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The Physiology of Blood

The Physiology of Blood

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Published by Dr.M.Anthony David
A series of presentations which help inspire the undergraduate paramedical students to work on Human Physiology of Blood
A series of presentations which help inspire the undergraduate paramedical students to work on Human Physiology of Blood

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Published by: Dr.M.Anthony David on May 14, 2007
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01/01/2013

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IMMUNITY

By Dr. M.Anthony David.MD. Professor of Physiology
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 1

ROMAN SOLDIERS

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity

2

IMMUNITY: INTRODUCTION

Roma n so ldie rs: “ Im mu nos ” E xem pt from payi ng ta xes .

Immu nity mea ns exe mpti on fro m:
 

Infecti Rogue

on s/I nfestati ons cells/ Car cinoi mas
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 3

INFECTIONS

Infections include invasions of body by  Prions: Creuzfield Jakob Disease (BSE)  Viruses: Polio (Poliomyelitis), TB (M.tuberculosis)  Bacteria: Typhoid ( Salmonella tyhphi)  Protozoa: Malaria (Plasmodium NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity vivax)

4

INFESTATIONS & CARCINOMAS

Infestations: Helminths or worms: Hookworm. Carcinomas: Cancers: Rogue cells which lose their selfcontrol.

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity

5

IMMUNITY: TYPES
 

1. I nn ate : Intri nsic No n s pecifi c. 2. A cquired : N atu ral ( Spec ific ) :
Ce ll Me diated Immunit y  Humo ral Immunit y

3. A rti fic ial Ac qu ire d Imm uni ty
Pas sive typ e  Ac tive typ e.

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity

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1. INNATE IMMUNITY
  

Intact Sk in : Re si sts i nvasio n Phag ocyto si s Lysi s i n th e Ga stro In test inal Tr ac t:
 

Hyd rochlo ric Acid. Enz ymes Lys oz ymes . Bas ic P ol yp ep tid es. Co mp le ment Co mp le x. Natural K iller L ymp ho cytes
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 7

Bl ood borne:
   

2. NATURAL SPECIFIC ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
IS OF TWO TYPES: HUMORAL IMMUNITY CELL MEDIATED  Antibodies IMMUNITY: produced when  Immune challenged. response by  They are cells, lymphocytes. Immunoglobuli ns  Is the function  B Lymphocytes of T Lymphocytes. become Plasma cells & secrete 8  Is longer NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity Antibodies.

2. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY (NATURAL)
BONE MARRO W: LYMP HOCYTE PRECURSO R CELLS

T LYMPHOCYTES
   

B LYMPHOCYTES
MEMORY B CELLS  PLASMA CELLS: IMMUNOGLOBULINS:  G, A, M, E, D.

MEMORY T CELLS CYTOTOXIC T CELLS SUPPRESSOR CELLS NATURAL KILLER CELLS

HUMORAL IMMUNITY CELLULAR OR CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 9

3.ARTIFICIAL ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
  

IMMUNISATIONS: TWO TYPES: ACTIVE

It stimulates the body immune response Example: Oral Polio Virus Drops It delivers readymade antibodies Example: ATS: Anti Tetanus Serum NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity

PASSIVE
 
10

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity

11

AN ANTIBODY: IMMUNOGLOBULIN

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity

12

How do antibodies act?

DIRECT ACTION ON INVADERS:
   

AGGLUTINATION. PRECIPITATION. NEUTRALIZATION. LYSIS.

THROUGH ACTIVATION OF THE COMPLEMENT SYSTEM:

Classic complement cascade: amplified
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 13

256 248 240 232 224 216 208 200 192 184 176 168 160 152 144 136 128 120 112 104 96 88 80 72 64 56 48 40 32 24 16 8 0

THE IMMUNE RESPONSE

ANT IGE NI C CHALLENGE
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 14

Antibody Titres

Secondary Primary

Time in Weeks

What a re the d iff ere nces in the two re spon se s?
1.

LATENT PERIOD :

More in Primary response

2.

POTENCY OR MAGNITUDE OF RESPONSE:

More potent in the Secondary response.

3.

DURATION OF RESPONSE:

Longer in case of Secondary response.

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity

15

TRAINED T LYMPHOCYTES

DO NOT DESTRO Y SEL F AN TI GEN S.

HAVE BE EN PROCES SED TO REACT AGAI NST SPEC IF IC ‘N ON SEL F’ AN TI GEN S.
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 16

APPLIED ASPECTS

ATOPY
 

Incr ease d Ig E Caus es A lle rgies

AU TOIMMUN E DI SOR DERS:
 

Myes the nia g ravis Hashi moto ’s Thy ro id iti s Syst emi c Lup us Erythe mato sus (SL E)
NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity 17

HIV / AI DS

APPLIED ASPECTS

IM MUNIZAT IO N:

PA SS IVE

ATS OPV .

AC TI VE :

18

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity

NOMAD:2006: BP:Immunity

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