# COURSE

:
COURSE:
DIGITAL SIGNAL TRANSFORMS &
DIGITAL SIGNAL TRANSFORMS &
APPLICATIONS
APPLICATIONS
Instructor: Hoang Le Uyen Thuc
Electronic and Telecommunication Engineering Department
Danang University of Technology
hoangleut@yahoo.com
Where are you now?
Where are you now?
Where will you go to?
Where will you go to?
Digital Signal
Transforms &
Applications
DSP
FINAL PROJECT
CT Signals
& Systems
You are here
Goals
Goals
1. To provide students the basic digital signal
transforms such as Z-transform, Discrete-Time
Fourier Transform and Discrete Fourier Transform
and their applications in analysis and synthesis of
DSP systems
2. To equip students the basic 2D transforms using in
image processing
1. Homework: 30%
Submit right before the examination
2. Exam: 70%
Things can be brought into the exam. room: pen/pencils,
ruler, eraser, clock, calculator, white drafts, two A4
papers
Each paper is two-side personal writing
Exam. duration: 60 minutes
Textbooks and References
Textbooks and References
Textbook: John G.Proakis & Dimitris G. Manolakis - Digital signal
processing - Prentice Hall, New Jersey 2006
References:
[1] Nguyễn Quốc Trung - Xử lý tín hiệu & lọc số Tập 1- NXB Khoa
học & kỹ thuật, Hà Nội 2001
[2] Joyce Van de Vegte - Fundamentals of Digital Signal
Processing - Prentice Hall 2002
[3] Vinay K.Ingle & John G.Proakis - Digital Signal Processing
using Matlab - Book Ware Companion Series 2007
Schedule:
Schedule:
Chapter 1: Digital Signals and Systems (5 hrs)
Chapter 2: Z-transforms and applications (5 hrs)
Chapter 3: Discrete-time Fourier Transform and applications (5
hrs)
Chapter 4: Discrete Fourier Transform and applications (5 hrs)
Chapter 5: 2D Transforms and application in image processing (5
hrs)
Review and class discussion (5 hrs)
CHAPTER 1:
CHAPTER 1:
DIGITAL SIGNALS & SYSTEMS
DIGITAL SIGNALS & SYSTEMS
Lesson #1: A big picture about Digital Signal Processing
Lesson #2: Digital signals
Lesson #3: Digital systems
Duration: 5 hrs
Lecture #1:
Lecture #1:
A big picture about
A big picture about
Digital Signal Processing
Digital Signal Processing
Duration: 1 hr
Outline:
1. Signals
2. Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
3. Why DSP?
4. DSP applications
Signals
Signals
Function of independent variables such as time, distance,
position, temperature
Convey information
Examples:
1D signal: speech, music, biosensor…
2D signal: image
2.5D signal: video (2D image + time)
3D signal: animated
1
1
-
-
D signals
D signals
Color image
Speech signal
ECG
EEG
2
2
-
-
D image signals
D image signals
Binary image Color image Grey image
2.5
2.5
-
-
D video signals
D video signals
3
3
-
-
D animated signals
D animated signals
What is Digital Signal Processing?
What is Digital Signal Processing?
Represent a signal by a sequence of numbers (called a
"discrete-time signal” or "digital signal").
Modify this sequence of numbers by a computing process
to change or extract information from the original signal
The "computing process" is a system that converts one
digital signal into another— it is a "discrete-time system” or
"digital system“.
Transforms are tools using in computing process
Discrete
Discrete
-
-
time signal vs.
time signal vs.
continuous
continuous
-
-
time signal
time signal
Continuous-time signal:
- define for a continuous duration of time
- sound, voice…
Discrete-time signal:
- define only for discrete points in time (hourly, every
second, …)
- an image in computer, a MP3 music file
- amplitude could be discrete or continuous
- if the amplitude is also discrete, the signal is digital.
Analog signal vs. digital signal
Analog signal vs. digital signal
Analog signal
Digital signal
00 10 00 10 11
Scheme for the Digital Signal Processing
Scheme for the Digital Signal Processing
of an analog signal
of an analog signal
Digital Signal Processing
Digital Signal Processing
Implementation
Implementation
Performed by:
Special-purpose (custom) chips: application-specific integrated
circuits (ASIC)
Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA)
General-purpose microprocessors or microcontrollers (µP/µC)
General-purpose digital signal processors (DSP processors)
DSP processors with application-specific hardware (HW)
accelerators
Digital Signal Processing
Digital Signal Processing
implementation
implementation
Digital Signal Processing
Digital Signal Processing
Implementation
Implementation
Use basic operations of addition,
multiplication and delay
Combine these operations to accomplish
processing: a discrete-time input signal
another discrete-time output signal
Two main categories of DSP
Two main categories of DSP
Analysis Filtering
Measurement
Digital Signals
- feature extraction
- signal recognition
- signal modeling
........
- noise removal
- interference
removal
……
Digital Signals
Signal Analysis and Filtering
Signal Analysis and Filtering
Analysis Filtering
Measurement
Digital Signals
Digital Signals
Transforms:
ZT
DTFT
DFT/FFT
FIR
IIR
Signal Processing
Signal Processing
Flexible: re-programming ability
More reliable
Smaller, lighter less power
Easy to use, to develop and test (by using the
assistant tools)
Suitable to sophisticated applications
Suitable to remote-control applications
Limitations of Digital Signal
Limitations of Digital Signal
Processing
Processing
Aliasing in sampling: taking samples at intervals and don’t
know what happens in between can’t distinguish higher
and lower frequencies avoid: sampling theory
Limitations of Digital Signal
Limitations of Digital Signal
Processing
Processing
Quantization error: due to the limited number of bit
available smoothly varying signal represented by stepped
waveform limited precision in data storage and arithmetic
DSP
DSP applications - radar
DSP applications
DSP applications
-
-
biomedical
biomedical
Analysis of biomedical signals, diagnosis, patient
monitoring, preventive health care
DSP applications
DSP applications

speech compression
speech compression
DSP applications
DSP applications
Speech recognition:
DSP applications
DSP applications
-
-
communication
communication
Digital telephony: transmission of information in
digital form via telephone lines, modern technology,
mobile phone
DSP applications
DSP applications

image processing
image processing
Image enhancement: processing an image to be more
suitable than the original image for a specific application
It makes all the difference whether one sees darkness through It makes all the difference whether one sees darkness through It makes all the difference whether one sees darkness through It makes all the difference whether one sees darkness through
the light or brightness through the shadows the light or brightness through the shadows the light or brightness through the shadows the light or brightness through the shadows
David Lindsay David Lindsay David Lindsay David Lindsay
DSP applications
DSP applications

image processing
image processing
Image compression: reducing the redundancy in the
image data
DSP applications
DSP applications

image processing
image processing
Image restoration: reconstruct a degraded image using a
priori knowledge of the degradation phenomenon
DSP applications
DSP applications
-
-
music
music
Recording, encoding, storing
Playback
Manipulation/mixing
DSP applications
DSP applications
-
-
finger print recognition
finger print recognition
Lecture #2
Lecture #2
Digital (DT) Signals
Digital (DT) Signals
Duration: 2 hrs
Outline:
1. Representations of DT signals
2. Some elementary DT signals
3. Classification of DT signals
4. Simple manipulations of DT signals
Converting a CT signal into a DT signal by sampling: given x
a
(t) to
be a CT signal, x
a
(nT) is the value of x
a
(t) at t = nT DT signal is
defined only for n an integer
∞ < < ∞ − ≡ =
=
n ), n ( x ) nT ( x ) t ( x
a
nT t
a
-2T -T 0 T 2T 3T 4T 5T 6T 7T . . . nT
t
Sampled signals
Sampled signals
n -1 0 1 2 3 4
x[n] 0 0 1 4 1 0
1. Functional representation
¦
¹
¦
´
¦

=
=
=
n , 0
2 n , 4
3 , 1 n , 1
] n [ x
Representations of DT signals
Representations of DT signals
2. Tabular representation
3. Sequence representation
Representations of DT signals
Representations of DT signals
4. Graphical representation
{ } 1 , 4 , 1 , 0 ] [

= n x
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
4
1 1
1. Unit step sequence
2. Unit impulse signal
3. Sinusoidal signal
4. Exponential signal
Some elementary DT signals
Some elementary DT signals
1 0
[ ]
0 0
n
u n
n
. ≥
¦
=
´
. <
¹
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n
1 1 1
Unit step
Unit step
-n
0
-1 n
0
n
0
+1 n
1 1 1
Time
Time
-
-
shifted unit step
shifted unit step
¹
´
¦
<

= −
0
0
0
n n , 0
n n , 1
] n n [ u
Unit impulse
Unit impulse
1 0
[ ]
0 0
n
n
n
δ
. =
¦
=
´
. ≠
¹
-2 -1 0 1 2 3 n
1
Time
Time
-
-
shifted unit impulse
shifted unit impulse
n
0
-1 n
0
n
0
+1 n
1
¹
´
¦

=
= − δ
0
0
0
n n , 0
n n , 1
] n n [
Relation between unit step and
Relation between unit step and
unit impulse
unit impulse
] n [ x ] n n [ ] n [ x
] n n [ ] n [ x ] n n [ ] n [ x
] 1 n [ u ] n [ u ] n [
] k [ ] n [ u
0
n
0
0 0 0
n
k
= − δ
− δ = − δ
− − = δ
δ =

−∞ =
−∞ =
Sinusoidal signal
Sinusoidal signal
+∞ < < ∞ − θ + π =
+∞ < < ∞ − θ + Ω =
n ), n F 2 cos( A
n ), n cos( A ) n ( x
-20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20
-1. 5
-1
-0. 5
0
0. 5
1
1. 5
Exponential signal
Exponential signal
n
Ca ] n [ x =
1. If C and a are real, then x[n] is a real exponential
a > 1 growing exponential
0 < a < 1 shrinking exponential
-1 < a < 0 alternate and decay
a < -1 alternate and grows
2. If C or a is complex, then x[n] is a complex exponential
Exponential signal
Exponential signal
-
-
Example
Example
n j
e n x
|
¹
|

\
|
+ −
=
6 12
1
2 ] [
π
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
-2
-1
0
1
2
Real part
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
-1
0
1
2
Imaginary part
Exponential signal
Exponential signal
-
-
Example
Example
n
n x ) 2 . 1 )( 2 . 0 ( ] [ =
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Time index n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Periodic and aperiodic signals
Symmetric (even) and antisymmetric (odd) signals
Energy and power signals
Classification of DT signals
Classification of DT signals
Periodic signals: important, both for practical
reasons and for mathematical analysis
DT sinusoidal signal is periodic only if its frequency f
is rational number
Periodic and Aperiodic signals
Periodic and Aperiodic signals
Examples
Examples
6
1
[ ]
j n
x n e
π
=
3
2 5
[ ] sin( 1) x n n
π
= +
3
[ ] cos(2 ) x n n π = −
Determine which of the signals below are periodic. For the ones that
are, find the fundamental period and fundamental frequency
Any DT signal can be expressed as the sum of an even signal and
an odd signal
Even and Odd signals
Even and Odd signals
Even [ ] [ ]
e e
x n x n : = −
Odd [ ] [ ]
o o
x n x n : = − −
1
2
[ ] ( [ ] [ ])
e
x n x n x n = + −
1
2
[ ] ( [ ] [ ])
o
x n x n x n = − −
[ ] [ ] [ ]
e o
x n x n x n = +
Given x[n] = [ 1 1 2 2 0 1 2 2 ]
Find x
e
[n] and x
o
[n]
Examples
Examples
Define the signal energy:
Define the signal power:
E is finite x[n] is called an energy signal
E is finite P = 0
E is infinite P maybe finite or infinite. If P is finite and
nonzero x[n] is called power signal
Energy and Power signals
Energy and Power signals

−∞ =
=
n
2
] n [ x E

− =
∞ →
+
=
N
N n
2
N
] n [ x
1 N 2
1
lim P
Determine which of the signals below are energy signals?
Which are power signals?
Examples
Examples
(a) Unit step
(b)
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
<

=
0 n , ) 2 (
0 n , ) 2 / 1 (
] n [ x
n
n
(c)
]) 4 n [ u ] n [ u ( n
4
cos ] n [ x − −
|
¹
|

\
|
π
=
Transformation of time:
- Time shifting
- Time scaling
- Time reversal
Adding and subtracting signals
Simple manipulations of DT
Simple manipulations of DT
signals
signals
x[n] x[n - k]; k is an integer
k > 0: right-shift x[n] by |k| samples
(delay of signal)
k < 0: left-shift x[n] by |k| samples
Time shifting a DT signal
Time shifting a DT signal
Examples of time shifting
Examples of time shifting
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
4
1 1
x[n]
-2 -1 0 1 2 n
4
1 1
0 1 2 3 4 5 n
4
1 1
x[n-2]
x[n+2]
x[n] x[an]
|a| > 1: speed up by a factor of a
a must be an integer
|a| < 1: slow down by a factor of a
a = 1/K; K must be an integer
Time scaling a DT signal
Time scaling a DT signal
Examples of time scaling
Examples of time scaling
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
4
1 1
x[n]
-1 0 1 2 n
4
-1 0 1 2 n
1
x[2n+1] x[2n]
Examples of time scaling
Examples of time scaling
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
4
1 1
x[n]
?? 1 3
1 4 2
?? 1 1
0 0 0
y[n]=x[n/2] x[n] n
How do we find y[1] and y[3]??
One solution is linear interpolation used in a simple
compression scheme
1/2
1/2
x[n] x[-n]
Flip a signal about the vertical axis
Time reversal a DT signal
Time reversal a DT signal
Examples of time reversal
Examples of time reversal
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
4
1 1
x[n]
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 n
4
1 1
x[-n]
x[n] x[-n-k]
Method 1: Flip first, then shift
Method 2: Shift first, then flip
Combining time reversal and
Combining time reversal and
time shifting
time shifting
Examples of combining time
Examples of combining time
reversal and time shifting
reversal and time shifting
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
4
1 1
x[n]
x[-n+1]??
Examples of combining time
Examples of combining time
reversal and time shifting
reversal and time shifting
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
4
1 1
x[n]
x[-n-1]??
x[n] x[an-b]
Be careful!!!
To make sure, plug values into the table to check
Combining time shifting and
Combining time shifting and
time scaling
time scaling
Examples of combining time
Examples of combining time
scaling and time shifting
scaling and time shifting
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
4
1 1
x[n]
y[n] = x[2n-3]??
0 0 4
1 1 3
1 4 2
0 1 1
0 0 0
0 0 -1
y[n] x[n] n
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
1 1
y[n]
Do it “point by point”
Can do using a table, or graphically, or by
computer program
Example: x[n] = u[n] – u[n-4]
Adding and Subtracting signals
Adding and Subtracting signals
n <=-1 0 1 2 3 >=4
x[n] 0 1 1 1 1 0
Find
Exercise
Exercise
[ ] ( [ 1] [ 5])( [2 ]) x n u n u n nu n = + − − −
-1 0 1 2 3 4 5 n
2
1
-1
x[n]
Prob.1 The following graph is of signal x[n].
Plot the following:
a) 3x[-n+1]
b) x[2n] - 1
c) –x[n] + 2
d) x[2n+1]
HW
HW
Prob.2 Sometimes signals can be decomposed into combinations of
simple unit sequences such as this one:
Sketch y[n] and the following signals:
a) 2-3y[n]
b) 3y[n-2]
c) 2-2y[-2+n]
HW
HW
Prob.3
Decompose y[n] from Prob. 2 into its even and odd parts. Plot
these signals and show the symmetries of the plots that can be
used to visually verify their parity
HW
HW
Lecture #3
Lecture #3
DT systems
DT systems
Duration: 2 hrs
Outline:
1. Input-output description of systems
2. DT system properties
3. LTI systems
Think of a DT system as an operator on DT signals:
• It processes DT input signals, to produce DT output signals
• Notation: y[n] = T{x[n]}    y[n] is the response of the
system T to the excitation x[n]
• Systems are assumed to be a “black box” to the user
Input
Input
-
-
output description of DT systems
output description of DT systems
Determine the response of the following system to the unit
impulse signal
Example
Example
........ .......... ..........
) 8 / 5 )( 4 / 1 ( ] 1 [
2
1
] 2 [
2
1
] 1 [
4
1
] 2 [
8 / 5 2 / 1 4 / 1 ] 0 [
2
1
] 1 [
2
1
] 0 [
4
1
] 1 [
2 / 1 ] 1 [
2
1
] 0 [
2
1
] 1 [
4
1
] 0 [
= + + =
= + = + + =
= − + + − =
δ δ
δ δ
δ δ
y y
y y
y y
] 1 [ ) 8 / 5 ( ) 4 / 1 ( ] [ ) 2 / 1 ( ] [
1
− + =

n u n n y
n
δ
] 1 n [ x
2
1
] n [ x
2
1
] 1 n [ y
4
1
] n [ y − + + − =
• Memory
• Invertibility
• Causality
• Stability
• Linearity
• Time-invariance
DT system properties
DT system properties
y[n
0
] = f(x[n
0
]) system is memoryless
Otherwise, system has memory, meaning that its output
depends on inputs rather than just at the time of the output
Ex:
a) y[n] = x[n] + 5
b) y[n]=(n+5)x[n]
c) y[n]=x[n+5]
Memory
Memory
Invertibility
Invertibility
T
i
[T(x[n])] = x[n]
T() T
i
()
x[n] x[n]
System Inverse system
Examples for
Examples for
invertibility
invertibility
Determine which of the systems below are invertible
a) Unit advance y[n] = x[n+1]
b) Accumulator
c) Rectifier y[n] = |x[n]|

−∞ =
=
n
k
k x n y ] [ ] [
The output of a causal system (at each time) does not
depend on future inputs
All memoryless systems are causal
All causal systems can have memory or not
Causality
Causality
Examples for causality
Examples for causality
Determine which of the systems below are causal:
a) y[n] = x[-n]
b) y[n] = (n+1)x[n-1]
c) y[n] = x[(n-1)
2
]
d) y[n] = cos(w
0
n+x[n])
e) y[n] = 0.5y[n-1] + x[n-1]
If a system “blow up” it is not stable
In particular, if a “well-behavior” signal (all values have
finite amplitude) results in infinite magnitude outputs,
the system is unstable
BIBO stability: “bounded input – bounded output” –
if you put finite signals in, you will get finite signals out
Stability
Stability
Examples for stability
Examples for stability
Determine which of the systems below are BIBO stable:
a) A unit delay system
b) An accumulator
c) y[n] = cos(x[n])
d) y[n] = ln(x[n])
e) y[n] =exp(x[n])
Scaling signals and adding them, then processing through the system
same as
Processing signals through system, then scaling and adding them
Linearity
Linearity
If T(x
1
[n]) = y
1
[n] and T(x
2
[n]) = y
2
[n]
T(ax
1
[n] + bx
2
[n]) = ay
1
[n] + by
2
[n]
If you time shift the input, get the same output, but with the
same time shift
The behavior of the system doesn’t change with time
Time
Time
-
-
invariance
invariance
If T(x[n]) = y[n]
then T(x[n-n
0
]) = y[n-n
0
]
Examples for linearity and
Examples for linearity and
time
time
-
-
invariance
invariance
Determine which of the systems below are linear, wich
ones are time-invariant
a)
[ ] [ ] y n nx n =
Examples for linearity and
Examples for linearity and
time
time
-
-
invariance
invariance
Determine which of the systems below are linear, wich
ones are time-invariant
b)
] n [ x ] n [ y
2
=
Examples for linearity and
Examples for linearity and
time
time
-
-
invariance
invariance
Determine which of the systems below are linear, wich
ones are time-invariant
c)

=
− =
M
r
r
r n x b n y
0
] [ ] [
Prob.4 Which systems are linear? Which ones are time-invariant?
HW
HW

=
−∞ =
=
=
=
=
+ Ω =
=
n
k
n
k
k x n y f
k x n y e
n u n x n y d
n x n y c
n x n n y b
n x n y a
0
0
] [ ] [ )
] [ ] [ )
] [ ] [ ] [ )
] 2 [ ] [ )
]) [ cos( ] [ )
]) [ sin( ] [ )
Prob.5 For the following systems:
Prove or disprove that they are:
Memoryless
Invertible
Causal
Stable
Time-invariant
Linear
HW
HW
Ζ ∈ − =
− + =
=
Ζ ∈ + =

− =
− =
M k n x n y d
n x n x n y c
e x n y b
a k a x n y a
M
k
n
n
n k
, ] [ ] [ )
] 1 [ 5 . 0 ] [ 5 . 0 ] [ )
) ( ] [ )
, ] [ ] [ )
1
0
| |
Method 1: based on the direct solution of the input-output equation
for the system
Method 2:
• Decompose the input signal into a sum of elementary signals
• Find the response of system
to each elementary signal
• Add those responses to obtain
the total response of the system
to the given input signal
Computing the response of DT LTI
Computing the response of DT LTI
systems to arbitrary inputs
systems to arbitrary inputs

= →

=
k
k k
k k
k
k k
n y c n y n x
n y n x
n x c n x
] [ ] [ ] [
] [ ] [
] [ ] [
Convolution: an operation between the input signal to a
system and its impulse response, resulting in the output signal
In CT systems: convolution of 2 signals involves integrating
the product of the 2 signals – where one of signals is flipped
and shifted
In DT systems: convolution of 2 signals involves summing
the product of the 2 signals – where one of signals is flipped
and shifted
DT convolution formula
DT convolution formula
We can describe any DT signal x[n] as:
Example:
Impulse representation of DT
Impulse representation of DT
signals
signals
[ ] [ ] [ ]
k
x n x k n k δ

=−∞
= −

-1 0 1 2 3 n
x[n]
-1 0 1 2 n
x[0]δ[n-0]
-1 0 1 2 n
x[1]δ[n-1]
-1 0 1 2 n
x[2]δ[n-2]
+ +
Impulse response: the output results, in response to a unit
impulse
Denotation: h
k
[n]: impulse response of a system, to an impulse
at time k
Impulse response of DT systems
Impulse response of DT systems
Time-invariant
DT system
Time-invariant
DT system
δ[n]
δ[n-k]
h[n]
h[n-k]
Response of LTI DT systems to
Response of LTI DT systems to
arbitrary inputs
arbitrary inputs
LTI DT system
δ[n-k] h[n-k]
LTI DT system
[ ] [ ] [ ]
k
x n x k n k δ

=−∞
= −

−∞ =
− =
k
k n h k x n y ] [ ] [ ] [
Notation: y[n] = x[n] * h[n]
Convolution sum
Commutative law
Associative law
Distributive law
Convolution sum properties
Convolution sum properties
Commutative law
Commutative law
] [ * ] [ ] [ * ] [ n x n h n h n x =
h[n]
x[n] y[n]
x[n]
h[n] y[n]
Associative law
Associative law
]) [ * ] [ ( * ] [ ] [ * ]) [ * ] [ (
2 1 2 1
n h n h n x n h n h n x =
h
1
[n]
x[n] y[n]
h
2
[n]
h
2
[n]
x[n] y[n]
h
1
[n]
h
1
[n]*h
2
[n]
x[n] y[n]
Distributive law
Distributive law
]) [ * ] [ ( ]) [ * ] [ ( ]) [ ] [ ( * ] [
2 1 2 1
n h n x n h n x n h n h n x + = +
h
1
[n] + h
2
[n]
x[n] y[n]
h
1
[n]
x[n]
y[n]
h
2
[n]
Computing the convolution sum
Computing the convolution sum
Suppose to compute the output y[n] at time n = n
0
.
1. Fold h[k] about k = 0, to obtain h[-k]
2. Shift h[-k] by n
0
to the right (left) if n
0
is positive (negative),
to obtain h[n
0
-k]
3. Multiply x[k] and h[n
0
-k] for all k, to obtain the product
x[k].h[n
0
-k]
4. Sum up the product for all k, to obtain y[n
0
]
Repeat from 2-4 fof all of n

−∞ =
− =
k
k n h k x n y ] [ ] [ ] [
The length of the convolution
The length of the convolution
sum result
sum result
Suppose:
Length of x[k] is N
x
N
1
≤ k ≤ N
1
+ N
x
– 1
Length of h[n-k] is N
h
N
2
≤ n-k ≤ N
2
+ N
h
– 1
N
1
+ N
2
≤ n ≤ N
1
+ N
2
+ N
x
+ N
h
– 2
Length of y[n]:
N
y
= N
x
+ N
h
– 1
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
k
y n x n h n x k h n k

=−∞
= ∗ = −

Examples for computing the
Examples for computing the
convolution sum
convolution sum
Ex1. Find y[n] = x[n]*h[n] where
[ ] [ 1] [ 3] [ ] x n u n u n n δ = + − − +
( )
[ ] 2 [ ] [ 3] h n u n u n = − −
n
n
x[n]
h[n]
-1 0 1 2 3
-1 0 1 2 3
h[-k] h[k]
Ex1 (cont.)
Ex1 (cont.)
x[k]
-1 0 1 2 3 k -1 0 1 2 3 k -2 -1 0 1 k
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 k
h[2-k]
-1 0 1 2 k
h[-1-k]
h[1-k]
-2 -1 0 1 2 k
y[n<-1] = 0; y[-1] = 2; y[0] = 6; y[1] = 8;
y[2] = 8; y[3] = 4; y[4] = 2; y[n>4] = 0
Examples for computing the
Examples for computing the
convolution sum
convolution sum
Ex2. Find y[n] = x[n]*h[n] where
[ ] [ ]
n
x n a u n =
[ ] [ ] h n u n =
1. Do it graphically
2. Use convolution formula
Examples for computing the
Examples for computing the
convolution sum
convolution sum
Ex3. Find y[n] = x[n]*h[n] where x[n] = b
n
u[n] and h[n] = a
n
u[n+2]
|a| < 1, |b| < 1, a ≠ b
DT LTI properties based on
DT LTI properties based on
impulse response
impulse response
1. Memoryless system: h[n] = Kδ[n]
2. Invertible system: h[n]*h
i
[n] = δ[n]
3. Causal system: h[n] is zero for all time n<0
4. BIBO stable system:
∞ <

+∞
−∞ = n
n h ] [
Examples of DT LTI properties
Examples of DT LTI properties
1. What is the inverse of h[n] = 3δ[n+5]?
2. Is h[n] = 0.5
n
u[n] BIBO stable? Causal?
3. Is h[n] = 3
n
u[n] BIBO stable? Causal?
4. Is h[n] = 3
n
u[-n] BIBO stable? Causal?
Prob.6 Find y[n] = x[n]*h[n] where:
a) x[n] = a
n
u[n] and h[n] = u[n] – u[n-10]
b) x[n] = u[-n] and h[n] = a
n
u[n-2], |a|<1
c) x[n] = 2δ[n+2] + 2δ[n+1] + 2δ[n-1] + 2δ[n-2] + 2δ[n-3] + 2δ[n-4]
and h[n] = δ[n] – δ[n-1] + δ[n-2]
d) x[n] = u[-n+2] and h[n] = a
n
u[-n]
e) x[n] = 0.2
n
u[n] and h[n] = δ[n] – 0.2δ[n-1]
HW
HW
Prob.7 Consider the LTI system with the input and output related by: y[n] = 0.5x[n-1] + 0.7x[n]
a) Find the impulse response h[n]
b) Is this system causal? Stable? Why?
c) Determine the system response y[n] for the input shown in Fig. (a)
d) Consider the interconnections of the LTI systems given in Fig. (b). Find the impulse
response of the total system
e) Solve for the response of the system of part (d) for the input of part (c)
HW
HW
Prob.8 Determine the causality and the BIBO stability for the
systems with the following impulse responses:
a) h[n] = sin(-n)u[n]
b) h[n] = e
-n
u[-n]
c) h[n] = e
n
u[n]
d) h[n] = sin(n)u[-n]
e) h[n] = ne
-n
u[n]
f) h[n] = e
-n
sin(n)u[n]
HW
HW
General form:
LTI systems characterized by linear
LTI systems characterized by linear
constant coefficient difference
constant coefficient difference
equations
equations
] [ ... ] 1 [ ] [ ] [ ... ] 1 [ ] [
1 0 1
M n x b n x b n x b n y a n y a n y
M
− + + − + = − + + − +
1 a , ] r n [ x b ] k n [ y a
0
M
0 r
r
N
0 k
k
= − = − ⇔
∑ ∑
= =
N, M: non-negative integers
N: order of equation
a
k
, b
r
: constant real coefficients
1) Put y[n] on the left hand side by itself
y[n] = -a
1
y[n-1] - … - a
N
y[n-N] + b
0
x[n] + … + b
M
x[n-M]
2) To calculate a given output at time n = n
0
, that is y[n
0
the weighted M+1 inputs b
0
x[n
0
] + … + b
M
x[n
0
-M] to the
weighted N past outputs –a
1
y[n
0
-1] - … - a
N
y[n
0
-N]
3) Increase the time index to n = n
0
+1 and recursively calculate the
next output. This can continue forever.
Recursive solution of
Recursive solution of
difference equations
difference equations
To start this recursion somewhere, for example at n
0
= 0, we need to
know the N initial conditions y[n
0
-1], y[n
0
-2], …, y[n
0
-N]
Solve iteratively to find the 1
st
3 terms of y[n] – 2y[n-1] = x[n-1]
with initial condition y[-1] = 10 and with the input x[n] = 2u[n]
Example of recursive solution
Example of recursive solution
the difference equation
the difference equation
Total response = zero-input component + zero-state component
= natural response + forced response
= complementary response + particular response
Closed form solutions of
Closed form solutions of
difference equations
difference equations
1. Find the complementary response, assume input = 0.
2. Find the particular response, assume all initial conditions = 0. Choose
the form of the particular response same as the form of input
3. Total response = complementary + particular. Use initial conditions
to find N constants from the complementary response
Example for closed form
Example for closed form
solutions
solutions
Given y[n] – 0.3y[n-1] = x[n] with y[-1] = 0 and x[n] = (0.6)
n
Example (cont)
Example (cont)
Combining particular and complementary solutions:
Prob.9 Determine the response y[n] for n≥0 of the system
described by the following equation:
y[n] -0.7y[n-1] + 0.1y[n-2] = x[n] – 3x[n-1]
The input is x[n] = (-1)
n
and y[-2] = 29/9, y[-1] = 7/9
HW
HW

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