5.5 "m~IBERRELEA;S.

ES

The expresslon__s for k :Wld. Qr" as giv,en. in Eqs. Ct3) ood (5.4)~ respectDJvely~,are valid, owy for m embers rigidly connected to j Dints, at botJh. lends (i.e .. member of type 0.,0]' MT==O)_ if or mem bets of space ftame.s withmomemr~relea:ses~the foregOing expressiens need, to' be modified . If th.emember releases are assumed te 00 in the form of spherIcal hin~s (or ba] ~-;Mld-soct~t zy:pe of CO:ninec~~o:ns), so' iliaDl aU threemoments (i.e, the bending moments about the y and aaxes, and themrs:~o:~ud. Dloment) are 0: at dI.ereleased member ends. then [he modified IQCa~ stiffitessmnatrioes k and :f.iJx;eul..(:nd fOFCeveckirs Qf' for the' members Mitjh releases tan be espressed as foUGws.

Ql "'" AE I L I( UI - 1,7) + FAb

Q2 "'" .~ fl} (~. 2U2 +" ,6Lll6- 12Ug + 61.U~2 ) + FSby Q) = EEl L~ (W2uJ - 6Luj - t2~9 - l6Luu ) + FSD-.!:

Q4 == OJ I L ( 'U4, -ilIO ) +- FTb

Q:s= Ely/ L2,( 4lus - 6U3 + 6U9 + 4Lull ) 4- FMby Q6 ='BIz I L2 ( 4L!%·~ 6~: + 161.1-2 + 4[.U12 ) + FMbz Q, = AlE J 1. ( U1 - Ul ) + F A.c

Q8 = EI~4.~ >( -t2U2 - 6LUIs + U'Uli!: -16LuI2) + FSq Q9 = EJV [} (- 12u, + 16.Lu,S + 'I2U9 + 16l1!h 1 ) + rs, QlO ~ OJ I L ( U ]Q~:1!4 ) + 'FT'D

Q~I == lEly f [.2 ( lLu,1l - 6Ult + 609 + 4lLu] l ) +- FMc,. Q 12 = Elz Il~l ( 2-LU6- 'Is + 6Ul -:F 4L~~l ) + 'f'Mcz

(5.2a J ( 5.2 b) (5_2 c) (5.2 d). (5.2 e) ( 5.2. f) (5:.2 g) ( 5.2 It )1 (5.2 i) (5.2j l' ( S:.2k ) >( .5.2 .1 )

:By substi~~ng the exprlessions fur kand Qrft,om Eets .. ( 5 .. 3 ) and ( 5.4 ). respeC1ive~y~ intol the ]:oca1 :mtmess relation Q =ku + Qr (S.2 ) • and canying w~ tlte neoe-s:suymatnix mulriplicat~ml and a:dd~l1io.n. • weo!hmin

lMemben _i'''~ Q Hinge: lJll"l1lJegi~ (M~l)

When end b of a member is loomec~ed to the a~jacent. joint by a.rung,e, coanection, then its erod mom.oot Q4. 'Qs~ Qe; must be O. By abstimting' Q;4 = Qj = Q6= 0 mlto Eq ... (5.2 d, e.f) and solvin:g:d1e :re:suliung lequation for die end. m.t~OllI.D4. uS and u6,. we obtain

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This equation indicates that the rotation U]" u,and.ll6 (of the hinged end b of the member) is no longer an indepen~enlt member coordinate (or degn~e of freedom), but is now a function or the end! displw;,emellts U:z. Uh !Ils. U'9. UI'O. 1.1 11 and u ]2. Thus. the number of independe.n1 member coordinates tihat is, the independent end d~sp]acements required. to define ~he displaced member confi,guratiOft is now reduced t,o Dine (Le. u~. U2. U3. U7. Ug, U51'. UW. U, • urz). To eliminate the reJeued coordinale U),U:s and u6 :from 'the member stiffness relations, we substitute Eq. (5.2 m, D) 0)1 wnw Eq. (5'.2). This yields tile, fo~l.o,\ving

member stiffitess equation:

li4 = u]o-,L fOJ (Fro).

Us = ,3. I2L ( u, - Ug ) - 1l'1 ~ I 2 - L 14HIy ( rub)) us= 312L ( U8- U2 ) - u12/2- L I 4Elz " FM.tuJ

QI = AE /L ( u:~ -l1',) + FAb

Cb = JElz Ie (U2 - Us + L-uu ) + "FSby ~ 3 I2L FMbz ) 'OJ = lEV L3 ( UJ - U9'- LUll) +" FS~ -I- 3/2L FMby )1 Q~·~O

Q5 =()

Q~=O

Qr"'" AEl L" Ul-U.ru ) + F:Ae

01= EJ:;l/Ll ( ~U-2 + Us ,_ LUl2 ) +( FSq + 3 I2L.FMm ) Q9 = Ell L3 (~U3 + U9 + btu) +( FSa ,~3I2L~. ) Q]o= 0+ Ffb+Ffc

QII == illy I L 2 ( -3lli3 + 3Ug+ 3Luu ) + (FM::r 1 f2~, ) Q]2 = Ellz 1[.2 ,(-lUg, + 3U2 -+ 3tuu; )I + I( ~. ,_ 1 n. fMlE )

I( 5.3 a) (5.3 b) ( ;5,3 c) (5.3 d) (5.3 ,e) (5.3 f) (5,) g) (5'.3 h) (S.3 [ ) (5'.3j) ( 5.3 k) (.5,.3 ~ )

Equations (53}. wruchreplesent the modified local stiffuess.relat!t~ons. foil' member type 1 (MT "'" I), can be expressed '.n matrix rofDl is as given m Eq, (5.5):

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AL2 {I 0 0 (I 0 ,~)J} 0. 0 0 o 0
0 31z {I 0 0 {I 0 -31 .. , (I 0 0 3Uz
0 {I 31y 0 0 0 (I 0 ~31). (I ~3LIy 0
0 0 o 0 I) 0 0 0 0 0 I) 0
[I 0 0 0 0 0 (! 0 0 I) 0 0
0 I) 0 0 0 0 0 I) 0, 0 0 0
lr = R n. 3 (.55)
_A..L" 0 I) {I 0 0 A_l} 0 I) 0 '0 0
(I .n, 0 {I (I 0 0 312: 0 (I 0 ~3U~
0 0 -J~ 0 I) [J 0 0 3.Jy 0 3L~ {I
o I) (I (I 01 0 {I 0 I) (I 0 I)
·0 0 -3L1),Q 0 (I. 0 I) 3Ll). 01 3L?iy 0
0 3LI;: 0 0 0 0 0 ~3U.~ 00 0 0 3Lllz, F~

fSby - ..L. FMbl; 2:L

Qr -

FSl;tz + 1.... FMt,y 2L

I)

o

I)

FA.:

FSq' + ..L FMg. 21.

F5« - 3 'fMby 2L

F1'~ + FTc

~- _L FMt.y 2

~;- .i. FMm 2

{S.6)

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ALl (I 0 0 {I 0 e.AL20' 0 n 0 (I
<[I n, (I 0 0 3Uz 0 -31z 0 I) (I 0'
(I 0 3ly 0 -3LI". 0 10 0 -1~~. 0 0 '0
0 0 0 (I 0 0 (I (I 0 0 0 (I
I 0 0 -3U~ o JE?ly 0 e 0 3LJy 0 (I 0
0 3LIz 0 0 0 n}Jz 0 -3Uz, ° (1 n 0
lr =F.IT. :3 -AL~O (I 10 0 0 AL2 0 0 0 I) (5.7)
0
(I .n; I) 0 0 -3Uz, {I 3,1z 0. 0 0. (I
0' 0 -31y 0. 3U", 0 0 0 31~, 0 '0 0
0 I) 'I) 0 0 0 0 0 (I 0 0 0
0 0 0 (I (I 0 a (I 0 0 0 (I
0 0 0. 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 I) I and

Qr =

FAb

FiShy - ..L FMc 2L

FSbz+ 1- ~ ZL

~~L~ :2

~-...L FM.z 2

FAe F~+...L ~ 2L

FSc;r;- 3 Ft4r

2t .

o

o e

Members 'With a Hinge at the Ewl (~2)

Similarly. For members with a hinge at tbe end (MT=2)~ the modifiedk is given in Eq. {5.7}:

(5.,8)

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jVembers with Hinges tit Both Ewts (MT=3)

In the same way~ fer members with hinges at both ends (~=3). the modified k is given

in Eq. (5.9):

0 I) Or 0 (I ~1 0 0 0 0 (I
(I 0 0 1(1 0 {)I 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 (I (I 0 (I 0 0 0 0 I) 0
0 (I {I 0 Q {I 0 0 (I 0 0 (I
(I 0 0 (I (I 0 {I 0 £I' o 0 {I
k =EA 0 .0 0 0 0 0 (I 0 0 0 (I 0
(5.'9)
L -] 0 0 0 I) 0 ] 0 0 <0 0 I)
0 0 (I I) 0' 0 I) 0 0 0 00 0'
'0 I) (I 0 (I <I) 0 0 0 0 0 0
(I 0 0 (I 0 0 0 0 0 (I 0 (I I
0 0 {I 0 0 0 (I 0 0 0' '0 0'
0 (I 0 Q (I (I 0 0 0 {I n 0 and

Qr=

F~

. FSby - L .~+~) L

FSIiI1;+ _] . ~+~) E..

o

o F'~

fS~ + _1_. (flrItitl + flVf..J L

fS<12 - ...l... (fl4y + FM'.cy) t,

'"

(5.10)

o o

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5.6 COORD.INATE TRAN'sFORMA.T10NS

Consider 00 ub~t!rauiY memberm oi,a: space :fraMJ;'~> as :sh()'\!'o'ifl in Fig_S_3 (a). The member end ferces Qand end displ aoe"meEJlEs 11, il!l.1fIe~oca1 ccordinate .s:y.s~em, au: shmvn in Fig_5_3 (b). and Fig_..5.3 (c) depicts the eqmvalet1lt system of member end forces. F and end displaeements v, in the g~.obal ooordinate systtem. As indicated in Fig;.5.3(c}~the global member end forces and disp]aoemenmaJie liJjlJ)mberedl in a manner analogous '~O t~e ~oca~ forces ,and disp~acements. except that 'iliey act in the din:lctlons of tbe gJ!oba~ X" Y. and Z-

The erieneation of a member of a spaee franlI.c is de:fiFtl.ed by the a:ngmes ~eill its ~QCal x. 'i, and z-axes and. the globel X, Y,andZ--al.'Ii:.t!s._ As shoW'IDl. ~n Fig,,5.4f (a). the angles between the local x-axis and the global X~ Y~and Z-ax.es are deaoted by 0xx. '0xY" and 1~KZ,. respect~ve.my. Similarly ~ the angles between die local yax~s: and the g~obaJ X. Y, and. Z axes Me' deno,ted. by l0y):. el'Y~ and €J).z>respec~~ve~y (Fig5A (b))~ and. the angles between the local z axis and the gl()bB~ X~ Y ~ and. Z axes are deneted by 0,):.', €I",,!, and '0l!Z. respectiV'eJy (Fig. 5A(c)).

Now, let us eonsider lili:etFans:[onn~ti('j.R. of m>emoor end forces from theg~obalro aloeal coordinatesystem, By ro.mparing .. Figs.S .. 3 (b) ad (e), we realize ililii!t. atmemloor end b. the local. forees QI) l(h~ and Q~ must be eq1ual to Urealgeibtaic sums of tilleooMp1nemlts of the global feeees Fb F::!,andF.1tD the. direoo.ooo of the local x, y. and xaxes, respectively; thalt is (also see Fig.:5.4J..

QJ = Fl. oos~:a: ,.. F2 ICOS~y + F 3 ICOO~xz. Ql = FI !cos0yx + F.2, C~S~Y +- f3 ,eoo0yz Ql ;;= F] cosClax -iF F2 oos0zy + F 3 cos0lzl.

(5.11a) (5. li Ib)< (:i. ill Ie)

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,"1

I I I II I II I I n

(Fig. 5.3)

(b) Member End Forces ami End DtspJac-emenis in the' Local Coo~djn'(1te System

(c) Me.mber End Forces and End Displacements in the Glabal Coordinate System

,(Fig ~ ,5.3, )

-z_,

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y

~

---~----------------------------- ~

(oj' Orientatio« of Member Local x Ax is

(lJ)' Orientation of Member: Local y Ax is

z,

.'1

.Z"

_____ ._--------~.---.--.-----------.--------- X

z,

(a) Orientation of Member Locals Axis ffi~S.4)

(43)

(5.~.1)

in which

(5.13)

The localmements Q4 .• Q5. and 'Q6,at member lend. b, can be simi ~arly expressed in terms of their gJobaJ cOlM~eilJKftl:S F 4. F s~and. F& as

rxz:. "'".:'] ~:.' j .

lyZ IFs

fa . f

(5.14)

SiI1IHar]y, the local forees .and].m.omeD!ts. am member end e eanbe expressed in.terms of the globsl foreesand monle~iis by the foUoMn8relj~~OMh~ps.

8 -[~ rlly Fa ] t7] (5,15)
- r)lx Fyy r,.z Fs
I zX rzY' il':d, f~
9
and
~~. ~ fx;Y '~] ~:j
1,0 lxX'
J~ =~x :ryy fyZ (5 .. 16)
I .. zX rzy rzZ~ . Fl. ' By cmnbinmg Eqs, (5.12) and &ms. (5.14) Th!:'l1UllP (:5JI6)~ we can. lOW 'exp:resstJn.e tramfCillmlation re~atlonshipbet\.v;een. the n ;.:; 1 member ~oca~. end force vecter Q and the 12 l>< 1 member .globa~ end forcevecto:iI" f. in the sta:mdard ferm ef

Q=Tf'

(5.11)

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fn which Trepresernc!t:S the 12 x 1:2 'ttamionn3!ltion matrix for the members of space frames. 'The expHcitfonn of Tis gmven in &iI. (5.18).

T=

fW;; f~y fa! :!

f)'JI fy'l' f)'Z!

! ;

:rz:,c rzy fzZ, l

(5.18)

The traesfbrmation .matrix T iswrmUy e~pFessed ~n a oompact form interm:s of wts sub IDa,tr1CeS as

I" 0 0> 0
T .0 w .0 {)I (.5.19)
=
0 0 r 0
0 0 0 f h.whrnch O represenits a 31 x 3 DiIflH. mallDt; and the 3 ~ 3 matrix f)whi1ch is COnmilOl.rnJ.y referred 110 as the member ro:tati,on maUix, is~ven by

~~ rxl'" 'j
Ii ~ : fl,y :r~tZ . (5.20)
fiJi' r~ (45)

The rotation matrixF p~ays a.keym~ein the 3!na~ysis o:f space frames, and an altema~e form of tms m.a!Jtrix, which enables us ~o specify the member orientations more oomlven~em~~y. is d)eve~~ped :sulbsequently·.

Siecethemereberlecal and ~Jioba~ ,end. disp~acellent~l, l!J. and v, are a~oo veetor qu.[iJ!t~tJes, which ere defined in tine sasne directions as the correspGm,ding for(!es~ilie forgoing sransfennation matrix T em alsobe used to transfenn member end dlsplacements61o:m the g~obil to thelocel coordinate sySllem; that is, u = Tv. Fartheemore, by e:mp]()ying a proceduse s~mUu t0Umtu;sed!. in, the p:reoodjiUg pa:m .. apru~ it ean be shown that the; inverse ttansformations of the member ·end ferces and. ·end disfllooemetWm~ from the .~ocaI to tihegJ.Qba~ coordinate syst:e:Rl. are de.-f1med by the transpose of tllle tm:lli)formatinn. nlamx g~Vf:11I in &1 . .('5 .. 18) ((!II!' Eq~~(:5_l9)and. (5.20»;. tlmit~s.F = l'TQ and v = T\1. Once the trMSforma;tioID. matrix T has. been established for a, member of a space frame. its gloow stiffml,eru;matDx .arullfixed..ell.d (alice vector 'CMlOO obtamedvia the standard relationships K = rTkT and Pr"'" fFQr. re~pectwve~y.

5.7 AL:TERNATE FORl\.1 OJ? THEMEiMBER ROTATION .MlATRIX r

From. Eq. (5. 20)~. we 'CUi!. see tha1tt the mtat~n .matrix reensists ef nine dements. Vlith each elemeen relluesentirng the direct~o:n cosine of a. ~ocaJI ax~SMth respectse a global axis, .i.F1 aceerdanee with Eq, "5.13). Of dlese rune dir:ect~onoo!limes. the ffiJee In the fir:st .mw ef r~ \wich represent the direction cosines of Ute local x~ax~s:. can be diireclly evaluseed using the globa~ coordinates of the t\VO jomts.~o wwc!b the member ends are attached, Thus, if ~,. Y b. and Zb ed.Xe, Yeo andZe deJlo~e tihegm,obaIJ roord~nates of the JOInts to wh~ch member ends b and ·e, •. res;pectively, are attached, then the; directiea cosines of thelocal x axis"wiith [iespect~o' the .8~obal X, Y,. adZ 3JXes~ respeetivelj; caabe ·exp:wssed. as

rd "'" ·coo0xx "'" X .. _. Xb t,

(S.2la)

rxY "'" 'cos0xy = Y" - Va, L

(S.2Ib)

rxz "" cos0xz "'" z,. - Z]!:, L

t(S.21c).

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ln \:l,rhruch the member lengtill L is giv~nby

Vith the direction cosines of the member x a'!(lS now establisbed, we feeus our atte~~~!i).rn on the qu:es1ioD of how U!I deternnne the directiencesises of the locall y and. z axes m.~ng tl:l.e information about the; member orientation tlw:~ can be 'COfi'Vie]lleIlJltly input by the user of the 'computer program. Sinee the x" Y. and z-axes foon a muwaUy pefpen:dieuJarrigffilthanded coordlooiWesysrem. It !!lSuUy IS eonveaient te diefine their directioes bythese of the unit vectors dIW.ree~edalon£!; these axes, ThIllS. if~lh iy. and.l.z denote, respectively, the unit veeters in the directmons '0([ tffile 1~ x, y.. ani[ Z aJDes:. and Fx. Iy" and Iz denote. respectively, the lDi1!yecrors directed !dong the glorba1 X. Y" and ,Z Des (see fig,S.5.)" men the relationship between the: loca!l :oo:d g~.oba~ tmit vectors is defined. by the Rlember mtationmatrJix :F. as

z

[1 ::] ,
Ix r~ 11")1;'1" Ix
j'=IF x ryY Iy
Y I')!- ,
ilti [Z,x 'fzy ru_ iz .1

::I~

\

\,

~

"

\

~

\. ~ \

-: x,;- -.-.- - - -- - --- -.---.- ";,,

Unit Vec~ors in the Direotio:ns of the .Loc-al and G/obal Axes (F'i:g,.5.S)

(47)

In the ease under eensideration, as dlw8Icussed. previously, the global coordinates of the member ends CEq. define the dir:ecttOl1l.,eooines efene 'oftheunrutvWors. i1J!' (5.21). Tns. if the user ~f the compll!~er pm.gram canprQvide, :1Iisinput the direetien cosines of either iy or l:z (i.e., ei.ther the y or the z ,axis). thelil the direction cosines of the remawmng~h]rd '\' ector cam be ro:n.viently es;ta:bHshed v.iathe 'Cr.l)SS prodmct of the ·tvm known vectors, However •. as the hand. calcu~aElon Qfdirecltiol. cosmes of the y or z-sxis fDr each member of a. stmcmre can be ,11 ted~0l]!S and tjme-oonsumj~gcho.re. thjs app,ro.®lch is not conssdered User-friendly and is seldom userlby pm.cfiUO[l,ers,.

Instead, mos~ computer programs allow the users to specify the erientatioa offhe member y and. z-axes by means of the so-eajled Ulg~.e of roll; To defineth.e, angme of roll and. to express tbe direction cesines of thememller y • d 2: axes interms of this angle. we .imagine 'iliatdile members desired! (orac[l:1Dl design) orientation ~s reached ~n tvvc, .s~~ps as, shown ~nFigs,5.6 (a) and (b). [iii. the fiFSt :srepjjwi\li~e tllile members x-axis is o,ri.ented in the desired. diroc~~on, its y and z-axes are oriented SiD that the xyplWle~s vertscalend the z-axis liesin ,3, hO.rlmDlt:a~ plane, The foregoing (imagina£)') orientation of the member ~s Depleted infig.5 .. 6 (a)~~n which the member's princlpal axes are designated as y and z (instead. ,of YBnd. 2,. l,espectively). to iruii.calte, that they nave DlO! ye~ been positioned in the:re desired (0'1 actual design) directioas, As discussed previously ~ the direction of the local x-axis is ImOVlml from the g)~b:ld ecordiaates of the member ends,. Since~be z axis is perpendlWcw.ar to the vertical xJ' p]ame~ a vector z dWrected along the I axis cam be determ.med!.b'y tllie cross product of die vector!x and a vertical unit vec~or I}1~ tha!1! ws.

(5.30.)

I Ix Iv lIz
z "" ~N X my = diet II r F[I1y l;a
~
0' .~ 0 (418)

1\ :

• ! 1)"

ii\ f

(f),¥., =,.~ - ..... _.... ,--- .... -,----------,~-----~------- . .x:.

:J:~;";' ' :Z:X

.. _" ~" .. ~ ... / .. ·.i~

;z ..

z,

(a) .Memb.er Orie.:ntation with xy Plane vertical (Fig. ~U))I

-

~

.'1'

• ,

( b) Actual Member Orientation

z

S::f'r.clinn A-A

'(Fig.,5.18)

To obtatn the unit vector iz along the j,ocal 'f3LXls~ Yore divide the vector z by its magmitude Vr,_rx + ?:;z, This, yields.

fxl IXx

iz = '~ - Ix +' 'iz (5.31)

Vc 1\X + r sz \f2 ~ + lu.

the unit vector iy can now be established by using the cress product h x Ix~ as from which we obtain

(4'9)

Ty

From Eqs.(5.31)amd (5,.32). we can see ~hat the transformation relationship between the global XYZ and the allxjHary local .x:n fi)oordi~ate systems can. be expwssedas

fx.¥

It: "''''''11 \.)1".)", j

o

In the next s®ep" we rotate the a:mrHiary xyi eecrdinate system about its x-exis, in a conntercleckwise sense, by lthe ang~e (!Ifmn '4-' ~mltil.the member's pri.Rc:~pal axes are in their desired. crientations. The fmrrual'orieniwtion o,fttbe: member thus obmjned~s: d!ep~c[oo. in fig,S.6(lb). in. which the members I'ri_ncjpa~ axes awnow designated as y and .Z-8}l)e'S. From th is figure. we can see: that the Mit '\I\ectors a:[ong the y and z axe'S em! be expressed in terms oftibose direc~oo along 1ihey Del z-axes" as

ly';;;:: 'cos'"' ill' + sinlll' ~!z:

Iz: = sin.4J' iy + ODS"+' iz

(5. 34a.) 1(5 .. 34b}

Thas, the tr:ansfonmatiDnre~atiionsb]pbenveen. the ,aUXilljaryxyi and the actual xyz coordinate ,SYS~e'MS: is given by

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