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axalgazrda doktorantta sakonferencio masalebi

axalgazrda doktorantta sakonferencio masalebi

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10/13/2011

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pirovneba kultura sazogadoeba

socialur mecnierebaTa aqtualuri problemebi

(iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis, socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis axlagazrda mecnierTa da doqtorantTa 2010 wlis 21 maisis konferenciis masalebi)

gamomcemloba `universali~ Tbilisi 2010

samecniero redaqtori:

filosofiis doqtori amiran berZeniSvili

recenzentebi: valerian ramiSvili, filosofiis mecnierebaTa doqtori

revaz jorbenaZe, fsiqologiur mecnierebaTa doqtori

gamomcemloba `universali~, 2010
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19, E–mail: universal@internet.ge : 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30

ISBN 978-9941-17-118-5

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sarCevi
1. winaTqma _ amiran berZeniSvili ................................6 2. eka darbaiZe _ saqarTvelos imiji dasavleTis qveynebSi .....................................................................18 3. flora esebua _ politikis velisa da Jurnalistikis velis Sexvedris adgili: saqarTvelos energoseqtori omisSemdgom qarTul presaSi .......30 4. lia TeTraZe _ 2010 wlis adgiolobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi................................................................48 5. ana kuWuxiZe _ samarTlis statistikis Taviseburebani da misi roli samarTlebrivi reJimis uzrunvelyofis saqmeSi ............................................70 6. maia manCxaSvili _ samxreT kavkasiis regionuli usafrTxoebis sakiTxi 2008 wlis agvistos omis Semdeg .........................................................................82 7. xaTuna marwyviSvili _ emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi kiTxvaris adaptacia qarTul populaciaze .............................92 8. nani maWaraSvili _ saparlamento demokratiis problemebi saqarTveloSi........................................119

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9. naTia mestviriSvili _ moralis ganviTarebis Teoriebi: piaJedan neokolbergianelebamde ..........135 10. nino popiaSvili _ postsabWoTa identoba Savi zRvis auzis qveynebis diskursSi.............................147 11. Tamar qaraia _ istoriis saxelmZRvanelo da eTnikuri umciresobebi: problemebi da perspeqtivebi .............................................................155 12. gizo WeliZe _ politikuri integracia evrokavSirSi ...........................................................................168 13. lia wulaZe _ axalgazrduli identobebi brikolaJis gziT cvalebad sazogadoebaSi: saqarTvelos SemTxveva .............................................192 14. maia wurwumia _ qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis procesSi.....................................................................209

4

anotacia
konferenciis moxsenebebis krebuli moicavs Tsu-s socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis axalgazrda mecnierTa da doqtorantTa naSromebs,sadac mocemulia ganazrebani socialuri mecnierebebis aqtualur problemebze, yuradReba gamaxvilebulia Cveni qveynis socialur-politikuri realiebis kvlevaze: ruseT-saqarTvelos agvistos omi da politikuri integracia evrokavSirSi, saqarTvelos imijis formirebis problema da politikisa da Jurnalistikis velis urTierToba agvistos omis Semdgom periodSi, danaSaulis statistika da qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis roli samoqalaqo sazogadoebis CamoyalibebaSi, individis emociuri inteleqtisa da moralis ganviTarebis sakiTxebi. avtorebi problemebis xedvis originalur midgomebs da xSirad maTi gadaWris optimalur gzebsa da saSualebebs gvTavazoben. vimedovnebT krebuli saintereso aRmoCndeba yvela Taobis moazrovne mkiTxvelisTvis da sargeblobas moutans qarTul sazogadoebas.

5

winaTqma
saqarTveloSi socialuri mecnierebebis ganviTarebisaTvis SedarebiT xelsayreli pirobebi mas Semdeg Seiqmna, rac qveyanam saxelmwifoebrivi damoukidebloba moipova. komunisturi ideologiis 70 wliani batonobis mTel manZilze sxva mecnierebebTan SedarebiT am ideologiis totalitaruli wnexis qveS yvelaze metad socialuri mecnierebebi aRmoCdnen. socialuri mecnierebebis ganviTarebas uwinares yovlisa is garemoeba uSlida uSlida xels,rom mecnieri kvlevisas iZulebuli iyo ideologiuri dogmebi mieRo amosaval principad da kvlevis meTodologiad. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi misi xvedri savalalo aRmoCndeboda rogorc mecnieruli karieris, ise sicocxlisa da Tavisuflebis TvalsazrisiT. sakmarisia gavixsenoT XX saukunis avbediTi 30-iani wlebi,rodesac ara mxolod qarTuli xelovnebisa da literaturis,aramed qarTuli mecnierebis da pirvel rigSi filosofiisa da socialuri mecnierebebis “moTviniereba” xdeboda. mecnieri iZulebuli iyo ezopes eniT elaparaka an naxevrad simarTle eTqva,rac naxevrad sicruis Tqmaze ufro uares socialur Sedegebs iwvevda. mokled,sabWouri socialuri mecnierebisaTvis “paliaturoba”, anu naxevrad simarTlis Tqma iyo damaxasiaTebeli, ramac Zalian CamoarCina qarTuli socialuri mecnierebebi sazogadod socialuri mecnierebebis ganviTarebis magistralur mimarTulebas. mxolod, XX saukunis 90-iani wleebidan iwyeba qarTuli socialuri mecnierebebis paliaturobisagan gaTavisufleba. qarTveli mecnierebi euflebian dasavleTSi aprobirebul mecnieruli kvlevis meTodebsa da midgomebs, safuZveli eyreba socialuri sinamdvilis kvlevis axal mimarTulebebs. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom socialuri 6

mecnierebebi xelaxla idgams fexs da swori mimarTulebiT viTardeba. sadac meTodologiur Tu msoflmxedvelobriv pluralizmTan erTad mecnieruli obieqturoba kvlav ibrunebs Tavis statuss. sagulisxmoa,rom socialuri mecnierebis ganviTarebis flagmanebad saqarTveloSi iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis da ilias saxelobis universitetis mecnierebi gvevlinebian. yalibdeba axali dasavluri tipis socialuri mecniereba,razec yvelaze ukeT axalgazrda mecnierTa da doqtorantTa moxsenebebi metyveleben. erT-erT aseT dadasturebas swored winmdebare publikacia warmoadgens. Tsu-s socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetze swavleba da kvleva Svidi: politikuri mecnierebis, saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis, fsiqologiis, sazogadoebrivi geografiis, Jurnalistikis, sociologiis da socialuri muSaobis mimarTulebiT mimdinareobs. TiTqmis yvela mimarTulebis axalgarda mecnierTa da doqtorantTa moxsenebebia aq warmodgenili.isini qarTuli sinamdvilis aqtualur socialur da politikur problemebs exebian da saintereso daskvnebsa da rekomendaciebs gvTavazoben,romelTa gaTvaliswineba xels Seuwyobs zogierTi rTuli da mtkivneuli problemis gadaWrasa da daregulirebas.rasakvirvelia, axalgazrda mkvlevarebis yuradRebis centrSi ruseT-saqarTvelos 2008 wlis agvistos omi da mis Sedegad gamowveuli cvlilebebi moxvda. omis Semdeg mwaved dadga samxreT kavkasiisa da kerZod saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis sakiTxi. ruseTis agresiam daarRvia mxareebis mier daculi status-qvo da regionuli usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT gaCnda rogorc axali gamowvevebi-ruseTis mier saqarTvelos ori regionis okupacia da maTi “damoukidebel” saxelmwifoebad aRiareba, ise perspeqtivebic _ “TurqeT-somxeTis “safexburTo” diplomatia da ciurixis 7

protokolebi”.momxsenebeli,samarTlianad Tvlis moZvelebulad regionuli usafrTxoebis adrindel modelebs da axali, ufro moqnil, regionis interesebs morgebuli modelis SemuSavebisa da misi realizebis gzebis erTobliv Ziebas gvTavazobs. sadac konstruqciuli roli ara mxolod regionis qveynebma,aramed iseTma gavlenianma aqtorebma unda iTamaSon rogorebic aSS, evrokavSiri da euToa. agvistos oms gaSualebulad exeba moxseneba “politikis velisa da Jurnalistikis velis Sexvedris adgili: saqarTvelos energoseqtori omis Semdgom qarTul presaSi”. es Tema imiTac aris aRsaniSni, rom saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso energetikul proeqtebSi monawileoba,saqarTvelos pozicionireba rogorc energoderefnisa aris Tema,romelzec TiTqmis yvela politikuri Zala apelirebs. am Temam gansakuTrebuli aqtualoba agvistos movlenebis Semdgom SeiZina. gaCnda bevri kiTxva saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso energetikul proeqtebSi monawileobis SesaZleblobebTan dakavSirebiT, energetika xom qveynis damoukideblobis erTerT umniSvnelovanes garantad aRiqmeba. Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom agvistos movlenebSi mTel msoflios mouwia angariSi gaewia ruseTis, rogorc msoflios umsxvilesi energetikuli moTamaSisaTvis,rac maT aiZulebda garkveul daTmobebze wasvlas swored ruseTze energetikuli damokidebulebis gamo. yovelive aman eWvis qveS daayena saqarTvelos energetikul proeqtebSi monawileobis sakiTxi.igi rogorc mniSvnelovani politikuri problema qarTuli presis mTavar Temad agvistos movlenebis Semdeg iqca. energoseqtori rogorc qveynis ekonomikis Semadgeneli segmenti, aris mniSvnelovani politikuri TamaSis nawili. magram, rogorc gamokvlevam aCvena, Zalian Znelia erTmniSvnelovnad imis dadgena saqarTveloSi energeti8

ka,rogorc ekonomikuri instituti,Tavad axdens gavlenas politikur TamaSze, Tu piriqiT, is aris iaraRi politikosTa xelSi. gamokvlevam erTi ram naTlad aCvena,rom maTze nakleb Zalauflebas arc Jurnalistikis veli flobs, imiT, rom orives sakuTari SesaZleblobebis demonstrirebis saSualebas aZlevs,garkveuli,sazogadoebisaTvis Rirebuli mimrTulebiT warmarTavs maT Soris urTierTobas. swored Jurnalistikis velis aqtorebi sTavazoben auditorias suraTs energopolitikaze da Tan ise, rom xan Tavad Jurnalistebi, xan eqspertebi, xanac politikuri aqtorebi gvevlinebian sazogadoebrivi azris liderebis rolSi, romlebic saTaves udeben diskusiebs da ganxilvebs aqtualur sakiTxebze, raTa problemebi qveynisaTvis sasargeblod gadawydes. rasakvirvelia, globalizaciisa da informacionalizmis epoqaSi,rodesac sazogadoebas informaciaTa usasrulo nakadi miewodeba, Tanac ise, rom misi analizis dro ar rCeba, amgvar ganxilvebsa da diskusiebs seriozuli sazogadoebrivi mniSvneloba eniWeba. moxsenebaSi kargad gamoCnda Tu rogor SeuZlia obieqtur da miudgomel medias wamyvani poziciebi daiWiros TviT politikasTan mimarTebaSic ki. sazogadoeba adamianTa moraluri erTianobaa.Sesabamisad, morals da adamianTa moralur ganviTarebas sazogadoebisTvis principuli mniSvneloba eniWeba. swored es sakiTxi ganixileba moxsenebaSi “moralis ganviTarebis Teoriebi”. morali sazogadoebis gamocdilebidan, msjelobebidan da SeTanxmebebidan gamomdinare iseTi socialuri konstruqciaa, romelsac sazogadoeba uWers mxars. magram moralis ganviTarebaSi aranakleb rols Tavad pirovnebebi TamaSoben, romelTa qcevebi da moqmedebebi moralur ganaxlebas edeba safuZvlad. didi xnis ganmavlobaSi iTvleboda, rom pirovneba moraluria im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is kargad asrulebs sazogadoebis mi9

er dadgenil qcevis wesebs an aqvs moralurad gamarTlebuli ganzraxvebi. sxvagvarad, moraluri qceva mTlianad ganixileboda afeqtur sferoSi, romelsac SemecnebasTan da sxva adamianur unarebTan kavSiri ar hqonda. marTalia arsebobs gamokvlevebi, romlebic asabuTeben,rom damnaSave da udanaSaulo adamianebi erTnairad gmoben qurdobas, anu, sxvagvarad, rom vTqvaT, moralur Rirebulebebze dayrdnobiT ar SegviZlia viwinaswarmetyveloT, vTqvaT, arasrulwlovanTa damnaSaveoba, da rom altruistuli damokidebulebebi da Rirebulebebi TiTqmis ar iyo dakavSirebuli altruistul qcevasTan; magram moralis Tanamedrove Teoriebze dayrdnobiT mtkicdeba, rom moraluri qceva TavisTavSi aerTianebs afeqtur, kognitur da qceviT aspeqts da maT erT mTlianobad ganixilavs, sadac swored moraluri idealebi warmarTaven moralur qcevas. Tanamedrove mecnierebma Seqmnes instrumenti, romlis daxmarebiTac SesaZlebeli xdeba moraluri problemebis mimarT proda kontrargumentebis gansjis unaris Sefaseba. sagulisxmoa momxseneblis daskvna, romlis mixedviTac moraluri msjelobis Sesaxeb arsebul TeoriebSi “kognicia da ZiriTadi epistemologiuri kategoriebi(uflebebi,movaleobebi,samarTali,socialuri wyoba, reciprokuloba (Tanaziaroba) kvlav amosaval wertilad rCeba.” Tumca isic ar unda dagvavwydes,rom moraluri ganviTarebis sferoSi arsebuli Tanamedrove kvlevebi met yuradRebas individualuri gamocdilebis mniSvnelobas aqceven. moraluri ganviTarebis Teoriebis Seswavla gvexmareba Tanamedrove qarTuli sazogadoebis moralur-zneobrivi suliskveTebis, RirebulebaTa ierarqiuli skalis gazomvis, qarTuli sazogadoebis moraluri saxisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli problemebis analizisa da daregulirebis saqmeSi. 10

Tanamedrove socialur mecnierebebSi (kerZod,fsiqologiaSi) emociuri inteleqtis cneba SedarebiT axali konstruqtia da masTan dakavSirebuli kvlevebic XXI saukunis pirveli aTwleulis damsaxurebaa; ZiriTadad igi dasavluri mecnieruli kvlevis arealSi ikavebs wamyvani koncefciis statuss.qarTveli fsiqologebis damsaxurebaa ki aris is,rom maT SeZles am konstruqtis qarTul sinamdvilesTan adaptireba da gadmotana,romlis erTerTi warmatebuli variantic winamdebare gamocemaSia mocemuli. es aris Teoriuli da empiriuli kvlevis erTerTi saukeTeso sinTezis analogi qarTul socialur mecnierebebSi; naSromidan Cans,rom kvlevis Sedegad miRebulia emociuri inteleqtis,rogorc pirovnuli niSnis,sakvlevi kiTxvaris qarTuli versia,romelic sakmaod gamarTul fsiqodiagnostikur instruments warmoadgens da misi gamoyeneba savsebiT SesaZlebelia efeqturi Sedegebis misaRebad. ukve miRebuli Sedegebi,Tu avtoris sityvebiT vityviT, qarTul populaciaze emociuri inteleqtis,rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi kiTxvaris Semdgomi gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT sakmaod optimisturi prognozis gakeTebis saSualebas gvaZlevs. sakvlevi kiTxvaris qarTuli versia namdilad Rirebuli instrumentia ganaTlebis fsiqologiis,adamianuri resursebis marTvis da klinikuri fsiqologiis sferoSi moRvawe mecnierTaTvis. mTavari ki isaa,rom kiTxvari qarTuli socialuri mecnierebebis warmomadgenlebs saSualebas aZlevs CaerTon “ emociur inteleqtTan dakavSirebul saerTaSoriso kvleviT sivrceSi da mecnierebaSi am SedarebiT axali konstruqtis Tavisebureba vikvlioT qarTul populaciazec.” aseTi axali koncefciebis da Sesabamisi kvlevis meTodologiebis aTviseba imis sawindaria, rom warmatebiT davZlioT “paliaturoba” da mecnieruli Sromis msoflio danawilebis aqtori gavxdeT. 11

dRes, globaluri komunikaciebis arsebobis pirobebSi nebismieri qveyana cdilobs sakuTari Tavis dadebiTi imijis Seqmnaze, sxvagvarad msoflio ekonomikur bazarze damkvidreba warmoudgenelia. dadebiTi imijis SemuSaveba xels Seuwyobs Cvens qveyanaSi investiciebis mozidvas da turizmis ganviTarebas, ekonomikasa da msoflio bazarze produqtis realizebas,sabanko saqmianobaSi klientebis mozidvas, gatarebuli politikis mimarT dadebiTi damokidebulebis SemuSavebas da mraval sxvas. Cveni avtorebi Tanamedrove mecnierebis miRwevebis gadasaxedidan aanalizeben imijis formirebis faqtorebs, gasakuTrebiT im informaciebs, rac Cvens qveyanaze iwereba da vrceldeba saerTaSoriso sivrceSi. moxsenebaSi naTlad aris naCvenebi Tu ra formisa da Sinaarsis informaciebi vrceldeba saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, ra periodulobiT xdeba maTi ganaxleba,Canacvleba axali informaciiT da rac mTavaria rogor icvleba qveyanaze arsebuli warmodgena ukeTesobisaken Tu, piriqiT, uaresobisaken. aqac Tavs iCens agvistos omi, ramac didi dartyma miayena saqarTvelos, rogorc stabiluri satranzito da turistuli qveynis imijs. moxsenebaSi gamoyofilia is faqtorebi, romlebic yvelaze uaryofiTad moqmedebs saqarTvelos imijze: ekonomikuri mimzidvelobis dabali done (miuxedavad imisa,rom dRes saqarTvelos xelisufleba yvelaze liberalur ekonomikur politikas atarebs, rac samomavlod mainc Seuwyobs xels ekonomikis sferoSi sasurveli imijis Camiyalibebas), gadauWreli konfliqtebi (axla ukve okupirebuli teritoriebis arseboba), qveyanaSi arsebuli demokratiuli institutebis ganviTarebis dabali done, qveynis turistuli sareklamo kampaniebisa marketinguli RonisZiebebis arasakmarisoba da dabali profesionalizmi.am problemebis gadasalaxad saWiroa meti energia da maRali profesionalizmi,ufro meti dinamika da Semar12

Teba. Tu davakvirdebiT qveynis mesveurTa qmedebebs davinaxavT,rom isini swored am mimarTulebiT moZraoben da avtorTan erTad imeds gamovTqvam,rom maTi momavali saqmianoba mxolod warmatebuli PR kampaniebiT ar Semoifargleba da aqtiur aRmSeneblobiT saqmianobas ufro gaaZliereben. Cveni avtorebis yuradRebas ar gamorCenia iseTi iseTi aqtualuri saerTaSoriso problema, rogoricaa evrokavSiris ekonomikuri da politikuri integracia.didZali faqtobrivi monacemebis analizis safuZvelze sabuTdeba,rom ekonomikuri integracia XX saukunis 90-iani wlebis Semdeg namdvilad gadaizarda politikur TanamSromlobaSi. neli tempebiT, magram aRmavali progresiiT,mimdinareobs politikuri kavSiris gaZliereba. moxsenebaSi argumentirebulad da safuZvlianad aris naCvenebi swored politikuri integraciis kuTxiT arsebuli Tanamedrove dinamika, romelic saTaves evropuli gaerTianebis Camoyalibebis pirvelive dReebidan iRebs. momxsenebels ar aqvs imis iluzia, rom evrokavSiri warmoaCinos, rogorc uxarvezo da mZlavri politikuri erToba. Tumca imis mtkicebaSi namdvilad SegviZlia daveTanxmoT, rom politikuri integracia ukve aqtiurad mimdinareobs da wlidan wlamde evropul saxelmwifoTa gaerTianeba sul ufro Zlier saerTaSoriso aqtorad yalibdeba. saqarTvelosTvis dRemde aqtualuri rCeba Ria, samoqalaqo sazogadoebisa da demokratiuli institutebisa da procedurebis damkvidrebis problema. miuxedavad imisa, rom damoukideblobis mopovebidan dRemde qveyanaSi mravali reforma gatarda, saqarTvelo jerac ver miuaxlovda demokratiis sasurvel models. demokratiuli mmarTveloba warmoudgenelia ganviTarebuli samoqalaqo sazogadoebis gareSe; aseTi socialuri pirobebis ar arsebobis SeTxvevaSi igi Sinaarss kargavs. 13

amitom, roca vlaparakobT demokratiis sasurveli modelis damkvidrebaze qveyanaSi, centralur sakiTxad mainc samoqalaqo da Ria sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis problema rCeba. Tavad samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis procesSi gadamwyveti Tu ara erTerTi umniSvnelovanesi roli qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis saqmianobas eniWeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom samoqalaqo organizaciebs Tanabrad SeuZliaT Tavisi wevrebis, kacebis da qalebis saWiroebebis gamoTqma, kvlevebma aCvenes, rom arasamTavrobo organizaciebis nawili da media, rogorc sainformacio samoqalaqo instituti saqarTveloSi, naklebad interesdeba genderuli problemebiT, amitom am funqciis Sesruleba saqarTveloSi arsebulma qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebma ikisres. maTi saqmianobis prioritetebia: qalTa mimarT Zaladoba, maT Soris ojaxuri Zaladoba, diskriminaciuli samsaxureobrivi praqtika, gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesze SezRuduli xelmisawvdomoba, negatiuri genderuli stereotipebi.rogorc momxsenebeli Tvlis, am organizaciebis saqmianobis mTavari miRweva aris is, rom qarTul sazogadoebaSi TandaTanobiT xdeba genderuli uTanasworobis problemis gacnobiereba da aRiareba. swored qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi aRweven warmatebebs genderuli Tanasworobis miRwevaSi, romelic samoqalaqo sazogadoebis erTerTi Semadgeneli elementia. sayuradReboa momxseneblis daskvna, rom qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebma miaRwies garkveul simwifes da sakuTari adgili daimkvidres qarTul arasamTavrobo seqtorSi. dRes qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi ganviTarebis im etapze imyofebian, rodesac SeuZliaT qveyanaSi mimdinare calkeul procesebze zegavlenis moxdena. Tumca arc is unda dagvaviwydes, rom am warmatebebs fragmentuli xasiaTi aqvs, qalTa organizaciebi jerjerobiT ver axerxeben saxelmwifo done14

ze aqtiuri lobireba gauwion qalTa interesebs, aseve sustia maTi zegavlena sazogadoebrivi azris formirebaze. demokratiisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTarebis arasasurvel doneze metyvelebs saparlamento demokratiis sisuste da sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis damoukideblobis dabali indeqsi. sociologiurma gamokvlevebma aCvena,rom swored sazedamxedvelo funqciis ganxorcielebaa saparlamento saqmianobis yvelaze susti rgoli. Sesabamisad, gamoikveTa saparlamento demokratiis ganviTarebis xelisSemSleli safrTxeebi: erovnuli umciresobebis da qalTa warmomadgenlobis araproporciuloba, sazogadod parlamentisadmi, rogorc institutisadmi sazogadoebrivi ndobis dabali done, saparlamento iniciativebis nakleboba, kanonmdeblobisa da maT Soris konstituciis xSiri cvla. yvelaze damafiqrebel safrTxes ki kontrolisa da balansis sistemis sisuste warmoadgens, romlis pirobebSic saqarTvelos parlamenti ver asrulebs aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis sapirwone institutis funqcias. demokratiis ganviTarebas saqarTveloSi Tavisi specifika aqvs, mas Zalian bevri ekonomikuri, socialuri da kulturuli problemebi eRobeba win, romelTa gadaWrac da daZleva TandaTanobiT unda moxdes. mTavari ki mainc isaa, rom axalgazrda mkvlevarebi miukerZoeblad ikvleven qarTuli demokratiis ganviarebis Tanamedrove dones da xSirad oficiozis Tvalsazrisisagan gansxvavebul viTarebas afiqsireben. aseTi obieqturi kvlevis Sedegebis gamoqveyneba Tavad metyvelebs imas, rom saqarTveloSi demokratiuli Rirebulebebi Znelad,magram mainc mkvidrdeba qarTuli sazogadoebis saqmianobis yvela sferoSi. dabolos, minda Sevexo Cveni qveynisaTvis damafiqrebel da mtkivneul problemas eTnikur umciresobeb15

Tan dakavSirebiT. erT-erTi moxseneba, romelmac didi daintereseba gamoiwvia, exeba Cves qveyanaSi arsebul eTnikur umciresobebis warmomadgenelTa saqarTvelos moqalaqeebad Camoyalibebis process. rogorc cnobilia qveynis moqalaqeebad aRzrdasa da CamoyalibebaSi lomis wili mSobliur literaturasTan erTad qveynis istoriis Seswavlas miuZRvis. rogorc momxsenebeli aRniSnavs, swored am kuTxiT aris savalalo mdgomareoba kompaqturad Casaxlebul erovnul umciresobebSi. imis gamo,rom yofil sabWoTa respublikebSi ZiriTad saurTierTobo enas rusuli warmoadgenda da qarTulis rogorc saxelmwifo enis swavleba eTnikuri umciresobebisaTvis prioritetuli ar iyo, Sesabamisad rusuli enis codna aZlevda eTnikuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebs sazogadoebasTan integraciisa karieruli winsvlis saSualebas. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg gansakuTrebulad rTul viTarebaSi sasazRvro regionebSi kompaqturad Casaxlebuli eTnikuri umciresobebi aRmoCndnen. marTalia, rusuli qarTulma enam Caanacvla, magram amiT problemebi ki ar Semcirda, piriqiT gaizarda. radgan qarTuli ena ar ician, es qveynis istoriis swavlebazec uaryofiTad aisaxeba. eTnikuri umciresobebisaTvis (ZiriTadad somxebi da azerbaijanelebi) istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebi mezobeli saxelmwifoebidan SemoaqvT, romlebSic saqarTvelos istoria tendenciuradaa gaSuqebuli da rogorc momxsenebeli aRniSnavs, maTi Seswavla SesaZloa saqarTvelos moqalaqis nacvlad, potenciuri “mtris” aRzrdis xelSemwyobi faqtori aRmoCndes. amitom, aucilebelia, saxelmZRvaneloebis SinaarsSi aisaxos,rom saqarTveloSi garda qarTvelebisa aseve cxovrobdnen sxva eTnosis warmomadgenlebi da rom maT garda uaryofiTisa dadebiTi wvlilic Seitanes qveynis ganviTarebaSi. msgavsi damokidebuleba xels Seuwyobs eTnikuri umciresobebis warmomadgenel16

Ta integracias sazogadoebaSi da saqarTvelos sruluflebian moqalaqed aRqmas. amitom, misaRebad mimaCnia momxseneblis rCeva-rekomendacia: erTiani, saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis CamoyalibebisaTvis aucilebelia saganmanaTleblo politikis im kuTxiT warmarTva, rom saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebul skolebSi izrdebodes ara qarTveli, ara somexi, an azerbaijaneli, aramed saqarTvelos moqalaqe. Tsu-s axalgazrda mecnierebi yovelgvari ideologiuri wnexisagan Tavisufali mecnieruli obieqturobiT, keTilsindisierebiTa da maRali moqalaqeobrivi SegnebiT udgebian Cveni qveynis winaSe mdgar rTul socialur da politikur problemebis analizs; es ki imis sawindaria, rom qarTuli socialuri mecnierebebi swori mimarTulebiT warimarTon da myarad daadgnen msoflio mecnierebis ganviTarebis magistralur gzas. amiran berZeniSvili

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saqarTvelos imiji dasavleTis qveynebSi
eka darbaiZe Tsu-s socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti, politikur mecnierebaTa mimarTuleba, doqtoranti saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi ganviTarebisaTvis yvelaze mniSvnelovania Zlieri ekonomikis mqone demokratiuli qveynis imijis arseboba. dadebiTi qveynis imijis formirebaze muSaoba nebismieri qveynis xelisuflebis mxridan seriozul muSaobasa da Zalisxmevas saWiroebs, vinaidan qveynis warmatebuli imijis SemuSaveba da Camoyalibeba, msoflio ekonomikur bazarze mis damkvidrebasa da garkveuli poziciis dakavebas gulisxmobs, es ki saqarTvelosaTvis Zalzed mniSvnelovania, radganac warmatebuli imiji qveynisaTvis Zlieri ekonomikuri mdgomareobis myari garanti gaxlavT. swored amitom SemTxveviTobas rodi warmoadgens is faqti, rom dRes saqarTvelos xelisuflebis erT-erT prioritets qveynis sainvesticio da turistuli klimatis gaumjobesebaze muSaoba warmoadgens. qveynis dadebiTi imijis SemuSaveba da Camoyalibeba xels Seuwyobs qveyanaSi investiciebis mozidvasa da turizmis ganviTarebas, rac qveynis ekonomikuri ganviTarebis mTavari garanti gaxlavT. saxelmwifos saerTaSoriso imijs globalizaciisa da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis mZlavri ganviTarebis pirobebSi didi politikuri da ekonomikuri mniSvneloba eniWeba, radganac warmatebuli imijis arseboba qveynis Zlieri ekonomikuri mdgomareobis myari safuZvelia. saqarTveloSi saerTaSoriso imijis formirebis aqtualoba kidev ufro gaizarda, radgan bolo aTwleulebis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos mimarT damokidebule18

ba saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mxridan radikalurad icvleboda da meryeobda qveynis SigniT mimdinare procesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. es kidev ufro sagrZnobi gaxda bolo wlebis ganmavlobaSi. saqarTveloSi mimdinare procesebi Suqdeboda da Suqdeba dResac bolo aTwleulis manZilze amerikul da evropul media saSualebebSi. imiji rogorc politikuri, aseve ekonomikuri kategoria gaxlavT. igi ekonomikaSi produqtis realizebas uwyobs xels, sabanko saqmianobaSi izidavs klientebs, politikur sferoSi exmareba politikur figuras sazogadoebis mxridan dadebiTi damokidebulebis CamoyalibebaSi, qveynis warmatebuli imiji izidavs met turists, qmnis investirebisTvis Sesabamis klimats da a.S. qveynis imijis formirebis sakiTxSi mniSvnelovan gavlenas axdens is informaciebi rac Cvens qveyanaze iwereba da vrceldeba saerTaSoriso sivrceSi. swored amitom aris saWiro rom arsebobdes da vrceldebodes pozitiuri informacia saqarTvelos Sesaxeb. ucxoeli turistisaTvis mTavari faqtori stabiluroba gaxlavT. qveyanaSi arsebuli kriminaluri garemo safrTxes ar unda warmoadgendes, es faqtorebi ki xels Seuwyobs saqarTveloSi turistuli nakadebis gazrdas. turizmi warmoadgens ekonomikis erT-erT umsxviles, maRal Semosavlian da Zalian dinamiur sferos, romlis wilad modis investiciebis saerTo moculobis 7%-i, yvela sagadasaxado Semosavlebis 5-%-i da savaWro momsaxurebis mesamedi. turizmi samarTlianad iTvleba ekonomikis erT-erT msxvil, maRalSemosavlian da dinamikurad ganviTarebad dargad, ucxouri valutis Semodinebis aqtiur wyarod da zegavlenas axdens qveynis sagadasaxado balansze. turizmi aseve udides gavlenas axdens meurneobis iseT sakvanZo seqtorebze, rogoricaa transporti da kavSirgambuloba, vaWroba, mSenebloba, soflis meurneoba. igi gaxlavT socialur _ ekonomiku19

ri kompleqsis erT-erTi sfero, romelic mraval qveyanaSi gadaiqca swrafad ganviTarebad industriad. saerTaSoriso turizmis ganviTarebaSi ori tendecia arsebobs: gare ekonomikuri da politikuri faqtorebis zegvalenis amTvisebloba, am sakiTxSi arc Cveni qveyana ar warmoadgens gamonakliss. yvelaze sando wyaro ucxo qveyanaSi Camosvlis msurveli turistisa Tu investorisaTvis, romelic kapitalis dabandebas sruliad misTvis ucxo qveyanaSi apirebs, am qveynis gasacnobad, kvlav rCeba oficialuri media da maTive qveynis sagareo saqmeTa saministros veb-gverdze ganTavsebuli informaciebi. CvenTvis saintereso iyo mogveZia, Segveswavla da gagveanalizebia Tu romel qveynebs aqvT aseTi informaciebi, ra saxis informaciebi vrceldeba saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, ra periodulobiT xdeboda maTi ganaxleba da Canacvleba uaxlesi informaciiT da bolos, rogor icvleba qveyanaze arsebuli warmodgena, ukeTesobisaken, Tu piriqiT, uaresobisaken. aseTi saxis informaciebi aqvT safrangeTis, inglisis, kanadis, aSS-s, belgiis, Sveicariis, avstraliis, avstriis sagareo uwyebebs. aRniSnuli masalebis safuZvelze turistebisaTvis saqarTvelo naklebad mimzidvel da metad arastabiluri qveynis imijis matarebelia, rasac maTive saitebze gadmocemuli da qveyanaSi detalurad aRwerili mimdinare mZime kriminaluri mdgomareoba adasturebs. `qveyana, sadac RamiT Tavisuflad gadaadgileba, samkaulebiT quCaSi seirnoba saSiSia~ _ daaxloebiT aseTi saxis informaciebs avrceleben sagareo uwyebebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb, rasac TavianT moqalqeebze ganxorcielebuli danaSaulis maCvenebliT xsnian.

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avstraliis sagareo uwyeba ucxoeTis qveynebs usafrTxoebis donis TvalsazrisiT Semdeg safexurebad hyofs (ixile: 5): 1. gamoiCinon sifrTxile pirad usafrTxoebasTan dakavSirebiT 2. gamoiCinon sifrTxile 3. sifrTxilis maRali done 4. kidev erTxel gadaamowmon da gadaavlon Tvali mogzaurobis saWiroebas am qveyanaSi 4. ar gaemgzavron usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT mezobeli somxeTi da azerbaijani me-2 grafaSia Sesuli, maSin rodesac saqarTvelos usafrTxoebis me-3 grafaSi aTavseben, rac imas gulisxmobs, rom sagareo uwyeba faqtiurad urCevs avstraliis moqalaqeebs, rom saqarTveloSi Camosvlisagan Tavi Seikavon. es informacia 2008 wlis agvistos ruseT - saqarTvelos omis Semdeg daido maT saitze. es gaxlavT is rekomendaciebi, rasac isini sakuTar Tanamoqalaqeebs saqarTveloSi Camosvlisas sTavazoben: • saWiroa, rom uari Tqvan dedaqalaqSi RamiT gadaadgilebaze; • Sebindebisas Tavi aaridon dedaqalaqis quCebSi marto gasvlasa da gaseirnebas. aseve urCeven, rom gadaadgildnen wiTeli feris oficialuri taqsis saSualebiT. • SeiaraRebuli Tavdasxmis dros aranari saxis winaaRmdegoba ar gauwion Tavdamsxmels, romelic ZiriTadad maTi gaZarcviT unda iyos motivirebuli. aRsaniSnia is garemoeba, rom daaxloebiT 2007 wlamde oficialur saitebze ido detaluri informacia maTi moqalaqeebis mimarT ganxorcielebuli danaSaulebrivi qmedebebisa, rogoric iyo: maTi gataceba, fizikuri angariSsworeba da aseve maTi sicocxlis xelyofis 21

amsaxveli faqtebi, Tumca Cvenda sasixarulod es informaciebi ukve ramdenime welia, rac aRar devs. aSS-s saxelmwifo departamentis gancxadebiT, danaSauli saqarTvelosTvis Zalian seriozul problemad rCeba. (ixile: 2) arsebobs didi gansxvaveba ucxoeli moqalaqeebisa da qarTvelebis umravlesobis finansur SemosvlebTan dakavSirebiT. qarTvelebi gansakuTrebulad mdidrad amerikis moqalaqeebs aRiqvamen da swored amitomac maTi danaSaulebrivi qmedebis samizne ekonomikuri motiviT xSirad amerikis moqalaqeebi xdebian. amerikel moqalaqeebze ganxorcielebul danaSaulebaTa umravlesoba, rogorc saelCo acxadebs gaxldaT Semdegi xasiaTis: dayaCaReba sacxovrebel adgilsa Tu avtomobilSi, maTTvis avtomobilis moparva da iaraRis gamoyenebiT sxvadasxva saxis qurdobebi. usafrTxoeba aseve yvelaze mniSvnelovani da umTavresi sakiTxia nebismieri adamianisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki im ucxoelisaTvis, romelic misTvis sruliad ucxo qveyanaSi apirebs Camosvlas da miTumetes sakuTari biznesis warmoebas. usafrTxoebis mdgomareobis mxriv, saqarTvelo metad arastabiluri da naklebad usafrTxo qveynis imijiT warmogvidgeba. ucxoeTis qveynebis sagareo uwyebebi Zalian kargad arian informirebulni saqarTveloSi mimdinare gare da Sida politikuri procesebiT da im mdgomareobiT rac dRes konfliqtur regionebSia. swored amitom TavianT moqalaqeebs saqarTveloSi yofnis dros yovelgvari saxis gadaadgilebas SeiZleba iTqvas, rom pirdapir ukrZalaven e. w. samxreT oseTis, afxazeTis da pankisis xeobis teritoriebze. ucxoeTis sagareo saqmeTa saministroebis veb _ gverdze ganTavsebuli informaciebi saqarTveloSi arsebuli usafrTxoebis mdgomareobis amsaxveli faqtebiT TiTqmis identuria da bevrad arafriT gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan, Tumca 2008 wlis agvistos omis Semdeg 22

zogadi suraTi icvleba da amjerad akrZalul regionebs ukve sxva teritoriebic emateba da acxadeben, rom rusuli samxedro nawilebi kvlavac rCebian axalgorSi, perevSi, afxazeTSi kodoris xeobaSi, aseve afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis sxva danarCen teritoriebzec. miuxedavad imisa, rom samxedro operaciebi Sewyda, daZabuli mdgomareoba kvlavac rCeba da isini ar gamoricxaven rom sabrZolo moqmedebebi nebismier dros SeiZleba ganaxldes. TiTqmis yvela uwyeba xazs usvavs im faqts, rom e.w samxreT oseTi da afxazeTi saqarTvelos teritoriebi gaxlavT da rom maTi damoukideblobis aRiareba ar momxadara saerTaSoriso doneze rom saqarTvelos mTavroba ar cnobs samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis calmxriv damoukideblobas saerTaSoriso samarTlis gaTvaliswinebiT da agrZelebs pretenzias da moiTxovs am or regions. inglisis gaerTianebuli samefos mTavroba da aseve aSS-s saxelmwifo departamenti, yvela evrokavSiris qveynebTan erTad amarTlebs mis am uflebas, Tumca erT-erTi gaxldaT avstraliis sagareo saqmeTa saministro, romelic TiTqmis arsad ar usvams xazs saqarTvelos teritoriul mTlianobas (ixile 4). aSS-s saxelmwifo departamenti da aseve inglisis gaerTianebuli samefo pirdapir afrTxilebs Tavis moqalaqeebs, rom ar SeiZinon e.w. samxreT oseTsa da afxazeTis teritoriaze arsebuli uZravi qoneba, radganac aseT SemTxvevaSi im pirebs, romlebic saqarTvelos xelisuflebis nebarTvis gareSe ganaxorcieleben amgvari saxis operaciebs daekisrebaT msxvili fuladi jarima saqarTvelos samoqalaqo da sisxlis samarTlis kanonis Sesabamisad. maTive TqmiT, kerZo sakuTrebis mflobelobis sakiTxi gaurkvevelia orive regionSi. bevri iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piri gamoTqvams pretenzias sakuTar qonebaze. aRniSnuli sakuTrebis gasxvisebas mohyveba seriozuli finansuri da samarTlebrivi garTule23

bebi. am uZravi qonebis Semsyidvelebi iZulebulni Seiqmnebian pasuxi agon saqarTvelos kanonis winaSe, anda wardgen evropis sasamarTloSi da maT Soris britaneTis sasamarTloSi. swored amitomac, potenciurma myidvelebma unda gaiTvaliswinon mosalodneli Sedegebi samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis teritoriaze arsebuli qonebis SesyidvasTan dakavSirebiT. ramodenime wlis win safrangeTis sagareo uwyebas saitis mTavar gverdze CamoTvlili qonda turistebisaTvis akrZaluli qveynebis sia, sadac turistebs faqtiurad ar urCevdnen gamgzavrebas da swored amitomac usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT es metad sayuradRebo qveynebi wiTeli Zaxilis niSniT iyvenen aRniSnulni. daaxlebiT 2004 wlamde am qveynebs Soris saqarTveloc figurirebda (samxreT oseTi, afxazeTi da pankisis xeoba), magram 2005 wlidan saqarTvelo tovebs am saxelmwifoTa rigebs. ucxo qveyanaSi Casuli turistisaTvis aseve mniSvnelovania qveyanaSi arsebuli infrastruqtura da misi ganviTarebis done, saerTod ra mdgomareobaSi imyofeba am saxelmwifoSi moqmedi satransporto sistema da saerTod infrastruqtura, swored amdenad mniSvnelovania Tu ra saxis informaciebs avrceleben sagareo uwyebebi saqarTveloSi arsebuli satransporto sistemis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. maTi gancxadebiT, qveyanaSi aqtiurad xdeba adgilobrivi policiis kontroli mTlian sagzao qselze. saqarTveloSi Camosul Tanamoqalaqeebs sagareo uwyebebi avtomobilis marTvis procesSi sifrTxilisken mouwodeben, radganac maTi azriT, saqarTveloSi Zalian bevri adgilobrivi mZRoli ar marTavs avtomobils sagzao wesebis Sesabamisad. SuqniSnebi da sagzao niSnebi xSirad TiTqmis ignorirebulia. mZRolebi xSirad marTaven avtomobils gaufrTxileblad da gadaWarbebuli siCqariT. xSiria xolme swrafi siCqariT 24

momavali avtomobilebis mier momxxdari avariebi, romlebic cdiloben win gauswron ucbad gamomxtari brma mosaxvevidan momaval avtomobils. quCebi ZiriTad cud mdgomareobaSi imyofeba da akliaT sagzao niSnebi da gamyofi xazebi. ufro metic, sagzao SuqniSnebi SeiZleba ar funqcionirebdnen da mwyobridan iyvnen gamosuli. samwuxarod aSkaraa, rom safrangeTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros gamoklebiT (ixile 3), romelic kargad aris informirebuli am sakiTxSi, danarCeni qveynebis oficialuri uwyebebi ar arian informirebuli qveyanaSi satransporto da saavtomobilo gzebze Catarebuli farTo masStabiani samuSaobis Sesaxeb. aSS-s saxelmwifo departamentis gancxadebiT, saqarTveloSi religiuri umciresobebi xSirad arian xolme samizne, kerZod ki maTi msxverpli Zalian xSirad ieRovas mowmeebi aRmoCndnen, maT Soris iyvnen aseve baptistebi da RvTis kavSiris mimdevrebi. incidentebSi igulisxmeba maTi literaturis ganadgureba, kerZo sakuTrebis damtvreva da zogjer maTi fizikuri angariSsworeba (zogjer sakmaod mZimed), aseTi saxis incidentebs hqonda adgili amerikel moqalaqeebzec. miuxedavad imisa, rom saqarTvelos mTavrobam 2005 wels daakava, damnaSaved cno da daapatimra damnaSaveTa organizebuli jgufi, amerikis mTavroba saqarTveloSi myof Tanamoqalaqeebs TavianTi religiuri aRmsareblobis Sesrulebisas mainc sifrTxilisaken mouwodebs. saqarTvelos, romelsac uamravi mimzidveli mdidari resursebi gaaCnia, misi am turistuli potencialis Sesaxeb TiTqmis araferi ar aris naxsenebi ucxoeTis saitebze. erTaderTi informacia, rasac isini avrceleben gaxlavT informacia alpinizmTan dakavSirebiT. sagareo uwyeba alpinizmis moyvarulebs ar urCevs saqarTvelos mTebSi marto mogzaurobas, saWiroa rom isini SeuerTdnen specialur organizebul turistul jgufebs, 25

radganac rTulia saqarTveloSi zusti informaciis miReba mTebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb, vinaidan mTaSi amindi araprognozirebdia da SesaZloa, rom saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi ver moxerxdes Sesabamisi daxmarebis aRmoCena (ixile 6). Cveni kvlevis mizani iyo Segveswavla, Tu ramdenad mimzidveli turistuli imiji aqvs dRes saqarTvelos sazRvargareT, romlis safuZvlad gamoviyene msoflios wamyvani qveynebis sagareo saqmeTa saministroebis oficialuri veb _ gverdebi. vTvli, rom saqarTvelos Sesaxeb gavrcelebuli informaciebi da maTi Sefasebebi Zalian axlos dgas realobasTan. miuxedavad saqarTvelos mTavrobis mier gadagmuli seriozuli pozitiuri nabijebisa da gatarebuli reformebisa, saqarTvelo maTTvis mainc rCeba `zomierad saSiS~ qveynad. dasavleTis qveynebis mier yvelaze meti aqcenti keTdeba qveyanaSi arastabilur kriminalur garemosa da konfliqturi regionebis mimarT. maTive gancxadebiT, e. w samxreT oseTi, afxazeTi, pankisis xeoba kvlavac rCeba sxvadasxva saxis teroristuli aqtebis samizned, sadac adamianTa gataceba, afeTqeba da sicocxlis xelyofa Cveul movlenas warmoadgens. qveyanaSi arsebuli kriminaluri garemo, gadauWreli konfliqtebi, Sida politikuri daZabuloba xels uSlis turizmis ganviTarebsa da investicebis Semosvlas qveyanaSi. agvistos omis Semdgom didi kiTxvis qveS dadga saqarTvelos, rogorc stabiluri satranzito da turistuli qveynis imiji. mniSvnelovnad gauaresda investorTa dacvis garantiebi, ris gamoc uamravma investorma uari ganacxada saqarTveloSi investiciebis Cadebaze, ris gamoc saqarTvelom dakarga stabiluri qveynis imiji. ucxoeTis oficialur saitebze ganTavsebul da Seswavlil masalaTa safuZvelze SeiZleba gamovyoT Semde26

gi faqtorebi, romlebic yvelaze negatiurad moqmedeben saqarTvelos imijze, es faqtorebi gaxlavT: • qveyanaSi arsebuli kriminogenuli mdgomareoba; • qveynis turistuli sareklamo kampaniebisa da marketinguli RonisZiebebis arasakmarisoba; •ekonomikuri mimzidvelobis dabali done; • arasaTanado sainvestico klimati; • gadauWreli da gayinuli konfliqtebi; • qveyanaSi arsebuli demokratiuli institutebis ganviTarebis dabali done; Tanamedrove garemoSi turizms sul ufro da ufro meti da sapasuxismgeblo amocanebi ekisreba, romelTaganac gamovyofT turizmis, rogorc teritoriis imijis formirebis faqtors. teritoriis dadebiT saxe anu imiji, brendi, yalibdeba uamravi faqtoris zemoqmedebis Sedegad _ es aris ekonomikis ganviTarebis done, infrastruqturis, transportis, momsaxurebis sferos ganviTarebis xarisxi, rekreaciuli resursebis arseboba, teritoriis ekologiuri Sedgeniloba, aseve misi saerTo investiciuri mimzidveloba. teritoriis dadebiTi imijis formirebaze ufro met zegavlenas axdens ekonomikis zogadi mdgomareoba da infrastruqturisa da momsaxurebis sferos ganviTarebis xarisxi. am mxriv turizmis marketingma saTanado muSaoba unda Caataros. ekonomikis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT amas SesaZlebelia gadamwyveti mniSvneloba hqondes investiciebis mosazidad. saqarTveloSi turistuli industriis ganviTarebisaTvis saWiroa Semdegi RonisZiebebis gatareba xelisuflebis mxridan: • turistuli resursebis xelaxali Sefaseba; • saTanado infrastruqturis Seqmna;

27

• qveynis ekologiuri mdgomareobis gaumjobeseba da mosaxleobis ekologiuri ganaTlebis donis amaRleba; • saerTaSoriso bazarze saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanis turistuli resursebis Sesaxeb farTo sareklamo saqmianobis organizacia. swored amitom aris mniSvnelovani, rom gansakuTrebuli yuradReba daeTmos saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mxridan, saqarTvelos, rogorc turizmisa da sainvesticio nakadebisaTvis usafrTxo da mimzidveli qveynis imijze muSaobas. aSkaraa, rom saqarTvelos dadebiTi imijis formirebisaTvis saWiroa ufro meti da seriozuli energiis daxarjva, kidev ufro meti dinamikis gamovlena sakuTari qveynis imijis mSeneblobis procesSi.

Abstract Eka Darbaidze – PhD student of the Faculty of Social and

Political Sciences of TSU.
The Image o Georgia in theWestern Countries A positive country image has manifold advantages. There are several opportunities for the practical application of these findings by marketing professionals dealing with tourism and country image matters. Amongst direct political and economic benefits are the expansion of tourism, a better position in privatization transactions, foreign investors' increased interest, improved image and competitive position of our entrepreneurs abroad, a more positive external attitude to governmental credit and loan applications, stronger support and international reactions to foreign policy efforts, the strengthening of the national ties and the national consciousness of Hungarians living abroad. 28

The paper deals with the image of Georgia, based on the analyses of the infomration provided by the MFA’s of the leading countries of the world. The particular emphasis is put on the modern circumstances of Georgia, pointing to the issues of security in the conflict regions and general criminal situation in the whole country. The main factors hampering the formation of the positive image of Georgia is provided in the paper.

gamoyenebuli da citirebuli literatura : 1. saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministro www.mfa.gov.ge/index.pxp?sec_id=376&lang_id=GEO 2. aSS-s saxelmwifo departamenti http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/tw/tw_4327.html 3. safrangeTis sagareo saqmeTa saministro http://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/fr/conseils-auxvoyageurs_909/index.html 4. britaneTisa da CrdiloeT irlandiis gaerTianebuli samefos sagareo saqmeTa saministro http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-adviceby-country/europe/ 5. avstraliis sagareo saqmeTa da vaWrobis saministro http://www.smartraveller.gov.au/zw-cgi/view/Advice/ 6. kanadis sagareo saqmeTa saministro http://www.voyage.gc.ca/index-fra.asp 7. www.economy.ge/allfiles/trade%20turnover%202008 8. http://www.regard-est.com/home/breve_contenu.php?id=742 9. http://www.ieim.uqam.ca/spip.php?page=articlecepes&id_article=5297 10. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO)

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politikis velisa da Jurnalistikis velis Sexvedris adgili: saqarTvelos energoseqtori omisSemdgom qarTul presaSi
flora esebua socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti, sociologiis mimarTuleba, doqtoranti.

epoqa, romelSic Cven vcxovrobT, bevrma mecnierma monaTla rogorc informaciuli. am droSi politikac axal Tvisebebs iZens; mas uwevs moqmedeba axal sibrtyeSi, sadac Tavad gvevlineba erTdroulad rogorc determinatoris, aseve determinirebulis rolSi. dRes ukve saubaria avtonomiur politikur velze, romelzec yvelaze did gavlenas masobrivi komunikaciis saSualebebi axdenen. velis cneba frangi sociologis pier burdies socioanalizis erT-erTi ZiriTadi kategoriaa. ar arsebobs velis calmxrivi da erTmniSvnelovani ganmarteba. socialur urTierTobaTa erToblioba ar aris raRac amorfuli an erTgvarovani ram, aramed warmoadgens garkveuli struqturiT ganpirobebul sistemas. “veli _ es aris ZalTa adgilsamyofeli, met-naklebad damoukidebeli sivrce, struqturirebuli opoziciebiT...; es aris gansakuTrebuli adgili, sadac adgili aqvs sruliad mravalferovan brZolas~ (4, 37). “veli aris ZalTa koncentraciis adgili, romlis farglebSic agentebi floben garkveul poziciebs, rac statistikurad gansazRvravs maT Sexedulebas am velze da maT praqtikebze, romlebic orientirebulia im ZalTa urTierTobis struqturis SenarCunebaze an Secvlaze, romlebic qmnian am vels” (4,109). veli warmoadgens 30

socialuri sinamdvilis erTgvar moduss. es aris ZalTa urTierToba da brZolis sivrce, sadac brZola da ZalTa gadanawileba xorcieldeba am ZalTa erTobliobis transformaciisTvis. velis SigniT adgili aqvs konkurencias da brZolas imis legitimirebisaTvis, risTvisac mimdinareobs brZola am konkretul velSi. nebismier vels hyavs agenti. agentebi, imyofebian ra garkveuli velis farglebSi, reagireben ZalTa gadanawilebaze, struqturebze, axdenen maT konstruirebas, da miuxedavad imisa, rom ganicdian garkveul zewolas, maT mainc aqvT unari zemoqmedeba moaxdinon velze; isini moqmedeben velSi winaswar dadgenili wesebis Sesabamisad, magram, imavdroulad, gaaCniaT Tavisuflebis garkveuli xarisxi. pier burdie Tvlis, rom politikuri veli aris erTgvari mikrokosmi da ganmartavs, rom sityva mikrokosmi miuTiTebs imaze, rom politikuri universumi yvela institutTan da partiasTan, funqcionirebis wesTan da agentTan erTad, warmoadgens avtonomiur samyaros, mikrokosmoss, romelic socialur mikrokosmSia moTavsebili; “politikuri mikrokosmi aris erTgvari universumi, romelic CarTulia didi universumis funqcionirebis kanonebSi da, miuxedavad amisa, flobs SedarebiT avtonomias am universumis SigniT da emorCileba sakuTar nomos-s, anu, sakuTar avtonomiur kanons” (4,112). swored es SedarebiTi avtonomia unda gaviTvaliswinoT am universumis SigniT aRmocenebuli praqtikebis gasagebad. politikuri veli ar arsebobs sxva velebTan urTierTobis gareSe. is mudmiv interaqciaSia sxva velebTan; velis amocana imaSi mdgomareobs, rom sakuTari principebi Tavs moaxvios sxva velebs, amitomac axorcielebs politikur komunikacias, rac gulisxmobs “politikuri informaciis gadacemis process, romlis wyalobiTac 31

igi moZraobs politikuri sistemis erTi nawilidan meoreSi da brunavs politikur sistemasa da socialur sistemas Soris” (1,144). socialur sistemasTan komunikaciis erT-erT saukeTeso saSualebas swored beWduri media warmoadgens. marTalia, beWduri media televiziaze naklebadaa gavrcelebuli, magram sakmaod efeqturi formaa. SedarebiT farTo auditoriaze gasvlas politikis agentebi da “azrTa liderebi” swored beWduri mediis saSualebiT cdiloben. nebismieri politikuri jgufis Tu calkeuli figuris mizans sakuTari auditoriis gazrda da saWiro an saWiroze meti xmis miReba warmoadgens. informacia, romelsac amomrCevels Tu potenciur amomrCevels awvdian presis saSualebiT, uqmnis auditorias STabeWdilebas da uyalibebs garkveul pozicias. Tamamad SeiZleba imis Tqma, rom Tanamedrove samyaroSi politikur sivrceSi warmatebis misaRwevad mediis saukeTeso formas televizia warmoadgens, radganac politikis veli cdilobs eleqtoratis maqsimaluri raodenoba moicvas; Tumca politikur TamaSSi mxolod televizia rodi monawileobs. beWduri media, miuxedavad imisa, rom misi auditoria naklebad mravalricxovania, CarTulia axali drois “media-logikaSi”, rac siaxleze, sainteresosa da mimzidvelze orientacias gulisxmobs. axali drois politika, sarCinelis TqmiT, “ar aris kompetenturi, Tu is ar aris kompetenturi mks-is sferoSi” (8,41). axal epoqaSi ZiriTadi politikuri diskursi Riaa imisaTvis, rom igi warmodgenil iqnas mediaSi. es aris ara mxolod survili, aramed aucilebloba; swored amitom, politikosebi nebismier gancxadebas, nebismier Temaze saubarsa Tu gamoCenas sainformacio velSi, politikuri sityvis Tqmis JanrSi aqceven da cdiloben xSirad moxvdnen am velSi, radganac esmiT “politikis mediatizaciis” mniSvneloba. es movlena zogjer aRiqme32

ba politikis kolonizaciad mediis mier, zogjer ki piriqiT, mediis kolonizaciad politikis mier (14,200). logikurad Cndeba kiTxva velis avtonomiurobis Sesaxeb. realobaSi arsebuli mravali velidan Jurnalistikis veli flobs avtonomiurobis sakmaod dabal xarisxs. am velis gageba SeuZlebelia mxolod gare an Sida konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT; aq erTnairad mniSvnelovania imis codna, Tu vin afinansebs mas, vin aris reklamis damkveTi da a.S. da isic, Tu rogor zemoqmedeben Tavad is adamianebi erTmaneTze, romlebic am velSi floben garkveul pozociebs. rac Seexeba politikis vels, dRes igi aris erT-erTi yvelaze avtonomiuri veli (4,115). rac metadaa avtonomiuri veli, miT metadaa SesaZlebeli misi axsna velis logikiT. Tumca, avtonomiuribis maRali xarisxi imas rodi niSnavs, rom politikis vels ara aqvs saerTo sxva velebTan da mas mxolod sakuTari logikiT avxsniT. TiTqmis yvela vels aerTianebs pretenzia sxvebs Tavs moaxvion socialuri samyaros legitimuri xedva da TiToeuli maTgani awarmoebs brZolas “xedvisa” da “dayofis” gabatonebuli principis sxvebisaTvis Tavsmosaxvevad. politikuri veli Jurnalistikis velis gansakuTrebuli zegavlenis qveS eqceva da misi axsna konteqstis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe warmoudgenelia, ramdenadac Jurnalistikis veli, miuxedavad naklebi avtonomiurobisa, sul ufro met gavlenas axdens politikis velze. politikuri subieqtebisaTvis sainformacio veli, am velze xSiri gamoCena, garkveuli sainformacio dominirebis miRweva da im pirobebis Sesruleba, romelsac informaciuli epoqa ayenebs, “sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis” matarebelia. me-20 saukunidan dRemde msoflio radikalur transformaciebs ganicdis da amas, sxva bevr mizezTan erTad, komunikaciis formebic (presa, radio, televi33

zia, kompiuteri) ganapirobeben. TiToeuli maTgani Taviseburad axdens zegavlenas adamianis cxovrebis wesze. masobrivi komunikaciis saSualebebi (mks) aris ganaTlebis, informaciis gacvlisa da garTobis saSualeba, romelic iWreba TiToeuli individis cxovrebaSi daukiTxavad. dRes komunikacias sami ZiriTadi interpretacia gaaCnia: 1. saSualeba materialuri da sulieri samyaros obieqtebis dakavSirebisa; 2. informaciis gacvlaze dafuZnebuli urTierToba; 3. informaciis masobrivi miwodeba da gacvla sazogadoebaze zemoqmedebis mizniT (10, 53). sazogadoeba Tavadaa komunikaciis forma, romlis meSveobiTac xdeba gamocdilebis aRwera, modificireba Tu gacvla. is, rasac Cven sazogadoebas vuwodebT ar aris mxolod politikuri an ekonomikuri qseli, aramed aris komunikaciisa da swavlis procesi. komunikacia iwyeba brZoliT swavlasa da aRweras Soris; “viwyebT ra am process gonebaSi da gadavcemT ra mis Sedegebs sxvebs, Cven damokidebulni varT komunikaciis garkveul modelebze, romelTa meSveobiTac SesaZlebelia kontaqti saerTod. Cven SegviZlia SevcvaloT es modelebi, roca isini araadeqvaturia arsebuli situaciisaTvis. mTeli Cveni cxovreba, saboloo jamSi, aris am modelebis cvla, razedac Cveni energiis udidesi nawili ixarjeba. igi cvlis politikur da ekonomikur institutebs. metic, komunikaciuri modelebis umravlesoba socialur institutad iqceva. swored maT unda uzrunvelyon sxvadasxva sferos arseboba da funqcionireba” (15, 45). Tavis droze, komunikaciis formebis gavrceleba swored ganaTlebis sistemas ukavSirdeboda; me-18 saukunidan, mas Semdeg, rac adamianebma gaacnobieres, rom 34

wera-kiTxvis codna aucilebelia ara mxolod elitaruli wris warmomadgenelTaTvis, aramed nebismieri mokvdavisaTvis, Seiqmna Sesabamisi pirobebi, romlebic xels uwyobda adamianebis swavla-ganaTlebas; adamianebma miiRes meti informacia am samyarosa da masSi mimdinare movlenebze. es procesi uSualod iyo dakavSirebuli skolaTa qselis SeqmnasTan da sabeWdi saSualebebis gavrcelebasTan. komunikaciis Tanamedrove formebs, Tavdapirvelad, me-18 saukuneSi, gaCnda gazeTi, romelic informaciis gadacemis ZiriTad saSualebas warmoadgenda; me-19 saukuneSi Cndeba gazeTis yoveldRiuri gamocemebi aSS-Si, romelTa Rirebuleba erT cents ar aRemateboda da xelmisawvdomi iyo yvelasTvis (5, 415). me-20 saukuneSi Tanmimdevrulad Cndeba radio, televizia da kompiuteri. droTa ganmavlobaSi, komunikaciis saSualebebi marTlac iqca masobrivad; dRes ukve saubaria msoflio sainformacio wesrigze. Tanamedrove samyaroSi arsebobs “erTiani samyaros” gancda, rasac mks qmnian. msoflio sainformacio sistemaSi wamyvani adgili dasavlur industriul qveynebs ukaviaT, magram “globaluri sofeli” mainc arsebobs da mis funqcionirebaSi yvelas Seaqvs sakuTari wvlili. informacia aris axali epoqis mTavari mamoZravebeli Zala; is aris warmoebis ZiriTadi forma da produqti. sxva materialur produqtebTan SedarebiT informacias, rogorc produqts, mravali upiratesoba aqvs (2,34). informacia ar cvdeba; misi mravaljeradi gamoyeneba avtomaturad ar iwvevs mis gaqrobas. informaciis swrafi tiraJireba martivad aris SesaZlebeli. misi koreqtuli gadacemis SemTxvevaSi is ar kargavs sakuTar arss; igi ekonomiuria: Tu materialuri produqti mudmivad saWiroebs kvlavwarmoebas, informacias es ar sWirdeba; sakmarisia misi erTxel warmoeba da, sworad Senaxvis SemTxvevaSi, mas araferi emuqreba. 35

Tanamedrove samyaroSi mks-is mniSvnelovan rolze aravin davobs. am mniSvnelobis gasazomad mecnierebi sam “sidides” iReben: 1. mediis roli da adgili yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi; 2. erovnul ekonomikaSi mks-is roli; 3. media, rogorc politikuri gancxadebebis mauwyebeli. pirveli sidide _ yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi mediis adgili, namdvilad mniSvnelovania. statistikuri monacemebiT, britaneTsa da aSS-Si mosaxleobis 97-98%-s aqvs televizori da yoveldRe TiToeuli adamiani cisfer ekranTan 3-4 saaTs atarebs (15, 332). Sesabamisad, televizia aris umniSvnelovanesi adamianTa socializaciis procesisaTvis. rac Seexeba ekonomikur sidides: media TamaSobs umniSvnelovanes rols erovnuli produqtis warmoebasa da gavrcelebaSi; agreTve, didia biujetSi Setanili gadasaxadis maCvenebelic. mesame sidide _ politikuri _ aris yvelaze mniSvnelovani Cven SemTxvevaSi, radganac media aq gvevlineba brZolis iaraRad politikur valze. aq ki unda aRiniSnos mks-sadmi funqcionaluri midgoma. igi xazs usvams mediis erT konkretul-politikur funqcias. ingliseli sociologis, merdokis politikur TeoriaSi mks-is moRvaweobis umniSvnelovanes sferos politika warmoadgens. robert mertonic mks-s ganixilavs, rogorc TviTorganizebad da TviTkontrolirebad qvesistemas, romelic dadgenili politikuri CarCoebis farglebSi funqcionirebs (10, 57). pier burdie saubrobs mks-is did rolze Tanamedrove samyaroSi da acxadebs, rom Jurnalistikis veli, romelic mWidro kavSirSia politikur velTan, miuxedavad avtonomiurobis SedarebiT dabali xarisxisa, sul ufro met gavlenas axdens sxva velebze. es veli or poluss Soris arsebuli opoziciis safuZvelzea struq36

turirebuli: saxelmwifos (agreTve, politikuri Tu ekonomikuri) zegavlenisagan SedarebiT damoukidebeli polusi da am Zalebze damokidebuli polusi (4, 129). marTalia, mas-media bevri funqciis matarebelia da ZiriTadad erTi mizani _ mogebis miReba amoZravebs, magram kargad icis, rom mas iseve karnaxobs sakuTar wesebs auditoria, rogorc Tavad media am ukanasknels. mks aris biznesi, romelic warmatebuli mxolod maSin SeiZleba iyos, roca igi iTvaliswinebs auditoriis moTxovnebs; winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, igi dakargavs Zalauflebas da, saerTodac, Sewyvets arsebobas. komunikacia aucileblad gulisxmobs ori mxaris arsebobas _ recipientikomunikatori da maT Soris urTierTobas ara calmxrivi, aramed ormxrivi xasiaTi aqvs da am faqtis ugulebelyofa wamgebiania TiToeul polusze ganlagebuli ZalisaTvis. miuxedavad qarTul media-sivrceSi arsebuli bevri problemisa, saqarTveloSi mainc arsebobs telekompaniebi Tu gazeTebi, romelTa mflobelebic kerZo pirebi arian. imis miuxedavad, rom presas mTel msoflioSi da, maT Soris saqarTveloSic auditoriis mxolod 10-15% Tu ecnoba aqtiurad, presa mainc mniSvnelovani mediasaSualebaa. is, sul mcire, aqtiurad monawileobs mimdinare politikur procesebSi. “miuxedavad Seqmnili viTarebisa, mediac da politikuri Zalebic qmnian iluzias, TiTqos isini gavlenas axdenen mTel sazogadoebaze swored mediis saSualebiT” (3, 27). presis SemTxvevaSi kargad muSaobs pol lazarsfeldis “ormxrivi komunikaciis Teoria”, romlis Tanaxmadac politikuri Zalebi sakuTar ideebs acnoben “azrTa liderebs”, romlebic, Tavis mxriv, gavlenas axdenen konkretul jgufebze; anu, xdeba miRebuli informaciis ganxilva da interpretacia im adamianebis mier, romlebic garkveuli avtoritetiT sargebloben 37

jgufebSi da iqcevian azrTa generatorebad imiT, rom mxars uWeren (an ar uWeren) konkretul ideas, gadawyvetilebas; “azrTa liderebi” SeiZleba ganvixiloT mediatorebis rolSi. mediatoris rolSi gvevlinebian, rogorc konkretuli avtorebi, aseve respondentebi, romlebic konkretul sakiTxebze eqspertul Sefasebebs akeTeben. aqve SeiZleba mivuTiToT h. lasuelis mier Camoyalibebuli konfiguracia, romelic moicavs informaciis gadacemis mTel gzas: “vin acnobebs, ras acnobebs, rogori arxebiT, vis da rogori efeqtiT” (1, 149). am sqemis mixedviT, konkretuli Jurnalistebi konkretuli eqspertebis saSualebiT cdiloben gaugzavnon auditorias konkretuli gzavnili presis saSualebiT. Tavad presis mkiTxvelTagan bevri SesaZloa iyos “azrTa lideri” sakuTar socialur jgufSi da Tavad gaxdes ideis generatori. yoveli konkretuli statiis Semdeg gaCenili kiTxvebi da diskusia aris imis garanti, rom konkretul Temaze moxdeba aqcentis gadatana imaze gacilebiT meti adamianisa, vidre konkretuli gazeTis an Tundac statiis mkiTxvelia. am statiaSi Cemi kvlevis sagans warmoadgens ara mxolod pier burdies xedva politikis, ekonomikisa da Jurnalistikis velebze, an media-saSualebebis rolze, aramed am konteqstSi konkretuli sakiTxis gaanalizeba. kerZod, kvlevis sakiTxad avirCie saqarTvelos energoseqtoris gaSuqeba agvistos omis Semdgom qarTul presaSi. saqarTvelos energoseqtori qarTuli politikuri diskursis Semadgeneli nawilia. saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso energetikul proeqtebSi monawileoba, saqarTvelos pozicionireba, rogorc energoderefnisa aris Tema, romelzec TiTqmis yvela politikuri Zala apelirebs. 38

Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, rom nebismieri politikuri Zala Tu lideri sakuTari imijis pozicionirebisas cdilobs Tundac erTi “grandiozuli” ideis generireba moaxdinos da sakuTar politikur programaSi debs muxls konkretuli didi gegmis ganxorcielebis Sesaxeb, SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom saqarTvelos geopolitikuri mdgomareoba da misi rogorc energoderefnis pozicionireba aris saqarTvelos politikuri elitis samoqmedo gegmis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi nawili. amdenad, qveynis energoseqtori da seqtorSi mimdinare procesebi, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso energoproeqtebSi monawileoba rogorc ucxouri, aseve qarTuli presisTvis aramimzidveli Tema sulac ar aris. am Temam gansakuTrebuli aqtualuroba agvistos movlenebis Semdeg SeiZina. gaCnda bevri kiTxva saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso energetikul proeqtebSi monawileobis SesaZleblobebTan dakavSirebiT, es faqti ki qveynis damoukideblobis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanes garantad aRiqmeba. gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom am movlenebSi aqtiurad iyo CarTuli ara mxolod sami (saqarTvelo-samxreT oseTi-ruseTi) mxare, aramed dasavleTic. globalizaciis pirobebis gaTvaliswinebiT, msoflios msxvili politikuri moTamaSeebis CarTva am omSi gasakviri arc aris. mTels msoflios mouwia TamaSi im faqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom ruseTi msoflios umsxvilesi energetikuli moTamaSea. rogorc eqspertebi da dasavluri media werda, dasavleTs mouwevda garkveul daTmobebze wasvla swored ruseTze energetikuli damokidebulebis gamo. amasTanave, eWvqveS dgeboda saqarTvelos energtikul proeqtebSi monawileobis sakiTxi. Sesabamisad, es Tema, rogorc mniSvnelovani politikuri sakiTxi, qarTuli presis erT-erTi mTavari Tema unda yofiliyo agvistos movlenebis Semdeg. qarTul 39

presaSi saqarTvelos energetikuli problemebis gaSuqebaa Cemi kvlevis saganic. kvlevis meTodad presis monitoringi da kontent-analizia gamoyenebuli. sakvlevad ki oTxi gazeTi SeirCa. kerZod, “rezonansi”, “24 saaTi”, “alia” da “kviris palitra”. amaTgan, ori gazeTi (rezonansi da 24 saaTi) yoveldRiuri, erTi (alia) gamodis kviraSi samjer, erTic (kviris palitra) _ yovelkvireulia. Sesabamisad, SerCeuli iqna gamosvlis sixSiris mixedviT yvela tipis gazeTi, romlebic sxvadasxva gamokiTxvebiT, reitingul gazeTTa xuTeulSi sxvadasxva TanmimdevrobiT, magram xvdebian. kvlevis amocana iyo dagvedgina, Tu ra sixSiriT gaSuqda saqarTvelos energoseqtori, qveynis saerTaSoriso proeqtebSi monawileoba, ra sakiTxebze moxda aqcentireba, vin iyvnen komentatorebi, romlebic “azrTa liderebad” gvevlinebian da ra tendenciebi gamovlinda sakiTxis gaSuqebis dros. presis monitoringi ganxorcielda erTi Tvis masalaze. kvlevis periodad SeirCa 5 seqtmebridan 5 oqtombramde monakveTi. agvistos movlenebis Semdeg mediisTvis garkveuli SezRudvebi dawesda, romelic swored 5 seqtembers moixsna da Jurnalistikis, politikisa da ekonomikis velis warmomadgenlebs miecaT saSualeba SeefasebinaT movlenebi. kvlevis Sedegad gamovlinda, rom yvelaze didi sixSiriT energoseqtori gaSuqda gazeTSi “rezonansi”. mTeli Tvis manZilze gazeTi yoveldRe uTmobda gverds Temas; yovelkvireul gazeTSi “kviris palitra” daibeWda ori statia; gazeTma “alia” energetikas oTxi statia miuZRvna, gazeTma “24 saaTi” ki Temas miuZRvna sami statia da erTi CanarTi, romelic fond saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaleoba saqarTvelos proeqtis farglebSi ganxorcielda. 40

Tu SevajamebT Sedegebs celkeuli gazeTebis mixedviT, “kviris palitram” orive statia denisa da gazis tarifs miuZRvna. gazeTma yuradReba gaamaxvila sawarmoebisTvis gazis tarifis gazrdaze da im faqtze, gaizrdeboda Tu ara eleqtroenergiis tarifi mosaxleobisTvis. orive SemTxvevaSi gazeTma komentarisTvis energetikis ministrs mimarTa. sainteresoa, rom yovelkvireul, erT-erT yvelaze gayidvad da maRaltiraJian gazeTs ar miuZRvnia vrceli statia qveynis energopolitikis, saerTaSoriso proeqtebSi CarTvisa da zogadad am seqtoris perspeqtivebisaTvis da ar warmoudgenia arc erTi eqspertis analizi am sakiTxze. gazeTi “alia” energoseqtors oTx vrcel statias uZRvnis da TiToeul maTganSi erTi seqtoris sxvadasxva problematikazea saubari. gazeTSi saubaria zogadad saqarTvelos energetikul rolze, aseve saerTaSoriso proeqtebSi qveynis monawileobis perspeqtivebze; gaSuqda aseve konkretuli kompaniebis _ “yaztransgazisa” da “enerji-investis” mimarT gatarebuli RonisZiebebi, gazis tarifis cvlileba da afxazebis mier engurhesis SesaZlo gakontrolebis sakiTxebi. vrcel statiebSi warmodgenilia istoriuli eqskursi da mkiTxvels SeuZlia gaixsenos rusuli energokompaniebis qarTul bazarze Semosvlis istoria, aseve gaecnos faqtebs gazisa da navTobis evropisTvis miwodebis alternatiul marSrutebsa da moculobebze. sainteresoa is garemoeba, rom “alia”, miuxedavad vrceli statiebisa, ar sTavazobs mkiTxvels arc erTi eqspertis komentars am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. is statiebSi eyrdnoba faqtebs, energetikis ministris sajaro komentarebs da “sakuTari wyaros” informacias.

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rogorc mogaxseneT, gazeTi “24 saaTi” energetikul problemebs sul sam statiasa da erT CanarTs uZRvnis. gazeTi gverdebs uTmobs zogadad energodamoukideblobis sakiTxs, saerTaSoriso proeqts NABUCCO da mis perspeqtivebs, da engurhesTan afxazuri Zalebis mobilizebas. unda aRiniSnos, rom gazeTis statiebi aris sakmaod vrceli, moyvanilia bevri faqti, rogorc engurhesis mSeneblobis, eleqtroenegriis warmoebis moculobebis, aseve gazsaden NABUCCO-s mSeneblobis perspeqtivebisa da misi gamtarunarianobis Sesaxeb; moyvanilia aseve dasavluri mediisTvis evrokavSiris warmomadgenelTa komentarebi, Tumca Tavad gazeTs ar aqvs warmodgenili arc erTi eqspertis komentari da sakuTari analizi am seqtoris perspeqtivebis Sesaxeb. erTaderTi, visi komentaric aris warmodgenili gazeTSi, aris energetikis ministri aleqsandre xeTaguri. rogorc monitoringis Sedegad gairkva, gazeTma “rezonansi” saqarTvelos energoseqtori yvelaze aqtiurad gaaSuqa. man am Temas gverdi TiTqmis yvela nomerSi dauTmo da gaaSuqa seqtoris mravali problematika. sakiTxebi, romlebic “rezonansma” gaaSuqa: - gazis tarifis gaZvireba sawarmoebisTvis; - denis tarifis SesaZlo gaZvirebasTan dakavSirebiT arsebuli kiTxvebi; - engurhesi da afxazeTis de-faqto xelisuflebis pozicia hesTan dakavSirebiT; - gazis regionebSi ganawileba da axali “monstri” “sokari” qarTul bazarze; - ruseTis dapireba oseTSi gazsadenis gayvanasTan dakavSirebiT; - yazaxuri proeqtis _ baTumSi navTobgadamamuSavebeli qarxnis mSeneblobis perspeqtivebi; - ruseTis energopolitika da evropis reaqciebi; 42

- dasavleTis Seteva rusul ekonomikaze; - navTobkompaniebis mier agvistos movlenebiT dazaralebulTaTvis gaweuli daxmareba; - energetikuli usafrTxoeba da saqarTvelos roli. “rezonansi” Seecada erTi Tvis manZilze moecva mTeli energoseqtori. mkiTxvels mieca SesaZlebloba gacnoboda am seqtorSi arsebul problemebs, saerTaSoriso tendenciebs, qveyanaSi Seqmnil viTarebas; statiebSi moyvanilia ara mxolod faqtebi konkretul proeqtebTan dakavSirebiT, aramed moyvanilia rogorc erTi mxaris, aseve meore mxaris damokidebuleba ama Tu im sakiTxze. gazeTSi warmodgenilia ara mxolod energetikis ministris pozicia, aramed konkretuli kompaniebis (rompetroli, sokari) xelmZRvanelTa, aseve eqspertTa (gia xuxaSvili, soso cincaZe, daviT ebraliZe, liana jervaliZe) poziciebi. gazeTi mkiTxvels aseve SesaZleblobas aZlevs gaecnos meore mxaris poziciebsac, romelsac calkeul SemTxvevebSi de-faqto respublikebis liderebi _ eduard kokoiTi da sergei baRafSi warmoadgenen, aseve kompaniebis _ “gazpromisa” da “yazmunaigazis” pozciebi. “rezonansSi” mkiTxvels aseve SeuZlia gaigos, Tu rogor gaSuqda konkretuli Tema (gazsadeni NABUCCO, ruseTis winaaRmdeg gasatarebeli RonisZiebebi, “gazpromis” energopolitika da aziasa da afrikasTan SesaZlo TanamSromloba) dasavlur mediaSi, aseve ra komentarebi gakeTda evrokavSirisa Tu aSS-is administraciis warmomadgenelTa mier konkretul sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. da rac yvelaze sainteresoa, gazeTi “rezonansi” sTavazobs mkiTxvels ubralo momxmarebelTa mosazre43

bebs denis tarifis SesaZlo gaZvirebasTan da konkretulad zamTrisaTvis mzadebasTan dakavSirebiT. presis monitoringis Sedegad SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom, miuxedavad, zogadad sakiTxis aqtualurobisa, qarTuli presisTvis energetika wamyvani Tema ar yofila. yvelaze aqtiurad energoseqtori gaSuqda gazeTSi “rezonansi”, romelsac es Tema xSirad pirvel gverdzec hqonda gamotanili. monitoringis Sedegad gamovlinda, rom “azrTa liderebis” funqcias Tavad Jurnalistebi asruleben, radganac yvelaze xSirad statiaSi mxolod maTi mosazrebebia warmodgenili. yvelaze xSirad gazeTebSi warmodgenilia energetikis ministris aleqsandre xeTagurisa da eqspert gia xuxaSvilis komentarebi. yvelaze aqtualuri Tema gazisa da denis tarifi da gaz- da navTobsadenebis alternatiuli marSrutebis perspeqtivebia. Tu visaubrebT zogad ganwyobebze, Jurnalistebi sakmaod skeptikurad arian ganwyobilni rogorc mimdinare zamTris uproblemod SexvedrasTan, aseve saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso proeqtebSi CarTvasTan dakavSirebiT da yvelaze xSirad amis argumentad ruseTis energoresursebi, misi agresiuli politika da dasavleTis rusul gazze damokidebuleba moyavT. presa, rogorc Jurnalistikis velis agenti, aris ekonomikis, politikisa da Tavad Jurnalistikis velebis Sexvedris adgili. energoseqtori, rogorc qveynis ekonomikis Semadgeneli nawili, aris mniSvnelovani politikuri TamaSis nawili. Zalian rTulia daadgino zRvari, saqarTveloSi energetika, rogorc ekonomikuri sivrce, Tavad axdens gavlenas politikur TamaSze Tu piriqiT, is aris iaraRi politikosTa xelSi. aq Tavs mTavari sociologiuri problema _ subieqt-obieqti, agenti-recipienti _ iCens Tavs. Tumca, am kvlevis mizans ar warmoadgenda imis dadgena, Tu romeli veli 44

flobs met Zalauflebas: ekonomika karnaxobs sakuTar wesebs politikas Tu piriqiT, Tu yvelaze didi Zalauflebis mqone Jurnalistikis velia, romelic orive vels sakuTari SesaZleblobebis demonstrirebis saSualebas aZlevs. kvlevis mizani iyo dagvedgina, eTmoba Tu ara yuradReba energoseqtors, ra problematikaze xdeba aqcentireba, vin arian “azrTa liderebi” da ra perspeqtivebzea saubari. cxadia, rom arsebobs energoseqtori, romelic mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs qveynis adgils msoflio geopolitikaSi da am sakiTxebze diskusia mediaSi mniSvnelovania rogorc politikuri aqtorebis, aseve auditoriisTvis. imis miuxedavad, rom es ar aris yvelaze popularuli Tema xmis misaRebad arCevnebSi, rac Tanamedrove politikuri TamaSis ZiriTad mizans warmoadgens, es aris sakiTxi, romelzec sakuTari pozicia yvela politikur Zalas da e.w. moazrovne eleqtorats gaaCnia. xSirad swored es ukanaskneli asrulebs “azrTa lideris” funqcias sakuTar socialur jgufSi. Sesabamisad, Jurnalistikis velis aqtorebi sTavazoben auditorias suraTs energopolitikaze da Tan ise, rom azrTa liderebis rolSi xan Tavad, xan eqsprtebi, xanac Tavad politikuri aqtorebi gvevlinebian. Tumca, mxolod am Temis gaSuqebac ki, avtomaturad niSnavs politikuri velisa da Jurnalistikis velis komunikacias. presis mcirericxovani auditoriis didi nawili Semdeg ukve Tavad aris garkveuli ideebis generatori da azrTa lideri sakuTar jgufSi; es ki imas niSnavs, rom am sakiTxebze diskusiaSi gacilebiT farTo socialuri jgufia Cabmuli. ra Sedegi moaqvs am diskusiebs, es sxva kvlevis sagania. globalizaciisa da informacionalizaciis epoqaSi, rodesac sazogadoebas informaciaTa usazRvro naka45

di miewodeba, Tan ise, rom misi analizis dro ar rCeba, Tavad sakiTxis garSemo diskusiis dawyeba ukve dadebiTad SeiZleba Sefasdes. Sesabamisad, miuxedavad imisa, rom qaTul presaSi energoseqtori mTavari Tema sulac ar yofila, Temis gaSuqebis yoveli mcdeloba politikuri diskursisTvis am sakiTxis aqtualurobas mainc adastrurebs. Abstract Flora Esebua –PhD Student of the Faculty of Social and

Political Sciences of TSU. The Energy Sector of Georgia in the Georgian Press after the war – the meeting place of the fields of politics and Journalism
We can imagine a social reality as structured by fields where each field is partially autonomous. Political field is the most autonomous one but it mainly depends on the field of journalism. Georgian printed media is the meeting place of three fileds – political field, economic field and field of journalism. Despite of the urgency of the issue, the energy policy of Georgia after the August incidents has not become the main issue of Georgian published media. As a result of content-analyse of four representatives of printed media the main stresses are revealed; it’s fixed that the “opinion leaders” are media agents themselves and not political actors or experts. gamoyenebuli da citirebuli literatura: 1. berZeniSvili a. politikuri sociologia, Tb. 2000; 2. iberi e., “saxelmwifo televizia saprezidento arCevnebSi” // tele-radioJurnalistikis sakiTxebi (Tsu-s tele-radioJurnalistikis kaTedris Sromebi) _ 2001 _#5; 46

3. TevzaZe g., “saqarTvelo: Zalauflebis simulaciebi”// “Tavisufleba” _ 2003 _ #2(14); 4. Бурдье П., Поле политики, поле социальных наук, поле журналистики // Социо анализ Пъера Бурдъе, СПБ.2001; 5. ГидденсЭ., Социология, М.1999; 6. Мехлер Г., Власть и Магия PR, Питер,2004 7. Политическая социология, М.1999; 8. Сарчинелли У., “Старые СМИ-Новые СМИ. К вопросу об отнощениях между журналистикой и политиков” //Сборнике рефератов, - 2002-#2; 9. СергеевВ., СергеевК., “Некоторые подходы к анализу языка политики” //Полис _ 2001 _ #5;K 10. Шарков Р., “Истоки и парадигмы исследований социальных коммуникаций” //Социс _2001_#8; 11. JPS (American Journal of Political Science) _ 2001_#2; 12. Castells M, The Information Age: Economy, Society, and Culture, Volume 1: The Rise of the Network Society, Blackwell Publishers (Oxford, and Malden, MA), 1996; 13. Fairclough N., Media Discourse, London.1995; 14. Media studies/a reader, second edition, edited by Marris P,/Thornham S, Edinbourgh University Press, 2002; 15. Nordenstrang K.,“Mass Communication” // Understanding Contemporary Society, Sage; 16. Taking Sides/Clashing Views on Controversal Issues in Mass Media and Society, edited by Alexsander A,/Hanson J, fourth edition, 1997; 17. Wilson J., Wilson S.Le Roy., Mass Media/Mass culture, fourth edition, 1998.

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2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis ZiriTadi tendenciebi
lia TeTraZe Tsu- s socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti, politikur mecnierebaTa mimarTuleba, doqtoranti 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis moaxloebasTan erTad politikuri partiebs Soris vnebaTaRelva dRiTidRe matulobs. saarCevno kampania aqtiur fazaSi gadadis. 2010 wlis adgilobrivi arCevnebisadmi interesi Zalian didia, rasac ufro metad amZafrebs saarCevno kodeqsis daxvewis da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis reformirebis mizniT ganxorcielebuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi. im WeSmaritebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom arCevnebi ar iwyeba kenWisyris dRes, cxadze cxadia, nebismieri arCevnebis kanonierebis, demokratiulobis da gamWvirvalobis dasadgenad aucilebelia, gansakuTrebuli yuradReba mieqces winasaarCevno kampanias. nebismieri donis arCevnebSi erTerT umniSvnelovanes faqtors warmoadgens arCevnebSi monawile politikuri subieqtebis uzrunvelyofa Tanabari sastarto pirobebiT winaasaarCevno kampaniis warmoebisas, romelic regulirebulia saarCevno kodeqsiT. mogexsenebaT saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi saarCevno kanonmdeblobis daxvewis da srulyofis mizniT mudmivad ganicdis saxecvlilebas. aqedan gamomdinare sainteresoa im cvlilebebis ganxilva, romelic uSualod exeba saarCevno kampaniis maregulirebel samarTlebriv normebs, ramdenad uzrunvelyofs konkurentunarian saarCevno garemos. 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis winasaarCevno periodi ramodenime aspeqtiT, Zalian gavs 2006 48

wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis winasaarCevno periods, Tumca mimdinare winasaarCevno kampania bevrad daxvewilia, aqedan gamomdinare aRniSnuli arCevnebis SedarebiTi analizi SesaZleblobas mogvcems vimsjeloT saarCevno kampaniis da zogadad arCevnebis dadebiT da uaryofiT mxareebze. mokled Sevexebi politikur mdgomareobas, romelic win uswrebda arCevnebs, politikur partiebs Soris arsebul damokidebulebas rogorc 2006 wlis, aseve 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebisadmi da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sistemis reformirebis mizniT ganxorcielebul cvlilebebs ramac mniSvnelovanwilad gansazRvra saarCevno kampaniis xasiaTi. kanonis Tanaxmad, kandidatTa winasaarCevno kampania da agitacia iwyeba arCevnebis daniSvnis dRidan, anu 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebisaTvis saarCevno kampaniisa da agitaciis ganxorcieleba 40 dRiani vadiT ganisazRvra.1 TavisTavad arasaarCevno periodic iZleva politikuri partiebisaTvis SesaZleblobas gaacnon sakuTari saqmianoba da gegmebi amomrCevlebs; Tumca SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 5 oqtombris arCevnebis subieqtebma mizanmimarTuli kampania, arCevnebis daniSvnis dRidan daiwyes. aqve avRniSnav, rom prezidentis gankargulebiT2 arCevnebi zustad 40 dRiT adre dainiSna, ramac erTis
saraTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi. uxli 73.punqti 1. winasaarCevno kampania/agitacia iwyeba arCevnebis daniSvnis momentidan. saarCevno subieqtobis kandidatebi am dRidan sargebloben Tansawori uflebebiT am kanoniT dadgenili wesiT.(21.03.2008) 2 wlis 26 agvistos, saqarTvelos prezidentis №480 gankargulebiT, saqarTvelos kontituciis 73-e muxlis me-2 punqtisa da saqarTvelos organuli kanonis “saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsis” 1291 muxlis pirveli nawilis Sesabamisad, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis warmomadgenlobiTi organos – sakrebulos arCevnebis daniSvnis procedura kanonis CarCoebSi ganxorcielda.
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mxriv Seqmna garkveuli problemebi proceduruli TvalsazrisiT, xolo meores mxriv garkveulwilad SezRuda, rogorc centraluri saarCevno komisiis, aseve politikuri subieqtebis qmedebebi. amasTan dakavSirebiT SeniSvnebi gamoiTqva sadamkvirveblo misiis mxridanac. magaliTad, euTos demokratiuli institutebisa da adamianis uflebaTa ofisma (ODIHR) Tavis Sualedur moxsenebaSi ganacxada, rom miuxedavad imisa, rom arCevnebisaTvis teqnikuri mzadeba mimdinareobs, “cesko sirTuleebis winaSe dgas mWidro vadebis gamo” xelisuflebam arCevnebis dRe 27 agvistos gamoacxada, ramac “saarCevno administracia vadebSi mniSvnelovnad SezRuda da cesko-m ver SeZlo rig SemTxvevebSi, vadebSi Cateva” cesko-m ver SeZlo gaerkvia saarCevno kodeqsis bundovani mxareebi, saarCevno kampaniisaTvis Tanmimdevrulad da droulad saxsrebis gamoyofis moTxovnasTan dakavSirebiT. Sedegad zogierT maJoritar kandidats registraciaze uari eTqva. saboloo jamSi, zogierT maJoritarul olqSi mxolod erTi kandidati daregistrirda.1 2006 wlis arCevnebSi monawileoba miiRo 6 politikurma subieqtma.2 2006 wlis arCevnebisagan gansxvavebiT. 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebisaTvis saarCevno kampaniis warmoebis vada 60 dRemde3 gaizarda, amave dros unda aRiniSnos, rom ramodenime politikurma subieqtma saarCevno kampania arCevnebis gamocxadebamde gacilebiT adre daiwyo, amas garkveulwilad xeli Seuw                                                            
  arCevnebze damkvirvebeli organizaciebi Sualedur daskvnebs aqveyneben. /3oqt.’ 06/16:41 http://www.civil.ge/geo/article.php?id=13866 
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http://www.cec.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id=22&info_id=1325

Kkanonis Tanaxmad winasaarCevno agitacia iwyeba arCevnebis daniSvnis dRidan, saarCevno kodeqsis Tanaxmad. prezidenti merisa da sakrebulos arCevnebs niSnavs meris uflebamosilebis gasvlamde araugvianes 60 dRisa, saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi. muxli 108. punqti-2. Tumca rasakvirvelia SesaZlebelia arCevnebis TariRis daniSnva ufro adrec.

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yo arCevnebis savaraudo TariRis gansazRvram. kerZod, pirveli gancxadeba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis 2010 wlis 30 maiss Catarebis Sesaxeb jer kidev 2009 wlis 20 ivniss parlamentis winaSe angariSis wardgenis dros gaakeTa, xolo mimdinare wlis 12 marts miRebuli kanoniT, Caiwera rom adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebi amave wlis 30 maiss unda Catardes.1 arCevnebis TariRis droulad gamocxadeba qarTuli da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi rekomendacia iyo, radgan garda imisa, rom arCevnebis TariRis gamocxadeba pirdapir kavSirSia oficialuri saarCevno kampaniis dawyebasTan, arCevnebis zusti TariRis codna politikuri partiebis Tabanar pirobebSi Cayenebasac uwyobs xels. Tumca miuxedavad amisa opoziciur partiebs Soris gamarTulma gauTavebelma konsultaciebma da SeuTanxmeblobam gaerTianebis Taobaze, romelic sabolood uSedegod dasrulda, didi ziani miayena erTis mxriv opoziciuri partiebis imijs, xolo meores mxriv drois TvalsazrisiT, romelic rogorc resursi araracionalurad iqna gamoyenebuli. 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebs win uswrebda cvlilebi saarCevno kodeqsSi, romlis Sedegad saqarTvelos mosaxleobam miiRo saxeSecvlili, gansxvavebuli uflebamovaleobebis mqone adgilobivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi, meris Tanamdeboba gaxda arCeviTi,2 Tumca am SemTxvevaSi, meris arCeva xdeboda arapirdapiri gziT, anu sakrebuloSi umravlesobiT mosuli partiidan. amave dros es iyo profesiuli niSniT arCeuli centraluri saarCevno komisiisaTvis pirveli saerTo erovnuli arCevnebi.                                                             
saqarTvelos organuli kanonis `saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi~ 12913 muxlis 1-li punqti. 2 saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi. muxli 123. punqti me-2.
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rac Seexeba 2010 wlis arCevnebs, iseve rogorc 2006 wlis arCevnebs win uZRoda saarCevno kodeqsSi ganxorcielebuli mTeli rigi cvlilebebisa, romelic Seexo sakrebuloebis dakompleqtebis wess, da rac yyvelaze mniSvnelovania meris Tanamdeboba gaxda arCeviTi.1 (Tumca ara yvela msxvil qalaqSi.) rac adgilobrvi TviTmmarTvelobis ganviTarebisaken win gadadgmul nabijad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. iseve rogorc 2006 wlis arCevnebis win, aseve 2010 wlis arCevnebisTvis opoziciaSi marcxi ganicada boikotis Temam. gansxvavebiT wina arCevnebisagan politikuri partiebis CarTuloba saarCevno kampaniSi gacilebiT maRali iyo. 2010 wlis arCevnebSi monawilebis misaRebad ceeskoSi registracia gaiara 26-ma politikurma partiam maT Soris arCevnebisaTvis Seqmna 3 saarCevno bloki, xolo 14 politikuri partia damoukideblad iRebs monawileobas.2 rac Seexeba Tbilisis meris arCevnebs ceesko-Si Tbilisis merobis 9 kandidatis ganacxadi Sevida.3 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis saarCevno kampania wina arCevnebTan SedarebiT mSvid garemoSi mimdinareobs, erTis mxriv arCevnebSi monawile merobis kandidatebs da partiebs saSualeba aqvT amomrCevlebs miawodon Tavisi saarCevno programebi, xolo meores mxriv, kerZod ki, saarCevno kampaniis gaSuqebis TvalsazrisiT politikuri subieqtebi araTanabar mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndnen, amas emateba is garemoebac, rom meris arCevnebSi monawile saxelisuflebo kandidati amavdroulad inarCunebs Tbilisis meris statuss da uflebamosilebas, rac araTanabar mdgomareobaSi ayenebs arCevnebSi monawile sxva kandidtebs. saarCevno kampaniis warmoebisas aucilebeli pirobaa konkurentunariani saarCevno garemos Seqmna.                                                             
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saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi 12613 punqti 2.
http://www.cec.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id=62&info_id=6554

http://www.cec.gov.ge/files/biuletenebi/biuleteni_27_-_3_maisi.pdf

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maT Soris mniSvnelovania arCevnebSi monawile politikur subieqtTa sainformacio uzrunvelyofa. arCevnebSi monawile politikur subieqtTa sainformacio uzrunvelyofasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi regulirdeba saarCevno kodeqsis 73-e da 731-e muxliT. 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis win saarCevno kodeqsSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebi masmediis saSualebebsac Seexo da winasaarCevno kampaniis warmoebis sainformacio uzrunveloyofisaTvis ganaxlebuli wesebi ganisazRvra. saarCevno kanonmdebloba avaldebulebs, rogorc sazogadoebriv, ise kerZo mauwyeblebs winasaarCevno kampaniis sawarmoeblad gamoyon ufaso saeTero dro mxolod kvalificiuri subieqtebisaTvis, Seqmnan Tanabari pirobebi fasiani saagitacio gancxadebebis gansaTavseblad da debatebSi monawileobis misaRebad.1 imis miuxedavad, rom saarCevno kanonmdebloba gansazRvravs saarCevno subieqtis kvalificiurobis statusis garkveul kriteriumebs,2 2006 wlis arCevnebisaTvis Tavdapirvelad gaurkveveli iyo, Tu romeli saarCevno subieqti unda mieCniaT mauwyebelT kvalificiur subieqtad. amasTan aRsaniSnavia, rom kanoniT sazogadoebrivi mauwyebeli valdebulia, kvalificiuri saarCevno subieqtebis garda, yvela sxva partiasa da saarCevno blokis winasaarCevno reklamis ganTavsebis mizniT gamoyos dro, romelic Tanabrad ganawildeba am subieqtebs Soris.3 2006 wlis arCevnebis sarCevno kampaniis sainformacio uzrunvelyofas sxvadasxvagvarad afaseben, rogorc saerTaSoriso ise adgilobrivi sadamkvirveblo organizaciebi. mag: euTos sadamkvirveblo misiis SefasebiT “mesaqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi 73 –e da 731 muxli saarCevno subieqtis kvalificiurobis sakiTxi kriteriumebi ganisazRvreba saarCevno kodeqsi 731 muxlis me-4, me-41, me-5, me-6, me-7 punqtebiT. 3 saarCevno kodeqsi 731 muxlis me-10 punqti
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dia amomrCevlebs azrTa mravalferovnebas sTavazobda da arCevnebTan dakavSirebuli mniSvnelovan movlenebs aSuqebda, gansakuTrebul yuradRebas uTmobda xelisuflebis saqmianobas. samauwyeblo kompaniebi ufaso satelevizio drois ganawilebasTan da debatebis organizebasTan dakavSirebul sakanonmdeblo moTxovnebs icavdnen. samwuxaroa, rom erTianma nacionalurma moZraobam uari ganacxada aRniSnul debatebSi monawileobaze”. Tumca masSi aseve naTqvamia, rom “rusTavi 2-ma politikuri ambebisTvis gaTvaliswinebuli saeTero drois 36% mTavrobas da 30% ki prezidents dauTmo.1 analogiuri Sefardebaa sazogadoebriv mauwyebelSic. orive arxis informacia xelisuflebis Sesaxeb neitraluri an pozitiuri iyo. gazeTebma mkiTxvelebs ufro kritikuli azri SesTavazes. Tumca mcire tiraJis gamo isini mkiTxvelTa mxolod SezRudul raodenobas moicaven.” rac Seexeba 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis winasaarCevno kampaniis sainformacio uzrunvelyofas, marTalia politikuri subieqtebis kvalificiurobis gansazRvrasTan dakavSirebiT problemebi ar Seqmnila Tumca dabalansebis da tendenciurobis sakiTxebi kvlav aqtualuria. magaliTad euTos sadamkvirveblo misiis monitoringis Sualedur angariSSi2 naTqvamia, rom ”kandidatebs saSualeba qondaT warmoedginaT sakuTari platforma saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblisa da sxva saxelmwifo da kerZo mauwyeblebis mier                                                             
Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, rom prezidenti im droisaTvis imav droulad iyo erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis Tavmjdomare, aRniSnuli garemoeba erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis mxardaWeris da reklamirebisa damatebiT umniSvnelovanes resursad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. 2 euTos demokratiuli institutebisa da adamianis uflebebis ofisi. arCevnebis sadamkvirveblo misia. saqarTvelo, adgilobrivi arCevnebi 2010 weli. 21 maisi. Sualeduri angariSi #2 (4-15 maisi) http://www.osce.org/documents/odihr-el/2010/05/44046_ka.pdf
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mowyobili sistematiuri diskusiebisa da Toq Souebis saSualebiT.” aqve naTqvamia, rom “OSCE/ODIHR-is saarCevno sadamkvirveblo misiis 18 aprili-12 maisi media monitoringis winaswar angariSSi miTiTebuli iyo, rom satelevizio arxebis umetesoba araTanabar dros uTmobda praim-taimis axali ambebis eTerSi sxvadasxva politikuri subieqtebisa da kandidatebis gaSuqebas, zogierTi maTgani upiratesobas aniWebda samTavrobo kandidatebs, zogi-ki opoziciisas. aqamde mxolod ssm1 sTavazobs mayurebels saarCevno kampaniis SedarebiT dabalasebul suraTs praim-taimis axal ambebSi. ssm1-ma politikuri da saarCevno axali ambebis 19% dauTmo “erTian nacionalur moZraobas”, da 13% “alianss saqarTvelosTvis” qristian demokratiuli moZraobis TaosnobiT Seqmnil qristian-demokratiul gaerTianebas da erovnul sabWos daeTmoT 12-12%. ssm-s meore arxi mudmivad uTmobs eTers yvela politikur partias, aSuqebs maT saarCevno kampanias _ dRemde es saSualeba gamoiyena qristian-demokratiulma kavSirma, “aliansma saqarTvelosaTvis” da erovnulma sabWom. qveynis masStabiT mauwyebeli, dReisaTvis yvelaze popularuli ori kerZo satelevizio arxi - “rusTavi-2” da “imedi” gamoxataven mmarTveli partiisa da mis mier wardgenili Tbilisis merobis kandidatis mxardaWeras. orive arxi farTod da dadebiTad aSuqebs xelisuflebis saqmianobas saarCevno kampaniis konteqstis gareSec, riTac, arapirdapiri gziT, samsaxurs uwevs samTavrobo kandidatebs. TvalSi sacemia saxelmwifo moxeleTa saqmianobis dadebiTi kuTxiT gaSuqebis tendencia. maTi miRwevebisa da warmatebebis wina planze wamoweva. Tbilisis merisa da mTavrobis warmomadgenelTa gamoCena sxvadasxva ceremoniebis, maT Soris avtobusis axali samarSruto xazis, sportuli moednebisa da savaWro centrebis gaxsnis, agreTve Tbilisis liftebis SekeTebis Tbilisis meriis TanadafinasebiT) gaSuqebisas, rogorc 55

wesi, erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis” kandidatebis TandaswrebiT, arapirdapir emsaxureba enm-s saarCevno kampanias.” Tbilisis adgilobrivi tele sadgurebi “kavkasia da “maestro” ki piriqiT, dRemde opoziciis, kerZod ki “aliansi saqarTvelosaTvis” platformis rols asruleben. orive arxi aseve akritikebda “erTian nacionalur moZraobas da xelisuflebas. qveynis masStabiT mauwyebel ZiriTad satelevizio arxebze fasiani satelevizio reklamis Zalian maRali tarifi1 kandidatebs media saSualebebSi saarCevno kampaniis warmoebis saSualebas uzRudavs. dRemde mxolod batonma ugulavam moaxerxa “rusTavi 2-ze da “imedze” fasiani sareklamo rgolebis ganTavseba. “kvalificiuri subieqtebi aqtiurad iyeneben ufaso saeTero dros, romelic maTTvis rogorc saxelmwifo ise kerZo mauwyeblebma gamoyves sareklamo rgolebis gansaTavseblad. ssm-s pirveli arxi, miuxedavad imisa kanoniT ar aris valdebuli, ufaso saeTero dros mainc uTmobs arakvalificiur subietqebs.“ aRniSnuli tendencia fiqsirdeba aseve media monitoringis2 angariSebSi3 da aseve calkeuli adgilobrivi sadamkvirveblo organizaciebis mier momzadebul winasaarCevno kampaniis monitoringis angariSebSi, am drois
http://www.ambebi.ge/politika/19486-opoziciisthvis-miutsvdomelinacionaluri-arkhebis-politikuri-reklamis-tarifebi.html 2 winasaarCevno kampaniis media monitiringis ganxorcielebis mizniT centralurma saarCevno komisiam daiqirava ukrainuli monitoringis Jgufi pro mova (pro mova), da aseve sami qarTuli kompania aipiemi (IPM), bisiji BCG da praim-taimi ( PRIMETIME) 3 ix. media monitoringi 2010. pirveli talRa 26 aprili- 5 maisi. satelevizio arxebis monitoringi Sedegebi. meore talRa. 612 maisi. satelevizio arxebis monitoringis Sedegebi. mesame talRa. 13-19 maisi, 2010
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manZilze televiziebis misamarTiT gakeTda araerTi SeniSvna tendenciurobasa da drois araTanabar ganawilebaze calkeuli organizaciebisa da pirebis mier. mag: media monitoringis Sualedur angariSSi naTqvamia, rom “Pro.mova-s mier media monitoringis monacemTa analizi ukve dawyebulia. zusti monacemebi Tvis bolosTvis iqneba warmodgenili, Tumca am etapze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom sainformacio siaxleebi dabalansebulia da Seesabameba dadgenil raodenobriv kriteriumebs (xangrZlivoba, gaSvebis sixSire). amave dros sainformacio siaxleebis pirveli Tvisobrivi kvlevebi qmnis mediis mier kandidatTa araTanabrad warmoCenis saSiSroebas, rac gamoixateba dRis wesrigSi zogierTi kandidatisaTvis sxvebTan SedarebiT upiratesobis miniWebaSi, menejmentis mxriv araTanabari pirobebis Seqmnas, aseve sxvadasxva mniSvnelobis da Sesabamisobis qvotebis araTanabrad gadanawilebaSi. amitom monitoringis ganmaxorcielebeli kompaniebis mxridan maqsimaluri Zalisxmevaa saWiro raTa amomrCevleTaTvis saukeTesod iqnas miwodebuli yvela siaxle.1” rac Seexeba satelevizio debatebs aRsaniSnavia, rom 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis dros “xelisuflebam nebayoflobiT daTmo satelevizio diskusiis arena da is opozicias gadauloca. dRes yvela arxze politikur Toq-SouebSi mxolod opoziciaa warmodgenili, romelic aseT uCveulo garemoSi cota uxerxuladac ki grZnobs Tavs da ar icis rogor SeebrZolos uxilav mowinaaRmdeges.”2 Tumca amave dros aRniSnuli Toq-Souebi opoziciisaTvis Tavisi Tavis reklamirebis damatebiT saSualebad iqca.                                                             
winasarCevno periodis media monitoringis pirveli Sualeduri angariSi. 11 maisi. 2010 weli 2 ix. “ucnauri arCevnebi: distanciaze brZolis’ strategia da taqtika“, giorgi asaniSvili, 24 saaTi” 20 seqtemberi 2006 ,#207 (1359)
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2006 wlis arCevnebisgan gansxvavebiT 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis saarCevno kampaniis dros, pirvelad saqarTvelos arCevnebis istoriis manZilze saqarTvelos sazogadoebriv mauwyebelze Sedga satelevizio debatebi1 Tbilisis merobis kandidatebs Soris, debatebi moewyo or etapad, pirvel etapze debatebSi monawileoba miiRo kvalificiurma subieqtebma,2 xolo meore etapze debatebi Sedga arakvalificiur subieqtebs3 Soris.4 miuxedavad imisa, rom aRniSnuli debatebi ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT Sors aris evropasa da amerikaSi danergili debatebis tradiciebisgan, aRniSnuli movlena mainc win gadadgmuli nabijia, rogorc amomrCevelTa informirebis, aseve saarCevno teqnologiebis ganviTarebis TvalzrisiT. saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsiT daSvebulia winasaarCevno agitacia, rogorc romelime saarCevno subieqtis mxardasaWerad, ise sawinaaRmdegod. 2006 wlis adgilobriv arCevnebSi winasaarCevno kampaniis warmoebisas politikuri partiebi/blokebi sakuTari programebisa da winadadebebis ukeTesad warmodgenis nacvlad, oponentebis uaryofiT mxareebze akeTebdnen aqcents. am mxriv, aRsaniSnavia, rom 2006 wlis arCevnebisagan gansxvavebiT 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebSi monawile politikuri subieqtebi orientire1

                                                            

debatebi Catarda aSS-s saerTaSoriso ganviTarebis saagentosa (USAID) da saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis TanadafinansebiT. USAID-ma daaxloebiT 40 000 aSS dolari gamoyo debatebis organizebisaTvis, debatebis Semdgomi gamokiTxvisa da fokus Jgufebis CatarebisTvis. kandidatTa winaswari momzadebisa da sxva saxis daxmarebisTvis. 2 http://www.1tv.ge/Video-View.aspx?VID=1266&Loc=82&CatID=1&LangID=1
3 4

http://www.1tv.ge/Video-View.aspx?VID=1274&Loc=82&CatID=1&LangID=1
ა ტ ე ლე ვ ი ზ ი

http://www.civil.ge/geo/article.php?id=22682&search=ს
ო დე ბ ა ტ ე ბ ი

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buli arian amomrCevlebze da ara sxva kandidatTa negatiuri mxareebis mxilebaze. arCevnebSi monawile politikuri subieqtebi maqsimalururad cdiloben ZiriTadi saprogramo debulebebi miitanon amomrCevlebamde. Tumca arCevnebSi monawile politikuri subieqtebi arapirdapiri gzebiT mainc cdiloben konkurentebis diskreditacias. rac Seexeba administraciuli resursebis gamoyenebis sakiTxs, 2006 wlis adgilobrivi arCevnebi ar gamoirCeoda saxelmwifo da partiuli struqturebis gamijvnis kuTxiT. saarCevno kampaniis warmarTvis TvalsazrisiT saxelisuflebo partia, rogorc xelisufleba, momgebian poziciaSi imyofeboda da kanonmdeblobis akrZalvebma ver uzrunvelyo mmarTveli partiis mier administraciuli resursebis gamoyenebis kontroli; Sedegad, mmarTvelma partiam es SesaZlebloba sakmaod efeqturad da mizanmimarTulad gamoiyena. amasTan dakavSirebiT SeniSvnebi gamoiTqva euTos sadamkvirveblo misiis mxridanac. magaliTad, euTos sadamkvirveblo misiis Sualedur daskvnaSi naTqvamia, rom: ”mmarTvelma partiam farTod gamoiyena xelisuflebaSi yofnis upiratesoba da ganaxorciela metad TvalSisacemi socialuri daxmarebis proeqtebi, romlebic moicavdnen komunaluri gadasaxadebis vauCerebis gamoSvebas, sapensio danamatebis gacemas da droebiTi samuSao programebis SemuSavebas. saarCevno kampaniis paralelurad warmarTulma da mediis mier farTod gaSuqebulma zemoaRniSnulma programebma saxelmwifo saqmianobasa da saarCevno kampanias Soris zRvari metad bundovani gaxada. beWdviT da eleqtronul saarCevno masalebSi identuri lozungebis, dizainisa da gamosaxulebebis gamoyenebam gaarTula erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis saarCevno kampaniis masalebsa da saxelmwifo biujetidan dafinansebul masalebs Soris gansxvavebebis moZebna. garda amisa, zogierT SemTxvevaSi erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis filialebi 59

ganTavsebuli iyo adgilobrivi aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis SenobebSi da calkeuli saarCevno komisia mmarTveli partiis saarCevno kampaniaSi iyo CarTuli.”1 imis miuxedavad, rom saarCevno kodeqsiT akrZalulia winasaarCevno agitaciisa da kampaniisTvis im organizaciebis materialur-teqnikuri resursebis gamoyeneba, romlebic finansdeba saqarTvelos saxelmwifo biujetidan, aseve akrZalulia Tanamdebobrivi da samsaxurebrivi mdgomareobis gamoyeneba saagitaciod, 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebisTvis aseTi zRvari realurad ar arsebobda. (magaliTad, winasaarCevnod saxelmwifo biujetidan dafinansebuli RonisZiebebis Sesrulebis gaxSireba da maTi gamoyeneba da a.S) aseT viTarebaSi gamoricxuli iyo samuSao saaTebis ganmavlobaSi agitaciis warmoebis akrZalvis wesebis dacva. xelisuflebis mier Catarebuli yvela pozitiuri RonisZieba mmarTveli partiis mier Sesrulebulad cxaddeboda da aRiqmeboda, rac SeuZlebels xdida winasaarCevno agitaciisa da administraciuli resursis gamijvnas2 miuxedavad imisa, rom adaminstraciuli resursebis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT ganxorcielda mTeli rigi RonisZiebebisa, kerZod jer kidev 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis Semdom rogorc saerTaSoriso aseve adgilobrivi sadamkvirveblo organizaciis mier gakeTda araerTi SeniSvna, SemuSavda araerTi rekomendacia, 2008 wlis arCevnebSi rogorc sapreziden                                                            
ix. “ZiriTad Tavisuflebebs pativs scemen, magram saxelmwifosa da mmarTvel partias Soris gansxvaveba arasakmarisia” euTos demokratiuli institutebisa da adamianis uflebebis dacvis ofisis pres mdivnis mier gavrcelebuli presrelizi, Tbilisi, 6 oqtomberi 2006 weli. 2 damatebiT ix. axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia “adgilobrivi arCevnebi saqarTveloSi: samarTliani TamaSi” winasaarCevno kampaniis monitoringis angariSi “ Tblisi 2006
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to ise saparalameto arCevnebis saarCevno kampanis dros kvlav problemur sakiTxad rCeboda adnisitraciuli resursebis gamoyeneba saarCevno kampaniis miznebisaTvis saxelisuflebo kandidatebis mxridan. 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebs win uZRoda saarCevno kodeqsSi ganxorcielebuli cvlilebebi, aseve saarCevno kampaniis sawyis stadiaze, kerZod, 2010 wlis 8 aprils centralur saarCevno komisiasa da 5 arasamTavrobo organizacias (”axali Taoba_axali iniciativa”, ”samarTliani arCevnebisa da demokratiis saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba, saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia, “saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba_saqarTvelo” da saerTo samoqalaqo moZraoba _ mravalerovani saqarTvelo) Soris xeli moewera memorandums “”2010 wlis arCevnebisaTvis administraciuli resursebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb”1, mogvianebiT, aRniSnul memorandums SeuerTda ToTxmeti politikuri partia,2 romlis mizani iyo  xelmomweri mxareebis administraciuli resursis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze urTierTSeTanxmeba. Tumca miuxedavad aRniSnuli RonisZiebebisa es sakiTxi kvlav problematuria, rasac garkveulwilad xels uwyobs kanonmdeblobaSi nebsiT Tu uneblied gaparuli xarvezebi. arasamTavrobo organizacia saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba _ saqarTvelo“-m administraciuli resursebis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT pirveli angariSi jer kidev saarCevno kampaniis oficialur dawyebamde gamoaq1

                                                            

saiam da oTxma arasamTavrobo organicaziam ceskosTan memorandumi gaaforma /samSabaTi, 13 aprili 2010 /http://www.gyla.ge/attachments/702_memorandumi.pdf 2 centraluri saarCevno komisia /adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebi 2010 / sainformacio biuleteni/4 – 10 maisi “ceskom da Tormetma politikurma partiam administraciuli resursis gamoyenebaze memorandums moaweres xeli” http://www.cec.gov.ge/files/biuletenebi/biuleteni_4_-_10_maisi.pdf

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veyna1, angariSi Seexeboda 2010 wlis biujetSi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisaTvis gamoyofili Tanxebis uprecendento zrdas. saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba_saqarTvelos mier gamoqyveynebul monitoringis meore2 angariSSi dafiqsirebulia administraciuli resursebis gamoyenebis araerTi SemTxveva. Cemi azriT ”sakanonmdeblo xarvezi”, romelic aucileblad unda gamoswordes Semdomi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebisaTvis, Seexeba merisa da sakrebulos uflebamosilebis sakiTxs, kerZod dRes moqmedi kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad meri da sakrebulo uflebamosilebas axorcielebs axali sakrebulos pirvel Sekrebamde.3 pirvel SemTxvevaSi ”Tbilisis meris arCevnebs niSnavs saqarTvelos prezidenti Tbilisis meris uflebamosilebis vadis gasvlamde araugvianes 60 dRisa. analogiuri mdgomareobaa sakrebulosTan mimarTebaSic. administraciuli resursebis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT sainteresesoa euTos sadamkvirveblo misiis monitoringis anagriSSi gamoTqmuli SeniSvnebi da administraciuli resursebis gamoyenebis faqtebi, mag: “Tbili                                                            
1 administraciuli resursebis saarCevno kampaniis miznebisaTvis gamoyenebis monitoringis pirveli angariSi.

http://www.transparency.ge/post/report/pirveli-angarishi-administratsiuliresursis-gamoqenebis-shesakheb-tsinasaarchevno-kampan

“saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba-saqarTvelo”s administraciuli resursebis saarCevno kampaniis miznebisaTvis gamoyenebis monitoringis meore Sualeduri anagiriSi 2010 wlis 15 martidan 5 maisamde periods moicavs da administraciuli resursebis oTx ZiriTad saxeobaze amaxvilebs yuradRebas, esenia: xisti, finansuri materialur teqnikuri da adamianuri resursebi. dawvrilebiT. ix. http://www.transparency.ge/post/report/meore-shualeduri-angarishiadministratsiuli-resursis-gamoqenebis-shesakheb-tsinasaarchev 3 saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi. muxli 129/13 (28.12.2009.#2525) punqti 2. 2006 wels arCeul adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs uflebamosileba SeuwydeT axalarCeuli sakrebuloebis pirveli SekrebisTanave.

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sis meriis mier warmoebuli sazogadoebrivi kampania, romlis slogani iyo “me miyvars Tbilisi” da romelic am arCevnebis gamocxadebamde iqna inicirebuli SemdgomSi erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis mier TbilisSi warmoebuli winasaarCevno kampaniis nawili gaxda.“ amasTan dakavSirebiT SeniSvna gamoiTqva adgilobrivi sadamkvirveblo organizaciis “saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba _ saqarTvelos” mier momzadebul arCevnebis monitoringis meore anagriSSi “mmarTveli partiis maJoritari deputatobis kandidatebis saagitacio masalebSi gamoyenebulia Tbilisis meriis mier dafinansebuli e.w. rebrendingis farglebSi Seqmnili logo “me miyvars Tbilisi” romelic Tbilisis meriis mier dafinansebuli proeqtebis prezentaciisas gamoiyeneboda. es proeqtebia: qalaqis parkirebis gadasaxadis gadaxdis damadasturebeli niSani, erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis” maJoritari deputatobis kandidatebi winasaarCevno kampaniisas iyeneben flaierebs, romlebzedac igive logoa gamosaxuli. Tbilisis meriis gancxadebiT, es logo ar aris meriis sakuTreba da masze saavtoro ufleba ar arsebobs, Sesabamisad misi gamoyeneba ar aris kanonis darRveva, magram, rogorc dasawyisSi aRiniSna, 1990 wlis kopenhagenis konferenciis dokumentis Tanaxmad, unda arsebobdes “naTeli gansxvaveba saxelmwifosa da politikur partiebs Soris, kerZod, ar unda moxdes politikuri partiebisa da saxelmwifos aRreva” (muxli 5.4) es logo ki pirdapir Tbilisis meriasTan asocirdeba.” amas emateba sarCevno kampaniiis oficialuri dawyebamde meriis mier ganxorcielebuli sxvadasxva socialuri proeqtebi da aseve uSualod saarCevno kampaniis mimdinareobis dros meriis mier inicirebuli proeqti “kinomania”1, rac bunebrivad aCens kiTxvebs da eWvebs admnis1

damatebiT ix. axalgazrda iuristta asociacia. 2010 wlis 30 maisis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis sadamkvir-

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traciuli resursebis saarCevno kampaniis miznebisaTvis gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebiT. wlebis manZilze saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi saxelmwifo da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis aRmasrulebeli organoebis xelmZRvanel pirebs ukrZalavda winasaarCevno agitaciaSi monawileobas, 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis win miRebuli sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebiT ki aRniSnuli cvlilebebi kanonmdeblobaSi gauqmda, ramac sxvadasxva donis xelisuflebis aRmasarulebeli organoebis xelmZRvanelebs, magaliTad, ministrebs, ufleba mianiWa ewarmoebinaT romelime saarCevno subieqtis mxardamWeri, an sawinaaRmdego agitacia. aseTi sakanonmdeblo sivrcis pirobebSi SeuZlebelia winasaarCevno konkurenciis Tanabrobis kriteriumiT Sefaseba; gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac xelisuflebis xelmZRvaneli organoebi mmarTveli partiis warmomadgenlebiTa da mxardamWerebiTaa dakompleqtebuli. aseve yuradsaRebia saarCevno subieqtad da Tanamdebobis pirad erTdroulad yofnis SesaZlebloba, rac kanonmdeblobiT ar ikrZaleboda 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebisTvis. niSandoblivia, rom parlamentis wevrs kanonmdebloba avaldebulebs uflebamosilebis SeCerebas, Tu igi adgilobriv arCevnebSi registrirdeba da kenWs iyris kandidatad; zemoxsenebuli akrZalva aseve vrceldeboda adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis qveda donis xelmZRvanel pirebze: soflis, Temis, dabis sakrebulos Tvamjdomare/gamgebeli an nebismieri wevri, raionis sakrebulos mdivani da wevrebi (Tu ar arian sakrebulos komisiis an fraqciis Tavmjdomareebi). Tumca, absoluturad dausabuTeblad, kanonmdebloba uSvebs sruliad sapirispiros da uflebamosilebis SeuCereblad, samsaxurebrivi movaleobis                                                                                                                               
veblo misia. winasaarCevno garemos monitoringis angariSi. 23 aprili.2010.

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Sesrulebis paralelurad TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebSi kandidatebad registrirebisa da saarCevno kampaniis  warmoebis uflebas aZlevs qalaqis mers, raionis gamgebels da moadgiles, raionis sakrebulos Tavmjdomares da moadgiles, raionis sakrebulos komisiebisa an fraqciebis Tavmjdomareebs, cxadia amgvari sakanonmdeblo safuZveli administraciuli resursis da Tanamdebobrivi mdgomareobis gamoyenebis momgebian viTarebas qmnida mmrTveli partiis kandidatebisTvis; gansakuTrebiT ki maTTvis, visac zemoxsenebuli Tanamdebobebi ekava (magaliTad Tbilisis meri). 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis Semdgom saarCevno kodeqsma am mxrivac ganicada cvlileba, kerZod 2008 wels saarCevno kodeqsSi Sevida cvlileba, romlis Tanaxmad saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis pirebs ekrZalebaT awarmoon kampania samsaxurebrivi funqciebis Sesrulebisas. 1 aseve sagulisxmoa, rom jer kidev 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis saarCevno kampaniis sawyis stadiaze, kerZod 12 aprils gamarTul parlamentis biuros sxdomaze parlamentis Tavmjdomare arCevnebis procesSi administraciuli resursis gamoyenebis sakiTxsac Seexo. Tavmjdomarem gaafrTxila saxelmwifo moxeleebi emoqmedaT mxolod TavianTi kompetenciisa da kanonis farglebSi. xolo politikur Zalebs ki parlamentis TavmJdomarem sakuTari saqmianobis swored memorandumis Sesabamisad warmarTvisaken mouwoda2. Tumca miuxedavad araerTgzis gancxadebisa da RonisZiebebisa mimdinare saarCevno kampaniisas dafiqsirda sajaro moxeleTa mxridan saarCevno kampaniaSi ukanonod Carevis faqtebi.                                                             
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saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi. muxli 761 winasaarCevno agitaciisas da kampaniisas Tanamdebobrivi an samsaxurebrivi mdgomareobis gamoyenebis akrZalva. (21.03.2008 #6013).
http://www.parliament.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id=56&info_id=27332

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magaliTad, bevrma kandidatma maT Soris maRali Tanamdebobis pirebma aiRes Svebuleba “erTiani nacionaluri moZraobisTvis“ saarCevno kampaniis sawarmoeblad. opozicionerma politikosebma ki amis Taobaze protesti gamoTqves, radgan es xels aZlevs mxolod “erTian nacionalur moZraobas. saarCevno kodeqsis 761 muxlis darRvevis araerTi faqti dafiqsirda, rogorc adgilobrivi sadamkvirveblo organizaciebis aseve saerTaSoriso sadamkvirveblo organizaciebis monitoringis angariSebSi. mag: “kaxeTis sainformacio centris Jurnalistis gela mTivliSvilis gancxadebiT, siRnaRis saolqo-saarCevno komisiis Tavmjdomare mamuka koraSvili nacionaluri moZraobis raionuli organizaciis TaTbirebs eswreba da SvebulebaSi gasul municipalitetis gamgebelTan nodar koWlamaziSvilTan erTad samuSao oTaxSi Sexvedrebs marTavs.”1 “22 aprils mcxeTaSi “erTiani nacionaluri moZraobis” generaluri mdivani zurab meliqiSvili mosaxleobas Sexvda sveticxovlis mimdebare teritoriaze da partiis kandidatebi waradgina. Sexvedras, romelic samuSao saaTebSi gaimarTa, gamgeobisa da sakrebulos TiTqmis yvela TanamSromeli, teritoriuli erTeulebis rwmunebulebi, aseve # 1 da #2 saSualo skolebis direqtorebi da pedagogebic (saskolo saaTebSi) eswrebodnen. maT Sekreba dRis 12 saaTidan daiwyes. ramdenime maTganis mier mowodebuli informaciis Tanaxmad, isini “sastikad iyvnen gafrTxilebuli” rom SexvedraSi monawileoba unda mieRoT. saqarTvelos organuli kanonis “saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi” Sesabamisad. (73-e muxlis me-5 punqtis “T” qvepunqtis da 761 muxlis 1-li punqtis “g”qvepunqti) da ceskos, arasamTavrobo organizasaqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia. 2010 wlis 30 maisi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis sadamkvirveblo misia. winasaarCevno garemos monitoringis angariSi. 23 aprili 2010.
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ciebis da politikuri partiebis mier xelmowerili memorandumis erT-erTi ganmartebis Tanaxmad, samuSao saaTebSi agitaciis gaweva kanoniT aris akrZaluli1” da sxva araerTi msgavsi SemTxveva gamovlinda. statiaSi moyvanili faqtebi srulad ar asaxavs saarCevno kampaniis mimdinareobas, Tumca garkveuli daskvnebis gamotanis saSualebas mainc iZleva. miuxedavad imisa, rom saarCevno kodeqsis srulyofis da saarCevno garemos gaumjobesebis mizniT sakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi jer kidev 2006 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebamde Sevida, Semdgom 2008 wlis saprezidento da saparlamento arCevnebis win ganxorcielda ramodenime mniSvnelovani cvlileba, xolo 2009 wlis 28 dekembers, ramodenimeTviani muSaobis Semdeg, miRebul iqna axali saarCevno kodeqsi, 2006 da 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis saarCevno kampaniis analizisas ikveTeba identuri problemebi. aqve unda aRiniSnos rom saarCevno kampaniis ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT progresi aSkarad SesamCnevia. Tumca mTeli rigi sakanonmdeblo normebis gamo kiTxvis niSnis qveS dgeba saqarTvelos saarCevnos kodeqsis Sesabamisoba saerTaSoriso standartebTan da normebTan. aqedan gamomdinare saarCevno kanonmdeblobis daxvewis da konkurentunariani saarCevno garemos Sesaqmnelad seriozuli cvlilebebia gansaxorcielebeli.

saerTaSoris gamWvirvaloba _ saqarTvelo. administraciuli resursebis gamoyeneba winasaarCevno kampaniis miznebisaTvis. 2010 wlis adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebi. II angariSi. 2010 wlis 11 maisi.

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gamoyenebuli literatura 1. saqarTvelos organuli kanoni “saqarTvelos saarCevno kodeqsi 2. saqarTvelos axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia. 2010 wlis 30 maisi adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis sadamkvirveblo misia. winasaarCevno garemos monitoringis angariSi. 23 aprili 2010. 3. axalgazrda iuristTa asociacia “adgilobrivi arCevnebi saqarTveloSi: samarTliani TamaSi” winasaarCevno kampaniis monitoringis angariSi “ Tbilisi 2006 4. euTos demokratiuli institutebisa da adamianis uflebebis ofisi. arCevnebis sadamkvirveblo misia. saqarTvelo, adgilobrivi arCevnebi 2010 weli. 21 maisi. Sualeduri angariSi #2 (4-15 maisi) 5. media monitoringi 2010. pirveli talRa 26 aprili- 5 maisi. 6. satelevizio arxebis monitoringi Sedegebi. meore talRa. 6-12 maisi. 7. satelevizio arxebis monitoringis Sedegebi. mesame talRa. 13-19 maisi, 2010 8. saerTaSoriso gamWvirvaloba-saqarTvelo”s administraciuli resursebis saarCevno kampaniis miznebisaTvis gamoyenebis monitoringis meore Sualeduri angariSi 9. administraciuli resursebis saarCevno kampaniis miznebisaTvis gamoyenebis monitoringis pirveli angariSi. 10. “ucnauri arCevnebi: distanciaze brZolis’ strategia da taqtika“, giorgi asaniSvili, 24 saaTi” 20 seqtemberi 2006 ,#207 (1359) 11. centraluri saarCevno komisia /adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebi 2010 / sainformacio biuleteni/4-10 maisi 68

internet resursebi http://www.civil.ge/geo/article.php?id=13866 http://www.1tv.ge/VideoView.aspx?VID=1266&Loc=82&CatID=1&LangID=1 1 http://www.1tv.ge/VideoView.aspx?VID=1274&Loc=82&CatID=1&LangID=1 1 http://www.civil.ge/geo/article.php?id=22682&search= სატელევიზიო დებატები http://www.parliament.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id=56&inf o_id=27332 .http://www.transparency.ge/post/report/meore-shualeduri-angarishiadministratsiuli-resursis-gamoqenebis-shesakheb-tsinasaarchev http://www.transparency.ge/post/press‐release/saertashoriso‐ gamchvirvaloba‐sakartvelo‐tsinasaarchevno‐periodis‐monitoringis‐ mes  http://www.transparency.ge/post/report/pirveli‐angarishi‐ administratsiuli‐resursis‐gamoqenebis‐shesakheb‐tsinasaarchevno‐ kampan  http://www.cec.gov.ge/files/biuletenebi/biuleteni_4_‐ _10_maisi.pdf  http://www.gyla.ge/attachments/702_memorandumi.pdf  http://www.ambebi.ge/politika/19486-opoziciisthvis-miutsvdomelinacionaluri-arkhebis-politikuri-reklamis-tarifebi.html lia tetradze PhD student of the Faculty of Social and Politicial Sciences of TSU Main trends of the 2010 local government election campaign summary The article deals with the legislative changes in the election code. The article highlights the fact that though the progress in the filed is obvious there is great number of issues to be settled in order to maintain competitive pre-election environment.

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samarTlis statistikis Taviseburebani da misi roli samarTlebrivi reJimis uzrunvelyofis saqmeSi
ana kuWuxiZe saqarTvelos teqnikuri universiteti socialur-humanitaruli fakultetis doqtoranti Sesavali. statistikuri saqmianoba ukve saukuneebia saxelmwifoebrivi cxovrebis ganuyofeli nawilia. istoriuli wyaroebis mixedviT statistikuri cnobebis mopoveba saqarTveloSi XIII saukunidan iwyeba. 1254-1258 wlebSi monRolma noinma arRunma aRwera saqarTvelos mosaxleoba da maTi qoneba. 1689 wlidan, erekle I-is mefobis xanaSi, saqarTvelos sadroSoebis sardlebi Svid weliwadSi erTxel atarebdnen TavianT sadroSoebSi xalxis aRweras. statistikis sferoSi axali etapi 1918 wlis 15 noembers daiwyo, rodesac miwaTmoqmedebis saministrosTan Seiqmna statistikis droebiTi biuro. mas Semdeg statistikur aRricxvasa da analizs sxvadasxva organoebi axorcielebdnen. 1997-2003 wlebSi statistikur saqmianobas axorcielebda saqarTvelos statistikis saxelmwifo departameti, romelic 2003 wlidan ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros SeuerTda da Sesabamisad, aRniSnuli TariRidan 2009 wlis 11 dekembramde moqmedebda rogorc ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministros saxelmwifo saqveuwyebo dawesebuleba _ statistikis departamenti. dResdReobiT ki saqstati warmoadgens saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad statistikis warmoebisa da statistikuri informaciis gavrcelebis mizniT Seqmnil sajaro samarTlis iuridiul pirs, romelic damoukideblad axorcielebs Tavis saqmianobas saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis safuZvelze. 70

rogorc mowmobs istoria, statistikuri monacemebis gareSe SeuZlebelia saxelmwifos, rogorc socialuri organizmis marTva, misTvis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobis calkeuli mimarTulebebis ganviTareba, socialurekonomikuri ganviTarebis programebis SemuSaveba, socialur-samarTlebriv sferoSi samarTaldarRvevebze kontroli da maT Soris optimaluri proporciebis uzrunvelyofa. statistikis udides mniSvnelobas saxelmwifo da sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sferoSi adasturebs isic, rom sakiTxi Sedis evropis samezoblo politikis samoqmedo gegmaSi. samoqmedo gegmaSi dasaxulia prioritetebi da CvenTvis am SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania is faqti, rom erT-erT aseT prioritetad miCneulia swored statistikis sferoSi arsebuli situaciis gaumjobeseba, sisxlis samarTlis sferoSi efeqtiani statistikis SemuSaveba, statistikuri monacemebis xarisxis gaumjobeseba, da sxv. samarTlis statistika. misi arsi da Taviseburebani. oficialuri statistikuri informacia warmoadgens ekonomikis, demografiis, ekologiisa da socialuri sferoebis mdgradi ganviTarebis aucilebel safuZvels. rogorc vxedavT, statistika Seexeba saxelmwifoTa sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sxvadasxva sferoebs. Sesabamisad, imisda mixedviT, Tu ra sazogadoebriv movlenas Seiswavlis statistika, igi iyofa sxvadasxva dargebad. aseTi dargebidan erTs warmoadgens samarTlis statistika, romelic Tavisi monacemebiT asaxavs, Tu rogor aris daculi sazogadoebrivi da saxelmwifo wyobileba, sakuTreba, calkeuli moqalaqis, sawarmoebis, dawesebulebebis, sazogadoebrivi organizaciebis konstituciiT garantirebuli uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. samarTlis statistikis ZiriTad amocanas warmoadgens kanondarRvevebis, sasamarTlo organoebis mier ganxiluli saqme71

ebis, danaSaulisa da damnaSaveTa winaaRmdeg mimarTuli RonisZiebebis aRricxva da analizi. samarTlis statistikam unda moicvas informacia ara mxolod qveyanaSi arsebul danaSaulebriobis Sesaxeb, aramed aseve gamoavlinos maTi kavSirebi da urTierTdamokidebuleba qveyanaSi arsebul moralur, politikur, socialur-ekonomikur mdgomareobasTan da maTi ganviTarebis doneebis cvalebadobasTan. es aris is, rac SesaZlebelia mxolod statistikuri meTodologiis meTodebisa da xerxebis mTliani arsenalis keTilsindisieri aTvisebis safuZvelze. statistika, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, Seiswavlis sazogadoebrivi movlenebis raodenobriv mxares da gvaZlevs cifrebsa da procentebSi gamoxatul Sedegebs, Tumca am Sedegebs udidesi praqtikuli mniSvneloba aqvs. statistikuri monacemebis floba iseTi faqtebis Sesaxeb, rogoricaa: drois sxvadasxva monakveTSi danaSaulis Cadenis faqtebis zrda an Semcireba, sasamarTloSi saapelacio da sakasacio wesiT gansaxilvel saqmeTa raodenoba da miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi saSualebas gvaZlevs gavaanalizoT danaSaulis Cadenis xelSemwyobi garemoebebi, danaSaulis aRkveTisa da Semcirebis mizniT ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebis efeqturoba, sagamomZieblo, sasamarTlo da sxva organoTa muSaobis efeqturoba da miRebuli Sedegebis safuZvelze davsaxoT Semdgomi moqmedebis gzebi. statistika, rig SemTxvevaSi, asabuTebs konkretuli kanonproeqtis ZalaSi Sesvlis, kanonis gauqmebis an masSi cvlilebebis Setanis aucileblobas. rasakvirvelia, statistika am SemTxvevaSi TamaSobs ara ZiriTad, aramed damxmare, magram mainc mniSvnelovan rols. Tavisi maCveneblebiT ilustrirebs praqtikas, adgens kanonis moqmedebis efeqturobas, riTac sabuTdeba ama Tu im kanonis ZalaSi Sesvlis, misi gauqmebis, an masSi cvlilebebisa da damatebebis Setanis 72

aucilebloba. aq SeiZleba moviyvanoT aSS-s magaliTi, sadac swored statistikur monacemebze dayrdnobiT 1933 wels alkoholze akrZalva moixsna. saqme isaa, rom im wlebSi, rodesac aSS-Si moqmedebda e.w. mSrali kanoni, mkvlelobis muxliT Cadenil danaSaulTa faqtebis maCvenebelma 100 aTas sul mosaxleze SeiZleba iTqvas rekordul maCvenebels 9.7%-s miaRwia1. zustad alkoholis akrZalvis periods emTxveva am qveyanaSi Cvens saukuneSi momxdari yvelaze sastiki danaSaulebis Cadenis faqtebi. swored aRniSnulma statistikurma monacemebma aiZula aSS-s mTavroba Seecvala Tavisi midgoma alkoholur sasmelebTan mimarTebaSi, rasac Sedegad mohyva is, rom mkvlelobis maCvenebelma momdevno wlebSi sagrZnoblad iklo. es aris naTeli magaliTi imisa, Tu ra praqtikuli mniSvneloba aqvs statistikur monacemebs. swored amitom, saWirod migvaCnia visaubroT samarTlis statistikis specifikurobaze da samarTlis statistikis warmoebis Taviseburebebze. upirveles yovlisa, unda aRiniSnos, rom samarTlis statistika Tavis mxriv iyofa ramdenime damoukidebel dargad. aRniSnul statiaSi SevexebiT samarTlis statistikis mxolod erT dargs, kerZod sisxlis samarTlis statistikas. ZiriTadi nawili. sisxlis samarTlis statistika iyofa Semdeg Semadgenel nawilebad: a) winaswari gamoZiebis statistika Seiswavlis im saxelmwifo organoebis saqmianobas, romlebic axorcieleben danaSaulTa gamoZiebasa da danaSaulis Camden pirTa gamovlenas.                                                             
broSura "saintereso faqtebi narkotikebTan dakavSirebiT" gamocemulia zianis Semcirebis saqarTvelos qselis proeqtiT "saadvokato kompaniis" farglebSi. 2007w.
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mocemuli ganayofi moicavs im danaSaulebriobaTa aRricxvas, romelTa Cadenis Sesaxeb cnobili gaxda gamoZiebis organoebisaTvis, aseve danaSaulis CadenaSi gamovlenili pirebis aRricxvas. winaswari gamoZiebis statistika aRricxavs aseve iseT sakiTxebs, rogoricaa: gamoZiebis vada, gaxsnili danaSaulebis raodenoba, danaSaulSi eWvmitanil da dakavebul pirTa raodenoba da sxv. b) sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlo warmoebis statistika asaxavs pirveli instanciis, saapelacio da sakasacio sasamarTloebis muSaobas. es ganayofi moicavs Semosul da ganxilul sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa aRricxvas, aseve gansasjelebis raodenobis aRricxvas, sasamarTloebis iseTi procesualuri moqmedebebis aRricxvas, rogoricaa _ sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa Sewyveta, gamamtyunebeli da gamamarTlebeli ganaCenis gamotana, da sxv. g) ganaCenis aRsrulebis statistika asaxavs sasjelaRsrulebiTi dawesebulebebis muSaobas. mas aseve miekuTvneba Tavisuflebis aRkveTis adgilebze zedamxedvelobis ganmaxorcielebeli organoebis saqmianobis aRricxva. mocemuli ganayofi moicavs patimarTa aRricxvas sxvadasxva kategoriebis mixedviT (danaSaulebriobis da procesualuri niSnebis mixedviT _ Tavisuflebis aRkveTis vadebis da sxv.), aseve sasjelaRsrulebiTi dawesebulebebis saqmianobis analizs. aq aseve aisaxeba sasamarTloebis muSaoba pirobiT vadamde ganTavisuflebasa da sasjelis SedarebiT msubuqi sasjeliT SecvlasTan dakavSirebiT. rogorc vxedavT, sisxlis samarTlis statistikis maCveneblebi axasiaTeben, erTis mxriv, winaswari gamoZiebis organoebis, sasamarTloebisa da sasjelaRsrulebiTi dawesebulebebis saqmianobas, xolo meores mxriv, qveyanaSi arsebul kriminogenul mdgomareobas. yvelaferi es, seriozul rols TamaSobs am organoebis muSa74

obis gaumjobesebis, aseve danaSaulebriobaTa Seswavlisa da prevenciis saqmeSi. gaverkvieT ra sisxlis samarTlis statistikis Seswavlis obieqtebSi, aucilebelia SevCerdeT misi masalebis Taviseburebaze, rac yovelTvis mxedvelobaSi unda viqonioT maTi Seswavlisas. upirveles yovlisa unda aRiniSnos, rom sisxlis samarTlis statistika ar moicavs sinamdvileSi momxdar yvela Cadenil danaSauls da iZulebulia SemoisazRvros mxolod daregistrirebul danaSaulTa aRricxviT1. Sesabamisad, cxadia, rom danaSaulobaTa mniSvnelovani nawili, e. w. faruli danaSaulebi, rCeba gamouvleneli (magaliTad, is danaSaulebi, romelTa Sesaxeb dazaralebuli ar acnobebs Sesabamis organoebs). aucilebelia aRiniSnos is faqtic, rom danaSaulis ricxovnobis monacemTa gaanalizebisas, mudmivad gasaTvaliswinebelia, sisxlis samarTlis procesis romel stadiaze moxda am monacemebis aRricxva-gaanalizeba. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, maTi Sedarebisas, isini SeiZleba gamoiyurebodnen imdenad winaaRmdegobrivad, rom maTi gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba SeiZleba saeWvoc gaxdes. Tumca, es gansxvavebebi sisxlis samarTlis procesis sxvadasxva stadiaze aRricxul monacemebs Soris absoluturad logikuria.rac ufro daSorebulia procesualuri RonisZieba danaSaulis Cadenis droisagan, miT ufro naklebad asaxavs aRricxuli monacemebi Cadenili danaSaulobebis realur ricxvs. yvelaze ufro zustad asaxavs am namdvil cifrs winaswari gamoZiebis, organoebis statistikuri maCveneblebi (registrirebul danaSaulTa raodenoba da maT SesrulebaSi gamovlenil pirTa ricxvi).                                                             
a. kuWuxiZe, r. kuWuxiZe "samarTlis statistika", Tbilisi 2008;
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danaSaulobebis ricxvi mocemul stadiaze iqneba, rasakvirvelia, gacilebiT maRali, vidre sasamarTloSi sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa warmoebisa da sisxlis samarTlebriv pasuxisgebaSi micemul pirTa ricxvi, an im pirTa ricxvi, romlebic realurad sasjels ixdian sasjelaRsrulebiT dawesebulebaSi. es gasagebicaa, vinaidan garkveuli raodenobis saqme, romlebzec mimdinareobda gamoZieba SeiZleba ar aRmoCndes sasamarTloSi, vinaidan, SesaZloa saqme gauxsneli darCes, mosarCelem uari Tqvas sarCelze, saqme Sewydes Sesabamisi normis gauqmebis gamo da sxv. meores mxriv, sabolood im pirTa raodenoba, romlebic sasjels ixdian sasjelaRsrulebiT dawesebulebaSi, rogorc wesi kidev ufro naklebia, vidre damnaSaveTa realuri raodenoba, vinaidan im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu saqme ganixila sasamarTlom, pirs SeiZleba ver daekisros pasuxismgebloba asakobrivi cenzis gamo, piri SesaZloa gaTavisufldes amnistiis an Sewyalebis safuZvelze da sxv. maSasadame, cxadia, rom danaSaulobaTa mniSvnelovani nawili e.w. faruli danaSaulebriobaa. faqtiuri danaSaulebrioba yovelTvis maRalia gamovlenil danaSaulebriobaze, romelic mniSvnelovnad aRemateba gamotanil ganaCenebs, xolo es ricxvi, Tavis mxriv, yovelTvis didia msjavrdebulTa ricxvze. Tumca, miuxedavad imisa, rom danaSauli da masTan brZola aRiricxeba sisxlis samarTlis procesebis sxvadasxva stadiaze, isini mainc ar SeiZleba winaaRmdegobrivi iyvnen erTmaneTis mimarT. rac ufro warmatebulia winaswari gamoZiebis warmoeba, bunebrivia, miT ufro, maRalia msjavrdadebulTa ricxvi am saqmeebSi da piriqiT. rodesac vlaparakobT sisxlis samarTlis statistikuri masalebis maxasiaTeblebze, aucilebelia aRvniSnoT kidev erTi Tavisebureba. kerZod is, rom drois 76

garkveul periodSi gamovlenil danaSaulebriobaze arsebuli statistikuri cnobebi sruli sizustiT ar asaxavs mis dones mocemul periodTan SefardebiT. amis mizezi SeiZleba mravali iyos. magaliTisaTvis, im statistikuri monacemebis sisworeze, romelic asaxavs sxvadasxva statistikur monacems drois garkveul periodSi, SesaZloa garkveul zegavlenas axdendes sasamarTlo-sagamoZiebo organoTa ricxovnobisa da maTi muSaobis xarisxis cvlileba. sruliad gasagebia, rom am organoebis saqmianobis xarisxis gaumjobeseba aCqarebs gamoZiebis da sisxlis samarTlis saqmeTa gadawyvetis vadebs, rac iwvevs statistikuri monacemebis gadidebas drois mocemul periodSi, Tumca raRac nawili maT Soris miekuTvneba warsul saqmeebs da piriqiT, Semdgom periodSi sasamarTlo-sagamoZiebo organoebis mier wina saqmeTa narCenebisagan gantvirTvis gamo statistikuri monacemebi Semdgom periodSi aCvenebs danaSaulebriobaTa Semcirebas, Tumca sinamdvileSi, SesaZlebelia, aseTi Semcireba arc iyo. igives eqneba adgili sagamoZiebo da sasamarTlo organoebis muSaobis xarisxis gaumjobesebis an gauaresebis SemTxvevaSi, rac gamoiwvevs danaSaulis gaxsnisa da sasamarTloSi faqtebis gadacemis ricxvis gadidebas an Semcirebas. es, Tavis mxriv, pirdapir aisaxeba sisxlis samarTlis statistikis maCveneblebSi, romelic mogvcems danaSaulebriobaTa TiTqosda zrdis an klebis suraTs. sisxlis samarTlis statistikuri monacemebis damuSavebisas saWiroa mxedvelobaSi viqonioT isic, rom erTi da igive pirs SeiZleba wlis ganmavlobaSi ramdenime danaSaulisTvis daedos msjavri, ris gamoc xelovnurad izrdeba msjavrdebulTa ricxvi. meore mxriv, sayuradRebo rols asrulebs danaSaulTa aRricxvaSi danaSaulTa erToblioba da masSi Tanamonawileoba. danaSaulobaTa erTobliobaSi Cveulebrivad gaiTvaliswineba 77

erTi yvelaze ufro seriozuli danaSauli, ris gamoc xelovnurad mcirdeba drois mocemul periodSi faqtiurad Sesrulebul danaSaulTa ricxvi. Tanamonawileobis dros msjavrdebulTa ricxvi aRmoCndeba Cadenili danaSaulebis ricxvze meti. swored amitom, danaSaulebriobaTa mdgomareobis statistikuri maCveneblebi aucilebelia gaanalizdes ara izolirebulad, aramed yovelTvis sxvadasxva maCveneblebTan erTad. vlaparakobT ra, sisxlis samarTlis statistikis arsze, aucilebelia ukve aRniSnul Taviseburebebs davumatoT kidev erTi specifikuri niSani. ramdenadac, TviT esa Tu is qmedeba danaSaulad miiCneva sisxlis samarTlis kanonis safuZvelze, amdenad sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobaSi ganxorcielebuli cvlileba pirdapir aisaxeba sisxlis samarTlis statistikis maCveneblebze. naTelia, rom kanonSi Setanili cvlileba, romelic auqmebs qmedebis dasjadobas, gamoiwvevs msjavrdebulTa raodenobis klebas da piriqiT. xazgasmiT unda aRiniSnos, rom danaSaulebriobaTa statistikur maCveneblebze zemoqmedebs mTeli rigi faqtorebi: socialur-politikuri mdgomareobis cvlileba, ekonomikuri mdgomareoba, ganaTlebis done, sisxlis samarTlis politika, sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdebloba da a.S. daskvna. amgvarad, samarTlis statistikis monacemebs axasiaTebs garkveuli Taviseburebebi, romlebic ar iZlevian SesaZleblobas statistikuri kvlevis Sedegad sruli sizustiT gamovlindes qveyanaSi arsebuli danaSaulebriobis done da sisxlis samarTlis statistikisaTvis saintereso sxva monacemebi. amaSia, samarTlis statistikis mTavari sirTule da specifikuroba statistikis sxva dargebTan SedarebiT. swored amitom, aucilebelia, upirveles yovlisa gaanalizdes yvela is Tavisebureba, razec zemoT visaubreT da Semdgom maqsi78

malurad kompleqsuri kvlevis Sedegad moxdes statistikis monacemebis ganxilva da analizi. Abstract Ana Kuchukhidze- PhD Student of the Faculty of Humanites

and Social Sciences of GTU.
Peculiarities of the law statistics and their role in insuring the legal regime Statistics, depending on this or that social event studied by it, are divided into different sectors. Out of such sectors is the law statistics, which in its turn consists of a few independent sectors. This work will deal only with one sector – statistics of criminal law, in particular. The work analysis the peculiarities, which are typical of statistics of criminal law. First of all, it should be noted that statistics of criminal law do not cover all criminal offences committed and are only limited with the registered crimes. Thereafter, it is obvious that majority of criminal offences, the so-called concealed crimes, remains undetected. Of special importance is the fact that, while analysing the data on number of criminal offences, one should constantly take into consideration in which stage of the criminal proceedings the registration of these data took place. It is evident, that significant part of crimes represents the so-called concealed crimes. The number of actually committed crimes is always higher then the number of detected crimes, which significantly exceeds the number of sentences passed and this number, in its turn, is always much higher than the number of persons convicted. Yet another peculiarity should be underlined, particularly, the fact that statistical data on criminal offences detected within a certain period of time do not reproduce precisely the rate of crimes in 79

regard to the given period of time. There are a lot of reasons for it. For instance, precision of statistical data, which cover different statistical information for a certain period of time, may be to a certain extent influenced by change of a number of judicial and investigative bodies and quality of their work. It is obvious that perfection of the quality of activity of these bodies reduces timelimits of investigation and settlement of criminal cases and is followed by expansion of statistical data within the given period of time, though, in fact, such expansion might not even have taken place. It should be taken into consideration that during one year, one and the same person may be convicted of several criminal offences; for this reason, number of convicted persons increases artificially. On the other hand, significant role in the process of registration of criminal offences is played by combination of crimes and complicity in crimes. Combination of criminal offences, usually, provides for one, the most serious crime, on account of which, number of crimes actually committed within the given period of time is artificially decreased. Number of persons convicted of complicity may be higher than the number of crimes committed. Therefore, it is necessary to analyse statistical data on the state of criminal offences not separately, but always with due regard for different factors. One specific factor should be also noted. Since this or that action is considered by the criminal statute to be a crime, the amendments introduced into the criminal statute will directly exert influence on statistical data of criminal law. It is obvious, that amendments, which are introduced into the criminal statute and which abrogate criminality of such actions, will cause the reduction of number of the persons convicted and vice versa. The aforesaid peculiarities account for the main complexity of the law statistics. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out examination and analysis of statistical data with due regard for the results of the most comprehensive research studies. 80

gamoyenebuli da citirebuli literatura: 1. a. kuWuxiZe, r. kuWuxiZe "samarTlis statistika", Tbilisi 2008; 2. saqarTvelos parlamentis 2009 wlis 11 dekembris sainformacio gamoSveba. 3. saqarTvelos 11.12.09 kanoni "oficialuri statistikis Sesaxeb"; 4. М.М. Бабаев. “Статистические методы анализа судимости“. Советскаяюстиция, 1969 г.; 5. Совюк Л.К. “Правовая статистика”, М., юрист. 2006 г.; 6. broSura "saintereso faqtebi narkotikebTan dakavSirebiT" gamocemulia zianis Semcirebis saqarTvelos qselis proeqtiT "saadvokato kompaniis" farglebSi. 2007w.

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samxreT kavkasiis regionuli usafrTxoebis sakiTxi 2008 wlis agvistos omis Semdeg
maia manCxaSvili socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis politikuri mecnierebis mimarTuleba, doqtoranti. politologiis institutis mecnier-TanamSromeli 2008 wlis agvistos ruseT-saqarTvelos omma samxreT kavkasiaSi manamde arsebuli ZalTa balansis sistema Zireulad Secvala. ruseTis agresiam daarRvia mxareebis mier daculi “status-qvos” mdgomareoba. regionuli usafrTxoebis TvalsazrisiT gaCnda rogorc axali gamowvevebi _ ruseTis mier saqarTvelos ori regionis okupacia da maTi “damoukidebel” saxelmwifoebad aRiareba; ise perspeqtivebic _ TurqeT-somxeTis “safexburTo” diplomatia da ciurixis protokolebi. anu regionuli usafrTxoebis adrindeli modelebi am droisaTvis SedarebiT moZvelebulia da saWiroebs axali, ufro moqnili, regionis interesebs morgebuli modelis SemuSavebasa da misi realizebis gzebis Ziebas erToblivi ZalebiT. am mimarTulebiT Zalzed aqtiuri muSaobiT gamoirCeva Turquli diplomatia; 2008 wlis agvistos omis dros, erTaderTi qveyana, romelmac wamoayena regionuli usafrTxoebis proeqti, iyo TurqeTi; igi “kavkasiuri usafrTxoebis platformis” saxelwodebiTaa cnobili. am iniciativis Sesaxeb TurqeTis premier-ministrma rejep taip erdoganma pirvelad ganacxada 2008 wlis 11 agvistos moskovSi prezident d.medvedevTan Sexvedrisas; mas mohyva specialuri 82

vizitebi baqosa da TbilisSi da konsultaciebi mxareebTan, gaerTianebuliyvnen aliansis irgvliv. TurqeTis mier wamoyenebuli gegmis Tanaxmad, usafrTxoebis platformis monawiled moiazreboda xuTi qveyana - ruseTi, TurqeTi, saqarTvelo, somxeTi da azerbaijani _ “3+2” anu “xuTeulis formati”. r.erdoganis gancxadebiT, aliansis formatiT gamarTul molaparakebebSi unda CarTuliyo gaeroc [2]. TurqeTis premier-ministris iniciativas Tavis droze mxari dauWira ruseTma. 2008 wlis 7oqtombers, sagareo saqmeTa ministrma sergei lavrovma “Российская Газета”-Tvis micemul interviuSi ganacxada: ,,Turquliidea imis Sesaxeb, rom kavkasiaSi stabilurobasa da TanamSromlobaze swored regionis qveynebma moifiqron saerTo platforma, asaxavs Turquli diplomatiis mcdelobas” [3], lavrovma aseve dasZina _ ,,Turqebma, Cemi azriT, Zalian droulad gaiges momentis unikaluroba, romelic maT nebas aZlevs warmoaCinon TavianTi yofna am regionSi” [4]. TurqeTis usafrTxoebis platformas mxari dauWires azerbaijanma da somxeTma. somxeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma ed. nalbandianma dadebiTad Seafasa TurqeTis iniciativa da aRniSna, rom ,,somxeTi yovelTvis iyo dialogis da molaparakebebis momxre, gansakuTrebiT im sakiTxebSi, romelic regionSi TanamSromlobas da usafrTxoebas exeba” [5]. Tumca, somxeTis oficialuri mxaris zogierTma warmomadgenelma am platformaSi iranis CarTvac moiTxova. magaliTad, sagareo urTierTobaTa sakiTxebSi mudmivmoqmedi saparlamento komisiis Tavjdomarem armen rustamianma 2008 w. 4 seqtembers pres-konferenciaze gakeTebul gancxadebaSi aRniSna: ,,iranis armiReba kavkasiuri platformis am formatSi, niSnavs Senelebuli moqmedebis naRmis Cadebas, romel83

mac nebismier dros SeiZleba aafeTqos usafrTxoebis es sistema” [6]. azerbaijanis sagareo saqmeTa ministri ermal mamediarovic miesalma iniciativas, magram aRniSna, rom rigi sakiTxebis detaluri ganxilvaa saWiro [7]. principuli Tanxmoba regionul aliansTan mierTebaze ar gaakeTa mxolod Tbilisma. qarTuli mxare miiCnevda, rom ar SeiZleboda monawileoba proeqtSi, romelSic CarTuli iyo ruseTi _ qveyana, romelsac okupirebuli aqvs misi teritoriebis 20% [8]. garda amisa, regionis qveynebidan yvelaze metad swored saqarTvelosTvis iyo miuRebeli usafrTxoebis platformidan evrokavSirisa da aSS-s gamoricxva. aRsaniSnavia, rom premier erdoganis saqarTveloSi vizitisas prezidentma mixeil saakaSvilma dadebiTad Seafasa TurqeTis mcdeloba regionSi Seiqmnas usafrTxoebis saerTo meqanizmebi da Txova ankaras gaegrZelebina es mcdelobebi [10]. TurqeTis iniciativas civad Sexvda vaSingtoni. saxelmwifo mdivnis TanaSemwis moadgile meTiu braizas sityvebiT, is gaocebuli iyo Turquli mxaris winadadebiT: ,,Cven ar viyaviT informirebuli imis Sesaxeb, rac xdeboda, me mimaCnia, rom unda vimuSaoT ufro mWidrod Cvens mokavSire TurqeTTan. miTumetes, rom masTan gvaqvs saerTo interesebi” [13]. am gancxadebis safuZvelze SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom TurqeTma aSS-is interesebis garkveulwilad ignorireba scada. savsebiT SesaZlebelia TurqeTi damoukidebel TamaSs TamaSobdes; mas sakmaod didi gavlena aqvs aramxolod samxreT kavkasiis regionze, aramed mWidro ekonomikuri da politikuri kavSirebi aqvs centraluri aziis respublikebTan; am konteqstSi TurqeTis ambiciebi gasagebia. 84

TurqeTis prezidentma a.giulma agvistoSive _ 2008 wlis 18 agvistos “Guardian”-Tan interviuSi ganacxada, rom“ konfliqtma saqarTveloSi cxadyo, aSS veRar gansazRvravs globalur politikas da unda daiwyos Zalauflebis gadanawileba sxva qveynebTan” [14]. TurqeTis mxaris iniciativaSi sayuradReboa is faqti, rom regionuli usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi TanamSromlobas apirebs natos wevri TurqeTi, qveyana, romelic gavlenis gavrcobis ZiriTad berketad ekonomikas iyenebs da ruseTi _ saxelmwifo, romlisTvisac ”gavlenis sfero” da ”samxedroyofna” identuri cnebebia. rogorc aRvniSneT, aliansis wevrad ar moiazreboda irani, magram, bolo etapisaTvis TurqeTisa da iranis poziciebis daaxloebam ganapiroba is, rom rig sakiTxebSi TurqeTis pozicia gadaixeda; ankara ukve aRar gamoricxavs TeiranTan daaxloebas [16]. 2009w. 2 noembers TurqeTsa da irans Soris gaformda kidec SeTanxmeba _ navTobisa da gazis sferoSi TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb urTierTgagebis memorandumi. TurqeTis energetikis ministr taner ildizis gancxadebiT, dokumenti iTvaliswinebs Turquli mxaris monawileobas iranis umsxvilesi gazis sabados _ samxreT farsis aTvisebaSi. ramdenime weliwadSi mxareebi sabadodan wliurad 35 miliardi kuburi metris mopovebas gegmaven; aqedan naxevars _ 17,5 miliard kuburmetrs _ TurqeTi gegmavs, rom evropis bazarze gaitans. t. ildizis gancxadebiT, am proeqtis ganxorcielebis Sedegad, irani, SesaZloa “nabukos” gazsadenisTvis gazis erT-erTi mTavari mimwodebeli gaxdes [17]. 2009 wlis noembris dasawyisSi r.t. erdoganma iranSi vizitisas kavkasiis stabilurobis paqtSi iranis CarTvaze gaakeTa aqcenti: “kavkasiaSi stabilurobiT dainteresebulia, rogorc TurqeTi, aseve irani. amitom problemebi unda gadawydes regionis qveynebis Tanam85

Sromlobis gziT” [18]. kavkasiuri stabilurobis ideam SesaZloa axali ganzomilebebi SeiZinos masSi iranis CarTviT da am paqtma axali sicocxle daiwyos. iranis Temas anu birTvuli ganiaraRebis problemas aseve didi adgili daeTmo 2010 wlis 8 dekembers r.t. erdoganis aSS-Si vizitisas. baraq obama am mxriv TurqeTs mediatorisa da momlaparakeblis rilSi moiazrebs: “me mjera TurqeTs SeuZlia iyos mniSvnelovani moTamaSe am mimarTulebiT, iranis Secvlis ZalisxmevaSi”[19]. “kavkasiuri usafrTxoebis platforma” problemis aqtualurobis miuxedavad ver iqca realuri ganxilvis sagnad, radganac ruseTis mier samxreT kavkasiaSi ori “axali saxelmwifos” aRiarebis politikis gatarebam, eWvqveS daayena TurqeTis mier wamoyenebuli platformis amosavali principi saxelmwifoTa teritoriuli mTlianobis Sesaxeb da SeiZleba iTqvas regionuli usafrTxoebis sakiTxebis irgvliv dialogi sam nawilad “daSala”: saqarTvelo-ruseTs, somxeT-TurqeTsa da somxeT-azerbaijans Soris; saqarTvelo-ruseTs Soris dialogi “Jenevis formatSi” mimdinareobs, romelic umTavresad usafrTxoebis (aseve humanitarul) sakiTxebs exeba. masSi monawileobs saqarTvelos, ruseTis, aSS-is, evrokavSiris, euTos, aseve, samxreT oseTisa da afxazeTis warmomadgenlebi im subieqtebis dakonkretebis gareSe, romelsac isini warmoadgenen. amgvari formati 2008 wlis noemberSi SeTanxmda, mas Semdeg, rac uTanxmoeba gamoiwvia diskusiebSi separatistuli regionebis warmomadgenelTa statusis sakiTxma. miuxedavad imisa, rom molaparakebebi ukve TiTqmis ori welia mimdinareobs, mas mniSvnelovani Sedegebi jer ar mohyolia; 86

“Jenevis formatSi“ molaparakebaTa TerTmeti raundi gaimarTa da erTaderTi konkretuli Sedegi, rac dRemde miRweulia, iyo 2009 wlis 18 Tebervlis gadawyvetileba,Seqmniliyo samxreT oseTTan da afxazeTTan mimarTebaSi cal-calke “incidentebis prevenciisa da maTze reagirebis meqanizmi”, rac niSnavs adgilobriv aqtorebTan regularuli Sexvedrebis formatSi mSvidobisa da usafrTxoebis dacvis sakiTxebze diskusias. anu, mxareebi SeTanxmdnen daZabulobis kerebSi erTobliv vizitebze. evropis berZnuli Tavmjdomareobis specialurma warmomadgenelma xarlampos xristepolusma es SeTanxmeba Seafasa rogorc “mniSvnelovani win gadadgmuli nabiji”; gaeros generaluri mdivnis specialurma warmomadgenelma iohan verbekem ki rogorc “pirveli mniSvnelovani SeTanxmeba” [23]. `Jenevis formatSi~ molaparakebebi mimdinareobs aseve humanitarul sakiTxebze, romlis farglebSic ganixileba yovlismomcveli gegma devnilTa Rirseuli dabrunebisa da adgilze maTTvis cxovrebisaTvis normaluri pirobebis Seqmnis Sesaxeb. TurqeTi axali “kavkasiuri aliansis” SeqmnasTan erTad, cdilobs urTierTobebis daregulirebas somxeTTan; Sveicariis SuamavlobiT ankaras dawyebuli aqvs dialogi erevanTan, TanamSromlobasa da sazRvris gaxsnaze. 2009 wlis 24 aprils SeTanxmebuli ,,sagzao ruka” warmoadgens ori qveynis samoqmedo gegmis monaxazs [20], 10 oqtombers ki xeli moewera protokolebs [21], magram orive qveynis parlamenti ayovnebs mis ratificirebas. unda iTqvas, rom am sakiTxis daregulireba mniSvnelovani regionuli movlena iqneba. man SesaZloa gavlena iqonios samxreT kavkasiis respublikebis sagareo politikuri orientirebis Secvlaze. moskovSi ganacxades, rom miesalmebian nebismier nabijs, romelic regionSi urTierTobebis normalizaci87

iskenaa mimarTuli da xazi gausves, rom es pirvel rigSi TurqeTisa da somxeTis mTavrobebs Soris SesaTanxmebeli sakiTxia. marTalia ruseTi irgebs somxur-Turquli urTierTobebis damregulireblis rols, magram, TurqeT-somxeTis urTierTobebis sakiTxs aqvs meore mxare: somxeT-TurqeTis sazRvris gaxsna gamoiwvevs somxeTis daaxloebas dasavleTTan da nato-sTan; nato-sTan daaxloebam ki SesaZloa kiTxvis niSnis qveS daayenos somxeTSi ruseTis samxedro bazis arsebobis saWiroeba. esruseTisTvis niSnavs gavlenis dakargvas strategiul mokavSireze, rac aranairad ar Seesabameba kremlis gegmebs. urTierTobebis normalizacias mxars uWers aSS. maTi poziciiT es unda moxdes yovelgvari winapirobebis gareSe da mouwodeben orive qveyanas Sesabamisad imoqmedon, raTa maTi mTavrobebis muSaobam xeli Seuwyos regionSi mSvidobis, usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis damyarebas. gavlenianma Jurnalma “Экономист”-ma statiac ki miuZRvna am Tematikas, romelSic aRiniSna, rom TurqeTsa da somxeTs SeuZliaT ufro konstruqciuli roli iTamaSon kavkasiaSi, vidre iTamaSa ruseTma [22]. jer kidev 2009 wlis 8 dekembers, aSS-Si vizitisas, TurqeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrma davidoRlum Turqul-xomxuri urTierTobebi mWidrod daukavSira yarabaRis problemas da aRniSna: “mTiani-yarabaRis problemis gareSe SeuZlebelia xangrZlivi mSvidobis damyareba regionSi” [23]; anu, somxeT-TurqeTisa da somxeT-azerbaijanis urTierTobebi mWidrod daukavSirda yarabaRis sakiTxs; ormxrivi molaparakebebi faqtobrivad CixSia Sesuli. regionuli TanamSromlobis arc Tu warmatebuli TanamSromlobis perspeqtivebi axali gamowvevebis safrTxis winaSea; 88

TurqeTis iniciativa saqarTvelos, iseve rogorc regionis sxva qveynebis teritoriuli mTlianobisa da suverenitetisadmi pativiscemas emyareboda. magram, 2008 wlis 26 agvistos afxazeTisa da samxreT oseTis damoukideblobis aRiarebiT TurqeTis regionuli usafrTxoebis platformas yvelaze didi dartyma ruseTma miayena; rogorc moskovSi amboben ,,saqme gvaqvs sruliad sxva kavkasiasTan. regionSi ukve arsebobs xuTi saxelmwifo, oTx maTganTan Cven gvaqvs diplomatiuri urTierToba, saqarTvelosTan ki es droebiT SeCerebulia” [9].  amdenad, ruseTSi gansxvavebulad esmiT samxreT kavkasiis regionis usafrTxoebis sakiTxi; da Turquli sagareo uwyebis Zalzed aqtiuri muSaobis miuxedavad, regionuli usafrTxoebis nebismieri modeli arareluri iqneba, masSi iseTi gavleniani aqtorebi gamoricxvis gamo, rogorebic arian aSS da SedarebiT gavleniani saerTaSoriso organizaciebi da demokratiuli institutebi, maT Soris evrokavSiri da euTo. amasTan, vfiqrobT, Zalzed mniSvnelovania regionis didi saxelmwifoebis realuri politikuri neba konfliqtebis mogvarebis procesSi.   Abstract  Maia manchkhashvili­PhD Student of the Faculty of Social

and Political Sciences of TSU.
  The Issue of Regional Security of South-Caucasus after the 2008 August War The system of power balance that existed in the SouthCaucasus before the August 2008 was entirely changed by the war between Russia and Georgia. The Russian aggression has abolished 89

the status-quo followed by the sides. In light of the regional security new challenges such as the occupation of the two regions of Georgia and granting them the status of “independent states” as well as the perspectives like the Turkish-Armenian “football diplomacy” has occurred. The previous models of regional security are comparatively obsolete nowadays and are in need to be replaced by the new, more flexible, and region-oriented model. The finding and enforcing of such a model will need cooperation of sides. Turkey was the only country, which has proposed the project of regional security after the 2008 August War. The project is known as “The Caucasus Security Platform”. Despite its relevance, “The Caucasus Security Platform” could not come up as the main discussion topic, as it did not encompass the participation of the USA, the EU and Iran. The declaration of the independence of two regions of Georgia by Russia has challenged the principle of the territorial integrity of the state – which is the cornerstone of the proposal. gamoyenebulidacitirebuliliteratura: 1. Американцы ущемлены несогласованной активностью Турции на Кавказе и диалогом между Анкарой и Москвой. www.regnum.ru/news/ 30.09.2008 2.Stuck in a tight spot, Ankara calls for Caucasus pact. www. Today’sZaman. 12.08.2008. 3.Сергей Лавров расказал об Армении,Азербайджане,Турции и США. www.regnum.ru. /news/ 7.10.2008 4. .... iqve 5. Анкара стремится уменьшить свою вину перед Москвой за вооружение Тбилиси: АРФД. www.regnum.ru. /news/ 5.09.2008 6. Виген Акопян: Война в Южной Осетии и новые перспективы армяно-турецких отношений. www.regnum.ru./news/6.09.2008 90

7. “Коммерсант”: Медведев может заменить Минскую группу в переговорах Армении и Азербайджана. www.regnum.ru. /news/ 8.09.2008 8 . .... iqve 9. Россия не желает вмешательства третьих стран в процессы на Кавказе: мнение. www.regnum.ru/news/24.10/2008. 10. Erdogan backs Georgian sovereignty, Caucasus platporm. www. Today’sZaman. 15.08.2008. 11. Иран вышел из тени: безопасност на Кавказе между Турцией и Ираном.www.regnum.ru. /news/ 17.09.2008 12. .... iqve 13. Американцы.. 14. TurqeTisprezidenti: saqarTveloskrizisisSemdegaSS-mZalauflebaundagadaanawilos. www.civil.ge. 18 agvisto, 2008. 15. Ankara ‘s Caucasus initiative to gain impetus this week. Today’sZaman. 19.08.2008 16. МИД Турции в Москве: уравнение с десятью неизвестнйми.www.regnum.ru. /news/01.07.2009 17. Tamar ivaniZe, zamTris moaxloeba energoTemebis mimarT interess amZafrebs; 24 saaTi 11.11.09 18. Стапислав Тарасов: Турция вводит Иран в “кавказское уравнение”, www.regnum.ru/news/09.11.2009  19. US President Obama reaffirms support for Turkey’s regional role. www.Today’ Zaman.09.12.2009. 20. Армяно-турецкая "дорожная карта" - трагическая ошибка властей Армении: эксперт. www.regnum.ru/news/23.04.2009. 21. Посредники по карабахскому урегулированию едут на подписание армяно-турецких протоколов. www.regnum.ru/news/09.04/2009. 22. Турция и Армения могли бы играть более конструктивную роль на Кавказе чем когда-либо Россия. Мнение. www.regnum.ru/news/19.10.2008. 23. Jeneva, erTi wlis Semdeg: rogori mSvidoba saqarTvelosTvis? www.civil.ge, 15 ოქტomberi, 2009. 91

emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis, sakvlevi kiTxvaris adaptacia qarTul populaciaze
xaTuna marwyviSvili socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis, fsiqologiis mimarTuleba, asistent-profesori. emociuri inteleqti SedarebiT axal konstruqts warmoadgens mecnierebaSi da am konceptTan dakavSirebuli kvlevebic bolo aTwleulis damsaxurebaa. arsebobs sami ZiriTadi modeli (Emmerling, Shanwal & Mandal 2008), romelic emociuri inteleqtis cnebis qveS gansxvavebul Sinaarss moiazrebs. es modelebia emociuri inteleqti, rogorc unari (J. D. Mayer & P. Salovey, 1997), rogorc kompetencia (Goleman, D. 1998). da rogorc pirovnuli niSani (Bar-On, 2006, Petrides & Furnham, 2000). emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis avtorebi (Petrides & Furnham, 2000) emociur inteleqts ganixilaven, rogorc `emociebTan dakavSirebul TviT-percepciebis erTobliobas, romelic pirovnuli ierarqiis qveda doneze mdebareobs~ (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007, Petrides, Pita, Kokkinaki, 2007). konstruqtis alternatiul saxelwodebad avtorebi gvTavazoben termins: `emociuri TviT-efeqturoba, rogorc pirovnuli niSani~. konstruqtis amgvari konceptualizacia emociuri inteleqtis cnebas mTlianad acilebs kognituri unarebis taqsonomiis farglebs (Petrides, Pérez-González, & Furnham, 2007) da xazs usvams qceviT dispoziciebs da unarebis TviT-aRqmas, romelic TviT-angariSis tipis kiTxvariT izomeba, gansxvavebiT emociuri inteleqtis, 92

rogorc unaris modelisgan, romlis Sesafasebeli instrumenti Sesrulebaze dafuZnebul tests warmoadgens (iseve, rogorc es kognituri inteleqtis SemTxvevaSia). Sesabamisad, emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi kiTxvari warmoadgens 153 debulebian TviT-angariSis kiTxvars (Petrides, 2009b), romelic saSualebas iZleva Sefasdes emociuri inteleqtis 15 calkeuli aspeqti, 4 ZiriTadi faqtori da emociuri inteleqtis globaluri qula: kiTxvaris skalebi da ZiriTadi faqtorebi skalebi emociebis gamoxatva. . . . . emociebis gamoxatva da ,,emociuri” komunikacia empaTia. . . . . sxva adamianis Tvalsazrisis gaTvaliswineba, ,,sxvis tyavSi SeZvroma” motivacia. . . . . mizanmimarTuli Sroma miuxedavad araxelsayrel garemo pirobebisa emociebis regulacia . . . . . emociebis kontroli bedniereba. . . . . amJamindeli cxovrebiT kmayofileba da bedniereba socialuri cnobiereba. . . . . socialuri urTierTobebis unari impulsuroba (dabali). . . . . spontanuroba da cdunebebis ayola emociebis aRqma. . . . . sakuTari da sxva adamianebis emociebis codna/gageba TviT-Sefaseba. . . . . warmatebuloba da sakuTar TavSi darwmunebuloba asertuloba. . . . . pirdapiroba da sakuTari uflebebis, mosazrebebis dacva emociebis marTva. . . . . adamianTa grZnobebze gavlenis moxdena 93

optimizmi. . . . . momavlis naTel ferebSi xedva soc.urTierTobebi. . . . . piradi, axlo urTierTobebi megobrebTan ojaxis wverebTan, naTesavebTan adaptacia. . . . . axal garemo pirobebTan Segueba da morgeba stresis marTva. . . . . stresis marTva da stresTan gamklaveba faqtorebi kargad yofna. . . . . kargad yofnis generalizebuli gancda, cxovrebiT kmayofileba da bednierebis gancda TviT-kontroli. . . . . cdunebebis da survilebis kontroli, garemos zewolasa da stresTan gamklaveba emociuroba. . . . . mravalferovani emociuri unarebis floba. sakuTari da sxvisi emociebis aRqma, gamoxatva da axlo urTierTobebis damyarebis unari socialuroba. . . . . socialuri urTierTobebis da socialuri gavlenebis unari winamdebare kvlevis mizans warmoadgens emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi kiTxvaris (TEIQue) adaptacia qarTul populaciaze. testis saerTaSoriso rekomendaciis (guideline) Tanaxmad (Hambleton, 2001)kiTxvaris adaptaciis procesi moicavda ramodenime etaps: (1) pirvel etapze kiTxvaris qarTuli versiis Sesaqmnelad momzadda sami urTierTdamoukidebeli Targmani. kiTxvaris originaluri versia iTargmna eqspertebis mier. damoukidebeli Targmanebis Sejerebisa da TiToeuli Targmnili debulebis Sedarebis Sedegad Seiqmna kiTxvaris pirveli qarTuli versia; (2) pirveli qarTuli versiis Sesabamisoba originalur versiasTan gadamowmda avtoris _ k. v. petridesis mier, sapirispiro Targmanis saSualebiT. avtoris SeniSvnebis 94

Semdeg kiTxvaris 17 debuleba Seicvala; (3) piloturi kvlevis dawyebamde Sinaarsobrivi validobis Sesamowmeblad, kiTxvaris 153 debuleba Sefasda 7 eqspertis (fsiqologebis an fsiqologiis mimarTulebis profesormaswavlebelTa) mier. eqspertebi debulebebs afasebdnen 3 balian likertis tipis skalaze ramdenad Seesabameboda/relevanturi iyo/ debulebebi skalas. debulebebi, romlebic eqspertebis Sefasebis didi gafantulobiT gamoirCeoda, kidev erTxel gadamuSavda; (4) piloturi kvlevis (111 monawile) Sedegad kiTxvaris 47 debuleba, romelic mniSvnelovnad amcirebda sandoobis dones, Seicvala da gadamuSavda; (5) Semdeg etaptze Catarda ganmeorebiTi piloturi kvleva, romelSic ukve monawileobas iRebda 115 monawile. 17 debulebis modificirebis Sedegad SemuSavda kiTxvaris saboloo versia; (6) enobrivi gamarTulobis uzrunvelsayofad kiTxvaris saboloo versia Seaswora qarTuli enis filologma.
kvlevis monawileebi

kiTxvaris administrirebaSi monawileoba miiRo 922 individma. SerCevis aRwera: kvlevis monawileTa sqesi _ kvlevaSi monawileobda 267 (28.95%) mamrobiTi da 655 (71.05%) mdedrobiTi sqesis warmomadgeneli; asaki _ kvlevis monawileTa asaki varirebda 17dan 70 wlamde (M=25.22, SD=11.47) ganaTleba _ monawileTa umravlesobas (70.6%) studentebi warmoadgendnen, Tumca maT Soris iyvnen, rogorc dawyebiTi ganaTlebis mqone pirebi (2%,), aseve, saSualo ganaTlebis (9.3%), arasruli saSualo (0.9%) da umaRlesi ganaTlebis mqone pirebi (17.2%).

95

ojaxuri mdgomareoba _ monawileTa umravlesoba (75.8%) dasaojaxebelia, 18.4% _ daojaxebuli, 2.5% _ ganqorwinebuli, 1.4% _ qvrivi, 1.9% _ ucnobia. dasaqmebis sfero _ kvlevis monawileTa 9.4% dasaqmebulia kerZo organizaciaSi, 2.5% _ saxelmwifo seqtorSi, 0.2% _ jarSi, 1.0% _ akademiur sferoSi, 1.1% _ TviTdasaqmebulia, 19.6% _ umuSevaria, xolo 61.1% _ studenti da amavdroulad umuSevaria, 5.1% ucnobia. sacxovrebeli adgili _ monawileTa 50% aris didi qalaqis macxovrebeli, 19.3% patara qalaqis, xolo 28.5% aris soflis macxovrebeli, 2.2% _ ucnobia.
procedura

kiTxvaris saboloo versiis miRebis Semdeg kiTxvaris SevsebaSi monawileoba miiRo 922-ma monawilem. kiTxvaris Sevseba ZiriTadad, xdeboda jgufSi, iSviaTad, individualuradac. kvlevis monawileebi kiTxvaris pasuxebis furcels avsebdnen standartuli zepiri instruqciis Semdeg, romelSic miwodebuli iyo mokle informacia kvlevis miznisa da kiTxvaris Sesaxeb da miTiTebebi kiTxvaris SevsebasTan dakavSirebiT. kiTxvaris Sevsebis instruqcia, aseve, mocemuli iyo kiTxvaris dasawyisSic.
monacemTa fsiqometruli analizis meTodebi da Sedegebis aRwera

1. faqtoruli analizi - ZiriTadi RerZebis faqtoruli meTodi emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi 153 debulebiani kiTxvaris faqtoruli analizi ar aris ganxorcielebuli debulebebis doneze da misi struqtura aris 15-4-1 da ara 153-15-4-1 (Petrides, 96

2009a), radgan avtori iziarebs bernSteinis da tengis mosazrebas (Bernstein, I. H., & Teng, 1989), romlis Tanaxmadac, faqtoruli analizi debulebebis doneze problemuria da ar aris sando, gansakuTrebiT, maSin rodesac ganawileba ar aris normaluri. 15 skala qmnis emociuri inteleqtis calkeul sferoebs da SeuZlebelia interpretirebuli iyos, rogorc faqtorebi statistikuri mniSvnelobiT, magram rogorc konceptualuri nakrebi qmnis emociuri inteleqtis analizis qveda dones. Sesabamisad, 15 skalis safuZvlad mdebare faqtorebis gamoyofis mizniT gamoviyeneT ZiriTadi RerZebis faqtoruli analizi (Principle Axis Analysis). ZiriTadi RerZebis faqtoruli analizis Sedegad, kaizeris kriteriumisa da daxrilobis mrudis safuZvelze, promaqsis algoriTmuli brunviT (kappa parametriT 4) gamoikveTa 4 ZiriTadi faqtori (pirveli eqvsi faqtoris sakuTari mniSvneloba udrida: 5.34, 1.62, 1.24, 1.16, 0.90, 0.60). 4 ZiriTadi faqtori xsnis cvladebis dispersiis sakmaod mniSvnelovan wils. kerZod, monacemTa variabilobis 49.88 procents. yvela skala warmodgenilia emociuri inteleqtis faqtorul sivrceze saSualo maCvenebliT (communality) 0.51. yvelaze ukeT warmodgenili skalebia bedniereba (h2 = .70), optimizmi (h2 = .69), stresis marTva (h2 = .68), socialuri cnobiereba (h2 = .64) da yvelaze cudad warmodgenili skalebia empaTia (h2 = .30), adaptaciis skala (h2 = .32) da emociebis aRqma (h2 = .42).

97

cxrili # 1. emociuri inteleqtis 15 skalis faqtoruli sturuqtura
socialuroba emociuroba TviTkontroli kargadyofna

asertuloba emociebis marTva soc. cnobiereba TviT-Sefaseba urTierTobebi (naTesavebTan) empaTia emociebis aRqma motivacia impulsuroba emociebis gamoxatva stresis marTva emociebis regulacia adaptacia optimizmi bedniereba

.837 .648 .565 .444 .623 .616 . .530 .499 .480 . .458 .805 .715 .300 .834 .829 322 .424

faqtorebis gamoyofis meTodi: ZiriTadi RerZebis faqtoruli analizi. brunvis meTodi: promaqsi, kaizeris kriteriumiT brunvebis raodenoba _ 8

emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi kiTxvaris qarTuli versia imeorebs britanuli 98

versiisTvis damaxasiaTebel 4 faqtorian struqturas (kargad-yofna, TviT-kontroli, emociuroba, sociabiloba), Tumca, mcireodeni cvlilebebiT. (cxrili #1) calkeuli skalebis ZiriTad faqtorebze datvirTva faqtobrivad igivea, rogorc es britanuli versiis SemTxvevaSia (Petrides, 2009a), gamonakliss warmoadgens Semdegi skalebi: motivaciia (romelic qarTul versiaSi muSaobs faqtorze _ emociuroba, xolo britanuli versiis SemTxvevaSi _ TviT-kontrolis faqtorze) da impulsuroba (romelic qarTulo versiisTvis muSaobs faqtorze _ emociuroba, xolo britanuli versiis SemTxvevaSi _ TviT-kontrolis faqtorze), Tumca, am or skalas aqvs meoradi datvirTva TviT-kontrolis skalazec.1 rogorc cxrilSi warmodgenili Sedegebidan Cans, skalebis datvirTva gamoyofil oTx faqtorze sakmaod maRalia: socialuroba (Sociability) _ am faqtorze yvelaze maRali datvirTva aqvs asertulobis skalas, Semdeg skalebs _ emociebis marTva da socialuri cnobiereba, xolo yvelaze naklebi datvirTva am faqtorze aqvs skalas _ TviT-Sefasebas, asevea, britanuli originaluri. emociuroba (Emotionality) - am faqtorze yvelaze maRali datvirTva aqvs skalas _ socialuri urTierTobebi (naTesavebTan da axloblebTan), Semdeg skalas _ empaTia da emociebis aRqma, asevea, britanuli versiis SemTxvevaSic. rac Seexeba skalebs _ impulsuroba da motivacia qarTuli monacemebiT es ori skala itvirTeba faqtorze _ emociuroba, maSin roca es orive skala inglisur versiaSi TviT-kontrolis faqtorze muSaobs.
aRsaniSnavia, rom emociuri inteleqtis sakvlevi kiTxvaris qulebis daTvlisas ori skalis _ motivaciis da adaptaciis qulebi ar iTvleba arc erT ZiriTad faqtorze, Tumca, am ori skalis monacemi emateba emociuri inteleqtis globaluri qulis maCvenebels.
1

99

yvelaze dabali datvirTva am faqtorze aqvs skalas _ emociebis gamoxatva, iseve, rogorc es inglisur populaciaze standartizaciis monacemebis mixedviTaa. TviT-kontroli (Self-control) _ am faqtorze yvelaze maRali datvirTva aqvs skalas _ stresis marTva, Semdeg _ emociebis regulacia, xolo yvelaze naklebi datvirTva aqvs adaptaciis skalas. aRsaniSnavia, rom motivaciis da impulsurobis skalas aqvs meoradi datvirTva am faqtorzec, maSin roca inglisur populaciaze standartizaciis mixedviT es ori skala mxolod TviTkontrolis faqtorze itvirTeba. kargad-yofna (Well-being) - am faqtorze qarTul populaciaze standartizaciis monacemebis mixedviT mxolod ori skala itvirTeba, esaa: optimizmi da bedniereba, iseve, rogorc es inglisur enovan populaciaze standartizaciis monacemebis mixedviTaa, Tumca, mesame skala _ TviT-Sefaseba, romelsac inglisurenovani versiis SemTxvevaSi aqvs meoradi datvirTva faqtorze _ kargad yofna, qarTul populaciaze standartizaciis monacemebis mixedviT, itvirTeba mxolod faqtorze _ socialuroba. 2. ZiriTad faqtorebsa da skalebs Soris korelaciebi emociuri inteleqtis ZiriTad faqtorebs Soris korelaciebis gamoTvlis Sedegad (cxrili N2) (pirsonis r korelaciis koeficienti)1 (Pallant, J. 2003) aRmoCnda, ZiriTadi faqtorebi erTamaneTTan korelaciaSia.                                                              1 r =.10-dan r =.29-mde an r =-.10-dan r =-.29-mde _ cladebs Soris
susti (dadebiTi/uaryofiTi) korelacia; r = .30-dan r = .49-mde an r =-.30-dan r =-.49-mde _ cladebs Soris saSualo zomieri siZlieris korelacia

100

cxrili # 2. emociuri inteleqtis ZiriTad faqtorebs Soris korelaciebi
kargadyofna TviT-kontroli emociuroba socialuroba

kargad-yofna TviT-kontroli emociuroba socialuroba
**

.375 ** .527 ** .519 ** .381 ** .297 ** .499 ** -

p ≤ .01; * p ≤ .05

3. sandooba sandoobis Semowmebis yvelaze gavrcelebul sazoms warmoadgens kronbaxis alfa (Peterson, 1994), romelic warmoadgens imis maCvenebels, Tu ramdenad efeqturad zomavs instrumenti erT mTlian konstruqts. cxrilSi N3 mocemulia sandoobis mniSvnelobebi emociuri inteleqtis 15 skalis, 4 ZiriTadi faqtoris da emociuri inteleqtis globaluri maCveneblisaTvis.

                                                                                                                               r =.50-dan r = 1.0-mde an r = - 50 dan r = -1.0_ mde _ cladebs Soris Zlieri korelacia;

101

cxrili # 3. aRweriTi statistika da Sinagani konsistentobis maCveneblebi
M adaptacia asertiuloba emociebis gamoxatva emociebis marTva emociebis aRqma emociebis regulireba implusuroba (dabali) urTierTobebi (naTesavebTan) TviT-Sefaseba motivacia socialuri cnobiereba stresis marTva empaTia bedniereba optimizmi emociuroba kargad-yofna socialuroba TviT-kontroli emociuri inteleqti 4.7
**

SD 0.93 0.94 1.19 0.92 0.95 0.90 0.93 0.80 0.84 0.88 0.84 0.91 0.86 1.03 1.06 0.69 0.80 0.72 0.72

Cronbach’s a .68 .62 .81 .67 .74 .72 .63 .60 .71 .66 .70 .64 .64 .77 .77 .69 .82 .78 .71

No. of items 9 9 10 9 10 12 9 9 11 10 11 10 9 8 8 4 სკალა 3 სკალა 3 სკალა 3 სკალა

Skewness -.294 -.091 -.120 -.067 -.227 -.008 -.168 -.278 -.293 -.133 -.215 -.101 -.284 -.505 -.487 -.079 -.427 .037 .114

Kurtosis .240 .012 -.509 -.297 -.131 -.229 -.146 -.147 .006 -.241 .009 -.252 -.087 .122 .115 -.125 411 -.193 -.111

4.45 4.49 4.55 4.92 4.81 4.32 4.54 5.31 5.04 4.85 4.90 4.40 5.16 5.06 5.09 4.95 5.06 4.77 4.42

0.55

.87

15 სკალა

.077

.113

p ≤ .01; * p ≤ .05

102

4. emociuri inteleqtis globaluri maCveneblis, calkeuli skalebis da ZiriTadi faqtorebis qulebis ganawileba emociuri inteleqtis globaluri maCveneblis sixSireebi Seesabameba normaluri ganawilebis models (KS(922) = .20, ps = .20) rac Seexeba oTx ZiriTad faqtors _ emociurobis (KS(922) = .20, ps = .20), TviT-kontrolis (KS = .20, ps = .20) kargad yofnis (KS(922)= .20, ps = .05) da socialurobis (KS(922) = .20, ps = .20) faqtorebis qulaTa sixSireebis ganawileba Seesabameba normaluri ganawilebis models. suraTi 1 emociuri inteleqtis globaluri maCveneblis da ZiriTadi faqtorebis qulebis sixSireTa ganawileba

103

104

105

5. sqesTa Sorisi gansxvaveba emociuri inteleqtis qulebis ganawilebis mixedviT

Sedegebi ar aCvenebs sqesTa Soris statistikurad sando gansxvavebas emociuri inteleqtis globaluri maCveneblis mixedviT, Tumca, ZiriTadi faqtorebisasTvis (emociurobis faqtoris garda) sqesTa Sorisi gansxvaveba statistikurad sando aRmoCnda (suraTi N2), kerZod: kargad yofnis faqtoris maCveneblebi ufro maRalia qalebTan (M = 5.13, SD = 0.81), vidre mamakacebTan (M = 4.91, SD = 0.78), t(914) = -3.83, p< .0001 ); TviT-kontrolis maCveneblebi ufro maRalia mamakacebTan (M = 4.56, SD = 0.71), vidre qalebTan (M = 4.37,

SD = 0.72), t(914) = -3.83, p< .0001 );
socialurobis maCvenebeli ufro maRalia mamakacebTan (M = 4.87, SD = 0.70), vidre qalebTan (M = 4.73, SD = 0.73), t(914) = -3.83, p< .0001); suraTiN2 sqesTa Sorisi gansxvavebi emociuri inteleqtis faqtorisaTvis

106

statistikurad sando aRmoCnda calkeuli skalebis mixedviT sqesTa Sorisi gansxvavebebic. kerZod: optimizmis skalis maCvenebeli ufro maRalia qalebTan (M = 5.19, SD = 1.05), vidre mamakacebTan (M = 4.85,

SD = 1.05), t(914) = -4.45, p< .0001 );
empatiis skalis maCvenebeli ufro maRalia qalebTan (M = 5.23 SD = 0.86), vidre mamakacebTan (M = 4.96, SD = 0.81 ), t(914) = - 4.38, p< .0001 ); bednierebis skalis maCvenebeli ufro maRalia qalebTan (M = 5.15, SD = 1.04), vidre mamakacebTan (M = 4.84,

SD = 0.98), t(914) = -4.09, p< .0001 );
axlo socialuri urTierTobebis (naTesavebTan) skalis maCvenebeli ufro maRalia qalebTan (M = 5.35, SD = 0.80), vidre mamakacebTan (M = 5.21, SD = 0.80), t(914) = 2.33, p< .05 ); asertulobis skalis maCvenebeli ufro maRalia mamakacebTan (M = 4.71, SD = 0.86), vidre qalebTan (M =4.40,

SD = 0.95), t(914) = 4.45, p< .0001);
stresis marTvis skalis maCvenebeli ufro maRalia mamakacebTan(M = 4.63, SD = 0.86), vidre qalebTan (M = 4.32, SD = 0.91), t(914) = 4.79, p < .0001 ); emociebis regulaciis skalis maCvenebeli ufro maRalia mamakacebTan (M = 4.52 SD = 0.83), vidre qalebTan (M = 4.25, SD = 0.91, t(914) = 4.23, p < .0001 ); cxrilSi N4 warmodgenilia sqesis mixedviT aRweriTi statistikis da Sinagani konsistentobis maCveneblebi emociuri inteleqtis 15 calkeuli skalis, 4 ZiriTadi faqtoris da emociuri inteleqtis globaluri maCveneblisaTvis 107

cxrili # 4. aRweriTi statistika da Sinagani konsistentobis maCveneblebi calkeuli aspeqtebisTvis sqesTa Sorisi gansxvavebebis mixedviT
qalebi(n = 655) M adaptacia asertiuloba emociebis gamoxatva emociebis marTva emociebis aRqma emociebis regulireba implusuroba (dabali) soc. urTierTobebi TviT-Sefaseba motivacia socialuri cnobiereba stresis marTva empaTia bedniereba optimizmi kargad-yofna TviT-kontroli emociuroba socialuroba emociuri inteleqtis globaluri maCvenebeli
**

kacebi(n = 267) M SD 0.93 0.86 1.06 0.91 0.92 0.83 0.96 0.80 0.84 0.84 0.81 0.86 0.81 0.98 1.05 0.78 0.70 0.65 0.70 .69 .60 .78 .67 .74 .67 .66 .60 .72 .64 .69 .61 .61 .72 .75 .75 .71 .69 .74 t 0.46 4.45 0.41 0.39 0.13 4.23 -0.37 -2.33 0.40 0.80 1.38 4.79 -4.38 -4.09 -4.45** -3.83 3.59 -1.80 2.61*

SD 0.93 0.95 1.23 0.93 0.97 0.91 0.92 0.80 0.85 0.89 0.85 0.91 0.86 1.04 1.05 0.81 0.72 0.71 0.73 .68 .63 .82 .67 .74 .72 .63 .60 .71 .67 .71 .64 .65 .78 .77 .76 .69 .70 .72

4.45 4.40 4.55 4.92 4.81 4.25 4.55 5.35 5.05 4.84 4.88 4.32 5.23 5.15 5.19 5.13 4.37 4.98 4.73

4.48 4.71 4.58 4.95 4.82 4.52 4.52 5.21 5.03 4.89 4.97 4.63 4.96 4.84 4.85 4.91 4.56 4.89 4.87

4.80

0.55

.86

4.80

0.55

.88

0.04

p ≤ .01; * p ≤ .05

108

6. asakobrivi jgufebis Sedareba

kvlevis monawileebi asakis mixedviT davyaviT 4 asakobriv jgufad: I jgufi 17 wlidan 25 wlamde; II jgufi _ 26 wlidan 35 wlamde; III jgufi _ 36 wlidan 45 wlamde; IV jgufi _ 46 wlidan zeviT. gansxvaveba emociuri inteleqtis globaluri qulis mixedviT sxvadasxva asakobriv jgufebSi statistikurad sando ar aRmoCnda. Tumca, calkeuli skalebis da ZiriTadi faqtorebis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebs Soris gansxvaveba sandoa (ix. cxrili N5). kerZod, statistikurad sando aRmoCnda gansxvaveba asakis mixedviT Semdegi skalebisTvis: motivaciis skala _ calmxrivma dispersiulma analizma aCvena statistikurad sando gansxvaveba motivaciis maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi F (3, 886) = 42.70, p< .001, Eta Squared=.1). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba(Tukey HSDtesti) mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.68, SD =0.86) aqvs yvelaze dabali maCvenebeli meore (M = 5.31, SD = 0.68), mesame (M = 5.43, SD = 0.67) da meoTxe asakobriv jgufTan SedarebiT (M = 5.46, SD = 0.68) bednierebisskala – calmxrivma dispersiulma analizma aCvena statistikurad sando gansxvaveba bednierebis skalis maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSiF (3, 886) = 15.01, p< .001, Eta Squared = .04). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba (Tukey HSDtesti) mowmobs, rom: (a) bednierebis skalis maCvenebeli I asakobriv jgufSi (M = 5.16, SD = 1.04) ufro maRalia, vidre II asakobriv (M = 5.07 SD =0.94) da IV asakobriv jgufSi (M = 4.42, SD =0.91); (ბ) statistikurad sandoa gansxvaveba II asakobrivi jgufsa (M = 5.07 SD =0.94) da IV asakobrivi jgufs (M = 4.42, SD =0.91) Soris. impulsuroba (dabali) _ calmxrivma dispersiulma analizma aCvena statistikurad sando gansxvaveba im109

pulsurobis skalis maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi F (3, 886) = 7.99, p< .001, Eta Squared = .02). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba (Tukey HSDtesti) mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.46, SD = 0.94) ufro dabali maCvenebeli aqvs am skalaze, vidre IV asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.84, SD = 0.90) da III asakobrivi jgufs (M = 4.89, SD = 0.76). stresis marTva _ calmxrivma dispersiulma analizma aCvena statistikurad sando gansxvaveba stresis marTvis skalis maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi F(3, 886) = 6.88, p< .001, Eta Squared = .02). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba (Tukey HSD testi) mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs(M=4.34, SD=0.91) ufro dabali maCvenebeli aqvs am skalaze, vidre II asakobriv (M=4.66, SD = 0.83) da IV asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.71, SD = 0.84). optimizmi _ calmxrivma dispersiulma analizma aCvena statistikurad sando gansxvaveba optimizmis skalis maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi F (3, 886) = 9.71, p< .001, Eta Squared = .03). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba (Tukey HSD testi) mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs (M = 5.19, SD = 1.05) ufro maRali maCvenebeli aqvs am skalaze, vidre III asakobriv (M = 4.74, SD = 0.93) da IV asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.64, SD = 1.11). urTierTobebi naTesavebTan _ calmxrivma dispersiulma analizma aCvena statistikurad sando gansxvaveba optimizmis skalis maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi F (3, 886) = 4.90, p = .002, Eta Squared = .02). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba (Tukey HSDტესტი) mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs (M = 5.25, SD = 0.80) ufro dabali maCvenebeli aqvs am skalaze, vidre II asakobriv jgufs (M = 5.51, SD = 0.80).

110

adaptacia _ calmxrivma dispersiulma analizma aCvena statistikurad sando gansxvaveba optimizmis skalis maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi F(3, 886) = 3.96, p = .008, Eta Squared = .01). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba (Tukey HSD testi) mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.50, SD = 0.92) ufro maRali maCvenebeli aqvs am skalaze, vidre IV asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.20, SD = 0.95). asertuloba _ calmxrivma dispersiulma analizma aCvena statistikurad sando gansxvaveba optimizmis skalis maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi F (3, 886) = 8.53, p< .001, Eta Squared = .03). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba (Tukey HSD testi) mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs(M = 4.55, SD = 0.95) ufro maRali maCvenebeli aqvs am skalaze, vidre III asakobriv (M = 4.17, SD = 0.86) da IV asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.09, SD = 0.78). aseve, II asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.58, SD = 0.86) ufro maRali maCvenebeli aqvs am skalaze, vidre III asakobriv (M = 4.17, SD = 0.86) da IV asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.09, SD = 0.78). statistikurad sando ar aRmoCnda asakobrivi gansxvaveba emociuri inteleqtis sxva skalebisTvis. xolo ZiriTadi faqtorebisTvis statistikurad sando aRmoCnda gansxvaveba Semdeg asakobriv jgufebSi: kargad yofna _ statistikurad sandoa gansxvaveba am faqtoris maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi (F(3,886)=8.57, p<.001, Eta Squared=.03). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba (Tukey HSD testi) mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs (M=5.12, SD=0.82) ufro maRali maCvenebeli aqvs am faqtorze, vidre III asakobriv (M=4.84, SD=0.70) da IV asakobriv jgufs (M=4.68, SD=0.69); statistikurad sandoa agreTve gansxvaveba meore asakobrivi (M=5.10, SD=0.76) da IV asakobrivi jgufis maCveneblebs Soris (M=4.68, SD=0.69); 111

TviT-kontroli _ calmxrivma dispersiulma analizma aCvena statistikurad sando gansxvaveba TviTkontrolis faqtoris maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi (F (3, 886) = 6.04, p < .001, Eta Squared = .02). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.37, SD = 0.73) ufro dabali maCvenebeli aqvs am faqtorze, vidre III asakobriv (M = 4.62, SD = 0.68) da IV asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.65, SD = 0.66). socialuroba _ statistikurad sandoa gansxvaveba TviT-kontrolis faqtoris maCveneblis mixedviT asakobriv jgufebSi (F (3, 886) = 7.53, p < .001, Eta Squared = .02). kerZod, Post hoc Sedareba (Tukey HSD testi) mowmobs, rom I asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.82, SD = 0.73) ufro maRali maCvenebeli aqvs am faqtorze, vidre III asakobriv (M = 4.56, SD = 0.63) da IV asakobriv jgufs (M = 4.47, SD = 0.60). asakobrivi gansxvaveba meoTxe ZiriTadi faqtorisTvis (emociuroba) statistikurad sando ar aRmoCnda. cxrili # 1. aRweriTi statistika emociuri inteleqtis calkeuli aspeqtebisTvis sxvadasxva asakobrivi jgufis mixedviT
I (n=668) M TviT-Sefaseba emociebis gamoxatva motivacia emociebis regulireba 5.02 4.52 4.68 4.31 SD 0.87 1.25 0.86 0.91 II (n=73) M 5.27 4.74 5.31 4.36 SD 0.82 1.04 0.68 0.78 III (n=78) M 5.11 4.69 5.43 4.40 SD 0.74 0.94 0.67 0.96 IV (n=71) SM 4.99 4.58 5.46 4.42 SD 0.70 0.86 0.68 0.87 F 2.15 1.17 42.70 ** 0.52

112

bedniereba empaTia socialuri cnobiereba impulsuroba (dabali) emociebis aRqma stresis marTva emociebis marTva optimizmi urTierTobebi (naTesavebTan) adaptacia asertuloba

5.16 5.15 4.86 4.46 4.80 4.34 5.07 5.19

1.04 0.88 0.86 0.94 0.97 0.91 0.90 1.05

5.07 5.13 5.05 4.59 4.84 4.66 4.70 4.98

0.94 0.83 0.82 0.91 0.92 0.83 0.94 1.00

4.68 5.20 5.05 4.89 4.91 4.57 4.46 4.74

0.90 0.77 0.71 0.76 0.90 0.87 0.80 0.93

4.42 5.17 5.02 4.84 4.79 4.71 4.31 4.64

0.91 0.75 0.78 0.90 0.88 0.84 0.75 1.11

15.01 ** 0.09 2.65 7.99 ** 0.36 6.88 ** 25.72 9.71 **

5.26

0.80

5.51

0.80

5.48

0.73

5.49

0.85

4.90 **

4.51 4.55

0.92 0.96

4.54 4.59

0.81 0.86

4.24 4.17

1.03 0.86

4.21 4.09

0.95 0.78

3.96

*

8.53 **

kargad-yofna TviT-kontroli emociuroba socialuroba

5.12 4.37 4.93 4.82

0.82 0.73 0.71 0.73

5.10 4.54 5.05 4.78

0.76 0.61 0.68 0.74

4.84 4.62 5.07 4.56

0.70 0.68 0.63 0.63

4.68 4.65 5.01 4.47

0.69 0.66 0.59 0.60

8.57 ** 6.40 ** 1.61 7.53 **

globaluri maCvenebeli
**

4.79

0.56

4.89

0.55

4.80

0.51

4.74

0.46

0.92

p ≤ .01; * p ≤ .05

113

daskvna daskvnis saxiT SeiZleba mokled CamovayaliboT emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi instrumentis qarTuli versiis fsiqometruli maxasiaTeblebi: (1) emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi kiTxvaris qarTuli versia imeorebs britanuli versiisTvis damaxasiaTebel 4 faqtorian struqturas. es faqtorebia: kargad-yofna (well-bieng), TviT-kontroli, emociuroba, socialuroba. (2) Sedegebi ar aCvenebs asakobriv jgufebs Soris gansxvavebas emociuri inteleqtis globaluri qulis mixedviT, magram zogierTi calkeuli skalis da ZiriTadi faqtoris mixedviT asakobriv jgufebs Soris gansxvaveba sandoa; (3) Sedegebi ar aCvenebs sqesTa Soris gansxvavebas emociuri inteleqtis globaluri qulis mixedviT, magram zogierTi calkeuli skalis (optimizmi, empaTia, bedniereba, axlo socialuri urTierTobebi, asertuloba, stresis marTva, emociebis regulacia) da ZiriTadi faqtorisTvis (emociuroba, socialuroba, TviT-kontroli) sqesTa Soris gansxvaveba sandoa. kiTxvaris fsiqometruli maxasiaTeblebis (faqtoruli struqtura, Sinagani konsistentobis maCveneblebi) Sejamebis Sedegad SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom Cveni kvlevis Sedegad miRebulia kiTxvaris qarTuli versia, romelic am etapze sakmaod gamarTul fsiqodiagnostikur instruments warmoadgens da misi gamoyeneba namdvilad SesaZlebelia Semdgomi kvlevebisaTvis. ZiriTadi faqtoruli struqturisa da skalebis Taviseburebebis replikacia, emociuri inteleqtis 4 faqtoriani struqturis kulturuli universaluroba, gamovlenili logikuri kavSirebi sxva konstruqtebTan - qarTul populaciaze emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi kiTxvaris Semdgomi gamoyenebis Tvalsazri114

siT sakmaod optimisturi prognozis gakeTebis saSualebas gvaZlevs. emociuri inteleqtis, rogorc pirovnuli niSnis sakvlevi kiTxvaris qarTul versia Rirebulia sxvadasxva sferoSi momuSave profesionalebisaTvis (ganaTlebis fsiqologiis, adamianuri resursebis marTvis da klinikuri fsiqologiis sferos warmomadgenelTaTvis); kiTxvari saSualebas mogvcems CaverToT emociuri inteleqtTan dakavSirebul saerTaSoriso kvleviT sivrceSi da mecnierebaSi am SedarebiT axali konstruqtis Tavisebureba vikvlioT qarTul populaciazec. Abstract Khatuna Martskvishvili - Assistant Professor of the Faculty

of Social and Political Sciences of TSU.
THE ADAPTATION OF TRAIT EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE QUESTIONNAIRE ON GEORGIAN POPULATION The goal of the presented work is the adaptation of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) (Petrides, 2009) on Georgian population. The theoretical framework for the given work is Trait Emotional Intelligence Model (Petrides & Furman, 2000) according to this model Trait EI is "a constellation of emotional selfperceptions located at the lower levels of personality”. Authors suggest that an alternative label for the same construct is trait emotional self-efficacy. Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire is a self-report inventory that covers the sampling domain of trait EI comprehensively. It comprises 153 items, measuring 15 distinct facets, 4 factors, and global trait EI. TEIQue was adapted into Georgian following the guidelines of the International Test 115

Commission (Hambleton,2001) The adaptation process included several steps: (1) translation of the inventory into Georgian; (2) backtranslation; (3) Experts’ assessments; (4) pilot study (111 participants); (5) re-pilot (115 participants); (6) inventory revision; (7) standardization of the questionnaire (922 participants, 267 male and 652 female, from 17 to 70 years). (1) Principle axis factoring revealed four main factors. Georgian version of Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire replicates the British factor structure of TEIQue: Emotionality, Sociability, Self-control, and Well-being. These factors explain 49.88% of the total variance. (2) The reliabilities of the TEIQue factors are the following: Well-being (2 facets; a = .82); Self-control (2 facets; a = .71); Emotionality (5 facets; a = .69); Sociability (4 facets; a = .78). Reliabilities of each 15 facets were also acceptable. (3) TEIQue scores were globally normally distributed (4) There was no gender difference in Global TEI scores, but findings revealed significant gender differences: in TEI factors and facets. (5) TEIQue scores were relatively independent of age but there was significantly difference in some TEI facets and factors Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire has theoretical as well as practical implication: the adapted inventory is valuable for professionals working in different fields of Psychology (educational, human reassures and clinical psychology). Georgian version of questionnaire gives possibility to be involved in international Emotional intelligence research space and to study characteristics of relatively new construct - emotional intelligence - on Georgian population too.

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gamoyenebuli da citirebuli literatura: 1. Bernstein, I. H., & Teng, G. (1989). Factoring items and factoring scales are different: Spurious evidence for multidimensionality due to item categorization. Psychological Bulletin, 105, 467- 477. 2. Goleman, D. (1998). Workingwith emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books 3. Emmerling, R. J., Shanwal, V. K., & Mandal, M. K. (Eds.) (2008). Emotional intelligence: Theoretical and cultural perspectives. Nova Science Publishers. 4. Hambleton, R. K. (2001). The next generation of the ITC Test translation and adaptation guidelines. European Journal of Psychological Assessment,17, 164–172. 5. Mayer, J. D. & Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds). Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Educators (pp. 3-31). New York: Basic Books. 6. Pallant, J. (2003) SPSS Survival Manual: A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis. Philadelhpia: Open University Press. 7. Peterson, R.A. (1994). A meta-analysis of Crobach’s alpha. Journal of consumer Research, 21, 381-391 8. Petrides, K.V. (2009a). TEIQue technical manual. University College of London 9. Petrides, K.V. (2009b) Psychometric Properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) in C. Stough et al. (eds.), Assessing Emotional Intelligenc: theory research and application, The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality. 10. Petrides, K. V., & Furnham, A. (2000). On the dimensional structure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 29, 313–320 11. Petrides, K. V., Furnham, A. & Mavroveli, S. (2007). Trait emotional intelligence: Moving forward in the field of EI. In G. 117

Matthews, M. Zeidner, & R. Roberts, R. (Eds.). Emotional intelligence: Knowns and unknowns (Series in Affective Science). Oxford: Oxford University Press 12. Petrides, K. V., Pita, R., Kokkinaki, F. (2007). The location of trait emotional intelligence in personality factor space. British Journal of Psychology, 98, 273-289. 13. Petrides, K. V., Pérez-González, J. C., & Furnham, A. (2007). On the criterion and incremental validity of trait emotional intelligence. Cognition and Emotion, 21, 26-55.

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saparlamento demokratiis problemebi saqarTveloSi
nana maWaraSvili politikis mecnierebis doqtori, socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis asocirebuli profesori. Sesavali demokratiis sakmaod mciredi gamocdilebis mqone iseTi qveynisTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa, saparlamento demokratiis problemebis arseboba sakmaod bunebrivad gamoiyureba. cxadia, problemebis CamonaTvali sakmaod didia da moiTxovs klasificirebs, rac, xels Seuwyobda imis garkvevas, saparlamento saqmianobis romeli rgoli, warmomadgenlobiTi, sakanonmdeblo Tu sazedamxedveloa yvelaze susti da saWiroebs yvelaze met yuradRebas. saparlamento demokratiis problemebze saubrisas, cxadia, gverds ver avuvliT Tavad saqarTvelos instituciuri wyobis sistemaze saubars, romelic xSir SemTxvevaSi, gvevlineba samive zemoTxsenebuli mimarTulebiT saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo organos naklebefeqturi saqmianobis mizezi da romelzedac analitikosebisa da mkvlevrebis mxridan xdeba aqcentireba. aRniSnul statiaSi saqarTvelos parlamentis saqmianobisa da saparlamento demokratiis xarisxis Sesafaseblad, gamoyenebulia saqarTvelos parlamentis wevrTa naxevrad-struqturirebuli interviurebisa da saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo organos aparatis TanamSromelTa fokus-jgufis Sedegebi, romelic ganxorcielda saparlamento ganviTarebis vestministeris demokratiis fondis farglebSi Catarebuli situaciuri analizis dros. mkvlevrebis winaSe dasmul amocanas warmoadgen119

da imis garkveva, saparlamento saqmianobis ra dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi ikveTeba dRevandeli mdgomareobiT da parlamentis warmomadgenlobiTi, sakanonmdeblo da sazedamxedvelo funqciebidan romlis Sesrulebas eSleba yvelaze metad xeli da ra mizeziT. statiaSi warmodgenilia saqarTvelos dRevandeli sakanonmdeblo organos mimarT sazogadoebis damokidebuleba, iseve rogorc avtoritetebisgan aRniSnuli institutis damoukideblobis aRqmis xarisxi, aseve mocemulia samive mimarTulebiT saparlamento saqmianobis Sefaseba skalaze dadebiTi-uaryofiTi. garda amisa, saqarTvelos parlamentis statistikur informaciaze dayrdnobiT xorcieldeba saqarTvelos parlamentis mier wamoyenebuli sakanonmdeblo iniciativebis Sefardeba aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis mier wamoyenebul iniciativebTan mimarTebaSi imis dasadgenad, ramdenad didia aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis zegavlena sakanonmdeblo organoze da aqedan gamomdinare, saparlamento sistemebidan romels SeiZleba miekuTvnos saqarTvelos parlamenti. statiaSi aseve xorcieldeba saparlamento demokratiis sxva araerT specifikur problemaze saubari, romelic uSualod interviurirebisa da fokus-jgufis Sedegebidan dadginda. saqarTvelos parlamentis saqmianobis mtkicebulebebze dafuZnebuli Sefaseba, romelic statistikurad gadamowmebad informacias daeyrdnoboda, dRemde saqarTveloSi ar ganxorcielebula. miuxedavad imisa, aRniSnul statiaSi ZiriTadad Tavmoyrilia yvela is masala, romelic meoradi informaciis saxiTaa mopovebuli da eyrdnoba sazogadoebrivi kvlevis Sedegebs, Tavad parlamentisa da misi saqmianobis Sesaxeb. kvlevis meTodologia, romelsac efuZneba statiis mTavari ganacxadi, ki ZiriTadad Tvisebrivi analizis Sedegebzea dafuZnebuli. 120

hipoTeza, romelsac kvlevis procesSi viyenebT, efuZneba Semdeg ganacxads: saqarTvelos dRevandeli parlamenti miuxedavad instituciuri winaaRmdegobisa, vesminsteris modelis Sesabamisia, risi axsnac saqarTveloSi arsebuli partiuli sistemiTa da partiasa da mTavrobas Soris arsebul iseTive unisonSi unda veZeboT, rogoric vesmtminsteris saparlamento modelSi fiqsirdeba. am mxriv maJoritaruli da saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriisTvis damaxasiaTebeli priviligirebuli erTpartiuli sistema garkveul msgavsebebs avlens erTmaneTTan. Tumca, qarTul realobaSi es modeli ara parlamentze, aramed aRmasrulebeli, konkretulad ki prezidentis institutze damokidebulebis maRali xarisxiT gamoirCeva, rac gamoixateba saparlamento saqmianobis samive mimarTulebiT, gansakuTrebiT ki sazedamxedvelo saqmianobis gawevis TvalsazrisiT, parlamentis rogorc aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis sapirwone institutisa da funqciis Semsruleblis rolis SesustebaSi. saqarTvelos parlamentis mimarT sazogadoebrivi damokidebuleba vidre, aRniSnuli hopoTezis mtkicebulebebs warmovadgenT, pirvel rigSi gvinda imis Cveneba, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovani roli da adgili uWiravs saqarTvelos sakanonmdelo organos da ramdenad damoukidebl instituciad ganixileba is sazogadoebrivi azris kvlevis Sedegebis mixedviT. qveviT wamodgenil sqemaze kavkasiis kvleviTi resursebis centris monacemebze dayrdnobiT naCvenebia, rom 2007-2009 wlebis ganmavlobaSi saqarTvelos parlamentis rogorc institutis mimarT ndoba mniSvnelovnad ar gazrdila (6-dan mxolod 10-11 procentis farglebamde aiwia). amis miuxedavad, ucvleli rCeba is disproporcia, romelic arsebobs saqarTve121

los parlamentsa da prezidentis instituts Soris. ndobis TvalsazrisiT sxvaoba maT Soris, xSirad 15-20 procentsac ki Seadgens. am mxriv, didi gansxvaveba parlamentsa da mTavrobas Soris ar SeiniSneba da ndobis TvalsazrisiT am or instituts Soris TiTqmis Tanabari mdgomareobaa, rac kidev erTxel adasturebs im faqts, rom saqarTvelos mosaxleobis umravlesobisaTvis rogorc saqarTvelos sakanonmdeblo organo, ise mTavrobis aparati naklebad damoukidebeli da prezidentis institutze damokidebul instituciebadaa aRqmuli. sqema #1 politikuri institutebis mimarT ndoba1

parlamentis rogorc damoukidebeli institutis aRqmis xarisxis Sefaseba mocemulia sazogadobrivi politikis institutis mier momzadebul angariSSi, sadac respodentebs unda daefiqsirebinaT, ara ama Tu im institutis mimarT ndoba, aramed unda SeefasebinaT sxva instituciebze ama Tu im institutis damokidebulebis xarisxi, Sesabamisad, dadgeniliyo is, Tu ramdenad ganixilavdnen isini ama Tu im instituts rogorc damoukidebel institucias. qveviT warmodgenil sqemaze naCvnebia, 122

rom yvelaze naklebi damoukideblobis matarebel instituciad eklesias, ombudsmenis instituts, sasamarTlosa da parlaments Soris, gamokiTxulTa Soris swored saparlamento organo aRiqmeba. misi damoukideblobis xarisxi 2007 wels 14,9 porcentiT, xolo 2008 wels 10,5 procentiTaa Sefasebuli. aRniSnuli monacemebi emTxveva kavkasiis kvleviTi resursebis centris monacemebs, romelic am instituciis ndobas TiTqmis imave maCveneblebiT afasebs. sainteresoa isic, rom tradiciulad, sakmaod rTul instituciad Sefasebuli sasamarTlo saparlamento organoze maRali monacemebiTaa Sefasebuli. sqema #2 sxvadasxva institutebis xelisuflebisagan damoukideblobis aRqma2
90,00% 80,00% 70,00% 60,00% 50,00% 40,00% 30,00% 20,00% 10,00% 0,00% eklesia ombudsmeni sasamarTlo parlamenti

80,10% 72,40% 57,10% 43,80% 2007 2008 15,70% 10,80% 14,90% 10,50%

saparlamento demokratiis Sefaseba saparlamento funqciebis mixedviT ganvixiloT saqarTvelos saparlamento saqmianobis dadebiTi da jerac dauxvewavi mxareebi saparlamento organos sami _ wamomadgenlobiTi, kanonSemoqmedebiTi da sazedamxedvelo funqciebis mixedviT. warmomadgenlobiTi funqcia: warmomadgenlobiTi funqciis TvalsazrisiT dadebiT momentebad SeiZleba Sefasdes saarCevno barieris 5 procentamde daweva, rac 7 procentian barierTan 123

SedarebiT warmomadgenlobis xelSemwyobia; TiToeul saarCevno olqs hyavs Tavisi warmomadgeneli parlamentSi; eTnikuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebs hyavT TavianTi warmomadgenlebi parlamentSi; TiToeul saparlamento komitetSi proporciuladaa warmodgenili fraqciebi da ufraqcio deputatebi; informacia saparlamento procesis Sesaxeb xelmisawvdomia moqalaqeTaTvis. Tumca, saarCevno olqebi zomisa da amomrCevelTa raodenobis TvalsazrisiT araerTgvarovania. problemas warmoadgens isic, rom TiToeuli maTganidan airCeva TiTo deputati. qalebi parlamentSi faqtobrivad ar arian warmodgenili: 136 deput tidan mxolod 7 qali deputatia. eTnikuri umciresobebic mxolod mcirediT arian warmodgenili parlamentSi: 136 deputatidan mxolod 7 warmoadgens eTnikur umciresobas. warmomadgenlobis daculobis iseTi garantiebi rogoric araerT sxva qveyanaSi arsebobs eTnikuri umciresobebisaTvis, saqarTveloSi jer araa Seqmnili.3 2008 wlis maisis arCevnebis Semdeg opoziciis nawilma uari Tqva saparlamento mandatebze. Sesabamisiad, maT amomrCevlebs dReisaTvis ar hyavT sakuTari warmomadgeneli parlamentSi. problemas qmnis aseve sadavo kanoni partiebis dafinansebaze, romelic SezRudvebs uwesebs im partiebs, romelTac miuxedavad 5%-iani barieris gadalaxvisa 2008 wlis 21 maisis saparlamento arCevnebze, uari Tqves parlamentSi Sesvlaze. aseT partiaTa kategoriaSi aRmoCndnen axali memarjveneebi, moZraoba erTiani saqarTvelosTvis, saqarTvelos gza, xalxis partia, partia Tavisufleba da erovnuli forumi. gaerTianebuli opoziciis es partiebi wliurad, daaxloebiT, 600 aTas lars veRar iReben. partiuli speqtris warmomadgenlobis sakiTxi aseve problematuria. Tuki gadavxedavT saqarTvelos uaxlesi istoriis gamocdilebas, partiuli speqtris ara marto saparlamento organoSi moxvedris sixSirem iklo, 124

aramed saparlamento arCevnebSi monawile partiuli organizaciebis raodenobamac. am procesze mniSvnelovani zegavlena iqonia 1999 wels saarCevno barieris 7 procentamde awevam da swored amitom partiuli warmomadgenlobis uzrunvelsayofad 2007 wels saarCevo barieris 5 procentamde dawevis gadawyvetileba pozitiur nabijadaa Sefasebuli. saparlamento organoSi mosaxvedrad gamarTul arCevnebSi partiebis monawileobis sixSiris kleba aseve ukavSirdeba partiuli institutebis naklebad ganviTarebasa da partiuli institucionalizaciis problemas, romlis pirobebSi partiaTa raodenoba, romelic yvela niSniT (centraluri da adgilobrivi organoebis arseboba da gamarTuli muSaoba, Sida demokratiisa da partiuli rotaciis SesaZleblobebi, partiul faseulobebze partiis politikis ageba da partiul liderebze naklebdamokidebuleba, politikis warmoebis unari) daakmayofilebda institucionalizaciis paramentrebs, sakmaod mcirea. cxrili #1. saarCevno procesSi monawileobis statistika (1990-2008 wlebi)4
არჩევნებისჩატარების თარიღი საარჩევნობარიერი პროპორციულისისტე მითგასულიპარტიები სრაოდენობა მაჟორიტარულისისტე მითგასულიპარტიები სრაოდენობა არჩევნებშიმონაწილეპ ოლიტიკურიპარტიებ ისადასაარჩევნობლოკ ებისრაოდენობა 1990 1992 1995 1999 2003 2004 2008

4% 2

2% 24

5% 5

7% 3

7% 6

7% 2

5% 4

5

5

9

3

14

36

53

45

18

17

12

125

sakanonmdeblo funqcia: sakanonmdeblo saqmianobis TvalsazrisiT gansakuTrebul pozitiur Sefasebas imsaxurebs saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis harmonizacia evrokavSiris sakanonmdeblo sivrcesa da regulaciebTan, rac warmoadgens umniSvnelovanes prioritets da xorcieldeba swrafi tempebiT; xazgasasmelia is faqti, rom sakanonmdeblo procesi eqvemdebareba mkacrad gaweril procedurebs, romelic mocemulia parlamentis reglamentSi; aseve, ama Tu im kanondeblobaze muSaobis procesSi aqtiurad gamoiyeneba sxva qveynebis gamocdileba, xolo komitetebi iyeneben mrCevelTa sabWoebs sakanonmdeblo iniciativebis dasaxvewad. am dadebiT momentebTan erTad, gasaTvaliswinebelia Semdegi naklovanebebic: kanondeblobaze muSaobis procesi imdenad swraf tempebSi mimdinareobs, rom xSirad deputatebs uWirT TiToeuli sakiTxis detaluri analizi da kanonproeqtebis skurpuliozuri Seswavla; opoziciis zegavlenis naklebobis pirobebSi sakanonmdeblo iniciativebi aseve naklebad xdeba seriozuli ganxilvis sagani; sakanonmdeblo inicireba nebismieri sakanonmdeblo organos muSaobis Semadgeneli elementia, Tumca gaerTianebul samefoSi kanonproeqtebis umravlesoba swored mTavrobis inicirebulia. asevea poloneTic, romlis sakanonmdeblo organoSic 2001-2005 wlebSi wardgenili 1264 kanonproeqtidan 808 inicirebuli iyo mTavrobidan da mxolod 356 Tavad parlamentidan. analogiuri tendencia vrceldeba poloneTSi samTavrobo proeqtebis umravlesobazec. imave wlebSi wardgenili 744 samTavrobo proeqtebidan mxolod 184 iyo deputatebis mier inicirebuli. kanonproeqtebis wardgenaze samTavrobo upiratesobis ramdenime ganmapirobebeli faqtori arsebobs: pirvel rigSi, mTavrobas ufro metad miuwvdeba xeli kanonSemoqmedebiT codnaze. amasTan, mTavrobas, romelic Cveulebriv, flobs parlamentSi umrav126

lesobas da Sesabamisad, gamoirCeva warmatebis maRali koeficientiT, deputatebs mxolod mis mier momzadebuli kanonmdeblobis ganxilvisa da damtkicebis uflebas utovebs. amasTan gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, rom saqarTvelos parlamenti, gansxvavebiT didi britaneTis parlamentisgan5, reglamentis Tanaxmad, Tavad gansazRvravs saparlamento dRis wesrigs. rac Seexeba iseT institucias, rogoricaa partiuli mdivnebi, romlebic didi britaneTis parlamentSi farTo uflebamosilebebiT sargebloben da warmoadgenen parlamentis TiToeuli wevris qmedebaze kontrolis oficialur berkets, saqarTvelos parlamentSi ar gvxvdeba. Tumca, es sulac ar gamoricxavs imis SesaZleblobas, rom analogiuri meqanizmi araformalur doneze saqarTveloSic aqtiurad muSaobdes. zedamxedvelobiTi funqcia: am mxriv, miuxedavad, imisa, rom saqarTvelos parlamentis xelT arsebuli resursebi, iseve rogorc damatebiTi instituciebi kontrolis palatisa da ombudsmenis saxiT mravlad gaaCnia, sakmaod mwirad gamoiyureba da umeteswilad parlamentis mier miRebul gadawyvetilebebis Sesrulebis kontrolamde izRudeba.6 sazedamxedvelo funqciis TvalsazrisiT, dadebiT momentebad SesaZlebelia aRiniSnos is, rom yovelwliurad prezidentsa da premierministrs evalebaT parlamentis winaSe angariSiT wardgena; aseve, parlamentma SesaZlebelia moiTxovos mTavrobis meTaurisa da sxva sajaro moxeleebis Tanamdebobidan daTxovna; parlamenti zedamxedvelobas uwevs aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis miRebuli normatiuli aqtebis ganxorcielebis process; ministrTa kabinetsa da prezidents hyavT TavianTi warmomadgenlebi parlamentSi (saparlamento mdivnebis saxiT). Tumca, isic gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom parlamenti SedarebiT pasiuria aR127

masrulebeli xelisuflebis qmedebaTa gakontrolebis TvalsazrisiT; deputatebsa da parlamentis aparatis muSakebs aqvT zedamxedvelobisa da kontrolis ganxorcielebis naklebi gamocdileba da saWiro unar-Cvevebi; arsebobs TvalSisacemi disbalansi sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis xelT arsebuli informaciis TvalsazrisiT, rac parlamentis mier sazedamxedvelo da sakontrolo funqciis ganxorcielebis SesaZleblobebs amcirebs. sazedamxedvelo funqciaze msjelobisas aucilebeli gasaTvaliswinebelia sakontrolo funqcia, rac parlamentisa da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis mier miRebuli normatiuli aqtebis Sesrulebaze kontrols gulisxmobs. aRniSniSnuli saqmianoba saqarTvelos parlamentSi ZiriTadad Sesabamisi komitetebis meSveobiT warimarTeba. saqarTvelos parlamentis reglamentis mixedviT, komiteti Tavisi kompetenciis farglebSi akontrolebs mis sferoSi moqmedi parlamentis mier miRebuli normatiuli aqtebis aRsrulebis mdgomareobas. parlamenti plenarul sxdomaze regularulad ismens Sesabamisi komitetisa da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis Tanamdebobis pirebisgan informacias mis mier miRebuli normatiuli aqtebis aRsrulebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. parlamentis biuro uflebamosilia sesiis samuSao gegmis safuZvelze, parlamentis sasesio kviris plenaruli sxdomebis dRis wesrigSi Seitanos im normatiuli aqtebis nusxa, romelTa aRsrulebis mdgomareobazec parlamentma unda moisminos informacia. aRniSnul informacias parlaments warudgens is komiteti, romelic pasuxismgebeli iyo Sesabamisi normatiuli aqtis momzadebaze. komitetisa da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis Sesabamisi dawesebulebis moxseneba unda Seicavdes informacias Sesabamisi normatiuli aqtis aRsrulebis mdgomareobis, efeqtianobis, misi moqmedebis periodSi gamov128

lenili xarvezebisa da maT aRmosafxvrelad saWiro sakanonmdeblo Sesworebebis Sesaxeb, aseve normatiuli aqtis srulfasovnad amoqmedebis xelis SemSleli obieqturi da subieqturi faqtorebis analizs. komitetis informaciis mosmenis Semdeg SeiZleba moxsenebiT gamovidnen fraqciebis, umravlesobisa da umciresobis warmomadgenlebi. normatiuli aqtis aRsrulebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb saparlamento mosmenis Semdeg parlamenti saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi iRebs dadgenilebas, romelSic SeiZleba aisaxos parlamentis Sefaseba normatiuli aqtis aRsrulebasTan dakavSirebiT, normatiul aqtSi Sesworebebis Setanis davaleba Sesabamisi komitetisaTvis an daisvas aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis Sesabamisi dawesebulebis Tanamdebobis piris pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxi. komiteti Tavisi kompetenciis farglebSi kontrols uwevs Tavis sferoSi moqmedi saministros, ministrisa da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis sxva saxelmwifo uwyebis xelmZRvanelis normatiuli aqtebis saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobasTan Sesabamisobas, maTi Sesrulebis mdgomareobas, Seiswavlis da aanalizebs am aqtebis gamoyenebis periodSi gamovlenil xarvezebs da SeimuSavebs rekomendaciebs, romlebsac ugzavnis Sesabamis uwyebas. rekomendaciebis ganxilvis an miRebuli zomebis Sesaxeb unda ecnobos komitets ara ugvianes 1 Tvisa an mis mier dadgenil vadaSi. komiteti kontrols uwevs kanonebisa da parlamentis dadgenilebebis gardamavali debulebebiT komitetis sferoSi Semavali aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis dawesebulebebisaTvis gansazRvruli davalebebis Sesrulebas dadgenil vadaSi.7 saqarTvelos parlamentis saproceduro sakiTxTa da wesebis komitetis 2004-2007 wlebis saqmianobis statistikas, Tuki aviRebT parlamentis sakontrolo funqciis Sesafaseblad, aRmovaCenT, rom komitetisa da misi wevrebis mier inicirebul kanonproeqtebis raodenobasa 129

(27) da im kanonproeqtebis raodenobasTan mimarTebaSi, romelzedac komiteti iyo wamyvani an/da savaldebulo daskvnis avtori (53), parlamentis mier miRebul gadawyvetilebaze Sesrulebis kontroli, sakmaod STambeWdavad gamoiyureba (251).8 msgavsi tendencia SeimCneva sxva komitetebTan mimarTebaSic. Sesabamisad, ikveTeba sazedamxedvelo saqmianobis ugulebelyofa `kontrolisa da balansis~ sistemis mxolod kontrolis funqciamde dayvana da fokus-jgufis Sedegebis mixedviT, sazedamxedvelo funqciis ganxorcieleba miCneulia rogorc saparlamento saqmianobis yvelaze susti rgoli. aRniSnulis axsna sxvadaxva aqtoris mier sxvadasxvanairad xdeba: Tavad parlamentis aparatis warmomadgenlebis azriT, sazedamxedvelo funqcia gamoieyeneba araregularulad da damokidebulia Tavad sakiTxis simwvaveze.im SemTxvevaSi, Tuki is farTo sazogadoebriv interess imsaxurebs, saparlamento kontrolis ganxorcieleba farTo sazogadoebrivi ganxilvis sagani xdeba. Tumca, rigi sakiTxebi, romelic sazedamxedvelo saqmianobis farglebSi xorcieldeba, respodentebis azriT, naklebi simwvavis gamo, mediis, Sesabamisad, sazogadoebis yuradRebis arealSi naklebad xvdeba. arasamTavrobo organizaciebis warmomadgenlebi sazedamxedvelo funqciis naklebad gamoyenebas ukavSireben Tavad parlamentis rogorc institutis sisustes. aseve aRiareben iseTi faqtorebis zegavlenas, rogoricaa zedamxedvelobisa da kontrolis gansaxorcieleblad saWiro resursebis, gamocdilebisa da saWiro unarCvevebis nakleboba. mmarTveli partiis saparlamento upiratesobis pirobebSi, maTi azriT, parlamenti aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis mier SemoTavazebuli sakanonmdeblo inicitivebis formaluri damamtkiceblis rolSi gamodis da masze realuri zedamxedvelobis gawevis saSualebebs ar flobs. 130

Tavad parlamentarebi naklebad saubroben msgavs problemaze da acxadeben, rom dRes saqarTvelos parlamentis mier sazedamxedvelo funqcia gacilebiT aqtiurad gamoiyeneba, vidre es erTi SexediT SeiZleba Candes. maTi SefasebiT, sazedamxedvelo funqciis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, imis gamo, rom sazogadoebas ar Seeqmnas mcdari warmodgena mmarTveli partiis gundSi arsebul konfliqtsa da ganxeTqilebaze, mizanmimarTulad Tavs arideben, rom moxdes, aseTi SemTxvevebis sazogadoebisTvis miwodeba da gaxmaureba. maTi, SefasebiT, swored amis gamo iqmneba sazedamxedvelo funqciis naklebad gamoyenebaze “mcdari warmodgena”. daskvna safrTxeebi, romelic SesaZlebelia dafiqsirdes saparlamento saqmianobis samive mimarTulebiT da romelic mniSvnelovan winaaRmdegobas qmnis momavalSi saparlamento demokratiis Camosayalibeblad Sejamebuli saxiT Semdegnairad SeiZleba dafiqsirdes: warmomadgelobiTi funqciis TvalsazrisiT mniSvnelovania is, rom amomarCevelTa konkretuli jgufebi, da es, pirvel rigSi partiul politikur speqtrs, eTnikur umciresobasa da qalTa warmomadgenlobas exeba, ar aris proporciulad warmodgenili parlamentSi. aseve, igrZnoba sazogadoebrivi ndobis nakleboba, iseve rogorc ikveTeba saparlamento opoziciis limitirebuli SesaZleblobebi partiuli instituciebis sisustis gamo. sakanonmdeblo funqciis TvalsazrisiT safrTxeebad SeiZleba aRviqvaT, parlamentis mxridan iniciativebis nakleboba, kanonmdeblobis, maT Soris konstituciis xSiri cvla. rac Seexeba sazedamxedvelo funqcias, am mxriv gansakuTrebul safrTxed unda ganixilebodes kontrolisa da balansis sistemis sisuste, romlis pirobebSic saqarTve131

los saparlamento organo ver asrulebs aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis sapirwone instituciis funqcias. aqve SesaZlebelia aRiniSnos saparlamento aparatis erTpartiul garemoSi politikuri neitralitetis Sesustebis safrTxe da parlamentSi politikuri cvlilebebis ganxorcielebis mzadyofnis nakleboba. gamoyenebuli da citirebuli literatura: 1. kavkasiis kvleviTi resursebis centri. _ 20072009 wlebis Sejamebuli angariSi 2. nana sumbaZe, saqarTvelo agvistos omamde da omis Semdeg. sazogadoebrivi azris gamokiTxvis Sedegebi: barometri 2007 da 2008. Tbilisi 2009, sazogadoebrivi politikis instituti. gv.26. 3. sxvadasxva qveyanaSi eTnikuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebisaTvis dawesebulia kvotebi, Seqmnilia gansakuTrebuli garantiebi an wesdeba SeRavaTebi maTi warmomadgenlebis saparlamento organoSi mosaxvedrad. rumineTsa da slovakeTSi dawesebulia SeRavaTebi umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebisTvis. maSin, roca serbeTsa da poloneTSi warmomadgenlobiTobis uzrunvelsayofad dawesebuli meqanizmi mdgomareobs imaSi, rom orive qveyanaSi arsebuli xuTprocentiani saarCevno barieri ar vrceldeba umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebze. xorvatiasa da montenegroSi umciresobebisaTvis SeTavazebulia pozitiuri diskriminaciis forma da orive saparlamento organoSi gamoyofilia saparlamento mandatebis garkveuli raodenobas pecialurad eTnikuri umciresobebisaTvis. 4. cxrili Sedgenilia saqarTvelos centraluri saarCevno komisiis monacemebzedayrdnobiT. masSi araa mocemuli zogierTi wlis monacemi imis ga132

mo, rom oficialuri statistika saqarTvelos centraluri saarCevno komisias ar hqonia warmodgenili. 5. gaerTianebul samefoSi xelisufleba, xSirad (magram, arayovelTvis) adgens da akontrolebs parlamentis dRis wesrigs, magram amJamad aqtiurad mimdinareobs debatebi cvlilebis ganxorcielebis Taobaze, rac ganixileba rogorc parlamentis gaZlierebis saSualeba. 6. parlamentis sakontrolo meqanizmebidan, saqarTvelos parlamentis reglamentis mixedviT, gamoiyeneba: impiCmentis wesi; informaciis gamoTxovisufleba _ parlamentis plenaruli sxdomismier daniSnul momxsenebels ufleba aqvs administraciuli organosagan gamoiTxovos da miiRos nebismieri informacia (maT Soris, konfidencialuri) da nebismier sakiTxze axsna-ganmarteba; peticia _ peticia aris pirTa jgufis werilobiTi mimarTva, romelic Seexeba saxelmwifoebriv da saerTo problemebidan gamomdinare sakiTxebs; specialuri jgufi _ parlamentis Tavmjdomarem sakuTari iniciativiT an Sesabamisi komitetis wardginebiT SeiZleba Seqmnas sakiTxis Semswavleli specialuri jgufi; moqalaqeTa miReba; parlamentis wevris kiTxva, parlamentis wevrTa aTkaciani jgufisa da fraqciis SekiTxva; samTavrobo saaTi – yoveliTvis plenaruli sxdomis bolo xuTSabaTi; saqarTvelos kontrolis palata; saqarTvelos saxalxo damcveli; 7. saqarTvelos parlamentis reglamenti.  http://www.parliament.ge/_special/kan/files/339.pdf 
8. saproceduro sakiTxTa dawesebis komitetis 2004-2007 wlebis sakanonmdeblo saqmianobis statistika. http://www.parliament.ge/files/1276_20114_521503_shesacvleli -daijesti1.pdf 

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Abstract Problems of Parliamentary Democracy in Georgia Nana Macharashvili - PhD in Political Science, Associate Professor of the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences of TSU. For the newly developed democracies like Georgia problems regarding the parliamentary democracy are quite relevant. From the critical point of view the most essential problem is the limited possibilities and implementation of the oversight function of the Parliament. The problem itself is determined by the institutional subordination of the Parliament to the Executive branch and the real absence of the check and balance system in Georgia. The article also analysis the problems concerning the other functions of the Parliament on the basis of the semi-structural interviews of the MPs and representatives of non governmental sector, as well as the results of the focus group of the parliamentary staff members. The statistics of the Parliamentary activities indicates that the oversight function is fully simplified to the controlling of the parliamentary decisions. The semi-structural interviews as well as focus group discussions present several determinants of the limited possibilities for oversight in the Parliament of Georgia.

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moralis ganviTarebis Teoriebi: piaJedan neokolbergianelebamde
naTia mestviriSvili socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti, fsiqologiis mimarTuleba, doqtoranti. moraluri ganviTarebis sakiTxi ar gamoirCeva mravalricxovani Teoriuli midgomebiT, rac fenomenis sirTulesa da misi Seswavlis meTodebis naklebobaze miuTiTebs. amasTan erTad, moraluri ganviTareba dRemde rCeba rTul da urTierTsawinaaRmdego mosazrebebiT gamoirCeul sakiTxad fsiqologiaSi. moralis ganviTarebis mecnieruli Seswavla dakavSirebulia Sveicarieli mecnieris Jan piaJes saxelTan, romelmac gasuli saukunis 30-iani wlebis dasawyisSi moralis ganviTarebis sakuTari Teoria warmoadgina. Jan piaJe im fsiqologTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, romelTa naSromebic dRemde rCeba moraluri ganviTarebis Tanamedrove TeoriebisTvis mniSvnelovan orientirad.piaJem morali gansazRvra, rogorc socialuri normebis pativiscema da individSi arsebuli samarTlianobis grZnoba, romelic gulisxmobs zrunvas adamianTa Soris Tanasworobaze. piaJes mixedviT, individebi samyaros Sesaxeb codnas iZenen da gardaqmnian garemosTan urTierTobis Sedegad. Jan piaJe cdilobda moraluri gansjis ganviTarebis dakavSirebas bavSvis zogad kognitur ganviTarebasTan.piaJes azriT, imis mixedviT, Tu kognituri zrdis romel stadiaze imyofeba bavSvi, is sxvadasxva wonas aniWebs moqmedebis Sedegs da moqmedi piris ganzraxvas. piaJe gamoyofs moraluri ganviTarebis or stadias. moraluri msjeloba iwyeba heteronomiuli safexuriT, 135

rac xasiaTdeba wesebisa da movaleobebis zusti SesrulebiT da avtoritetisadmi morCilebiT. heteronomiulobas gansazRvravs ori faqtori: 1. bavSvis kognituri struqtura _ piaJes mixedviT, bavSvis azrovneba egocentrulobiT, anu bavSvis mier sxva adamianis Sexedulebis gaziarebis uunarobiT xasiaTdeba. egocentruloba ganapirobebs bavSvis mier sakuTari azrebisa da survilebis sxva adamianebze proeqcias. bavSvebisTvis ufro mniSvnelovania moqmedebis Sedegi, vidre ganzraxva da maT aqvT molodini, rom cud saqciels dauyovnebliv mohyveba dasja. 2. bavSvebis socialuri urTierTobebi mozrdilebTan _ mozrdilsa da bavSvs Soris bunebriv urTierTobaSi meti Zalaufleba mozrdilebs aqvT. patara bavSvebSi Zalauflebis arqona, ususuroba bavSvur egocentrizmTan erTad qmnis heteronomiul moralur orientacias. Tumca, sxva bavSvebTan urTierTobis fonze, rodesac jgufi cdilobs Seqmnas iseTi TamaSis wesebi, romelic yvelasTvis misaRebi iqneba, wesebisadmi aseTi morCileba problematuri xdeba. bavSvebi TandaTan moraluri msjelobis avtonomiur safexurze gadadian, romelic xasiaTdeba wesebisadmi kritikuli damokidebulebiT. isini acnobiereben, rom wesebi iqmneba adamianTa Soris urTierTSeTanxmebis safuZvelze da aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi maTi Secvla SesaZlebelia. bavSvebi iZenen unars, es wesebi SerCeviTad gamoiyenon urTierTpativiscemisa da urTierTTanamSromlobis gaTvaliswinebiT. am unaris amoqmedeba iwyeba reciprokulobisa da ormxrivi pativiscemis safuZvelze bavSvis zrdasTan erTad, moqmedi piris ganzraxvebi ufro mets iwonis moralurobis Sesaxeb miseul gansjaSi. kognituri unarebis ganviTarebasTan erTad bavSvebs uviTardebaT imis unari, rom yuradReba miaqci136

on ara mxolod Sedegebs, aramed ganixilon orive _ Sedegebica da ganzraxvebic. 80-ian wlebSi lorens kolbergma ganavrco piaJes mier SemuSavebuli moralis ganviTarebis stadiebi. kvlevis safuZvelze, man moraluri msjelobis 6 safexuri gamoyo, romlebic 3 stadiad gaaerTiana. yoveli safexuri moralis sakiTxebisadmi xarisxobrivad gansxvavebul msjelobebs asaxavs. prekonvencionaluri stadia ZiriTadad bavSvebisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. am stadiaze myofi adamiani qcevis zneobriobis Sesaxeb uSualod qcevis Sedegebidan gamomdinare msjelobs. konvencionaluri stadia zogadad mozardebisa da mozrdilebisaTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli. am stadiaze myofi individebi qcevis zneobrivobaze imis mixedviT msjeloben, Tu ramdenad Seefereba es qceva sazogadoebriv Sexedulebebsa da molodinebs. postkonvencionalur stadiaze individis perspeqtiva ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre sazogadoeba. miuxedavad imisa, rom individebis moraluri msjeloba wesebisa da normebis principebs eyrdnoba, isini uaryofen am wesebisa da normebis erTgvarovan gamoyenebas. pirveli safexuri _ orientacia dasjis aridebasa da morCilebaze _ fokusirebulia wesis darRvevis da dasjis Tavidan aridebaze. adamiani cdilobs aicilos dasja da miaCnia, rom vinc Zlieria, marTalic is aris. es safexuri piaJes mier gamoyofili pirveli safexuris msgavsad egocentrizmiT xasiaTdeba. meore safexurze, romelsac hedonisturs an instrumentul-relativisturs uwodeben, Cndeba moraluri reciprokuloba. es safexuri orientirebulia qcevis pragmatul Rirebulebaze. moralur qcevas piradi interesebi gansazRvravs. am safexurze myofi adamiani cdi137

lobs jer sakuTari survilebi daikmayofilos da mere sxvebis interesebzec ifiqros. ,,sxvebis’’ mimarT interesi izrdeba, Tumca amas safuZvlad udevs pragmatuloba da ara samarTlianoba an loialoba. mesame safexuria interpersonaluri SeTanxmeba, rodesac qcevis moralurobas gansazRvravs sxva adamianis molodinebi da stereotipuli rolebi. am safexurze myofi adamiani cdilobs gaamarTlos sxvaTa molodinebi, raTa kargi gamoCndes maT da sakuTar TvalSi, da qcevis Sesaxeb moqmedi piris ganzraxvis gaTvaliswinebiT msjelobs. meoTxe safexuri xasiaTdeba sazogadoebaze da socialuri wesrigis SenarCunebaze orientaciiT. qcevis sisworis Sesaxeb msjeloba xdeba im im wesebisa da normebis terminebSi, romlebic dadgenilia farTo socialuri sistemis mier. individi msjelobs sazogadoebis wevris poziciidan gamomdinare da swor qcevad arsebuli socialuri sistemis dacvas miiCnevs. mexuTe safexurze myofi adamiani acnobierebs, rom wesebi mxolod socialuri SeTanxmebaa da maTi darRveva SesaZlebelia situaciis mixedviT _ iseT SemTxvevebSi, Tu isini samarTlianobas da sayovelTao keTildReobas ar emsaxurebian. Tumca, arsebobs iseTi ZiriTadi da gardauvali wesebi, rogoricaa sicocxlis dacva da Tavisuflebis mxardaWera, romlebic nebismier situaciaSi daculi unda iqnas. adamians uyalibdeba sakuTari Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra aris swori da ra _ araswori, da upirveles yovlisa, am Sexedulebis da ara _ arsebuli kanonebisa da wesebis Sesabamisad moqmedebs. meeqvse safexuri gamoirCeva universalur eTikur principebze orientaciiT, romlebic ufro farTo da abstraqtulia, vidre moraluri principebi. adamiani Tavis Tavs igive moTxovnebs uyenebs, rasac sxvebs, da 138

aRiarebs adamianTa Tanasworobas. adamianebi iSviaT SemTxvevebSi Tu aRweven am safexurs. realurad, mxolod pirvel xuT safexurTan dakavSirebiT arsebobs Sesabamisi empiriuli monacemebi. Tavad kolbergis bolodroindel kvlevebSic mexuTe-meeqvse safexurebi gaerTianebulia da, Sesabamisad, saubaria xuTsafexurian modelze. kolbergis Teoriis Tanaxmad, morali viTardeba ucvleli TanmimdevrobiT, Tumca yvelam SeiZleba verc miaRwios moralis ganviTarebis umaRles safexurs inteleqtualuri stimulaciis naklebobis gamo (Crain, 1985). realurad, rogorc aRiniSna, mxolod pirvelma xuTma safexurma moipova arsebobis damadasturebeli empiriuli monacemebi. Tumca, kroskulturulma kvlevebma daadastura kolbergis stadiebis Tanamimdevrobis universaluroba. kolbergis Teoria dafuZnebuli iyo mamakac cdispirTa monacemebze da Sesabamisad, mxolod maT Sexedulebebs asaxavda. kolbergis Teoriis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli erT-erTi mZafri kritika swored am sakiTxs exeboda. Tumca, amasTanave gamoikveTa sqesis, rogorc erT-erTi kritikuli faqtoris mniSvneloba individTa moraluri principebis gansazRvrisas kolbergis Teoriis safuZvelze Catarebuli kvlevebis Sedegebis Tanaxmad, qalebTan moraluri ganviTarebis ufro dabali done vlindeba, vidre mamakacebTan. kerol giliganma (1982) am faqtis asaxsnelad wamoayena sakuTari Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac, mamakacebi qcevis moralurobaze wesebsa da abstraqtul principebze dayrdnobiT msjeloben. qalebs ki ufro metad zrunvaze orientirebuli morali axasiaTebT, romelic emyareba pirovnebaTaSoris urTierTobebs da ara wesebs. Sedegad, qalebi da mamakacebi gansxvavebul qulebs iReben moralur dilemebze msjelobisas _ qalebi, rogorc 139

wesi, mesame safexurze arian, xolo mamakacebi _ meoTxe da mexuTe safexurebze. giligani moralur msjelobaSi arsebul sqesTaSoris gansxvavebebs aRzrdas ukavSirebs. rogorc wesi, biWebs adreuli bavSvobidan aswavlian damoukideblobas, gogonebs ki sxvebis mimarT yuradRebasa da mzrunvelobas aCveven. Tumca, giligani ar uaryofda, rom qalebic da mamakacebic SeiZleba amJRavnebdnen sapirispiro sqesisaTvis damaxasiaTebel moralur msjelobebs (Crain, 1985). 90-ian wlebSi, eliot turielma gaakritika kolbergi da wamoayena sferos Teoria (domain theory), romlis mixedviTac, morali da konvencia ori erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebuli sferoa da ara erTi mTliani sistema, rogorc es kolbergs miaCnda. turieli erTmaneTisagan ganasxvavebs da cal-calke ganixilavs moralur koncefciebs da socialur konvenciebs anu socialur SeTanxmebas. misi azriT, es dakavSirebulia ori socialuri movlenis or sxvadasxva klasTan. moraluri koncefcia fokusirebulia im efeqtebze, romlebic konkretul qcevas aqvs an SeiZleba hqondes meore adamianis keTildReobaze. magaliTad, iseT qcevas, rogoricaa vinmesTvis uneblie zianis miyeneba, arsebiTi gavlena aqvs adamianis keTildReobaze da es gavlena arsebobs socialuri wesebis da wyobis miuxedavad. socialuri konvencia ki iseT qmedebebs exeba, romlebsac aranairi interpersonaluri Sedegebi ar moyveba. magaliTad, mimarTav adamians saxeliT Tu ,,qalbatono”-s an ,,batono’-s uwodeb, amas aranairi mniSvnelovani gavlena ar eqneba adamianebis keTildReobaze. is, Tu mimarTvis romeli formaa ukeTesi, ganisazRvreba da regulirdeba garkveul wesebze socialuri SeTanxmebiT (Crain, 1985). 140

kolbergTan dakavSirebuli kritikis sapasuxod jeims restma da misma kolegebma aiRes kolbergis Teoriis ZiriTadi ideebi, romlebsac sakuTari ideebi daumates da Seqmnes moraluri ganviTarebis sakuTari midgoma, romelsac neokolbergianuli midgoma uwodes. neokolbergianuli midgomis warmomadgenlebi eyrdnobian moraluri qcevis oTxkomponentian models. restis oTxkomponentiani modelis Tanaxmad, moralis ganviTarebaSi gamoiyofa moraluri qcevis oTxi fsiqologiuri procesi: moraluri yuradReba, moraluri msjeloba, moraluri motivacia da moraluri Rirseba. moraluri yuradReba gulisxmobs unars Seicno moraluri situacia. moraluri msjeloba gulisxmobs gadawyvetilebis miRebas moralurad swori da araswori qcevis Sesaxeb. moraluri motivacia aris Sinagani survili moiqce moraluri standartebis Sesabamisad. moraluri Rirseba gulisxmobs moralurad swori qcevis ganxorcielebis pirovnul gansazRvras maSinac ki, Tu sruliad Sesaferisi iqneba moralis TvalsazrisiT araswori qcevis ganxorcieleba (Sabin, 2006). kolbergis midgomis msgavsad, neokolbergianuli midgomisaTvisac damaxasiaTebelia Semdegi: 1. amosaval wertilad miCneulia kognicia; 2. xazs usvams ZiriTadi epistemologiuri kategoriebis (mag.: uflebebi, movaleoba. samarTali, socialuri wyoba, reciprokuloba) pirovnul konstruqcias. es ar gamoricxavs kulturuli ideologiis wvlils, Tumca, neokolbergianuli midgoma ufro fokusirebulia individualur socialur gamocdilebaze. 3. cvlilebas ganixilavs, rogorc ganviTarebas anu SesaZlebelia visaubroT ara mxolod gansxvavebebze moralur orientaciaSi, aramed kognitur upiratesobazec, sadac ,,maRali ufro ukeTesia” filosofiuri da normatiul-eTikuri gagebiT. 4. mozardebisa da 141

mozrdilebis ganviTarebas ganixilavs, rogorc pirobiTidan principul moralur azrovnebaze gadasvlas. neokolbergianuli midgomis warmomadgenlebis Tvalsazrisi moraluri msjelobebis kognituri struqturebis Sesaxeb kolbergiseulisgan Semdegi xuTi niSniT gansxvavdeba: 1. neokolbergianuli midgomis Tanaxmad, ganviTareba aris gamoyenebis sixSiris cvlileba, romelic naklebad kompleqsuridan ufro kompleqsuri xdeba. kolbergisgan gansxvavebiT, romelic ganviTarebas safexurebze asvlis terminebSi ganixilavda, neokolbergianelebi gaviTarebas ganixilaven, rogorc cvlilebas martividan rTulisaken. 2. neokolbergianuli midgomis Semqmnelebi moraluri safexurebis nacvlad iyeneben termins moraluri sqemebi. moraluri sqemebi SegviZlia ganvixiloT, rogorc codnis ZiriTadi struqturebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba socialur kooperaciaSi. moraluri sqemebi yalibdeba socialuri urTierTobebidan miRebuli gamocdilebis safuZvelze da sazogadoebaSi arsebuli institutebis da roluri-sistemebis koncefciebia. 3. kolbergis sapirispirod, romelic cdilobda ,,msjelobis operaciebis”, moraluri azrovnebis operaciebis Seswavlas, neokolbergianuli midgoma orientirebulia operaciebis Sinaarsobrivi Sedegebis Seswavlaze da ara kognituri operaciebis gazomvaze. kogniturma kvlevebma aCvena, rom Cven viciT Cveni fsiqikis mxolod Sinaarsi da ara is, rac qmnis am Sinaarss (Rest, Narvaez, Bebeau, & Thoma, 1999., Swisher, Rizzo, & Marley, 2000). 4. kolbergma Tavisi safexurebis erT-erT maxasiaTeblad universaluroba gamoacxada. Tumca, neokolbergianelebi emxrobian moralis Tanamedrove filosofosebis Sexedulebas, romlis mixedviTac, morali aris socialuri konstruqcia, romelic gamomdinareobs sazogado142

ebis gamocdilebidan, kerZo institucionaluri wyobidan, msjelobebidan da SeTanxmebebidan, romelsac sazogadoeba uWers mxars. zogadi morali SeiZleba gansxvavdebodes (an msgavsi iyos) sxvadasxva sazogadoebisTvis. 5. moraluri msjelobebis intervius nacvlad, romelic cdis pirebisagan moiTxovda dilemebis gadaWrasa da maT mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis axsnas, neokolbergianuli midgomis warmomadgenlebi moraluri msjelobebis Sefasebisas upiratesobas aniWeben mravlobiTi arCevanis tests da amas im mosazrebiT xsnian, rom adamianebs SeuZliaT gadmoscen TavianTi kogniciis produqti, magram ar SeuZliaT gadmoscen is fsiqikuri operaciebi, romlebic gamoiyenes am produqtis misaRwevad. 2002 wels moraluri msjelobis unaris kolbergiseul ganmartebaze dayrdnobiT jorj lindma wamoayena organzomilebiani Teoria, romlis mixedviTac, moraluri qceva ganisazRvreba, rogorc ori ganuyofeli, Tumca gansxvavebuli aspeqtis mqone qmedeba. es aspeqtebia: 1. pirovnebis afeqturi damokidebuleba konkretuli moraluri idealebisa da principebisadmi da 2. idealebisa da principebis Sesatyvisad msjelobis/ qmedebis unari. mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi miiCneoda, rom pirovneba moraluria im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is kargad asrulebs sazogadoebis mier dadgenil qcevis wesebs an aqvs moralurad gamarTlebuli ganzraxvebi. moraluri qceva mTlianad ganixileboda afeqtur sferoSi, romelsac SemecnebasTan da unarebTan aranairi kavSiri ar hqonda. 1912 wels germanelma fsiqiatrma maqs veli-sulma aRmoaCina, rom moraluri damokidebulebebi da Rirebulebebi ver winaswarmetyveleben arasrulwlovanTa damnaSaveobas. rodesac man gamokiTxa damnaSave da udanaSaulo axalgazrdebi moparvis Sesaxeb, aRmoCnda, rom 143

orive jgufi msgavsad gmobda moparvas. mogvianebiT, empiriulad dadasturda, rom altruistuli damokidebulebebi da ganzraxvebi TiTqmis ar iyo dakavSirebuli altruistul qcevasTan (Darley &Latane , 1968; Krebs, 1982). organzomilebiani Teoria aerTianebs samive _ afeqtur, kognitur da qceviT aspeqts da ar ganixilavs maT gancalkevebul komponentebad, romelTa dakvirveba da gazomvac izolirebulad SeiZleba. moraluri idealebi warmarTavs moralur qcevas, Tumca imisTvis, rom qceva iyos moralurad myari, mas sWirdeba ganviTarebuli msjelobis unarebi. amasTan, am modelis Tanaxmad, moraluri principebi da unarebi araa gancalkevebuli erTmaneTisgan, ubralod isini qcevis 2 sxvadasxva aspeqtia. radgan ar arsebobda instrumenti, romelic erTdroulad, Tumca gancalkevebulad, gazomavda individis moraluri msjelobis unars da mis moralur damokidebulebebs, lindma Seqmna moraluri msjelobis testi. es testi SesaZlebels xdis individis moralur principebze dayrdnobiT moraluri problemis mimarT pro- da kontrargumentebis gansjis unaris Sefasebas, miuxedavad misi poziciisa ama Tu im konkretul moralur problemasTan dakavSirebiT. amasTan, sxva instrumentebis msgavsad, igi zomavs individis damokidebulebebs kolbergis eqvsi safexuris mixedviT. moraluri msjelobis Sesaxeb arsebul uaxles TeoriebSi kognicia da ZiriTadi epistemologiuri kategoriebi (uflebebi, movaleobebi, samarTali, socialuri wyoba, reciprokuloba) kvlav amosaval wertilad rCeba. moraluri ganviTarebis sferoSi arsebuli Tanamedrove kvlevebi ufro metad aqcents individualuri gamocdilebis mniSvnelobaze akeTeben, vidre kulturologiuri ideologiis gavlenaze, amave dros aRiareben, rom mora144

luri msjelobis Sefaseba SesaZlebelia ara mxolod cvlilebis, aramed ganviTarebis koteqstSi. Abstract Natia Mestvirishvili–PhD student of the Faculty of Social and

Political Sciences of TSU.
The following paper represents a review of moral development models discussed in a chronological order based on empirical and theoretical literature. It includes moral development theory of Jean Piaget, Laurence Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, Carol Gilligan’s gender theory James Rest’s 4 stages component model of moral George Lind’s Dual-aspect theory of moral behavior and development, Elliot Turiel’s Domain theory. The review shows that in the modern theories about moral development starting point emphasizes cognition and main epistemological categories (duties, rights, justice, social order, reciprocity) and the studies in the sphere of moral development are focused rather on the importance of individual experience, than on the influence of cultural ideology. gamoyenebulida citirebuli literatura: 1. aruTinovi, b., baliaSvili, m., kekelia, m. - moraluri msjelobis ZiriTadi orientirebi qarTvelebTan 2. Crain, W.C., (1985) Theories of development. Prentice-Hall. 118-136. 3. G. Lind (2008). The meaning and measurement of moral judgment competence. Published in Fasko, Daniel, Jr. & Willis, Wayne, ads. Contemporary Philosophical and Psychological perspectives on moral development and education, pp. 185-220. Creskill, Hampton press. 145

4. GilliganCarol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. 5. Narvaez, D., & Bock, T. (2002). Moral schemas and tacit judjment or how the defining issues test is supported by cognitive science. Journal of moral education, Vol.3, No.3, 297312. 6. Rest, J., Narvaez, D., Thoma, S., Bebeau M., Murial, J. (2000). A neo-kolbergian approach to morality research. Journal of moral education, Vol.29, No.4, 381-395. 7. Rest, J., Narvaez, D., Thoma, S., Bebeau M. (1999). A NeoKohlbergian approach: The DIT and the Schema theory. Educational psychology review, Vol.11, N0. 4. pp. 291-324 8. www.wikipedia.org. 9. www.tiger.edu

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postsabWoTa identoba Savi zRvis auzis qveynebis diskursSi
nino popiaSvili humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakulteti, filologiis doqtori sabWouri mentaloba da sazogadoebrivi cxovreba ar icnobda Savi zRvis auzis qveynebis erTiani identobis sakiTxs. iseve rogorc Savi zRvis auzis sxva qveynebSi, sabWoTa saqarTveloSic Zalze cota iyo cnobili Savi zRvis auzis qveynebisa da im maxlobeli qveynebis Sesaxeb, romlebTan dakavSirebac Savi zRvis saSualebiT iyo SesaZlebeli. aseve saqarTvelos, rogorc am auzis kulturuli nawilis Tavisi adgilis Sesaxeb. saqarTvelos identobis gansazRvrisaTvis mniSvnelovania Savi zRvis qveynebis kulturul-istoriuli urTierTobebis istoria. civi omis dasrulebis Semdeg, yofili sabWoTa kavSiris teritoriaze mcxovrebi erebi Tu eTnikuri jgufebi identobis krizisma moicva. am periodidan iwyeba warsulisken, sakuTari eTnikuri da kulturuli fesvebisken mibrunebis Seuqcevadi procesi. urTulesi problemebis winaSe aRmoCndnen mraval eTnikuri saxelmwifoebi, sadac konfliqturi mexsierebebis formirebam da istoriis gansxvavebulma interpretaciam eTnopolitikuri dapirispirebebis aRmocenebas Seuwyo xeli. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeva saqarTvelo, sadac postsabWoTa periodis dasawyisSi warmoqmnili problemebi dResac gadauWrelia. gamomdinare zemoTqmulidan, identobis, mexsierebisa da istoriis kompleqsuri kvleva prioritetul mniSvnelobas iZens.

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Savi zRva, rogorc urTierTobebis istoria da rogorc kulturaTa, religiaTa da erebis Tanamedrove urTierToba mravalmxriv mniSvnelovania postsabWoTa identobisaTvis.garda sakuTriv istoriuli urTierTobebisa, aqtualuri gaxda Savi zRvis qveynebis Tanamedrove, anu axali da uaxlesi urTierTobebi, rac mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba warsuli kavSirisagan da qmnis sruliad axali tipis urTierTobebis perspeqtivas. mcire erebis TviTidentifikaciisa da kulturuli identobisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs am erebis kulturul sivrcesa da kulturul-geografiul garemos. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg yofilma socialisturma respublikebma arseboba ganagrZes, rogorc damoukidebelma qveynebma. isini cdilobdnen sakuTari TavisaTvis da aseve msofliosaTvis daemtkicebinaT is gansakuTrebuli da gamorCeuli, romliTac es qveynebi erTmaneTisagan uTuod gansxvavdebodnen, magram sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis pirobebSi am gansxvavebis demonstrireba SeuZlebeli iyo. garda TviTmyofadobisa da sakuTari gansxvavebulobis Cvenebisa, saWiro gaxda dasavleTTan im istoriuli saerTos moZieba da gaxseneba, rac sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis wlebSi srulilad miviwyebuli iyo. bunebrivia, am kuTxiT Savi zRva istoriul-kulturuli identobis mTavari orientiri gaxda. aRsaniSnavia, rom Savi zRvis regioni, rogorc erTiani politikuri da ekonomikuri sivrce istoriulad ar arsebobda, TumcaRa civi omis dasrulebam rasac Sedegad natosa da evrokavSiris aRmosavleTis mimarTulebis gafarToeba moyva, bunebrivad Seqmna regionuli TanamSromlobisa da saerTo regionuli identurobis ganviTarebis aucilebloba. usafrTxoebis axalma garemom regioni axali realobis winaSe daayena. terorizmis winaaRmdeg globalu148

ri omis dawyebam, kaspiis da centraluri aziis energetikuli resursebis dasavleTisaken gzis gaxsnam, evrokavSirisa da natos gafarToebam regions satrazito derefnis funqcia SesZina da Savi zRva evropul zRvad gadaaqcia. am regionis saSualebiT saqarTvelo axdens sakuTari evropuli identurobis demonstrirebas daevro-atlantikuri miswrafebebis ganxorcielebas. saqarTvelo aqtiurad monawileobs regionuli TanamSromlobis or ekonomikur formatSi: Savi zRvis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis organizacia BSEC (Black Sea economic Coorperation), demokratiisa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis organizacia _ suami, (saqarTvelo, ukraina, azerbaijani da moldova). 1992 wlis 25 ivniss Savi zRvis auzis 11 qveynis: albaneTi, somxeTi, azerbaijani, bulgareTi, saqarTvelo, saberZneTi, moldova, rumineTi, ruseTis federacia, TurqeTi da ukraina, (serbeTi SeuerTda 2004 wlidan) saxelmwifo da mTavrobaTa meTaurebma bosforis gancxadebis miRebiTa da stambolis protokolis deklaraciis xelmoweriT Seqmnes Savi zRvis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis organizacia (BSEC), romelsac safuZvlad daedo saerTaSoriso samarTlis sxva sayovelTaod aRiarebuli principebi, romlebic dafiqsirebulni arian gaeros qartiaSi, helsinkis daskvniT aqtSi, evropis usafrTxoebisa da TanamSromlobis organizaciis Tu sxva Sesabamis dokumentebSi. Savi zRvis auzis qveynebis winaSe erTi da imave saxis problemebi dgas: usafrTxoeba, demokratiis konsolidacia, liberaluri Rirebulebebis danergva, evroatlantikur struqturebSi integracia, rac saWiros xdis erTobliv Zalisxmevas. magram garda am saerTo interesebisa, arsebobs aseve saerTo kulturuli memkvid-

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reoba, romlis reaqtivacia cxels Seuwyobs erTiani regionuli sivrcis Camoyalibebas. postsabWoTa identobisaTvis saqarTvelos, rogorc damoukidebloba mopovebul qveyanas Savi zRvis regionalur identobas kidev erTi damatebiTi maxasiaTebeli da Rirebuleba hqonda. swored Savi zRva gaxda is kulturul-geografiuli orientiri, romlis mixedviTac saqarTvelo. rogorc aRmosavleT evropis qveyana, Tavisi kulturuli ganviTarebiT evropuli da zogadad, dasavluri azrovnebis konteqstSi moiazreba. mniSvnelovani faqtori evropis kavSirSi gasawevrianeblad geopolitikuri mdgomareobacaa. saqarTvelo, rogorc samxreT kavkasiis qveyana, regionalur konteqstSi moiazreba, rogorc or mezobel da dapirispirebul qveynebs Soris (azerbaijani, somxeTi), umTavresi da mniSvnelovani partniori. samxreT kavkasiis erTian regionad Camoyalibeba iseTi saxiT, rogorc es moxda balkaneTsa da aRmosavleT evropaSi, TiTqmis warmoudgenelia. evropis politikis kvlevis centris mier wamoyenebuli idea "samxreT kavkasiis sazogadoebis" Camoyalibebis Taobaze praqtikulad ganuxorcielebelia, radgan saqarTvelos, azerbaijansa da somxeTs sakmaod gansxvavebuli politikuri kultura, ganviTarebis sxvadasxva saxis samoqalaqo sazogadoeba da demokratiulobis araerTgvarovani done gaaCniaT. samxreT kavkasiis qveynebs aseve mkveTrad gansxvavebuli sagareo politikuri orientacia aqvT aRebuli, rac, Tu ar gamoricxavs, praqtikulad SeuZlebels xdis politikuri gaerTianebis Seqmnas. Tundac is faqti, rom saqarTvelosgan gansxvavebiT somxeTi dsT-s Tavdacvis paqtSi Sedis, naTlad aCvenebs msgavsi gegmis utopiurobas, Tumca, baltiispireTis sam qveyanasa da samxreT kavkasiis sam qveyanas Soris 2005 wels dadebuli megobrobisa da TanamSromlobis 150

xelSekruleba 3+3 axal perspeqtivebs usaxavs saqarTvelos evrintegraciisaken regionalur WrilSi. Tanamedrove samyaroSi sruli damoukidebloba aRar arsebobs. arsebobs damoukideblobisaken swrafva. sabWoTa kavSiris daSla, masSi Semavali subieqtebis Tavisuflebisadmi wyurvilis gamo moxda, magram ara damoukideblobis gansakuTrebuli aucileblobiT. misi daSlis procesi swored imis gamo daiwyo, rom sadRac sxvagan arsebobdnen sistemebi, romlebmac Tavisuflebis maRali xarisxis uzrunvelyofa SeZles. maTi gavlena da maTi mizidulobis Zala bevrad ufro Zlieri aRmoCnda, vidre is administraciuli sistema, romelic rkinis xeliT marTavda aRmosavleT evropisa da aziis kontinentur sivrces. evropuli integracia TavisTavad akninebs eri-saxelmwifoebis damoukideblobas, maT suverenitets, magram is amave erebis Tavisuflebis garantiebs qmnis da icavs. evropuli integraciis logika uswrebs movlenebs, drosa da sivrces. misi aucilebeli Sedegi da ualternativo gamosavali evrokavSiris SeuzRudavi gafarToebiT evropaSi arsebuli yvela qveynis erT did gaerTianebaSi CarTvaa. es gaerTianeba obieqturi aucileblobaa axali droisa. kulturuli, saganmanaTleblo, informaciuli sivrcis gaerTianeba win uswrebs qveynebis ekonomikuri da politikuri reJimebis harmonizacias, magram aucileblad aiZulebs maT Seqmnan urTierTmsgavsi sistemebi, romlebic avtomaturad gamoiwveven arsebuli sazRvrebis moSlas da isntitutebs Soris sruli koordinaciis damyarebas, an maT Serwymas. aseve, aucilebelia imis aRiareba, rom miuxedavad civi omis dasrulebisa, evraziis kontinentze arseboben iseTi gansxvavebul ideologiur safuZvlebze agebuli 151

sazogadoebebi, romelTa integracia evropasTan drois am istoriul monakveTze warmoudgenelia. evrointegracia mWidro kavSirSia evro-atlantikur integraciasTan, radganac es ukanaskneli swored im Zireuli faseulobebis dasacavad aris Seqmnili, romelic evropul integracias udevs safuZvlad. am TvalsazrisiT, saqarTvelos swrafva, gawevriandes Crdiloatlantikur aliansSi, srul TanxvedraSia evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis albaT ufro Soreul, magram kidev ufro mniSvnelovan mizanTan. saqarTvelosa da evrokavSiris urTierTobis daxasiaTeba dReisaTvis SeiZleba mxolod am konteqstSi: uaxlovdeba qveyana Tu ara evropis kavSirs. verc saqarTvelo, verc sxva patara an Tundac didi qveyana ver moaxerxebs iseTi ekonomikuri an politikuri modeliT ganviTarebas, romelic winaaRmdegobaSi mova damkvidrebul evropul faseulobebTan. miT umetes, is ver moaxerxebs aseT SemTxvevaSi mdgradi, stabiluri ganviTarebis uzrunvelyofas, radganac, evropuli integraciis procesSi monawileobas Tavisi wesebi gaaCnia. daaxloeba evropis kavSirTan moiTxovs qveynis iseT transformacias, romelic evropasTan erTgvarovan reJimSi funqcionirebas uzrunvelyofs. damoukideblobamopovebuli yofili sabWoTa socialisturi da demokratiuli qveynebisaTvis Savi zRvis auzis regioni iqca Tanabaruflebiani, srulmniSvnelovani qveynebis urTierTobebis arealad. gamoyenebuli da citirebuli literatura:

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1. saqarTvelos Savi zRvis politika _ Savi zRvis identurobis Camoyalibeba; Policy Paper Series, Number 4, 2008. Public Policy Knowledge Network; 2. http://irdb.ge/?p=672 3. evrokavSiri da saqarTvelo, SeTanxmeba partniorobisa da TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb, Tb., 1996 4. s. kapanaZe, saqarTvelos da evrokavSiris daaxloebis perspeqtivebi, Tb., 2004 5. evrointegracia da saqarTvelo, Tb., 2003 6. k. gogolaSvili, evrokavSiris gafarToeba globalizaciis pirobebSi, Tb., 2003 7. evropis konstitucia, Tb., 2004 8. evropis samezoblo politika, Tb., 2004 9. evrokavSiris moRvaweoba, Tb., 2003

Nino Popiashvili Post-Soviet Identity in the Discourse of the Black Sea Pool Countries
Abstract

The Soviet mentality and public life was not known by concepts of uniform identity of the Black Sea Pool countries. At the same time, in Georgia as well as in other countries of the Pool, very little was known about the nearest states, located at the coast of the Black Sea; so little was known about a place of the Georgia as to a cultural part of this space. However, for definition of identity of Georgia the history of mutual cultural relations between the countries, located in the Black Sea Pool has great value. 153

The Black Sea as a history of mutual relations and modern cultural, religious and national communications is a subject of interest from the point of view of Post-Soviet identity. Except historical interrelations, urgency has brought modern - new and the newest - communications essentially differing from the former communications and creating prospect of development of mutual relations of absolutely new type. For self-identification and cultural identity of the small nation the cultural-geographical space and an environment, in which these people live has a special value. After disintegration of the Soviet Union the former socialist republics have continued the history as the independent states. They tried to prove to the world that they were special and original, differed from each other and were unable to reveal their individuality in the conditions of existence of the USSR. Except revealing the originality, it was also necessary to underline that historical similarities existed, which connected these countries with the West but in the conditions of a life in the Soviet Union they were absolutely forgotten. It`s natural, that from this point of view the Black Sea became the main reference point of cultural-historical identity. In a Post-Soviet reality independent Georgia had one more additional characteristic line and value for regional identity of the Black Sea Pool countries. The Black Sea became the culturalgeographical reference point, following which Georgia as the East European state, is perceived by the cultural development in a context as European and in general, as the part of Western thinking. For the former Soviet Socialist countries, as well as for other democratic countries, the Black Sea Region is considered as the area of interrelation of the countries of equal rights and importance.

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istoriis saxelmZRvanelo da eTnikuri umciresobebi: problemebi da perspeqtivebi
Tamar qaraia Tsu-s socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti, politikur mecnierebaTa mimarTuleba, doqtoranti. saqarTvelo mravaleTnikuri qveyanaa. romlis daaxloebiT 13%-Tvis qarTuli mSobliur enas ar warmoadgens. rac warmoSobs uamrav problemas, romelTa didi nawili sazogadoebaSi integraciasTan da ganaTlebis problemasTan aris dakavSirebuli. amis safuZvlebi SeiZleba uaxloes warsulSi veZioT, rodesac saqarTveloSi iseve rogorc mTel sabWoTa kavSirSi ZiriTad saurTierTobo enas rusuli warmoadgenda da saxelmwifo enis codna prioritetuli aRar iyo, rac rusulenovan skolebSi eTnikuri umciresobis warmomadgenelTa Tavmoyras ganapirobebda. Sesabamisad rusuli enis codna eTnikuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebs aZlevda sazogadoebasTan integraciis da karieruli winsvlis saSualebas. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg am mxriv gansakuTrebul rTul viTarebaSi im eTnikuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebi aRmoCndnen, romlebic sasazRvro raionebSi kompaqturad iyvnen Casaxlebulni. umTavresad eseni arian samcxe-javaxeTSi mcxovrebi somxebi da qvemo qarTlSi mcxovrebi azerbaijanelebi. rusulma enam TandaTan dakarga sakomunikacio enis funqcia, Sesabamisad rusuli enis swavlis motivacia garkveulwilad Canacvlebul iqna qarTuli eniT, magram problemebi am mimarTulebiT jer kidev didia. “saqarTvelos kanonis zogadi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb” Tanaxmad saqarTvelos moqalaqeebs, romelTaTvisac qarTuli ena ar aris mSobliuri ufleba aqvT miiRon sruli 155

zogadi ganaTleba maT mSobliur enaze, erovnuli saswavlo gegmis Sesabamisad kanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT. amasTanave 2011 wlidan ZalaSi Sedis Sesworeba, romlis Tanaxmad araqarTulenovan skolebSi sxvadasxva sazogadoebrivi mecnierebebis, maT Soris saqarTvelos istoriisa da geografiis gakveTilebis qarTul enaze warmarTva savaldebulo xdeba.1 magram qarTuli enis codnis im donis gaTvaliswinebT rasac moswavleebi avlenen, aSkaraa, rom am debulebis ganxorcieleba siZneleebis winaSe dadgeba.2 araqarTulenovan sajaro skolebis moswavleTa raodenoba ar aris umniSvnelo da 2008 wlis monacemebiT moswavle                                                            
eTnikuri da lingvisturi mravalferovnebis pirobebSi saqarTvelos mTavroba pasuxismgeblobas iRebs iseTi erTiani politikis gatarebaze, romelic xels Seuwyobs saqarTvelos yvela moqalaqis integracias qveynis ekonomikur, politikur da kulturul cxovrebaSi... erovnul umciresobaTa integraciisTvis saWiroa saxelmwifo enis codna da maTi lingvisturi da kulturuli identobis dacva. qarTuli enis programa, Tbilisi 2009.http://www.diversity.ge/files/files/georg-lang-geo-2009.pdf Cveni mizania, SevunarCunoT istoriuli samSoblos ena eTnikur umciresobebs, ar vapirebT maTi mSobliuri enis qarTuliT Canacvlebas, gvinda maT qarTuli saxelmwifo ena sakomunikacio saSualebad SevaswavloT. amis Semdeg es mosaxleoba SeZlebs TviTrealizacias. saqarTvelos parlamentis ganaTlebis, mecnierebis, kulturis da sportis komitetis sxdomis oqmi #93 2007.06.28 2 erovnul umciresobaTa mier qarTuli enis codnis done erovnuli umciresoba somexi azerbaijaneli Tbilisi 96.4% 95.6% samcxe-javaxeTi 24.6% -----qvemo qarTli -----16.9%
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“National Integration and Tolerance in Georgia Assessment Survey Report” (October 2008),გვ. 36 http://www.una.ge/eng/artdetail.php?id=74&group=documents

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Ta saerTo raodenobis 8.79 %-s Seadgens. qarTuli enis arcodnasTan pirdapir kavSirSia istoriis swavlebis problema, radganac saxelmwifo standartebiT dadgenili wignebiT, romlebic rogorc wesi qarTul enazea, swavlebas gamoricxavs. aseve ganvixilavT meoresakiTxs, romelic Tavad saxelmZRvaneloebis Sinaarss exeba, kerZod Tu rogor arian umciresobebi warmoCenilni am saxelmZRvaneloebSi, da rogoria Tavad maTi damokidebuleba qarTuli saskolo wignebisadmi. cnobilia, rom 2007 wlamde samcxe-javaxeTsa da qvemo qarTlSi gamoyeneboda Sesabamisad somxeTidan da azerbaijanidan Semotanili saxelmZRvaneloebi, xolo ukve 2007 wlidan umciresobaTa enaze naTargmni saxelmZRvaneloebis gamoyeneba gaxda savaldebulo. magram amiT problema ar gadaWrila, radganac saxelmZRvaneloebi adrec iTargmneboda, magram isini mezobeli saxelmwifoebidan Semotanili wignebis Canacvlebas ver axdenda. dResdReobiT zemoTaRniSnul problemas sazogadoebaSi arsebuli saxelmwifos saganmanaTleblo politikisadmi negatiuri ganwyobilebac emateba, rac ZiriTadad wignebis Semotanis akrZalviT da saswavlo kurikulumis prioritetebiT aris ganpirobebuli. magaliTad: javaxeTis somxuri mosaxleoba miiCnevs, rom erevnidan saxelmZRvaneloebis Semotanis SezRudviT, Tbilisi cdilobs regionSi somxeTis istoriis swavlebas xeli SeuSalos. saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saministros saswavlo gegmis Tanaxmad somxeTis istoria fakultaturia da arasavaldebulo. amas somxeTis istoriis maswavlebelTa mcire raodenoba emateba, magram maTi TqmiT mTavari problemaa saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saministros gadawyvetileba romlis mixedviTac, mezobeli qveynidan somxeTis istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebis saqarTvelos teritoriaze Semotana SeizRuda, ris gamoc am 157

sagnis swavleba kidev ufro garTulda.1 10 wlis ganmavlobaSi javaxeTis skolebs sxvadasxva sagnebis saxelmZRvaneloebs somxuri mxare saCuqrad ugzavnida. rogorc saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saministroSi acxadeben, 2004 wels mxareebi sityvierad SeTanxmdnen, rom somxur mxares javaxeTSi somxeTis istoriis da geografiis saxelmZRvaneloebi ar unda Semoetana, magram oficialuri erevani am SeTanxmebas sistematiurad arRvevda. dawesebuli SezRudvis miuxedavad, somxeT-saqarTvelos sazRvars wignebiT datvirTuli manqanebi uproblemod kveTdnen, manam sanam saqarTvelos mTavrobam saxelmZRvaneloebiT datvirTuli manqana 2007 wels ukan ar miabruna, im motiviT, rom somxeTis istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebis saqarTvelos teritoriaze Semotana sanqcirebuli ar aris. igive ganmeorda 2008 wels. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT saqarTvelos pozicia Semdegnairia, rom “somxeTis istoriis” saqarTvelos teritoriaze Semotana akrZalulia Tavad am wignis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare, is samcxe javaxeTis mosaxleobaSi separatistul ganwyobilebis zrdas uwyobs xels, rac Tavis mxriv xels uSlis saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi somxebis sazogadoebasTan integracias. ZiriTad problemas is warmoadgens, rom saqarTvelos teritoriaze Semotanili “somxeTis istoriis” saxelmZRvaneloebi Seqmnilia somexi istorikosebis, mier da asaxavs qarTuli istoriografiisgan gansxvavebul, xSir SemTxvevaSi masTan dapirispirebul da Sesabamisad miuRebel narativs. gansxvavebuli versiebis saxiT SeiZleba moviyvanoT erTi magaliTi, somxeTis istoriis me-8 klasis saxel                                                            
erTi samSoblos ori istoria. 29.05. 2009. http://liberali.ge/node/61
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mZRvaneloSi samcxe-javaxeTSi mcxovrebi moswavleebi kiTxuloben, rom maTi mSobliuri mxare 1918 wels somxeTis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda da rom saqarTvelom gadawyvita es regioni Tavis sazRvrebSi moeqcia, ris gamoc daiwyo omi erevanTan.1 xolo saqarTvelos istoriis me-9 klasis saxelmZRvaneloSi waikiTxaven, rom 1918 wels saqarTvelosTan omi somxeTma imitom daiwyo, rom saqarTvelos teritoriis nawili _ javaxeTimieTvisebina. zemoTTqmuls emateba somexi istorikosebis braldeba saqarTvelos mTavrobis misamarTiT, rom es ukanaskneli axorcielebs, javaxeTSi mcxovrebi mosaxleobis asimilaciis politikas daamaxinjebs istorias. 80-iani wlebis bolos, roca javaxeTSi nacionaluri moZraobis talRa agorda, somxeTis istoriis swavleba erT-erTi mTavari moTxovna iyo. maSin bevrma adgilob                                                            
Tumca mkvlevarTa nawili (ZiriTadad somexi erovnebis) miuTiTebs somxeTis istoriaSi saqarTvelos rolis neitralur an dadebiT xasiaTze. magaliTad xazgasmulia, rom me-V saukuneSi kavkasia da albaneTi iyvnen somxeTis mokavSireebi sasaniduri iranis winaaRmdeg. interesTa Tanxvedris idea qarTvelebsa da somxebs Soris Semdegac viTardeba arabi bizantieli da selCuki dampyroblebis winaaRmdeg. viTareba icvleba XX saukunis movlenebis aRwerisas. Tumca “somxeT saqarTvelos omis” nacvlad neitraluri termini “somxur-qarTuli dapirispireba gamoiyeneba”. (История Армении в контексте мировои истории 10-ыи класс) xolo meore saxelmZRvaneloSi saubaria mxareTa dapirispirebaze loresa da javaxeTis teritoriis gamo: “1918 wlis dekemberSi brZola loresaTvis gadaizarda somxur-qarTul omSi, romelic dasrulda somexi samxedroebis mier teritoriis dakavebiT, xolo axalqalaqis olqi (javaxeTi/javaxki) SeierTa saqarTvelom (История Армиян для 8ого класса) Золян.М Закарян. Т. Образы себя и образы других в учебниках истории АрменииkrebulSiСовременние уебники истории на Южном Кавказе под ред. Л. Веселого 2009 Assosiation for International Affairs.
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rivma skolam es sagani sakuTari iniciativiT Seitana saswavlo programaSi. javaxeTSi somxeTis istoriis swavlebas Tavad erevanSi politikur Temad ganixilaven, am sakiTxis garSemo warmoqmnil problemebs ki, oficialuri Tbilisis mxridan adgilobrivi somxebis Seviwroebad. "Tbilisi javaxeTSi Zalian ucnaur politikas atarebs, romlis mizani somexi mosaxleobis asimilaciaa... saqarTvelos xelisufleba somxur skolebs sTavazobs wignebs, sadac istoria sruliad damaxinjebulia. somexi axalgazrdebi am saxelmZRvaneloSi kiTxuloben, rom Turme yarabaRi, siuniki, lori _ somxuri teritoriebiararis..." _ (sazogadoebrivi organizaciebis kavSiris" erkiris" xelmZRvaneli robert TaTosiani).1 mosaxleobis ganwyoba istoriis swavlebisadmi SeiZleba iTqvas erTgvarovania da miuTiTebs, rom maTi istoriuli samSoblos istoria iseve mniSvnelovania da Tanasworia maTTvis, rogorc saqarTvelos istoria da msoflios istoria.2 saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saministroSi acxadeben, rom somxur skolebSi ufleba aqvT iswavlon “somxeTis istoria”, rogorc fakultaturi sagani. magram saxelmZRvaneloebis deficitis problemasa da ori qveeynis istoriis wignebSi gansxvavebuli narativis arsebobis problemaze realurad aravin muSaobs. rogorc erovnuli saswavlo gegmebisa da Sefasebis centris yofilma xelmZRvanelma simon janaSiam ganacxada, ganaTlebis saministrom orjer scada istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebSi Sinaarsobrivi winaaRmdegobebis pro                                                            
erTi samSoblos ori istoria. 29.05. 2009. http://liberali.ge/node/61 2 GundareI. 2007, The Teaching of History in Georgia. With special focus on the Armenian and Azeri Minorities and their representation in Georgian history textbooks, History Teaching in Georgia: representation of Minorities in Georgian history textbooks. Geneva. Cimera , pp. 50
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blemis gadaWra, Tumca, orive cda uSedegod dasrulda. ramdenime wlis win ganaTlebis saministrom saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademias specialuri komisiis Seqmna SesTavaza. komisiis farglebSi qarTvel da somex istorikosebs erTad unda emuSavaT da sadavo istoriul movlenebze saerTo pozicia CamoeyalibebinaT. xuTi qarTveli istorikosisgan dakompleqtebuli komisia Sedga. Tumca, es iniciativa maleve da uSedegod dasrulda ise, rom qarTveli istorikosebi somex kolegebs ar cSexvedrian. miuxedavad amisa saqarTvelos ganaTlebis saministro kidev erTi iniciativiT gamovida: somxeTis ganaTlebis uwyebas Tan erTad unda Seqmniliyo somxeTis istoriis erToblivi saxelmZRvanelo, sadac ama Tu im sadavo istoriuli movlenis yvela versia moxvdeboda, magram aRniSnulma sakiTxma somxuri mxaris daintereseba ar gamoiwvia. erevanSi ki piriqiT, saubaria qarTuli mxaris mier interesis arqonaze gadaWriliyo aRniSnuli sakiTxi1. daaxloebiT msgavsi situaciaa qvemo qarTlSi azerbaijanis istoriis swavlebasTan mimarTebaSi. azerbaijanuli narativi, msgavsad somxurisa miuRebelia qarTveli istorikosebisaTvis.2                                                             
"uars namdvilad ar vityodiT, yovel SemTxvevaSi, davsxdebodiT da am sakiTxze vimsjelebdiT mainc", _ somxeTis ganaTlebis saministros diasporasTan urTierTobis saqmeTa departamentis xelmZRvaneli nunevardaniani. erTi samSoblos ori istoria. 29.05. 2009. http://liberali.ge/node/61 2 j. samuSias komentari: “azerbaijani, rogorc saxelmwifo da qveyana, imdros arc arsebobda. es ar aris azerbaijanis istoria. wignSi mocemulia iranis, mahmadianuri saamiroebis, albaneTis, Sirvanis, nawilobriv saqarTvelos istoria da yovelive es Sekrulia azerbaijanis istoriis qargis qveS”.
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magaliTad merve klasis azerbaijanis istoriis saxelmZRvanelo imiT iwyeba, Tu rogor cdilobdnen qarTvelebi azerbaijanis dapyrobas. amonaridi azerbaijanidan Semotanili istoriis saxelmZRvanelodan: • "qarTvelma da somexma feodalebma bizantiis SuamavlobiT Turq-selCukebTan sabrZolvelad jvarosnebTan daamyares kavSiri. amiT cdilobdnen, kavkasiidangaeZevebinaT muslimanuri faqtori da daenawilebinaT azerbaijanuli miwebi; • 1120 wels daviT meoTxe Tavs daesxa Sirvans, gaacamtvera qalaqi gabala da, misi Semogareni, waiRo azerbaijanis simdidre da wavida; • 1122 wels Tbilisi qarTvelebis xelSi gadavida. 1166 wels qarTvelTa jarebi Tavs daesxnen qalaq dabils, romelic im dros eldenizebis saxelmwifos ekuTvnoda. mokles 10 aTasi kaci, bavSvebi da qalebi gaaSiSvles da tyved waiyvanes. mxolod qarTveli qalebis protestis Semdeg daubrunes maT samosi; • tiflisi aranis (dRevandeli azerbaijanis nawilia) qalaqi iyo. marTalia, bardasa da derbentze patara iyo, magram qalaqi yvaoda da umdidresi iyo";1 zemoTaRniSnuli faqtebi mowmobs, rom istoriis somxuri da azerbaijanuli saxelmRvaneloebi nacvlad saqarTvelos moqalaqisa, SesaZloa potenciuri “mtris” aRzrdis xelSemwyobi faqtori aRmoCndes.                                                                                                                               
http://www.ambebi.ge/sazogadoeba/7550-qsheni-qveynis-dedaqalaqsistoriis-sakhelmdzghvaneloshi-azerbaijanul-qalaqad-gickhadeben-da-es-argatsukhebsq.html#ixzz0lop8Tqyp 1 Seni qveynis dedaqalaqs istoriis saxelmZRvaneloSi azerbaijanul qalaqad gicxadeben da es ar gawuxebs? 20-072009http://www.ambebi.ge/sazogadoeba/7550-qsheni-qveynis-dedaqalaqsistoriis-sakhelmdzghvaneloshi-azerbaijanul-qalaqad-gickhadeben-da-es-argatsukhebsq.html

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Tavad qarTuli saxelmZRvaneloebis somxurad da azerbaijanulad Targmnas 2007 wlamde sorosis fondi afinansebda, xolo Semdeg es saqmianoba bankma” respublikam” da holdingma “saqarTvelos industriuli jgufi” gagrZela. saboloo jamSi dagegmili iyo 21 saxelmZRvanelos Targmna. magram aRmoCnda, rom miRebuli Targmani veRar akmayofilebda moTxovnil dones, rasac beWdvis Sedegad daSvebuli xarvezebi da Tan saxelmZRvaneloebis ZviradRirebuleba emateboda1, Sedegad maRalfasian qarTul istoriis wignebs baqodan da erevnidan Semotanili ufaso saxelmZRvaneloebiT anacvleben. magaliTad aseve moxda samcxe javaxeTSi, rodesac gamomcemloba “inteleqtis” mier somxur enaze naTargmn da daibeWdil kote anTaZis me-6 klasis “Zveli msoflio istoriis saxelmZRvanelo” realizacia saerTod ver moxerxda, misi somxuri alternativis ufasod dargebis gamo.2 rac Seexeba uSualod qarTul saxelmZRvaneloebSi eTnikuri umciresobebis warmoCenas. istoriis swavlebis axali midgomis Tanaxmad saqarTvelos istoriis axal saxelmZRvaneloebSi saqarTvelos istoria ganxilulia msoflio istoriis konteqstSi, ramac “simeras” monacemebiT Tavad saqarTvelos istorias miayena zarali, radganac “me -7 klasis saxelmZRvaneloSi, romlis moculoba daaxloebiT 350 gverdia saqarTvelos istorias uZvelesi droidan me-18 saukunemde, mxolod 20 gverdi eTmoba”3.                                                             
azerbaijanul skolebSi pedagogebi azerbaijanidan Semotanili saxelmZRvaneloebiT aswavlian http://www.cida.ge/media/geo/reginfo.php?id=3019 2 paiWaZe. d. saSualo skolebis saxelmZRvaneloebis gamocemasa da realizaciasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, radio ”Tavisuflebis” rubrika ”meaTe studia” http://www.tavisupleba.org/content/article/1522665.html 3 Gigineishvili L. 2007. Post Reform History text-books in Georgia: Changing patterns and the issue of minorities in Georgian history, History
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amasTanave qarTul saxelmZRvaneloebze saubrisas erTxmad miuTiTeben mis eTnocentristul xasiaTze da rom es saxelmZRvaneloebi mxolod eTnikurad qarTvelebisTvis iwereba da im pirTa xsenebisas, romelTac garkveuli roli Seasrules saqarTvelos istoriaSi, magaliTad zaqaria da ivane mxargrZelebi, romlebic qurTuli (sxva versiiT somxuri) warmoSobisani iyvnen, ar aris aRniSnuli maTi araqarTuli warmomavloba. Tumca isic unda iTqvas, rom aris konkretul saxelmZRvaneloebi sadac gansxvavebuli suraTia. magaliTad: me-10 klasis saxelmZRvaneloSi (p. ramiSvili) xazgasmulia, saqarTvelos erT-erT udidesi mefis daviT IV aRmaSeneblis colebis araqarTuli warmomavloba.1 Sesabamisad, rogorc organizacia “simeras” mier ganxorcielebuli proeqtis daskvniT nawilSia saubari, saqarTvelos istoriis axali saxelmZRvaneloebiT eTnikuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebi iswavlian kosmopolitur msoflio istorias, Sesabamisad nakleb saqarTvelos istorias, romelSiac maTi wvlili TiTqmis, ar aris asaxuli an ukeTes SemTxvevaSi gakvriT exeba da romelTanac sakuTari Tavis identificirebas Znelad Tu moaxdenen. Tavis mxriv somxeTi da azerbaijani, miuxedavad imisa, rom saxelmZRvaneloebis Semotana saqarTvelos teritoriaze akrZalulia aqtiurad ewevian istoriis sakuTari versiis propagandas. magaliTad: samcxe-javaxeTSi, yoveli wlis 28 maiss somxeTis damoukideblobis dResTan dakavSirebiT ewyoba somxeTis istoriis olimpiada, romelSic gamarjvebu                                                                                                                              
Teaching in Georgia: representation of Minorities in Georgian history textbooks. Geneva. Cimera , pp. 12 1 GundareI. 2007, The Teaching of History in Georgia. With special focus on the Armenian and Azeri Minorities and their representation in Georgian history textbooks, History Teaching in Georgia: representation of Minorities in Georgian history textbooks. Geneva. Cimera , pp. 47

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li erevnis saxelmwifo universitetSi istoriis fakultetze ufasod iswavlis, xolo azerbaijanis sazRvrispira soflebSi magaliTad vaxtangisSi yoveldRe gadmodian azerbaijaneli maswavleblebi da bavSvebs azerbaijanis istoriasa da geografias ufasod aswavlian1. mocemuli problemis gadasaWrelad garda saxelmZRvaneloebis Sinaarsis gadaxedvisa, SesaZloa aranakleb efeqturi aRmoCndes istoriis saxelmZRvaneloebis qarTuli versiis Tu ufasod ara SeRavaTian fasebSi mainc darigeba, (sawyis etapze mainc) raTa istoriis qarTulma wignebma konkurencia gauwios azerbaijanul da somxur alternativebs, romelic miuxedavad akrZalvisa dResac Semodis saqarTvelos teritoriaze. garda amisa sasurvelia saxelmZRvaneloebis SinaarsSi aisaxos, rom saqarTveloSi garda qarTvelebisa aseve cxovrobdnen sxva eTnosis warmomadgenlebi da rom maT garda uaryofiTisa dadebiTi wvlilic Seitanes qveynis ganviTarebaSi. msgavsi damokidebuleba xels Seuwyobs eTnikuri umciresobebis warmomadgenlebis sazogadoebaSi integracias da saqarTvelos sruluflebian moqalaqed aRqmas. saqarTvelos mier arCeul demokratiis mSeneblobisTvis erT-erT xelSemwyob faqtorad samoqalaqo identobis ganviTareba gvesaxeba, romelic erTiani, saxelmwifoebrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibebas gulisxmobs. aRniSnulis CamoyalibebisTvis ki aucilebelia saganmanaTleblo politikis im kuTxiT mimarTva, rom saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebul skolebSi izrdebodes ara qarTveli, somexi an azerbaijaneli armed saqarTvelos moqalaqe.
Seni qveynis dedaqalaqs istoriis saxelmZRvaneloSi azerbaijanul qalaqad gicxadeben da es ar gawuxebs? 20-072009http://www.ambebi.ge/sazogadoeba/7550-qsheni-qveynis-dedaqalaqsistoriis-sakhelmdzghvaneloshi-azerbaijanul-qalaqad-gickhadeben-da-es-argatsukhebsq.html
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Abstract Tamar Karaia – PhD Student of the Faculty of Social and

Political Sciences of TSU.
The problem of teaching history to national minorities Georgia is a multiethnic country and for about 13% of the population Georgian is not a native language. This fact couses multiple problems, the great majority of which are connected with the integration in society and the problem of education. The causes of the issue could be found in the recent past. In Georgia, as well as in the whole USSR the main language of communication was Russian and the learning of the national language was not a priority. Consequently the knowledge of the Russian language was an opportunity to the national minorities for the social integration. The problem of teaching history is directly connected with the fact of not knowing the Georgian language as the textbooks approved by the state are in Georgian and cannot be used for national minorities as usual. ( but from the 2010 the amendment will enter into force which will make mandatory to learn various sciences, among them Georgian history and Geography, in Georgian.) It is known that before 2007 in Samtskhe-javakheti and Shida Qartli the textbooks from Armenia and Azerbaijan respectively were used. From 2007 it became mandatory to use translated versions of the books for the national minorities. In the research, besides the content of the textbooks we also present the attitudes of the representatives of the national minorities towards the Georgian textbooks. gamoyenebuli da citirebuli literatura: 1. 166 azerbaijanul skolebSi pedagogebi azerbaijanidan Semotanili saxelmZRvaneloebiT aswavlian

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http://www.cida.ge/media/geo/reginfo.php?id=3019 bTkk _ politikis kvlevis jgufi. 2008, eTnikuri umciresobebis samoqalaqo integraciis politikis analizi uitli j. 2009, saqarTveloSi samcxe-javaxeTisa da qvemo qarTlis regionebSi mcxovrebi erovnuli umciresobebis integracia; mixeil saakaSvilis prezidentobis xuTi weliwadiECMI-s samuSao moxseneba #44 mexuzla s. roSe e. 2009, ganaTlebis reforma da eTnikuri umciresobebi. ECMI-s samuSao moxseneba #46 saqarTvelos parlamentis ganaTlebis, mecnierebis, kulturis da sportis komitetis sxdomis oqmi #93 2007.06.28 Seni qveynis dedaqalaqs istoriis saxelmZRvaneloSi azerbaijanul qalaqad gicxadeben da es ar gawuxebs? 20-07-2009 http://www.ambebi.ge/sazogadoeba/7550-qsheni-qveynisdedaqalaqs-istoriis-sakhelmdzghvaneloshi-azerbaijanulqalaqad-gickhadeben-da-es-ar-gatsukhebsq.html paiWaZe. d. 09.08. 2002.saSualo skolebis saxelmZRvaneloebis gamocemasa da realizaciasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, radio ”Tavisuflebis” rubrika ”meaTe studia” http://www.tavisupleba.org/content/article/1522665.html Gigineishvili L. 2007. Post Reform History text-books in Georgia: Changing patterns and the issue of minorities in Georgian history, History Teaching in Georgia: representation of Minorities in Georgian history textbooks. Geneva. Cimera Gundare I. 2007. The Teaching of History in Georgia. With special focus on the Armenian and Azeri Minorities and their representation in Georgian history textbooks, History Teaching in Georgia: representation of Minorities in Georgian history textbooks. Geneva. Cimera 167

politikuri integracia evrokavSirSi
gizo WeliZe socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis, saerTaSoriso urTierTobis mimarTuleba, doqtoranti `bolo naxevari saukunis manZilze evropuli integracia iyo problematuri, Tumca warmatebuli.” andres malamudi (10. gv.4) Sesavali bolo 60 wlis manZilze msoflio Tvals adevnebs evropis kontinentze regionuli integraciis unikalur SemTxvevas _ evrokavSiris Camoyalibebas. saxelmwifoTa koleqtiuri TanamSromlobis mravali magaliTi arsebobs. ufro metic, dReisaTvis moqmed gavlenian saerTaSoriso organizaciaTa didi nawili daaxloebiT erT periodSi Seiqmna da ganviTarda, Tumca evrokavSiri Tavisi bunebiT yvelasgan gansxvavdeba. vfiqrobT, evrokavSiris unikalurobas integraciis miseuli modeli da yvelasgan gamorCeuli zeerovnuli (supranacionaluri) mmarTvelobis forma ganapirobebs. 1951 wels eqvsma qveyanam TanamSromloba qvanaxSiris mopovebisa da foladis warmoebis sferoSi daiwyo, dRes ki 27 wevramde gazrdili kavSiri ekonomikis TiTqmis yvela mimarTulebas aerTianebs: saerTo soflis meurneoba, TevzWera, sabaJo kontroli, sagareo da saSinao vaWroba, erTiani bazari, erTiani valuta da sxva. amdenad samarTlianad SeiZleba vuwodoT evrokavSirs ”ekonomikuri goliaTi”. magram, ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebis paralelurad, ramdenad mimdinareobs politikuri integracia evrokavSirSi da Tu mimdi168

nareobs ganviTarebis ra dones aRwevs is dReisaTvis? swored am kiTxvaze gvsurs gavceT pasuxi winamdebare naSromSi. migvaCnia, rom politikuri integracia evrokavSirSi misi Seqmnis dRidan daiwyo da mravali winaaRmdegobisa da dabrkolebis miuxedavad dRemde grZeldeba. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom 1992 wels, maastrixtis xelSekrulebis miRebis Semdeg, wevrma saxelmwifoebma politikis sferoSi TavianTi suverenuli uflebebis evropuli institutebisadmi delegireba oficialurad daiwyes. maastrixts mohyva amsterdamisa da nicis xelSekrulebebi, aseve arSemdgari evropis konstituciis proeqti da bolos, lisabonis xelSekruleba. lisabonis xelSekrulebas sareformo xelSekrulebasac uwodeben, radgan igi mniSvnelovnad cvlis evrokavSirSi aqamde arsebul instituciur wyobas da kavSiri integraciis axal safexurze gadahyavs. miuxedavad imisa, rom evrokavSiri integraciis warmatebul modelad vaRiareT, es ar niSnavs, rom evropuli erTobis Camoyalibeba dasrulebulad migvaCnia. piriqiT, TemaSi naTlad warmovaCenT evrokavSirs, rogorc Camoyalibebis procesSi myof saxelmwifoTa gaerTianebas. Tumca mecnierTa nawils, romlebic dausrulebel kavSirze akeTeben aqcents, imaSi ver daveTanxmebiT, rom evropaSi politikuri erTobis Camoyalibeba mxolod warumatebeli mcdelobaa. gvsurs, Tavidan aviciloT evrokavSiris mimarT zedmetad idealisturi Tu subieqturi midgoma. Sesabamisad vecdebiT, umetesad vaCvenoT ara is, Tu rogori SeiZleba an unda yofiliyo evrokavSiri, an rogori iqneba momavalSi, aramed yuradRebas gavamaxvilebT imaze, ganviTrebis ra etapzea is dReisaTvis. Tumca procesis dinamiurobis naTlad warmosaCenad warsul gamocdilebasac SevexebiT. amdenad, Cveni upirvelesi samiznea in169

tegraciis dRevandeli dinamika da misi Tanxvedra Temis mTavar TezasTan. Temis mTavari Tezisi Cven vamtkicebT, rom ekonomikuri integraciis garRmavebis Sedegad, evrokavSiris wevr saxelmwifoebs Soris ukve daiwyo TanamSromloba politikuri mimarTulebiT. anu, rogorc neofunqcionaluri Teoriis fuZemdeblebi varaudobdnen, ekonomikuri integracia politikur integraciaSi gadaizarda (”gadaiRvara”). migvaCnia, rom bolo wlebSi evropis erT politikur erTobad Camoyalibebis idea sul ufro aqtiuri xdeba da realobas uaxlovdeba kavSiris damfuZnebelTa ocneba `erTiani evropis~ (`ever closer union") Seqmnis Sesaxeb. gamovTqvamT mosazrebas, rom evrokavSirSi 1992 wlidan (maastrixtis xelSekruleba) ukve daiwyo politikuri kavSiris Seneba, romelic, 2005 wels konstituciis Cavardnis miuxedavad, dResac aqtiurad mimdinareobs. es procesi kidev ufro gamyarda 2009 welis dekembridan, rodesac ZalaSi Sevida lisabonis xelSekruleba da politikuri TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebis kuTxiT bevr instituciur siaxles daudo saTave. Teoriuli CarCo konkretuli faqtebis ganxilvis garda, Cveni mosazrebis damtkicebas neofunqcionaluri Teoriis gamoyenebiT SevecdebiT. migvaCnia, rom es Teoria sakmaod kargad esadageba evrokavSiris integraciis models. neofunqcionalistTa mtkicebiT, imisaTvis, rom integracia warmatebuli aRmoCndes, saWiroa TanamSromloba daiwyos ekonomikis erT sferoSi e.w. ”dabal po170

litikaSi” (”low politics”). qveynebs Soris ekonomikis konkretul seqtorTa integracia qmnis “funqciur wnexs” (functional pressure) momijnave dargebis SesaerTeblad. integracia mimdinareobs e.w. ”gadaRvris” (spill-over) principiT, rodesac erT sferoSi dawyebuli integracia etapobrivad gadaiRvreba sxva sferoebSic. am procesSi nel-nela xdeba loialobis gadatana erovnuli donidan (adgilobrivi mTavroba) evropul doneze (evropuli institutebi). (12. gv. 51-52) Tuki gadavxedavT evrokavSiris istorias ekonomikuri integracia swored am scenariT ganviTarda: ”qvanaxSirisa da foladis gaerTianebas” 6 welSi ”ekonomikuri gaerTianebis” Seqmna moyhva. 60-ian wlebSi ZalaSi Sesuli sabaJo kavSiri, 1992 wels erTiani bazris CamoyalibebiT dagvirgvinda, 70 wlebis bolodan savaluto sistemis danergva, 90-iani wlebis bolos erTian valutaze - evroze gadasvliT dasrulda. rac Seexeba politikur integracias, neofunqcionaluri Teoriis mixedviT, is ekonomikuri integraciis aucilebeli Tanmdevi procesi da misi saboloo Sedegia. kerZod, sawyis etapze iqmneba TanamSromlobis makoordinirebeli da maregulirebeli organo (aseTad SeiZleba CaiTvalos qvanaxSirisa da foladis gaerTianebis umaRlesi mmarTveli organo _ ”High Authority”), SemdgomSi gaRrmavebuli ekonomikuri integracia ki avtomaturad qmnis axali institutebis Camoyalibebis saWiroebas, radgan integraciis procesis gafarToeba damatebiT maregulirebel organoebis Seqmnas moiTxovs. realurad asec moxda: jer komisia, parlamenti da ministrTa sabWo, mogvianebiT ki evropuli sabWo Seiqmna. amdenad, politikuri integracia ekonomikuri integraciis metnaklebad gardauvali gverdiTi Sedegia.

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”gadaRvris” principiT mimdinare integraciis gvirgvinad neofunqcionalistebi ekonomikuri erTobis politikur kavSirad gadaqcevas miiCneven: erovnuli elitebi sul ufro met yuradRebas uTmoben supranacionalur dones; isini pozitiurad ewyobian integraciis procesis mimarT da gamoimuSaveben saerTo interesebs; supranacionaluri institutebi da arasamTavrobo aqtorebi integraciis procesSi etapobrivad met gavlenas iZenen, maSin roca erovnuli mTavrobebi da samTavrobo aqtorebi TandaTan kargaven am gavlenas da, saboloo jamSi, integraciis mzardi mniSvneloba qmnis wnexs, politikuri kontroli da angariSvaldebuleba supranacionalur doneze iqnas gadatanili. (11 gv. 479-480) neofunqcionalizmi istoriul konteqstSi _ ekonomikuri integracia Teoriuli CarCos zogadi mimoxilvis Semdeg, sainteresoa, Tvali gavadevnod, rogor xdeboda neofunqcionalizmis sayrdeni principebis praqtikaSi gatareba evrokavSiris Seqmnidan dRemde. imas Tu, rogor grZeldeba es procesi dRes, momdevno TavebSi SevexebiT. manamde ki Tanmimdevrulad mivyveT da gavaanalizoT neofunqcionalistTa TvalTaxedvidan danaxuli integraciuli cikli. a)integraciis dasawyisi evrokavSirSi neofunqcionaluri integraciis aTvlis wertilad SeiZleba CaiTvalos 1951 weli, rodesac ”qvanaxSirisa da foladis gaerTianebis” xelSekrulebas moewera xeli. neofunqcionalistebisaTvis 50-iani wlebi didi gamarjveba iyo. pirvel rigSi aRsaniSnavia maT Tvalwin mimdinare procesi, roca evropis qvanaxSirisa da foladis gaerTianebis CamoyalibebiT TvalnaTliv da istoriaSi pirvelad moxda “loialurobis gadatana” 172

erovnuli

donidan

supranacionalur

doneze

(“High

Authority”). aseve didi gamarjveba iyo is, rom qvanaxSirisa da foladis gaerTianeba sul raRac 6 weliwadSi ukve ufro farTo ekonomikur gaerTianebad gardaiqmna (1957 wlis romis xelSekruleba) es “gadaRvris principis” karg magaliTs warmoadgens. neofunqcionaluri Teoriis erT-erTi TvalsaCino warmomadgeneli ernst haasi am eqvswlian periods “supranacionalur wnexs” uwodebs, roca calkeulma jgufebma da evropul saxelmwifoTa mTavrobebma TavianTi miznebis gadafaseba da xelaxali formulireba moaxdines da gezi erTiani evropisken aiRes. rogorc istoriam gvaCvena, am ekonomikurma gaerTianebam, romis xelSekrulebidan moyolebuli dRemde, saTave daudo im did erTobas, romelsac dRes evrokavSiri moicavs. evropis savaluto kavSiri (EMU) xangrZliv process ukavSirdeba integracia safinanso da savaluto sferoSi. am dargis gaerTianebis pirveli iniciativa 1969 wels haagis samitze gacxadda. Tumca es iniciativa 70-ian wlebSi msoflio savaluto bazarze arsebuli areulobis gamo mniSvnelovani dabrkolebebis winaSe aRmoCnda. 1979 wels, safrangeT-germaniis erToblivi ZalisxmeviT pirvelad Camoyalibda evropis savaluto sistema (European Monetary System) evropis savaluto sistemis mTavar mizani evrogaerTianebis wevr saxelmwifoTa valutebs Soris meryeobis Semcireba da inflaciis donis daregulireba warmoadgenda. SemoRebul iqna axali evropuli savaluto erTeuli _ ekiu. savaluto sistemam, valutis kursebis stabilizaciis kuTxiT, mravali krizisis miuxedavad, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom warmatebas miaRwia. 173

savaluto TanamSromlobis axal fazaze gadasvlis xelisSemSleli faqtorebis aRmosafxvrelad, kapitalis moZraobis liberalizaciisa da safinanso urTierTobaTa daxvewisaTvis umniSvnelovanesi iyo 1989 wels evrokomisiis prezidentis Jak deloris iniciativa ekonomikuri da savaluto kavSiris SeqmnasTan dakavSirebiT. SemoTavazeba iTvaliswinebda erTian savaluto sistemaze gadasavlis sam safexurian models, ekonomikuri politikis met koordinacias, erovnuli sabiujeto deficitebis dasaZlevad Tanxebis gamoyofis axali wesebis damkvidrebasa da kavSiris savaluto politikaze pasuxsimgebeli organos _ centraluri evropuli bankis Seqmnas. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania am strategiis mesame faza _ 1999 wlisTvis evropis erTian valutaze _ evroze gaasvla. savaluto kavSirma garda imisa, rom gaaadvila evrokavSiris SigniT safinanso operaciebi, wevr saxelmwifoTa Soris TanamSromloba mniSvnelovnad gaaRrmava. lisabonis xelSekrulebiT, 2009 wlidan evropis centralurma bankma evrokavSiris institutis statusi SeiZina. ekonomikuri da savaluto kavSiris Seqmna ”gadaRvris” principze damyarebuli integraciis kargi magaliTia. am sistemis Camoyalibeba sxvadasxva intensiobiT 20 wlis manZilze mimdinareobda. es ocwliani periodi naTlad asaxavs farTomasStabiani integraciis misaRwevad etapobrivi ganviTarebis mniSvnelobas. rogorc davinaxeT, savaluto sferoSi integracia sawyis etapze SedarebiT naklebambiciuri miznebiT gamoirCeoda _ evropaSi savaluto stabilurobis zonis Seqmna. Tumca mas momdevno wlebSi sakmaod ambiciuri erTiani savaluto politikis Camoyalibeba mohyva. savaluto sistemis garda, savaluto kavSiris Seqmnas Zlieri biZgi misca evropis teritoriaze erTian bazris Camoyalibebam. amdenad, es kavSiri, rogorc gamoCnda, er174

Tis mxriv manamde arsebul savaluto sistemaze aRmocenda, meores mxriv ki savaluto politikis warmatebaSi didi mniSvneloba erTiani bazris Seqmnam iqonia. am SemTxvevaSi saqme SeiZleba gvqondes ori saxis integraciasTan: • erTi es aris “gaRrmaveba” (“deepening”) _ savaluto sisitemis magaliTze da gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT savaluto kavSiris Seqmna. • meore es aris “gafarToeba” (“widening”) _ erTi politikidan (erTiani bazari) integarciis gadaRvra momijnave da masTan mWidrod dakavSirebul ekonomikur dargSi (savaluto politika). gavixsenoT, rom ekonomikuri integracias, neofunqcionalistTa mtkicebiT maregulirebeli institutebis Camoyalibeba sdevs Tan. aseT maregulirebel organod ki evropis centraluri banki gvevlineba, romelmac bolo xelSekrulebiT ukve miiRo institutis statusi. erTiani bazari evrokavSiris integraciis erT-erT yvelaze did gamarjvebad evropis erTiani bazari iTvelba. is neofunqcionaluri TeoriisTvis saukeTeso praqtikul gamovlinebas warmoadgens. erTiani bazris istoria kargad gamoxatavs Tu rogor SuZlia integraciis gaRrmaveba sakiTxis aqtualobas, wevri saxelmwifoebis mxridan mizanmimarTul qmedebebsa da kavSiris SigniT Tanxmobasa da erTsulovnebas. mokled CamovTvliT erTiani bazris miRwevebs: adamianis, saqonlis, momsaxurebisa da kapitalis Tavisufali gadaadgileba; muSaobisa da biznesis warmoebis Tavisufleba; biurokratiuli, proceduruli da komerciuli barierebis gauqmeba an maTi minimumamde Semcireba _ 175

kvotebisa da tarifebis moxsna, amasTanave e.w. ”arasatarifo barierebis” aRmofxvra; socialuri daculobis zrda; ekologiurad sufTa da usafrTxo sakvebi; swrafi, iafi da moxerxebuli mgzavroba; Tavisufali konkurencia da monopolisturi da proteqcionisturi saqmianobis SezRudva; meti moqniloba da efeqturoba da bazris regulirebis erTiani harmoniuli sistema. (15 gv.) SegviZlia Tamamad vamtkicoT, rom erTiani bazaric ”gadaRvris principiT” Camoyalibda. 50-ian wlebSi dawyebuli savaWro TanamSromloba, 60-ian wlebSi sabaJo kavSiris SeqmniT gagrZelda - wverma saxelmwifoebma Tavisi nebiT gaauqmes tarifebi da kvotebi. 70-iani wlebSi warmoSobilma ekonomikurma problemebma, erTmaneTTan gamartivebuli vaWrobiT miRebulma sargebelma, saerTaSoriso asparezze arsebulma gamowvevebma da mzardma konkurenciam, sabaJo sferoSi TanamSromloba erTiani bazriT daagvirgvina. aqve gvinda aRvniSnoT, rom integracia xSirad aRmoCenila krizisul viTarebaSi, roca wina planze iwevda e.w. ”evroskepticizmi” (de golis mmarTvelobis dekada, 1970 wlebSi msoflioSi mimdinare ekonomikuri daRmasvla da sanavTobo krizisi, 80-ian wlebSi margaret tetCeris agresiuli politika). am dros integracionistebs xSirad uWirdaT imis axsna, Tu ratom ar grZeldeboda integracia ise, rogoc amas winaswar elodnen neofunqcionalistebi. problemebi am mxriv dResac arsebobs, magram evrokavSiris istoriisTvis zogadi Tvalis gadavlebiTac naTelia, rom integracia, dargobrivi gadaRvra, sxvadasxva sferoSi TanamSromlobis gaRrmaveba Tu gafarToeba erT dinamikur process warmoadgens, mxolod arasworxazovani da araTanabarmimdevruli intensivobiT. naSromis mizani araa Seiswavlos erTini bazris, erTiani valutisa da ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis sxva mi176

marTulebebis susti da Zlieri mxareebi, gaakeTos daskvnebi evrokavSiris ekonomikis mdgradobasTan dakavSirebiT. es sxva ganxilvis Temaa. ekonomikuri integraciis magaliTebi procesis dinamiurobis saCveneblad movixmeT. neofunqcionaluri midgoma dReisTvis _ politikuri integraciisken aq SegviZlia Cvens mier zemoT dasmul kiTxvas davubrundeT: Tuki evrokavSirma farTomaStabian ekonomikur integracias ukve miaRwia, Seqmna da ganaviTara am procesis maregulirebeli mmarTveli institutebi, neofunqcionalistebis logikiT, xom ar SegviZlia ganvacxadoT, rom mimdinareobs integraciis gadadineba mis daskvniT fazaSi _ politikis sferoSi da evropis kontinentze, evrokavSiris saxiT, erTiani politikuri aqtori yalibdeba? bevri evrokavSirs arSemdgar politikur erTobad moiazrebs, mas ”ekonomikur goliaTs da politikur jujasac” uwodebdnen. amis mizezad saxeldeba yofili iugoslaviis teritoriaze mimdinare saomar moqmedebebSi evrokavSiris araefeqturi Careva, aseve _ wevri qveynebis araerTsulovneba erayis orive omis dros (1991, 2003 ww.) da sxva magaliTebi. am sisusteebis miuxedavad migvaCnia, rom integraciis procesi ar SeCerebula da wlidan wlamde sul ufro met progress aRwevs. iyo stagnaciis periodebi, Tumca ukusvlas arasdros hqonia adgili. danamdvilebiT SegviZlia vamtkicoT, rom saxelmwifoTa mier evropul doneze gadatanili sakiTxebi ukan _ erovnul doneze aRar dabrunebula. anu sferoebSi, sadac integracia ukve daiwyo, procesi ukan ar Sebrunebula. 177

ufro metic, isic SeiZleba iTqvas, rom evrokavSiris TiToeuli susti mxare an konkretuli krizisuli viTareba damatebiTi motivaciaa wevri qveynebisTvis, rom met SekavSirebulobas miaRwion. balkaneTisa da erayis omebma katalizatoris funqcia ikisres da pozitiuri rolic Seasrules evropis gamosafxizleblad. garda amisa, gazrdili konkurencia saerTaSoriso arenaze, terorizmi, eTnokonfliqtebi da sxva globaluri problemebi axali gamowvevebis winaSe ayenebs evrokavSirs. Tuki istorias gadavxedavT, yvela mniSvnelovan integraciul nabijs win aucileblad uZRvoda konkretuli krizisi. TiToeuli xelSekrulebis Semdeg evropa metad integrirebuli xdeba, sul ufro farTovdeba evropuli institutebis kompetenciis sfero. izrdeba maTi funqciebi da Zalaufleba. aseve TvalSisacemia zeerovnuli (supranacionaluri) mmarTveli organoebis (komisia da parlamenti) poziciaTa gamyareba. supranacionalizmis zrda pirdapir kavSirSia evrokavSiris federaluri xasiaTis gaZlierebasTan. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, swored supranacionaluri mmarTvelobiT gansxvavdeba evrokavSiri sxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebisagan, romelTa umravlesoba mTavrobaTSorisi forumis xasiaTs atarebs. supranacionaluri (zeerovnuli) mmarTveloba moicavs im sferoebs, romlebSic wevrma saxelmwifoebma sakuTari nebiT daTmes TavianTi suverenuli uflebebi da gadawyvetilebis miRebis funqcia evrokavSiris institutebs gadasces. am sferoebSi evrokavSiris institutebis mier miRebuli gadawyvetileba savaldebuloa kavSirSi Semavali yvela qveynisaTvis. anu erovnuli donidan sakiTxebi evropul dones gadaeca da gadamwyveti roli mas mieniWa. Tumca, supranacionaluris garda, evrokavSirSi aseve gamoiyofa mTavrobaTSorisi mmarTveloba, riTac 178

evrokavSiri emsgavseba sxva saerTaSoriso organizaciebs. aq Sedis is sferoebi, romlebSic wevr saxelmwifoebs ar dauTmiaT marTvis suverenuli uflebebi, mxolod erTobliv TanamSromlobaze SeTanxmdnen. sagareo, Tavdacvis, usafrTxoebis, saSinao da iusticiis sakiTxebSi erTiani politikis SemuSaveba 1992 wlis maastrixtis xelSekrulebis Semdgom daiwyo. swored maastrixtSi Caeyara safuZveli evropaSi politikuri kavSiris Seqmnas. marTalia, manamdec arsebobda politikuri erTobis Camoyalibebis ramdenime mcdeloba, magram yvela maTgani uSedego aRmoCnda. ufro metic, jer kidev 50-ian wlebSi gaCnda idea, ekonomikuri gaerTianebis paralelurad, politikuri da Tavdacvis gaerTianebebic CamoeyalibebinaT. Tumca 1992 wlamde igi ar ganxorcielebula. es kidev erTxel amtkicebs neofunqcionaluri Teoriis amosaval princips, rom politikis sferoSi integraciis dawyebas jer etapobrivi ekonomikuri integracia unda uswrebdes win. swored am principiT gansxavdebian neofunqcionalistebi federalistebisgan, romlebic integraciis dasawyisSive politikuri kavSiris (”evropis SeerTebuli Statebis”) Seqmnas uSedegod isaxavdnen miznad. erovnuli suverenitetis kuTxiT iseTi mtkivneuli sakiTxebi, rogoricaa qveynis sagareo politikuri kursi, Tavdacva da usafrTxoeba, mTavrobaTSoris doneze gadasawyvet sakiTxebad rCeba da maTze zeerovnul organoebs faqtiurad ar miuwvdebaT xeli. Tumca is faqti, rom am sferoSi erToblivi CarCoebis Camosayalibeblad TanamSromloba dawyebulia progresul movlenad unda CaiTvalos. istoriulad cnobilia, rom mraval sferoSi mTavrobaTSoris doneze TanamSromlobis dawyebas Tan mohyva SemdgomSi am sakiTxebis zeerovnul doneze gadatana. amis kargi magaliTia amsterdamis xelSekruleba, romlis Sedegadac sakiTxTa garkveuli nawi179

li mesame svetidan (mTavrobaTSorisi sveti) pirvel svetSi (gaerTianebis sveti) gadavida. lisabonis xelSekrulebam TanamSromlobis sferoebis ”komunitarizaciis” ufro kargi garemo Seqmna. man saerTod gaauqma sakiTxTa svetebad dayofa da evrokavSiri saerTaSoriso asparezze moqmed erT iuridiul aqtorad Camoayaliba. es nabiji mniSvnelovnad Seuwyobs saxelmwifoTa Soris TanamSromlobis gazrdas da gaerTianebis doneze damatebiT axali sferoebis gadatanas. gaerTianebis donis gafarToeba ki politikuri integraciis erT-erTi umTavresi pirobaa. svetebis gauqmeba evrokavSiris kidev erTi grZelvadiani miznis ganxorcielebas warmoadgens. 2001 wels qalaq lakenSi (belgia) gamarTul evropul samitze evropelma liderebma miznad daisaxes, rom saerTaSoriso arenaze evrokavSiris erT Zlier moqmed aqtorad Camosayalibeblad zomebi mieRoT. meti SekavSirebulobisaTvis gadawyda, rom dadga dro, evrokavSiri ”erT xmaze” laparakobdes. ver vityviT, rom dRes es sakiTxi sabolood gadawyda da evrokavSiris 27-ve wevri saxelmwifo sagareo politikis warmoebis dros ”erT xmaze” saubrobs, Tumca am miznis misaRwevad lisabonis xelSekrulebam sakmaod bevri Zireuli instituciuri cvlileba Semoitana. lisabonis xelSekruleba lisabonis xelSekruleba marTlac reformistul xasiaTs atarebs. 1992 wels maastrixtis xelSekrulebiT evrogaerTianeba evrokavSirad gadakeTda da ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis paralelurad, wevr saxelmwifoTa Soris politikuri TanamSromloba daiwyo. 2009 wels ki lisabonis xelSekrulebiT es kavSiri kidev ufro daixvewa da gamyarda. 180

am ori xelSekrulebis ubralo Sedarebac ki cxadyofs, rom politikuri integracia Tu daCqarebuli tempebiT ara aRmavali intensiobiT namdvilad viTardeboda. isev istoria rom gavixsenoT _ erTiani ekonomikuri sivrcis Seqmnis idea jer kidev 1957 wels romis xelSekrulebaSi gaJRerda, realurad ki erTian bazarze gadasvla evropam 1993 wlidan SeZlo. Tan cnobilia, rom ekonomikis dargSi integracia, ekonomikuri sargeblianobidan gamomdinare, politikur integraciasTan SedarebiT advilad mimdinareobs. is amavdros SedarebiT naklebad mtkivneulia wevri saxelmwifoebisaTvis. politikis sferoSi suverenuli uflebebis daTmoba ki met sirTuleebs awydeba. politikuri integraciis amgvari xasiaTis miuxedavad, lisabonis xelSekruleba sagrZnob winsvlad migvaCnia. meti SekavSirebulobis misaRwevad, integraciis gasaRrmaveblad, axal gamowvevebTan gasamklaveblad, saerTaSoriso asaparezze erTiani poziciiT gamosvlisTvis anu evrokavSiris ”erT xmaze asalaparakeblad” gatarda Semdegi cvlilebebi: a) evropuli sabWo: • SeiZina damoukidebeli da formaluri institutis statusi. oficialurad daevala evrokavSiris zogadi politikuri mimarTulebisa da prioritetebis gansazRvra. evropul sabWos inetgraciis gaRrmavebis kuTxiT Seqmnis dRidan erT-erTi gamorCeuli adgili uWiravs. 70-ian wlebSi misi dafuZneba im dros arsebuli Znelad dasaZlevi Sida Tu gare problemebis (msoflio ekonomikaSi arsebuli krizisi, gaerTianebaSi TanamSromlobis gaRmavebis saWiroeba) mosagvareblad gadawyda. dRemde yvela ZiriTadi axali politikuri mimarTulebis iniciatori evropuli sabWo iyo. amdenad misi institucionalizacia politikuri integraciis kuTxiT progresul movlenad migvaCnia. Tan, Cvenis azriT, evro181

puli sabWo, warsulTan SedarebiT, metad ”komunitarul” xasiaTs atarebs. es, albaT calke msjelobis Temaa. Tumca meti TvalsaCinoebisTvis dRevandel mdgomareobas Sevadarebdi de golisa da margaret tetCeris periodebs. • 6 Tviani rotaciuli wesiT daniSnuli evropuli sabWos prezidentis nacvlad SemoRebul iqna 2 weliwad naxevris vadiT arCeuli prezidentis axali posti. es cvlileba saqmis gangrZobadobisa da evropuli sabWos ufro efeqturad muSaobis kuTxiT Zalzed mniSvnelovania. prezidentma SeiTavsa evrokavSiris sagareo warmomdgenlis funqcia, ise rom, ar unda moxdes sagareo da usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi evrokavSiris umaRlesi warmomodgenlis funqciaTa gadakveTa. reformirebuli sabWos pirvel prezidentad wevri saxlemwifoebis liderebma neitraluri kandidati, belgiis yofili premier ministri, herman van rompei (Herman Van Rompuy) airCies. es nabijic miuTiTebs, rom evropas dRes saqmeze orientirebuli pirovneba da ara odiozuri, mokaSkaSe figura sWirdeba. SerCevis procesSi yvelaze realur kandidatad toni bleri saxeldeboda, Tumca evrokavSirma arCevani naklebad ambiciur kandidatze gaakeTa. b) umaRlesi warmomadgenlis posti • Seiqmna saerTaSoriso arenaze sagareo da usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi kavSiris erTiani warmomadgenlis Tanamdeboba. sakonstitucio iniciativaSi mas sagareo saqmeTa ministric ewodeboda. es posti Tavdapirvelad amsterdamis xelSekrulebiT Camoyalibda, Tumca lisabonis xelSekrulebiT sakmaod gafarTovda da gamyarda. neofunqcionaluri TeoriiT Tu mivudgebiT, ”gadaRvra” moxda konkretuli Tanamdebobis funqciuri gaZlierebis kuTxiT. 182

• pirvel umaRles warmomadgenlad SerCeul iqna ketrin eStonis kandidatura. igi evrokavSiris umaRlesi warmomadgenlis funqciis garda iTavsebs sagareo saqmeTa komisrisa da komisiis pirveli vice-prezidentis postebs, anu xdeba komisiis wevri. aseve avtomaturad iniSneba sagareo sakiTxTa sabWos Tavmjdomaris Tanamdebobaze. am cvlilebiT umaRlesi warmomadgeneli erTdroulad or organoSi (komisia da sabWo) xelmZRvanelobs sagareo politikas. TanamdebobaTa amgvari gaerTianeba evrokavSiris institutebs, miTumetes zeerovnul da mTavrobaTSoris organeobs Soris koordinacias mniSvnelovnad gaaumjobesebs. • sagareo warmomadgenlobis meti efeqturobisaTvis, Seiqmna damoukidebeli organo _ evropis sagareo saqmeTa samsaxuri. es samsaxuri koordinacias gauwevs evrokavSiris sagareo, Tavdacvisa da usafrTxoebis politikas. faqtiurad evrokavSirSi Camoyalibda sagareo saqmeTa ministris posti da sagareo saqmeTa saministro. es, politikuri integraciis kuTxiT, umniSvnelovanesi win gadadgmuli nabijia. am gadawyvetilebiT, evrokavSiris sagareo politikas msoflioSi erTi adamiani waradgens, romelsac sagareo saqmeebis koordinaciisTvis gazrdili uflebebi da realuri, iuridiuli dokumentiT dadasturebuli wona eqneba. aseve eqneba sakuTari uwyeba. es pirdapir exmaureba lakenis SeTanxmebis erTerT ZiriTad mizans, romelic evrokavSiris saerTaSoriso arenaze "erTiani xmiT" wardgenasa da qveynebs Soris sagareo da usafrTxoebis sakiTxebSi gazrdil TanamSromlobas iTvaliswinebs. kritikosebi lisabonis xelSekrulebas sam maRal Cinovniks (evropuli sabWosa da komisiis prezidentebi da umaRlesi warmomadgeneli) Soris uflebamosilebaTa arasaTanado gamijvnaSi adanaSauleben. amis niadagze ki 183

maT Soris xSir konfrontacias varaudoben. lisabonis xelSekruleba prezidentebsa da institutebs Soris kompetenciis ganawilebis zogad CarCoebs ayalibebs. vfiqrobT, roca uprecedento da sakmaod masStaburi postebis Seqmnasa da danergvas exeba saqme, konkretika safuZvels moklebulic SeiZleba iyos. funqciaTa realuri gamijvna ZiriTadad praqtikuli saqmianobis dros xdeba da amis sakmao gamocdileba ukve aqvs evrokavSirs. amgvari midgoma, ufro efeqturi da realobas morgebulia. skeptikosTa Soris arsebobs eWvi imis Sesaxeb, ramdenad realuri gavlena eqneba umaRles warmomadgenels, radgan varaudoben, rom Zlieri evropuli qveynis mmarTveli pirebi mas sagareo saqmeebSi liderobas ar dauTmoben. Tumca SeqmnisTanave evrokavSirSi arc erTi instituti an posti ar yofila Zlieri da misi funqciebisa da wonis gazrda wlebis manzilze safexurebrivad xdeboda. amis kargi magaliTia evroparlamenti: evroparlamenti 1951 wlis parizis xelSekrulebiT Seqmnili ”saerTo asamblea” sakmaod SezRuduli iyo da mxolod sakonsultacio funqciebs atarebda. romis xelSekrulebis Semdeg, man Seicvala saxeli da gaxda ”evropis saparlamento asablea”, romelic pirvelad 1958 wels Seikriba. swored am dRidan iwyeba dRevandeli parlamentis istoria. 1967 wels evropuli gaerTianebebis Serwymis Semdeg mas ”evroparlamenti” ewoda da masSi samive gaerTianebis asamblea Sevida. evroparlamentis fuqnciebi wlebis manZilze izrdeboda. etapobrivad parlaments, sabWosTan erTad kanonSemoqmedebiTobisa da biujetis damtkicebis uflebac gadaeca. istoriul TariRad iTvleba 1979 weli, 184

roca evroparlamentis pirveli pirdapiri arCevnebi Catarda da evroparlamentarebi uSualod evropis mosaxleobam airCia. manamde evroparlamentarebs wevri saxelmwifoebi Tavisi SerCeviT gzavnidnen da, faqtobrivad, deputatis posti iyo daniSvniTi da ara _ arCeviTi, rac Crdils ayenebda evroparlamentis demokratiulobas. evroparlamentis funqciebi da roli gansakuTrebiT gamyarda lisabonis xelSekrulebiT. igi uflebrivad gauTanabrda sabWos, rogorc kanonebis miRebaSi, aseve biujetis damtkicebaSi. dReisaTvis is gacilebiT angariSgasawevi Zalaa evrokavSiris sxva institutebTan urTierTobis dros. lisabonis xelSekrulebiT ”ZiriTad sakanonmdeblo procedurad” Tanagadwyveta iqca. Tanagadawyvetis dros parlamenti kanonproeqtis ganxilvasa da kanonis miRebaSi srulad monawileobs da sabWos sruluflebiani partnioria. kanonTa ZiriTadi nawili ukve TanagadawyvetiT miiReba (es procedura 40 axal sferoze gavrcelda). parlamentma 70-ian wlebSi moipova biujetis ganxilvasa da damtkicebaSi monawileobis ufleba. Tumca 2009 wlamde misi gavlena ar vrceldeboda mTlian biujetze: parlaments ar hqonda saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebis ufleba e.w. ”savaldebulo danaxarjebze” (soflis meurneobasa da saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebebze gaTvaliswinebuli danaxarjebi, mTliani biujetis daaxloebiT 45%), aq gadawyvetilebebs damoukideblad iRebda sabWo. lisabonis xelSekrulebis mixedviT, parlamenti ukve monawileobs biujetis mTlianad damtkicebaSi. dReisTvis ukve sakmaod gazrdilia parlamentis kontroli sxva institutebze: • parlamenti amtkicebs evropuli sabWos mier SerCeul komisiis prezidents. lisabonis xelSekrulebiT, evrupulma sabWom komisiis prezidentobis kandidati 185

unda SearCios evroparlamentis bolo arCevnebis Sedegebis gaTvaliswinebiT. es komisiis prezidents parlamentis winaSe damatebiT angariSvaldebulebas uCens. • parlamenti aseve amtkicebs komisarTa kolegias. aqvs komisiis daTxovnis ufleba. umtkicebs komisias yovelwliur programas da ganvlili wlis finansur gegmas. • parlamenti amtkicebs evropis centraluri bankis prezidentsa da aRmasrulebel sabWos. bankis prezidenti valdebulia warudginos parlaments yovelwliuri moxseneba. • parlamenti irCevs evropis ombucmens, romlis funqciacaa evrokavSiris institutebis winaaRmdeg mosaxleobis sarCelebis ganxilva. • parlamenti niSnavs evrokavSiris auditorTa sasamarTlos wevrebs. • parlamentTan angariSvaldebulia umaRlesi warmomadgenelic. mas mudmivad unda hqondes axlo kavSiri parlamentTan da movalea, regularulad gaiaros konsultaciebi. (http://euobserver.com/9/28878) amgvari konsultaciebi da umaRlesi warmomadgenlis moxsenebebi parlamentSi ukve daiwyo. mimdinareobs debatebi evropis sagareo saqmeTa samsaxuris struqturasa da finansirebis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. axali iniciativebi rogorc davinaxeT, parlamenti ”gadaRvris” principiT uflebrivi gaZlierebis TvalsaCino magaliTia. igi zeerovnuli mmarTvelobis flangze komisiis Zlier mokavSired Camoyalibda. konkretuli precedentebis Sedegad, parlamentis roli ufro izrdeba. SegviZlia Tamamad vamtkicoT, rom politikuri integraciis yvelaze aqtiuri faza 2009 wlis bolos, lisabonis xelSekrule186

bis ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg daiwyo. radgan am etapze mimdinareobs xelSekrulebaSi gawerili funqciebisa da ufleba-movaleobebis praqtikaSi danergva. es procesi ki aucileblad gulisxmobs axal-axal iniciativebsa da politikuri TanamSromlobis metad gaRmavebas. sainteresoa parlamentis bolodroindeli iniciativebi: 1. evrokomisiis wevrebi, parlamentarTa msgavsad, saerTo evropuli arCevnebis Sedegad iqnen arCeulni. evroparlamentis mimdinare prezidentis jerzi buzekis Rrma rwmeniT, es nabiji komisrebs evrokavSiris moqalaqeebis winaSe metad ”xiluls” gaxdis da maT ”demokratiul mandats” mianiWebs. ”amas ar eqneba mxolod simboluri mniSvneloba, komisia SeiZens ufro Zlier demokratiul legitimurobas da gaZlierdeba, rogorc instituti.” - ganacxada buzekma 2010 wlis martSi humboldtis universitetSi gamosvlis dros. (http://euobserver.com/9/29742) marTlac, parlamentis iniciativa komisias, metad demokratiulsa da erovnuli gavlenisgan damoukidebels gaxdis. es ar aris pirveli SemTxveva, roca parlamenti komisiis uflebriv gaZlierebas iTxovs, an piriqiT. orive zeerovnuli organo erTmaneTis gasaZliereblad sabWos winaaRmdeg mudmivad aqtiur metoqeobaSia CarTuli. 2. evropuli sabWos prezidentma gaakeTos yovelwliuri saangariSo moxseneba parlamentSi, ise rogorc qveynis pirveli pirebi gamodian moxsenebiT TavianT erovnul parlamentebSi. es iniciativa evropuli sabWos prezidents parlamentis winaSe angariSvaldebuls gaxdis, rac xels Seuwyobs parlamentis gavlenis zrdas. rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, zeerovnuli mmarTvelobis funqciuri zrda pirdapir kavSirSia evrokavSiris federaciuli xasiaTis zrdasTan. aqamde arsebuli wesiT, ev187

ropuli sabWos prezidenti mxolod samitis dasrulebis Semdeg abarebs angariSs parlaments. parlamentis prezidenti ki samitze mxolod gaxsniT nawilSi monawileobs, rodesac sityviT mimarTavs sxdomis damswreebs, acnobs gansaxilvel sakiTxebTan mimarTebaSi evroparlamentis pozicias da Semdeg tovebs darbazs. es iniciativebi kargad warmoaCens evrokavSirSi damkvidrebul praqtikas, roca konkretuli xelSekrulebis miRebis Semdegac iCens Tavs axali winadadebebi, romlebic integraciis sxva sferoebze gavrcelebis an TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebiskenaa mimarTuli. daskvna amdenad, zemoT moyvanili faqtebi gvaZlevs imis mtkicebis safuZvels, rom ekonomikuri integracia 90iani wlebis Semdeg namdvilad gadaizarda politikur TanamSromlobaSi. nel-nela, Tumca aRmavali progresiiT, mimdinareobs politikuri kavSiris gaZliereba. TemaSi SevecadeT warmogveCina politikuri integraciis kuTxiT arsebuli Tanamedrove dinamika, romelic saTaves evropuli gareTianebis Camoyalibebis pirvelive dRidan iRebs. avsaxeT, rogor miesadageboda da miesadageba integraciis procesi neofunqcionalistebis mier wamoyenebul principebs. gansakuTrebiT gavamaxvileT yuradReba lisabonis xelSekrulebiT inicirebul instituciur gardaqmnebze, romlebic kavSiris federalur xasiaTis gamyarebisken aris mimarTuli. axali SeTanxmebiT mniSvnelovnad gaizarda komisiis, paralmentis, ministrTa da evropuli sabWoebis funqciebi, daixvewa maTi organizaciuli struqtura da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procedura. gadaidga nabijebi evrokavSiris demokratiulobis zrdis-

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ken. am etapze mimdinareobs xelSekrulebiT SeTanxmebuli punqtebis praqtikaSi danergva da adaptacia. ar gvaqvs imis iluzia, rom evrokavSiri warmovaCinoT, rogorc uxarvezo da mZlavri politikuri erToba. Tumca imis mtkiceba namdvilad SeiZleba, rom politikuri integracia ukve aqtiurad mimdinareobs da wlidan wlamde evropul saxelmwifoTa gaerTianeba sul ufro Zlier saerTaSoriso aqtorad yalibdeba. moyvanili argumentebi, naSromis specifikidan gamomdinare, SedarebiT zogad xasiaTs atarebs. vfiqrobT, am formatSi meti detalizacia arc iyo saWiro, radgan Cvens ZiriTad mizans Temis aqtualobaze xazgasama da zogadi suraTis daxatva warmoadgenda. Tumca migvaCnia, rom naSromis ZiriTadi Tezisis garSemo ufro siRrmiseuli da masStaburi kvlevaa Casatarebeli. es ukeT warmoaCens evrointegraciis process politikur WrilSi. am mimarTulebiT muSaoba ukve dawyebuli gvaqvs da saboloo Sedegebs ufro farTomasStabian naSromSi warmovadgenT. gamoyenebulidacitirebuli literatura: 1. 2. 3. gogolaSvili kaxa da kapanaZe sergi, evrokavSiris institutebi da politika, Tbilisi, 2006, leonardi dik, evrokavSiris saxelmZRvanelo, Tbilisi, 2002, javaxiSvili biZina (Semdgeneli), sityvari - evropis kavSiri: politika da mmarTveli organoebi, evrokomisiis warmomadgenloba saqarTvelosa da somxeTSi, Tbilisi, 2003, Bache Ian and George Stephen, Politics in the European Union, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 2006,

4.

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5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

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11. 12. 13. 14.

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Draft Treaty Establishing A Constitution For Europe, Adopted by consensus by the European Convention, 2003, Joint Study – CEPS, EPC, EGMONT, The Treaty of Lisbon Implementing the Institutional Innovations, 2007, Haas Ernst B.: International Integration: The European and the Universal Process, International Organization, Vol. 15, Issue 3 (Summer 1961), Haas Ernst B. 1975. The Obsolescence of Regional Integration Theory. Berkeley: University of California, Lindberg Leon N., Political Integration: Definitions and Hypotheses, The political Dynamics of European Economic Integration, 1963, reprinted in: The European Union, Readings on the Theory and Practice of European Integration eduted by Brent F. Nelsen and Alexander Stubb. Third Edition, 2003, Malamud Andres, Spillover in European and South American Integration, Prepared for delivery at the 2001 meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Washington D.C., 2001, Nugent Neil: The Government and Politics of the European Union, Duke University Press, Fifth Edition, 2003, Chapter 7, Rosamond Ben: Theories of European Integration, London, Mocmilan, 2000 Treaty of Lisbon, 2007, Wallace Helen and Wallace William, Policy-Making in the European Union, Sixth Edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 2005. European Commission: It’s a better life, How the EU’s single market benefits you, DG Press and Communication, 2002

Web resources: http://europa.eu.int/ http://www.euobserver.com/ http://www.euractiv.com http://www.wikipedia.org 190

Abstract Gizo Chelidze – PhD Student of the Faculty of Social and

Political Sciences of TSU.
The presented research aims to discuss the EU integration process in the context of politics. We argue that, since the economic integration has been deepened, an active phase of political integration in the EU has started. Despite the fact, that we still can not consider the EU as a single and full-scale political actor on international stage, we strongly consider that the political integration of the EU has started since its establishment and the process still continues, despite many resistance and obstacles. In addition we assume, that since 1992 Maastricht Treaty, the member states officially started delegating their sovereign rights in the political sphere to the European institutions. Maastricht was followed by Amsterdam and Nice treaties, as well as the failed Constitutional Treaty and finally the Lisbon Treaty. The Lisbon Treaty is also called Reform Treaty, because it considerably changes the institutional order of the EU which existed before and pulls the Union into the new and higher level of integration. To prove the main thesis of the research we use the Neofunctional theory. We are convinced that Neofunctionalism mostly fits to the EU integration model.

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axalgazrduli identobebi brikolaJis gziT Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi
lia wulaZe asocirebuli profesori,socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti

kvlevis mizani. Tanamedrove epoqaSi, romelic swrafi sociokulturuli cvlilebebiT gamoirCeva, gansakuTrebiT mravalferovania sxvadasxva axalgazrduli jgufebi Tu subkulturebi. socialur mkvlevarTa azriT, ,,isini aSkara damoukideblobas avlenen im modelebisagan, romlebic farTo sazogadoebas marTavs... kulturis codna sazogadoebis doneze aRaraa sakmarisi am jgufebis reprezentaciebis ganWvretisa da axsnisaTvis (Camilleri & Malewska-Peyre, 1997, gv. 45). amasTan, sxvadasxva subkulturebis Rirebulebebisa da Sexedulebebis gacnoba saSualebas aZlevs individebs, ,,maTi sazogadoebis mier miwodebuli mravalferovani masalis pirovnuli manipulireba moaxdinon... aseT pirobebSi, gamocdilebiT miRebuli kultura mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba sazogadoebisagan miwodebuli kulturisagan” (iqve, gv. 46). warmodgenili kvlevis mizania Tanamedrove saqarTveloSi axalgazrdebis ,,gamocdilebiT miRebuli kulturis” Seswavla, Cveneba imisa, Tu rogor axdenen isini rogorc adgilobrivi, ise globaluri kulturis mier miwodebuli ,,mravalferovani masalis manipulirebas” da garkveva imisa, iwvevs Tu ara es ,,manipulireba” axali tradiciis Seqmnas (Hobsbawm & Ranger, 1983). samizne jgufs Seadgenen 16-21 wlis axalgazrdebi da kvleva 192

fokusirebulia im aqtivobebis Seswavlaze, romelTac Tavisufali drois gasatareblad iyeneben, radgan swored amgvari aqtivobebi asaxavs maT cxovrebis stilsa da SemoqmedebiTobas. kvlevis meTodologia. Sevecade ra, maqsimalurad dameaxlovebina samecniero da yoveldRiuri cxovrebis sferoebi, risTvisac aucilebeli iyo ,,obieqturi distanciis daZleva mkvlevris samyarosa da sakvlevi obieqtebis kulturul samyaroebs Soris” (Narayan, გვ. 672), vxelmZRvanelobdi v. grisuoldis mier SemoTavazebuli argumentebiT kulturis sociologiis sakvlevi oTxi umTavresi aspeqtis Sesaxeb, rogoricaa mniSvneloba, Zalaufleba, qmedeba da hegemonia (Griswold, 1992, gv. 324326). Cemi SexedulebiT, rac ufro metad iqneboda SesaZlebeli ,,obieqturi distanciis daZleva” mkvlevarsa da sakvlev obieqtebs Soris oTxive parametris safuZvelze, miT ufro metad waiSleboda sazRvrebi samecniero da yoveldRiuri cxovrebis sferoebs Soris. swored es iyo mTavari motivi kvlevaSi Cemi studentebis, rogorc Tanamkvlevrebis, CarTvisa da axalgazrduli kulturis analizis mcdelobisa maTi Tvalsawieridan, radgan aSkara iyo, rom, oTxive parametris gaTvaliswinebiT, naklebi ,,obieqturi distancia” arsebobda Cems samizne jgufsa da Cems Tanamkvlevrebs Soris, vidre Cems samizne jgufsa da Cems Soris. am mizniT, 25 siRrmiseuli intervius Catarebis da Tbilisis yvelaze popularul musikalur klubebSi dakvirvebebis ganxorcielebis Semdeg, agreTve popularuli axalgazrduli internet-forumebis (www.forum.ge, www.boke.ge, www.anime.ge) analizis Sedegad, SevarCie 12 studenti (mamrobiTi da mdedrobiTi sqesis, gansxvavebuli socioekonomikuri safuZvlebis mqone da swavle193

bis sxvadasxva safexurze myofi) da vTxove TiToeuls, ori siRrmiseuli interviu Caetarebina misive socialuri wris warmomadgenel 16-21 wlis axalgazrdasTan (Cems Tanamkvlevrebs Tavadve unda ganesazRvraT maTi socialuri wris warmomadgenlebi). garda amisa, maT dakvirvebebi unda ganexorcielebinaT Tbilisis popularul musikalur klubebSi da refleqsia unda moexdinaT diskusiebze, romlebic popularul axalgazrdul internetforumebze imarTeboda. sul bolos, Cemi Tanamkvlevrebi or jgufad davyavi da ori fokus jgufi Cavatare, raTa gamerkvia, Tu rogor moaxdendnen erTmaneTis interpretaciebis spontanurad Sefasebas. Cemi Tanamkvlevrebis mier mopovebulma da interpretirebulma monacemebma saSualeba momca, interpretirebuli realobis meoradi interpretacia momexdina, rogorc girciseuli analizis (“thick description”) ganxorcielebis saSualeba. kvlevis Sedegebi. amgvarad, rogor damexmarnen Cemi studentebi, rogorc Tanamkvlevrebi, ,,obieqturi distanciis daZlevaSi mkvlevris samyarosa da sakvlevi obieqtebis kulturul samyaroebs Soris” da ra aRmovaCine maTi interpretaciebis safuZvelze, rac sxva mxriv CemTvis araxelmisawvdomi iqneboda? pirveli sakiTxi, romelmac am mimarTulebiT Cemi yuradReba miipyro, musikalur klubebSi vizitTan dakavSirebiT axalgazrdebis Sexedulebebi iyo. saidumlos ar warmoadgens, rom TbilisSi musikalur klubebSi siaruli sakmaod Zviri siamovnebaa, SedarebiT maRali Semosavlis mqone adamianebisTvisac ki. ra mizezebs asaxeleben Tavad axalgazrdebi imis asaxsnelad, Tu ratom ar dadian musikalur klubebSi da ra gansxvavebaa maTi TanatolebisTvis (Cemi TanamkvlevrebisTvis) da mkvlevrisTvis (CemTvis) gankuTvnil versiebs Soris? 194

TanatolebTan interviuSi axalgazrdebi aRniSnavdnen, rom musikalur klubebSi TveSi erTxel an ufro iSviaTadac ki dadiodnen materialuri saSualebis uqonlobis gamo da gamoTqvamdnen survils, ufro xSirad earaT klubebSi, radgan ,,qlabingi” (“clubbing”) Tanamedrove modur tendenciad miaCndaT. CemTan interviuSi ki isini xSirad aRniSnavdnen, rom klubebSi siaruli saqarTveloSi ,,cud tonad” iTvleboda da ,,seriozulad ver aRiqmeboda, radgan axalgazrdebi iq, umetesad, erTmaneTis gasacnobad da mcirexniani urTierTobebis dasamyareblad” dadiodnen, rac qarTul tradiciebs ewinaaRmdegeba (natalia, 18 wlis). amdenad, axalgazrdebi ori saxis narativs gvTavazoben: erT SemTxvevaSi isini cdiloben, modurad gamoiyurebodnen, meore SemTxvevaSi ki - tradiciulad. am konteqstSi gvaxsendeba riCardsonis mier SemoTavazebuli klasifikacia, romelic kvlevis obieqtTa or gansxvavebul narativs aRwers: ,,kulturul istoriebs,” romelTac respondentebi normatuli wesrigisa da mmarTveli interesebis poziciidan gviamboben, da ,,koleqtiur istoriebs,” romelTac isini kulturul istoriaSi marginalizebuli adamianebis poziciidan gviamboben (Richardson in Miller & Glassner, 2004, gv, 130). respondentTa narativebis kulturul da koleqtiur (me vityodi ,,subkulturul”) istoriebad dayofa kodebsa da qmedebebs Soris urTierTmimarTebas asaxavs da gviCvenebs, Tu ra gavlenas axdens ,,kodis moTxroba” socialuri realobis gansxvavebuli versiebis warmoqmnaze (Jimerson & Oware, 2006, gv. 24-50). Cvens SemTxvevaSi, es ori gansxvavebuli narativi asaxavs qarTveli axalgazrdebis urTierTsapirispiro miswrafebebs tradiciulobisa (moTxrobili mkvlevrisTvis/CemTvis ,,kulturuli istoriis” poziciidan) da Tanamedroveobisadmi (moTxrobili Tana195

tolebisTvis/Cemi TanamkvlevrebisTvis ,,koleqtiuri istoriis” poziciidan), da swored am ori tipis monaTxrobis kulturis WrilSi konteqstualizaciam unda dagvanaxos realuri suraTi. amgvari konteqstualizacia ki cxadyofs, rom dRes tradiciuloba namdvilad ar warmoadgens modur tendencias. maS, ra miaCniaT modurad Tanamedrove qarTvel axalgazrdebs? kvlevis safuZvelze gamovlinda sami moduri tendencia qarTvel axalgazrdebSi: ,,gamorCeuloba” (,,individualoba”), ,,inteleqtualoba” (ufro swored, inteleqtualuri imijis qona) da ,,erovnuloba.” aRsaniSnavia, rom, Tumca tradiciuloba, moZvelebuli Sexedulebebis tarebisa da siaxleebisadmi miuReblobis TvalsazrisiT, arapopularuladaa miCneuli, ,,erovnuloba,” rogorc im kulturuli Taviseburebebis SenarCuneba, rac qarTul kulturas sxvebisagan gamoarCevs, iqneba es qarTuli polifonia, qarTuli xalxuri simRerebi da cekvebi, qarTuli sufris tradiciebi da ,,qarTuli urTierTobebic” ki, raSic axalgazrdebi, umTavresad, emociur mijaWvulobasa da Sida jgufis wevrebis mxridan mxardaWeras gulisxmoben, dResac sakmaod popularuladaa miCneuli. axalgazrdebisaTvis gamorCeulobis/individualobis mniSvneloba araerTxelaa xazgasmuli axalgazrduli kulturebisa da subkulturebis rogorc klasikur, ise Tanamedrove kvlevebSi. rogor aRiqmeba ,,gamorCeuloba” qarTveli axalgazrdebis mier da ramdenad axlosaa respondentebis, maTi Tanatolebis (Cemi Tanamkvlevrebis) da mkvlevris (Cemi) Sexedulebebi? respondentebis sityvebiT, gamorCeuli axalgazrda ar hgavs ,,tipiur axalgazrdas, romelzec gavlenis moxdena Zalian martivia, radgan misTvis mosaxerxebelia, iyos konformisti... tipiur axalgazrdebs axasiaTebT sxvebis msgavsi gemovneba, acviaT sxvebis msgavsi tansac196

meli da usmenen msgavs musikas. isini ar cdiloben, masisgan gamoirCeodnen, iyon ufro inteleqtualebi, piriqiT, maT panikurad eSiniaT gamorCeulobis” (TinaTini, 19 wlis). amis sapirispirod, gamorCeuli axalgazrda ,,namdvilad ar aris Cveulebrivi da standartuli, rogorc ,masobrivi tipi.’ mas mravalmxrivi interesebi da mravalferovani gemovneba aqvs... is gacilebiT mets fiqrobs da gacilebiT SemoqmedebiTia, vidre sxvebi” (daviTi, 19 wlis). da aRsaniSnavia, rom respondentebi araTu identurad afaseben gamorCeul da aragamorCeul axalgazrdebs, aramed identuri terminebiTac ki amkoben: ,,individualebi” da ,,masobrivi tipebi.” rogorc raodenobrivma kontent-analizma gamoavlina, ,,individualebis” daxasiaTebisas respondentebi Semdeg cnebebs iyeneben: mravalferovani, arastandartuli, mravalmxrivi, inteleqtualuri, SemoqmedebiTi da sxv., xolo ,,masobrivi tipebis” Sefasebisas, umetesad, Semdegi terminebi gamoiyeneba: standartuli, Cveulebrivi, erTferovani, mimbaZveli, konformisti da sxv. ,,individualebsa” da ,,masobriv tipebs” Soris amgvari dayofa saocrad waagavs sara Torntonis respondentebis mier britaneli axalgazrdebis ,,hipad” da ,,meinsTrimad” dayofas, romelTa maxasiaTeblebi Cveni respondentebis mier gamoyofili maxasiaTeblebis identuria (Thornton, 1996, gv. 115): hipi meinsTrimi mravalferovani homogenuri alternatiuli sworxazobrivi radikali konformisti gamorCeuli Cveulebrivi xedaven ra, rom maTi Tanatolebi Zalian cdiloben, gamorCeulebi iyon, Tumca maTi mcdelobebi sakamod homogenuria, da acnobiereben ra, rom maT, SesaZloa, 197

msgavsi miswrafebebi mieweroT, Cemma Tanamkvlevrebma sakmaod saintereso strategia SeimuSaves sakuTari Tavis individualisturi ambiciebis mqone Tanatolebze maRla dasayeneblad. es strategia TvalsaCino iyo maTTan fokusuri jgufebis Catarebisas: ,,sinamdvileSi, es axalgazrdebi sulac ar arian sxvebisgan gamorCeulebi da gamorCeuloba maTTvis sasurvel da ara realur mdgomareobas warmoadgens” (mariami, 21 wlis); ,,yvela cdilobs, gansxvavebuli iyos, arada, es azrs moklebulia... axla vxvdebi, ra gamogvarCevs me da Cems megobrebs Cveni Tanatolebisgan - Cven arasdros vcdilobT, viyoT gamorCeulebi” (Tako, 20 wlis). winamdebare citatebi naTelyofs, Tu rogor yalibdeba avto- da heterostereotipebi da rogor axdenen axalgazrdebi erTmaneTis stigmatizebas Sida/gare jgufisadmi kuTvnilebis safuZvelze. respondentebis Tanaxmad, maTi megobrebis viwro wre (Sida jgufi) gamoirCeva mravalferovani gemovnebiT, mravalmxrivi interesebiT da inteleqtualuri miswrafebebiT, gansxvavebiT maTi Tanatolebisgan, romlebsac erTferovani gemovneba, konformistuli orientacia da inteleqtualuri miswrafebebis nakleboba axasiaTebT. Cemi Tanamkvlevrebic xazs usvamen maT gamorCeulobas, Tumca gansxvavebuli gziT - maTi Sida jgufi (,,Cven”) Tanatolebisgan imiT gansxvavdeba, rom isini arc ki cdiloben, gamorCeulad gamoiyurebodnen. rogorc zemoTqmuli adasturebs, axalgazrdebi, Cveulebriv, gamorCeulobas inteleqtualobasTan akavSireben da maT Sida jgufs am orive maxasiaTebels miaweren (ara aqvs mniSvneloba, sinamdvileSi ra kulturuli kapitalis matarebelni arian). am konteqstSi aucilebelia Cemi Tanamkvlevrebis mier mowodebuli saintereso informacia warmovadgino. aRmoCnda, rom qveyanaSi mimdinare sociokulturuli cvlilebebisa da saganma198

naTleblo reformebis fonze, gansakuTrebiT ,,moduri gaxda, iyo inteleqtuali,” Tumca, xSirad, es ufro imijs, vidre realur miswrafebas warmoadgens. aRmoCnda, rom bevri axalgazrda, inteleqtualurad rom gamoiyurebodes, literaturul kafeebSi dadis, sadac, SesaZloa, mTeli dRe uqmad gaataros da erTi gverdic ki ar waikiTxos, samagierod, sxvebs aCvenos, rom dinebas ar CamorCeba da uaxles literaturul miRwevebs ecnoba. erT-erTi Cemi Tanamkvlevari imaSic ki gamomityda, rom universitetis biblioTekaSi Sinidan mitanil komiqsebs kiTxulobda, sxvebs ki egonaT, rom samecniero literaturas ecnoboda. da aRmoCnda, rom es sakmaod gavrcelebuli praqtika iyo axalgazrdebs Soris, ris Sesaxebac yvelam icoda, Tumca masze saubars Tavs aridebdnen. amgvari qmedeba, rac qarTveli axalgazrdebisTvis ,,kulturuli intimurobis” (Herzfeld, 2005) safuZvels warmoadgens, pirdapir exmianeba devid magltonis daskvnas, rom, gansxvavebiT modernuli axalgazrduli kulturebisgan, romlebic Rirebulebebsa da rwmenebs usvamdnen xazs, postmodernuli axalgazrduli kulturebi garegnuli imijiTa da stiliT arian moxiblulni (Muggleton, 2002). inteleqtualobis erT-erT gamoxatulebas qarTveli axalgazrdebisTvis maTi slengic warmoadgens. aRmoCnda, rom qarTuli axalgazrduli slengi yvela im diskursuli maxasiaTebliT gamoirCeva, rac marsel danesim amerikuli da italiuri Tineijeruli slengebis Sedarebisas aRwera, iqneba es enis emociuri, konotaciuri Tu kliSe-koduri programireba (Danesi, 1994, p.99). amJamad Cems mizans ar warmoadgens qarTuli axalgazrduli slengis am universaluri maxasiaTeblebis ganxilva, aramed msurs, yuradReba mis kulturul-speci-

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fikur Taviseburebebze gavamaxvilo, raSic isev Cems Tanamkvlevrebs unda vumadlode. qarTuli axalgazrduli slengis uamravi magaliTis moyvaniT da maTi Tanatolebis mier farTod gamoyenebuli frazeologiis interpretaciis safuZvelze, Cemma Tanamkvlevrebma Semdegi daskvnisadmi mibiZges: Turme, roca maT Tanatolebs vinmes Seuracxyofa an misi provincializmis dacinva surT, isini, umetesad, ,,rusulqarTul” slengs iyeneben, rac, sinamdvileSi, rusuli sityvebis gadmoqarTulebas warmoadgens da am ori enis Tavisebur hibrids qmnis. Cveni interviuebidan uamravi amgvari ,,hibridi” gamovlinda, Tumca amJamad mxolod im ramdenime magaliTs davjerdebi, rac raodenobrivi konten-analizis safuZvelze iqna SerCeuli: ,,nu blataob,” ,,ra roJaa,” ,,riJa bazaria,” ,,magari prativnia” da sxv. xolo, roca axalgazrdebs surT, ,,magrebi” gamoCndnen an inteleqtualurad JRerdnen, isini msgavsi tipis ,,inglisur-qarTul” slengs iyeneben, romlis gavrcelebuli nimuSebic isev raodenobrivma kontent-analizma gamoavlina: ,,magari qulia,” ,,es musika laiTia,” ,,damimesije,” ,,fromouSeni gaukeTes” da sxv. unda vivaraudoT, rom axalgazrduli slengi qveynis dominantur politikur diskurss asaxavs da masSi Tavs iCens saqarTvelos ganwyoba misi mCagvreli mezoblis mimarT, amitom is ar unda JRerdes uCveulod im pirobebSi, roca ruseTi saqarTvelos ZiriTad mtradaa miCneuli, SeerTebuli Statebi ki - mis mTavar megobrad da mokavSired, araferi rom vTqvaT im faqtis Sesaxeb, rom Tavad inglisuri ena globalizaciis enaa da qarTvel axalgazrdebSi rusul enas karga xania CamoarTva ,,meore enis” statusi. da bolos, kidev erTi moduri tendencia, romelic kvlevam gamoavlina, ,,erovnulobaa,” Tumca, gamorCeulobis da inteleqtualobis msgavsad, isic, xSirad, uf200

ro imijis Tu fasadis saxiTaa SenarCunebuli. axalgazrdebis azriT, ,,iyo erovnuli” niSnavs, usmende qarTul tradiciul musikas, mRerode qarTul xalxur simRerebs (Tu rTul polifonias ara, sufrul simRerebs mainc) da aucileblad SeinarCuno ,,qarTuli urTierTobebi.” ra unda gamxdariyo dRes ,,erovnulad yofnis” aseTi popularobis mizezi da ramdenad gulwrfelia amgvari miswrafeba ,,erovnulobisken”? respondentebis Sexedulebebidan gamomdinare SegviZlia vivaraudoT, rom ,,erovnulobis” xazgasma Tanamedrove globalizebul samyaroSi ,,kulturuli intimurobis” SenarCunebis ZiriTadi strategiaa. is ara marto ,,erovnuli sulis” dacvis saSualebaa maSin, roca arsebobs Zlevamosili mezoblis mier okupaciis realuri safrTxe, aramed im dasavluri tendenciebisTvis winaaRmdegobis gawevis meqanizmicaa, romelTac Cveni sazogadoeba ,,damaxinjebulad iTvisebs” (qeTi, 18 wlis). axalgazrdebis mTavar satkivars ,,Tavisuflebis” dasavluri gageba warmoadgens, romelic, maTi TqmiT, maTi Tanatolebis mier ,,garyvnilebadaa” gagebuli: ,,miuxedavad imisa, rom undaT Tavisuflebi iyon, maT ar esmiT am Tavisuflebis arsi... es albaT Cveni mentalitetis bralia. zRvari daikarga, zRvari aRar arsebobs Tavisuflebasa da garyvnilebas Soris” (salome, 20 wlis). Cemma Tanamkvlevrebma am sakiTxze araCveulebrivi refleqsia moaxdines. maT daufaravad aRiares, rom miuxedavad sxvebisTvis miwerisa, Tavad isinic da maTi Sida jgufic dasavluri praqtikebis kopirebas axdenen; Tumca, maTi azriT, mTavar problemas ara am praqtikebis ,,damaxinjeba,” aramed maTi gauazrebeli kopireba warmoadgenda: ,,ver damTavrda saqarTveloSi prorusuli da proamerikuli kulturis gadmoRebis epoqa da ara da ar daiwyo proqarTuli epoqa... bolos da bolos, amerika ver gvaswavlis, rogor SevqmnaT istoria; amerikas SeuZ201

lia gvaswavlos, rogor SevqmnaT demokratia da ara kultura.qarTvelebma demokratiis mxolod is principebi unda aviRoT magaliTad, romlebic qarTul principebsa da realobas Seesabameba” (anano, 19 wlis). marTalia, Cemi Tanamkvlevrebi aRiarebdnen, rom mimdinare globalizaciis pirobebSi gariyulad yofna ara marto SeuZlebeli, aramed iracionaluricaa, isini xazs usvamdnen im faqts, rom iseTi patara qveynebisTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa, da romelTac wilad xvdaT didi saxelmwifoebis mxridan okupacia, sasicocxlod mniSvnelovani iyo ,,erovnuli sulis” SenarCuneba, Tumca modernizebuli formiT. amitomacaa, rom maT mier gamokiTxuli axalgazrdebis didi nawili kvlav qarTul sufrul tradiciebs misdevs, Tumca sadRegrZeloebis tradiciuli sistemis adaptacias axdens, kvlav qarTul xalxur musikas da polifonias usmens, Tumca, umetesad, maT modernizebul versiebs (interviuebidan gamomdinare, ,,Sini” da ,,assa-farTi” axalgazrdebis mier yvelaze popularul qarTvel Semsruleblebad arian miCneulni) da uars ambobs qarTuli popis mosmenaze, romelic, maTi sityvebiT, ,,dasavluri popis ugemovno mibaZvas warmoadgens” (sandro, 16 wlis). am konteqstSi martin robertsis mier SemoTavazebuli Tanamedrove subkulturuli praqtikis formebi gvaxsendeba, romlebic aRwers rogorc subkulturulis rols globalizaciis pirobebSi, ise globalizaciis rols subkulturebisTvis. qarTvel axalgazrdebs Soris gavrcelebuli ,,erovnulobis” moduri tendencia unda warmoadgendes subkulturul praqtikas, romelic miiswrafvis kulturuli gansxvavebulobisaken, rac gulisxmobs ,,kulturul sxvad” (“cultural other”) yofnas da rasac robertsi ,,primitivistul warmosaxvas” (“primitivist imaginary”) uwodebs (Roberts, 2005, gv. 579), Tumca, ne202

gatiuri SefasebiTi konotaciis gamo, Tavad termini sadavod mimaCnia. dasasruls, rogor afaseben Tavad axalgazrdebi lokalurisa da globaluris da aRmosavlurisa da dasavluris urTierTmimarTebas qarTul axalgazrdul kulturaSi? respondentebis Tanaxmad, radgan saqarTvelo, istoriulad, evropasa da azias Soris ,,xidad” iTvleboda, rogorc misi dominanturi, ise axalgazrduli kulturebi yovelTvis axdendnen dasavluri da aRmosavluri kulturebis elementebis kombinirebas. respondentebis mier SemoTavazebuli dasavluri kulturuli maxasiaTeblebis CamonaTvali sakmaod farToa da iseT elementebs moicavs, rogoricaa individualizmi, axalgazrdebis materialuri damoukidebloba mSoblebisgan, arCevanis Tavisufleba, sqesobrivi urTierTobebis Tavisufleba, genderuli Tanasworoba da sxv. aRmosavluri kulturuli maxasiaTeblebis CamonaTvali ki, ZiriTadad, Semdeg sam elements moicavs: axalgazrdebis materialuri damokidebuleba mSoblebze, mamakacebsa da qalebs Soris tradiciuli urTierTobebi, romelSic adgili ara aqvs genderul Tanasworobas da sqesobrivi urTierTobebis mkacri regulacia. refleqsirebas axdenen ra maTi Tanatolebis mier warmodgenil dasavluri da aRmosavluri kulturuli maxasiaTeblebis CamonaTvalze da acnobiereben ra, rom maT safuZvelze, qarTuli axalgazrduli kultura aRmosavlur da ara dasavlur kulturaTa ricxvs miekuTvneba, Cemi Tanamkvlevrebi cdiloben aRmosavlur da dasavlur kulturul maxasiaTeblebs Soris balansis damyarebas da aRniSnaven, rom, Tumca qarTuli kultura aRmosavluri kulturebisTvis Cveuli garkveuli Tavisebrebebis matarebelia, Tanamedrove pirobebSi dasavluri gavlenebi gacilebiT Zlieria, rac aisaxeba kidec ,,stilsa da CacmulobaSi, musikalur gemovnebaSi, sqe203

sobrivi urTierTobebisadmi cvalebad damokidebulebaSi da sxv.” (maia, 17 wlis). ,,udavoa, rom globalizaciis pirobebSi dasavluri gavlenebi gacilebiT Zlieria, Tumca Cveni axalgazrduli kultura arc sufTa dasavluria da arc aRmosavluri, is sufTa qarTulia... qarTulad xdeba es yvelaferi. raRac inovaciebi aris, magram mainc tradiciul farglebSia isev. TiTqos aris Tavisufleba, magram sxvebze damokidebuli Tavisufleba... es aris qarTuli sinamdvile” (mari, 20 wlis). da marTalia, es axalgazrdebi ar icnoben fridmanis Sexedulebebs, rom globaluri kulturuli obieqtebi yovelTvis lokalizebas ganicdis, anu axleburadaa danaxuli da SeTvisebuli adgilobrivi mosaxleobis mier, da arc ,,brikolaJis” cnebis Sesaxeb smeniaT, romelic farTod gamoiyeneba klarkis, hebdijis, uilisis, kaizeris da sxvebis naSromebSi, maTi mosazrebebi naTlad miuTiTebs lokalizaciis mniSvnelobasa da brikolaJis rols qarTul axalgazrdul kulturaSi: ,,veravin ver aiTvisebda da veravin ver gadmoaqarTulebda, vTqvaT, evropul kulturas ise, rogorc saqarTveloSi moxda. saboloo jamSi, specifikuri nazavi gamovida. principSi, Cveni fsiqikaa ukve danawevrebuli imitom, rom aRarc is varT, aRarc es varT, raRac amorfulebi varT” (TinaTini, 19 wlis). amgvarad, axalgazrdebi xazs usvamen qarTuli axalgazrduli kulturis gamorCeulobas, radgan msoflio inovaciebis qarTul tradiciebTan kombinireba unikalur sinTezs iZleva, romelic sxvagan verafriT gameordeba. sxva yvelaferTan erTad, Tavisuflebis cnebac ki kulturul-specifikurad aRiqmeba qarTveli axalgazrdebis mier. da rac ar unda iyos qarTuli axalgazrduli kulturis Semadgeneli elementebi - dasavluri, aRmosavluri, Tu maTi ,,specifikuri nazavi” 204

is mainc qarTulad rCeba, radgan es elementebi yovelTvis ,,gadmoqarTulebulia.” naSromis dasasruls, warmogidgenT brikolaJis TvalsaCino magaliTs, romelsac Tanamedrove alternatiuli musikis Semqmneli erT-erTi DJ gvTavazobs: ,,me, SesaZloa, gamoviyeno dasavluri elementebi Cemi qarTuli eskizis Sesamkobad, magram is mainc yovelTvis qarTulad rCeba da es gansakuTrebul siamayes maniWebs!” (irakli, 21 wlis). Lia Tsuladze Youth Identities through Bricolage in Modern Georgia The paper discusses how youth identities are constructed through bricolage in modern Georgia. Based on the assumption that in the contemporary changeable world, the fact of being exposed to the values and lifestyles of different subgroups or subcultures gives individuals “the power of a personal manipulation of the diversified materials provided by their society ... [and] under these conditions, the culture that is experienced differs notably from the culture that is given” (Camilleri, Malewska-Peyre, 1997), my aim is to explore this “experienced culture” of youth in modern Georgia, to demonstrate how the youth manipulate “diversified materials” provided by both their local society and the global culture, and to find out whether it results in the invention of a new tradition. The research has focused on youth’s leisure activities as the ways of representing their lifestyle and expressing their creativity, and my target group has been the youth aged 16-21. Attempting to bring closer “the world of engaged scholarship and the world of everyday life” (Narayan, 1993), I have involved my students as co-researchers in the study aiming to analyze youth culture seen from the perspective of youth themselves, as these co205

researchers represent the same age group involved in similar cultural practices as the target group. Thus, the ultimate findings come from the comparison between the interpretations by my students and me, and the secondary interpretation by me as a means of gaining a “thick description” (Geertz, 2000). Such an approach has proved to be especially revealing in identifying research subjects’ different kinds of narratives, namely, “cultural stories” - “told from the point of view of the ruling interests and the normative order” and “collective stories” - told from the perspective of those “who are silenced or marginalized in the cultural story” (Richardson in Miller & Glassner, 2004). In our case, these two distinct narratives have illustrated the research subjects’ contradictory aspirations toward tradition (told to me from the perspective of “cultural story”) and modernity (told to their peers/my co-researchers from the perspective of “collective story”), and helped me get closer to the real implications of three most fashionable trends among contemporary Georgian youth revealed by the research - “being distinctive,” “being intellectual,” and “being national.” gamoyenebuli da citirebuli literatura: surmaniZe, l. qarTuli kulturis zogierTi orientacia. qalTa ganaTlebisa da informaciis saerTaSoriso centri, Tbilisi, 2000. wulaZe, l. socializaciis zogierTi problema qarTuli kulturis konteqstSi (avtonomiuroba da sanqciebi). sakandidato disertacia. Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti, Tbilisi, 2003. Appadurai, A., ‘Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy’ in Modernity at Large. A. Appadurai(ed), University of Minnesota Press, 1996, pp. 27-47. 206

Camilleri, C. and Malewska-Peyre, H., ‘Socialization and Identity Strategies’ in Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology (2nd ed), Vol. 2. J.W. Berry, Y. H. Poortinga and J. Pandey (eds), Allyn and Bacon , Boston, 1997, pp. 43-67. Danesi, M., Cool: The Signs and Meanings of Adolescence. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1994. Geertz, C., The Interpretation of Cultures. Basic Books, New York, 2000. Griswold, W., ‘The Sociology of Culture: Four Good Arguments (and One Bad One)’. Acta Sociologica, vol. 35, 1992, pp. 323328. Hebdige, D., Subculture: The Meaning of Style. Routledge, London and New York, 1979. Herzfeld, M., Cultural Intimacy (2nd ed). Routledge, New York, 2005. Hobsbawm, E. and Ranger, T., The Invention of Tradition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983. Jimerson, J. B. and Oware, M. K., ‘Telling the Code of the Street: An Ethnomethodological Ethnography’. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, vol. 35 (1), 2006, pp. 24-50. Miller, J. and Glassner, B., ‘The ‘Inside’ and the ‘Outside’- Finding Realities in Interviews’ in Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice (2nd ed). D. Silverman (ed), Sage Publications, London, 2004, pp. 125-139. 207

Muggleton, D., Inside Subculture:The Postmodern Meaning of Style (Dress, Body, Culture). Berg, Oxford and New York, 2002. Narayan, K., ‘How Native is a “Native” Anthropologist?’. American Anthropologist, vol. 95 (3), 1993, pp. 671-686. Roberts, M., ‘Notes on the Global Underground: Subcultures and Globalization’ in The Subcultures Reader (2nd ed.). K. Gelder (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2005, pp. 575-586. Straw, W., ‘Communities and Scenes in Popular Music’ in The Subcultures Reader (2nd ed.). K. Gelder (ed), Routledge, London and New York, 2005, pp. 469-478.

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qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis Camoyalibebis procesSi
maia wurwumia social-politikur mecnierebaTa fakultetis politikur mecnierebaTa mimarTuleba, doqtoranti samoqalaqo sazogadoebis idea, romelic manamdec farTod ganixileboda socialur da politikur azrovnebis istoriaSi, “demokratizaciis mesame talRis” gaaqtiurebasTan erTad uaRresad aqtualuri gaxda. ssrk-s daSlis Semdgomi cvlilebebi warimarTa demokratiisa da samoqalaqo sazogadoebis damkvidrebis lozungiT. komunizmidan ganTavisuflebis Semdgom saqarTveloSi yalibdeba qcevis axali wesebi, demokratiuli procedurebi da institutebi, Tumca isic cxadia, rom saqarTvelo jerac ver miuaxlovda demokratiis sasurvel models. amdenad samoqalaqo sazogadoebis problema, romelic aniWebs demokratias mis namdvil Sinaars, centralur sakiTxad rCeba politikosebisa da politologebis wreSi. samoqalaqo sazogadoebis maxasiaTeblebi da funqciebi sxvadasxva qveynebSi gansxvavebulia, rasac ganapirobebs qveynis istoria da arsebuli socialuri garemo. saqarTveloSi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis birTvs warmoadgens arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, romlebic mowodebulni arian asaxon moqalaqeTa interesebisa da saWiroebebis farTo speqtri. aRsaniSnavia, rom samoqalaqo organizaciebs unda SeeZloT Tanabrad gamoxaton TavianTi wevrebis, kacebis da qalebis saWiroebebi, magram rogorc Cvens mier Seswavlili qalTa organizaciebis liderebma ganacxades, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis 209

nawili da media, rogorc sainformacio samoqalaqo instituti saqarTveloSi, naklebad interesdeba genderuli problemebiT, amitom qalTa organizaciebma sakuTar Tavze aiRes es funqcia. unda aRiniSnos rom qalTa organizaciis qveS Cven vgulisxmobT gaerTianebas, romelic axorcielebs moqmedebaTa farTo speqtrs qalTa interesebis dacvisaTvis. qalTa organizaciebis prioritetuli mimarTulebebia: qalTa mimarT Zaladoba, maT Soris ojaxuri Zaladoba, diskriminaciuli samsaxurebrivi praqtika, gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesze SezRuduli xelmisawvdomoba, negatiuri genderuli stereotipebi. aRniSnuli organizaciebi muSaoben Semdeg sakiTxebze: qalTa uflebebis dacva, maTTvis iuridiuli daxmareba. zogierTi jgufi specializirdeba konkretul sakiTxebze samarTlebrivi daxmarebis aRmoCenaze. Semdeg modis saganmanaTleblo saubrebis, treiningebisa da seminarebis Catareba, konferenciebis mowyoba, genderuli programebis Seqmna universitetebSi, wignebis, kvlevebis gamocema. arasamTavrobo organizaciebSi moRvawe qalebi miiCneven, rom maTi erT-erTi mTavari miRweva aris is, rom TandaTanobiT xdeba genderuli uTanasworobis problemis aRiareba. qalTa ganaTlebisa da informaciis saerTaSoriso centris warmomadgeneli qalbatoni maia kuprava acxadebs, rom treining-seminarebis mimdinareobis dasawyisSi qalTa didi nawili ar aRiarebs, rom is aris raRac niSniT Cagruli, magram seminarebis bolos maTi xedvebi mniSvnelovnad icvleba.2 qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis muSaobis Sedegad miRweuli progresi SesamCnevia samarTaldamcavi organoebis TanamSromlebisa da sxva oficialuri pirebis codnis amaRlebis kuTxiT adamianTa vaWrobisa da ojaxSi ZaladobasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. Semdeg popularul Temad SegviZ210

lia davasaxeloT qalTa Sesabamisi informaciuli uzrunvelyofa. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia samxreT kavkasiis genderuli qselis internetportali www.ginsc.net. am saitze momxmarebels saSualeba aqvs moipovos informacia genderuli Tanasworobis, trefikingisa da ojaxSi Zaladobis sferoSi arsebuli movlenebis Sesaxeb. aseve SeuZlia gaecnos msoflios sxvadasxva qveynebSi qalTa uflebebis dacvis sferoSi arsebul kanonmdeblobas, normatiul aqtebs, Catarebul kvlevebs. mis farglebSi moewyo 2007-2008 wlebSi ramdenime onlain konferencia, ojaxuri Zaladobis, trefikingis, aseve 2008 wlis saparlamento arCevnebis Temebze. saqarTveloSi sainformacio teqnologiebSi lider organizaciad unda davasaxeloT qalTa sainformacio centri. mas gaaCnia baza arasamTavrobo organizaciebisa da sainiciativo jgufebis sakontaqto informaciebis Sesaxeb. organizaciaSi ewevian satelefono da pirdapir konsultaciebs calkeul pirovnebebTan. rogorc qalTa sainformacio centris xelmZRvanelma elene ruseckaiam pirad interviuSi ganacxada, 2008 wlis agvistoSi ruseT-saqarTvelos Soris saomari moqmedebebis mimdinareobis pirobebSi, isini informacias rusul da inglisur enebze avrcelebdnen genderuli sainformacio portalis meSveobiT, romelic ar iyo im dros sxva wyaroebis msgavsad dablokili. amdenad maT gahqondaT saqarTvelos poziciis amsaxveli informacia saerTaSoriso doneze. aRniSnulma saitma Seasrula erTgvari media saagentos funqcia qveynis interesebidan gamomdinare. qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi uSveben gazeTebs, Jurnalebs, sxvadasxva biuletenebs, wignebsa da broSurebs. arseboben organizaciebi, romlebic orientirebulni arian mravalSvilian dedaTa problemebze, invalidTa dacvaze, ewevian qvelmoqmedebas. 211

qalTa sainformacio centris klasifikaciiT, yvelaze prioriteteuli Tema, romelzec qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi muSaoben aris ojaxuri Zaladobis winaaRmdeg brZola da qalTa monawileobis gazrda politikur cxovrebaSi. swored maT Zalisxmevas unda davukavSiroT “ojaxSi Zaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTa dacvisa da daxmarebs Sesaxeb” kanonis arseboba. Zaladobis msxverpls icavs saxelwifo meqanizmebi. es aris dakavebisa da dacvis orderebi. kanonis erT-erTi iniciatoris, 2004-2008 wlebSi genderuli Tanasworobis saparlamento sabWos xelmZRvanelis qeTi maxaraSvilis TqmiT, kanonma gaamarTla Tavisi molodini. misi “ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg, ukve 6 Tvis mere policiasa da sasamarTloSi Setanili iyo saqmeebi, aRZruli ojaxuri Zaladobis faqtebTan dakavSirebiT.3 kanonis miRebis Semdeg 2007 wlis pirvel naxevarSi gacemul iqna 300 ordeni.4 qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi aseve uweven qalebs fsiqologiur da iuridiul daxmarebas. am organizaciebis bazaze arsebobs e.w. Selterebi _ TavSesafari ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverpli qalebisTvis. Tumca arasamTavrobo organizaciebis warmomadgenlebi uCivian arastabilur dafinansebas da miiCneven, rom kargi iqneba, Tu maT daafinansebs saxelwifo. aRsaniSnavia aseve, rom kanonis monitoringis TvalsazrisiT, arsebobs saxelwifo struqtura. saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministroSi funqcionirebs trefikingis sabWo, romelmac SeiTavsa ojaxSi Zaladobis winaaRmdeg kanonis monitoringic. sakmaod aqtiuria arasamTavrobo seqtori qalTa gadawyvetilebis miRebisa da saerTod qalTa politikuri monawileobis gazrdis kuTxiT. isini gansakuTrebiT aqtiurad muSaoben partiis wevr qalebTan. qalTa ganaTlebisa da informaciis saerTaSoriso centris iniciativiT Segrovda 32 aTasi xelmowera saarCevno kanonmdeb212

lobaSi genderulad dabalansebis kuTxiT cvlilebebis Setanis moTxovniT. saubari iyo politikuri qvotebis, rogorc droebiTi movlenis, SemoRebis aucileblobazec. saboloo jamSi genderuli Tanasworobis Sesaxeb kanonSi gaTvaliswinebul iqna garkveuli finansuri jarimebi genderulad daubalansebeli politikuri partiebisTvis. qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis warmomadgenlebi miiCneven, rom dRes moRvawe qalebi ar arian sruluflebiani politikuri subieqtebi, mxolod maT saxes da saxels iyeneben mamakacebi partiis warmatebisTvis.5 qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi monawileoben samSvidobo misiebSi. UNIFEM-is regionaluri proeqtis “qalebi konfliqtis prevenciisa da mSvidobis mSeneblobisaTvis samxreT kavkasiaSi”, mxardaWeriT 2002 wels daarsda qalTa qseli _ qalTa erToba mSvidobisaTvis. maT sakuTar miznad daisaxes qalTa monawileobiT mSvidobisa da genderuli Tanasworobis miRweva. qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi awyoben Sexvedrebs konfliqtur regionebSi. “genderuli ganviTarebis asociaciis” xelmZRvanelis nana WaniSvilis TqmiT, “saqarTveloSi mcxovreb os qalTa saerTaSoriso asociacia” da misi xelmZRvaneli izo tigieva did daxmarebas uwevda maT os qalebTan urTierTobis damyarebaSi. qalTa organizaciebi muSaoben qvelmoqmedebis kuTxiT. magaliTad, ruseT saqarTvelos Soris 2008 wlis agvistos omis dros xorcieldeboda Sexvedrebi devnilebTan, maTi saWiroebebis Seswavla da daxmarebis aRmoCena. qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi aseve muSaoben qalTa dasaqmebis, janmrTelobis dacvis da sxva mimarTulebebiT. yovelive zemoTaRniSnulis safuZvelze SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebma miaRwies garkeul simwifes da daimkvidres sakuTari adgili 213

qarTul arasamTavrobo seqtorSi. qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi ganviTarebis im etapze imyofebian, rodesac SeuZliaT qveyanaSi mimdinare calkeul procesebze zegavlenis moxdena. parlamentSi arsebobs genderuli Tanasworobis sakonsultacio sabWo, romelic arasamTavrobo seqtorTan aqtiurad TanamSromlobs. am TvalsazirisiT bolo dros yvelaze mniSvnelovani movlena iyo genderuli Tanasworobis Sesaxeb kanonis miReba, romelic SemuSavda gaeros ganviTarebis programis proeqtis farglebSi “genderi da politika samxreT kavkasiaSi.” Tumca qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi amJRavneben mTel rig iseT sisusteebs, rac zogadad damaxasiaTebelia qarTuli samoqalaqo seqtorisaTvis. aqedan aRsaniSnavia solidarobis nakleboba da kordinirebul moqmedebaTa sisuste. am mxriv mniSvnelovani movlena iyo 2000 wels qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis koaliciis Seqmna. arasamTavrobo seqtorSi moRvawe adamianebi miiCneven, rom am koaliciis mTavari dadebiTi mxare iyo is, rom man informaciis gacvlisa da urTierTgacnobis funqcia ikisra. amJamad koalicia, rogorc misi yofili wevrebi acxadeben, qmediTi aRar aris.6 amave dros ikveTeba qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis moqmedebaTa viwro, karCaketili xasiaTi. zogierTi maTgani mxolod formalurad arsebobs. magaliTad, qalbatoni maia kuprava, romelic iTvleba “martoxela mSobelTa asociaciis” direqtorad, acxadebs rom es organizacia didi xania ar funqcionirebs, Tumca igi kvlav ganagrZobs qaRaldze arsebobas qalTa sainformacio centris bazaSi, aseve rogorc qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis koaliciis wevri.7 im organizaciebis ricxvi, romlebic realurad muSaoben qalTa problematikaze mcirea, saboloo jamSi saxeze gvaqvs qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis fragmentuli aqtivoba. maTi 214

moRvaweobis arastabilurobas ganapirobebs aseve finansuri resursebis simwire, bevr maTgans ar aqvs ofisi, saiti, proeqtebze muSaoba xdeba didi Sesvenebebis gakeTebiT. saqarTveloSi qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebis umetesoba damokidebulia dasavlur daxmarebaze. donoruli organizaciebis daxmareba mimarTulia saqarTvelos demokratiuli tipis saxelwifod Camoyalibebisaken, Tumca aman negatiuri Sinaarsic SeiZina. rogorc naSromSi “genderi da demokratizacia” saqarTvelo 1991-2006” aris aRniSnuli, donorebs Soris “gamarTulma arajansaRma konkurenciam aseTive arajansaRi konkurenciis garemo Seqmna arasamTavrobo organizaciebs Soris saqmianobis, sferoebisa da resusrsebis mosapoveblad.”8 sazogadoebis nawilic gamoTqvams eWvs, rom qalTa organizaciebi ganicdian donorebis did gavlenas, amitom isini sakuTari qmedebebis ganxorcielebisas ufro metad orinentirebulni arain donorebze, vidre sazogadeobaze. xdeba zogierT SemTxvevaSi genderuli uTanasworobis problemis radikalizacia, rac sazogadoebis nawilis, maT Soris qalebis mxridanac, iwvevs protests, xolo maT mier ganxorcielebuli aqtivoba ki emsgavseba iZulebiTi emansipaciis kampanias. arasamTavrobo seqtorisaTvis kvlav problemas warmoadgens kvalificiuri kadrebis arseboba, mudmivad xdeba maTi gadineba saxelwifo da saerTaSoriso struqturebSi, sadac isini pouloben met SesaZleblobebs sakuTari moTxovnebis realizaciisTvis. qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, rogorc zogadad samoqalaqo seqtori kvlav ganicdis sazogadoebriv imijTan dakavSirebul, iseve rogorc sazogadoebis mxridan cnobadobas problemebs. genderuli Tanasworobis damcveli lela xomeriki miiCnevs, rom arasamTavrobo organizaciebis warmomadgenlebi ar arian varskvlavebi, rom maT yvela icnobdes. eqspertTa sxva nawili, iseve rogorc qalba215

toni lela, amas ukavSirebs mediis genderulad aramgrZnobelobas. isini miiCneven, rom media orientirebulia ageresiul informaciaze, amitom ar xdeba im pozitiuri movlenebis gaSuqeba, romelic NGO-ebis saqmianobas ukavSirdeba. medias didi roli ekisreba sazogadoebis socializaciis saqmeSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom JurnalistikaSi umetesad qalebi arian dasaqmebuli, is ufro metad uwyobs xels stereotipuli azrovnebis damkvidrebas. Tumca arasamTavrobo seqtors TviTonac aqvs sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis garkveuli unarCvevebi, awyobs preskonferenciebs, Sexvedrebs, arsebobs genderis sakiTxze momuSave JurnalistTa qseli. amdenad, SegviZlia davaskvnaT, rom qalTa arasamTavrobo organizaciebma miaRwies ganviTarebis garkveul safexurs, daugrovdaT erToblivi muSaobis gamocdileba da qarTuli samoqalaqo seqtoris angariSgasawev aqtorebad iqcnen. magram amasTan, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, maT warmatebebs aqvT fragmentuli xasiaTi, qalTa organizaciebi jerjerobiT ver axerxeben saxelmwifo doneze aqtiuri lobireba gauwion qalTa interesebs, aseve sustia maTi gavlena sazogadoebrivi azris formirebaze. Abstract Maia Tsurtsumia–PhD student of the Faculty of Social and

Political Sciences of TSU.
Non-governmental organisations of women in the process of civil society development

One can consider the 90-ies of the 20th century as a point of the beginning of the creation of modern non-governmental organizations working on a gender issue. In this period Georgia
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was in the process of formation as a democratic state and a civil society has begun developing simultaneously. For the present, the formations of women's movement definitively is not finished, though the female organizations have reached a certain step of development as they can influence the separate processes occurring in the country. At the same time their success has the incidental and limited character. Nowadays they are not in a position to give an active support and lobby the interests of women at the state level as their influence on public opinion formation is insignificant.
gamoyenebuli da citirebuli literatura: 1. nodia gia, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi: miRwevebi da gamowvevebi. strategiis ganacxadi. mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti, Tbilisi, 2005 2. sabedaSvili Tamar, genderi da demokratizacia, saqarTvelo 1991-2006, Tbilisi, 2007 3. sanikiZe lia, patariZe Tamar, aladaSvili irma, mesxi mari, noibaueri violeta, realoba: qalTa Tanaswori uflebebi da SesaZleblobebi saqarTveloSi, poligraf +, Tbilisi, 2006. 4. saqarTvelos kanoni genderuli Tanasworobis Sesaxeb 5. qali da kaci saqarTveloSi, saqarTvelos ekonomikuri ganviTarebis saministro, statistikis departamenti, Tbilisi 2008 6. cixisTavi nino, imedaZe rusudan, genderuli politikis ganxorcieleba saqarTveloSi, kavkasiis qalTa qseli, 2002

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7. .”Zaladoba saqarTveloSi _ genderuli damokidebulebis kvleva, qalTa sakonsultacio centri “saxli”. Oxfam, Tbilisi 2002 8. wurwumia maia, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis formireba saqarTveloSi, Tbilisi 2006 9. Assessment of needs of women’s movement in Georgia Briefing-paper for the international development agencies and grantmaking institutions, Women’s Information Center, Tbilisi 2007 10. Bringing Security Home: Combating Violence against women in the OSCE Region. A Complication of Good Practices 2009 www.osce.org/gender 11. Men and Women in Politics: Democracy Still in the Making. A World Comparative Study, Inter-Parliamnetary Union, 1997

miTiTebuli sqolio: 1. wyaro: piradi interviu, Cawerilia 2009 wlis 11 Tebervals 2. ix. http://www.ginsc.net-ze internet konferencia “uTxari uari qalebis winaaRmdeg Zaladobas.” monawileTa pasuxebi, maxaraSvili qeTi 3. iqve, monawileTa pasuxebi, guliko beqauri. 4. wyaro: kviris palitra, 2010-05-07 “demokratiisaTvis miuRebelia politika qalis gareSe” 5. wyaro: qvemoT miTiTebuli interviuebi 6. wyaro: piradi interviu, Cawerilia 2009 wlis 11 Tebervals 7. sabedaSvili Tamar, genderi da demokratizacia, saqarTvelo 1991-2006, Tbilisi, gv.45

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1. 2. 3. 4.

internet masalebi: http://www.wcg.org.ge http://www.wicge.org http://www.ginsc.net/ http://www.unece.org/stats/gender/web interviuebi:

1. 2.

3.

4. 5.

interviu elene ruseckaiasTan, qalTa sainformacio centri, Cawerilia 2009 wlis 28 ianvars interviu nana berekaSvilTan, konfliqtebisa da molaparakebebis saerTaSoriso kvleviTi centri; Cawerilia 2009 wlis 3 Tebervals interviu lela xomerikTan, genderuli Tanasworobis sakiTxTa eqsperti, Cawerilia 2009 wlis 5Tebervals interviunana WaniSvilTan, genderuli ganviTarebis asociacia, Cawerilia 2009 wlis 9 Tebervals. interviu maia kupravasTan, qalTa ganaTlebisa da informaciis saerTaSoriso centri, Cawerilia 2009 wlis 11 Tebervals.

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gamomcemloba `universali~
Tbilisi, 0179, i. WavWavaZis gamz. 19,
E-mail: universal@internet.ge

: 22 36 09, 8(99) 17 22 30

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