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Surveying - Traverse Calculations

1/14

Surveying - Traverse

Introduction

♦ Almost all surveying requires some calculations to reduce measurements into a more useful form for determining distance, earthwork volumes, land areas, etc. ♦ A traverse is developed by measuring the distance and angles between points that found the boundary of a site ♦ We will learn several different techniques to compute the area inside a traverse

Distance - Traverse

Methods of Computing Area

♦ A simple method that is useful for rough area estimates is a graphical method ♦ In this method, the traverse is plotted to scale on graph paper, and the number of squares inside the traverse are counted

D B

A C

Distance - Traverse

Methods of Computing Area

B a A α c C b

Distance - Traverse

Methods of Computing Area

1 ac sin α 2

B a A d c D α b β

Area ABC =

Area ABD =

C

1 ad sin α 2 1 2

Area BCD = bc sin β

Area ABCD = Area ABD + Area BCD

Distance - Traverse

Methods of Computing Area

B a A e d E α b C c β

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Angles

♦ Before the areas of a piece of land can be computed, it is necessary to have a closed traverse ♦ The interior angles of a closed traverse should total:

1 Area ABE = ae sin α 2

D

Area CDE = cd sin β

1 2

(n - 2)(180°)

where n is the number of sides of the traverse

♦ To compute Area BCD more data is required

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

2/14

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Angles

A Error of closure

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Angles

♦ A surveying heuristic is that the total angle should not vary from the correct value by more than the square root of the number of angles measured times the precision of the instrument ♦ For example an eight-sided traverse using a 1’ transit, the maximum error is:

B

D

±1' 8 = ±2.83' = ±3'

C Angle containing mistake

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Angles

♦ If the angles do not close by a reasonable amount, mistakes in measuring have been made ♦ If an error of 1’ is made, the surveyor may correct one angle by 1’ ♦ If an error of 2’ is made, the surveyor may correct two angles by 1’ each ♦ If an error of 3’ is made in a 12 sided traverse, the surveyor may correct each angle by 3’/12 or 15”

W

Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures

♦ The closure of a traverse is checked by computing the latitudes and departures of each of it sides

N Latitude AB E A S Departure AB W C Latitude CD S D B N Bearing ∠

Departure CD

E

Bearing ∠

Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures

♦ The latitude of a line is its projection on the north– south meridian

N Latitude AB W Bearing ∠ A S E Departure AB B

Surveying - Traverse

Error of Closure

♦ Consider the following statement:

“If start at one corner of a closed traverse and walk its lines until you return to your starting point, you will have walked as far north as you walked south and as far east as you have walked west”

♦ The departure of a line is its projection on the east– west line ♦ A northeasterly bearing has a + latitude and + departure

♦ Therefore --

Σ latitudes = 0

and

Σ departures = 0

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

3/14

Surveying - Traverse

Error of Closure

♦ When latitudes are added together, the resulting error is called the error in latitudes (EL) ♦ The error resulting from adding departures together is called the error in departures (ED)

Surveying - Traverse

Error of Closure

♦ If the measured bearings and distances are plotted on a sheet of paper, the figure will not close because of EL and ED

B ED EL A

Error of closure

Eclosure =

C

(E L )

2

+ (ED )

2

Precision =

perimeter

Eclosure

D

♦ Typical precision: 1/5,000 for rural land, 1/7,500 for suburban land, and 1/10,000 for urban land

Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures - Example

A N 42° 59’ E

234.58’

Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures - Example

N

S 6° 15’ W

189.53’

Departure AB W S 6° 15’ W

189.53’

B E

142.39’

A

**− = (189.53 ft ) sin(6o15') = −20.63 ft W
**

E Latitude AB

S 29° 38’ E

175.18’ 175.18’

N 12° 24’ W

D N 81° 18’ W

**−S = (189.53 ft ) cos(6o15') = −188.40 ft
**

S

C

B

Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures - Example

N Departure BC W B

175.18’

Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures - Example

Side AB BC CD DE EA S S N N N Bearing

degree m inutes

**Length (ft) W E W W E 189.53 175.18 197.78 142.39 234.58 939.46
**

2

**Latitude -188.403 -152.268 29.916 139.068 171.607 -0.079
**

2

Departure -20.634 86.617 -195.504 -30.576 159.933 -0.163

**+E = (175.18 ft ) sin(29o38') = 86.62 ft
**

E Latitude BC

6 29 81 12 42

15 38 18 24 59

S 29° 38’ E C S

Eclosure =

o

(E L )

2

+ (ED ) =

2

( −0.079 )

+ ( −0.163)

= 0.182 ft

−S = (175.18 ft ) cos(29 38') = −152.27 ft

Precision =

perimeter

Eclosure

=

0.181 ft 1 = 939.46 ft 5,176

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

4/14

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 1

A N 29° 16’ E

660.5’

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 1

♦ Compute the latitudes, departures, Eclosure, and the precision for the following traverse.

B

Side AB BC CD DE S S N N Bearing

degree m inutes

S 77° 10’ E

651.2’

Length (ft) E W W E 651.2 826.7 491.0 660.5 2629.4

Latitude -144.642 -645.031 214.084 576.190 0.601

Departure 634.933 -517.076 -441.870 322.902 -1.110

S 38° 43’ W D

491.0’ 826.7’

77 38 64 29

10 43 9 16

N 64° 09’ W C

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 1

Eclosure =

Side AB BC CD DE S S N N

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

2

(E L )

2

+ (ED ) =

2

( 0.601 )

2

+ ( −1.110 )

= 1.262 ft

Departure 634.933 -517.076 -441.870 322.902 -1.110

♦ Balancing the latitudes and departures of a traverse is to attempt to obtain more probable values for the locations of the corners of the traverse ♦ A popular method for balancing errors is called the compass or the Bowditch rule

♦ The ‘Bowditch rule’ was devised by Nathaniel Bowditch, surveyor, navigator and mathematician, as a proposed solution to the problem of compass traverse adjustment, which was posed in the American journal The Analyst in 1807

Bearing

degree m inutes

Length (ft) E W W E 651.2 826.7 491.0 660.5 2629.4

Latitude -144.642 -645.031 214.084 576.190 0.601

77 38 64 29

10 43 9 16

Precision =

perimeter

Eclosure

=

1.262 ft 1 = 4.800 × 10 −4 = 2, 629.4 ft 2,083

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

♦ The compass method assumes: 1) angles and distances have same error 2) errors are accidental ♦ The rule states:

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

A N 42° 59’ E

234.58’

S 6° 15’ W

189.53’

B E

142.39’

“The error in latitude (departure) of a line is to the total error in latitude (departure) as the length of the line is the perimeter of the traverse”

S 29° 38’ E

175.18’ 175.18’

N 12° 24’ W

D N 81° 18’ W

C

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

5/14

Surveying - Traverse

Latitudes and Departures - Example

♦ Recall the results of our example problem

Side AB BC CD DE EA S S N N N Bearing

degree m inutes

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

N Latitude AB

Departure -20.634 86.617 -195.504 -30.576 159.933 -0.163

Length (ft) W E W W E 189.53 175.18 197.78 142.39 234.58 939.46

Latitude -188.403 -152.268 29.916 139.068 171.607 -0.079

W S 6° 15’ W

189.53’

A

**−S = (189.53 ft ) cos(6o15') = −188.40 ft
**

E

6 29 81 12 42

15 38 18 24 59

Correction in LatAB

EL

=

perimeter

LAB

Correction in LatAB =

S

B

perimeter

EL ( LAB )

Correction in LatAB =

+0.079 ft (189.53 ft ) 939.46 ft

= +0.016 ft

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

N Departure AB W S 6° 15’ W

189.53’

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

N Latitude BC

o

A

**− = (189.53 ft ) sin(6 15') = −20.63 ft W
**

E

**−S = (175.18 ft ) cos(29o38') = −152.27 ft
**

W B

175.18’

Correction in DepAB

ED

=

perimeter perimeter

S

LAB

E

Correction in LatBC

EL

=

perimeter

LBC

Correction in DepAB =

S

ED ( LAB )

S 29° 38’ E C

Correction in LatBC =

B

perimeter

EL ( LBC )

Correction in DepAB =

+0.163 ft (189.53 ft ) 939.46 ft

= +0.033 ft

Correction in LatBC =

+0.079 ft (175.18 ft ) 939.46 ft

= +0.015 ft

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

N Departure BC

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

Length (ft)

o

Latitude -188.403 -152.268 29.916 139.068 171.607 -0.079

Departure -20.634 86.617 -195.504 -30.576 159.933 -0.163

Corrections Latitude Departure 0.016 0.015 0.017 0.012 0.020 0.033 0.030 0.034 0.025 0.041

Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 0.000 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 0.000

+E = (175.18 ft ) sin(29 38') = 86.62 ft

W B

175.18’

E

Correction in DepBC

ED

=

perimeter perimeter

LBC

S 29° 38’ E C S

Correction in DepBC =

ED ( LBC )

189.53 175.18 197.78 142.39 234.58 939.46

Correction in DepBC =

+0.163 ft (175.18 ft ) 939.46 ft

Corrections computed on previous slides

= +0.030 ft

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

6/14

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

Length (ft) 189.53 175.18 197.78 142.39 234.58 939.46 Latitude -188.403 -152.268 29.916 139.068 171.607 -0.079 Departure -20.634 86.617 -195.504 -30.576 159.933 -0.163 Corrections Latitude Departure 0.016 0.015 0.017 0.012 0.020 0.033 0.030 0.034 0.025 0.041 Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 0.000 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 0.000

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

Length (ft) 189.53 175.18 197.78 142.39 234.58 939.46 Latitude -188.403 -152.268 29.916 139.068 171.607 -0.079 Departure -20.634 86.617 -195.504 -30.576 159.933 -0.163 Corrections Latitude Departure 0.016 0.015 0.017 0.012 0.020 0.033 0.030 0.034 0.025 0.041 Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 0.000 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 0.000

Corrected latitudes and departures

No error in corrected latitudes and departures

Surveying - Traverse

Balancing Latitudes and Departures

♦ Combining the latitude and departure calculations with corrections gives:

Side AB S BC S CD N DE N EA N Bearing

degree minutes

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 2

♦ Balance the latitudes and departures for the following traverse.

Corrections Balanced Length (ft) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure 600.0 450.0 750.0 1800.0 450.00 -285.00 -164.46 0.54 339.00 259.50 -599.22 -0.72 -0.18 -0.13 -0.22 0.24 0.18 0.30 449.82 -285.14 -164.69 0.00 339.24 259.68 -598.92 0.00

Length (ft) Latitude W E W W E 189.53 175.18 197.78 142.39 234.58 939.46 -188.403 -152.268 29.916 139.068 171.607 -0.079

Departure -20.634 86.617 -195.504 -30.576 159.933 -0.163

Corrections Latitude Departure 0.016 0.015 0.017 0.012 0.020 0.033 0.030 0.034 0.025 0.041

Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 0.000 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 0.000

6 29 81 12 42

15 38 18 24 59

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 2

♦ Balance the latitudes and departures for the following traverse.

Corrections Balanced Length (ft) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure Latitude Departure

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 3

♦ In the survey of your assign site in Project #3, you will have to balance data collected in the following form:

A N N 69° 53’ E

51° 23’ 713.93’

B

105° 39’ 606.06’

600.0 450.0 750.0 1800.0

450.00 -285.00 -164.46 0.54

339.00 259.50 -599.22 -0.72

-0.18 -0.13 -0.22

0.24 0.18 0.30

449.82 -285.14 -164.69 0.00

339.24 259.68 -598.92 0.00

781.18’ 124° 47’

78° 11’

C

D

391.27’

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

7/14

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 3

♦ The first step is to compute the bearings for each side.

A N N 69° 53’ E

51° 23’ 713.93’

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 3

♦ Find the bearing of side DA:

N

N 69° 53’ E

B

105° 39’ 606.06’

α = 180° - 69° 53’ - 51° 23’ B α = 58° 44’

W A

51° 23’

781.18’ 124° 47’

78° 11’

N α D

DA = N 58° 44’ W

C S

α

D

391.27’

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 3

♦ Find the bearing of side BC:

N N

N 69° 53’ E

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 3

♦ Find the bearing of side CD:

N

α = 105° 39’ - 69° 53’ B α α = 35° 46’

S 35° 46’ E

B

35° 46’

N

35° 46’

α = 180° - 78° 11’ - 35° 46’ α = 66° 03’

W A

°105 39’

C BC = S 35° 46’ E

W

78° 11’

C α

CD = S 66° 03’ W

S

D

S

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 3

♦ In the survey of your assign site in Project #3, you will have to balance data collected in the following form:

Side AB BC CD DA N S S N Bearing

degree m inutes

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 3

♦ In the survey of your assign site in Project #3, you will have to balance data collected in the following form:

Side AB BC CD DA N S S N Bearing

degree m inutes

Corrections Length (ft) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure E E W W 713.93 606.06 391.27 781.18 2492.44 245.544 -491.760 -158.832 405.450 0.402 670.376 354.233 -357.582 -667.722 -0.694 -0.115 -0.098 -0.063 -0.126 0.199 0.169 0.109 0.218

Balanced Latitude Departure 245.429 -491.857 -158.895 405.323 0.000 670.575 354.402 -357.473 -667.505 0.000

Corrections Length (ft) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure E E W W 713.93 606.06 391.27 781.18 2492.44 245.544 -491.760 -158.832 405.450 0.402 670.376 354.233 -357.582 -667.722 -0.694 -0.115 -0.098 -0.063 -0.126 0.199 0.169 0.109 0.218

Balanced Latitude Departure 245.429 -491.857 -158.895 405.323 0.000 670.575 354.402 -357.473 -667.505 0.000

69 35 66 58

53 46 3 44

69 35 66 58

53 46 3 44

Eclosure = Precision =

0.802 ft 1 3,107

Eclosure =

0.802 ft 1 3,107

Precision =

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

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Surveying - Traverse

Calculating Traverse Area

♦ The best–known procedure for calculating land areas is the double meridian distance (DMD) method ♦ The meridian distance of a line is the east–west distance from the midpoint of the line to the reference meridian ♦ The meridian distance is positive (+) to the east and negative (-) to the west

Surveying - Traverse

Calculating Traverse Area

N

N 42° 59’ E

234.58’

A S 6° 15’ W

189.53’

B E

142.39’

S 29° 38’ E

175.18’ 175.18’

Reference Meridian

N 12° 24’ W

D N 81° 18’ W

C

Surveying - Traverse

Calculating Traverse Area

♦ The most westerly and easterly points of a traverse may be found using the departures of the traverse ♦ Begin by establishing a arbitrary reference line and using the departure values of each point in the traverse to determine the far westerly point

Surveying - Traverse

Calculating Traverse Area

Length (ft) 189.53 175.18 197.78 142.39 234.58 939.46 Latitude -188.403 -152.268 29.916 139.068 171.607 -0.079 Departure -20.634 86.617 -195.504 -30.576 159.933 -0.163 Corrections Latitude Departure 0.016 0.015 0.017 0.012 0.020 0.033 0.030 0.034 0.025 0.041 Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 0.000 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 0.000

-20.601

B B

A

86.648

D

-30.551

-195.470

C C

E E

D

159.974

A

Point E is the farthest to the west

Surveying - Traverse

Calculating Traverse Area

N

Reference Meridian N 42° 59’ E

234.58’

Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations

N

A

A S 6° 15’ W

189.53’

**♦ The meridian distance of line EA is: N
**

A

B E

142.39’

E

Reference Meridian

B

S 29° 38’ E

175.18’ 175.18’

N 12° 24’ W D N 81° 18’ W

D

C

E

C

DMD of line EA is the departure of line

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

9/14

Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations

N

Meridian distance of line AB

Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations

Meridian distance of line AB

♦ The meridian distance of line AB is equal to: the meridian distance of EA + ½ the departure of line EA + ½ departure of AB ♦ The DMD of line AB is twice the meridian distance of line AB

E

♦ The DMD of any side is equal

N

A

A

to the DMD of the last side plus the departure of the last side plus the departure of the present side

E

B

B

Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD -20.601

Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 + 86.648 + -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD -20.601 45.447

♦ The DMD of line AB is departure of line AB

♦ The DMD of line BC is DMD of line AB + departure of line AB + the departure of line BC

Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 + -195.470 + -30.551 159.974 DMD -20.601 45.447 -63.375

Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 DMD -20.601 -20.601 45.447 86.648 -195.470 + -63.375 -30.551 + -289.397 159.974

♦ The DMD of line CD is DMD of line BC + departure of line BC + the departure of line CD

♦ The DMD of line DE is DMD of line CD + departure of line CD + the departure of line DE

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

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Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 DMD -20.601 -20.601 45.447 86.648 -63.375 -195.470 -30.551 + -289.397 159.974 + -159.974

Surveying - Traverse

DMD Calculations

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD -20.601 45.447 -63.375 -289.397 -159.974

♦ The DMD of line EA is DMD of line DE + departure of line DE + the departure of line EA

♦ Notice that the DMD values can be positive or negative

Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area

♦ The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude equal twice the area, or the double area

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD Double Areas -20.601 3,881 45.447 -63.375 -289.397 -159.974

Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area

♦ The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude equal twice the area, or the double area

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD Double Areas -20.601 3,881 -6,919 45.447 -63.375 -289.397 -159.974

♦ The double area for line AB equals DMD of line AB times the latitude of line AB

♦ The double area for line BC equals DMD of line BC times the latitude of line BC

Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area

♦ The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude equal twice the area, or the double area

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD Double Areas -20.601 3,881 -6,919 45.447 -1,897 -63.375 -289.397 -159.974

Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area

♦ The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude equal twice the area, or the double area

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD Double Areas -20.601 3,881 -6,919 45.447 -1,897 -63.375 -40,249 -289.397 -159.974

♦ The double area for line CD equals DMD of line CD times the latitude of line CD

♦ The double area for line DE equals DMD of line DE times the latitude of line DE

CIVL 1112

Surveying - Traverse Calculations

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Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area

♦ The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude equal twice the area, or the double area

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD Double Areas -20.601 3,881 -6,919 45.447 -1,897 -63.375 -40,249 -289.397 -27,456 -159.974

Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area

♦ The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude equal twice the area, or the double area

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD Double Areas -20.601 3,881 45.447 -6,919 -63.375 -1,897 -289.397 -40,249 -159.974 -27,456 2 Area = -72,641

♦ The double area for line EA equals DMD of line EA times the latitude of line EA

1 acre = 43,560 ft2

Area =

36,320 ft2 0.834 acre

Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area

♦ The sum of the products of each points DMD and latitude equal twice the area, or the double area

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Departure -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 DMD Double Areas -20.601 3,881 45.447 -6,919 -63.375 -1,897 -289.397 -40,249 -159.974 -27,456 2 Area = -72,641

Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area

♦ The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer (originally meaning "open field", cognate to Swedish "åker", German Acker, Latin ager and Greek αγρος (agros). ♦ The acre was selected as approximately the amount of land tillable by one man behind an ox in one day. ♦ This explains one definition as the area of a rectangle with sides of length one chain and one furlong.

1 acre = 43,560 ft2

Area =

36,320 ft 0.834 acre

2

Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area - Double Area

♦ The word "acre" is derived from Old English æcer (originally meaning "open field", cognate to Swedish "åker", German Acker, Latin ager and Greek αγρος (agros). ♦ A long narrow strip of land is more efficient to plough than a square plot, since the plough does not have to be turned so often. ♦ The word "furlong" itself derives from the fact that it is one furrow long.

Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area – Example 4

♦ Find the area enclosed by the following traverse

Balanced Latitude Departure DMD AB BC CD DE EA 600.0 100.0 0.0 -400.0 -300.0 200.0 400.0 100.0 -300.0 -400.0 2 Area = ft 2 acre Double Areas

Side

1 acre = 43,560 ft2

Area =

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Surveying - Traverse Calculations

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Surveying - Traverse

Traverse Area – Example 4

♦ Find the area enclosed by the following traverse

Balanced Latitude Departure 600.0 100.0 0.0 -400.0 -300.0 200.0 400.0 100.0 -300.0 -400.0 DMD Double Areas 200.0 120,000 800.0 80,000 1300.0 0 1100.0 -440,000 400.0 -120,000 2 Area = -360,000

Surveying - Traverse

DPD Calculations

♦ The same procedure used for DMD can be used the double parallel distances (DPD) are multiplied by the balanced departures ♦ The parallel distance of a line is the distance from the midpoint of the line to the reference parallel or east–west line

Side AB BC CD DE EA

1 acre = 43,560 ft2

Area =

180,000 ft2 4.132 acre

Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates

♦ Rectangular coordinates are the convenient method available for describing the horizontal position of survey points ♦ With the application of computers, rectangular coordinates are used frequently in engineering projects ♦ In the US, the x–axis corresponds to the east–west direction and the y–axis to the north–south direction

Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates Example

♦ In this example, the length of AB is 300 ft and bearing is shown in the figure below. Determine the coordinates of point B

y B N 42° 30’ E A

Coordinates of Point A (200, 300)

**Latitude AB =300 ft cos(42°30’) = 221.183 ft Departure
**

AB

=300 ft sin(42°30’) = 202.677 ft

x

x B = 200 + 202.667 = 402.667 ft y B = 300 + 221.183 = 521.183 ft

Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates Example

♦ In this example, it is assumed that the coordinates of points A and B are know and we want to calculate the latitude and departure for line AB

y A

Coordinates of Point A (100, 300)

Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates Example

♦ Consider our previous example, determine the x and y coordinates of all the points

y A

Side AB BC CD DE EA Balanced Latitude Depa rture -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974

**Latitude AB = y B – y A Latitude AB = -400 ft Departure
**

AB AB

= xB – xA = 220 ft

E D

B

B

x

Departure

Coordinates of Point B (320, -100)

C

x

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Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates Example

y A B D C x

Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates Example

y A B D C x

♦ x coordinates E = 0 ft A = E + 159.974 = 159.974 ft B = A – 20.601 = 139.373 ft C = B + 86.648 = 226.021 ft D = C – 195.470 = 30.551 ft E = D – 30.551 = 0 ft

♦ y coordinates C = 0 ft D = C + 29.933 ft E = D + 139.080 = 169.013 ft A = E + 171.627 = 340.640 ft B = A –188.388 = 152.252 ft C = B –152.252 = 0 ft

E

E

Side AB BC CD DE EA

Balanced Latitude Depa rture -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974

Side AB BC CD DE EA

Balanced Latitude Depa rture -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974

Surveying - Traverse

Rectangular Coordinates Example

y A (159.974, 340.640)

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 5

♦ Compute the x and y coordinates from the following balanced.

Side Bearing

degree m inutes

Balanced Length (ft) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure W E W W E 189.53 175.18 197.78 142.39 234.58 939.46 -188.403 -152.268 29.916 139.068 171.607 -0.079 -20.634 86.617 -195.504 -30.576 159.933 -0.163 -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 0.000 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 0.000

Points A B C D E

Coordinates x y 100.000 79.399 166.047 -29.423 -59.974 100.000 -88.388 -240.641 -210.708 -71.627

B (139.373, 152.253) (0.0, 169.013) E

AB BC CD DE EA

S S N N N

6 29 81 12 42

15 38 18 24 59

(30.551, 29.933)

D C (226.020, 0.0) x

Surveying - Traverse

Group Example Problem 5

♦ Compute the x and y coordinates from the following balanced.

Side AB BC CD DE EA S S N N N Bearing

degree m inutes

Surveying - Traverse

Area Computed by Coordinates

♦ The area of a traverse can be computed by taking each y coordinate multiplied by the difference in the two adjacent x coordinates (using a sign convention of + for next side and - for last side)

Balanced Length (ft) Latitude Departure Latitude Departure W E W W E 189.53 175.18 197.78 142.39 234.58 939.46 -188.403 -152.268 29.916 139.068 171.607 -0.079 -20.634 86.617 -195.504 -30.576 159.933 -0.163 -188.388 -152.253 29.933 139.080 171.627 0.000 -20.601 86.648 -195.470 -30.551 159.974 0.000

Points A B C D E

Coordinates x y 100.000 79.399 166.047 -29.423 -59.974 100.000 -88.388 -240.641 -210.708 -71.627

6 29 81 12 42

15 38 18 24 59

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Surveying - Traverse

Area Computed by Coordinates

y A (159.974, 340.640)

Surveying - Traverse

Area Computed by Coordinates

♦ There is a simple variation of the coordinate method for area computation

y A (159.974, 340.640)

**Twice the area equals:
**

= 340.640(139.373 – 0.0) + 152.253(226.020 – 159.974) + 0.0(30.551 – 139.373) + 29.933(0.0 – 226.020) + 169.013(159.974 – 30.551) = 72,640.433 ft2 Area = 36,320.2 ft2

B (139.373, 152.253) (0.0, 169.013) E

x1 y1

B (139.373, 152.253) (0.0, 169.013) E

x2 y2

x3 y3

x4 y4

x5 y5

x1 y1

(30.551, 29.933) D C (226.020, 0.0) x

**Twice the area equals:
**

C (226.020, 0.0) x

(30.551, 29.933) D

= x1y2 + x2y3 + x3y4 + x4y5 + x5y1 - x2y1 – x3y2 – x4y3 – x5y4 – x1y5

Area = 0.853 acre

Surveying - Traverse

Area Computed by Coordinates

♦ There is a simple variation of the coordinate method for area computation

y A (159.974, 340.640)

**End of Surveying - Traverse
**

Any Questions?

**Twice the area equals:
**

159.974(152.253) + 139.373(0.0) + 226.020(29.933) + 30.551(169.013) + 0.0(340.640) - 340.640(139.373) – 152.253(226.020) - 0.0(30.551) – 29.933(0.0) – 169.013(159.974)

B (139.373, 152.253) (0.0, 169.013) E

(30.551, 29.933) D C (226.020, 0.0) x

= -72,640 ft2

Area = 36,320 ft2

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