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Published by Kapil Kumar Sharma

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Published by: Kapil Kumar Sharma on Apr 16, 2011
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‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ What is Tuberculosis? Other names of TB. How does a person get TB? Which parts of body does TB affect? What are the symptoms of tuberculosis? How does a doctor diagnose tuberculosis? Is there a vaccine against tuberculosis? How is tuberculosis treated? What's in the future for TB?

‡ ‡ ‡ .What is tuberculosis? ‡ Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria whose scientific name is Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis or TB (short for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and often deadly infectious disease caused in humans . when people who have the disease cough. sneeze. Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. or spit. It is spread through the air.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis .

Lupus vulgaris -TB of the skin . WHITE PLAGUE. ‡ Other names: 1. BECAUSE IT WAS BELIEVED THAT A KING'S TOUCH WOULD HEAL SCROFULA . and long relentless wasting. BECAUSE DISEASE SUFFERERS APPEAR MARKEDLY PALE. fever.Other names of TB. 2. with a bloody cough. ‡ In the past. KING'S EVIL. consumption because it seemed to consume people from within. 3. tuberculosis has been called consumption. T WASTING DISEASE. Scrofula ²in adults. Tabes mesenterica -TB of the abdomen .

The bacteria get into the air when someone who has a tuberculosis lung infection coughs. shouts.How does a person get TB? ‡ A person can become infected with tuberculosis bacteria when he or she inhales minute particles of infected sputum from the air. or spits . sneezes. .

bacteria was a major cause of TB in children. cause this form of TB. however. related bacteria. pasteurized . . . that is . this type of . ´ ´You don't get TB by just touching the clothes or shaking the hands of someone who is infected. transmitted by drinking unpasteurized milk. Previously. called Mycobacterium bovis. but it rarely causes TB now since most milk is . ·· 2.1. Tuberculosis is spread (transmitted) primarily from person to person by breathing infected air during close contact. There is a form of atypical tuberculosis. .

people who take immunosuppressant drugs.‡ Others at risk include people in areas where TB is common. children exposed to adults in high-risk categories. high-risk racial or ethnic minority populations. patients immunocompromised by conditions such as HIV/AIDS.[34] ‡ TB can also be transmitted by eating meat infected with TB. people who inject drugs using unsanitary needles. . medically underserved and low-income populations. and health care workers serving these high-risk clients. residents and employees of high-risk congregate settings. Mycobacterium bovis causes TB in cattle.


8.How common is TB. 7. . it is estimated that 10-15 million people are infected with the TB bacteria and 22. foreign-born people from countries that have a high prevalence of TB. people with diabetes. and who gets it? ‡ Over 8 million new cases of TB occur each year worldwide. but certain people are at higher risk. nursing home residents and prison inmates. and health-care workers. 2. certain cancers. alcoholics and intravenous drug users. and HIV infection (the AIDS virus).000 new cases of TB occur each year. 4. 5. including people who live with individuals who have an active TB infection. Anyone can get TB. 3. poor or homeless people. In the United States. There is no strong evidence for a genetically determined (inherited) susceptibility for TB. 6. ‡ 1.

What are the symptoms of tuberculosis? .

How does a doctor diagnose tuberculosis? 1) A special test to diagnose TB called the PCR (polymerase chain reaction) detects the genetic material of the bacteria. suggesting that the TB is contained and inactive.Other times. and skin tests 2)The chest x-rays can reveal evidence of active TB pneumonia .TB can be diagnosed in several different ways. One can usually get results from the PCR test within a few days . analysis of sputum . the x-ray may show scarring or hardening in the lungs. This test is extremely sensitive (it detects minute amounts of the bacteria) and specific (it detects only the TB bacteria). . including chest x-rays.

however. If a person is not infected with TB. These so-called tuberculin skin tests include the Tine test and the Mantoux test. If a person is infected with tuberculosis . . also known as the PPD (purified protein derivative) test. In each of these tests. a small amount of purified extract from dead tuberculosis bacteria is injected under the skin. a raised and reddened area will occur around the site of the test injection. then no reaction will occur at the site of the injection (a negative skin test).Several types of skin tests are used to screen for TB infection. occurs about 48 to 72 hours after the injection. a positive skin test. This reaction.

. HENCE IT IS THE BEST KNOWN WAYTO DIAGNOSE TB.‡ PCR (polymerase chain reaction) detects minute amounts of the bacteria.

Is there a vaccine against tuberculosis? ‡ Bacille Calmette Guérin. tuberculosis can still occur in an adult exposed to the tuberculosis bacteria. which calls into question the real utility and effectiveness of this vaccination. ‡ It is also important to realize that even with a BCG vaccine in childhood. . is a vaccine given throughout many parts of the world. ‡ It is derived from an atypical mycobacterium but offers some protection from developing active tuberculosis. especially in infants and children. also known as BCG.

The antibiotic used for this purpose is called isoniazid (INH).How is tuberculosis treated? WHEN germs in an inactive state and is not contagious Nevertheless. it will prevent the TB from becoming active in the future. treatment with an antibiotic may be recommended for this person to prevent the TB from turning into an active infection. If taken for six to 12 months. .

Rifampin (Rifadin) . ethambutol (Myambutol). . Active TB is treated with a combination of medications along with isoniazid.‡ A person with a positive skin test along with an abnormal chest x-ray and sputum evidencing TB bacteria has active TB and is contagious: 1. and pyrazinamide are the drugs commonly used to treat active TB in conjunction with isoniazid (INH).

the failure of a patient to take the medications is the most important cause of failure to cure the TB infection ‡ Surgery on the lungs may be indicated to help cure TB when medication has failed. . but in this day and age. Successful treatment of TB is dependent largely on the compliance of the patient.1. surgery for TB is unusual. Treatment usually lasts for many months and sometimes for years. Indeed.

However. a tremendous increase in the frequency (incidence) of TB occurred in the '80s and throughout the '90s. control of HIV in the future will check this resurgence of tuberculosis. the emergence of HIV changed the whole picture. With the increasing HIV epidemic in Africa. . Hopefully. Because of HIV. TB could have been eliminated by effective treatment. and public-health measures by the year 2000. serious concerns are being raised about the development of MDR-TB and XDRTB in this population. vaccinations.What's in the future for TB? ‡ Conceivably. This increase in TB happened because suppression of the body's immune (defense) system by HIV allowed TB to occur as a so-called opportunistic infection.

‡ Let·s know: .




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