steels are used.
Reactor construction material used is stainless steel 16Cr2Mo8Ni (316). By
referring to the standard code The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME), the maximum stress is 133.5 N/mm
2
.
By linear interpolation
Tem
perature, °C
150 155 200
S,
N/mm
2
135 S 120
Table 3.1 Typical mechanical properties for 316 stainless steel alloys
Property Value
Melting Point 13751400°C
Modulus of Elasticity 193 GPa
Electrical Resistivity 0.074x10
6
Ω.m
Thermal Conductivity 16.3 W/m.K at 100°C
Thermal Expansion 15.9x10
6
/K at 100°C
Tensile Strength (MPa) 515
Compression Strength (MPa) 170
Melting Point 13751400°C
Table 3.2 Typical chemical composition for 316 stainless steel alloys
% 316
C 0.08max
Mn 2.0
Si 0.75
P 0.045
S 0.03
Cr 1618
3
Mo 23
Ni 1014
N 0.1
3.1.3 THE EFFICIENCY OF WELDED JOINT
There are several methods to make welded joints. In particular case the
choices of a type from the numerous alternatives depend on:
1. The circumstances of welding.
In many cases the accessibility of the joint determines the types of welding.
In a small diameter vessel (under 1824 inches) from the inside, no manual welding
can be applied. Using backing strip it must remain in place. In larger diameter
vessels if a manway is not used, the last (closing) joint can be welded from outside
only. The type of welding may be determined also by the equipment of the
manufacturer.
2. The requirements of the code.
Regarding the type of joint the Code establishes requirements based on
service, material and location of the welding. The welding processes that may be
used in the construction of vessels are also restricted by the Code as described in
paragraphUW27.
3. The aspect economy.
If the two preceding factors allow free choice, then the aspect of economy
must be the deciding factor.
Some considerations concerning the economy of welding’s:
1. Vedge preparation, which can be made by torch cutting, is always more
econornical than the use of J or U preparation.
2. Double V preparation requires only half the deposited weld metal required for
single V preparation.
3. Increasing the size of fillet weld, its strength increases in direct proportion,
while the deposited weld metal increases with the square of its size.
4. Lower quality welding makes necessary the use of thicker plate for the
vessel. Whether using stronger welding and thinner plate or the opposite is
more economical, depends on the size of vessel, welding equipment, etc.
This must be decided in each particular case
The strength of a welded joint depends on the type and quality of welding
joint. Then, for design purposes weld joint efficiency, J = 1.0 was chosen. This
selection is based on ASME UW2 stated that:
4
“… all butt welded joints shall be fully radiographe, except under provision
OS UW2(a)(2) and UW2(a)(3) below and UW4(a)(4)….”
This statement is clarifying the requirement of welded joint that fully
radiograph when pressure vessel containing lethal substances. So, all main
category A and B welds must be fully radiographed. But category B and C welds in a
nozzle and communicating chambers that are not larger than 10 inch nominal pipe
size and do not exceed 1to 1/8 inch thick are exempt. Based on the fluid
composition contain in the reactor for this design, ammonium nitrate could be a
dangerous and lethal substance if leaking to the atmosphere. Furthermore,
ammonia also potentially dangerous substance. The location of A, B and C shown in
Figure 5.3.
Figure 5.3 Welded joint locations
3.1.4 DETERMINATION THICKNESS OF REACTOR SHELL AND HEAD
3.1.4.1 Design Pressure
From table 13.2 (R.K. Sinnot, 1999. Chemical Engineering Design), typical
design stress = 133.5 N/mm
2
Operating pressure for reactor is 6.5 bar.
The pressure given in the table only design stress for selected material but
for design stress pressure that generated by the fluid also need to take into
consideration. From book of Pressure Vessel Handbook 10
th
edition page 29 giving
5
the pressure of water that will emit at different length. But for other material, the
value needs to multiply with specific gravity of fluid or other calculation is:
Value above is for the water. To get the pressure in the reactor emit by the
fluid is multiply value get by specific gravity of fluid. Specific gravity for the fluid in
the reactor is 0.1067.
So design pressure should be taken is:
Taking 10 per cent above as design pressure
3.1.4.2 Design temperature
Operating temperature = 185
0
C
Take 10 percent above operating temperature,
3.1.4.3 Thickness of cylindrical vessel
Data required to performed calculation
Cylinder length, L = 15 m
Design pressure, P = 0.778 N/mm
2
Inside diameter, D
i
= 4.80 m
Inside radius of reactor, R = 2.4 m
Allowable stress, S = 133.5 N/mm
2
Joint efficiency, J = 1.0
Determination of reactor thickness, assume
0
O
D
t
>
for cylinder wall
i) Tangential stress with condition t < R/2 and P< 0.385SE
where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2
6
R = Inside radius, m
S = Stress value of material, N/mm
2
E = Joint efficiency
t = Wall thickness
So the wall thickness is
ii) Longitudinal stress with condition t < R/2 or P < 1.25 SE
where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2
R = Inside radius, m
S = Stress value of material, N/mm
2
E = Joint efficiency
So the wall thickness is
By comparing those two values, resulting maximum value of
reactor thickness. Hereby, minimum thickness of the reactor cylinder is, t
min
=14.04
mm with 4 mm corrosion allowance because expecting the severe operating
conditions where erosion will occur, t
design
= 18.0 mm.
3.1.4.4 Domed head
(i) Try standard dished head (torisphere)
Crown radius R
c
= D
i
= 4.80 m
Knuckle radius = 6 percent R
c
= 0.288 m
A head of this size would be formed by pressing: no joints, so J=1
Where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2
D = Inside diameter, m
f = Stress value of material, N/mm
2
7
= Stress concentration factor for torispherical heads
Therefore,
(ii) Try a “standard” ellipsoidal head, ratio major : minor axes = 2 : 1
Where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2
D = Inside diameter, m
f = Stress value of material, N/mm
2
J = Joint efficiency
Therefore,
So an ellipsoidal head would probably be the most economical. Take as
same thickness allowance of 4 mm as wall 18.0 mm.
Flat head
Where
P = Design pressure, N/mm
2
D
e
= Bolt diameter, m
f = Stress value of material, N/mm
2
C
p
= Joint efficiency
Use bolted cover with a full face gasket Cp = 0.4
De= bolt circle diameter, take as approx. 4.80 m.
Therefore, from equation 5.46
This shows the inefficiency of a flat cover. It would be better to use a
flanged domed head. So, ellipsoidal head will be used as domed head for reactor.
8
3.1.4.5 Tube sheet (plate)
Tube sheet forms the barrier between shell and tube fluids, and where it is
essential for safety or process reason to prevent any possibility of intermixing due to
leakage at the tube sheet joint, double tubesheets can be used, with the space
between the sheet vented. The thickness of tube sheet will reduce the effective
length of the tube slightly, and this should be allowed for when calculating the area
available for heat transfer. The thickness of tube sheet calculation given by the
TEMA standard as below
Thickness of tube sheet
Where
and
Where
= Outlet diameter of shell, mm
= Outlet diameter of tube, mm
= Number of tube
= Thickness of tube, mm
= Thickness of shell, mm
= Design pressure, N/mm
2
= Design stress, N/mm
2
= Elastic modulus of shell, N/mm
2
= Elastic modulus of tube, N/mm
2
Therefore, from equation 5.49
Substituted k value into equation 5.48
Substituted F value inside equation 5.47
9
3.1.4.6 Reactor load
3.1.4.6.1 Weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed end
Where
W
v
= total weight of the shell, excluding internal fittings, such as plates, N,
C
v
= a factor to account for the weight of nozzles, man ways, internal supports,
etc; which can be taken as
= 1.08 for vessels with only a few internal fittings,
= 1.15 for distillation columns, or similar vessels, with several man ways,
and with plate support rings, or equivalent fittings,
H
v
= height, or length, between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical
section) = 15 m
g = gravitational acceleration, 9.81 m/s
2
,
t = wall thickness = 18.0 mm
p
m
= density of vessel material = 7787 kg/m3,
D
m
= mean diameter of vessel D =4.818 m.
C
v
taken is 1.08 for a few internal fittings.
Therefore, from equation 5.47
3.1.4.6.2 Weight of tubes
Density of stainless steel 316 = 7787 kg/m
3
(Obtain from Incropera De Witt, Heat and Mass Transfer)
From Pressure Vessel Handbook 10
th
Edition
For 2in tube, 1 foot of pipe has weight 3.652 lb (Properties are based on ANSI B
36.19)
0.3048 m = 1 ft
3.652 lb
m
=1.6565 kg
Therefore for 15m length = 81.5207 kg
Where
= Mass of single tubes, kg
10
= Gravitational force, m/s
= Number of tubes
Therefore,
3.1.4.6.3 Weight of fluid in the tube
Total volume of fluid inside tube
Where
d
i
= Inside diameter of tubes, m
= Length of reactor, m
= Number of tubes inside reactor
Therefore from equation 5.49
Weight of fluid inside the tubes
Where
= Density of fluid, kg/m
3
= Volume of tube, m
3
= Gravitational force, 9.81 m/s
2
Therefore, from equation 5.50
3.1.4.6.4 Weight of tube sheet
Thickness of tube sheet = 25mm
Volume of tube sheet
Where
= Diameter of tube sheet = inside diameter of shell, m
= Length of tube sheet = tube sheet thickness, m
11
Therefore, from equation 5.51
There are 2 tube sheet been used in the reactor. So, volume of tube sheet multiplied
by 2=0.9048 m
3
Weight of tube sheet
Where
= Density of fluid, kg/m
3
= Volume of tube, m
3
= Gravitational force, 9.81 m/s
2
Therefore, from equation 5.52
Density of stainless steel 316 = 7787 kg/m
3
3.1.4.6.5 Baffle weight
Volume of baffle,
= 1.06 m
3
3.1.4.6.6 Total weight
Therefore,
3.1.4.7 Analysis of shear stress and direct stress
3.1.4.7.1 Shear stress
i) Tangential stress
Where
= Design stress, N/mm
2
= Inside diameter, mm
= Thickness of shell, mm
Therefore, from equation 5.56
12
ii) Longitudinal stress
Where
= Design stress, N/mm
2
= Inside diameter, mm
= Thickness of shell, mm
Therefore, from equation 5.57
3.1.4.7.2 Direct stress
Direct stress is the stress that generated by the fluid inside vessel and its
vessel weight
Where
= Total weight of reactor (shell), kN
= Inside diameter, m
= Thickness of shell, m
Therefore, from equation 5.58
3.1.4.8 Support
Support saddle used to support the container in a horizontal reactor. The
former is supported by two saddles can be considered as a simple supported beam
with uniformly distributed load. The distribution of the longitudinal axis of the bending
moment is shown in the diagram below:
13
The maximum point occurs on both sides and support the middle range. In
theory, the optimum support position, giving rise to the maximum bending moment is
the lowest position when the magnitude of the maximum value on both sides is
equal to the value of support in the middle of the range of:
1 2
2
L L
M M =
Where
A = Distance from the tangent to the saddle support, m
L = Length of the container, the tangent line, m
H = column depth, m
= 1.218 m
Q = Total weight/saddle, N
= Total weight/2
= 1144.6171 kN
R = Radius of reactor
= 2.4 m
b = width of saddle, m
Bending moments at the two saddle supports, and bending in the middle of
the range, can be determined using the following equations:
14
Balance from the bending moment:
Solving from above equation, value for A =3.97m
Therefore
3.1.4.9 Stresses in vessel wall
Bending stress is a stress that cause by the bending moment in the shell
(vessel), bending moment is classified as the stress generated as a resultant to the
dead weight of reactor in horizontal position supported by the saddle support.
Bending stress longitudinal to the cross sectional area of shell as
Where
1 L
M
= Longitudinal bending stress at midspan
h
I
= Second moment of area of the shell
D = Shell diameter
t = Shell thickness
Therefore,
Resultant axial stress due to bending and pressure is given by:
Where
= Longitudinal bending moment at the support
= an empirical constant: 1
15
 Downwind stress
Therefore,
 Upwind stress
Therefore,
Principal stress,
Longitudinal stress,
The difference in principal stresses and the longitudinal stress resultant,
Because of the stress difference is <the maximum stress, S, the design is
acceptable.
The magnitude of the longitudinal bending stress on the strengthening of
support will depend on the local shell. If the shell does not remain round when
loaded, this means that some of the top cross section is not effective against
longitudinal bending. This stress is given as follows:
Where
= Longitudinal bending moment at the support
= an empirical constant: 1.0 for stiffened shell.
Therefore,
Because the value of o
b
, 2 is smaller than the maximum design stress
allowable S, then the pressure vessel design of the heat exchanger is acceptable.
16
3.1.4.10 Saddle design
Saddle must be designed to withstand heavy loads caused by the container
and its contents. This saddle is made of stainless steel plate. Typically, the contact
angle cannot be less than 120°and not more than 150
0
. Smooth plates (wear plate)
are usually welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall area in contact with the
saddle.
Saddle support design procedure given by Brownell and Young (1959) and
Megyesy (1977), the former equal to the diameter of 4.86 m, standard steel saddles
to container with a diameter of 4.8 m is used after interpolation been made as
shown in Table 5.3.
Table 5.3 Standard steel saddle
V
essel
Diameter
(m)
Dimension (m) mm
V Y C E J G
t
2
t
1
B
olt
diameter
B
olt
hole
4
.80
4
.303
0
.525
6
.99
3
.07
1
.852
0
.150
1
6
1
2
2
7
3
3
17
3.1.4.11 Design bolt flange connection
Flange can be used in the body of the container when the container must
be divided into several sections for easy removal and maintenance. Flange
connection used to connect pipes to other equipment such as pumps and valves.
Typically used for connecting the connection of bolt with small diameter pipes, less
than 40 mm. Flange connections are also used to attach sections of pipe on the
installation and opening of facilities needed for maintenance, but the structure of the
pipe is usually welded to reduce costs.
Flange sizes vary, from a few millimeters in diameter for small pipes to
several meters in diameter for use as a body or head flange on the container. There
are four openings in the design of the reactor tube and shell, which requires the use
of connection, namely:
1. Weldingneck flanges.
2. Slipon flanges, hub and plate types.
3. Lapjoint flanges.
4. Screwed flanges.
5. Blank, or blind, flanges.
Weldedneck flange type (steel) used for opening the input and output
openings for the connection and the nozzle of the reactor tube and shell. Given the
pressure vessel is operated under the operating pressure of 6.5 bar (650 kPa) at a
temperature of 155 °C design, the flange of this type is selected for its ability to
withstand extreme operating conditions likely to be exposed to temperature loading,
shear, and vibration.
Optimum size for the flange to the nozzles feed (input) and the output of the
shell and tube can be determined using the following equation proposed by Sinnot:
18
Optimum pipe diameter at inlet stream from reactor 1
Data required:
G = 10313.2838 kg/hr= 2.8648 kg/s
= 7.471 kg/m3
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d
d
1
Flange
Raised
face Bolting
Drilling Neck
D b h
1
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
200 219.1 320 20 55 258 3 M16 8 18 280 236 15 10
Optimum pipe diameter at inlet stream from splitter
Data required:
G = 7787.8489 kg/hr= 2.1633 kg/s
= 1301.2 kg/m3
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d
d
1
Flange
Raised
face Bolting
Drilling Neck
D b h
1
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
25 33.7 100 14 35 60 2 M10 4 11 75 42 6 4
19
Optimum pipe diameter at outlet stream of reactor
Data required:
G = 18101.1257 kg/hr= 5.0281 kg/s
= 77.74 kg/m3
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d
d
1
Flange
Raised
face Bolting
Drilling Neck
D b h
1
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
125 139.7 240 18 48 178 3 M16 8 18 200 155 10 8
Optimum pipe diameter at outlet from reactor for cooling system
Data required:
G = 5526.327 kg/s
= 1001.1462 kg/m3
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d
d
1
Flange
Raised
face Bolting
Drilling Neck
D b h
1
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
200 219.1 320 20 55 258 3 M16 8 18 280 236 15 10
Pipe thickness. Equation below is follow British Standard 5500.
Where
P : Internal pressure,bar
D : Pipe outer diameter, mm
: Design stress at working temperature, N/mm
2
Inlet from reactor 1
From equation 5.65, thickness of nozzle is
20
Inlet from splitter
From equation 5.65, thickness of nozzle is
Outlet from reactor
From equation 5.65, thickness of nozzle is
Optimum pipe diameter at outlet from reactor for cooling system
From equation 5.65, thickness of nozzle is
Plug flow reactor data
sheet
Equipment no.:Plug flow reactor (PFR101)
Description : Convert ammonia and nitric acid to
ammonium nitrate
Sheet no:
Operating Data
No.
Required.
1 Capacity 109.87 m
3
Specific
gravity of
content
0.107 Computed (yes or no)
Shell
Content Ammonia, water, nitric acid and ammonium nitrate
Length 15 m
Max.
working
pressure
133.5 N/mm
2
Design
Pressure
0.778 N/mm
2
21
Working
temp.
458.15 K
Design
temp.
203.5
0
C
Material Stainless steel 16Cr2Mo8Ni (316)
Joint factor 1.0
Corrosion
allowance
4 mm
Shell
thickness
18.00 mm
Type of
head
Elipsoid
al
Thickness 18.00 mm
Reactor load 2289.2342 kN
Tangetial
stress
51.8667 N/mm
2
Longitudina
l stress
103.733 N/mm
2
Direct stress 8402.3555 N/mm
2
Type of
support
Saddle
Distance of
tangent to
saddle
support
3.97 m
Tube
Tube outside
diameter
2.735 in
Tube inside
diameter
2.067 in
Wall
thickness
0.154 in
Number of
tube
1933
22
required
Area of tube 0.003790 m
2
Volumetric
flow rate
0.08776 m
3
/hr
Bundle
diameter
4.30 m
Shell inside
diameter
diameter
bundle
diameter
0.50 m
Shell
diameter
4.80 m
Number of
baffle
8
Distance
between
baffle
1.92 m
Pitch
diameter
0.0868 m
Tube sheet
thickness
0.1795 m
Cooling system
Fluid Water
Velocity of
fluid
3 m/s
Flow rate 5526.327 kg/hr
Fluid inlet
temperature
25
0
C
Fluid outlet
temperature
81.70
0
C
Tube side
coefficient
3715.3883 W/m
2
.K
23
Shell side
coefficient
14885.00 W/m
2
.K
Tube side
pressure
drop
0.46 bar
Shell side
pressure
drop
8.458 bar
24
3.2 REACTOR 2, R2
3.2.1 Design Pressure
A vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it
is likely to be subjected in operation. For vessels under internal pressure, the design
pressure is normally taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set. This will
normally be 5 to 10 per cent above the normal working pressure, to avoid spurious
operation during minor process upsets. In this design, considering 10 % safety
factor so that the design pressure become as below:
(1.36)
3.2.2 Design Temperature
The operating temperature of our reactor is taken as 185
0
C. For safety
reason, the design pressure of this reactor is taken as 10% above the operating
temperature to avoid spurious operation during minor process upsets.
(1.37)
0
C
K
3.2.3 Material Of Construction
Many factors have to be considered when selecting engineering materials
but for chemical process plant the overriding consideration is usually the ability to
resist corrosion. The material selected must have sufficient strength and be easily
worked. The most economical material that satisfies both process and mechanical
requirements should be selected which is this will be the material that gives the
lowest cost over the working life of the plant and allowing for maintenance and
replacement.
Stainless steels are the most frequently used corrosion resistant materials in
the chemical industry. To impart corrosion resistance the chromium content must be
above 12 per cent and the higher the chromium content, the more resistant is the
alloy to corrosion in oxidising conditions. Nickel is added to improve the corrosion
resistance in nonoxidising environments.
25
A wide range of stainless steels is available, with compositions tailored to
give the properties required for specific applications. Type 304 alsocalled 18/8
stainless steels is the most generally used stainless steel. It contains the minimum
Cr and Ni that give a stable austenitic structure. The carbon content is low enough
for heat treatment not to be normally needed with thin sections to prevent weld
decay. The uniform structure of austenitic is the structure desired for corrosion
resistance and it is these grades that are widely used in the chemical industry. The
austenitic stainless steels have greater strength than the plain carbon steels,
particularly at elevated temperatures (see Appendix A1). So, as conclusion stainless
steels type 304 is the best material of construction and then selected as material of
construction for the reactor.
3.2.4 Determination Of Minimum Thickness Of The Reactor
(1.38)
Where:
, minimum thickness
P
i
, the design pressure
D
i
, the inside diameter
f, design stress
The strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature, so the
maximum allowable design stress will depend on the material temperature. The
design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the
maximum working temperature of the material. With design temperature is equal to
maximum operating temperature, 185
o
C, design stress for stainless steel 304, is f =
115 N/mm
2
= 115 bar (R.K. Sinnot, 1999. Chemical Engineering Design). Typical
design stress values for some common materials are shown in Appendix A2.
Thus from Eqn. (1.38),
26
The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow
for material lost by corrosion and erosion, or scaling. Corrosion is a complex
phenomenon and it is not possible to give specific rules for the estimation of the
corrosion allowance required for all circumstances. The allowance should be based
on experience with the material of construction under similar service conditions to
those for the proposed design. For carbon and lowalloy steels, where severe
corrosion is not expected, a minimum allowance of 2.0 mm should be used.
Add allowance for corrosion = + 0.002 m =
3.2.5 Design of Vessel Heads
The end of a cylindrical vessel is closed by heads of various shapes. The
common types used are:
i. Flat heads
ii. Hemispherical heads
iii. Ellipsoidal heads
iv. Torispherical heads
The heads used for the vessel may be flat if they are suitably buttressed
but preferably they are some curved shape as the hemispherical, ellipsoidal or
torispherical heads. Standard torispherical heads (dished ends) are the most
commonly used end closure for vessels up to operating pressures of 15 bar. They
can be used for higher pressures, but above 10 bar their cost should be compared
with that of an equivalent ellipsoidal head. Above 15 bar an ellipsoidal head will
usually prove to be the most economical closure to use.
The minimum thickness of torispherical and ellipsoidal head can be
calculated by using equation below:
For torispherical heads,
(1.39)
Where
P
i
, internal pressure
J , joint factor =1
f, design stress
R
c
, crown radius = D
i
27
C
s
, stress concentration factor = ¼(3+( R
c
/R
k
)
1/2
)
R
k
, knuckle radius =0.06 R
c
From earlier calculation,
P
i
= 8.8 bar
R
c
= D
i
= 4.3151 m (1.40)
R
k
=0.06 R
c
= 0.06(4.3151) (1.41)
= 0.2589 m
C
s
= ¼(3 + ( R
c
/R
k
)
1/2
) (1.42)
= ¼ (3 + (4.3151/0.2589)
1/2
)
= 1.7706
f = 115 N/mm
2
= 115 bar
From Eqn. (1.39),
e =
= 0.0015 m
For ellipsoidal heads,
(1.43)
Where
P
i
, internal pressure
J , joint factor =1
f, design stress
D
i
, inside diameter
From Eqn. (1.25),
e =
= 0.1664 m
By comparing minimum thickness between torispherical and ellipsoidal head,
torispherical head is the most economical. So, torispherical head is choosen for the
design domed heads. Hence,
Add 0.002 m allowance for corrosion = 0.0015 + 0.002 m = 0.0035 m
i
i i
P Jf
D P
e
2 . 0 2 ÷
=
28
3.2.6 Determination of Piping Sizing
Liquids particularly can be transported through pipelines with pumps,
blowers, compressors or ejectors. Standard pipe is made in a discrete number of
sizes that are designed by nominal diameters (R.K. Sinnot, 1999. Chemical
Engineering Design).
Formula for Optimum diameter for stainless steel pipe is as follow:
37 . 0 52 . 0
260 ,
÷
= p G optimum d
(1.44)
Where:
G = mass flow, kg/s
p
= density of flow, kg/m
3
3.2.7.1 Diameter pipe for flow in
mm
optimum d
0124 . 97
) 7117 . 67 ( ) 0146 . 3 ( 260 ,
37 . 0 52 . 0
=
=
÷
From appendix A3 nominal diameter d = 80 mm.
3.2.7.2 Diameter pipe for flow out
mm
optimum d
5182 . 216
) 4710 . 7 ( ) 9417 . 2 ( 260 ,
37 . 0 52 . 0
=
=
÷
From appendix A3 nominal diameter d = 200 mm.
3.2.6.3 Thickness of nozzle pipe inlet
Calculation of thickness of nozzle pipe inlet is as follow:
t =
(1.45)
Where:
P = internal pressure, bar
d = pipe od, mm
σ
d
= design stress at working temperature, N/mm2
From Eqn. (1.45),
29
t =
= 0.3049 mm
Add 2 mm allowance for corrosion = 0.3049 + 2 = 2.3049 mm.
3.2.6.4 Thickness of nozzle pipe outlet
Calculation of thickness of nozzle pipe outlet is as follow:
t =
(1.46)
Where:
P = internal pressure, bar
d = pipe od, mm
σ
d
= design stress at working temperature, N/mm2
From Eqn. (1.46),
t =
= 0.7623 mm
Add 2 mm allowance for corrosion = 0. 7623 + 2 = 2. 7623 mm.
3.2.7 Design Of Reactor Vessel Subject To Combined Loading
Pressure vessels are subjected to other loads in addition to pressure and
must be designed to withstand the worst combination of loading without failure. The
main sources of load to consider are:
i. Pressure
ii. Dead weight of vessel and contents
iii. External loads imposed by piping and attached equipments
3.2.7.1 Weight Loads
The major sources of dead weight loads are:
i. The vessel shell.
ii. The vessel fittings: manways, nozzles.
iii. Internal fittings: tubes, plates (plus the fluid on the plates), heating
and cooling coils.
30
iv. External fittings: ladders, platforms, piping.
v. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel. The vessel will be filled with
water for the hydraulic pressure test and may fill with process liquid
due to misoperation.
For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel
with domed ends and uniform wall thickness, can be estimated from the following
equation:
(1.44)
Where,
Cv = a factor account for the weight of nozzles, man ways
= 1.08 for vessel with only a few internal fittings
= 1.15 for vessel with several man ways and other fittings
D
m
= mean diameter of the vessel
= D
m
+ t
= 4.3151 m + 2(0.1737) m
= 4.6625 m
H
v
= height/length of the cylindrical area
= 12.9453 m
Thus,
3.2.8 Vessel Support
The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size, shape and
weight of the vessel, the design temperature and pressure, the vessel location and
arrangement and the internal and external fittings and attachments. Horizontal
vessels are usually mounted on two saddle supports (see Appendix A4). The
supports must be designed to carry the weight of the vessel and contents, and any
superimposed loads, such as wind loads. Supports will impose localized loads on
the vessel wall and the design must be checked to ensure that the resulting stress
concentrations are below the maximum allowable design stress. Supports should be
31
designed to allow easy access to the vessel and fittings for inspection and
maintenance.
Though saddles are the most commonly used support for horizontal
cylindrical vessels, legs can be used for small vessels. A horizontal vessel will
normally be supported at two crosssections. If more than two saddles are used the
distribution of the loading is uncertain. For a uniformly loaded beam the position will
be at 21 per cent of the span, in from each end. The saddle supports for a vessel
will usually be located nearer the ends than this value to make use of the stiffening
effect of the ends.
The saddles must be designed to withstand the load imposed by the weight
of the vessel and contents. They are constructed of bricks or concrete or are
fabricated from steel plate. The contact angle should not be less than 120
o
and will
not normally be greater than 150
o
. Wear plates are often welded to the shell wall to
reinforce the wall over the area of contact with the saddle. The dimensions of typical
standard saddle designs are given in figure below:
Figure 1.4: The Dimensions of Typical Standard Saddle Designs
(Source: Sinnott, R.K, 1999. Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical
Engineering, Vol. 6: “Chemical Engineering Design”, Oxford, Butterworth
Heinemann).
32
3.2.9 Type Of Flange And Selection
Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels, for
manhole covers and for removable vessel heads when ease of access is required.
Flanges may also be used on the vessel body when it is necessary to divide the
vessel into sections for transport or maintenance. Flanged joints are also used to
connect pipes to other equipment such as pumps and valves. Screwed joints are
often used for smalldiameter pipe connections below 40 mm.
Several different types of flange are used for various applications. The
principal types used in the process industries are:
i. Weldingneck flanges
ii. Slipon flanges, hub and plate types
iii. Lapjoint flanges
iv. Screwed flanges
v. Blank or blind, flanges
Weldingneck flanges (see Appendix A5 (a)) have a long tapered hub
between the flange ring and the welded joint. This gradual transition of the section
reduces the discontinuity stresses between the flange and branch, and increases
the strength of the flange assembly. Weldingneck flanges are suitable for extreme
service conditions where the flange is likely to be subjected to temperature, shear
and vibration loads. They will normally be specified for the connections and nozzles
on process vessels and process equipment.
Slipon flanges (see Appendix A5 (b)) slip over the pipe or nozzle and are
welded externally and usually also internally. The end of the pipe is set back from 0
to 2.0 mm. The strength of a slipon flange is from onethird to twothirds that of the
corresponding standard weldingneck flange. Slipon flanges are cheaper than
weldingneck flanges and are easier to align but have poor resistance to shock and
vibration loads. Slipon flanges are generally used for pipe work.
Lapjoint flanges (see Appendix A5 (c)) are used for piped work and most
suitable in this design reactor. They are economical when used with expensive alloy
pipe such as stainless steel as the flange can be made from inexpensive carbon
steel. Usually a short lapped nozzle is welded to the pipe but with some schedules
of pipe the lap can be formed on the pipe itself and this will give a cheap method of
pipe assembly.
Screwed flanges (see Appendix A5 (d)) are used to connect screwed
fittings to flanges. They are also sometimes used for alloy pipe which is difficult to
weld satisfactorily. Blind flanges (blank flanges) are flat plates, used to blank off
33
flange connections, and as covers for manholes and inspection ports. So, in this
design lap joint flange is chosen as the best flange.
3.2.10 Gasket
Gaskets are used to make a leaktight joint between two surfaces. It is
impractical to machine flanges to the degree of surface finish that would be required
to make a satisfactory seal under pressure without a gasket. The following factors
must be considered when selecting a gasket material:
i. The process conditions: pressure, temperature, corrosive nature of the
process fluid.
ii. Whether repeated assembly and disassembly of the joint is required.
iii. The type of flange and flange face
Up to pressures of 20 bar, the operating temperature and corrosiveness of the
process fluid will be the controlling factor in gasket selection. Vegetable fibre and
synthetic rubber gaskets can be used at temperatures of up to 100
o
C. Solid
polyfluorocarbon (Teflon) and compressed asbestos gaskets can be used to a
maximum temperature of about 260
o
C. Metalreinforced gaskets can be used up to
around 450
o
C. Plain soft metal gaskets are normally used for higher temperatures.
So, compressed asbestos is chosen as the best gasket to be used in this reactor
design (see Appendix A6).
3.2.11 Flange Faces
Flanges are also classified according to the type of flange face used. There
are two basic types:
i. Fullfaced flanges (see Appendix A7 (a)) where the face contact area
extends outside the circle of bolts; over the full face of the flange.
ii. Narrowfaced flanges (see Appendix A7 (b,c,d) where the face
contact area is located within the circle of bolts.
Full face, widefaced, flanges are simple and inexpensive but are only
suitable for low pressures. The gasket area is large and an excessively high bolt
tension would be needed to achieve sufficient gasket pressure to maintain a good
seal at high operating pressures. The raised face, narrowfaced, flange shown in
34
Appendix A7 (b) is probably the most commonly used type of flange for process
equipment.
Where the flange has a plain face, as in Appendix A7 (b), the gasket is held
in place by friction between the gasket and flange surface. In the spigot and socket,
and tongue and grooved faces, Appendix A7 (c), the gasket is confined in a groove
which prevents failure by blowout. Matched pairs of flanges are required, which
increases the cost, but this type is suitable for high pressure and high vacuum
service. Ring joint flanges, Appendix A7 (d), are used for high temperatures and
high pressure services. So, in this design raised face, narrowfaced is chosen as the
best flange faces.
3.2.11 CONCLUSION
In this work, the design of plug flow reactor has successfully been carried
out. From the calculation, the volume of the vessel is 189.3128 m
3
with 4.3151
diameter and 12.9453 length. The detail information of the design is as presented in
Table 1.2 and Table 1.3.
Table 1.3: Summary of mechanical design
Operating pressure, bar 8.8
Operating temperature, k 476.65
Thickness of reactor, m 0.1737
Type of head Torispherical
Total weight of reactor, N 3500
Vessel support Saddle support
Type of flanges Lapjoint flange
Gasket Compressed asbestos
Flange Faces Raised face, narrowfaced
35
3.3 FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR 1, F1
In designing a chemical plant, the mechanical design of the process equipments
such as pressure vessel, heat exchanger tube sheets, storage tanks, centrifuges
and etc are needed. The detailed mechanical designing of equipment is done by
mechanical engineers who are more familiar with the codes and design. On the
other hand, chemical engineer will be responsible in developing and specifying the
basic design information for particular equipment for specialist designer.
For fallingfilm evaporator, the data for mechanical design needed are:
i. Vessel function
ii. Process materials and services
iii. Operating and design temperature and pressure
iv. Materials of construction
v. Vessel dimensions and orientation
vi. Types of vessel heads to be used
vii. Openings and connections required
viii. Specification of internal fitting
3.3.1 Design Pressure
In designing a vessel, it needs to withstand the maximum pressure during
operation. For a vessel that is subjected to vacuum, the design should resist
the maximum differential pressure and is designed for full negative pressure
of 1 bar, unless it is fitted with an effective vacuum breaker.
The design pressure should be taken to be 10% above the normal
operating pressure:
3.3.2 Design Temperature
Since the strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature, the
maximum allowable design stress is evaluated at design temperature which
is the maximum working temperature of the material.
The design temperature can be evaluated with 5% safety factor above the
operating temperature:
36
3.3.3 Materials of Construction
Typically, the pressure vessel is made of plain carbon steel, low and high
alloy steels, alloys and etc. The material is selected based on its suitability
with the process environment and fabrication.
For the fallingfilm evaporator, the shell are filled with hot steam, thus,
constructed with stainless steel (SS304) while the tubes are constructed
from stainless steel (SS316) due to the mild corrosive of the feed which is
the ammonium nitrate solution of 72 wt%.
3.3.4 Design Stress
For the purpose of design, the value of maximum allowable stress that can
be accepted in the material of construction is needed. For the material to
able to withstand without failure under standard condition, a suitable design
stress factor (factor of safety) is applied to the maximum stress of the
material. This design stress factor is to cover any uncertainties in the design
methods, the loading, the quality of materials, and the workmanship. The
value can be taken from Appendix B.1 and typical design stress for material
can be taken from Appendix B.2.
3.3.5 Welded Joint Efficiency, and Construction Categories
The welded joint strength depends on the type of joint and the quality of the
welding. The allowable design stress of the material multiplied by a welded
joint factor will give the possible lower strength of a welded joint compared to
a virgin plate. Typical value of J is given in Appendix B.3. For the design of
this evaporator, J of 1.0 is taken because this value means that the joint is
equally strong as the virgin plate.
3.3.6 Corrosion Allowance
Corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of the metal to the design to
allow for corrosion and erosion, or scaling. The corrosion allowance for this
evaporator is 4mm because, the process material used in this equipment, i.e.
ammonium nitrate solution (75wt %84wt %) may cause corrosion and
scaling to the equipment.
37
3.3.7 Design Loads
This equipment should be designed to resist loading at which a pressure
vessel will be subject during service. It can be divided into major and
subsidiary loads. Major load includes design pressure, maximum weight of
vessel and contents at operating temperature and hydraulic test condition,
wind loads, loads supported or reacting on the vessel. Subsidiary loads
includes local stresses caused by supports, internal structures and
connecting pipes; shock loads, bending moments, stresses due to difference
in temperature and loads caused by fluctuations in temperature and
pressure. Design load is further discussed in Section 2.4.
3.3.8 Minimum Practical Wall Thickness
The wall thickness should not be less than the value given below. (Include
corrosion allowance of 2mm)
Figure 2.1: Minimum practical wall thickness
3.3.9 Cylindrical Shells
The minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure is given by:
Where:
38
Process vessels that are operated under vacuum are subjected to external
pressure. The maximum pressure it will subject to is 1 bar (1 atm). In determining
the wall thickness required for process vessel subjected to external pressure, it is
required to know the failure through elastic instability (buckling).
The critical pressure to cause buckling, P
C
for long vessel with stiffening
ring is given by:
, value from Appendix B.4
3.3.10 Design of Stiffness Rings
Figure 2.2: Stiffness Ring
Load per unit length,
Second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling,
Factor of safety taken as 6,
Critical load to cause buckling in a ring under uniform radial load,
:
39
3.3.11 Vessel Head
Vessel head are used as a closure of a cylindrical vessel.
Figure 2.1: Typical Head and Closure
3.3.11.1 Torispherical heads
For vessel subjected to internal pressure, the minimum thickness of
torispherical head is:
Where:
To avoid buckling, the ratio of knuckle to crown radii should not be
less than 0.06, and the crown radius should not be greater than the
diameter of the cylindrical section.
When it is subjected to external pressure,
Minimum vessel thickness,
(f)
(g)
(h)
40
For torispherical, radius R
s
is equivalent to Crown radius, R
c
3.3.11.2 Ellipsoidal heads
For vessel subjected to internal pressure, the minimum thickness of
ellipsoidal head is:
When subjected to external pressure,
Minimum vessel thickness,
For ellipsoidal,
,
Where 2a = major axis = D
o,
2b = minor axis = 2h,
h = height of the head from the tangent line.
3.3.11.3 Flat ends
Minimum thickness of flat end required for internal pressure:
Where:
For typical design, the design constant and nominal diameter area as
follows:
From Figure 2.1,
i. (a) is flanged plate, for diameters less than 0.6m and corner radii
at least equal to 0.25e (Cp=0.45, De=Di);
ii. (b) and (c) is welded plate where the plate is welded to the end of
the shell with a fillet weld with angle of fillet of 45 and depth
equal to the plate thickness (Cp=0.55,De=Di)
iii. (d) is bolted cover with full gasket (Cp=0.4,De=bolt circle
diameter)
iv. (e) is bolted endcover with a narrowface gasket
(Cp=0.55,De=mean diameter of gasket)
41
3.3.12 Stresses Analysis
Primary Stresses:
 Longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to internal or external
pressure:
 Direct stress weight,
The dead weight stress will be tensile (positive) for points below the
plane of vessel supports, and compressive (negative) for points above
the supports.
 Bending stress,
Where:
 Torsional shear stresses,
This stress is resulted from torque caused by loads offset from the vessel
axis. This load is usually small and need not be considered in preliminary
design.
Principal Stresses:
Where:
Total longitudinal stress,
If torsional shear stress, is negligible, principal stress will be
42
Compressive stress and elastic stability:
If the resultant axial stress,
due to the combined loading is compressive,
the failure of the vessel may be due to elastic instability (buckling). The
design must be check to make sure that the maximum value of the resultant
axial stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will occur.
Critical buckling stress,
3.3.13 Weight Loads
The weight loads comprises of:
i. Vessel Shell
The approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed ends, and uniform
wall thickness,
Weight of Vessel:
Where:
ii. Vessel Fittings
For vessel fittings, the following can be used:
(a) Caged ladders, steel, 360
length
(b) Plain ladders, steel, 150
length
(c) Platforms, steel, for vertical columns, 1.7
area
(d) Contacting plates, steel including typical liquid loading, 1.2
plate
area
43
For Internal Fittings, i.e. tubes:
Weight of Tubes:
Where:
iii. Wind Loads
For tall columns installed in the open, it is important to consider wind loading.
A wind speed of 160 km/h is usually taken for preliminary design which is
equivalent to 1280
wind pressure. The wind velocity is lower near the
ground than higher ground.
For a smooth cylindrical column or stack,
Dynamic wind pressure:
wind velocity, km/h
The loading per unit length of the column:
For a uniformly loaded cantilever the bending moment at any plane:
44
3.3.14 Skirt Supports
The skirt carried the load and is transmit to the foundation slab by the skirt
base ring (bearing plate). The moment produced by wind and other lateral
loads will tend to overturn the vessel. This will be opposed by the couple set
up by the weight of the vessel and the tensile load in the anchor bolts. Many
types of base ring designs as shown in Figure 2.1 is used with skirt support,
for example, rolled angle and plain flange rings suitable for small vessel and
double ring stiffened by gussets.
Figure 2.1: Flange ring design
Base Ring and Anchor Bolts:
The carried load by the skirt is transferred to the base ring or the foundation
slab (bearing plate). Winds and other loads produces moment that will tend
to overturn the vessel. The couple set up by the weight of the vessel and the
tensile load in the anchor bolt in turn, will oppose to the moment.
The following is the guide rules when selecting the anchor bolts given by
Scheiman:
 Bolts smaller than 25mm diameter should not be used
 Minimum number of bolts is 8
 Use multiple number of 4 bolts
 Bolt pitch should not be less than 600 mm
Approximate pitch circle diameter
Circumference of bolt circle
Minimum recommended bolt spacing
Number of bolts required,
at minimum recommended bolt spacing
45
Assuming the anchor bolts share the overturning load equally,
Bolt area required,
Where:
Bolt root diameter
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
Taking the bearing pressure,
as 5
Minimum width of the base ring,
Choose suitable anchor bolt size design from Appendix ???.
Actual width required
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:
Minimum thickness for the base ring,
Skirt Thickness:
By trial and error, choose
The maximum dead weight load on the skirt occurs when the vessel is full
with water.
Use data acquired previously,
46
 Total weight of skirt
 Wind loading,
Bending moment at base of skirt,
By trial and error,
Assume skirt thickness,
Previously,
Bending stress in the skirt,
Dead weight stress in the skirt,
At test condition, the vessel full of water for the hydraulic test,
,
At operating condition,
Maximum
Maximum
Take joint factor,
(Doublewelded butt or equivalent type of joint and degree of radiography is
spot)
Criteria for design:
Maximum
Maximum
Both criteria are satisfied, add 4 mm for corrosion.
47
3.3.15 Piping and Flanges
Optimum diameter of flange:
Where:
Nozzle thickness:
Where:
3.3.16 Evaporator TubePlates
Tubeplates support the tubes, and separate the shell and tube side fluids.
Since, one side is subjected to shellside pressure and tubeside pressure on
the other side. Therefore, the design must able to support the maximum
differential pressure that is likely to occur.
A tube plate is a perforated plate with an unperforated rim, supported at its
periphery. The holes of plate for the tubes weaken the plate and reduce its
flexural rigidity. In between the holes is a material that holds the holes
together is ligament. The presence of tubes strengthens the plate.
Ligament efficiency of perforated plate,
Where:
The plate must be thick enough to resist the bending and shear stresses
caused by the pressure load and any differential expansion of the shell and
tube.
48
The minimum plate thickness to resist bending can be estimated by:
Where:
The value of
is relies on the type of head,
Shear stress in the tube plate can be calculated by equating the pressure
force on the plate to the shear force in the material at the plate periphery.
Minimum plate thickness to resist shear is given by:
The design thickness is taken as the greater of the values obtained from
bending and shears resistance and must be greater than the minimum
thickness given from Appendix B.5
49
3.3.17 Calculations
Design Pressure, P
D
and External Pressure, P
e
:
Maximum pressure for vessel under external pressure is 1 bar,
At TubeSide:
At ShellSide:
Design Temperature, T
D
:
At TubeSide:
At ShellSide:
Design Stress (Nominal Design Stress):
Refer to Appendix B.1,
Shell Side:
Material of Construction : Stainless Steel (SS 304)
Typical Design Stress, f : 125.5 N/mm
2
(calculated at T=165
o
C)
Tensile Strength : 510 N/mm
2
Tube Side:
Material of Construction : Stainless Steel (SS 316)
Typical Design Stress, f : 143.55 N/mm
2
(calculated at T=121.5
o
C)
Tensile Strength : 520 N/mm
2
From Appendix B.1, design factor taken for Austenitic stainless steel
at minimum yield stress is 1.5. The design stresses for tubes and shells are
calculated from Appendix B.2 are 143.5
and 125.5
respectively.
Thus,
50
:
Welded joint efficiency, J and construction categories:
Refer to Appendix B.3,
Welded joint factor chosen, J = 1
Type of joint:
Doublewelded butt or equivalent of 100% degree of radiography.
Corrosion Allowance:
Since, moderate corrosions are expected in the tubes and shell, the
corrosion allowance of 4.0mm is used.
Design of Cylindrical Shells under Internal Pressure
Minimum thickness, e plus corrosion allowance of 4 mm =
Critical Pressure to Cause Buckling, P
C
:
For long vessel with stiffening ring, the critical pressure of buckling is high,
Refer to Appendix B.4,
As
For this particular thickness, e = 4.0584mm, the design pressure is below of
critical pressure (
), thus the thickness is suitable
51
Design of Stiffness Ring:
Assume,
Load per unit length,
Second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling,
Taken factor of safety = 6,
Critical load to cause buckling in a ring under uniform radial load,
:
Since,
The length and diameter of stiffening ring are acceptable.
Vessel heads:
If using torispherical head,
 Subjected to internal pressure
Where:
Plus corrosion allowance of 4mm,
52
 Subjected to external pressure
For ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion allowance is 4 mm.
If using ellipsoidal head,
 Subjected to internal pressure
Plus corrosion allowance,
 Subjected to external pressure
=
For ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion allowance is 4 mm, thus
For flat ends with bolted cover with full gasket,
Take
Add corrosion allowance,
53
Design of Vessel Subject to Combined Loading
i. Weight Loads:
Weight of Vessel:
Weight of Tubes:
Weight of External Fittings:
Installed caged ladder, steel to the equipment,
Thus,
ii. Wind Loading:
Take wind velocity,
The load due to wind of smooth cylindrical column,
Since no thermal insulation and attachment,
Loading per unit length of column,
54
Bending moment at bottom tangent line,
iii. Analysis of Stresses
At bottom tangent line,
Pressure Stresses:
Dead weight stress:
The dead weight stress will be tensile (positive) for points below the plane of
vessel supports, and compressive (negative) for points above the supports.
Since
calculated for points above the supports, it is compressive
(negative).
Bending stresses:
Bending stress will be compressive or tensile,
Where:
Resultant longitudinal stress:
Previously,
,
,
is compressive
(negative),
55
Since the torsional shear stress is negligible, the principle stress will be
and
.
The radial stress is negligible,
Upwind
12.7193
7.3349
Downwind
6.5768
7.3349
The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the down
wind side,
,
where it is well below the maximum allowable design stress of 125.5
.
iv. Elastic Stability (Buckling)
Previously, the resultant axial stress,
due to the combined loading is
compressive, the failure of the vessel may be due to elastic instability
(buckling). The design must be check to make sure that the maximum value
of the resultant axial stress does not exceed the critical value at which
buckling will occur.
Critical buckling
stress,
The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under
pressure
=
is well below the critical buckling
stress.
So the design is satisfactory.
56
v. Vessel Support: Skirt Support
For tall vertical vessels, skirt supports are preferred because they do not
lead to concentrated local loads on the shell, it offers less restraint against
differential thermal expansion, and reduce the effect of discontinuity stresses
at the junction of the cylindrical shell and the bottom. The skirt support shall
be provided with at least one opening for inspection.
Skirt thickness:
Try straight cylindrical skirt,
Material of Construction = Plain Carbon Steel
Design stress, f at ambient temperature =
Young’s Modulus at ambient temperature,
Height of Skirt,
The maximum dead weight load on the skirt occurs when the vessel is full
with water.
Previously,
Weight of vessel,
,
Total weight of skirt
Wind loading,
Bending moment at base of skirt,
By trial and error,
Take skirt thickness,
Previously,
Bending stress in the skirt,
Dead weight stress in the skirt,
At test condition, the vessel full of water for the hydraulic test,
,
57
At operating condition,
Maximum
Maximum
Take joint factor,
(Doublewelded butt or equivalent type of joint and degree of radiography is
spot)
Criteria for design:
Maximum
Maximum
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion, which gives:
vi. Base Ring and Anchor Bolts
Approximate pitch circle diameter
Circumference of bolt circle
Minimum recommended bolt spacing
Number of bolts required,
at minimum recommended bolt spacing
Bolt design stress,
(typical design value)
Take
Bolt area required,
Bolt root diameter
58
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
Taking the bearing pressure,
as 5
Minimum width of the base ring,
Use M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967);
Nominal Diameter = 24 mm,
Root area = 353
,
This is the minimum width required; actual width will depend on the chair
design.
Actual width required
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:
Minimum thickness for the base ring,
Skirt to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell.
vii. Tubeplates
Ligament efficiency of perforated plate,
The minimum plate thickness to resist bending can be estimated by:
Minimum plate thickness to resist shear is given by:
59
The design thickness is taken as the greater of the values obtained from
bending and shears resistance and must be greater than the minimum
thickness given from Appendix B.5
viii. Opening and Nozzles:
Optimum diameter of flange:
Nozzle thickness:
Feed Inlet:
Concentrate Outlet:
Vapor Outlet:
Steam Inlet:
60
Condensate Outlet:
3.3.18 SUMMARY
General Option
Identifier Heat Exchanger
Description Fixed TubeSheets, One pass shell
Shell Material Stainless Steel 304L
Tube Option
Tube Material Stainless Steel 316L
Tube Dimensions
,
Channel and Shell Option
Shell Material Stainless Steel 304L
Shell Dimension
,
Topchannel dimensions Type: Bonnet
Head: Ellipsoidal head
Bottomchannel dimensions Type: Bonnet
Head: Ellipsoidal head
Tubesheet Options
Tube Layout Tube Count: 185
Tube Pitch: 47.625mm
Pattern: Equilateral Triangular
Tubesheet Dimensions
(top and bottom)
Material: Stainless Steel 304L
Thickness:
61
Design Conditions Summary
Design Conditions
Tube Side
Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Mean Temperature
Shell Side
Design Pressure
Design Temperature
Mean Temperature
Tubesheet
Design Temperature
Vessel Support
Type Straight cylindrical skirt
Thickness
Material Plain Carbon Steel
Height 3m
Base Ring and Anchor Bolts
Number of Bolts Required 12
Bolts
Nominal Diameter
Root Area
M24
24mm
353
Minimum Width of Base Ring 138 mm
Minimum Thickness of Base Ring 6 mm
Tubeplates
Diameter 753.1735 mm
Minimum Plate Thickness 29.9798 mm
Openings and Nozzles
Feed Inlet
Concentrate Outlet
Vapour Outlet
Steam Inlet
Condensate Outlet
Stresses Analysis
Weight Loads
Wind Loading
Dead Weight
Bending Stress
Elastic Stability
62
3.4 HEAT EXCHANGER
Shell side details :
o Material = carbon steel
o Number of shell passes = 1
o Working pressure = 0.8 N/mm
2
o Design stress for carbon steel, J = 109 N/mm
2
o Inlet temperature = 180
o
C
o Outlet temperature = 104.1
o
C
Tube side details :
o Number of tubes = 128
o Number of passes = 1
o Outside diameter = 19.5 mm
o Inside diameter = 16.5 mm
o Length = 5 m
o Pitch rectangular = 24.38 mm
o Inlet temperature = 40
o
C
o Outlet temperature = 65
o
C
3.5.1 Design pressure
The design pressure, normally taken 10% above the normal working
pressure
Design pressure, Pi = 1 . 1 x P
o
= 1 . 1 8 . 0 x
=
2
/ 88 . 0 mm N
3.5.2 Design temperature
For the shell side and tube side, the highest operating temperatures are at
180
o
C, and add up 2
o
C for uncertainties in temperature prediction.
Design Temperature, Ti = C C
o o
2 180 +
= C
o
182
63
3.5.3 Material selection
Carbon steel is chosen because this material mostly used in industry and
the prices is cheapest. Besides, it is routinely used for most organic chemicals and
neutral or basic aqueous solutions at moderate temperatures.
From Table 13.2 page 812 Chemical Engineering Volume 6, the design
stress was obtain at operating temperature (T = 180
o
C)
Design stress,
2
/ 109 mm N f
s
=
3.5.4 Welded joint efficiency
Joint efficiency was selected to be 1.0 because this implies that the joint is
equally as strong the virgin plate, complete weld length, and remaking any defects.
The lower joint factor will result in a thicker and heavier vessel.
Welded joint efficiency, 0 . 1 = J
3.5.5 Corrosion allowance
The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow
for material lost by corrosion and erosion, or scaling. For carbon steel, where sever
corrosion is not expected, a minimum allowance of 2.0 mm should be used.
3.5.6 Minimum wall thickness
This is required to ensure that any vessel is sufficiently rigid to withstand its
own weight, and any incidental loads. As a general guide the wall thickness of any
vessel should not less than the values given below; this includes a corrosion
allowance of 2 mm.
64
Table 2.1 Minimum wall thickness
Vessel diameter
(m)
Minimum
thickness (mm)
1 5
1 to 2 7
2 to 2.5 9
2.5 to 3.0 10
3.0 to 3.5 12
Minimum wall thickness,
t
w
i i
i i
P f
D P
÷
=
2
( )( )
( ) ( ) 88 . 0 39 . 132 2
406 88 . 0
÷
=
mm 3538 . 1 =
Actual minimum wall thickness,
t
aw
= t
w
+ corrosion allowance
= 1.3538 + 2.0
= 3.3538
3.5.7 Vessel head and closure thickness
Standard torispherical heads (dished ends) are the most commonly used
end closure for vessels up to operating pressure of 15 bar.
Minimum thickness of vessel head,
t =
( ) 2 . 0 2 ÷ +
s i
s c i
C P fJ
C R P
Where Cs = stress concentration factor for torispherical heads
=


.

\

+
k
c
R
R
3
4
1
Rc = crown radius
= Di
Rk = knuckle radius
= 0.06Rc
65
Rc = 406 mm
Rk = 24.36 mm
Cs =


.

\

+
36 . 24
406
3
4
1
= 1.7706
Minimum thickness of vessel head, t =
( )( )( )
( )( ) ( ) 2 . 0 7706 . 1 88 . 0 1 39 . 132 2
7706 . 1 406 88 . 0
÷ +
= 2.3767
Actual minimum wall thickness = t + corrosion allowance
= 4.3767 mm
3.5.8 Longitudinal stress
t
D P
i i
h
2
= o
( )( )
( ) 3539 . 3 2
406 88 . 0
=
h
o
2
/ 2642 . 53 mm N =
3.5.9 Circumferential stress
t
PiDi
L
4
= o
( )( )
( ) 3539 . 3 4
406 88 . 0
=
L
o
2
/ 6317 . 26 mm N =
3.5.10 Design load
i. Dead weight of vessel
For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel
with domed ends, and uniform wall thickness can be estimated from the following
equation:
66
( )
3
10 8 . 0
÷
× + = t D H g D C W
m v m m v v
tp
Where Wv = total weight of shell
Cv = 1.08 for vessels with only a few internal fittings
ρm = Density of vessel material (7750 kg/m
3
)
Dm = Mean diameter of vessel =
( ) m t Di , 10
3 ÷
× +
3
10 3538 . 3 406
÷
× + =
m
D
m D
m
4094 . 0 =
( ) ( )( ) ( )  
3
10 3538 . 3 409 . 0 8 . 0 5 81 . 9 7750 08 . 1
÷
× + = t
v
W
kN N W
v
885 . 1 9672 . 1884 ~ =
ii. Weight of tubes
( ) g L d d N W
m i o t t
p t
2 2
÷ =
( ) ( )( )( )( ) 81 . 9 7750 5 0165 . 0 0195 . 0 128
2 2
÷ = t
t
W
kN N W
t
509 . 16 1347 . 16509 ~ =
3.5.11 Weight of insulation
Material used = 85% magnesia
Up to about 600
o
F (315
o
C), 85% magnesia has been the most popular
material. It is a mixture of magnesia and asbestos fibers so constructed that about
90% of the total volume is dead air space. Equivalents are available for situations
where asbestos is undesirable. Such insulants are applied to the equipment in the
form of slabs or blankets which are held in place with support and clips spotwelded
to the equipment. They are covered with cement to seal gaps and finished off with a
canvas that is trated for resistance to the weather. A galvanized metal outer cover
may be preferred because of its resistance to mechanical damage of the insulation.
67
Table 2.2 Insulation of 85% Magnesia or Equivalent up to 600
o
F
Pipe size Standard
thickness
(in)
Double
standard thickness
(in)
(in) (m)
1233 0.3048
0.8382
11/2 3
Table above was taken from Chemical Process Equipment Selection and
Design, Stanley M. Walas, page 224, table 8.22)
Insulation thickness was selected to be 1 inch (0.0254m)
Table 2.3 Thermal conductivities of insulating materials for
high temperatures
From Table 2.2 and Table 2.3, the insulation thickness and bulk density for
85% Magnesia is 1 inch and 12 lb/ft
2
respectively
m inch t
ins
0254 . 0 1 ~ =
3 3
22 . 192 12
m
kg
ft
lb
~ = p
Approximate volume of insulation
( )  
2 2
o ins o
d t d L V ÷ + = t
68
( ) ( )  
2 2
0195 . 0 0254 . 0 0195 . 0 5 ÷ + = t V
02570 . 0 = V m
3
g V W
ins
p =
( )( )( ) kN N W
ins
04846 . 0 4619 . 48 81 . 9 22 . 192 02570 . 0 = = =
Total weight of Heat Exchanger:
ins t V T
W W W W + + =
4619 . 48 1347 . 16509 9672 . 1884 + + =
T
W
kN N W
T
4426 . 18 5638 . 18442 = =
3.5.12 Pipe selection for nozzle
Pipe size for steam inlet (shell)
Material of construction = carbon steel
Density of steam inlet, ρ = 0.4872 kg/m
3
Flow rate inlet, G = 0.7403 kg/s
Diameter pipe for water inlet (shell),
in water
D
,
=
37 . 0 53 . 0
293
÷
p G
= ( ) ( )
37 . 0 53 . 0
4872 . 0 7403 . 0 293
÷
= 325.9883 mm
Pipe size for water outlet (shell)
Material of construction = carbon steel
Density of steam outlet = 0.7045 kg/m
3
Flow rate outlet, G = 0.7403 kg/s
Diameter pipe for water outlet (shell),
out water
D
,
=
37 . 0 53 . 0
293
÷
p G
= ( ) ( )
37 . 0 53 . 0
7045 . 0 7403 . 0 293
÷
= 284.4053 mm
Pipe size for ammonia inlet (tube)
Material of construction = stainless steel
Density of ammonia inlet = 0.8139 kg/m
3
Flow rate inlet, G = 0.6842 kg/s
Diameter pipe for ammonia inlet (tube),
in NH
D
,
3
=
37 . 0 53 . 0
293
÷
p G
69
=
( ) ( )
37 . 0 53 . 0
8139 . 0 6842 . 0 293
÷
= 258.5850 mm
Pipe size for ammonia outlet (tube)
Material of construction = stainless steel
Density of ammonia outlet = 0.6098 kg/m
3
Flow rate outlet, G = 0.6842 kg/s
Diameter pipe for ammonia outlet (tube),
out NH
D
,
3
=
37 . 0 53 . 0
293
÷
p G
=
( ) ( )
37 . 0 53 . 0
6098 . 0 6842 . 0 293
÷
= 287.7367 mm
3.5.13 Standard flanges
Flanges joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessel, for
manholes cover and for removable vessel head when ease of access is required.
Flanged may also be used on the vessel body, when it is necessary to divide the
vessel into sections for transport or maintenance. Flanges joint are also used to
connect pipe to equipments such as pumps and valves. Flanges range in size from
a few millimeters diameter for small pipes to several meters diameter for those used
as body or head flanges on vessels.
For the design of this heat exchanger, weldingneck flanges are used. It is
because weldingneck flanges have along tapered hub between the flange ring and
the welded joint. This gradual transition of the section reduces the discontinuity
stresses between the flange and branch and increases the strength of the flange
assembly. Weldingneck flanges and branch are suitable for extreme service
conditions, where flange are likely to be subjected to temperature, shear and
vibration loads. They will normally be specified for the connections and nozzles on
process equipment. The dimensions of weldingneck flanges is chosen base on the
nominal pipe size of the nozzle pipe. All dimensions are listed below.
Standard flanges for inlet water
Diameter water inlet pipe = 325.9883 mm
Standard o.d pipe = 355.6 mm
70
Nom.
size
Pipe o.d.
d
1
Flange Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h
i
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
350 355.6 490 22 62 415 4 M20 16 22 495 438 15 12
Standard flanges for outlet water
Diameter water outlet pipe = 284.4053 mm
Standard o.d pipe = 323.9 mm
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d.
d
1
Flange Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h
i
d
4
F No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
300 323.9 440 22 62 365 4 M20 12 22 395 342 15 12
Standard flanges for inlet ammonia
Diameter ammonia inlet pipe = 258.5850 mm
Standard o.d pipe = 273 mm
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d.
d
1
Flange Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h
i
d
4
f No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
250 273 375 22 60 312 3 M16 12 18 335 290 15 12
Standard flanges for outlet ammonia
Diameter ammonia outlet pipe =
287.7367 mm
Standard o.d pipe = 323.9 mm
Nom.
size
Pipe
o.d.
d
1
Flange Raised
face
Bolting Drilling Neck
D b h
i
d
4
F No. d
2
k d
3
h
2
r
300 323.9 440 22 62 365 4 M20 12 22 395 342 15 12
3.5.14 Design of saddles
Determination of support for a vessel will be depending on the design
temperature and pressure, vessel location and arrangement, and the internal
and external fittings. Support should be design to allow easy access to the
71
vessel for inspection and maintenance. Since heater is a horizontal
arrangement, saddle support is chosen as the support.
The saddle must be designed to withstand he load imposed by the weight of
the vessel and its contents. The design of saddle depends on the weight of
vessel, which is the weight of the heater itself. From previous calculation of
heater weight, the total weight is 18.4426 kN. From the value of weight, the
dimensions of saddle choose as referred to Figure 13.26 from Coulson &
Rochardson’s Volume 6. For outer shell diameter, D
shell
is 0.406m so 0.6m is
taken since it is the smallest value and the maximum weight is not exceeded.
Vessel
diamete
r (m)
Maximum
weight
(kN)
Dimension (m) mm
V Y C E J G t2 t1
Bolt
diamete
r
Bolt
holes
0.6 35 0.48 0.15 0.55 0.24 0.190 0.095 6 5 20 2
3.5.15 Baffles
Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid flow across tube and increase
the fluid velocity. When the fluid velocity increases, it is improving the rate of heat
transfer. The assembly of baffles and tubes are hold together by support rods and
spacers. The most commonly used type of baffle is the singlesegmental baffle.
Baffle cut used to specify the dimensions of a segmental baffle. Generally, baffle cut
of 20%25% will be optimum. The value will give good heat transfer rate without
excessive drop.
Type = single segmental
Baffle diameter = 0.406 m
Nb = length of tube / inside diameter shell
= 5000 / 406
= 12.3 ≈ 13 baffles
72
Summary of design
Design pressure = 0.88 N/mm
2
Design temperature = 182
o
C
Material of construction = Carbon steel
Minimum thickness of cylindrical section of the shell = 3.3538 mm ≈ 4
mm
Longitudinal stress = 53.2642 N/mm
2
Circumferential stress = 26.6317 N/mm
2
Minimum thickness of vessel head = 4.3767 mm ≈ 5 mm
Diameter pipe for steam inlet = 325.9883 mm
Diameter pipe for steam outlet = 284.4053 mm
Diameter pipe for ammonia inlet = 258.5850 mm
Diameter pipe for ammonia outlet = 287.7367 mm
Types of baffles = Single segmental
Number of baffle segmental = 13
73
3.5 ABSORBER
3.5.1 Operating and Design Temperature and Pressure
This column operates at temperature of 66.81°C and pressure of 1 atm.
The design pressure will be 10% above the operating pressure, to avoid spurious
operation during minor process upset. The design temperature at which the design
stress is evaluated is taken as the maximum operating temperature of the material,
with due allowance for any uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall
temperatures.
3.5.2 Materials of Construction
As one of the process material involve is ammonium nitrate, the material of
construction of the column is required to be corrosion resistant. In this case stainless
steel type 304 is selected.
Table Typical design stresses for plate
(The appropriate material standards should be consulted for particular
grades and plate thicknesses)
74
3.5.3 Column Wall Thickness
Calculating the cylindrical column wall thickness:
i
i i
P f
D P
e
÷
=
2
Where e = minimum thickness required, mm
D
i
= internal diameter of column, mm
f = design stress, N/mm
2
P
i
= internal pressure, N/mm
2
For corrosive process material i.e. ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion
allowance of 4 mm is included:
3.5.4 Column Head
3.5.4.1 Flat Head
Calculating the minimum thickness required:
where C
p
= design constant = 0.55 for plate welded to the end of the shell
D
e
= nominal plate diameter, mm = D
i
F = design stress, N/mm
2
For corrosive process material i.e. ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion
allowance of 4 mm is included:
75
3.5.4.2 Ellipsoidal head
Calculating the minimum thickness required:
Where J = joint factor = 1 for no joints.
For corrosive process material i.e. ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion
allowance of 4 mm is included:
3.5.4.3 Torispherical head
Calculating the minimum thickness required:
Where C
s
= stress concentration factor =
R
c
= crown radius = D
i
R
k
= knuckle radius = 0.06R
c
J = joint factor = 1 for no joints
For corrosive process material i.e. ammonium nitrate solution, corrosion
allowance of 4 mm is included:
76
Type of Head Minimum Thickness, e
Flat head 22mm
Ellipsoidal head 5mm
Torispherical head 5mm
By comparing the minimum thickness of these different type heads, it can
be concluded that either ellipsoidal or torispherical head are suitable to be choose
due to the economical factor since both require minimum thickness compared to flat
head.
3.5.5 The design of Column subject to Combined Loading
The main sources of load to be considered are dead weight loads and
wind. Meanwhile, the major sources of dead weight loads include vessel shell,
internal fittings (packed bed) and external fittings (ladders, platforms, piping).
3.5.5.1 Dead Weight Loads
3.5.5.1.1 Dead weight of vessel, W
v
For a steel vessel,
Where W
v
= total weight of the shell, excluding internal fittings, kN
C
v
= factor to account for the weight of the internal supports
= 1.15 for absorption column
H
v
= height of cylindrical section, m
t = wall thickness, mm
D
m
= mean diameter, m = D
i
+ (t × 10
3
)
= 1.2 + (5 × 10
3
) m
= 1.205 m
77
3.5.5.1.2 Dead weight of Packed Bed, W
p
Surface area of packing, a = 95 m
2
/m
3
Approximation volume of packed bed, V
p
=
=
= 0.0283 m
3
Area of packed bed, A
p
= a × V
p
= 95 m
2
/m
3
× 0.0283 m
3
= 2.6861 m
2
For vertical column, steel platform = 1.7 kN/m
2
area,
Weight of packed bed, W
p
= 1.7 kN/m
2
× A
p
= 1.7 kN/m
2
× 2.6861 m
2
= 4.5663 kN
3.5.5.1.3 Weight of External Fittings, W
fitting
External fitting used is plain steel ladder. Weight of the ladder is estimated
to be 150 N/m lengths. Therefore,
W
fitting
= 150 N/m × 6 m = 900 N = 0.9 kN
Total of Dead Weight Loads = W
v
+ W
p
+ W
fittings
= (11.5804 + 4.5663 + 0.9) kN
= 17.0467 kN
3.5.5.2 Wind Loads
Wind loading will only be important on tall columns installed in the open.
Columns are usually free standing, mounted on skirt support and not attached to
structural steel work. Under this conditions, the vessel under wind loading acts as
cantilever beam.
Take wind speed, U
w
= 160 km/h
To estimate the wind pressure, the following equation is used:
P
w
= 0.05 U
w
2
= 0.05 (160)
2
= 1280 N/m
2
78
Effective column diameter, D
eff
= D
m
+ 2t
= (1.2 + 0.005) m
= 1.205 m
Loading per unit length of column, F
w
= P
w
× D
eff
= 1280 N/m
2
× 1.205 m
= 1542.4 N/m
Bending moment at bottom tangent line,
= 27763.2 Nm
3.5.6 Analysis of Stresses
At bottom tangent line,
Pressure stress:
and
Where σ
L
= longitudinal stress due to pressure, N/mm
2
σ
h
= circumferential stress due to pressure, N/mm
2
P = operating pressure, N/mm
2
D
i
= column diameter, mm
t = column wall thickness, mm
Dead weight stress (compressive):
79
Bending stress:
Where M
x
= bending moment at bottom tangent line, Nmm
I
v
= second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending
mm
4
D
o
= outer diameter of column, mm
D
i
= inner diameter of column, mm
The resultant longitudinal stress:
σ
w
is compressive and therefore negative
As no torsional shear stress, the principal stresses will be σ
z
and σ
h
The radial stress is negligible ≈ (P
i
/2) = 0.0507 N/mm
2
The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the
downwind side
= σ
h
– σ
z
(downwind)
80
Well below the maximum allowable design stress (165 N/mm
2
)
3.5.7 Elastic Stability (Buckling)
The critical buckling stress,
σ
c
= 82.6446 N/mm
2
When the vessel is not under pressure, the maximum compressive stress
will occur:
Maximum stress = σ
w
+ σ
b
= (0.6118 + 4.8890) N/mm
2
= 5.5008 N/mm
2
The maximum stress is below critical buckling stress, thus the design is
acceptable.
3.5.8 Design of Vessel Support (Skirt Design)
Type of support : Straight cylindrical skirt
θ
s
: 90°
Material of construction : Carbon Steel
Design stress, f
s
: 135 N/mm
2
Skirt height : 1.2 m
Young modulus : 200,000 N/mm
2
Total weight of vessel : 17.0467 kN
Wind loading : 1542.4 N/m
The maximum dead weight on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of
water.
81
Total weight:
W
total
= W
vessel
+ W
app
= (17.0467 + 66.5691) kN
= 83.6158 kN
Bending moment at skirt base:
Bending stress in skirt, σ
bs
:
As for the first trial, take skirt thickness as the same as the thickness of the
column wall, t
s
= 5 mm.
Dead weight in the skirt, σ
ws
The resulting stress in the skirt,
Maximum σ
s
(compressive) = σ
bs
+ σ
ws
(test)
= (6.9823 + 6.9760) N/mm
2
= 13.9583 N/mm
2
82
Maximum σ
s
(tensile) = σ
bs
+ σ
ws
(operating)
= (6.9823 + 1.7864) N/mm
2
= 8.7687 N/mm
2
General consideration for skirt design:
Take joint factor, J = 0.85
σ
s
(tensile) < f
s
J sin θ
8.7687 N/mm
2
< (135 N/mm
2
)(0.85)(sin 90°)
8.7687 N/mm
2
< 114.75 N/mm
2
σ
s
(compressive) <
13.9583 N/mm
2
<
13.9583 N/mm
2
< 104.17 N/mm
2
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion allowance,
t
s
= 5 mm + 2 mm = 7 mm
3.5.9 Base Ring and Anchor Bolts
Assume pitch circle diameter = 2.2 m
Circumference of bolt circle = 2200π
Recommended spacing between bolts = 600 mm
Minimum number of bolts required, N
b
=
Closest multiple of 4, N
b
= 12 bolts
Bending moment at base skirt, M
s
=
Total weight of vessel, W
t
= 17.0467 kN
Take bolt design stress, f
b
= 125 N/mm
2
The bolt area required is given by:
83
Use bolts standard diameter = 30 mm
Use M24 bolts (BS4190:1967) root area = 353 mm
2
Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
The minimum width of the base ring:
Where L
b
= base ring width, mm
f
c
= maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete
foundation
pad (typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm
2
)
Table Anchor bolt chair design
84
Actual width required:
L
b
= L
r
+ t
s
+50 mm
= (76 + 7 + 50) mm
= 133 mm
Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:
Base ring thickness:
Where f’
c
= actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm
2
f
r
= allowable design stress in the ring material, typically
140 N/mm
2
3.5.10 Piping and Flanges Design
Optimum diameter of flange:
Where G = Fluid flowrate, kg/s
ρ
mix
= Density of fluid mixture, kg/m
3
Nozzle thickness:
Where P
s
= operating pressure, N/mm
2
= 0.1013 N/mm
2
σ = Design stress at operating temperature, N/mm
2
= 165
N/mm
2
85
Pipe Flowrate, G
(kg/s)
Fluid density, ρ
(kg/m
3
)
Bottom inlet 2.2300 0.1584
Top inlet 0.6944 1003.6
Top outlet 1.6125 0.0356
Bottom outlet 1.3119 1276.3
Bottom inlet:
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,
Top inlet:
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,
Top outlet:
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,
86
Bottom outlet:
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,
3.5.11 Summary of Mechanical Design
Types Packed Column
Design pressure 0.1115 N/mm
2
Design Temperature 66.81°C
Cylindrical
Material Stainless Steel Type 304
Tensile strength 510 N/mm
2
Design stress 165 N/mm
2
Types of head Ellipsoidal @ Torispherical
Height head 0.5 m
Thickness 5 mm
Corrosion allowed 2 mm
Column weight
Dead weight 11.5804 kN
Weight of insulation NA
Weight of packed bed 4.5663 kN
Weight of external fittings 0.9 kN
Total weight 17.0467 kN
Wind loading
Loading 1542.4 N/m
Analysis stress
Dead weight stress 0.6118 N/mm
2
Bending stress 4.8890 N/mm
2
Critical buckling 82.6446 N/mm
2
87
Vessel supports
Straight cylindrical skirt 90°
Material Carbon Steel
Design stress 135 N/mm
2
Skirt height 1.2 m
Total weight 83.6158 kN
Bending moment 39.979 kNm
Thickness 7 mm
Anchor bolts
Bolts 12 bolts
Design stress 125 N/mm
2
Area 353 m
2
Bolts root diameter 30 mm
Types M24 bolts (BS4190:1967)
Piping sizing (Diameter
Optimum)
Bottom inlet 879.18 mm
Top inlet 18.79 mm
Top outlet 1290.42mm
Bottom outlet 23.93 mm
hence, large wall thicknesses), cladding is normally recommended in order to reduce the vessel cost when alloy steels are used. Reactor construction material used is stainless steel 16Cr2Mo8Ni (316). By referring to the standard code The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the maximum stress is 133.5 N/mm2.
By linear interpolation Tem perature, C S, N/mm2 150 155 200
135
S
120
Table 3.1 Typical mechanical properties for 316 stainless steel alloys Property Melting Point Modulus of Elasticity Electrical Resistivity Thermal Conductivity Thermal Expansion Tensile Strength (MPa) Compression Strength (MPa) Melting Point Value 13751400°C 193 GPa 0.074x106 Ω.m 16.3 W/m.K at 100°C 15.9x106 /K at 100°C 515 170 13751400°C
Table 3.2 Typical chemical composition for 316 stainless steel alloys % C Mn Si P S Cr 316 0.08max 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 1618
2
Mo Ni N
23 1014 0.1
3.1.3
THE EFFICIENCY OF WELDED JOINT There are several methods to make welded joints. In particular case the
choices of a type from the numerous alternatives depend on: 1. The circumstances of welding. In many cases the accessibility of the joint determines the types of welding. In a small diameter vessel (under 1824 inches) from the inside, no manual welding can be applied. Using backing strip it must remain in place. In larger diameter vessels if a manway is not used, the last (closing) joint can be welded from outside only. The type of welding may be determined also by the equipment of the manufacturer. 2. The requirements of the code. Regarding the type of joint the Code establishes requirements based on service, material and location of the welding. The welding processes that may be used in the construction of vessels are also restricted by the Code as described in paragraphUW27. 3. The aspect economy. If the two preceding factors allow free choice, then the aspect of economy must be the deciding factor. Some considerations concerning the economy of welding’s: 1. Vedge preparation, which can be made by torch cutting, is always more econornical than the use of J or U preparation. 2. Double V preparation requires only half the deposited weld metal required for single V preparation. 3. Increasing the size of fillet weld, its strength increases in direct proportion, while the deposited weld metal increases with the square of its size. 4. Lower quality welding makes necessary the use of thicker plate for the vessel. Whether using stronger welding and thinner plate or the opposite is more economical, depends on the size of vessel, welding equipment, etc. This must be decided in each particular case The strength of a welded joint depends on the type and quality of welding joint. Then, for design purposes weld joint efficiency, J = 1.0 was chosen. This selection is based on ASME UW2 stated that:
3
“… all butt welded joints shall be fully radiographe, except under provision OS UW2(a)(2) and UW2(a)(3) below and UW4(a)(4)….” This statement is clarifying the requirement of welded joint that fully radiograph when pressure vessel containing lethal substances. So, all main category A and B welds must be fully radiographed. But category B and C welds in a nozzle and communicating chambers that are not larger than 10 inch nominal pipe size and do not exceed 1to 1/8 inch thick are exempt. Based on the fluid composition contain in the reactor for this design, ammonium nitrate could be a dangerous and lethal substance if leaking to the atmosphere. Furthermore, ammonia also potentially dangerous substance. The location of A, B and C shown in Figure 5.3.
Figure 5.3 Welded joint locations
3.1.4 3.1.4.1
DETERMINATION THICKNESS OF REACTOR SHELL AND HEAD Design Pressure From table 13.2 (R.K. Sinnot, 1999. Chemical Engineering Design), typical
design stress = 133.5 N/mm2 Operating pressure for reactor is 6.5 bar.
The pressure given in the table only design stress for selected material but for design stress pressure that generated by the fluid also need to take into consideration. From book of Pressure Vessel Handbook 10th edition page 29 giving
4
385SE where P = Design pressure. P Inside diameter. 3. Specific gravity for the fluid in the reactor is 0.778 N/mm2 = 4.the pressure of water that will emit at different length.4.0 DO t 0 = 15 m = 0. assume i) for cylinder wall Tangential stress with condition t < R/2 and P< 0.4.5 N/mm2 Determination of reactor thickness. So design pressure should be taken is: Taking 10 per cent above as design pressure 3. L Design pressure. S Joint efficiency. Di Inside radius of reactor.1067. To get the pressure in the reactor emit by the fluid is multiply value get by specific gravity of fluid.1. N/mm2 5 .1. But for other material.3 Thickness of cylindrical vessel Data required to performed calculation Cylinder length. J = 1.4 m = 133. the value needs to multiply with specific gravity of fluid or other calculation is: Value above is for the water.2 Design temperature Operating temperature = 185 0C Take 10 percent above operating temperature.80 m = 2. R Allowable stress.
tdesign = 18. resulting maximum value of reactor thickness. m = Stress value of material. N/mm2 = Inside radius. N/mm2 = Joint efficiency So the wall thickness is By comparing those two values.0 mm. so J=1 Where P D f = Design pressure.4. minimum thickness of the reactor cylinder is.25 SE where P R S E = Design pressure.288 m A head of this size would be formed by pressing: no joints.80 m Knuckle radius = 6 percent Rc = 0.4 (i) Domed head Try standard dished head (torisphere) Crown radius Rc = Di = 4. N/mm2 = Inside diameter. 3.04 mm with 4 mm corrosion allowance because expecting the severe operating conditions where erosion will occur.1.R S E t = Inside radius. m = Stress value of material. t min=14. N/mm2 6 . m = Stress value of material. N/mm2 = Joint efficiency = Wall thickness So the wall thickness is ii) Longitudinal stress with condition t < R/2 or P < 1. Hereby.
take as approx. 7 . Therefore.46 This shows the inefficiency of a flat cover. So an ellipsoidal head would probably be the most economical. So. 4. (ii) Try a “standard” ellipsoidal head.0 mm. N/mm2 = Inside diameter. Take as same thickness allowance of 4 mm as wall 18. N/mm2 = Joint efficiency Use bolted cover with a full face gasket Cp = 0. N/mm2 = Bolt diameter. ratio major : minor axes = 2 : 1 Where P D f J = Design pressure.80 m. Flat head Where P De f Cp = Design pressure. m = Stress value of material.4 De= bolt circle diameter.= Stress concentration factor for torispherical heads Therefore. m = Stress value of material. ellipsoidal head will be used as domed head for reactor. N/mm2 = Joint efficiency Therefore. It would be better to use a flanged domed head. from equation 5.
mm = Thickness of shell. N/mm2 = Elastic modulus of tube. N/mm2 = Design stress.49 Substituted k value into equation 5. N/mm2 = Elastic modulus of shell. mm = Number of tube = Thickness of tube.1. mm = Design pressure. with the space between the sheet vented.5 Tube sheet (plate) Tube sheet forms the barrier between shell and tube fluids.4. and where it is essential for safety or process reason to prevent any possibility of intermixing due to leakage at the tube sheet joint. The thickness of tube sheet will reduce the effective length of the tube slightly. and this should be allowed for when calculating the area available for heat transfer.3. mm = Outlet diameter of tube. The thickness of tube sheet calculation given by the TEMA standard as below Thickness of tube sheet Where and Where = Outlet diameter of shell. double tubesheets can be used.48 Substituted F value inside equation 5.47 8 . from equation 5. N/mm2 Therefore.
652 lbm=1. = a factor to account for the weight of nozzles.2 Weight of tubes Density of stainless steel 316 = 7787 kg/m3 (Obtain from Incropera De Witt.1.652 lb (Properties are based on ANSI B36. Cv taken is 1. Therefore. 9. = 1.1. = wall thickness = 18.3.818 m. or similar vessels.47 3. with several man ways. = mean diameter of vessel D =4. internal supports.6565 kg Therefore for 15m length = 81. which can be taken as = 1.81 m/s2. etc. 1 foot of pipe has weight 3. or length. and with plate support rings. N.6.0 mm = density of vessel material = 7787 kg/m3. such as plates.15 for distillation columns.3048 m = 1 ft 3. from equation 5. kg 9 . excluding internal fittings.08 for vessels with only a few internal fittings. Hv g t pm Dm = height.6 3. Heat and Mass Transfer) From Pressure Vessel Handbook 10th Edition For 2in tube. man ways. or equivalent fittings. between tangent lines (the length of the cylindrical section) = 15 m = gravitational acceleration.5207 kg Where = Mass of single tubes.1 Reactor load Weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed end Where Wv Cv = total weight of the shell.08 for a few internal fittings.19) 0.1.4.4.4.6.
50 3.4. m3 = Gravitational force.= Gravitational force. m = Number of tubes inside reactor Therefore from equation 5.81 m/s2 Therefore. m = Length of reactor.6. m 10 .4 Weight of tube sheet Thickness of tube sheet = 25mm Volume of tube sheet Where = Diameter of tube sheet = inside diameter of shell. m = Length of tube sheet = tube sheet thickness. 9.6. kg/m3 = Volume of tube.1.49 Weight of fluid inside the tubes Where = Density of fluid. from equation 5.1. 3.3 Weight of fluid in the tube Total volume of fluid inside tube Where di = Inside diameter of tubes.4. m/s = Number of tubes Therefore.
1.56 11 . mm = Thickness of shell. volume of tube sheet multiplied by 2=0.6.1.51 There are 2 tube sheet been used in the reactor. from equation 5.4.06 m3 Volume of baffle. from equation 5. So.9048 m3 Weight of tube sheet Where = Density of fluid.1.6.4.6 Total weight Therefore. from equation 5. 9.7. mm Therefore.1 Shear stress i) Tangential stress Where = Design stress.4.5 Baffle weight = 1. N/mm2 = Inside diameter.7 Analysis of shear stress and direct stress 3.52 Density of stainless steel 316 = 7787 kg/m3 3. 3.1.81 m/s2 Therefore. 3.4. m3 = Gravitational force.Therefore. kg/m3 = Volume of tube.
8 Support Support saddle used to support the container in a horizontal reactor. from equation 5. kN = Inside diameter. m = Thickness of shell.7.1.4.1.57 3. mm Therefore. N/mm2 = Inside diameter.2 Direct stress Direct stress is the stress that generated by the fluid inside vessel and its vessel weight Where = Total weight of reactor (shell). m Therefore.58 3.ii) Longitudinal stress Where = Design stress. The distribution of the longitudinal axis of the bending moment is shown in the diagram below: 12 . mm = Thickness of shell.4. The former is supported by two saddles can be considered as a simple supported beam with uniformly distributed load. from equation 5.
6171 kN R = Radius of reactor = 2. m = 1.218 m Q = Total weight/saddle. the optimum support position. the tangent line.4 m b = width of saddle. can be determined using the following equations: 13 . m = column depth. In theory.The maximum point occurs on both sides and support the middle range. m Bending moments at the two saddle supports. and bending in the middle of the range. giving rise to the maximum bending moment is the lowest position when the magnitude of the maximum value on both sides is equal to the value of support in the middle of the range of: M L1 2M L 2 Where A L H = Distance from the tangent to the saddle support. N = Total weight/2 = 1144. m = Length of the container.
97m Therefore 3. Bending stress longitudinal to the cross sectional area of shell as Where M L1 Ih D t = = = = Longitudinal bending stress at midspan Second moment of area of the shell Shell diameter Shell thickness Therefore.4.1. bending moment is classified as the stress generated as a resultant to the dead weight of reactor in horizontal position supported by the saddle support. value for A =3. Resultant axial stress due to bending and pressure is given by: Where = Longitudinal bending moment at the support = an empirical constant: 1 14 .9 Stresses in vessel wall Bending stress is a stress that cause by the bending moment in the shell (vessel).Balance from the bending moment: Solving from above equation.
Longitudinal stress. Because of the stress difference is <the maximum stress. 2 is smaller than the maximum design stress allowable S. the design is acceptable. The magnitude of the longitudinal bending stress on the strengthening of support will depend on the local shell. this means that some of the top cross section is not effective against longitudinal bending. This stress is given as follows: Where = Longitudinal bending moment at the support = an empirical constant: 1. Therefore. then the pressure vessel design of the heat exchanger is acceptable. Because the value of b. Downwind stress Therefore. S. 15 .0 for stiffened shell. The difference in principal stresses and the longitudinal stress resultant. If the shell does not remain round when loaded. Principal stress. Upwind stress Therefore.
This saddle is made of stainless steel plate.3.07 3 .99 6 .852 1 . the contact angle cannot be less than 120° and not more than 1500.303 4 .1.86 m.525 0 . Table 5. the former equal to the diameter of 4. Saddle support design procedure given by Brownell and Young (1959) and Megyesy (1977). Smooth plates (wear plate) are usually welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall area in contact with the saddle.150 0 6 2 1 7 1 2 3 3 16 .80 .3. Typically.4.8 m is used after interpolation been made as shown in Table 5.10 Saddle design Saddle must be designed to withstand heavy loads caused by the container and its contents. standard steel saddles to container with a diameter of 4.3 Standard steel saddle V essel Diameter (m) V Y C E J 2G 1 Dimension (m) mm B tolt t olt B diameter hole 4 .
5 bar (650 kPa) at a temperature of 155 C design. Weldingneck flanges. 4. hub and plate types. Flange connection used to connect pipes to other equipment such as pumps and valves. shear. which requires the use of connection.3. Flange sizes vary. There are four openings in the design of the reactor tube and shell.4. Screwed flanges. 2.1. the flange of this type is selected for its ability to withstand extreme operating conditions likely to be exposed to temperature loading. less than 40 mm. Blank. Given the pressure vessel is operated under the operating pressure of 6. 3. or blind. and vibration. flanges. Typically used for connecting the connection of bolt with small diameter pipes. Weldedneck flange type (steel) used for opening the input and output openings for the connection and the nozzle of the reactor tube and shell. Optimum size for the flange to the nozzles feed (input) and the output of the shell and tube can be determined using the following equation proposed by Sinnot: 17 . but the structure of the pipe is usually welded to reduce costs. Lapjoint flanges. namely: 1. from a few millimeters in diameter for small pipes to several meters in diameter for use as a body or head flange on the container. Flange connections are also used to attach sections of pipe on the installation and opening of facilities needed for maintenance. 5. Slipon flanges.11 Design bolt flange connection Flange can be used in the body of the container when the container must be divided into several sections for easy removal and maintenance.
8489 kg/hr= 2.1633 kg/s = 1301.8648 kg/s = 7.2838 kg/hr= 2.2 kg/m3 Nom. 8 Drilling d2 18 k 280 d3 236 Neck h2 15 r 10 320 Optimum pipe diameter at inlet stream from splitter Data required: G = 7787.1 D Flange b 20 h1 55 Raised face d4 258 f 3 M16 Bolting No.d d1 219. size 200 Pipe o.Optimum pipe diameter at inlet stream from reactor 1 Data required: G = 10313. 4 Drilling d2 11 k 75 d3 42 Neck h2 6 r 4 18 . size 25 Pipe o.7 D 100 Flange b 14 h1 35 Raised face d4 60 f 2 M10 Bolting No.471 kg/m3 Nom.d d1 33.
0281 kg/s = 77.bar : Pipe outer diameter. 8 Drilling d2 18 k 200 d3 155 Neck h2 10 r 8 Optimum pipe diameter at outlet from reactor for cooling system Data required: G = 5526.1 D Flange b 20 h1 55 Raised face d4 258 f 3 M16 Bolting No. N/mm2 Inlet from reactor 1 From equation 5. thickness of nozzle is 19 . Where P D : Internal pressure.d d1 219.1462 kg/m3 Nom.1257 kg/hr= 5. Equation below is follow British Standard 5500.327 kg/s = 1001. mm : Design stress at working temperature. size 125 Pipe o.74 kg/m3 Nom.d d1 139.7 D 240 Flange b 18 h1 48 Raised face d4 178 f 3 M16 Bolting No. 8 Drilling d2 18 k 280 d3 236 Neck h2 15 r 10 320 Pipe thickness.65.Optimum pipe diameter at outlet stream of reactor Data required: G = 18101. size 200 Pipe o.
5 N/mm2 Ammonia. Specific gravity of content Shell Content Length Max. Required.107 Computed (yes or no) 109. working pressure Design Pressure 0.Inlet from splitter From equation 5. thickness of nozzle is Equipment no. nitric acid and ammonium nitrate 15 m 0.87 m3 1 Capacity 20 . thickness of nozzle is Optimum pipe diameter at outlet from reactor for cooling system From equation 5.65. thickness of nozzle is Outlet from reactor From equation 5.778 N/mm2 133. water.65.:Plug flow reactor (PFR101) Plug flow reactor data sheet Description : Convert ammonia and nitric acid to ammonium nitrate Sheet no: Operating Data No.65.
15 K 203.00 mm 3.3555 N/mm2 Saddle 18. Material Joint factor Corrosion allowance Shell thickness Type of head Reactor load Tangetial stress Longitudina l stress Direct stress Type of support Distance of tangent to saddle support Elipsoid al 458.5 0C Stainless steel 16Cr2Mo8Ni (316) 1.067 in 0.154 in 1933 21 .733 N/mm2 8402.8667 N/mm2 103.0 4 mm 18.2342 kN 51.735 in 2.97 m Tube Tube outside diameter Tube inside diameter Wall thickness Number of tube 2. Design temp.Working temp.00 mm Thickness 2289.
3883 W/m2.required Area of tube Volumetric flow rate Bundle diameter Shell inside diameterdiameterbundle diameter Shell diameter Number of baffle Distance between baffle Pitch diameter Tube sheet thickness 0.80 m 0.003790 m2 0.K 22 .50 m 0.0868 m 1.1795 m Cooling system Fluid Velocity of fluid Flow rate Fluid inlet temperature Fluid outlet temperature Tube side coefficient Water 3 m/s 5526.327 kg/hr 25 0C 81.30 m 8 0.70 0C 3715.08776 m3/hr 4.92 m 4.
00 W/m2.458 bar 23 .46 bar 8.K 0.Shell side coefficient Tube side pressure drop Shell side pressure drop 14885.
This will normally be 5 to 10 per cent above the normal working pressure.3. the design pressure is normally taken as the pressure at which the relief device is set.2. The most economical material that satisfies both process and mechanical requirements should be selected which is this will be the material that gives the lowest cost over the working life of the plant and allowing for maintenance and replacement.37) 0 C K 3.36) 3. the more resistant is the alloy to corrosion in oxidising conditions. In this design. (1.3 Material Of Construction Many factors have to be considered when selecting engineering materials but for chemical process plant the overriding consideration is usually the ability to resist corrosion. 24 . To impart corrosion resistance the chromium content must be above 12 per cent and the higher the chromium content.2. For vessels under internal pressure. considering 10 % safety factor so that the design pressure become as below: (1.2 REACTOR 2. to avoid spurious operation during minor process upsets. Nickel is added to improve the corrosion resistance in nonoxidising environments.1 Design Pressure A vessel must be designed to withstand the maximum pressure to which it is likely to be subjected in operation. The material selected must have sufficient strength and be easily worked.2.2 Design Temperature The operating temperature of our reactor is taken as 185 0C. R2 3. the design pressure of this reactor is taken as 10% above the operating temperature to avoid spurious operation during minor process upsets. Stainless steels are the most frequently used corrosion resistant materials in the chemical industry. For safety reason.
Typical design stress values for some common materials are shown in Appendix A2. is f = 115 N/mm2 = 115 bar (R. design stress The strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature. Type 304 alsocalled 18/8 stainless steels is the most generally used stainless steel. 185 oC.4 Determination Of Minimum Thickness Of The Reactor (1.38) Where: .38).K. Chemical Engineering Design). particularly at elevated temperatures (see Appendix A1). The austenitic stainless steels have greater strength than the plain carbon steels.A wide range of stainless steels is available. 1999. The carbon content is low enough for heat treatment not to be normally needed with thin sections to prevent weld decay. The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated should be taken as the maximum working temperature of the material.2. 3. the inside diameter f. It contains the minimum Cr and Ni that give a stable austenitic structure. 25 . minimum thickness Pi . design stress for stainless steel 304. Sinnot. So. The uniform structure of austenitic is the structure desired for corrosion resistance and it is these grades that are widely used in the chemical industry. as conclusion stainless steels type 304 is the best material of construction and then selected as material of construction for the reactor. so the maximum allowable design stress will depend on the material temperature. (1. with compositions tailored to give the properties required for specific applications. Thus from Eqn. With design temperature is equal to maximum operating temperature. the design pressure Di .
design stress Rc. Add allowance for corrosion = + 0. The minimum thickness of torispherical and ellipsoidal head can be calculated by using equation below: For torispherical heads. They can be used for higher pressures. For carbon and lowalloy steels. internal pressure J . but above 10 bar their cost should be compared with that of an equivalent ellipsoidal head. The allowance should be based on experience with the material of construction under similar service conditions to those for the proposed design. joint factor =1 f. iii. Standard torispherical heads (dished ends) are the most commonly used end closure for vessels up to operating pressures of 15 bar. or scaling. where severe corrosion is not expected.2. ii.002 m = 3. Above 15 bar an ellipsoidal head will usually prove to be the most economical closure to use. Flat heads Hemispherical heads Ellipsoidal heads Torispherical heads The heads used for the vessel may be flat if they are suitably buttressed but preferably they are some curved shape as the hemispherical. a minimum allowance of 2. The common types used are: i. iv. ellipsoidal or torispherical heads.The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow for material lost by corrosion and erosion. crown radius = Di 26 .39) Where Pi . Corrosion is a complex phenomenon and it is not possible to give specific rules for the estimation of the corrosion allowance required for all circumstances.5 Design of Vessel Heads The end of a cylindrical vessel is closed by heads of various shapes. (1.0 mm should be used.
41) e Pi Di 2 Jf 0.3151/0. So. joint factor =1 f.06 Rc From earlier calculation.1664 m By comparing minimum thickness between torispherical and ellipsoidal head.2589)1/2) = 1. internal pressure J .42) (1.0035 m 27 . torispherical head is choosen for the design domed heads.06(4. inside diameter From Eqn.3151) = 0. e= = 0.002 m = 0.7706 f = 115 N/mm2 = 115 bar From Eqn.0015 m For ellipsoidal heads.25).0015 + 0. (1. stress concentration factor = ¼(3+( Rc/Rk)1/2) Rk.40) (1.2 Pi (1. torispherical head is the most economical.002 m allowance for corrosion = 0.06 Rc = 0. design stress Di.43) Where Pi . knuckle radius =0. (1. e= = 0.2589 m Cs = ¼(3 + ( Rc/Rk)1/2) = ¼ (3 + (4.39). Add 0. Hence.8 bar Rc = Di = 4.Cs. Pi = 8.3151 m Rk =0. (1.
45) From Eqn. 28 . Chemical Engineering Design).37 216.45).52 (67.7. N/mm2 (1.2. bar d = pipe od. optimum 260 G 0.52 (7.0146) 0.6. 3. kg/s (1.6 Determination of Piping Sizing Liquids particularly can be transported through pipelines with pumps.7117) 0.9417) 0.3. optimum 260 (2. Standard pipe is made in a discrete number of sizes that are designed by nominal diameters (R.37 97.K.44) = density of flow.0124 mm From appendix A3 nominal diameter d = 80 mm.4710) 0.3 Thickness of nozzle pipe inlet Calculation of thickness of nozzle pipe inlet is as follow: t= Where: P = internal pressure. kg/m3 3.52 0. optimum 260 (3. 3.2.1 Diameter pipe for flow in d . 1999.37 Where: G = mass flow.2 Diameter pipe for flow out d .2. mm σd = design stress at working temperature. Sinnot. Formula for Optimum diameter for stainless steel pipe is as follow: d . (1.5182 mm From appendix A3 nominal diameter d = 200 mm.7. compressors or ejectors.2. blowers.
mm σd = design stress at working temperature. Pressure Dead weight of vessel and contents External loads imposed by piping and attached equipments 3.4 Thickness of nozzle pipe outlet Calculation of thickness of nozzle pipe outlet is as follow: t= Where: P = internal pressure. iii.1 Weight Loads The major sources of dead weight loads are: i. The vessel shell.2. The vessel fittings: manways. (1.3049 mm. 7623 mm. nozzles.2. 7623 + 2 = 2. The main sources of load to consider are: i. N/mm2 From Eqn.2.46) 3.6. plates (plus the fluid on the plates).3049 mm Add 2 mm allowance for corrosion = 0. 3. heating and cooling coils.3049 + 2 = 2. Internal fittings: tubes.7. t= = 0. 29 . ii. bar d = pipe od.46).7 Design Of Reactor Vessel Subject To Combined Loading Pressure vessels are subjected to other loads in addition to pressure and must be designed to withstand the worst combination of loading without failure.7623 mm Add 2 mm allowance for corrosion = 0. iii. ii.t= = 0. (1.
v. Supports will impose localized loads on the vessel wall and the design must be checked to ensure that the resulting stress concentrations are below the maximum allowable design stress.1737) m = 4. can be estimated from the following equation: (1. External fittings: ladders. such as wind loads.iv. the design temperature and pressure.3151 m + 2(0. and any superimposed loads.6625 m Hv = height/length of the cylindrical area = 12.8 Vessel Support The method used to support a vessel will depend on the size.44) Where. Supports should be 30 . the vessel location and arrangement and the internal and external fittings and attachments. piping. 3. The supports must be designed to carry the weight of the vessel and contents. Horizontal vessels are usually mounted on two saddle supports (see Appendix A4).15 for vessel with several man ways and other fittings Dm = mean diameter of the vessel = Dm + t = 4. Cv = a factor account for the weight of nozzles. shape and weight of the vessel. The weight of liquid to fill the vessel.08 for vessel with only a few internal fittings = 1. platforms.2. The vessel will be filled with water for the hydraulic pressure test and may fill with process liquid due to misoperation. man ways = 1.9453 m Thus. For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed ends and uniform wall thickness.
R. 6: “Chemical Engineering Design”. Though saddles are the most commonly used support for horizontal cylindrical vessels. They are constructed of bricks or concrete or are fabricated from steel plate.4: The Dimensions of Typical Standard Saddle Designs (Source: Sinnott. If more than two saddles are used the distribution of the loading is uncertain. The saddle supports for a vessel will usually be located nearer the ends than this value to make use of the stiffening effect of the ends. Oxford. legs can be used for small vessels.designed to allow easy access to the vessel and fittings for inspection and maintenance. Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering. For a uniformly loaded beam the position will be at 21 per cent of the span. A horizontal vessel will normally be supported at two crosssections. 1999. 31 Butterworth .K. The saddles must be designed to withstand the load imposed by the weight of the vessel and contents. Heinemann). Wear plates are often welded to the shell wall to reinforce the wall over the area of contact with the saddle. The dimensions of typical standard saddle designs are given in figure below: Figure 1. The contact angle should not be less than 120o and will not normally be greater than 150o. in from each end. Vol.
iv. Weldingneck flanges Slipon flanges.9 Type Of Flange And Selection Flanged joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessels.3. Lapjoint flanges (see Appendix A5 (c)) are used for piped work and most suitable in this design reactor. Several different types of flange are used for various applications. shear and vibration loads. This gradual transition of the section reduces the discontinuity stresses between the flange and branch. Slipon flanges are generally used for pipe work. Slipon flanges are cheaper than weldingneck flanges and are easier to align but have poor resistance to shock and vibration loads. Screwed joints are often used for smalldiameter pipe connections below 40 mm. iii.2. Screwed flanges (see Appendix A5 (d)) are used to connect screwed fittings to flanges. Flanges may also be used on the vessel body when it is necessary to divide the vessel into sections for transport or maintenance. They will normally be specified for the connections and nozzles on process vessels and process equipment. Weldingneck flanges are suitable for extreme service conditions where the flange is likely to be subjected to temperature. used to blank off 32 . Slipon flanges (see Appendix A5 (b)) slip over the pipe or nozzle and are welded externally and usually also internally. The principal types used in the process industries are: i. They are economical when used with expensive alloy pipe such as stainless steel as the flange can be made from inexpensive carbon steel. ii. They are also sometimes used for alloy pipe which is difficult to weld satisfactorily. The end of the pipe is set back from 0 to 2. The strength of a slipon flange is from onethird to twothirds that of the corresponding standard weldingneck flange. hub and plate types Lapjoint flanges Screwed flanges Blank or blind. v. Flanged joints are also used to connect pipes to other equipment such as pumps and valves.0 mm. for manhole covers and for removable vessel heads when ease of access is required. and increases the strength of the flange assembly. flanges Weldingneck flanges (see Appendix A5 (a)) have a long tapered hub between the flange ring and the welded joint. Usually a short lapped nozzle is welded to the pipe but with some schedules of pipe the lap can be formed on the pipe itself and this will give a cheap method of pipe assembly. Blind flanges (blank flanges) are flat plates.
corrosive nature of the process fluid. ii. The gasket area is large and an excessively high bolt tension would be needed to achieve sufficient gasket pressure to maintain a good seal at high operating pressures. Solid polyfluorocarbon (Teflon) and compressed asbestos gaskets can be used to a maximum temperature of about 260 oC. Vegetable fibre and synthetic rubber gaskets can be used at temperatures of up to 100 oC.11 Flange Faces Flanges are also classified according to the type of flange face used. So. 3. iii. So.2. the operating temperature and corrosiveness of the process fluid will be the controlling factor in gasket selection.2. over the full face of the flange. 3. The process conditions: pressure. Narrowfaced flanges (see Appendix A7 (b. It is impractical to machine flanges to the degree of surface finish that would be required to make a satisfactory seal under pressure without a gasket.c.10 Gasket Gaskets are used to make a leaktight joint between two surfaces. and as covers for manholes and inspection ports. The following factors must be considered when selecting a gasket material: i. There are two basic types: i. narrowfaced. compressed asbestos is chosen as the best gasket to be used in this reactor design (see Appendix A6). Fullfaced flanges (see Appendix A7 (a)) where the face contact area extends outside the circle of bolts.flange connections. in this design lap joint flange is chosen as the best flange. The type of flange and flange face Up to pressures of 20 bar. ii. Whether repeated assembly and disassembly of the joint is required. flange shown in 33 . flanges are simple and inexpensive but are only suitable for low pressures. Plain soft metal gaskets are normally used for higher temperatures.d) where the face contact area is located within the circle of bolts. temperature. The raised face. Full face. Metalreinforced gaskets can be used up to around 450 oC. widefaced.
65 0. k Thickness of reactor.2 and Table 1.3128 m3 with 4. 3.1737 Torispherical 3500 Saddle support Lapjoint flange Compressed asbestos Raised face. Appendix A7 (d). the volume of the vessel is 189. Ring joint flanges. as in Appendix A7 (b). which increases the cost. narrowfaced is chosen as the best flange faces. m Type of head Total weight of reactor. N Vessel support Type of flanges Gasket Flange Faces 8. the gasket is confined in a groove which prevents failure by blowout. In the spigot and socket.8 476. The detail information of the design is as presented in Table 1. the gasket is held in place by friction between the gasket and flange surface.11 CONCLUSION In this work. in this design raised face. but this type is suitable for high pressure and high vacuum service.3: Summary of mechanical design Operating pressure. the design of plug flow reactor has successfully been carried out.3151 diameter and 12.3.Appendix A7 (b) is probably the most commonly used type of flange for process equipment. Matched pairs of flanges are required. From the calculation.9453 length. So. Where the flange has a plain face. are used for high temperatures and high pressure services. Table 1. Appendix A7 (c).2. and tongue and grooved faces. bar Operating temperature. narrowfaced 34 .
unless it is fitted with an effective vacuum breaker. centrifuges and etc are needed. the design should resist the maximum differential pressure and is designed for full negative pressure of 1 bar. the data for mechanical design needed are: i. the maximum allowable design stress is evaluated at design temperature which is the maximum working temperature of the material. viii.3. heat exchanger tube sheets. The design pressure should be taken to be 10% above the normal operating pressure: 3. F1 In designing a chemical plant.3. Vessel function Process materials and services Operating and design temperature and pressure Materials of construction Vessel dimensions and orientation Types of vessel heads to be used Openings and connections required Specification of internal fitting 3.3. The detailed mechanical designing of equipment is done by mechanical engineers who are more familiar with the codes and design. v.1 Design Pressure In designing a vessel. On the other hand. The design temperature can be evaluated with 5% safety factor above the operating temperature: 35 .3 FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR 1. vii. For a vessel that is subjected to vacuum. storage tanks. the mechanical design of the process equipments such as pressure vessel.2 Design Temperature Since the strength of metals decreases with increasing temperature. For fallingfilm evaporator. chemical engineer will be responsible in developing and specifying the basic design information for particular equipment for specialist designer. it needs to withstand the maximum pressure during operation. iii. ii. iv. vi.
For the material to able to withstand without failure under standard condition. a suitable design stress factor (factor of safety) is applied to the maximum stress of the material.3.e. For the fallingfilm evaporator. the value of maximum allowable stress that can be accepted in the material of construction is needed. the process material used in this equipment. This design stress factor is to cover any uncertainties in the design methods.1 and typical design stress for material can be taken from Appendix B. alloys and etc.5 Welded Joint Efficiency. 3. thus. The value can be taken from Appendix B. 3. the pressure vessel is made of plain carbon steel.3. Typical value of J is given in Appendix B. i. low and high alloy steels.3 Materials of Construction Typically. or scaling. The allowable design stress of the material multiplied by a welded joint factor will give the possible lower strength of a welded joint compared to a virgin plate.0 is taken because this value means that the joint is equally strong as the virgin plate. the loading. the quality of materials.3. The corrosion allowance for this evaporator is 4mm because. constructed with stainless steel (SS304) while the tubes are constructed from stainless steel (SS316) due to the mild corrosive of the feed which is the ammonium nitrate solution of 72 wt%. 36 . For the design of this evaporator. and Construction Categories The welded joint strength depends on the type of joint and the quality of the welding. ammonium nitrate solution (75wt %84wt %) may cause corrosion and scaling to the equipment. the shell are filled with hot steam.2.3. 3.6 Corrosion Allowance Corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of the metal to the design to allow for corrosion and erosion.3. The material is selected based on its suitability with the process environment and fabrication.3.4 Design Stress For the purpose of design. and the workmanship. J of 1.
Design load is further discussed in Section 2. maximum weight of vessel and contents at operating temperature and hydraulic test condition. Major load includes design pressure.8 Minimum Practical Wall Thickness The wall thickness should not be less than the value given below. It can be divided into major and subsidiary loads. wind loads.1: Minimum practical wall thickness 3. bending moments. shock loads. loads supported or reacting on the vessel. stresses due to difference in temperature and loads caused by fluctuations in temperature and pressure. Subsidiary loads includes local stresses caused by supports.3. 3. internal structures and connecting pipes.7 Design Loads This equipment should be designed to resist loading at which a pressure vessel will be subject during service. (Include corrosion allowance of 2mm) Figure 2.3.9 Cylindrical Shells The minimum thickness required to resist internal pressure is given by: Where: 37 .3.3.4.
Factor of safety taken as 6.3. PC for long vessel with stiffening ring is given by: . value from Appendix B. Critical load to cause buckling in a ring under uniform radial load. : 38 .2: Stiffness Ring Load per unit length.Process vessels that are operated under vacuum are subjected to external pressure. The maximum pressure it will subject to is 1 bar (1 atm). Second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling.10 Design of Stiffness Rings Figure 2. The critical pressure to cause buckling. it is required to know the failure through elastic instability (buckling). In determining the wall thickness required for process vessel subjected to external pressure.4 3.
the ratio of knuckle to crown radii should not be less than 0. and the crown radius should not be greater than the diameter of the cylindrical section.1: Typical Head and Closure 3.11.06. When it is subjected to external pressure.3.11 Vessel Head Vessel head are used as a closure of a cylindrical vessel. 39 . the minimum thickness of torispherical head is: Where: To avoid buckling.1 Torispherical heads For vessel subjected to internal pressure.3. Minimum vessel thickness. (f) (g) (h) Figure 2.3.
3. radius Rs is equivalent to Crown radius. (d) is bolted cover with full gasket (Cp=0. the minimum thickness of ellipsoidal head is: When subjected to external pressure.11.2 Ellipsoidal heads For vessel subjected to internal pressure. (e) is bolted endcover with a narrowface gasket (Cp=0.55. (a) is flanged plate.45.For torispherical.3.De=bolt circle diameter) iv.11.3 Flat ends Minimum thickness of flat end required for internal pressure: Where: For typical design.6m and corner radii at least equal to 0. i. for diameters less than 0.25e (Cp=0. Minimum vessel thickness.De=mean diameter of gasket) 40 . Where 2a = major axis = Do. ii. h = height of the head from the tangent line. . 2b = minor axis = 2h. Rc 3. the design constant and nominal diameter area as follows: From Figure 2.De=Di) iii. De=Di). (b) and (c) is welded plate where the plate is welded to the end of the shell with a fillet weld with angle of fillet of 45 and depth equal to the plate thickness (Cp=0.1.4. 3.55. For ellipsoidal.
If torsional shear stress. Bending stress. and compressive (negative) for points above the supports. principal stress will be 41 .3.12 Stresses Analysis Primary Stresses: Longitudinal and circumferential stresses due to internal or external pressure: Direct stress weight. Principal Stresses: Where: Total longitudinal stress. Where: Torsional shear stresses. This load is usually small and need not be considered in preliminary design. The dead weight stress will be tensile (positive) for points below the plane of vessel supports.3. is negligible. This stress is resulted from torque caused by loads offset from the vessel axis.
13 Weight Loads The weight loads comprises of: i.2 area 42 . Weight of Vessel: Where: ii. steel.Compressive stress and elastic stability: If the resultant axial stress. 150 length length area plate (c) Platforms. 3.3. the failure of the vessel may be due to elastic instability (buckling). steel. due to the combined loading is compressive. 1. and uniform wall thickness. Vessel Shell The approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed ends. 1. steel. steel including typical liquid loading. Critical buckling stress. for vertical columns. Vessel Fittings For vessel fittings.7 (d) Contacting plates. 360 (b) Plain ladders. the following can be used: (a) Caged ladders. The design must be check to make sure that the maximum value of the resultant axial stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will occur.
The wind velocity is lower near the ground than higher ground. tubes: Weight of Tubes: Where: iii.For Internal Fittings. km/h The loading per unit length of the column: For a uniformly loaded cantilever the bending moment at any plane: 43 . i. A wind speed of 160 km/h is usually taken for preliminary design which is equivalent to 1280 wind pressure. Dynamic wind pressure: wind velocity. it is important to consider wind loading. Wind Loads For tall columns installed in the open. For a smooth cylindrical column or stack.e.
Many types of base ring designs as shown in Figure 2.3. will oppose to the moment.3.1 is used with skirt support. at minimum recommended bolt spacing 44 .14 Skirt Supports The skirt carried the load and is transmit to the foundation slab by the skirt base ring (bearing plate). for example. rolled angle and plain flange rings suitable for small vessel and double ring stiffened by gussets. Figure 2. This will be opposed by the couple set up by the weight of the vessel and the tensile load in the anchor bolts. Winds and other loads produces moment that will tend to overturn the vessel. The couple set up by the weight of the vessel and the tensile load in the anchor bolt in turn.1: Flange ring design Base Ring and Anchor Bolts: The carried load by the skirt is transferred to the base ring or the foundation slab (bearing plate). The following is the guide rules when selecting the anchor bolts given by Scheiman: Bolts smaller than 25mm diameter should not be used Minimum number of bolts is 8 Use multiple number of 4 bolts Bolt pitch should not be less than 600 mm Approximate pitch circle diameter Circumference of bolt circle Minimum recommended bolt spacing Number of bolts required. The moment produced by wind and other lateral loads will tend to overturn the vessel.
45 . Actual width required Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation: Minimum thickness for the base ring. Where: Bolt root diameter Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length. as 5 Minimum width of the base ring. Choose suitable anchor bolt size design from Appendix ???.Assuming the anchor bolts share the overturning load equally. Taking the bearing pressure. Skirt Thickness: By trial and error. Bolt area required. choose The maximum dead weight load on the skirt occurs when the vessel is full with water. Use data acquired previously.
By trial and error. At test condition. 46 . Dead weight stress in the skirt. add 4 mm for corrosion. . the vessel full of water for the hydraulic test. Assume skirt thickness. At operating condition. (Doublewelded butt or equivalent type of joint and degree of radiography is spot) Criteria for design: Maximum Maximum Both criteria are satisfied. Bending moment at base of skirt. Total weight of skirt Wind loading. Previously. Bending stress in the skirt. Maximum Maximum Take joint factor.
Therefore. Where: The plate must be thick enough to resist the bending and shear stresses caused by the pressure load and any differential expansion of the shell and tube.15 Piping and Flanges Optimum diameter of flange: Where: Nozzle thickness: Where: 3. one side is subjected to shellside pressure and tubeside pressure on the other side.16 Evaporator TubePlates Tubeplates support the tubes.3. Since. A tube plate is a perforated plate with an unperforated rim. supported at its periphery. The holes of plate for the tubes weaken the plate and reduce its flexural rigidity. Ligament efficiency of perforated plate.3.3. the design must able to support the maximum differential pressure that is likely to occur. and separate the shell and tube side fluids. 47 . The presence of tubes strengthens the plate. In between the holes is a material that holds the holes together is ligament.
5 48 . Shear stress in the tube plate can be calculated by equating the pressure force on the plate to the shear force in the material at the plate periphery.The minimum plate thickness to resist bending can be estimated by: Where: The value of is relies on the type of head. Minimum plate thickness to resist shear is given by: The design thickness is taken as the greater of the values obtained from bending and shears resistance and must be greater than the minimum thickness given from Appendix B.
1.5 respectively.3. f Tensile Strength Tube Side: Material of Construction Typical Design Stress.5. and 125.17 Calculations Design Pressure. TD: At TubeSide: At ShellSide: Design Stress (Nominal Design Stress): Refer to Appendix B.5 Thus.5 N/mm2 : 510 N/mm2 (calculated at T=165oC) From Appendix B. 49 .3.1. At TubeSide: At ShellSide: Design Temperature.5oC) : 520 N/mm2 : Stainless Steel (SS 304) : 125. The design stresses for tubes and shells are calculated from Appendix B.55 N/mm2 (calculated at T=121. PD and External Pressure. Pe: Maximum pressure for vessel under external pressure is 1 bar.2 are 143. Shell Side: Material of Construction Typical Design Stress. f Tensile Strength : Stainless Steel (SS 316) : 143. design factor taken for Austenitic stainless steel at minimum yield stress is 1.
Corrosion Allowance: Since. moderate corrosions are expected in the tubes and shell. Design of Cylindrical Shells under Internal Pressure Minimum thickness.3. e = 4.: Welded joint efficiency. PC: For long vessel with stiffening ring. As For this particular thickness.4. the design pressure is below of critical pressure ( ). the critical pressure of buckling is high. e plus corrosion allowance of 4 mm = Critical Pressure to Cause Buckling.0584mm. J = 1 Type of joint: Doublewelded butt or equivalent of 100% degree of radiography.0mm is used. thus the thickness is suitable 50 . the corrosion allowance of 4. Welded joint factor chosen. J and construction categories: Refer to Appendix B. Refer to Appendix B.
Load per unit length. : Since. Critical load to cause buckling in a ring under uniform radial load.Design of Stiffness Ring: Assume. 51 . Vessel heads: If using torispherical head. Subjected to internal pressure Where: Plus corrosion allowance of 4mm. Taken factor of safety = 6. Second moment of area of the ring to avoid buckling. The length and diameter of stiffening ring are acceptable.
If using ellipsoidal head. 52 . thus For flat ends with bolted cover with full gasket. Subjected to external pressure = For ammonium nitrate solution. Subjected to internal pressure Plus corrosion allowance. Take Add corrosion allowance. corrosion allowance is 4 mm. Subjected to external pressure For ammonium nitrate solution. corrosion allowance is 4 mm.
The load due to wind of smooth cylindrical column. steel to the equipment. Loading per unit length of column.Design of Vessel Subject to Combined Loading i. Wind Loading: Take wind velocity. Thus. 53 . Weight Loads: Weight of Vessel: Weight of Tubes: Weight of External Fittings: Installed caged ladder. ii. Since no thermal insulation and attachment.
Since (negative). and compressive (negative) for points above the supports. Where: Resultant longitudinal stress: Previously. Analysis of Stresses At bottom tangent line. it is compressive Bending stresses: Bending stress will be compressive or tensile. Pressure Stresses: Dead weight stress: The dead weight stress will be tensile (positive) for points below the plane of vessel supports. is compressive 54 .Bending moment at bottom tangent line. . iii. calculated for points above the supports. . (negative).
5768 7. the resultant axial stress. buckling The maximum compressive stress will occur when the vessel is not under pressure = stress.3349 7. So the design is satisfactory.3349 Upwind Downwind The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side. where it is well below the maximum allowable design stress of 125. the failure of the vessel may be due to elastic instability (buckling).5 .7193 6. . The radial stress is negligible. iv. Critical stress. the principle stress will be and .Since the torsional shear stress is negligible. Elastic Stability (Buckling) Previously. The design must be check to make sure that the maximum value of the resultant axial stress does not exceed the critical value at which buckling will occur. due to the combined loading is compressive. 12. is well below the critical buckling 55 .
Take skirt thickness. skirt supports are preferred because they do not lead to concentrated local loads on the shell. f at ambient temperature = Young’s Modulus at ambient temperature. Vessel Support: Skirt Support For tall vertical vessels. and reduce the effect of discontinuity stresses at the junction of the cylindrical shell and the bottom. . The skirt support shall be provided with at least one opening for inspection. 56 . Previously. it offers less restraint against differential thermal expansion. Height of Skirt. Wind loading. Previously.v. Bending stress in the skirt. At test condition. Total weight of skirt . Material of Construction = Plain Carbon Steel Design stress. Weight of vessel. Dead weight stress in the skirt. The maximum dead weight load on the skirt occurs when the vessel is full with water. Skirt thickness: Try straight cylindrical skirt. By trial and error. the vessel full of water for the hydraulic test. Bending moment at base of skirt.
Bolt root diameter 57 . (Doublewelded butt or equivalent type of joint and degree of radiography is spot) Criteria for design: Maximum Maximum Both criteria are satisfied.At operating condition. (typical design value) Take Bolt area required. add 2 mm for corrosion. at minimum recommended bolt spacing Bolt design stress. Base Ring and Anchor Bolts Approximate pitch circle diameter Circumference of bolt circle Minimum recommended bolt spacing Number of bolts required. Maximum Maximum Take joint factor. which gives: vi.
Nominal Diameter = 24 mm. Root area = 353 . Tubeplates Ligament efficiency of perforated plate. The minimum plate thickness to resist bending can be estimated by: Minimum plate thickness to resist shear is given by: 58 . Taking the bearing pressure. Skirt to be welded flush with outer diameter of column shell. Use M24 bolts (BS 4190:1967). This is the minimum width required. vii. actual width will depend on the chair design.Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length. Actual width required Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation: Minimum thickness for the base ring. as 5 Minimum width of the base ring.
5 viii. Opening and Nozzles: Optimum diameter of flange: Nozzle thickness: Feed Inlet: Concentrate Outlet: Vapor Outlet: Steam Inlet: 59 .The design thickness is taken as the greater of the values obtained from bending and shears resistance and must be greater than the minimum thickness given from Appendix B.
625mm Pattern: Equilateral Triangular Material: Stainless Steel 304L Tubesheet Dimensions (top and bottom) Thickness: Identifier Description Shell Material 60 .Condensate Outlet: 3. One pass shell Stainless Steel 304L Tube Option Stainless Steel 316L Tube Material Tube Dimensions . Type: Bonnet Topchannel dimensions Head: Ellipsoidal head Type: Bonnet Bottomchannel dimensions Head: Ellipsoidal head Tubesheet Options Tube Count: 185 Tube Layout Tube Pitch: 47.18 SUMMARY General Option Heat Exchanger Fixed TubeSheets.3. Channel and Shell Option Stainless Steel 304L Shell Material Shell Dimension .
Design Conditions Summary Design Conditions Tube Side Design Pressure Design Temperature Mean Temperature Shell Side Design Pressure Design Temperature Mean Temperature Tubesheet Design Temperature Vessel Support Type Thickness Material Height Straight cylindrical skirt Plain Carbon Steel 3m Base Ring and Anchor Bolts Number of Bolts Required 12 Bolts M24 Nominal Diameter 24mm Root Area 353 Minimum Width of Base Ring 138 mm Minimum Thickness of Base Ring 6 mm Tubeplates Diameter 753.1735 mm Minimum Plate Thickness 29.9798 mm Openings and Nozzles Feed Inlet Concentrate Outlet Vapour Outlet Steam Inlet Condensate Outlet Stresses Analysis Weight Loads Wind Loading Dead Weight Bending Stress Elastic Stability 61 .
1 Design pressure The design pressure. Ti = 180 o C 2 o C = 182 o C 62 .5 mm Inside diameter = 16.1 0. Design Temperature.38 mm Inlet temperature = 40 oC Outlet temperature = 65 oC 3.4 HEAT EXCHANGER Shell side details : o o o o o o Material = carbon steel Number of shell passes = 1 Working pressure = 0.5 mm Length = 5 m Pitch rectangular = 24.8 N/mm2 Design stress for carbon steel. Pi = = = Po x 1.8 x 1. normally taken 10% above the normal working pressure Design pressure. and add up 2oC for uncertainties in temperature prediction.5. J = 109 N/mm2 Inlet temperature = 180 oC Outlet temperature = 104.5.1 0. the highest operating temperatures are at 180oC.88 N / mm2 3.3.1 oC Tube side details : o o o o o o o o Number of tubes = 128 Number of passes = 1 Outside diameter = 19.2 Design temperature For the shell side and tube side.
From Table 13.0 mm should be used. the design stress was obtain at operating temperature (T = 180 oC) Design stress. and remaking any defects. Welded joint efficiency. f s 109 N / mm2 3.0 because this implies that the joint is equally as strong the virgin plate. or scaling. complete weld length.3. 3. For carbon steel.5 Corrosion allowance The corrosion allowance is the additional thickness of metal added to allow for material lost by corrosion and erosion. Besides. a minimum allowance of 2.6 Minimum wall thickness This is required to ensure that any vessel is sufficiently rigid to withstand its own weight. J 1.5. The lower joint factor will result in a thicker and heavier vessel.3 Material selection Carbon steel is chosen because this material mostly used in industry and the prices is cheapest. and any incidental loads. As a general guide the wall thickness of any vessel should not less than the values given below. this includes a corrosion allowance of 2 mm.5.5.4 Welded joint efficiency Joint efficiency was selected to be 1. where sever corrosion is not expected.0 3.5.2 page 812 Chemical Engineering Volume 6. it is routinely used for most organic chemicals and neutral or basic aqueous solutions at moderate temperatures. 63 .
Table 2.0 3.5. t Where Cs = = = Rc = = Rk = = Pi Rc C s 2 fJ Pi C s 0.88 1.5 2.1 Vessel diameter (m) 1 1 to 2 2 to 2.39 0.88406 2132.06Rc 64 .2 stress concentration factor for torispherical heads 1 3 4 Di Rc Rk crown radius knuckle radius 0.3538 3.5 Minimum wall thickness Minimum thickness (mm) 5 7 9 10 12 Minimum wall thickness.3538 + 2.0 3. Minimum thickness of vessel head. tw Pi Di 2 f i Pi 0.3538 mm Actual minimum wall thickness.5 to 3.7 Vessel head and closure thickness Standard torispherical heads (dished ends) are the most commonly used end closure for vessels up to operating pressure of 15 bar. taw = = = tw + corrosion allowance 1.0 to 3.
5.2642 N / mm2 3.5.7706 = Minimum thickness of vessel head.7706 2132.7706 0.3539 26.36 mm 1 406 3 4 24.36 1.88406 23.884061.10 Design load i.5.2 = Actual minimum wall thickness = 2.9 Circumferential stress L PiDi 4t L 0.3767 mm 3. and uniform wall thickness can be estimated from the following equation: 65 .88406 43.Rc Rk Cs = = = = 406 mm 24. Dead weight of vessel For preliminary calculations the approximate weight of a cylindrical vessel with domed ends.3767 t + corrosion allowance = 4.6317 N / mm2 3.3539 53. t 0.391 0.881.8 Longitudinal stress h h Pi Di 2t 0.
Wv Cv m Dm g H v 0.80.8Dm t 10 3 Where Wv Cv ρm Dm = = = = total weight of shell 1.08 77509. A galvanized metal outer cover may be preferred because of its resistance to mechanical damage of the insulation.0165 2 577509. They are covered with cement to seal gaps and finished off with a canvas that is trated for resistance to the weather. 85% magnesia has been the most popular material.11 Weight of insulation Material used = 85% magnesia Up to about 600oF (315oC). It is a mixture of magnesia and asbestos fibers so constructed that about 90% of the total volume is dead air space.3538 10 3 Dm 0.3538 10 3 Wv 1884. Such insulants are applied to the equipment in the form of slabs or blankets which are held in place with support and clips spotwelded to the equipment. 66 .1347 N 16.4094m Wv 1.81 Wt 16509.9672 N 1.885kN ii. Equivalents are available for situations where asbestos is undesirable. 3 m Dm 406 3. Weight of tubes Wt N t d o d i L m g 2 2 Wt 128 0.509kN 3.5.815 0.0195 2 0.08 for vessels with only a few internal fittings Density of vessel material (7750 kg/m3) Mean diameter of vessel = Di t 10 .4093.
the insulation thickness and bulk density for 85% Magnesia is 1 inch and 12 lb/ft2 respectively t ins 1inch 0.22 3 3 ft m Approximate volume of insulation V L d o t ins d o 2 2 67 . table 8.Table 2.30480. Walas.2 Insulation of 85% Magnesia or Equivalent up to 600oF Pipe size Standard (m) thickness (in) Double standard thickness (in) 3 (in) 1233 0.0254m 12 lb kg 192.3 Thermal conductivities of insulating materials for high temperatures From Table 2.8382 11/2 Table above was taken from Chemical Process Equipment Selection and Design. Stanley M.22) Insulation thickness was selected to be 1 inch (0.2 and Table 2. page 224.3.0254m) Table 2.
37 = 325.02570 m3 Wins Vg Wins 0.37 = 2930.70450.out = 293G 0.53 0.5.7045 kg/m3 = 0.in 0.4619 N 0.48720.53 Diameter pipe for water inlet (shell).53 0. G = 0.37 68 .0195 0.7403 0.4872 kg/m3 Flow rate inlet.37 = 284.12 Pipe selection for nozzle Pipe size for steam inlet (shell) Material of construction = carbon steel Density of steam inlet. ρ = 0.0254 0.4426kN 3.4053 mm Pipe size for ammonia inlet (tube) Material of construction = stainless steel Density of ammonia inlet = 0.229.9883 mm Pipe size for water outlet (shell) Material of construction Density of steam outlet Flow rate outlet.7403 kg/s = 293G 0.5638N 18. DNH3 .7403 0. G = 0.04846kN Total weight of Heat Exchanger: WT WV Wt Wins WT 1884.53 0.53 0.V 50.in = 293G 0. Dwater. G = carbon steel = 0.7403 kg/s Diameter pipe for water outlet (shell).9672 16509.8139 kg/m3 Flow rate inlet.4619 WT 18442.1347 48.02570192.6842 kg/s Diameter pipe for ammonia inlet (tube).0195 2 2 V 0.81 48.37 = 2930. Dwater.
Standard flanges for inlet water Diameter water inlet pipe Standard o.53 0.7367 mm 3.13 Standard flanges Flanges joints are used for connecting pipes and instruments to vessel. The dimensions of weldingneck flanges is chosen base on the nominal pipe size of the nozzle pipe.81390. Flanges joint are also used to connect pipe to equipments such as pumps and valves.53 0. where flange are likely to be subjected to temperature. G = 0.out = 293G 0. Flanged may also be used on the vessel body. when it is necessary to divide the vessel into sections for transport or maintenance. DNH3 .37 = 258.37 = 287. Weldingneck flanges and branch are suitable for extreme service conditions. shear and vibration loads. This gradual transition of the section reduces the discontinuity stresses between the flange and branch and increases the strength of the flange assembly.d pipe = = 325.5. They will normally be specified for the connections and nozzles on process equipment.53 0.5850 mm Pipe size for ammonia outlet (tube) Material of construction = stainless steel Density of ammonia outlet = 0.6842 0. weldingneck flanges are used. for manholes cover and for removable vessel head when ease of access is required. It is because weldingneck flanges have along tapered hub between the flange ring and the welded joint.6842 kg/s Diameter pipe for ammonia outlet (tube). For the design of this heat exchanger.37 = 2930.9883 mm 355.6842 0.60980. All dimensions are listed below.= 2930.6 mm 69 . Flanges range in size from a few millimeters diameter for small pipes to several meters diameter for those used as body or head flanges on vessels.6098 kg/m3 Flow rate outlet.
5. d1 323.9 Flange D 440 b 22 hi 62 Raised face d4 F 365 4 Bolting No. size 300 Pipe o. Support should be design to allow easy access to the 70 .9 Flange D 440 b 22 hi 62 Raised face d4 F 365 4 Bolting No. Pipe size o. size 350 Pipe o. vessel location and arrangement.d.d pipe = = 287.5850 mm Nom.9 mm Nom. d1 323.d. and the internal and external fittings. 12 Drilling d2 22 k 395 d3 342 Neck h2 15 r 12 M20 Standard flanges for inlet ammonia Diameter ammonia inlet pipe Standard o.4053 mm 323. 12 Drilling d2 18 k 335 d3 290 Neck h2 15 r 12 M16 Standard flanges for outlet ammonia Diameter ammonia outlet pipe Standard o. size 300 Pipe o.6 Flange D 490 b 22 hi 62 Raised face d4 f 415 4 Bolting No.d. d1 355. 16 Drilling d2 22 k 495 d3 438 Neck h2 15 r 12 M20 Standard flanges for outlet water Diameter water outlet pipe = Standard o.d pipe = 273 mm = 258.d pipe = 284.14 Design of saddles Determination of support for a vessel will be depending on the design temperature and pressure.Nom.9 mm Nom. 12 Drilling d2 22 k 395 d3 342 Neck h2 15 r 12 M20 3.7367 mm 323.d. d1 250 273 Flange D 375 b 22 hi 60 Raised face d4 f 312 3 Bolting No.
The design of saddle depends on the weight of vessel.6m is taken since it is the smallest value and the maximum weight is not exceeded. Since heater is a horizontal arrangement.15 Baffles Baffles are used in the shell to direct the fluid flow across tube and increase the fluid velocity.095 t2 6 t1 5 mm Bolt diamete r 20 Bolt holes 2 3.6 Maximum weight (kN) 35 Dimension (m) V 0. baffle cut of 20%25% will be optimum. When the fluid velocity increases.5.406 m Nb = = = length of tube / inside diameter shell 5000 / 406 12. the total weight is 18. The assembly of baffles and tubes are hold together by support rods and spacers. For outer shell diameter.vessel for inspection and maintenance. Type = single segmental Baffle diameter = 0.190 G 0.55 E 0.26 from Coulson & Rochardson’s Volume 6. which is the weight of the heater itself. Baffle cut used to specify the dimensions of a segmental baffle.48 Y 0. Vessel diamete r (m) 0.15 C 0.24 J 0. The value will give good heat transfer rate without excessive drop. From the value of weight. The saddle must be designed to withstand he load imposed by the weight of the vessel and its contents.4426 kN. The most commonly used type of baffle is the singlesegmental baffle.3 ≈ 13 baffles 71 . Dshell is 0. From previous calculation of heater weight. saddle support is chosen as the support.406m so 0. it is improving the rate of heat transfer. Generally. the dimensions of saddle choose as referred to Figure 13.
7367 mm Types of baffles = Single segmental Number of baffle segmental = 13 72 .4053 mm Diameter pipe for ammonia inlet = 258.88 N/mm2 Design temperature = 182 oC Material of construction = Carbon steel Minimum thickness of cylindrical section of the shell = 3.2642 N/mm2 Circumferential stress = 26.5850 mm Diameter pipe for ammonia outlet = 287.3538 mm ≈ 4 mm Longitudinal stress = 53.6317 N/mm2 Minimum thickness of vessel head = 4.9883 mm Diameter pipe for steam outlet = 284.Summary of design Design pressure = 0.3767 mm ≈ 5 mm Diameter pipe for steam inlet = 325.
3.5 ABSORBER 3.5. In this case stainless steel type 304 is selected.3.2 Materials of Construction As one of the process material involve is ammonium nitrate.5. the material of construction of the column is required to be corrosion resistant.1 Operating and Design Temperature and Pressure This column operates at temperature of 66. to avoid spurious operation during minor process upset. with due allowance for any uncertainty involved in predicting vessel wall temperatures.81°C and pressure of 1 atm. The design temperature at which the design stress is evaluated is taken as the maximum operating temperature of the material. Table Typical design stresses for plate (The appropriate material standards should be consulted for particular grades and plate thicknesses) 73 . The design pressure will be 10% above the operating pressure.
5.5. N/mm2 = internal pressure.5.1 Flat Head Calculating the minimum thickness required: where Cp = design constant = 0.e. N/mm2 For corrosive process material i.3. mm = internal diameter of column.4 Column Head 3. ammonium nitrate solution.4.e.55 for plate welded to the end of the shell De = nominal plate diameter. corrosion allowance of 4 mm is included: 3. mm = Di F = design stress. corrosion allowance of 4 mm is included: 74 . N/mm2 For corrosive process material i.3 Column Wall Thickness Calculating the cylindrical column wall thickness: e Where e Di f Pi Pi Di 2 f Pi = minimum thickness required. ammonium nitrate solution. mm = design stress.
5. corrosion allowance of 4 mm is included: 75 .e.2 Ellipsoidal head Calculating the minimum thickness required: Where J = joint factor = 1 for no joints. For corrosive process material i. ammonium nitrate solution.06Rc = joint factor = 1 for no joints For corrosive process material i.3 Torispherical head Calculating the minimum thickness required: Where Cs Rc Rk J = stress concentration factor = = crown radius = Di = knuckle radius = 0.e. ammonium nitrate solution.4.4.5. corrosion allowance of 4 mm is included: 3.3.
1. Where Wv Cv Hv t Dm = total weight of the shell.5 The design of Column subject to Combined Loading The main sources of load to be considered are dead weight loads and wind.15 for absorption column = height of cylindrical section. excluding internal fittings. it can be concluded that either ellipsoidal or torispherical head are suitable to be choose due to the economical factor since both require minimum thickness compared to flat head. the major sources of dead weight loads include vessel shell. piping). kN = factor to account for the weight of the internal supports = 1. W v For a steel vessel. platforms. mm = mean diameter. 3. m = wall thickness.5.5.2 + (5 × 103) m = 1.1 Dead Weight Loads 3.Type of Head Flat head Ellipsoidal head Torispherical head Minimum Thickness.5.205 m 76 . internal fittings (packed bed) and external fittings (ladders. 3.1 Dead weight of vessel. m = Di + (t × 103) = 1.5. e 22mm 5mm 5mm By comparing the minimum thickness of these different type heads. Meanwhile.5.
Weight of packed bed.7 kN/m2 × 2. Uw Pw = 0.9) kN = 17. Wp Surface area of packing. Ap = a × Vp = 95 m2/m3× 0.2 Dead weight of Packed Bed.0283 m3 = 2.3.2 Wind Loads Wind loading will only be important on tall columns installed in the open.05 Uw2 = 0. the vessel under wind loading acts as cantilever beam. W p = 1.5663 + 0. Under this conditions.0467 kN Total of Dead Weight Loads 3. the following equation is used: . Wfitting = 150 N/m × 6 m = 900 N = 0.6861 m2 = 4.7 kN/m2 × Ap = 1.6861 m2 For vertical column. Columns are usually free standing. steel platform = 1.7 kN/m2 area.1. Weight of the ladder is estimated to be 150 N/m lengths.5.3 Weight of External Fittings. Vp = 95 m2/m3 = = = 0. W fitting External fitting used is plain steel ladder. Take wind speed.05 (160)2 = 1280 N/m2 77 = 160 km/h To estimate the wind pressure.5.5804 + 4.5.0283 m3 Area of packed bed.1. Therefore. mounted on skirt support and not attached to structural steel work.5.5663 kN 3.9 kN = W v + W p + W fittings = (11. a Approximation volume of packed bed.5.5.
Fw = Pw × Deff = 1280 N/m2 × 1.5.005) m = 1. N/mm2 = circumferential stress due to pressure.6 Analysis of Stresses At bottom tangent line.2 Nm 3. Pressure stress: and Where σL σh P Di t = longitudinal stress due to pressure. N/mm2 = column diameter.Effective column diameter. mm Dead weight stress (compressive): 78 .4 N/m Bending moment at bottom tangent line. Deff = Dm + 2t = (1.205 m = 1542. = 27763.205 m Loading per unit length of column. mm = column wall thickness. N/mm2 = operating pressure.2 + 0.
the principal stresses will be σz and σh The radial stress is negligible ≈ (Pi/2) = 0. mm The resultant longitudinal stress: σw is compressive and therefore negative As no torsional shear stress.Bending stress: Where Mx Iv Do Di = bending moment at bottom tangent line. Nmm mm4 = second moment of area of the vessel about the plane of bending = outer diameter of column.0507 N/mm2 The greatest difference between the principal stresses will be on the downwind side = σh – σz (downwind) 79 . mm = inner diameter of column.
Well below the maximum allowable design stress (165 N/mm2) 3. thus the design is acceptable.6118 + 4.000 N/mm2 : 17.2 m : 200. σc = 82. fs Skirt height Young modulus Total weight of vessel Wind loading : Straight cylindrical skirt : 90° : Carbon Steel : 135 N/mm2 : 1.5.4 N/m The maximum dead weight on the skirt will occur when the vessel is full of water.6446 N/mm2 When the vessel is not under pressure. the maximum compressive stress will occur: Maximum stress = σw + σb = (0.8890) N/mm2 = 5.7 Elastic Stability (Buckling) The critical buckling stress.8 Design of Vessel Support (Skirt Design) Type of support θs Material of construction Design stress. 3. 80 .5008 N/mm2 The maximum stress is below critical buckling stress.0467 kN : 1542.5.
Dead weight in the skirt.9823 + 6. Maximum σs (compressive) = σbs + σws(test) = (6.9583 N/mm2 81 .9760) N/mm2 = 13.Total weight: Wtotal = W vessel + W app = (17.5691) kN = 83. σws The resulting stress in the skirt. take skirt thickness as the same as the thickness of the column wall. σbs: As for the first trial.0467 + 66. ts = 5 mm.6158 kN Bending moment at skirt base: Bending stress in skirt.
Maximum σs (tensile)
= σbs + σws(operating) = (6.9823 + 1.7864) N/mm2 = 8.7687 N/mm2
General consideration for skirt design: Take joint factor, J = 0.85 σs (tensile) 8.7687 N/mm2 8.7687 N/mm2 < < < fs J sin θ (135 N/mm2)(0.85)(sin 90°) 114.75 N/mm2
σs (compressive) < 13.9583 N/mm2 < 13.9583 N/mm2 < 104.17 N/mm2
Both criteria are satisfied, add 2 mm for corrosion allowance, ts 3.5.9 = 5 mm + 2 mm = 7 mm
Base Ring and Anchor Bolts
Assume pitch circle diameter Circumference of bolt circle Recommended spacing between bolts Minimum number of bolts required, Nb Closest multiple of 4, Nb Bending moment at base skirt, Ms Total weight of vessel, Wt Take bolt design stress, fb The bolt area required is given by:
= 2.2 m = 2200π = 600 mm = = 12 bolts = = 17.0467 kN = 125 N/mm2
82
Use bolts standard diameter = 30 mm Use M24 bolts (BS4190:1967) root area = 353 mm2 Total compressive load on the base ring per unit length,
The minimum width of the base ring:
Where Lb fc foundation
= base ring width, mm = maximum allowable bearing pressure on the concrete
pad (typically range from 3.5 to 7 N/mm2)
Table Anchor bolt chair design
83
Actual width required: Lb = Lr + ts +50 mm = (76 + 7 + 50) mm = 133 mm Actual bearing pressure on concrete foundation:
Base ring thickness:
Where f’c fr 140 N/mm2
= actual bearing pressure on base, N/mm2 = allowable design stress in the ring material, typically
3.5.10 Piping and Flanges Design
Optimum diameter of flange:
Where G ρmix
= Fluid flowrate, kg/s = Density of fluid mixture, kg/m3
Nozzle thickness:
Where Ps σ N/mm2
= operating pressure, N/mm2 = 0.1013 N/mm2 = Design stress at operating temperature, N/mm2 = 165
84
Pipe (kg/s) Bottom inlet Top inlet Top outlet Bottom outlet
Flowrate,
G (kg/m3)
Fluid density, ρ
2.2300 0.6944 1.6125 1.3119
0.1584 1003.6 0.0356 1276.3
Bottom inlet:
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,
Top inlet:
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,
Top outlet:
Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm,
85
81°C 86 .11 Summary of Mechanical Design Types Design pressure Design Temperature Cylindrical Material Tensile strength Design stress Types of head Height head Thickness Corrosion allowed Column weight Dead weight Weight of insulation Weight of packed bed Weight of external fittings Total weight Wind loading Loading Analysis stress Dead weight stress Bending stress Critical buckling 0.5804 kN NA 4.6118 N/mm2 4.5 m 5 mm 2 mm Packed Column 0.8890 N/mm2 82.1115 N/mm2 66.4 N/m 11.5663 kN 0.0467 kN Stainless Steel Type 304 510 N/mm2 165 N/mm2 Ellipsoidal @ Torispherical 0.5.9 kN 17.6446 N/mm2 1542. 3.Bottom outlet: Add corrosion allowance of 4 mm.
42mm 23.79 mm 1290.2 m 83.18 mm 18.979 kNm 7 mm 87 .93 mm sizing (Diameter 12 bolts 125 N/mm2 353 m2 30 mm M24 bolts (BS4190:1967) 90° Carbon Steel 135 N/mm2 1.Vessel supports Straight cylindrical skirt Material Design stress Skirt height Total weight Bending moment Thickness Anchor bolts Bolts Design stress Area Bolts root diameter Types Piping Optimum) Bottom inlet Top inlet Top outlet Bottom outlet 879.6158 kN 39.
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